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Sample records for terminalia fagifolia combretaceae

  1. Gastric Antiulcerogenic and Hypokinetic Activities of Terminalia fagifolia Mart. & Zucc. (Combretaceae

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    Paulo Humberto M. Nunes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The acute toxicity, the antioxidant activity, and the pharmacological activity on the gastrointestinal tract of rodents of the ethanolic extract (TFEE from the bark of Terminalia fagifolia Mart. & Zucc. (Combretaceae and of its aqueous (TFAqF, hydroalcoholic (TFHAF, and hexanic (TFHEXF partition fractions have been evaluated. TFEE presented low acute toxicity, antioxidant, and antiulcerogenic activity against ethanol-induced ulcers, which was partially blocked by pretreatment with L-NAME and indomethacin. It reduced the total acidity and raised the pH of gastric secretion. Additionally, TFEE delayed gastric emptying and slightly inhibited the small intestinal transit and also presented a weakly antidiarrheal activity. The antiulcerogenic and antioxidant activity were also detected in TFAqF and TFHAF but not in TFHEXF. The antisecretory and gastroprotective activity of TFEE partially involve the nitric oxide and prostaglandin participation. Nevertheless, TFEE, TFAqF, and TFHAF drastically reduced the mucus layer adhered to the gastric wall of rats treated with ethanol or indomethacin. Complementary studies are required in order to clarify the paradox of the presence of a gastroprotector activity in this plant that, at the same time, reduces the mucus layer adhered to the gastric wall.

  2. Terminalia (Combretaceae)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    2Raw Materials Research and Development Council,Cross River State Liaison Office, Calabar. Key Words: Terminalia ... creating plants and domestic source of fuel in the Central Niger Delta. © JASEM ... In all the Nigerian species the flowers are borne in a .... It is relatively desirable to classify species by their distribution ...

  3. Chemical constituents and antioxidant activity from leaves extracts of Terminalia fagifolia Mart. et Zucc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayres, Mariane Cruz Costa; Chaves, Mariana H.; Rinaldo, Daniel; Vilegas, Wagner; Vieira Junior, Gerardo Magela

    2009-01-01

    Phytochemical investigation of ethanolic leaves extracts of T. fagifolia led to the isolation of (+)-catechin, sitosterol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, α and β tocopherol, a mixture of lupeol, α and β-amyrin, sitosterol and a mixture of glucoside flavonoids (CP-13). The structures of these compounds were identified by 1 H and 13 C NMR spectral analysis and comparison with literature data. Absolute configuration of the catechin was determinate by circular dichroism. Antioxidant activity (EC 50 ), evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhidrazyl (DPPH) assay system, decreased in the order: (+)-catechin > hydroalcoholic fraction > CP-13 > aqueous fraction > EtOH extract. (author)

  4. Chemical constituents and antioxidant activity from leaves extracts of Terminalia fagifolia Mart. et Zucc; Constituintes quimicos e atividade antioxidante de extratos das folhas de Terminalia fagifolia Mart. et Zucc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayres, Mariane Cruz Costa; Chaves, Mariana H. [Universidade Federal do Piaui (UFPI), Teresina, PI (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica], e-mail: mariana@ufpi.br; Rinaldo, Daniel; Vilegas, Wagner; Vieira Junior, Gerardo Magela [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Dept. de Quimica Organica

    2009-07-01

    Phytochemical investigation of ethanolic leaves extracts of T. fagifolia led to the isolation of (+)-catechin, sitosterol-3-O-{beta}-D-glucopyranoside, {alpha} and {beta} tocopherol, a mixture of lupeol, {alpha} and {beta}-amyrin, sitosterol and a mixture of glucoside flavonoids (CP-13). The structures of these compounds were identified by {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR spectral analysis and comparison with literature data. Absolute configuration of the catechin was determinate by circular dichroism. Antioxidant activity (EC{sub 50}), evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhidrazyl (DPPH) assay system, decreased in the order: (+)-catechin > hydroalcoholic fraction > CP-13 > aqueous fraction > EtOH extract. (author)

  5. Avaliação da atividade citotóxica dos extratos etanólicos da casca e das folhas da Terminalia fagifolia Mart. sobre células normais e tumorais

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    Patrícia Siqueira de Melo Rodrigues

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: A procura por novas alternativas terapêuticas, como as que utilizam as plantas medicinais, tem despertado grande interesse da comunidade científica na busca por tratamentos mais eficientes para as doenças, incluindo o câncer. Terminalia fagifolia Mart. é uma planta medicinal encontrada no Cerrado brasileiro, usada popularmente no tratamento de aftas e tumores. Objetivos: Avaliar a atividade citotóxica dos extratos etanólicos da casca e das folhas da Terminalia fagifolia em linhagens celulares NIH 3T3 e L929 e tumorais PC3 e B16F10. Métodos: Foi realizada a metodologia de determinação da viabilidade celular em ensaio com monocamada de células utilizando o ensaio MTS. As linhagens NIH 3T3, L929, PC3 e B16F10 foram expostas por 24 horas a diferentes concentrações dos extratos etanólicos da casca e folhas da Terminalia fagifolia. Resultados: Os resultados adquiridos mostraram que os extratos apresentaram viabilidade celular, sendo considerada de moderada a alta, para as células normais NIH 3T3 e L929 e citotoxicidade severa para as células tumorais PC3 e B16F10. Dessa forma, torna-se necessária a continuidade dos estudos com essa planta, pois os extratos da casca e das folhas apresentaram atividades antitumorais muito promissoras. Conclusões: Os extratos da casca e das folhas demonstraram viabilidade celular ≥ 50% nas linhagens celulares normais NIH 3T3 e L929 e demonstraram atividade citotóxica para as linhagens tumorais PC3 e B16F10, apresentando redução da viabilidade celular em torno de 60% e 70%, respectivamente.

  6. Semente de amendoeira (Terminalia catappa L. (Combretaceae como substrato para o cultivo de orquídeas epífitas = Tropical almond seeds (Terminalia catappa L. (Combretaceae as a substrate for epiphytic orchid cultivation

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    Marcus Nascimento Santos

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available O uso de semente de Terminalia catappa L. (Combretaceae como substrato para o cultivo de orquídeas das espécies Oncidium flexuosum Sims, Dendrobium nobile Lindl. e Brassavola tuberculata Hook. foi comparado ao do xaxim (Dicksonia sellowiana Hook. Esta espécie é muito usada para o cultivo de orquídeas, mas está ameaçada de extinção e com a sua exploração proibida por lei. Ao final de 12 meses de cultivo, foram avaliadas as seguintes variáveis: altura da parte aérea, diâmetro dos pseudobulbos, número de pseudobulbos e pH.Não houve interação significativa entre substratos e espécies para as variáveis avaliadas. As orquídeas desenvolvidas em substrato de T. catappa e em xaxim apresentaram alturas da parte aérea, diâmetro dos pseudobulbos e número de pseudobulbos equivalentes. O substrato de T. catappa apresentou baixa velocidade de decomposição, o que manteve a sua boa capacidade de aeração, desenvolvimento das raízes e valor de pH próximo ao encontrado para o xaxim. O uso de T. catappa apresentou-se viável como substituto ao xaxim para o cultivo das orquídeas avaliadas.The use of Terminalia catappa L. (Combretaceae seeds as a substrate for growing orchids of the species Oncidium flexuosum Sims, Dendrobium nobile Lindl. and Brassavola tuberculata Hook was compared to the tree fern fiber Dicksonia sellowiana Hook, largely used for that purpose. This species is endangered and its exploitation is prohibited by law. After twelve months, the following parameters were evaluated: aerial part height, pseudo bulb diameter, number of pseudo bulbs and pH of substrate. There was no significant interaction between substrates and species for the evaluated parameters. The orchids developed on T. catappa substrate and tree fern fiber showed similar aerial parts, diameter and number of pseudo bulbs. T. catappa substrate showed a low rate of decomposition, which maintained good aeration capacity, root development and pH values close to

  7. Ethnobotany, phytochemistry, toxicology and pharmacological properties of Terminalia sericea Burch. ex DC. (Combretaceae) - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mongalo, N I; McGaw, L J; Segapelo, T V; Finnie, J F; Van Staden, J

    2016-12-24

    The use of medicinal plants in the treatment of infections is ancient. A wide variety of ethnotherapeutic properties and pharmacological actions has been attributed to Terminalia sericea. Studies by various groups of investigators reveal that it is a multipurpose medicinal plant used mostly in the treatment of diarrhoea, sexually transmitted infections, skin rashes, tuberculosis and other infections. The current paper is aimed at providing an overview of the ethnomedicinal uses, toxicology, pharmacology and the phytochemistry of Terminalia sericea. Information was retrieved using various search engines, including Pubmed, Science Direct, Google Scholar, Scielo, SciFinder and Scopus. The key words used included Terminalia sericea, secondary metabolites, phytochemistry, biological activity, pharmacology, ethnobotanical survey, medicinal uses, safety, toxicology and other related words. Terminalia sericea is an important medicinal plant which possesses anti-HIV, anti-fungal, anti-bacterial, anticancer, lipolytic, wound healing, antiparasitic, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activity, as the most valuable biological activities, thus lending pharmacological support to the plant's folkloric uses in indigenous medicine. Toxicologically, the extracts and isolated compounds from the plant species may have mild toxic effects. Phytochemically, the plant species possesses valuable compounds including triterpenes, alkaloids and flavonoids which may well contribute to its biological activity. Terminalia sericea contains secondary metabolites which are valuable in the treatment of a variety of human infections, including community acquired infections which may be prevalent in developing countries. The degree of toxicity reported in various extracts warrants further exploration of the cytotoxicity of the plant species, both against normal human cell lines and in vivo. Moreover, the acetylcholinesterase inhibitory and anti-inflammatory effects also need to be further

  8. Compounds from Terminalia mantaly L. (Combretaceae Stem Bark Exhibit Potent Inhibition against Some Pathogenic Yeasts and Enzymes of Metabolic Significance

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    Marthe Aimée Tchuente Tchuenmogne

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pathogenic yeasts resistance to current drugs emphasizes the need for new, safe, and cost-effective drugs. Also, new inhibitors are needed to control the effects of enzymes that are implicated in metabolic dysfunctions such as cancer, obesity, and epilepsy. Methods: The anti-yeast extract from Terminalia mantaly (Combretaceae was fractionated and the structures of the isolated compounds established by means of spectroscopic analysis and comparison with literature data. Activity was assessed against Candida albicans, C. parapsilosis and C. krusei using the microdilution method, and against four enzymes of metabolic significance: glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, human erythrocyte carbonic anhydrase I and II, and glutathione S-transferase. Results: Seven compounds, 3,3′-di-O-methylellagic acid 4′-O-α-rhamnopyranoside; 3-O-methylellagic acid; arjungenin or 2,3,19,23-tetrahydroxyolean-12-en-28-oïc acid; arjunglucoside or 2,3,19,23-tetrahydroxyolean-12-en-28-oïc acid glucopyranoside; 2α,3α,24-trihydroxyolean-11,13(18-dien-28-oïc acid; stigmasterol; and stigmasterol 3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside were isolated from the extract. Among those, 3,3′-di-O-methylellagic acid 4′-O-α-rhamnopyranoside, 3-O-methylellagic acid, and arjunglucoside showed anti-yeast activity comparable to that of reference fluconazole with minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC below 32 µg/mL. Besides, Arjunglucoside potently inhibited the tested enzymes with 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50 below 4 µM and inhibitory constant (Ki <3 µM. Conclusions: The results achieved indicate that further SAR studies will likely identify potent hit derivatives that should subsequently enter the drug development pipeline.

  9. Antibacterial properties studies of trunk barks of terminalia ivorensis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of terminalia ivorensis (Combretaceae), a commercial and medicinal specie, ... Terminalia ivorensis, of Combretaceae family plant, is widely used traditional ... strains of Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, coagulase-negative S. and ...

  10. Beach almond (Terminalia catappa, Combretaceae seed production and predation by scarlet macaws (Ara macao and variegated squirrels (Sciurus variegatoides

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    Jonathan J. Henn

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of ecological impacts of exotic beach almond (Terminalia catappa in the central Pacific of Costa Rica are little known, but studies have found this species to be a potentially important food source for endangered scarlet macaws (Ara macao. In this study, reproductive phenology and seed predation by variegated squirrels (Sciurus variegatoides and scarlet macaws were measured during March and April 2011 on beaches of central Pacific coastal Costa Rica. Seed productivity and predation levels were quantified on a weekly basis for 111 beach almond trees to assess the importance of beach almond as a food source for scarlet macaws and the extent of resource partitioning between seed predators. Seed production of the trees was great (about 194 272 seeds and approximately 67% of seeds were predated by seed predators. Macaws consumed an estimated 49% of seeds while squirrels consumed 18%. Additionally, evidence of resource partitioning between squirrels and macaws was found. Scarlet macaws preferred to feed on the northern side and edge of the canopy while squirrels preferred to feed on the southern and inside parts of the canopy. Both species ate most seeds on the ocean side of the tree. Despite the status of this tree as an exotic species, the beach almond appears to be an important resource for scarlet macaw population recovery. The resource produced by this tree should be taken into account as reforestation efforts continue in Costa Rica. Rev. Biol. Trop. 62 (3: 929-938. Epub 2014 September 01.

  11. Immunomodulatory Activity of Alcohol Extract of Terminalia chebula ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    2011-01-02

    Jan 2, 2011 ... Purpose: To investigate the immunomodulatory activity of the alcohol extract of Terminalia chebula Retz. (Combretaceae) ..... indicates a higher secretion of melatonin. (Mol. Wt. 248 ... especially the immune, nervous, and.

  12. Extrafloral nectaries in Combretaceae: morphology, anatomy and taxonomic significance

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    P. M. Tilney

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Extrafloral nectaries (EFNs in members of the Combretaceae are nectaries not involved with pollination and occurring on vegetative structures; they are believed to attract ants to protect plants against herbivorv by other insects. In the Combretaceae EFNs are reported in species of Terminalia L. and Pteleopsis Engl., putative EFNs in Meiostemon Exell & Stace and Quisqualis L., and an absence of EFNs in Combretum Loefl. and Lumnitzera Willd. EFNs in the family are generally spherical in shape and may be raised, level with the surface or somewhat concave. They are similar in the Terminalia and  Pteleopsis species where they display varying degrees of internal zonation and are composed of small cells; those species observed in the field were all found to have functional EFNs. In Meiostemon tetrandrum (Exell Exell & Stace, Quisqualis indica L.. Q. littorea (Engl. Exell and Q. paviflora Gerrard ex Sond.. apparent EFNs lack internal zonation and are composed of enlarged cells; confirmation is required as to whether these are functional . The formation of EFNs appears to be highly flexible. They are usually essentially associated with new growth but their occurrence is sporadic and they do not appear on every leaf or every' branch of a plant. The distribution of EFNs on leaves, when present, is of taxonomic significance to separate species of Pteleopsis and Terminalia: otherwise the presence or absence and distribution of EFNs are too variable and sporadic in occurrence to be of taxonomic significance at the species level. Indiscriminate use of the terms gland and domatium instead of EFN. and possible confusion with damage caused by other organisms, has probably con­tributed to many of these structures not previously being recorded as EFNs. Floral and extrafloral nectar samples of T. phanerophlebia Engl. & Diels differed in sugar composition.

  13. Simultaneous determination and characterization of tannins and triterpene saponins from the fruits of various species of terminalia and phyllantus emblica using UPLC-UV-MS method: application to triphala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terminalia is a genus of large trees of the flowering plant family Combretaceae, comprising around 100 species distributed in tropical regions of the world. The fruits and bark of different species of Terminalia have been used since ancient times for the treatment of various ailments. Some of its sp...

  14. In vivo toxicity evaluation of aqueous acetone extract of Terminalia bellirica (Gaertn.) Roxb. fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayesh, Kuriakose; Helen, Lal Raisa; Vysakh, A; Binil, Eldhose; Latha, M S

    2017-06-01

    Terminalia bellirica (Gaertn.) Roxb. (Family: Combretaceae), known as Bhibhitaki in Sanskrit and locally known as Behera in India is one of the oldest medicinal plants which has widely been used in the traditional system of medicine, especially in Ayurveda for centuries. The dried fruit of Terminalia bellirica is used for treating various ailments. Aqueous acetone extract of Terminalia bellirica (Gaertn.) Roxb fruits (AATB), showed antioxidant potential in our screening study is selected for the present in vivo toxicity evaluation. Acute administration of AATB was done in female Wistar Albino rats as a single dose up to 2000 mg/kg body weight. At the end of the study, Blood was collected for biochemical and hematological analyses, while histological examinations were performed on liver and kidney. There was no alteration in the behavioral pattern, food and water intake in the treated animals. The relative organ weight, biochemical parameters, hematological parameters and histopathological analysis were also found normal. All the parameters of the toxicity evaluation were found to be normal and the data suggests aqueous acetone extract of Terminalia bellirica fruit is safe, to be used as a traditional herbal formulation for its antioxidant potential and other health benefits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Catálogo sistemático dos pólens das plantas arbóreas do Brasil Meridional: IV - Thymelaeaceae, Lythraceae, Lecythidaceae, Rhizophoraceae e Combretaceae

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    Ortrud Monika Barth

    1965-01-01

    Full Text Available Es wurden pollenmorphologisch diejenigen Arten der vorliegenden Familien untersucht, welche als Baeume in den suedbrasilianischen Waeldern auftreten, mit Ausnahme der krautigen Heimia myrtifolia. Gekennzeichnet durch drei einfache Colpori laesst sich die Gruppe von Buchenavia kleinii, Laguncularia racemosa (Combretaceae, Heimia myrtifolia (Lythraceae und Rhizophora mangle (Rhizophoraceae bilden. Wegen ihrer Pseudocolpi oder aehnlichen Laengsstreifen einer duenneren Sexine stellen die Pollenkoerner von Combretum futicosum, Terminalia autralis (Combretaceae und Lafoensia pacari (Lythraceae eine andere Gruppe dar. Daphnopsis (Thymelaeaceae besitzt 10 - 14 gleichmaessing verteilte Poren und eine Oerflaechenstruktur die der des Croton-Types der Euphorbiaceen sehr nahe kommt. Cariniana estrellensis (Lecythidaceae, mit nur drei Colpi, nimmt auch eine gesonderte Position ein. Es bestehen Beziehungen zwischen der Morphologie der Pollenkoerner der oben bearbeiteten Familien und jenen der Guttiferales und Rosales.

  16. Terminalia arjuna, a herbal remedy against environmental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... 429 due to AFB1 to 141 due to 5th concentration of Terminalia extracts at 32 h of exposure. Conclusion: The ameliorating potential of Terminalia extracts was dose and time dependant. Keywords: Ayurvedic medicine; Carcinogen; Chromosomal aberration; Sister chromatid exchange; Replication index; Terminalia arjuna ...

  17. Revisiting Terminalia arjuna – An Ancient Cardiovascular Drug

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    Shridhar Dwivedi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Terminalia arjuna, commonly known as arjuna, belongs to the family of Combretaceae. Its bark decoction is being used in the Indian subcontinent for anginal pain, hypertension, congestive heart failure, and dyslipidemia, based on the observations of ancient physicians for centuries. The utility of arjuna in various cardiovascular diseases needs to be studied further. Therefore, the present review is an effort to give a detailed survey of the literature summarizing the experimental and clinical studies pertinent to arjuna in cardiovascular disorders, which were particularly performed during the last decade. Systematic reviews, meta-analyses, and clinical studies of arjuna were retrieved through the use of PubMed, Google Scholar, and Cochrane databases. Most of the studies, both experimental and clinical, have suggested that the crude drug possesses anti-ischemic, antioxidant, hypolipidemic, and antiatherogenic activities. Its useful phytoconstituents are: Triterpenoids, β-sitosterol, flavonoids, and glycosides. Triterpenoids and flavonoids are considered to be responsible for its beneficial antioxidant cardiovascular properties. The drug has shown promising effect on ischemic cardiomyopathy. So far, no serious side effects have been reported with arjuna therapy. However, its long-term safety still remains to be elucidated. Though it has been found quite useful in angina pectoris, mild hypertension, and dyslipidemia, its exact role in primary/secondary coronary prevention is yet to be explored.

  18. Phytochemical screening and in vitro anthelmintic activity of methanol extract of Terminalia citrina leaves

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    Narhari Das

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate anthelmintic activity of methanolic extract of leaves of Terminalia citrina (T. citrina plant belonging to the Combretaceae family. Methods: The tests of phytochemical screening included alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, quinines, anthocyanins, glycosides, carbohydrates and reducing sugars. The anthelmintic activity of methanolic extract of leaves of T. citrina was evaluated against Pheretima posthuma at three different concentrations (25 mg/mL, 50 mg/mL and 100 mg/mL of extracts which involved determination of time of paralysis and time of death of worms. Results: The phytochemical screening of T. citrina leaves revealed the presence of flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids, carbohydrates and reducing sugars. The present study indicated that methanolic extract significantly exhibited paralysis and also caused death of worms especially at highest concentration of 100 mg/mL, as compared to standard reference Albendazole (10 mg/mL. Conclusions: This study suggests that the leaves of T. citrina possess potent anthelmintic activity.

  19. Anogeissus sericea var. nummalaria King ex Duthie (Combretaceae ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anogeissus sericea var. nummalaria King ex Duthie (Combretaceae) is moderate sized multipurpose hard wood tree of dry deciduous forests with drooping branches and yellow to brownish-yellow flowers. it is endemic to Rajasthan and is considered to be a threatened tree of the region due to over exploitation for timber ...

  20. 1 Antibacterial and cytotoxic activities of Terminalia stenostachya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    activities of extracts of Terminalia stenostachya Engl. & Diels and Terminalia ... leprosy, nosebleeds, oedema, pneumonia, skin diseases, sore throats, dental caries, ..... Helicobacter pylori and Candida spp. to the east African plant Terminalia ...

  1. Morfologia de frutos, sementes e plântulas de castanheira (Terminalia catappa L. - COMBRETACEAE Morphology of the fruit, the seed and the seedlings of chestnut tree (Terminalia catappa L. - COMBRETACEAE

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    Silvia de Azevedo Ivani

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de descrever morfologicamente os frutos, sementes e plântulas de castanheira. Foi feita a biometria dos frutos e das sementes e sua caracterização quanto à forma, por meio de mensurações com paquímetro e observações realizadas em estereomicroscópio com câmara clara. Os frutos de castanheira são carnosos, indeiscentes, do tipo nucóide, glabros, de coloração verde a vinácea, projeção das nervuras carpelares externamente evidentes, com epicarpo delgado, mesocarpo carnoso e esponjoso de coloração vinácea, com feixes vasculares conspícuos em corte transversal. Geralmente, cada fruto contém apenas uma semente. As sementes são exalbuminosas, de formas alongadas e cilíndricas, recobertas por endocarpo rígido de coloração marrom; possuem cerca de 2,5cm, 0,7cm e 0,7cm, de comprimento, largura e espessura, respectivamente. A germinação das sementes de castanheira é epígea, e a plantula é fanerocotiledonar.The work was carried out with the objective of describing morphologically the fruits, seeds and seedlings of chestnut tree. It was made the biometry of the fruits and seeds with a digital pachymeter and its characterization in relation to the shape, in stereomicroscope with clear chamber. It can be evidenced that the chestnut tree fruits are fleshly, indehiscent, nucoid, glabrous, from green to purple coloration, with evident projection of the carpel ribbings, with a fleshly and spongy epicarp and mesocarp, of purple color, with conspicuous vascular bundle in transversal cut. Generally, it has a seed per fruit. The seeds are unalbuminous, of prolongated and cylindrical shape and recovered with a rigid endocarp of brown coloration. The seeds possess about 2,5; 0,7 and 0,7 cm, of length, width and thickness, respectively. The germination of the seeds of chestnut tree is epigeal and the seedling is fanerocotyledonary.

  2. FLAVONOIDS AND ANTI-OXIDANT ACTIVITY MEDIATED GASTROPROTECTIVE ACTION OF LEATHERY MURDAH, TERMINALIA CORIACEA (ROXB. WIGHT & ARN. LEAF METHANOLIC EXTRACT IN RATS

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    Mohammed Safwan ALI KHAN

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND Leathery Murdah, Terminalia coriacea (Roxb. Wight & Arn. from family Combretaceae is used in Ayurveda and Siddha traditional systems of medicine to heal ulcers. OBJECTIVE The present study was conducted to assess the gastroprotective effect and understand the fundamental mechanism of action of Leathery Murdah, Terminalia coriacea (Roxb. Wight & Arn. Leaf Methanolic Extract. METHODS The test extract was screened for anti-ulcer activity by Aspirin induced ulcerogenesis in pyloric ligation and ethanol induced gastric ulcers at three doses - 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg, p.o. using Ranitidine 50 mg/kg and Misoprostol 100 μg/kg as standard drug in respective models. Seven parameters were carefully examined, that is, ulcer index, total protein, mucin, catalase, malondialdehyde, and superoxide dismutase levels and histopathology. High Performance Liquid Chromatographic - Ultra Violet profiling and Liquid Chromatography - Mass Spectral analysis of crude Terminalia coriacea leaves methanolic extract were carried out as a part of chemical characterization to identify bioactive compounds. RESULTS All the test doses exhibited significant gastroprotective function, particularly the higher doses demonstrated improved action. The results revealed a significant increase in the levels of catalase, superoxide dismutase, and Mucin with reduction in ulcer index, the levels of total protein, and malondialdehyde. Histopathological observations also illustrated the gastroprotective effect of Terminalia coriacea leaves methanolic extract. CONCLUSION Terminalia coriacea leaves methanolic extract exhibited strong anti-oxidant and anti-secretory activities mediated gastroprotection besides inducing the gastric mucosal production. The observed pharmacological response can be attributed to the flavonoidal compounds namely - Quercetin-3-O-rutinoside, Luteolin-7-O-glucoside, Myricetin hexoside, Quercetin-3-O-glucoside, Isorhamnetin-3-O-rhamnosylglucoside and

  3. Anti-caries activity of selected Sudanese medicinal plants with emphasis on Terminalia laxiflora

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    Ebtihal Abdalla M. Mohieldin

    Full Text Available Abstract In Sudan, some medicinal plants, such as Acacia seyal, Calotropis procera and Balanites aegyptiaca have been used to prevent or treat oral health problems. The stem and stem bark of Terminalia laxiflora Engl., Combretaceae, are used as antiseptics for mouthwash to prevent gingivitis and thrush in Africa. Methanol and 50% hydroethanolic extracts of 25 plants that are used in traditional Sudanese medicine for several diseases and cavity disorders were screened for anti-cavity activities. T. laxiflora methanolic wood extracts, which exhibited such activity, were investigated. The crude extracts were assayed for their antimicrobial activities against Streptococcus sobrinus in terms of minimum inhibitory concentration and glucosyltransferase inhibition. The active extract of T. laxiflora wood was subsequently fractionated by different chromatographic techniques. Isolated compounds were identified by spectroscopic methods and assessed for S. sobrinus and glucosyltransferase inhibitory effects. Methanolic extracts of Terminalia brownii (bark, T. laxiflora (wood, A. seyal (bark, Persicaria glabra (leaves and Tamarix nilotica (stem showed good activities against both S. sobrinus and glucosyltransferase (MIC ≤ 1 mg/ml, IC50 values <50 µg/ml. Over all plant extracts, T. laxiflora demonstrated the good combined activities (MIC 0.5 mg/ml, glucosyltransferase, IC50 10.3 µg/ml; therefore, its methanolic wood extracts were selected for further phytochemical studies. Four constituents were isolated by chromatographic techniques and identified by spectroscopic techniques. Pharmacological evaluation of the obtained compounds showed that flavogallonic acid dilactone had comparatively good antibacterial activity. In the glucosyltransferase inhibitory test, terchebulin displayed potent activity with an IC50 of 7.5 µM. The screening presented in this study showed that methanol extracts of T. laxiflora wood possessed promising anti-cavity effects.

  4. Litterfall and Nutrient Returns in Isolated Stands of Terminalia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Stands of Terminalia catappa Trees in the Rainforest Area of Southern Nigeria. ... the adjoining rainforests produced the highest litter in the dry season months. ... Seasonal variation, Southern Nigeria, Terminalia catappa, Tropical rainforest.

  5. Light induces petal color change in Quisqualis indica (Combretaceae

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    Juan Yan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Petal color change, a common phenomenon in angiosperms, is induced by various environmental and endogenous factors. Interestingly, this phenomenon is important for attracting pollinators and further reproductive success. Quisqualis indica L. (Combretaceae is a tropical Asian climber that undergoes sequential petal color change from white to pink to red. This color changing process is thought to be a good strategy to attract more pollinators. However, the underlying physiological and biochemical mechanisms driving this petal color change phenomenon is still underexplored. In this context, we investigated whether changes in pH, pollination, light, temperature or ethylene mediate petal color change. We found that the detected changes in petal pH were not significant enough to induce color alterations. Additionally, pollination and temperatures of 20–30 °C did not alter the rate of petal color change; however, flowers did not open when exposed to constant temperatures at 15 °C or 35 °C. Moreover, the application of ethylene inhibitor, i.e., silver thiosulphate, did not prevent color change. It is worth mentioning here that in our study we found light as a strong factor influencing the whole process of petal color change, as petals remained white under dark conditions. Altogether, the present study suggests that petal color change in Q. indica is induced by light and not by changes in petal pH, pollination, ethylene, or temperature, while extremely low or high temperatures affect flower anthesis. In summary, our findings represent the probable mechanism underlying the phenomenon of petal color change, which is important for understanding flower color evolution.

  6. Antidepressant like effects of hydrolysable tannins of Terminalia catappa leaf extract via modulation of hippocampal plasticity and regulation of monoamine neurotransmitters subjected to chronic mild stress (CMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekhar, Y; Ramya, E M; Navya, K; Phani Kumar, G; Anilakumar, K R

    2017-02-01

    Terminalia catappa L. belonging to Combretaceae family is a folk medicine, known for its multiple pharmacological properties, but the neuro-modulatory effect of TC against chronic mild stress was seldom explored. The present study was designed to elucidate potential antidepressant-like effect of Terminalia cattapa (leaf) hydro-alcoholic extract (TC) by using CMS model for a period of 7 weeks. Identification of hydrolysable tannins was done by using LC-MS. After the CMS exposure, mice groups were administered with imipramine (IMP, 10mg/kg, i.p.) and TC (25, 50 and 100mg/kg of TC, p.o.). Behavioural paradigms used for the study included forced swimming test (FST), tail suspension test (TST) and sucrose preference test (SPT). After behavioural tests, monoamine neurotransmitter, cortisol, AchE, oxidative stress levels and mRNA expression studies relevant to depression were assessed. TC supplementation significantly reversed CMS induced immobility time in FST and other behavioural paradigms. Moreover, TC administration significantly restored CMS induced changes in concentrations of hippocampal neurotransmitters (5-HT, DA and NE) as well as levels of acetyl cholinesterase, cortisol, monoamine oxidases (MAO-A, MAO-B), BDNF, CREB, and p-CREB. It suggests that TC supplementation could supress stress induced depression by regulating monoamine neurotransmitters, CREB, BDNF, cortisol, AchE level as well as by amelioration of oxidative stress. Hence TC can be used as a complementary medicine against depression-like disorder. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Anti-Atherogenic Activity of Ethanolic Fraction of Terminalia arjuna Bark on Hypercholesterolemic Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saravanan Subramaniam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis which results from gradual deposition of lipids in medium and large arteries is a leading cause of mortality worldwide. Terminalia arjuna is a herb of Combretaceae family which contains hypolipidemic compounds and flavonoids with high antioxidative properties. This study was conducted to determine the effect of ethanolic fraction of T. arjuna on blood lipids and atherosclerosis in rabbits fed with high fat diet (HFD. Twenty New Zealand rabbits of either sex were randomly divided into five groups: the first two were normal diet group and HFD (21% fat group and the remaining three groups received high cholesterol diet supplemented with standard drug (Atorvastatin 10 mg kg−1 body weight, T. arjuna ethanolic fraction (100 and 200 mg kg−1 body weight, respectively. The concentration of total cholesterol (TC, low density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol, triglycerides (TGs, very low density lipoprotein (VLDL cholesterol and high density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol was determined in rabbits at the start of the experiment, at the 14th, 30th days and at the end of the study. Anti-atherogenic index was calculated from the lipid profile of the rabbits before sacrifice. At the end of the experimental period, the aorta was removed for assessment of atherosclerotic plaques. Results show that T. arjuna significantly decreases TC, LDL and TG levels and increases HDL and lessens atherosclerotic lesion in aorta (P < .05. Hence T. arjuna extract can effectively prevent the progress of atherosclerosis. This is likely due to the effect of T. arjuna on serum lipoproteins and its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.

  8. Antibacterial properties studies of trunk barks of Terminalia ivorensis, a commercial and medicinal species on some methicillin-resistant Staphylococci species strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulibaly, K; Zirihi, G N; Guessennd-Kouadio, N; Oussou, K R; Dosso, M

    2014-09-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus infections are a worldwide concern. Terminalia ivorensis, of Combretaceae family plant, is widely used traditional medicinal in Côte d'Ivoire to treat dermal diseases (affection in which Staphylococci are implied) including local inflammation and also to treat voice-loss. This study focused to investigate the effect in vitro of the extracts of trunk barks of Terminalia ivorensis on some methicillin/oxacillin-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, coagulase-negative S. and reference strain of S. aureus ATCC 25923. Antibacterial activity of aqueous, 70% ethanolic 70% and aqueous residue extracts was assessed using agar disc-diffusion method and liquid medium microdilution method in 96 multi-well micro-titer plates. This method led us to determine minimum inhibition concentration (M.I.C.) and minimum bactericidal concentration (M.B.C.). The presence of chemical groups major was detected qualitatively. Aqueous and 70% ethanolic 70% extracts showed significant activity against all the bacteria except aqueous residue when compared with the standard antibiotic oxacillin (5 µg/ml). M.I.C. for aqueous and 70% ethanolic 70% extracts ranged from 0,83-16,67 mg/ml and 0,156-13,33 mg/ml respectively. Viable cell determination revealed the bactericidal nature of the two barks extracts. The 70% ethanolic 70% extract exhibited the highest activity according to the M.B.C. values. The phytochemical analysis indicates the presence of tannins, saponins, flavonoids, terpen/sterols, coumarins, polyphenols and traces of alkaloid. The in-vitro antibacterial efficacy shown by the barks of this plant and his lushness in chimical compounds, would justify use of this one in the traditional treatment of some diseases of microbial origin. These compounds could be suggested to provide alternative solution to the development of new therapeutic agents.

  9. Pentacyclic triterpenoids from the leaves of Terminalia brasiliensis; Triterpenoides pentaciclicos das folhas de Terminalia brasiliensis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Delton Servulo; Chaves, Mariana H. [Universidade Federal do Piaui, Teresina, PI (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: mariana@ufpi.br

    2005-11-15

    Eleven oleanane, ursane and lupane-type triterpenes were isolated from the leaves of Terminalia brasiliensis Camb, daturadiol (3{beta},6{beta}-dihydroxy-olean-12-ene), 3{beta}-hydroxy-30-norlupan-20-one, lupenone, {beta}-amyrenone, {alpha}-amyrenone, lupeol, {beta}-amyrin, {alpha}-amyrin, betulin, erythrodiol and uvaol, in addition to squalene, sitosterol and {alpha}-tocopherol. The structures of these compounds were identified by {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR spectral analysis and comparison with literature data. (author)

  10. Phytochemical, antimicrobial and antiplasmodial investigations of Terminalia brownii

    Science.gov (United States)

    The stem bark of Terminalia brownii was collected from Machakos county, Kenya, in November 2011, and identified at the University Herbarium, School of Biological Sciences, University of Nairobi, where a voucher specimen (JM2011/502) was deposited. The stem bark was air dried in shade and pulverized....

  11. Antisecretory and analgesic activities of Terminalia bellerica | Khan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study describes the antisecretory and analgesic activities of the crude extract of Terminalia bellerica (Tb.Cr). T. bellerica extract inhibited the castor oil-induced intestinal fluid secretion in mice at the dose range of 300 - 1000 mg/kg. The extract also dose-dependently (50 - 100 mg/kg) reduced the numbers of acetic ...

  12. Effects of dietary levels of chemically treated Terminalia catappa fruit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment to investigate the replacement value of Terminalia catappa fruit waste (TCFW) for maize in the diet of pullet chicks was carried out. A gross (144) silver brown highline breed pullet chicks at day old were randomly allocated to six dietary treatments in a 3 x 2 factorial design feeding trial, to study the replacement ...

  13. Neuroprotective effect of Terminalia chebula extracts and ellagic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the common neurodegenerative disorders among elderly. The purpose of this study was to determine the neuroprotective effect and mechanisms of action underlying the Terminalia chebula extracts and ellagic acid by using beta-amyloid25-35 (Aβ25-35)-induced cell toxicity ...

  14. Pentacyclic triterpenoids from the leaves of Terminalia brasiliensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, Delton Servulo; Chaves, Mariana H.

    2005-01-01

    Eleven oleanane, ursane and lupane-type triterpenes were isolated from the leaves of Terminalia brasiliensis Camb, daturadiol (3β,6β-dihydroxy-olean-12-ene), 3β-hydroxy-30-norlupan-20-one, lupenone, β-amyrenone, α-amyrenone, lupeol, β-amyrin, α-amyrin, betulin, erythrodiol and uvaol, in addition to squalene, sitosterol and α-tocopherol. The structures of these compounds were identified by 1 H and 13 C NMR spectral analysis and comparison with literature data. (author)

  15. In vitro studies reveal antiurolithic effect of Terminalia arjuna using quantitative morphological information from computerized microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mittal

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: For most cases, urolithiasis is a condition where excessive oxalate is present in the urine. Many reports have documented free radical generation followed by hyperoxaluria as a consequence of which calcium oxalate (CaOx deposition occurs in the kidney tissue. The present study is aimed to exam the antilithiatic potency of the aqueous extract (AE of Terminalia arjuna (T. arjuna. Materials and Methods: The antilithiatic activity of Terminalia arjuna was investigated in vitro nucleation, aggregation and growth of the CaOx crystals as well as the morphology of CaOx crystals using the inbuilt software ‘Image-Pro Plus 7.0’ of Olympus upright microscope (BX53. Antioxidant activity of AE of Terminalia arjuna bark was also determined in vitro. Results: Terminalia arjuna extract exhibited a concentration dependent inhibition of nucleation and aggregation of CaOx crystals. The AE of Terminalia arjuna bark also inhibited the growth of CaOx crystals. At the same time, the AE also modified the morphology of CaOx crystals from hexagonal to spherical shape with increasing concentrations of AE and reduced the dimensions such as area, perimeter, length and width of CaOx crystals in a dose dependent manner. Also, the Terminalia arjuna AE scavenged the DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radicals with an IC50 at 13.1µg/mL. Conclusions: The study suggests that Terminalia arjuna bark has the potential to scavenge DPPH radicals and inhibit CaOx crystallization in vitro. In the light of these studies, Terminalia arjuna can be regarded as a promising candidate from natural plant sources of antilithiatic and antioxidant activity with high value.

  16. Studies of Terminalia catappa L. oil: characterization and biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, I C F; de Carvalho, S H V; Solleti, J I; Ferreira de La Salles, W; Teixeira da Silva de La Salles, K; Meneghetti, S M P

    2008-09-01

    Since the biodiesel program has been started in Brazil, the investigation of alternative sources of triacylglycerides from species adapted at semi-arid lands became a very important task for Brazilian researchers. Thus we initiated studies with the fruits of the Terminalia catappa L (TC), popularly known in Brazil as "castanhola", evaluating selected properties and chemical composition of the oil, as well any potential application in biodiesel production. The oil was obtained from the kernels of the fruit, with yields around 49% (% mass). Also, its fatty acid composition was quite similar to that of conventional oils. The crude oil of the TC was transesterified, using a conventional catalyst and methanol to form biodiesel. The studied physicochemical properties of the TC biodiesel are in acceptable range for use as biodiesel in diesel engines.

  17. Terminalia chebula mediated green and rapid synthesis of gold nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan Kumar, Kesarla; Mandal, Badal Kumar; Sinha, Madhulika; Krishnakumar, Varadhan

    2012-02-01

    Biologically inspired experimental process in synthesising nanoparticles is of great interest in present scenario. Biosynthesis of nanoparticles is considered to be one of the best green techniques in synthesising metal nanoparticles. Here, an in situ green biogenic synthesis of gold nanoparticles using aqueous extracts of Terminalia chebula as reducing and stabilizing agent is reported. Gold nanoparticles were confirmed by surface plasmon resonance in the range of 535 nm using UV-visible spectrometry. TEM analysis revealed that the morphology of the particles thus formed contains anisotropic gold nanoparticles with size ranging from 6 to 60 nm. Hydrolysable tannins present in the extract of T. chebula are responsible for reductions and stabilization of gold nanoparticles. Antimicrobial activity of gold nanoparticles showed better activity towards gram positive S. aureus compared to gram negative E. coli using standard well diffusion method.

  18. Incorporating trnH-psbA to the core DNA barcodes improves significantly species discrimination within southern African Combretaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jephris Gere

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies indicate that the discriminatory power of the core DNA barcodes (rbcLa + matK for land plants may have been overestimated since their performance have been tested only on few closely related species. In this study we focused mainly on how the addition of complementary barcodes (nrITS and trnH-psbA to the core barcodes will affect the performance of the core barcodes in discriminating closely related species from family to section levels. In general, we found that the core barcodes performed poorly compared to the various combinations tested. Using multiple criteria, we finally advocated for the use of the core + trnH-psbA as potential DNA barcode for the family Combretaceae at least in southern Africa. Our results also indicate that the success of DNA barcoding in discriminating closely related species may be related to evolutionary and possibly the biogeographic histories of the taxonomic group tested.

  19. Terminalia catappa Linn seeds as a new food source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monthana Weerawatanakorn

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate their potential use as a new dietary source, the seeds of Terminalia catappa Linn were analyzed for their nutritional and antinutritional properties, and to determine the effect of roasting. The TC seeds contained high levels of protein, oil and essential minerals. The 2 most limiting amino acids were Tryptophan and Lysine. Oleic acid (C18:1 and linoleic acid (C18:2 are the main fatty acids which were determined at 32.4 and 30.3%, respectively. The ratio of saturated: monounsaturated: polyunsaturated fatty acid was close to what is recommended in the dietary guidelines of the American Heart Association. Contents of phenolic compounds and phytates (IP4 + IP5 + IP6 in raw seeds were 64.9 g of GAE/g and 2,110 mg/100g, which are comparable to the values in edible nuts. Trypsin inhibitor activity was 2.3 trypsin inhibitor units/mg. After roasting at 180°C for 4 min, both phenolic compounds and trypsin activity were reduced, while IP6 phytate degraded into IP4 and IP5 forms

  20. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of silver nanoparticles biosynthesized from aqueous leaves extracts of four Terminalia species

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Rafie, Hanaa Mohamed; Abdel-Aziz Hamed, Manal

    2014-09-01

    The environmentally friendly synthesis of nanoparticles process is a revolutionary step in the field of nanotechnology. In recent years plant mediated biological synthesis of nanoparticles has been gaining importance due to its simplicity and eco-friendliness. In this study, a simple and an efficient eco-friendly approach for the biosynthesis of stable, monodisperse silver nanoparticles using aqueous extracts of four Terminalia species, namely, Terminalia catappa, Terminalia mellueri, Terminalia bentazoe and Terminalia bellerica were described. The silver nanoparticles were characterized in terms of synthesis, capping functionalities (polysaccharides, phenolics and flavonoidal compounds) and microscopic evaluation by UV-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The results showed a simple and feasible approach for obtaining stable aqueous monodispersive silver nanoparticles. Furthermore, biological activity of the biosynthesized silver nanoparticles was examined. Concerning this, dose-dependent antioxidant activity of silver nanoparticles imparted by the plant phenolic and flavonoidal components was evaluated using in vitro 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay and found to be comparable to standard ascorbic acid. The same holds true for the anti-inflammatory activity where Terminalia catappa and Terminalia mellueri have a high-test inhibition percentage better than that of ascorbic acid in the carrageenan induced hind paw edema. The results also revealed that the aqueous extract of Terminallia catapa and its silver nanoparticles recorded the most potent in vivo antioxidant effect.

  1. Environ: E00206 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D:C01424], Luteoic acid Terminalia chebula [TAX:155022] Same as: D09139 Combretaceae (Indian-almond family) Terminalia chebula fruit; Standards for non-pharmacopoeial crude drugs ...

  2. New anti-HIV-1, antimalarial, and antifungal compounds from Terminalia bellerica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valsaraj, R; Pushpangadan, P; Smitt, U W

    1997-01-01

    A bioactivity-guided fractionation of an extract of Terminalia bellerica fruit rind led to the isolation of two new lignans named termilignan (1) and thannilignan (2), together with 7-hydroxy-3',4'-(methylenedioxy)flavan (3) and anolignan B (4). All four compounds possessed demonstrable anti-HIV-......, antimalarial, and antifungal activity in vitro....

  3. Effect of oral administration of Terminalia chebula on gastric emptying: an experimental study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamhane M

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Terminalia chebula is a commonly advocated agent in Ayurveda for improving gastrointestinal motility. Charles Foster rats (150-200 gms of either sex were divided into four groups as follows--Group 1 (n = 15 normal animals; Group II (n = 6 rats administered metoclopramide (1.35 mg/kg; Group III (n = 8 rats given atropine (0.45 mg/kg. These agents were injected intramuscularly, 30 mins before the experiment. Rats from Group IV (n = 8 were administered Terminalia chebula (100 mg/kg/day for 15 days orally. Metoclopramide and atropine have established prokinetic and antikinetic activities respectively and are therefore included for comparison. All rats were then given a test meal of methyl cellulose (1.5% mixed with phenol red (50 mg/100 ml orally and gastric emptying was measured 20 mins later. Gastric emptying of normal rats (Group I was found to be 51.6 +/- 7.79%. Metoclopramide significantly increased the gastric emptying (76.33 +/- 12.37%; p < 0.01 and atropine inhibited the motility (% gastric emptying being 7.26 +/- 19.76%; p < 0.01. Terminalia chebula was found to increase the percent gastric emptying (86.57 +/- 6.65%; p < 0.01. Thus from this study it appears that Terminalia chebula can serve as an useful alternative to prokinetic drugs available today.

  4. Detection of Germination inhibitors in fruits of Terminalia laxiflora Engl. and Diels using biochemical assays

    OpenAIRE

    Mai M. A. Hassan; Fatima Algunaid Hassan; Sayda M. Mohammed; Nada Babiker

    2013-01-01

    Terminalia laxiflora is multipurpose tree in Sudan. But it has low germination percentage, which may affect its natural regeneration. There were evidence that the fruits have an inhibitory effect, so this study was carried out to determine which part of the fruit that affect germination and seedlings growth. Three parts of the fruit extraction were examine (Coat, Pulp and Wing) with tow concentration to each part (200 fruit/litre, 100 fruit/litre).the results showed that all extractions had n...

  5. Ethnopharmacological Approaches for Therapy of Jaundice: Part II. Highly Used Plant Species from Acanthaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Asteraceae, Combretaceae, and Fabaceae Families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devesh Tewari

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In many developing countries, jaundice is the common symptom of hepatic diseases which are a major cause of mortality. The use of natural product-based therapies is very popular for such hepatic disorders. A great number of medicinal plants have been utilized for this purpose and some facilitated the discovery of active compounds which helped the development of new synthetic drugs against jaundice. However, more epidemiological studies and clinical trials are required for the practical implementation of the plant pharmacotherapy of jaundice. The focus of this second part of our review is on several of the most prominent plants used against jaundice identified in the analysis performed in the first part of the review viz. Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f. Nees, Silybum marianum (L. Gaertn., Terminalia chebula Retz., Glycyrrhiza glabra L. and some species of genus Phyllanthus. Furthermore, we discuss their physiological effects, biologically active ingredients, and the potential mechanisms of action. Some of the most important active ingredients were silybin (also recommended by German commission, phyllanthin and andrographolide, whose action leads to bilirubin reduction and normalization of the levels of relevant serum enzymes indicative for the pathophysiological status of the liver.

  6. Hypoglycemic Effect of Terminalia Chebula Retz. Fruit on Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

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    Ei Pye Phyo Aung

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the hypoglycemic effect of ethanolic extract of terminalia chebula Retz. fruits on alloxaninduced diabetic rats compared with standard oral hypoglycemic drug, metformin. Methods: A randomized controlled experimental animal study was done. 30 Wistar albino rats were induced diabetes by alloxan (100 mg/kg. 80%-ethanolic extraction of fruits of terminalia chebula Retz. was performed by using Soxhlet extraction method. Group 1 was normal control. Group 2 was alloxan-induced diabetic control, group 3 was metformin 100 mg/kg standard group, groups 4, 5 and 6 were extracts 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg orally administered fruit extract for 28-days, respectively. Fasting blood glucose (FBG levels were measured at the end of the first, second, third and fourth weeks by using standardized glucometer. Results: At the end of first, second, third and fourth weeks, the FBG levels of diabetic control were 325.7±28.2, 308.5±69.8, 322.7±65.8 and 369.2±57.4 mg/dL, those of metformin (100 mg/kg were 76.2±9.5, 92.5±14.9, 94.5±17.9 and 90.8±9.9 mg/dL, those of the terminalia chebula Retz. extract 100 mg/kg were 232.5±78.6, 122.8±41.4, 109.2±33.6 and 132.3±41.1 mg/dL, extract 200 mg/kg were 82.7±8.2, 82.7±8.2, 89.7±9.8 and 89±15.2 mg/dL, and extract 400 mg/kg were 80.2±9, 83.5±7.1, 91±11.5 and 82.7±5.9 mg/dL, respectively. When all treatment groups were compared with diabetic control, the FBG levels were significantly reduced (p<0.001. There was no significant difference in FBG levels between standard group and extract (200 and 400 mg/kg groups. Conclusion: The 80%-ethanolic extract of terminalia chebula Retz. has significant hypoglycemic effect on alloxaninduced diabetic rats and it was comparable with standard drug, metformin. The effective dose was 200 to 400 mg/kg.

  7. Induction of Biomolecules in Mature Leaves of Terminalia arjuna Due to Feeding of Antheraea mylitta Drury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Abraham

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Terminalia arjuna is an important food plant of the tasar silkworm, Antheraea mylitta Drury. In this study, we investigated the induction of biomolecules in mature leaves of these plants subjected to insect feeding. Increase in total tannin content, lipid peroxidation, and trypsin inhibitor activity have been observed in mature leaves damaged by the insects. The growth rate of Vth instar larvae of A. mylitta fed on previously damaged foliage reduced by 87.1%. Induction of biomolecules for defense mechanisms in relation to herbivore damage has been discussed.

  8. Antimicrobial Activity of Terminalia catappa, Manilkara zapota and Piper betel Leaf Extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, R; Chanda, Sumitra

    2008-01-01

    Aqueous and methanol extract of the leaves of Terminalia catappa L., Manilkara zapota L. and Piper betel L. were evaluated for antibacterial activity against 10 Gram positive, 12 Gram negative bacteria and one fungal strain, Candida tropicalis. Piperacillin and gentamicin were used as standards for antibacterial assay, while fluconazole was used as standard for antifungal assay. The three plants showed different degree of activity against the microorganisms investigated. The methanolic extract was considerably more effective than aqueous extract in inhibiting the investigated microbial strains. The most active antimicrobial plant was Piper betel.

  9. Analysis of phytochemical profile of Terminalia arjuna bark extract with antioxidative and antimicrobial properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Shreya; Patra, Arpita; Samanta, Animesh; Roy, Suchismita; Mandal, Arpita; Mahapatra, Tapasi Das; Pradhan, Shrabani; Das, Koushik; Nandi, Dilip Kumar

    2013-12-01

    To investigate phytochemical screening, antimicrobial activity and qualitative thin layer chromatographic separation of flavonoid components, antioxidant activity and total flavonoid compound of Terminalia arjuna. For phytochemical screening, some common and available standard tests were done. Antimicrobial bioassay was done through agar well diffusion method. Detection of antioxidant activity and flavonoid compounds were done through thin layer chromatography. Total antioxidant activity was measured by 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) in colorimetric method. Aluminum chloride colorimetric method was used for total flavonoid determination. Phytochemical screening showed the active compounds presence in high concentration, such as phytosterol, lactones, flavonoids, phenolic compounds and tannins and glycosides. The antimicrobial activity of extract showed that greater inhibition zone against Gram negative bacteria than Gram positive bacteria. This methanolic extract showed a promising antioxidant activity, as absorption of DPPH redicles decreased in DPPH free radical scavenging assay. Flavonoids components having antioxidant property present in the methanol extract at a level of 199.00 mg quercetin equivalent/g of dried methanol extract in colorimetric method. The Terminalia arjuna bark extract revealed the presence of bio-active constituents which are known to exhibit medicinal as well as physiological activities. Copyright © 2013 Asian Pacific Tropical Biomedical Magazine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Use of ethanol extracts of Terminalia chebula to prevent periodontal disease induced by dental plaque bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jongsung; Nho, Youn Hwa; Yun, Seok Kyun; Hwang, Young Sun

    2017-02-16

    The fruit of the Terminalia chebula tree has been widely used for the treatment of various disorders. Its anti-diabetic, anti-mutagenic, anti-oxidant, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, and anti-viral effects have been studied. Dental plaque bacteria (DPB) are intimately associated with gingivitis and periodontitis. In the quest for materials that will prove useful in the treatment and prevention of periodontal disease, we investigated the preventive effects of an ethanol extract of Terminalia chebula (EETC) on DPB-induced inflammation and bone resorption. The anti-bacterial effect of EETC was analyzed using the disc diffusion method. The anti-inflammatory effect of EETC was determined by molecular biological analysis of the DPB-mediated culture cells. Prevention of osteoclastic bone resorption by EETC was explored using osteoclast formation and pit formation assays. EETC suppressed the growth of oral bacteria and reduced the induction of inflammatory cytokines and proteases, abolishing the expression of PGE2 and COX-2 and inhibiting matrix damage. By stimulating the DPB-derived lipopolysaccharides, EETC inhibited both osteoclast formation in osteoclast precursors and RANKL expression in osteoblasts, thereby contributing to the prevention of bone resorption. EETC may be a beneficial supplement to help prevent DPB-mediated periodontal disease.

  11. Terminalia catappa as bioindicator of environmental pollution in Cubatao city by SR-TXRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Silvana; Geraldo, Simoni Michetti, E-mail: silvana@fec.unicamp.b [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo. Dept. de Saneamento e Ambiente; Barroso, Regina Cely, E-mail: cely_barroso@hotmail.co [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica. Dept. de Fisica Aplicada; Vives, Ana Elisa Sirito de, E-mail: aesvives@unimep.b [Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP), Santa Barbara D' Oeste, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia, Arquitetura e Urbanismo; Cardoso, Simone Coutinho, E-mail: simone@if.ufrj.b [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia, Arquitetura e Urbanismo. Inst. de Fisica

    2009-07-01

    Fertilizer industries are considered the main environmental polluting of fluoride (F) and the industrial complex of the city of Cubatao, SP, Brazil, is an important fertilizer producer. This study aimed to evaluate the local pollution for toxic elements and its comparison with fluoride concentration using the urban vegetation as biomarker. For this, leaves of Terminalia catappa (popularly known for Hat-of-sun or Almond tree of the beach) were tested. The leaves were collected in the winter of 2007 in the industrial region around the fertilizer plants and other industries, in the municipal urban areas of Cubatao and Santos cities. The samples were dehydrated, powdered and submitted to an acid digestion for multi-elemental determination by Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (SR-TXRF). All the measurements were performed at Synchrotron Light Source Laboratory. The results obtained by SR-TXRF were compared to fluoride determinations. The variance analysis showed the correlation between F and S concentrations (p<0.05). The concentrations of these elements are concentrated around the fertilizer industries (p< 0.05). Using SR-TXRF was possible to determine several elements as: Si, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr and Pb in the leaves of Terminalia catappa. Chromium in the areas near to fertilizer industries and also in Santos city which is considered as a control area, present concentrations higher than 18 mg kg{sup -1}, this is considered a toxic value (author)

  12. Variations des apports de litière et d'éléments minéraux dans les plantations de limba (Terminalia superba au Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kokolo, A.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Variations in Litter Production and Nutrient Supply in Plantations of Limba (Terminalia superba in Congo. A study was carried out in a chronosequence of Terminalia superba (7, 12 and 48 years and a nearby natural forest. The results show that the peaks of litterfall take place in rainy season contrary to the majority of the forest formations of the humid tropical zone. The return of nutrients to the soil via the leaf litter is higher in plantations than in forest. The calcium released from the leaf litter was up to 175 kg.ha-1.year1. The values obtained indicate a moderate nutrient use efficiency by Terminalia superba.

  13. In vitro antimicrobial activity of Combretum molle (Combretaceae) against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae isolated from crossbred dairy cows with clinical mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regassa, Fekadu; Araya, Mengistu

    2012-08-01

    Following the rapidly expanding dairy enterprise, mastitis has remained the most economically damaging disease. The objective of this study was mainly to investigate the in vitro antibacterial activities of ethanol extracts of Combretum molle (R.Br.Ex.G.Don) Engl & Diels (Combretaceae) against antibiotic-resistant and susceptible Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae isolated from clinical cases of bovine mastitis using agar disc diffusion method. The leaf and bark extracts showed antibacterial activity against S. aureus at concentrations of 3 mg/ml while the stem and seed extract did not show any bioactivity. Although both leaf and bark extracts were handled in the same manner, the antibacterial activity of the bark extract against the bacterial strains had declined gradually to a lower level as time advanced after extraction. The leaf extract had sustained bioactivity for longer duration. The susceptibility of the bacteria to the leaf extract is not obviously different between S. aureus and S. agalactiae. Also, there was no difference in susceptibility to the leaf extract between the antibiotic-resistant and antibiotic-sensitive bacteria. Further phytochemical and in vivo efficacy and safety studies are required to evaluate the therapeutic value of the plant against bovine mastitis.

  14. Terminalia ferdinandiana extracts as inhibitors of Giardia duodenalis proliferation: a new treatment for giardiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayan, P; Matthews, B; McDonnell, P A; Cock, I E

    2015-07-01

    Giardisis is a debilitating disease caused by gastrointestinal parasites of the genus Giardia. High-antioxidant T. ferdinandiana fruit extracts were investigated for the ability to block Giardia duodenalis growth. Methanolic and aqueous extracts had the most potent growth inhibitory activity (IC50 values of approximately 700 and 140 μg/ml, respectively). Ethyl acetate and chloroform extracts also inhibited G. duodenalis growth, albeit with lower potency. The hexane extract was completely devoid of G. duodenalis growth inhibitory activity. All extracts were nontoxic in the Artemia fransiscana bioassay. Nontargeted HPLC-quadrupole time-of-flight (QTOF) mass spectroscopy (with screening against three compound databases) putatively identified 17 compounds in all of the inhibitory extracts but not in the inactive hexane extract. The low toxicity of the Terminalia ferdinandiana fruit extracts and their potent G. duodenalis growth inhibitory bioactivity indicate their potential as medicinal agents in the treatment and prevention of this disease.

  15. Physicochemical properties of Terminalia catappa seed oil as a novel dietary lipid source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supatcha Janporn

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Terminalia catappa Linn (TC is an ornamental tree planted extensively in many countries. It has been known for a long time that the seeds are edible but no research has focused on the realm of its use as food. Our previous data showed that the seed contains high levels of oil content (600 g/kg and possesses the optimum fatty acid balance indicated in fat dietary guidelines. This study aims to investigate the physical and chemical properties and the possibility of using TC seed oil as a new dietary lipid. The effects of extraction conditions, partial refining process, and storage stability on TC oil properties were conducted compared with soybean oil. The results showed that physicochemical properties including the density, refractive index, melting point, acidity, free fatty acid, saponification value, unsaponifiable, peroxide, and fatty acid composition of the extracted oil were comparable with soybean oil and their values followed the dietary standard of edible oil.

  16. Sorption study of methylene blue on activated carbon prepared from Jatropha curcas and Terminalia catappa seed coats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismaila Olalekan Saheed

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research work targets the effectiveness of the prepared activated carbon from Jatropha curcas and Terminalia catappa seed coats for the sorption of methylene blue (MB from aqueous solution. The prepared Jatropha activated carbon (JAC and Terminalia activated carbon (TAC were characterised using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM and Branauer- Emmett-Teller (BET surface area analysis. Effect of initial concentration, pH, contact time, adsorbent dose and temperature on the sorption experiments were studied and the adsorption capacity of these adsorbents were found to be 37.84 mg/g and 17.44 mg/g for methylene blue uptake by JAC and TAC respectively. The experimental data were analysed using Langmuir, Fruendlich, and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherms. The data fitted best into Langmuir isotherm for Methylene blue-JAC and Methylene blue-TAC systems. The kinetic studies fitted into pseudo second order kinetics model. The process chemistry was exothermic.

  17. Isolation of Triterpenoid Glycoside from Bark of Terminalia arjuna using Chromatographic Technique and Investigation of Pharmacological Behavior upon Muscle Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanushree Patnaik

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the isolation and characterization of a new triterpenoid glycoside extracted from the bark of Terminalia arjuna. The isolation of the organic compounds was done using simple chromatographic technique. Compound characterization using various spectroscopic technique identify the final isolated compound as Olean-3β,22β-diol-12-en-28β-D-glucopyranoside-oic acid. The method of isolation is simple, cost effective and efficient. The preliminary bioactivity of the compound was also evaluated.

  18. [Presumptive identification of Cryptococcus gattii isolated from Terminalia catappa in Montería city, Córdoba, Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras Martínez, Orfa Inés; Aycardi Morinelli, María Paulina; Alarcón Furnieles, Jany Luz; Jaraba Ramos, Aparicio Manuel

    2011-01-01

    the members of the Cryptococcus neoformans species complex are responsible for cryptococcosis in animals and humans. Human infection is thought to be acquired by inhalation of airborne propagules from an environmental source; therefore it is greatly important to study their habitat. to determine the ecological relationship of Cryptococcus gattii with Terminalia catappa trees present in urban areas of Montería city in Colombia. a total of 163 Terminalia catappa trees were selected; some samples were taken from the bark, the leaves, the flowers, the fruits of these trees and from the surrounding soil. The yeast was isolated using the Guizotia abyssinica seed agar medium; it was identified thanks to biochemical and morphologic tests whereas the right variety was determined by L-canavanine-glycine-bromothymol blue (CGB), D-proline and D-tryptophan tests. there was obtained 9.050 CFU/g isolate of Cryptococcus spp., 5.795 CFU/g of which were presumptively identified as Cryptococcus gattii. The highest percentage of isolates was found in flowers, followed by bark and fruits, presenting small cellular and capsular sizes. These isolates were more frequent in the south of the city, followed by the center zone and the lowest percentage in the northern zone. these findings confirmed the close relationship of Cryptococcus gattii and Terminalia catappa, being this the first study conducted in Monteria city. These results give us meaningful information for understanding and analyzing the epidemiology of cryptococcosis in Monteria city, Colombia.

  19. Effects of Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) and Terminalia arjuna (Arjuna) on physical performance and cardiorespiratory endurance in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Jaspal Singh; Shah, Biren; Shenoy, Shweta; Chauhan, Suresh; Lavekar, G S; Padhi, M M

    2010-07-01

    Several medicinal plants have been described to be beneficial for cardiac ailments in Ayurveda like Ashwagandha and Arjuna. Ashwagandha-categorised as Rasayanas, and described to promote health and longevity and Arjuna primarily for heart ailments. coronary artery disease, heart failure, hypercholesterolemia, anginal pain and can be considered as a useful drug for coronary artery disease, hypertension and ischemic cardiomyopathy. There are no scientific clinical studies showing effect of both these drugs on exercise performance after regular administration when given as supplements The present study was therefore designed and performed to assess the effects of Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) and Terminalia arjuna (Arjuna) individually and as a combination on maximum velocity, average absolute and relative Power, balance, maximum oxygen consumption (VO2 max) and blood pressure in humans. Forty normal healthy. Subjects (either sex, mean age 20.6 ± 2.5yrs and mean Body Mass Index 21.9 ± 2.2) were recruited after written informed consent was obtained. Institutional Ethics Committee permission was also obtained. Thirty participants were assigned to experimental group of which 10 received standardized root extracts of Withania somnifera, 10 received standardized bark extract of Terminalia arjuna and the rest of the 10 received standardized root extract of Withania somnifera in addition to bark extract of Terminalia arjuna both. Both the drugs were given in the form of capsules (dosage 500mg/day for both the drugs). Ten participants received placebo (capsules filled with flour). All the subjects continued the regimen for 8 weeks. All variables were assessed before and after the course of drug administration Our study showed that Withania somnifera increased velocity, power and VO2 max whereas Terminalia arjuna increased VO2 max and lowered resting systolic blood pressure. When given in combination, the improvement was seen in all parameters except balance and diastolic

  20. Terminalia catappa as bioindicator of environmental pollution in Cubatao city by SR-TXRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, Silvana; Geraldo, Simoni Michetti; Barroso, Regina Cely; Vives, Ana Elisa Sirito de; Cardoso, Simone Coutinho

    2009-01-01

    Fertilizer industries are considered the main environmental polluting of fluoride (F) and the industrial complex of the city of Cubatao, SP, Brazil, is an important fertilizer producer. This study aimed to evaluate the local pollution for toxic elements and its comparison with fluoride concentration using the urban vegetation as biomarker. For this, leaves of Terminalia catappa (popularly known for Hat-of-sun or Almond tree of the beach) were tested. The leaves were collected in the winter of 2007 in the industrial region around the fertilizer plants and other industries, in the municipal urban areas of Cubatao and Santos cities. The samples were dehydrated, powdered and submitted to an acid digestion for multi-elemental determination by Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (SR-TXRF). All the measurements were performed at Synchrotron Light Source Laboratory. The results obtained by SR-TXRF were compared to fluoride determinations. The variance analysis showed the correlation between F and S concentrations (p -1 , this is considered a toxic value (author)

  1. Terminalia arjuna: A novel natural preservative for improved lipid oxidative stability and storage quality of muscle foods

    OpenAIRE

    Insha Kousar Kalem; Z.F. Bhat; Sunil Kumar; Ajay Desai

    2017-01-01

    The study was conducted to explore the possibility of utilization of Terminalia arjuna as a novel natural preservative in meat products by using chevon sausages as a model system. Chevon sausages were prepared by incorporating different levels of T. arjuna viz. T1 (0.25%), T2 (0.50%) and T3 (0.75%) and were assessed for various lipid oxidative stability and storage quality parameters under refrigerated (4 ± 1 °C) conditions. T. arjuna showed a significant (p 

  2. In vitro propagation, encapsulation, and genetic fidelity analysis of Terminalia arjuna: a cardioprotective medicinal tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Amit K; Harish; Rai, Manoj K; Phulwaria, Mahendra; Agarwal, Tanvi; Shekhawat, N S

    2014-07-01

    The present study described an improved and reproducible in vitro regeneration system for Terminalia arjuna using nodal segment explants obtained from a mature plant. Shoot tips excised from in vitro proliferated shoots were encapsulated in 3 % sodium alginate and 100 mM CaCl2[Symbol: see text]2H2O for the development of synthetic seeds which may be applicable in short-term storage and germplasm exchange of elite genotype. Shoot multiplication was significantly influenced by a number of factors, namely types and concentrations of plant growth regulators, medium composition, repeated transfer of mother explants, subculturing of in vitro regenerated shoot clumps, agar concentrations, and temperature. Maximum numbers of shoots (16.50 ± 3.67) were observed on modified Murashige and Skoog (MMS) medium containing 0.5 mg l(-1) of benzylaminopurine (BAP) and 0.1 mg l(-1) of naphthalene acetic acid (NAA). To shortening the regeneration pathway, rooting of micropropagated shoots under in vitro condition was excluded and an experiment on ex vitro rooting was conducted and it was observed that the highest percentage of shoots rooted ex vitro when treated with indole-3-butyric acid (IBA, 250 mg l(-1)) + 2-naphthoxy acetic acid (NOA, 250 mg l(-1)) for 5 min. The well-developed ex vitro rooted shoots were acclimatized successfully in soilrite under greenhouse conditions with 80 % survival of plants. Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis confirmed that all the regenerated plants were genetically identical to the mother plant, suggesting the absence of detectable genetic variation in the regenerated plantlets. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on synthetic seed production as well as ex vitro rooting and genetic fidelity assessment of micropropagated shoots of T. arjuna.

  3. High-resolution proxies for wood density variations in Terminalia superba

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Ridder, Maaike; Van den Bulcke, Jan; Vansteenkiste, Dries; Van Loo, Denis; Dierick, Manuel; Masschaele, Bert; De Witte, Yoni; Mannes, David; Lehmann, Eberhard; Beeckman, Hans; Van Hoorebeke, Luc; Van Acker, Joris

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Density is a crucial variable in forest and wood science and is evaluated by a multitude of methods. Direct gravimetric methods are mostly destructive and time-consuming. Therefore, faster and semi- to non-destructive indirect methods have been developed. Methods Profiles of wood density variations with a resolution of approx. 50 µm were derived from one-dimensional resistance drillings, two-dimensional neutron scans, and three-dimensional neutron and X-ray scans. All methods were applied on Terminalia superba Engl. & Diels, an African pioneer species which sometimes exhibits a brown heart (limba noir). Key Results The use of X-ray tomography combined with a reference material permitted direct estimates of wood density. These X-ray-derived densities overestimated gravimetrically determined densities non-significantly and showed high correlation (linear regression, R2 = 0·995). When comparing X-ray densities with the attenuation coefficients of neutron scans and the amplitude of drilling resistance, a significant linear relation was found with the neutron attenuation coefficient (R2 = 0·986) yet a weak relation with drilling resistance (R2 = 0·243). When density patterns are compared, all three methods are capable of revealing the same trends. Differences are mainly due to the orientation of tree rings and the different characteristics of the indirect methods. Conclusions High-resolution X-ray computed tomography is a promising technique for research on wood cores and will be explored further on other temperate and tropical species. Further study on limba noir is necessary to reveal the causes of density variations and to determine how resistance drillings can be further refined. PMID:21131386

  4. Hypolipidaemic and anti-oxidative potential of encapsulated herb (Terminalia arjuna) added vanilla chocolate milk in high cholesterol fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawale, Pravin Digambar; Pothuraju, Ramesh; Abdul Hussain, Shaik; Kumar, Anuj; Kapila, Suman; Patil, Girdhari Ramdas

    2016-03-15

    Atherosclerosis is associated with coronary artery disease and occurs in developing as well as developed countries. In the present investigation, hypolipidaemic and anti-oxidative properties of encapsulated herb (Terminalia arjuna, 1.8%) added vanilla chocolate dairy drink was evaluated in high cholesterol fed Wistar rats for 60 days. At the end of the experimental period, a significant decrease in the body weight gain by rats receiving the encapsulated herb extract was noted as compared to high cholesterol fed rats. Administration of microencapsulated herb showed a statistically significant decrease in organ weights (epididymal fat and liver). Moreover, a significant decrease in serum lipids such as triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and atherogenic index was observed with encapsulated Terminalia arjuna extract in high cholesterol fed group. Increases in reduced glutathione and decreases in TBARS levels were also reported in both liver and red blood cell lysates with encapsulated herb supplementation. The results demonstrated that the bioactive components (phytosterols, flavanoids, saponins and tannins etc.) which are present in the encapsulated T. arjuna not only withstand the processing conditions but also are effectively released in the intestine and show their effects, such as hypolipidaemic and antioxidant activities, for better treating cardiovascular disease. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Terminalia arjuna: A novel natural preservative for improved lipid oxidative stability and storage quality of muscle foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Insha Kousar Kalem

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to explore the possibility of utilization of Terminalia arjuna as a novel natural preservative in meat products by using chevon sausages as a model system. Chevon sausages were prepared by incorporating different levels of T. arjuna viz. T1 (0.25%, T2 (0.50% and T3 (0.75% and were assessed for various lipid oxidative stability and storage quality parameters under refrigerated (4 ± 1 °C conditions. T. arjuna showed a significant (p < 0.05 effect on the lipid oxidative stability as the treated products exhibited significantly (p < 0.05 lower TBARS (mg malonaldehyde/kg values in comparison to control. A significant (p < 0.05 effect was also observed on the microbial stability as T. arjuna incorporated products showed significantly (p < 0.05 lower values for total plate count (log cfu/g, psychrophilic count (log cfu/g, yeast and mould count (log cfu/g and FFA (% oleic acid values. Significantly (p < 0.05 higher scores were observed for various sensory parameters of the products incorporated with T. arjuna during refrigerated storage. T. arjuna successfully improved the lipid oxidative stability and storage quality of the model meat product and may be commercially exploited as a novel preservative in muscle foods. Keywords: Terminalia arjuna, Chevon sausages, Natural preservative, Lipid oxidation, Storage quality

  6. Scanning electron microscopy of male terminalia and its application to species recognition and phylogenetic reconstruction in the Drosophila saltans group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Tiago Alves Jorge; Noll, Fernando Barbosa; Bicudo, Hermione Elly Melara de Campos; Madi-Ravazzi, Lilian

    2014-01-01

    The Drosophila saltans group consists of five subgroups and 21 species, most of which have been identified only by morphological aspects of the male terminalia revealed by drawings using a camera lucida and a bright-field microscope. However, several species in the group, mainly those included in the saltans subgroup, are difficult to differentiate using only these characteristics. In this study, we used scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to analyze 19 structures of the male terminalia in 10 species from the five saltans subgroups. Among these structures, nine could be identified only through SEM analysis. We aimed to find other characteristics useful for morphological recognition of these species and to use these characteristics for phylogenetic reconstruction. These morphological differences enabled us to effectively distinguish among sibling species. These findings confirmed the monophyly of this group as previously determined in evolutionary studies based on other markers. The single most parsimonious tree (CI = 87 and RI = 90) indicated that the cordata subgroup is the most basal lineage and the saltans subgroup is the most apical lineage, as shown in earlier studies based on morphological data. However, our findings differed somewhat from these studies with respect to the phylogenetic relationships of species in the saltans group indicating that this group is still a puzzle that remains to be deciphered.

  7. Influence of tannin content in Terminalia catappa leaves extracts resulted from maceration extraction on decreasing corrosion rate for mild steel in 1M H2SO4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramudita, M.; Sukirno; Nasikin, M.

    2018-04-01

    The ability of natural compounds as corrosion inhibitors is necessary to obtain safe corrosion inhibitors for the environment. The tannin compounds derived from plant extract has the ability to decrease the corrosion rate. The purpose of this research is to find the ability of tannin compounds in Terminalia catappa leaves extracts to decrease corrosion rate on mild steel. Terminalia catappa leaves that have been mashed in ethanol solvent extraction using maceration with the variable time 2.4 and 6 days. Mild steel that has been on the sandpaper and cleaned then soak into the 1 M H2SO4. Terminalia catappa leaves extract concentration used is 0, 250, 500, 500, 750, 1000 ppm, the immersion time is 3.6 and 9 hours. Calculating of corrosion rate is used the weight loss method, the analysis of the tannin concentration using GC-MS. The results indicate that highest tannin content equal to 7.23% in 6 days maceration time. The result showed that the corrosion rate was reduced in the presence of tannin content in Terminalia catappa leaves extract.

  8. Sucrose fatty esters from underutilized seed oil of Terminalia catappa as potential steel corrosion inhibitor in acidic medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adewale Adewuyi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Corrosion of metals is a common problem which requires definite attention. In response to this, the oil was extracted from the seed of Terminalia catappa and used to synthesize sucrose fatty esters via simple reaction mechanism which was considered eco-friendly and sustainable. The corrosion inhibition capacity of sucrose fatty esters for mild steel in 1 M HCl was studied using the weight loss method. It was shown that sucrose fatty ester inhibited corrosion process of mild steel and obeyed Langmuir isotherm. Corrosion rate and inhibition efficiency of sucrose fatty esters were found to reduce with increase of immersion time. The study presented sucrose fatty ester as a promising inhibitor of mild steel corrosion in acidic medium.

  9. Antibacterial activities of aqueous extracts of terminalia catappa, momordica charantia and acalypha wilkesiana on escherichia coli isolated from pediatrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odeyemi, A.O.; Olawande, F.T.

    2015-01-01

    Antibacterial activity of aqueous extract of Terminalia catappa, Momordica charantia and Acalypha wilkesiana was investigated against Escherichia coli isolated from pediatrics with the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 0.5mg/mL by agar dilution technique. The antibacterial potency of the extracts as evaluated by broth dilution technique, showed diameter of inhibition zone of 22.80 mm, 14.20 mm and 21.00 mm at a concentration of 0.5 mg/mL for T. catappa, M. charantia and A. wilkesiana, respectively. The antibacterial effect of T. catappa was found to be more pronounced with its plausible use for the treatment of infections caused by E. coli. (author)

  10. Study on antifungal potency of Terminalia cattapa, Piper betle, Psidium guajava, and Andrographis peniculata on the growth of Aphanomyces in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Nuryati

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available An effort to prevent aquatic fungi  Aphanomyces sp. infection on fish using natural material can be an economically way, easy to find the materials, easy to apply and safe for environment.  The antifungal potency and efficacy of scalded-leaf extract of Terminalia cattapa, Piper betle, Psidium guajava and Andrographis peniculata on prevention of Aphanomyces sp. growth in vitro in GYA medium.  Scalding was performed in the water at 50°C. Concentration of leaf extracts tested was 0, 10, 20, 40 and 80 g/L.  The results of study showed that Terminalia cattapa in a dosage of 40 g/L had the best prevention activity, followed by Piper betle in the same dosage.  Psidium guajava and Andrographis peniculata had no prevention activity on growth of Aphanomyces sp. Keywords: antifungal, Terminalia cattapa, Piper betle, Psidium guajava, Andrographis peniculata growth, Aohanomyces sp.   ABSTRAK Upaya penanggulangan infeksi cendawan akuatik Aphanomyces sp. pada ikan menggunakan bahan alami dapat menjadi cara yang ekonomis ekonomis, bahan mudah didapat, mudah diterapkan dan aman bagi lingkungan. Potensi antifungi dan efektivitas ekstrak seduh daun ketapang (Terminalia cattapa, sirih (Piper betle, jambu biji (Psidium guajava dan sambiloto (Andrographis peniculata terhadap penghambatan pertumbuhan Aphanomyces sp. dilakukan secara in vitro dalam media biakan GYA. Penyeduhan dilakukan menggunakan pelarut air dengan suhu 50°C. Konsentrasi yang diuji adalah 0, 10, 20, 40 dan 80 gr/L untuk masing-masing bahan. Aktivitas penghambatan paling baik terhadap cendawan diperoleh dari ekstrak seduh daun ketapang 40 g/L dan diikuti oleh ekstrak seduh daun sirih dengan konsentrasi yang sama.  Jambu biji dan sambiloto tidak menunjukkan aktivitas penghambatan terhadap pertumbuhan Aphanomyces sp. Kata kunci: antifungi, ketapang, sirih, jambu biji, sambiloto dan Aphanomyces sp.

  11. Metabolic Profiling of Hoodia, Chamomile, Terminalia Species and Evaluation of Commercial Preparations Using Ultrahigh-Performance Liquid Chromatography Quadrupole-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avula, Bharathi; Wang, Yan-Hong; Isaac, Giorgis; Yuk, Jimmy; Wrona, Mark; Yu, Kate; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2017-11-01

    Ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QToF-MS) profiling was used for the identification of marker compounds and generation of metabolic patterns that could be interrogated using chemometric modeling software. UHPLC-QToF-MS was used to generate comprehensive fingerprints of three botanicals ( Hoodia, Terminalia , and chamomile), each having different classes of compounds. Detection of a broad range of ions was carried out in full scan mode in both positive and negative modes over the range m/z 100-1700 using high-resolution mass spectrometry. Multivariate statistical analysis was used to extract relevant chemical information from the data to easily differentiate between Terminalia species, chamomile varieties, and quality control of Hoodia products. Using nontargeted analysis, identification of 37 compounds contributed to the differences between Terminalia species, 26 flavonoids were identified to show the differences between German and Roman chamomile, and 43 pregnane glycosides were identified from Hoodia gordonii samples. The UHPLC-QToF-MS-based chemical fingerprinting with principal component analysis was able to correctly distinguish botanicals and their commercial products. This work can be used as a basis to assure the quality of botanicals and commercial products. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Evaluation of in vitro antimicrobial potential and GC–MS analysis of Camellia sinensis and Terminalia arjuna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Gupta

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, Camellia sinensis and Terminalia arjuna are being used widely to cure various diseases like cardiovascular diseases, cancer etc. In the present study, extracts of these plants were evaluated for their antimicrobial activities against some human pathogenic bacteria viz. E. coli, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus and fungus C. albicans. In-vitro inhibition of these pathogenic microorganisms produced inhibition zone ranging from 9 to 18 mm. MIC values of these plant extracts ranged from 6.25 to 12.5 mg/ml. MBC of C. sinensis for E. coli, P. aeruginosa and S. aureus was found to be 50 and 12.5 mg/ml, respectively. In case of T. arjuna, the MBC of all the tested microorganisms was found to be 25 mg/ml. The MFC of C. sinensis and T. arjuna against C. albicans was observed to be 50 and 25 mg/ml, respectively. GC–MS analysis of C. sinensis and T. arjuna extract identified 13 and 21 compounds, respectively.

  13. An eco-friendly dyeing of woolen yarn by Terminalia chebula extract with evaluations of kinetic and adsorption characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabbir, Mohd; Rather, Luqman Jameel; Shahid-Ul-Islam; Bukhari, Mohd Nadeem; Shahid, Mohd; Ali Khan, Mohd; Mohammad, Faqeer

    2016-05-01

    In the present study Terminalia chebula was used as an eco-friendly natural colorant for sustainable textile coloration of woolen yarn with primary emphasis on thermodynamic and kinetic adsorption aspects of dyeing processes. Polyphenols and ellagitannins are the main coloring components of the dye extract. Assessment of the effect of pH on dye adsorption showed an increase in adsorption capacity with decreasing pH. Effect of temperature on dye adsorption showed 80 °C as optimum temperature for wool dyeing with T. chebula dye extract. Two kinetic equations, namely pseudo first-order and pseudo second-order equations, were employed to investigate the adsorption rates. Pseudo second-order model provided the best fit (R (2) = 0.9908) to the experimental data. The equilibrium adsorption data were fitted by Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm models. The adsorption behavior accorded well (R (2) = 0.9937) with Langmuir isotherm model. Variety of eco-friendly and sustainable shades were developed in combination with small amount of metallic mordants and assessed in terms of colorimetric (CIEL(∗) a (∗) b (∗) and K/S) properties measured using spectrophotometer under D65 illuminant (10° standard observer). The fastness properties of dyed woolen yarn against light, washing, dry and wet rubbing were also evaluated.

  14. An eco-friendly dyeing of woolen yarn by Terminalia chebula extract with evaluations of kinetic and adsorption characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabbir, Mohd; Rather, Luqman Jameel; Shahid-ul-Islam; Bukhari, Mohd Nadeem; Shahid, Mohd; Ali Khan, Mohd; Mohammad, Faqeer

    2016-01-01

    In the present study Terminalia chebula was used as an eco-friendly natural colorant for sustainable textile coloration of woolen yarn with primary emphasis on thermodynamic and kinetic adsorption aspects of dyeing processes. Polyphenols and ellagitannins are the main coloring components of the dye extract. Assessment of the effect of pH on dye adsorption showed an increase in adsorption capacity with decreasing pH. Effect of temperature on dye adsorption showed 80 °C as optimum temperature for wool dyeing with T. chebula dye extract. Two kinetic equations, namely pseudo first-order and pseudo second-order equations, were employed to investigate the adsorption rates. Pseudo second-order model provided the best fit (R2 = 0.9908) to the experimental data. The equilibrium adsorption data were fitted by Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm models. The adsorption behavior accorded well (R2 = 0.9937) with Langmuir isotherm model. Variety of eco-friendly and sustainable shades were developed in combination with small amount of metallic mordants and assessed in terms of colorimetric (CIEL∗a∗b∗ and K/S) properties measured using spectrophotometer under D65 illuminant (10° standard observer). The fastness properties of dyed woolen yarn against light, washing, dry and wet rubbing were also evaluated. PMID:27222752

  15. Antiglycation and antioxidation properties of berberis lyceum and terminalia chebula: possible role in curing diabetes and slowing aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, I.; Ahmad, H.; Ahmad, B.; Azam, S.

    2014-01-01

    Plants have been shown to possess a great potential to benefit mankind. Extracts from plants that have antiglycation and antioxidation abilities can be of great therapeutic value in reducing complication of diabetes and slowing down aging. Advanced glycation end-products (AGE's) formation due to non-enzymatic glycation and oxidative stress has been demonstrated in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications and aging processes. In this study we investigated the antiglycation and antioxidation potential of methanolic extracts of Berberis lyceum and Terminalia chebula. Results indicated that the methanolic extract of B. lyceum had more antiglycation ability with a Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC50) of 123 meu g/mL as compared to the MIC50 of 110 meu g/ml of T. chebula. While the results of antioxidation assay showed that T. chebula has more antioxidation potential than B. lyceum. T. chebula had 46.55, 35.01 and 32.81% antioxidation potential at 0.5 mg, 0.25 mg and 0.125 mg respectively as compared to the 16.53, 16.09 and 15.10 % oxidation inhibition at same mass values by B. lycium. (author)

  16. Terminalia Chebula provides protection against dual modes of necroptotic and apoptotic cell death upon death receptor ligation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yoonjung; Byun, Hee Sun; Seok, Jeong Ho; Park, Kyeong Ah; Won, Minho; Seo, Wonhyoung; Lee, So-Ra; Kang, Kidong; Sohn, Kyung-Cheol; Lee, Ill Young; Kim, Hyeong-Geug; Son, Chang Gue; Shen, Han-Ming; Hur, Gang Min

    2016-04-27

    Death receptor (DR) ligation elicits two different modes of cell death (necroptosis and apoptosis) depending on the cellular context. By screening a plant extract library from cells undergoing necroptosis or apoptosis, we identified a water extract of Terminalia chebula (WETC) as a novel and potent dual inhibitor of DR-mediated cell death. Investigation of the underlying mechanisms of its anti-necroptotic and anti-apoptotic action revealed that WETC or its constituents (e.g., gallic acid) protected against tumor necrosis factor-induced necroptosis via the suppression of TNF-induced ROS without affecting the upstream signaling events. Surprisingly, WETC also provided protection against DR-mediated apoptosis by inhibition of the caspase cascade. Furthermore, it activated the autophagy pathway via suppression of mTOR. Of the WETC constituents, punicalagin and geraniin appeared to possess the most potent anti-apoptotic and autophagy activation effect. Importantly, blockage of autophagy with pharmacological inhibitors or genetic silencing of Atg5 selectively abolished the anti-apoptotic function of WETC. These results suggest that WETC protects against dual modes of cell death upon DR ligation. Therefore, WETC might serve as a potential treatment for diseases characterized by aberrantly sensitized apoptotic or non-apoptotic signaling cascades.

  17. Hepatoprotective Effect of Terminalia chebula against t-BHP-Induced Acute Liver Injury in C57/BL6 Mice

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    Min-Kyung Choi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to identify the hepatoprotective effects of Terminalia chebula water extract (TCW and its corresponding pharmacological actions using C57/BL6 mice model of tert-butylhydroperoxide-(t-BHP- induced acute liver injury. Mice were orally administered with TCW (0, 50, 100, or 200 mg/kg or gallic acid (100 mg/kg for 5 days before t-BHP (2.5 mM/kg injection. Liver enzymes, histopathology, oxidative stress parameters, antioxidant components, and inflammatory cytokines were examined 18 h after t-BHP injection. t-BHP injection caused dramatic elevation of serum AST, ALT, and LDH level, while TCW pretreatment notably attenuated these elevations. Inflammatory cytokines including TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 were notably increased in hepatic tissues, and then these were efficiently attenuated by TCW pretreatment. t-BHP injection notably increased malondialdehyde, total reactive oxygen species, and nitric oxide in the liver tissue, while it markedly dropped the antioxidant activities including total antioxidant capacity, total glutathione contents, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase. TCW pretreatment remarkably ameliorated these alterations, and these effects were relevant to gene expressions. Histopathological examinations supported the above findings. Collectively, these findings well prove that TCW beneficially prevents acute and severe liver injury and clarify its corresponding mechanisms involved in the inhibition of oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines.

  18. Atividade microbiana de solo e serapilheira em áreas povoadas com Pinus elliottii e Terminalia ivorensis Microbial activity of soil and litter in areas with forest stands of Pinus elliottii e Terminalia ivorensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Mundstock Xavier de Carvalho

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil, as espécies Pinus elliottii e Terminalia ivorensis vêm sendo indicadas para reflorestamento. No entanto, pouco se sabe sobre as características ecológicas destas florestas, o ciclo de nutrientes e suas conseqüências sobre a produtividade e sustentabilidade sob condições tropicais. Visando melhor compreender a dinâmica do C nestes ecossistemas, objetivou-se neste trabalho avaliar a atividade microbiana do solo, serapilheira e da mistura solo + serapilheira em povoamentos florestais de P. elliottii e T. ivorensis. Amostras de solos e serapilheira foram incubadas e a atividade microbiana avaliada por meio da evolução de CO2. Ao final da incubação, a respiração acumulada foi superior para a serapilheira de T. ivorensis. Os demais substratos com serapilheira não diferiram entre si, mas diferiram do solo sob T. ivorensis, que, por sua vez, diferiu do solo sob P. elliottii. Nas condições testadas, a incorporação de solo à serapilheira, bem como a incorporação alternada de solo de um povoamento à serapilheira de outro, não promoveu aumentos significativos na respiração da serapilheira, mostrando que as características químicas da própria serapilheira alteram mais fortemente sua velocidade de degradação que as características químicas e microbianas do solo onde é incorporada.In Brazil, the species Pinus elliottii and Terminalia ivorensis are being recommended for reforestation. However, little is known about the ecological characteristics of such forests, the nutrient cycle and possible consequences on yields and sustainability under tropical conditions. For a better understanding of the C dynamic in these ecosystems, this study aimed to evaluate the microbial activity of soil, litter, and the mixture of soil + litter in forest stands of P. elliottii and T. ivorensis. Samples of soil, litter and mixture were incubated and the microbial activity was evaluated on the basis of CO2 released. At the end of

  19. Intracellular and membrane-damaging activities of methyl gallate isolated from Terminalia chebula against multidrug-resistant Shigella spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharyya, Saurabh; Sarkar, Prodipta; Saha, Dhira R; Patra, Amarendra; Ramamurthy, T; Bag, Prasanta K

    2015-08-01

    Shigella spp. (Shigella dysenteriae, Shigella flexneri, Shigella boydii and Shigella sonnei) cause bacillary dysentery (shigellosis), which is characterized by bloody mucous diarrhoea. Although a variety of antibiotics have been effective for treatment of shigellosis, options are becoming limited due to globally emerging drug resistance. In the present study, in vitro antibacterial activity of methyl gallate (MG) isolated from Terminalia chebula was determined by performing MIC, minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) and time-kill kinetic studies. Bacterial membrane-damaging activity of MG was determined by membrane perturbation and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Cellular drug accumulation, cell infection and assessment of intracellular activities of MG and reference antibiotics were performed using HeLa cell cultures. The bactericidal activity of MG against multidrug-resistant (MDR) Shigella spp. in comparison with other commonly used drugs including fluoroquinolone was demonstrated here. TEM findings in the present study revealed that MG caused the total disintegration of inner and outer membranes, and leakage of the cytoplasmic contents of S. dysenteriae. The level of accumulation of MG and tetracycline in HeLa cells incubated for 24  h was relatively higher than that of ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid (ratio of intracellular concentration/extracellular concentration of antibiotic for MG and tetracycline>ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid). The viable number of intracellular S. dysenteriae was decreased in a time-dependent manner in the presence of MG (4 × MBC) and reduced to zero within 20  h. The significant intracellular activities of MG suggested that it could potentially be used as an effective antibacterial agent for the treatment of severe infections caused by MDR Shigella spp.

  20. Quercus infectoria and Terminalia chebula decrease melanin content and tyrosinase activity in B16/F10 cell lines

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    Akram Jamshidzadeh

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Context: One of the most complained skin cares in ethnic skin like Asian women is hyperpigmentation, and lightening preparations have been long-standing desired. Due to the side effects of current drugs, medicinal plants have attracted more attentions as a source of novel drugs. Mazo (Quercus infectoria galls and Terminalia chebula fruits have been suggested in Persian Traditional Medicine as a safe treatment for hyperpigmentation. Aims: To evaluate the cytotoxicity and the effect on melanin synthesis in B16/F10 melanoma of Q. infectoria and T. chebula extracts. Methods: After collection and scientific authentication, plants were extracted by maceration method with methanol and were standardized based on total phenolic content. MTT assay and colorimetric method were used for cytotoxicity and determination of melanin content and tyrosinase activity in B16/F10 cells, respectively. Kojic acid was used as a reference compound. Results: Total phenolic content of Q. infectoria and T. chebula was determined as 287.34 ± 4.21 and 172.61 ± 8.67 mg gallic acid equivalent/g dried extract, respectively. Both plants decreased cell viability at 100 µg/mL and significantly reduced intercellular melanin to 66.25% and 71.1%, respectively in comparison to kojic acid (56.63% at 50 µg/mL. In the same concentration, 65.7% and 71.2% tyrosinase activity was inhibited by Q. infectoria and T. chebula, which significantly were different from control (p<0.001. Conclusions: These findings suggest that both plants especially Q. infectoria could inhibit melanogenesis in non-toxic concentrations and would be a good candidate for further studies.

  1. The effect of thermal processing on protein quality and free amino acid profile of Terminalia catappa (Indian Almond) seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adu, O B; Ogundeko, T O; Ogunrinola, O O; Saibu, G M; Elemo, B O

    2015-07-01

    The study examined the effect of various processing methods- boiling, drying and roasting- on the in vitro and in vivo protein digestibility and free amino acid profiles of Terminalia catappa seed. Moisture and crude protein of the various samples were determined. In vitro protein digestibility was determined after pepsin digestion. For the in vivo experiment, defatted T. catappa based diet was fed to 3 weeks old Wistar rats for 4 weeks and compared with animals maintained on casein based and nitrogen- free diets. The biological value (BV), net protein utilisation (NPU) and protein efficiency ratio (PER) of the diets were determined. Free amino acid composition was carried out using thin layer chromatography. Moisture was highest in the boiled T. catappa seed (8.30 ± 0.00 %). The raw, roasted and dried seeds had 5.55 ± 0.07, 3.88 ± 0.22 and 3.75 ± 0.07 % respectively. Crude protein was 19.19, 18.89, 17.62 and 16.36 % in the dried, roasted, boiled and raw seeds respectively. Roasted T. catappa seed had the highest in vitro protein digestibility with 37.52 %, while the dried, boiled and raw samples had digestibility values of 27.57, 27.07 and 24.45 % respectively. All nine essential amino acids were present in T. catappa in high concentrations except methionine and tryptophan. Glutamate was present in the highest concentration. Also, free amino acids were higher in the processed seeds compared to the raw seed. Animals fed T. catappa diet compared favourably with the casein group, thus indicating that the protein is of good quality.

  2. Terminalia pallida fruit ethanolic extract ameliorates lipids, lipoproteins, lipid metabolism marker enzymes and paraoxonase in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarcted rats

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    Althaf Hussain Shaik

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of Terminalia pallida fruit ethanolic extract (TpFE on lipids, lipoproteins, lipid metabolism marker enzymes and paraoxonase (PON in isoproterenol (ISO-induced myocardial infarcted rats. PON is an excellent serum antioxidant enzyme which involves in the protection of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C from the process of oxidation for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. ISO caused a significant increase in the concentration of total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-C, very low density lipoprotein cholesterol and lipid peroxidation whereas significant decrease in the concentration of high density lipoprotein cholesterol. ISO administration also significantly decreased the activities of lecithin cholesterol acyl transferase, PON and lipoprotein lipase whereas significantly increased the activity of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme-A reductase. Oral pretreatment of TpFE at doses 100, 300 and 500 mg/kg body weight (bw and gallic acid (15 mg/kg bw for 30 days challenged with concurrent injection of ISO (85 mg/kg bw on 29th and 30th day significantly attenuated these alterations and restored the levels of lipids, lipoproteins and the activities of lipid metabolizing enzymes. Also TpFE significantly elevated the serum antioxidant enzyme PON. This is the first report revealed that pretreatment with TPFE ameliorated lipid metabolic marker enzymes and increased the antioxidant PON in ISO treated male albino Wistar rats. Keywords: Terminalia pallida fruit, Gallic acid, Isoproterenol, Lipid metabolism marker enzymes, Paraoxonase, Myocardial infarction

  3. Terminalia chebula Fructus Inhibits Migration and Proliferation of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells and Production of Inflammatory Mediators in RAW 264.7

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    Hyun-Ho Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and neointima formation after angioplasty involves vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs migration and proliferation followed by inflammatory responses mediated by recruited macrophages in the neointima. Terminalia chebula is widely used traditional medicine in Asia for its beneficial effects against cancer, diabetes, and bacterial infection. The study was designed to determine whether Terminalia chebula fructus water extract (TFW suppresses VSMC migration and proliferation and inflammatory mediators production in macrophage (RAW 264.7. Our results showed that TFW possessed strong antioxidative effects in 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH scavenging and lipid peroxidation assays. In addition, TFW reduced nitric oxide (NO production, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 expression in RAW 264.7 cells. Also, TFW inhibited platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-BB induced VSMC migration as determined by wound healing and Boyden chamber assays. The antimigratory effect of TFW was due to its inhibitory effect on metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9 expression, focal adhesion kinase (FAK activation, and Rho-family of small GTPases (Cdc42 and RhoA expression in VSMCs. Furthermore, TFW suppressed PDGF-BB induced VSMC proliferation by downregulation of mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs signaling molecules. These results suggest that TFW could be a beneficial resource in the prevention of atherosclerosis.

  4. Effect of Terminalia arjuna bark powder on some diagnostic enzymes in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis ingesting arsenic contaminated water and fodder

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    Subrat Kumar Dash

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study investigated the effect of Terminalia arjuna bark powder on some diagnostic enzymes related to hepatic and muscle function in buffaloes ingesting arsenic contaminated water and fodder in an arsenic affected area. Materials and Methods: A total of 25 samples of tube well water, fodder and buffalo blood were collected through a survey from arsenic contaminated areas and 20 samples from the uncontaminated, i.e., control areas of Ludhiana district, Punjab for determination of arsenic concentration. A total of 30 buffaloes (selected from above 45 animals were divided into three groups of 10 each on the basis of blood arsenic level, viz., control group: Clinically healthy buffaloes from the uncontaminated area with the blood arsenic level within the normal limit (0-0.05 ppm; Arsenic exposed group: Buffaloes exposed to arsenic through intake of contaminated water and fodder in the arsenic affected area with the blood arsenic level above the normal limit of 0-0.05 ppm; treatment group: Arsenic exposed buffaloes treated with T. arjuna bark powder orally at 42 mg/kg b.w. OD for 30 days. Single blood samples were collected from control and arsenic exposed groups. Blood samples from the treatment group were collected on 0, 15th, and 30th day of treatment along with one sample on the 45th day, i.e., after withdrawal of treatment. Activities of alkaline phosphatase (ALP, gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, and creatine kinase (CK were assayed in plasma. Results: Significantly (p<0.05 higher arsenic concentration was observed in tube well water, fodder and buffalo blood samples collected from the arsenic contaminated area. A significant positive correlation was noticed between arsenic concentrations of tube well water, fodder and untreated buffalo blood samples, collected from the arsenic affected area. ALP, GGT, LDH, and CK activities were significantly (p<0.05 increased in the arsenic exposed buffaloes compared to

  5. The Effects of Terminalia catappa L. Leaves Extract on the Water Quality Properties, Survival and Blood Profile of Ornamental fish (Betta sp Cultured

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    Rudy Agung Nugroho

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to determine the phytochemicals content of Terminalia catappa leaves extract (TCL and its effects on the survival and blood profiles of ornamental fish (Betta sp Ninety fish were randomly assigned into six triplicates groups and reared in various concentration of TCL: 0 (control, 125, 250, 375, 500, 625 ppm for 30 days. Temperature, Dissolve oxygen (DO, and pH were monitored during the trial. After 30 days, survival, Red Blood Cells (RBC, White Blood Cells (WBC, haemoglobin (Hb, lymphocyte, and total protein serum (TPS were analyzed. Based on the phytochemicals test, saponin, triterpenoid, quinon, phenolic, tannin, and flavonoid were detected on the TCL. Temperature and DO were not affected by any concentration of TCL. The lowest pH (5.05 was found in fish medium immersed with 625 ppm of TCL. Adding TCL above 375 ppm resulted in significantly higher survival, RBC, and Hb. The highest WBC was found in fish immersed with 625 ppm whereas the lowest lymphocyte was found in fish immersed with 375 of TCL. However, immersing any various concentration of TCL did not affect on the TPS. In summary, immersing TCL above 375 ppm is beneficial to enhance survival, RBC, WBC, and Hb of Betta sp.How to CiteNugroho, R. A., Manurung, H., Saraswati, D., Ladyescha, D. & Nur, F. M. (2016. The Effects of Terminalia catappa L. Leaves Extract on the Water Quality Properties, Survival and Blood Profile of Ornamental fish (Betta sp Cultured. Biosaintifika: Journal of Biology & Biology Education, 8(2, 240-247.

  6. TERMINALIA SUPERBA MINALIA SUPERBA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    2010-04-01

    Apr 1, 2010 ... was found to be the best distribution model for bo coefficients of variation of .... s never updated, from the time it was .... 2.4 12% moisture content adjusted material properties ... assumed probability distribution functions of the.

  7. ( Combretaceae ) on gastro intestinal smooth muscle

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    plague in the Gambia locally named “Alibain”, claimed many lives but a lot of ... days and then ground into a fine powder using pestle and mortar. .... Modern. Pharmacology with Clinical Applications. Fifth edition, Pergamon press. New York, Pp.93, 109-. 113. Galvez, J., Zarzuelo, A. and Crespo, M.E. (1991):. Antidiarrhoea ...

  8. Laguncularia recemosa (L.) Gaertner f. (Family Combretaceae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leaves and stems contain flavonoids: apigenin, kaempferol, tricin, iso-orientin and quercetin. Inflorescence is a panicle. The plant fruits all the year round; fruits are greenish yellow, leathery velvety, ribbed longitudinally, crowned by persistent calyx teeth and contains an elongated seed. The plant is well endowed with ...

  9. Laguncularia recemosa (L.) Gaertner f. (Family Combretaceae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    jen

    ABSTRACT: The morphology, phytochemistry, ecology and distribution of Laguncularia racemosa (L.) Gaertner f., (basionym: Conocarpus racemosa L.), in the Niger Delta area was investigated in this study. The data showed that Laguncularia racemosa is a small tree or shrub 30 cm in diameter and about 6 m in height,.

  10. Simultaneous determination and characterization of tannins and triterpene saponins from the fruits of various species of Terminalia and Phyllantus emblica using a UHPLC-UV-MS method: application to triphala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avula, Bharathi; Wang, Yan-Hong; Wang, Mei; Shen, Yun-Heng; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2013-01-01

    Terminalia species are a rich source of tannins. Many preparations of these species are used in traditional medicine and have many different ethnobotanical applications. A simple UHPLC method was developed for the simultaneous analysis of such hydrolysable tannins and triterpene saponins from the fruit rinds of different species of Terminalia (T. chebula, T. arjuna, T. bellirica) and Phyllantus emblica. A separation by LC was achieved using a reversed-phase column and a water/acetonitrile mobile phase, both containing formic acid, using a gradient system and a temperature of 40°C. Eight hydrolysable tannins (gallic acid, gallic acid methyl ester, corilagin, chebulagic acid, 1,2,3,6-tetra-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose, ellagic acid, chebulinic acid, and 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose) and six triterpene saponins (arjunglucoside-I, arjunglucoside-III, chebuloside II, bellericoside, arjunetin, and arjunglucoside-II) could be separated within 20 minutes. The wavelength used for detection with the diode array detector was 254 and 275 nm for tannins and 205 nm for triterpene saponins. The method was validated for linearity, repeatability, limits of detection, and limits of quantification. The developed method is economical, fast, and especially suitable for quality control analysis of tannins and triterpene saponins in various plant samples and commercial products of Terminalia. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Terminalia catappa L. (tropical almond) ofCombretaceae is a large handsome deciduous tree which branches in horizontal whorls. Leaves are simple and large which turn red before falling. Flowers are small, both bisexual and male, are borne in spike inflorescences. Fruits are ellipsoidal, slightly bilaterally compressed ...

  12. Protective effect of methanol-methylene chloride extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: Terminalia glaucescens (Combretaceae) is traditionally used in Cameroon in the treatment of diabetes. The anti-hyperglycemic effect of the methanol-methylene chloride extract of the leaves of this plant was investigated in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. Methods: Diabetes was induced in mice by a ...

  13. Phytochemical and anti-inflammatory studies of ethanol extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Terminalia macroptera Guill. & Perr. (Combretaceae) is a flowering plant used traditionally for the treatment of various disease conditions including hepatitis, dysentery, piles, edema, fever, gastritis, as aphrodisiac, applied to sprains and as a cleanser for washing sores. The aim of the work was to evaluate the ...

  14. Terminalia catappa Exerts Antimetastatic Effects on Hepatocellular Carcinoma through Transcriptional Inhibition of Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 by Modulating NF-κB and AP-1 Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Bin Yeh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available High mortality and morbidity rates for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC in Taiwan primarily result from uncontrolled tumor metastasis. Previous studies have identified that Terminalia catappa leaf extracts (TCE exert hepatoprotective, antioxidative, antiinflammatory, anticancer, and antimetastatic activities. However, the effects of TCE on HCC and the underlying molecular mechanisms of its activities have yet to be fully elucidated. The present study's findings demonstrate that TCE concentration dependently inhibits human HCC migration/invasion. Zymographic and western blot analyses revealed that TCE inhibited the activities and expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9. Assessment of mRNA levels, using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR and real-time PCR, and promoter assays confirmed the inhibitory effects of TCE on MMP-9 expression in HCC cells. The inhibitory effects of TCE on MMP-9 proceeded by upregulating tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1, as well as suppressing nuclear translocation and DNA binding activity of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB and activating protein-1 (AP-1 on the MMP-9 promoter in Huh7 cells. In conclusion, TCE inhibits MMP-9 expression and HCC cell metastasis and, thus, has potential use as a chemopreventive agent. Its inhibitory effects are associated with downregulation of the binding activities of the transcription factors NF-κB and AP-1.

  15. Effect of tanniniferous Terminalia chebula extract on rumen biohydrogenation, ∆(9)-desaturase activity, CLA content and fatty acid composition in longissimus dorsi muscle of kids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Madhu Suman; Tyagi, A; Hossain, Sk Asraf; Tyagi, A K

    2012-03-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid, a fatty acid found in milk fat and ruminant meat is one of the functional food components. Modifying fatty acid composition so as to increase CLA and other beneficial PUFA/MUFA level and reducing SFA levels might be a key to enhance the neutraceutical and therapeutic value of ruminant-derived food products. In the present experiment, the effect of supplementation of polyphenol rich Terminalia chebula plant extract at different concentrations (1.06g/kg and 3.18g/kg of body weight in T1 and T2 groups, respectively) was investigated on fatty acid composition of rumen fluid, plasma, intramuscular fat and Δ9-desaturase activity in longissimus dorsi muscle of crossbred kids. Total MUFA and PUFA content in muscle were enhanced by 25 and 35%, respectively, whereas SFA was reduced by 20% thereby improving the desaturation index. Δ9-desaturase activity also increased by 47% resulting in an enhancement of total CLA content (58.73%) in muscle. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, PHYSICO-CHEMICAL AND ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES OF OILS EXTRACTED BY TRADITIONAL AND HEXANE METHODS FROM TERMINALIA CATAPPA L. KERNELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bérenger A. L. Ladele

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The comparative study of physico-chemical characteristics of Terminalia catappa L. kernel oils extracted by two methods has been done. The oil yields were 28.13 % and 61.78 % respectively for traditional and hexane methods and the fatty acid profiles showed palmitic acid (40.79 % and 40.03 % respectively oleic acid (25.55 % and 26.09 % respectively, linoleic acid (26.72 % and 26.64 % respectively and stearic acid (4.35 % and 4.49 % respectively as major components. The oils extracted by the two ways showed similar physico-chemical properties, good calorific values and non-toxicity against Artemia salina L. Oil obtained by traditional method exhibited more antioxidant capacity (1.40 than the hexane one (0.15. This traditional method helps to extract 45 % of the total oil. It gives oil free of organic solvent, with good physico-chemical properties that could be useful as edible oil and for industrial applications.

  17. An in vitro analysis of the total phenolic content, antioxidant power, physical, physicochemical, and chemical composition of Terminalia Catappa Linn fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Rodrigues Marques

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the antioxidant, total phenolic, and physicochemical properties of in vitro Terminalia Catappa Linn (locally called castanhola using the DPPH assay. The castanhola fruits had an average weight of 19.60 ± 0.00 g, combining shell, pulp, and seed weight, and a soluble solids content of 8 °Brix. The chemical composition was determined with predominance of carbohydrates (76,88 ± 0,58%.The titration method was used to determine Vitamin C content using 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol (DCFI, known as reactive Tillmans resulting in no significant levels. Aqueous extracts of castanhola pulp showed a higher concentration of phenolics, 244.33 ± 18.86 GAE.g-1 of fruit, and alcoholic extracts, 142.84 ± 2.09 GAE.g-1 of fruit. EC50 values of the aqueous extract showed a greater ability to scavenge free radicals than the alcoholic extracts. The fruit had a significant content of phenolic compounds and high antioxidant capacity.

  18. An Efficient Protocol for Preparation of Gallic Acid from Terminalia bellirica (Gaertn.) Roxb by Combination of Macroporous Resin and Preparative High-Performance Liquid Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Denglang; Chen, Tao; Chen, Chen; Li, Hongmei; Liu, Yongling; Li, Yulin

    2016-08-01

    In this article, macroporous resin column chromatography and preparative high-performance liquid chromatography were applied for preparation of gallic acid from Terminalia bellirica (Gaertn.) Roxb. In the first step, six kinds of resins were investigated by adsorption and desorption tests and AB-8 macroporous resin was selected for the enrichment of gallic acid. As a result, 20 g of gallic acid at a purity of 71% could be separated from 100 g of crude extract in which the content of gallic acid was 16.7% and the recovery of gallic acid reached 85.0%. In the second step, preparative high-performance liquid chromatography was selected to purify gallic acid. As a result, 640 mg of gallic acid at a purity of 99.1% was obtained from 1 g of sample in 35 min. The results demonstrated that macroporous resin coupled with preparative high-performance liquid chromatography was suitable for preparation of gallic acid from T. bellirica (Gaertn.) Roxb. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Trace Element Determination and Cardioprotection of Terminalia pallida Fruit Ethanolic Extract in Isoproterenol Induced Myocardial Infarcted Rats by ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althaf Hussain, Shaik; Kareem, Mohammed Abdul; Rasool, Shaik Nayab; Al Omar, Suliman Yousef; Saleh, Alwasel; Al-Fwuaires, Manal Abdulrahman; Daddam, Jayasimha Rayalu; Devi, Kodidhela Lakshmi

    2018-01-01

    The trace elements and minerals in Terminalia pallida fruit ethanolic extract (TpFE) were determined by the instrument inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and the cardioprotection of TpFE against isoproterenol (ISO)-administered rats was studied. Rats were pretreated with TpFE (100, 300, and 500 mg/kg bw) for 30 days, with concurrent administration of ISO (85 mg/kg bw) for two consecutive days. The levels of trace elements and minerals in TpFE were below the permitted limits of World Health Organization standards. ISO administration significantly increased the heart weight and cardiac marker enzymes in serum, xanthine oxidase, sodium, and calcium in the heart, whereas significantly decreased body weight, reduced glutathione, glutathione-S-transferase, superoxide dismutase, and potassium in the heart. Oral pretreatment of TpFE significantly prevented the ISO-induced alterations. This is the first report that revealed the determination of trace elements and mineral nutrients of TpFE by ICP-MS which plays a principal role in the herbal drug discovery for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

  20. Female-biased attraction of Oriental fruit fly, bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), to a blend of host fruit volatiles from Terminalia catappa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siderhurst, Matthew S; Jang, Eric B

    2006-11-01

    Coupled gas chromatography-electroantennogram detection (GC-EAD) analysis of volatiles from tropical almond fruit, Terminalia catappa L., revealed 22 compounds that were detected by antennae of oriental fruit fly females, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel). Both solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and Porapak Q were used for sampling odors in fruit headspace, with SPME collections producing larger EAD responses from a greater number of compounds. Geranyl acetate and methyl eugenol elicited the largest EAD responses. A synthetic blend containing SPME collected, EAD stimulatory compounds showed female-biased attraction in laboratory wind tunnel bioassays, but heavily male-biased trap captures in a larger olfactometer arena. A nine-component subset of compounds eliciting relatively small EAD responses (EAD minor) and consisting of equal parts ethanol, ethyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate, hexyl acetate, linalyl acetate, ethyl nonanate, nonyl acetate, ethyl cinnamate, and (E)-beta-farnesene, attracted mainly females. This EAD minor blend was as attractive to females and much less attractive to males when compared to torula yeast in field cage experiments using glass McPhail traps. Similar results were obtained with outdoor rotating olfactometer tests in which the EAD minor blend was almost completely inactive for males.

  1. GC-MS analysis of leaf extracts ofTerminalia macroptera andDioclea relfexa, two medicinal plants used for the treatment of respiratory tract disorders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Theresa Ibibia Edewor; Nimotalai Olabisi Kazeem; Stephen Oluwagbemiga Owa

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the phytochemicals that are present in two medicinal plants which are used for the treatment of respiratory tract infections by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer. Methods: The plant leaves were extracted withn-hexane and methanol separately. Both extracts were analyzed for present phytochemicals using the method described by Harborne, 1985 while only methanol extracts were subjected to gas chromatography-mass spectrometer analysis. Results:Phytochemical screening of the methanolic extracts ofTerminalia macroptera (T. macroptera) revealed the presence of glycosides, tannins, flavonoids, saponins and steroids while that ofDioclea reflexa (D. reflexa) showed the presence of flavonoids, saponins and steroids. Then-hexane extracts were devoid of the screened phytochemicals. Twelve and twenty-five compounds were identified in the leaves ofT. macroptera andD. reflexa respectively. These compounds were fatty acids, fatty acid esters, other esters, heterocyclics and phenolics. The most abundant compound inT. macroptera was benzenetriol (53.30%) while the predominant compounds inD. reflexa were dodecanoic acid, methyl ester (15.31%), 5, 5, 8a-trimethyl-3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 8a-hexahydro-2H-chromene (9.73%), 10-octadecenoic acid, methyl ester and 2-hexadecanoic acid, methyl ester (8.95%). Benzofuran, 2, 3-dihydro, 3, 7, 11, 15-tetramethyl-2-hexadecen-1-ol and hexadecanoic acid, methyl ester were common in both plant extracts. The antimicrobial properties of the leaves of these plants could be responsible for their use in the treatment of respiratory tract infections. Conclusions:Some of the identified phytochemicals in the plant leaves are responsible for its use in the treatment of respiratory tract infections.

  2. Sodium metabisulfite–induced polymerization of sickle cell hemoglobin incubated in the extracts of three medicinal plants (Anacardium occidentale, Psidium guajava, and Terminalia catappa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikezie, Paul Chidoka

    2011-01-01

    Background: The exploitation and utilization of vast varieties of herbal extracts may serve as alternative measures to deter aggregation of deoxygenated sickle cell hemoglobin (deoxyHbS) molecules. Objective: The present in vitro study ascertained the capacity of three medicinal plants, namely, Anacardium occidentale, Psidium guajava, and Terminalia catappa, to alter polymerization of HbS. Materials and Methods: Spectrophotometric method was used to monitor the level of polymerization of hemolysate HbS molecules treated with sodium metabisulfite (Na2 S2 O5) at a regular interval of 30 s for a period of 180 s in the presence of separate aqueous extracts of A. occidentale, P. guajava, and T. catappa. At time intervals of 30 s, the level of polymerization was expressed as percentage of absorbance relative to the control sample at the 180th s. Results: Although extracts of the three medicinal plants caused significant (P guajava exhibited the highest capacity to reduced polymerization of deoxyHbS molecules. Whereas at t > 60 s, extract concentration of 400 mg% of A. occidentale activated polymerization of deoxyHbS molecules by 6.23±1.34, 14.53±1.67, 21.15±1.89, and 24.42±1.09%, 800 mg% of T. catappa at t > 30 s gave values of 2.50±1.93, 5.09±1.96, 10.00±0.99, 15.38±1.33, and 17.31±0.97%. Conclusion: The capacity of the three medicinal plants to interfere with polymerization of deoxyHbS molecules depended on the duration of incubation and concentration of the extracts. PMID:21716622

  3. Effectiveness of Mouthrinse formulated from Aqueous Extract of Terminalia chebula on Salivary Streptococcus mutans Count and pH among 8- to 12-year-old School Children of Karnataka: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palit, Madhuchanda; Hegde, Sundeep K; Bhat, Sham S

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anticar-iogenic efficacy of hot and cold aqueous extracts of Terminalia chebula against Streptococcus mutans as an oral rinse and also to discover the acceptability of the mouthwash in children. Sixty children between 8 and 12 years with high caries risk were selected. 10% concentration of hot and cold aqueous extracts were prepared. Children were randomly divided into extract and control group. Baseline salivary samples were taken, and the samples were re-collected at 10, 60, and 90 minutes interval after rinsing. Microbial and pH analysis were done. An acceptability questionnaire was filled. Tukey's multiple comparison test. The results show statistically significant difference in S. mutans counts at 10, 60, and 90 minutes interval when compared with negative control. However, when the hot and cold extracts were compared, there was no significant difference. Acceptability questionnaire showed 65 to 75% overall acceptability for both types of extract. Results of this study showed that both types of aqueous extract of T. chebula may be used as potential anticariogenic mouthwash with acceptable taste in children. Palit MC, Hegde SK, Bhat SS. Effectiveness of Mouthrinse formulated from Aqueous Extract of Terminalia chebula on Salivary Streptococcus mutans Count and pH among 8- to 12-year-old School Children of Karnataka: A Randomized Clinical Trial. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(4):349-354.

  4. LC-MS/MS Tandem Mass Spectrometry for Analysis of Phenolic Compounds and Pentacyclic Triterpenes in Antifungal Extracts of Terminalia brownii (Fresen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enass Y. A. Salih

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Decoctions and macerations of the stem bark and wood of Terminalia brownii Fresen. are used in traditional medicine for fungal infections and as fungicides on field crops and in traditional granaries in Sudan. In addition, T. brownii water extracts are commonly used as sprays for protecting wooden houses and furniture. Therefore, using agar disc diffusion and macrodilution methods, eight extracts of various polarities from the stem wood and bark were screened for their growth-inhibitory effects against filamentous fungi commonly causing fruit, vegetable, grain and wood decay, as well as infections in the immunocompromised host. Ethyl acetate extracts of the stem wood and bark gave the best antifungal activities, with MIC values of 250 µg/mL against Nattrassia mangiferae and Fusarium verticillioides, and 500 µg/mL against Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus. Aqueous extracts gave almost as potent effects as the ethyl acetate extracts against the Aspergillus and Fusarium strains, and were slightly more active than the ethyl acetate extracts against Nattrassia mangiferae. Thin layer chromatography, RP-HPLC-DAD and tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS, were employed to identify the chemical constituents in the ethyl acetate fractions of the stem bark and wood. The stem bark and wood were found to have a similar qualitative composition of polyphenols and triterpenoids, but differed quantitatively from each other. The stilbene derivatives, cis- (3 and trans- resveratrol-3-O-β-galloylglucoside (4, were identified for the first time in T. brownii. Moreover, methyl-(S-flavogallonate (5, quercetin-7-β-O-di-glucoside (8, quercetin-7-O-galloyl-glucoside (10, naringenin-4′-methoxy-7-pyranoside (7, 5,6-dihydroxy-3′,4′,7-tri-methoxy flavone (12, gallagic acid dilactone (terminalin (6, a corilagin derivative (9 and two oleanane type triterpenoids (1 and (2 were characterized. The flavonoids, a corilagin derivative and terminalin, have not been

  5. A controlled study to investigate anti-diarrhoeal effect of the stem-bark fractions of Terminalia avicennioides in laboratory animal models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed M. Suleiman

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to the shortcomings associated with modern synthetic antidiarrhoeal drugs, it is important to find newer, safer and cheaper antidiarrhoeal agents from natural sources. The study was conducted to evaluate the anti-diarrhoeal activity of the fractions of the stem-bark of Terminalia avicennioides in laboratory animal models. The effect of different concentrations (1.0 × 10−3, 2.0 × 10−3, 4.0 × 10−3 and 8.0 × 10−3 mg/mL of the aqueous methanol (AMF, ethyl acetate (EAF and hexane (HXF fractions of T. avicennioides were tested against spontaneous and acetylcholine-induced contractions of rabbit jejunum as well as on histamine-induced contraction of guinea pig ileum. Similarly, the effects of the AMF on gastro-intestinal transit time, castor oil-induced diarrhoea and castor oil-induced enteropooling were evaluated. The AMF, EAF and HXF at concentrations of 1.0 × 10−3, 2.0 × 10−3, 4.0 × 10−3 and 8.0 × 10−3 mg/mL attenuated the contractile effects of both the spontaneous and acetylcholine-induced contractions of rabbit jejunum and that of histamine-induced contraction of guinea pig ileum in a concentration-dependent manner. The AMF at doses of 200, 300 and 500 mg/kg produced significant (p < 0.05 reductions in gastrointestinal transit time of charcoal and incidence of castor oil-induced diarrhoea in mice relative to the untreated control. Similarly, at doses of 300 and 500 mg/kg, AMF significantly (p < 0.05 reduced the weight and volume of intestinal fluid in the treated mice when compared to the untreated animals. The results of this study showed that the stem-bark of T. avicennioides possesses spasmolytic effect and could be a potential antidiarrhoeal agent. However, detailed pharmacological trials are required to justify the clinical use of the plant for treating diarrhoea.

  6. Estudio preliminar de la biología reproductiva Terminalia oblonga (Surá en la región Huetar Norte, Costa Ria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Arnáez

    Full Text Available Para el proceso de domesticación de especies, es necesario la determinación de los ciclos reproductivos de las especies forestales, especialmente de aquellas que se encuentran en peligro de extinción y que se desean utilizar en proyectos de reforestación. El objetivo fue conocer algunos aspectos del comportamiento fenológico y el desarrollo ontogénico de Terminalia oblonga (surá en la Región Huetar Norte. El trabajo de campo se llevó a cabo de enero de 1996 a diciembre de 1998, en la Región Huetar Norte de Costa Rica, en 4 zonas bioclimáticas diferentes de la Región. En cada sitio se seleccionaron 10 árboles, para un total de 40 individuos observados. Los árboles seleccionados se visitaron cada mes, con el fin de determinar épocas de floración (salida de brotes florales, apertura de la flor, salida del fruto, maduración y la caída de este,dispersión de frutos y semillas, brotadura vegetativa y hojas. Mensualmente, se recopiló información climática, donde se tomó en cuenta: precipitación, temperatura, humedad relativa y brillo solar. Estos datos se emplearon para hacer las correlaciones con los resultados de las diferentes expresiones fenológicas. Se hizo una descripción de las piezas reproductivas y vegetativas, con base en material en fresco y con el apoyode microscopía electrónica de barrido. Además, se hicieron estudios químicos y estructurales del suelo en cada uno de los sitios de estudio. Se observó que la brotadura de las hojas de esta especie se mantiene durante todo el año, siendo mayor en julio y diciembre en la mayoría de las zonas y en algunas ocasiones puede llegar a estar casi ausente. El follaje se mantiene relativamente constante casi todo el año, con muy poca defoliación. La brotadura floral generalmente se observa de octubre a enero, e incluso febrero en algunas zonas. La floración se nota de noviembre a febrero y la maduración de los frutos de diciembre a marzo y hasta en abril en algunas

  7. 2084-IJBCS-Article -Fernique Konan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    Effet antibactérien de l'extrait aqueux de l'écorce de Terminalia glaucescens. Planch ex Benth (Combretaceae) sur la croissance in vitro des ... plantes et 60 à 70% des médicaments antibactériens et anticancéreux sont des substances .... La lecture a été faite par la mesure du diamètre de la zone d'inhibition autour de.

  8. In vitro modulatory effects of Terminalia arjuna, arjunic acid, arjunetin and arjungenin on CYP3A4, CYP2D6 and CYP2C9 enzyme activity in human liver microsomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Varghese

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Terminalia arjuna is a tree having an extensive medicinal potential in cardiovascular disorders. Triterpenoids are mainly responsible for cardiovascular properties. Alcoholic and aqueous bark extracts of T. arjuna, arjunic acid, arjunetin and arjungenin were evaluated for their potential to inhibit CYP3A4, CYP2D6 and CYP2C9 enzymes in human liver microsomes. We have demonstrated that alcoholic and aqueous bark extract of T. arjuna showed potent inhibition of all three enzymes in human liver microsomes with IC50 values less than 50 μg/mL. Arjunic acid, arjunetin and arjungenin did not show significant inhibition of CYP enzymes in human liver microsomes. Enzyme kinetics studies suggested that the extracts of arjuna showed reversible non-competitive inhibition of all the three enzymes in human liver microsomes. Our findings suggest strongly that arjuna extracts significantly inhibit the activity of CYP3A4, CYP2D6 and CYP2C9 enzymes, which is likely to cause clinically significant drug–drug interactions mediated via inhibition of the major CYP isozymes.

  9. In vitro screening of ten Combretaceae plants for antimalarial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    showed statistically significant activity (P<0.05) at the different concentrations used, comparable to chloroquine. Activities .... T. ivorensis methanol extracts) showed higher activity than ..... central nervous system by phase contrast microscopy.

  10. Artemita bicolor Kertész, novo sinônimo de Artemita podexargenteus Enderlein, (Diptera, Stratiomyidae com notas nas terminálias masculina e feminina Artemita bicolor Kertész, new synonym of Artemita podexargenteus Enderlein, (Diptera, Stratiomyidae with notes on male and female terminalia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Ururahy-Rodrigues

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available O gênero de Stratiomyidae, Artemita Walker, 1854 esta representado na região Neotropical por 14 espécies, seis das quais ocorrem no Brasil. Apesar das importantes revisões de KERTÉSZ (1914 e JAMES (1971 o conhecimento sobre a variação morfológica no grupo ainda é rudimentar, principalmente com relação a terminália. Neste trabalho, com base na morfologia da terminália Artemita bicolor Kertész, 1914 é proposta como sinônimo júnior de Artemita podexargenteus Enderlein, 1914 e a última é redescrita.The Stratiomyidae genus Artemita Walker, 1854 is represented in the Neotropical Region by 14 species, 6 of which occur in Brazil. Despite of the important revisions by KERTÉSZ (1914 and JAMES (1971 knowledge of morphological variation within the group is rudimentary, mainly with respect to the terminalia. In this work, Artemita bicolor Kertész, 1914 is proposed as a junior synonym of Artemita podexargenteus Enderlein, 1914 and the latter is redescribed based on terminalia morphology.

  11. Distribuição de diâmetros de um cerradão distrófico no Distrito Federal (DF, Brasil Diametric distribution of a dystrophic cerradão in Distrito Federal, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Silvestre Silva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo avaliou a estrutura diamétrica da reserva biológica do Cerradão (REBIO do Cerradão, a partir da análise das distribuições diamétricas da comunidade e das principais populações, determinadas pelo valor de importância (VI. A relação da distribuição dos indivíduos por classes de diâmetro foi avaliada por análises de regressão e variância. Os valores de “q” e “R²” indicaram que Qualea grandiflora Mart. foi a espécie com distribuição mais balanceada e maior tendência ao equilíbrio, e Terminalia fagifolia Mart. a única que não apresentou curva do tipo J-invertido. O cerradão parece conseguir se restabelecer após eventos fortuitos, mas novas medições precisam ser feitas para a obtenção de conclusões mais contundentes. This study evaluated the diametric structure of the biological reserve of Cerradão (REBIO do Cerradão, from the analysis of the diametric distributions of the community and its main populations, ordered according to the importance value (IV. The individuals distribution ratio by diametric classes were evaluated by regression and variance analysis. The values of “q” and “R²” indicated that Qualea grandiflora Mart. was the species with the most balanced distribution and greater tendency to equilibrium, and Terminalia fagifolia Mart. the only one that did not show the J-reverse shape. The cerradão seems to be able to recover from random events, but new measurements need to be made to permit more robust conclusions.

  12. Eight new species of Oragua Melichar, 1926 (Insecta: Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) from Amazonas State, Brazil, with description of the female terminalia of Oragua jurua Young, 1977, and new records for the genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camisão, Beatriz M; Cavichioli, Rodney R; Takiya, Daniela M

    2014-07-29

    The thirty known species of Oragua are distributed from southern Mexico to Argentina. Seventeen species are recorded from Brazil, but only O. elegantula Young, 1977, O. insipida Young, 1977, and O. jurua Young, 1977 are recorded from Amazonas State. Oragua partitula (Jacobi, 1905) is herein firstly recorded from Brazil, ocurring in Amazonas State. The aim of the study was to describe eight new species of Oragua, to provide a key to males of the species of the genus that are recorded from Amazonas State and to study in detail the female terminalia of these new species. Also, the female of O. jurua Young, 1977 is herein described for the first time. Oragua alerochae sp. nov. has the external color pattern similar to O. bifasciata Cavichioli, 2000, however, the head is darker, the forewings are paler and the stripes are thinner, aedeagus is much more curved with long apical processes, and apex of paraphyses rami are curved. Oragua aurantimaculata sp. nov. is similar externally to O. elegantula and Oragua jau sp. nov. as they share the body brown with three orange maculae on crown and orange maculae on forewings, but it has the aedeagus with shaft enlarged medially with a pair of apical processes curved anteriorly and connective more slender. Oragua bella sp. nov. is dark with orange spots, aedeagus with basal elongated processes extending to the apex of the pygofer, with the basal portion enlarged and narrowing toward the apex. Oragua copiosa sp. nov. is dark with small pale dots all over the body, paraphyses rami are slender and their apices expanded, and styles with hooked apex, extending posteriorly beyond the connective apex. Oragua gracilenta sp. nov. has the external color similar to O. galerula, but it can be distinguished by the brown ground color, absence of two maculae near median line just before posterior margin on pronotum and apex of rami of paraphyses bifurcate and not truncate. Oragua jau sp. nov. has the external color similar to O. elegantula, but

  13. Trypanocidal properties of Terminalia ivorensis A. Chev ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The column fractions of the ethyl acetate fraction gave E.D50 value between 1.98 and 5.46 μg/mL for the very active fractions indicating prospect for the development of potential trypanocidal agent from the plant. Keywords: Terminalis ivorensis, Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiensis, trypanocidal. African Journal of Traditional, ...

  14. Antisecretory and analgesic activities of Terminalia bellerica

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-05-03

    May 3, 2010 ... medicine to treat asthma, cancer, colic, diarrhea, dysuria, headache, hypertension ... mice (20 - 25 g) of either sex and local breed were housed at the animal house of the Aga Khan .... J. Food Drug Anal. 16: 6-14. Koster R ...

  15. Terminalia arjuna, a herbal remedy against environmental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mohammad Sultan Ahmad

    2013-11-23

    Nov 23, 2013 ... environmental carcinogenicity: An in vitro and in vivo study. Mohammad Sultan Ahmad a, ..... IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans. Suppl. ... amazon tree hymeneaepalustris. J Ethnopharmacol ...

  16. Identification of Allelochemicals from Terminalia Chebula

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    allochemicals than the bark and were more inhibitory to seeding ... water (1:1) 5 times. The aqueous solution was saved and it was extracted with equal volume of ethanol: ethyl acetate (1:1) for 5 times. The resulting ethanol: ethyl acetate solution was ... The inhibitory effect on the seed germination by leaf aqueous extracts.

  17. Phytochemical Screening and Antimicrobial Activities of Terminalia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CLEMENT O BEWAJI

    The search for new drugs has turned researchers to plant sources for ... antioxidant as well as anticlastogenic properties (Masuda et al., 1999). ... Plant extracts were phytochemically screened using standard techniques for the qualitative detection of alkaloid, .... The American Journal of Chinese Medicine 25: 153-161.

  18. Antibacterial screening of some Peruvian medicinal plants used in Callería District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloucek, P; Polesny, Z; Svobodova, B; Vlkova, E; Kokoska, L

    2005-06-03

    Nine ethanol extracts of Brunfelsia grandiflora (Solanaceae), Caesalpinia spinosa (Caesalpiniaceae), Dracontium loretense (Araceae), Equisetum giganteum (Equisetaceae), Maytenus macrocarpa (Celastraceae), Phyllanthus amarus (Euphorbiaceae), Piper aduncum (Piperaceae), Terminalia catappa (Combretaceae), and Uncaria tomentosa (Rubiaceae), medicinal plants traditionally used in Calleria District for treating conditions likely to be associated with microorganisms, were screened for antimicrobial activity against nine bacterial strains using the broth microdilution method. Among the plants tested, Phyllanthus amarus and Terminalia catappa showed the most promising antibacterial properties, inhibiting all of the strains tested with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ranging from 0.25 to 16 mg/ml. The extract from aerial part of Piper aduncum was significantly more active against Gram-positive (MICs ranging from 1 to 2 mg/ml) than against Gram-negative bacteria (MICs > 16 mg/ml).

  19. Total phenolics and antioxidant activity of five medicinal plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousa, Cleyton Marcos de M.; Silva, Hilris Rocha e; Vieira-Junior, Gerardo Magela; Ayres, Mariane Cruz C.; Costa, Charllyton Luis S. da; Araajo, Delton Servulo; Cavalcante, Luis Carlos D.; Barros, Elcio Daniel S.; Araujo, Paulo Breitner de M.; Brandao, Marcela S.; Chaves, Mariana H.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes total phenolics content and antioxidant activity in the ethanolic extract of leaves, bark and roots of five medicinal plants: Terminalia brasiliensis Camb., Terminalia fagifolia Mart. and Zucc., Copernicia cerifera (Miller) H.E. Moore, Cenostigma macrophyllum Tul. var. acuminata Teles Freire and Qualea grandiflora Mart. The total phenolics content of the plant extracts, determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, varied from 250.0 ±8,2 to 763,63 ±13.03 mg of gallic acid equivalent/g dry EtOH extract. The antioxidant activity of extracts was evaluated using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay system. Extract of bark from T. brasiliensis, the most active, with an EC 50 value of 27.59 ± 0.82 μg/mL, was comparable to rutin (EC 50 = 27.80 ± 1.38) and gallic acid (EC 50 = 24.27 ± 0.31), used as positive controls. The relationship between total phenolic content and antioxidant activity was positive and significant for T. brasiliensis, C. macrophyllum and C. cerifera. (author)

  20. Total phenolics and antioxidant activity of five medicinal plant; Fenois totais e atividade antioxidante de cinco plantas medicinais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, Cleyton Marcos de M.; Silva, Hilris Rocha e; Vieira-Junior, Gerardo Magela; Ayres, Mariane Cruz C.; Costa, Charllyton Luis S. da; Araajo, Delton Servulo; Cavalcante, Luis Carlos D.; Barros, Elcio Daniel S.; Araujo, Paulo Breitner de M.; Brandao, Marcela S.; Chaves, Mariana H. [Universidade Federal do Piaui, Teresina, PI (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: mariana@ufpi.br

    2007-03-15

    This paper describes total phenolics content and antioxidant activity in the ethanolic extract of leaves, bark and roots of five medicinal plants: Terminalia brasiliensis Camb., Terminalia fagifolia Mart. and Zucc., Copernicia cerifera (Miller) H.E. Moore, Cenostigma macrophyllum Tul. var. acuminata Teles Freire and Qualea grandiflora Mart. The total phenolics content of the plant extracts, determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, varied from 250.0 {+-}8,2 to 763,63 {+-}13.03 mg of gallic acid equivalent/g dry EtOH extract. The antioxidant activity of extracts was evaluated using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay system. Extract of bark from T. brasiliensis, the most active, with an EC{sub 50} value of 27.59 {+-} 0.82 {mu}g/mL, was comparable to rutin (EC{sub 50} = 27.80 {+-} 1.38) and gallic acid (EC{sub 50} = 24.27 {+-} 0.31), used as positive controls. The relationship between total phenolic content and antioxidant activity was positive and significant for T. brasiliensis, C. macrophyllum and C. cerifera. (author)

  1. Pollinator responses to floral colour change, nectar, and scent promote reproductive fitness in Quisqualis indica (Combretaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Juan; Wang, Gang; Sui, Yi; Wang, Menglin; Zhang, Ling

    2016-04-13

    Floral colour change is visual signals for pollinators to avoid old flowers and increase pollination efficiency. Quisqualis indica flowers change colour from white to pink to red may be associated with a shift from moth to butterfly pollination. To test this hypothesis, we investigated Q. indica populations in Southwest China. Flowers secreted nectar continuously from the evening of anthesis until the following morning, then decreased gradually with floral colour change. The scent compounds in the three floral colour stages were similar; however, the scent composition was different, and the scent emission rate decreased from the white to red stage. Dichogamy in Q. indica prevents self-pollination and interference of male and female functions. Controlled pollinations demonstrated that this species is self-incompatible and needs pollinators for seed production. Different pollinators were attracted in each floral colour stage; mainly moths at night and bees and butterflies during the day. Observations of open-pollinated inflorescences showed that white flowers had a higher fruit set than pink or red flowers, indicating the high contribution of moths to reproductive success. We concluded that the nectar and scent secretion are related to floral colour change in Q. indica, in order to attract different pollinators and promote reproductive fitness.

  2. Seed dispersal and predation of Buchenavia tomentosa Eichler (Combretaceae in a Cerrado sensu stricto, midwest Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Farias

    Full Text Available Abstract The ecology of seed dispersal is critical to understand the patterns of distribution and abundance of plant species. We investigated seed dispersal aspects associated with the high abundance of Buchenavia tomentosa in the Serra Azul State Park (PESA. We estimated fruit production and conducted fruit removal experiments. We carried out diurnal and nocturnal observations on frugivory as well as germination tests. Fruiting occurred in the dry season and totaled 1,365,015 ± 762,670 fruits.ha–1. B. tomentosa fruits were utilized by eight animal species. The lowland tapir (Tapirus terrestris was considered the main seed disperser. Leafcutter ants (Atta laevigata and Atta sexdens participated in the seed cleaning and occasionally dispersed seeds. The beetle Amblycerus insuturatus, blue-and-yellow macaw (Ara ararauna and red-and-green macaw (Ara chloropterus were considered pre-dispersal seed predators. The seeds manually cleaned presented higher germination rate (100% and speed index (4.2 seeds.d–1 than that of seeds with pulp. Germination of seeds found in tapirs’feces was 40%, while for the seeds without pulp it was 25%. The high abundance of B. tomentosa in the cerrado of PESA may be due to massive fruit production, low rates of seed predation, and efficient seed dispersal by tapirs, occurring before the rains which promote germination and recruitment of this species.

  3. Antibacterial properties studies of trunk barks of terminalia ivorensis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Laboratory of Botany, Unity of Formation and Research Biosciences; University Félix Houphouët Boigny of Cocody-. Abidjan (Côte ... Laboratory of chemistry Organic Structural, Unity of Formation and Research of Sciences of the Structure of the mate- rial and of the .... coat the use of this plant in the traditional treatment of.

  4. Effect of Terminalia chebula fruit extract on lipid peroxidation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-08-20

    Aug 20, 2007 ... products mainly edible vegetables and spices, have a key role in chemopreventers ... protein; dunit/minute/mg protein ; eµg/mg protein; fn moles of H2O2 ... induce peroxidation of cell membrane lipids (Bhattacharya et al., 1999). .... catalase – like activities in seminal plasma and spermatozoa. Int. J. Androl.

  5. Characterization of Terminalia catappa linn oil, Linn oil-based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Potassium hydroxide was used to reduce the activation energy for quick production ... Specific gravity also showed a significant reduction from 0.926 to 0.888 ... pour point (-2.7 O C) are very good results for storage logistics and cold starting of ...

  6. Terminalia catappa , an anticlastogenic agent against MMS induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Subjects: Anticarcinogenic potential of methanolic extract of T. catappa has been tested against the carcinogenicity induced by methyl methanesulfonate in the in vitro and in vivo models. Methods: The parameters for evaluation included chromosomal aberrations (CA), sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) and replication ...

  7. Biomass yield and modeling of logging residues of Terminalia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of Dbh as an independent variable in the prediction of models for estimating the biomass residues of the tree species was adjudged best because it performed well. The validation results showed that the selected models satisfied the assumptions of regression analysis. The practical implication of the models is that ...

  8. Terminalia catappa, an anticlastogenic agent against MMS induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mohammad Sultan Ahmad

    2014-05-13

    May 13, 2014 ... Methods: The parameters for evaluation included chromosomal aberrations (CA), sister chroma- ... Results: Alcoholic extracts of T. catappa significantly reduce chromosomal aberration from ... during teeth extraction [1,2].

  9. Immunomodulatory Activity of Alcohol Extract of Terminalia chebula ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: For antioxidant study, the liver mitochondria were separated and used for the estimation of enzymes catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) - as well as lipid peroxidation (LPO) and reduced glutathione (GSH); Melatonin secretion was characterized using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel ...

  10. Study on osteopotential activity of Terminalia arjuna bark extract ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    tries, the use of plant-derived products in health care is very common and this ... source of medicinal plants, viz. Silybum .... 96 wells and incubated at 37 °C for 48 h in 5% CO2 for ... formed were dissolved by adding DMSO and the absorb-.

  11. Terminalia Ivorensis A.Chev and Nauclea Diderrichii De Wild

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    ... in Nauclea diderrichii. Saw dust showed 0% disease incidence and supported the highest plant growth in both .... Plant pathogens and long-term ecosystem changes. Pages ... Mycoplasma disease, Wisconsin, Oct 24:26, 1982. Mc Clelland ...

  12. Inhibitory and bactericidal potential of crude acetone extracts of Combretum molle (Combretaceae) on drug-resistant strains of Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njume, Collise; Afolayan, Anthony J; Samie, Amidou; Ndip, Roland N

    2011-10-01

    Infection with Helicobacter pylori is strongly associated with a number of gastroduodenal pathologies. Antimicrobial resistance to commonly-used drugs has generated a considerable interest in the search for novel therapeutic compounds from medicinal plants. As an ongoing effort of this search, the susceptibility of 32 clinical strains of H. pylori and a reference strain-NCTC 11,638-was evaluated against five solvent extracts of Combretum molle, a plant widely used for the treatment of gastric ulcers and other stomach-related morbidities in South Africa. The extracts were screened for activity by the agar-well diffusion method, and the most active one of them was tested against the same strains by micro-broth dilution and time kill assays. Metronidazole and amoxicillin were included in these experiments as positive control antibiotics. The solvent extracts all demonstrated anti-H. pylori activity with zone diameters of inhibition between 0 and 38 mm. The most potent anti-H. pylori activity was demonstrated by the acetone extract, to which 87.5% of the clinical strains were susceptible. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC90) values for this extract ranged from 1.25 to 5.0 mg/mL while those for amoxicillin and metronidazole ranged from 0.001 to 0.94 mg/mL and from 0.004 to 5.0 mg/mL respectively. The acetone extract was highly bactericidal at a concentration of 2.5 and 5.0 mg/mL, with complete elimination of the test organisms in 24 hours. Its inhibitory activity was better than that of metronidazole (pmolle may contain therapeutically-useful compounds against H. pylori, which are mostly concentrated in the acetone extract.

  13. In vitro anthelmintic activity of Combretum molle (R. Br. ex G. Don) (Combretaceae) against Haemonchus contortus ova and larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ademola, I O; Eloff, J N

    2010-04-19

    Parasitic nematodes, especially Haemonchus contortus (Rudolphi), are among the most common and economically important causes of disease in sheep and goats owned by pastoralists and small holder farmers in Africa. The control of these infections relies mainly on the use of anthelmintic drugs. However, herbal preparations are widely used by pastoralists and small holder farmers for the treatment of their livestock against helminth parasites. The anthelmintic effect of acetone leaf extract and fractions of Combretum molle was investigated to determine the relative efficacy of the components against gastrointestinal sheep nematodes. The fractions were obtained by solvent:solvent extraction from the acetone extract. These were evaluated for nematocidal activity by means of an egg hatch (EHA) and larval a development and viability assay (LDVA) in vitro. The effect of the test extracts on the hatchability of eggs and development of first to third stage larvae and the survival rate of the third stage larvae. H. contortus, were used to determine the relative bioactivities. Best-fit LC(50) values were computed using global model of nonlinear regression curve-fitting. The extracts inhibited egg hatching and development of the larvae of H. contortus in a concentration-dependent manner. Best-fit LC(50) values for the egg hatch test were 0.866, 0.333, 0.833, 0.747, and 0.065mg/mL for acetone extract, n-butanol, hexane, chloroform, and 35% water in methanol fractions, respectively. The best-fit LC(50) values for the LDVA were 0.604, 0.362, 1.077, 0.131 and 0.318mg/mL for the acetone extract, butanol, hexane, chloroform, and 35% water in methanol fractions, respectively. In the EHA the 35% water in methanol fraction was significantly more active than all the other fractions (pmolle leaf could find application in anthelmintic therapy in veterinary practice.

  14. Healing effect of Terminalia chebula Retz extract on second-degree ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    degree skin burns by electrical scald instrument. The animals were divided into three groups as follows: ... for at least one week before use. The animal experiment was approved by the Animal Care and Use .... the burn wound effectively. In recent years, there has been a growing interest in alternative medicines and natural ...

  15. Terminalia mjuna (Roxb.ex DC) Wight & Am. of COl11bretaceae is a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... inflorescences. Fruit is ovoid lrvith 5-7 angles or 'wings. Bark is astringent, sweet, acrid, cooling, aphrodisiac, demulcent, cardiotonic, antidysenteric, urinary astringent, expectorant, alexiteric and tollie. It is useful ill ulcers, urethrorrhea, leucorrhoea, diabetes, anaemia, cardiopathy, cirrhosis of the liver and hypertension.

  16. Evaluation of a Naturally-derived Deflocculant (Terminalia Chebula in Bentonite Dispersions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalal Neshat

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The unwanted addition of salt to drilling causes flocculation which has an adverse effect on mud rheological properties. To treat the flocculated mud chemical, deflocculants are commonly used; however, their disadvantages such as negative environmental effects, lower tolerance to contamination, and toxicity motivated scientists to search for effective additives. Using plant derived additives instead of commercial additives could help resolve the mentioned weaknesses, because they are nontoxic, cheap, easily accessible, and act multi-functional. In this paper the effect of black myrobalan rheological properties of flocculated bentonite mud was investigated and its performance was compared with chrome lignosulfonate (CLS. Rheological and filtration tests were conducted and properties such as plastic viscosity, yield point, gel strength, thixotropy, and apparent viscosity were calculated. It was perceived that by increasing black myrobalan concentration to 0.6 wt.%, rheological parameters and filtration loss decreased by 50% and 66.3% respectively, but they increased at higher concentrations, which indicated that black myrobalan acted as a deflocculant up to 0.6 wt.%. The deflocculation behavior of black myrobalan at low concentrations is attributed to ellagitannic acid and tannic acid. The comparison of the enactment of black myrobalan with chrome lignosulfonate showed that black myrobalan had a stronger decreasing effect on the rheological parameters and filtration compared to CLS.

  17. Effects of water and nutrient addition on the coppice growth response of cut Terminalia sericea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hloniphani Moyo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The ability of a woody plant to coppice and remain vigorous largely depends on the severity of disturbances, resource availability and the mobilisation of stored reserves. There is limited information about the role played by resource limitation on the recovery of cut trees. This study investigated the effects of water and nutrient supplementation on coppice growth responses of resprouting cut trees in a semi-arid savannah in South Africa. Cut trees were exposed to different levels of water and nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus supplementation over a period of 2 years in a factorial experimental design. We hypothesised that adding water and nutrients would result in an increased coppice growth response and replenishment of stored structural reserves. Adding water and nutrients significantly increased shoot diameter, shoot length and resprouting ratio for the initial 12 months after cutting but not stored structural reserves. Such a response pattern suggests that the initial growth of resprouting shoots may be strongly resource-limited, while resources are concentrated on supporting fewer resprouting shoots compared to a higher number. Conservation implications: If practicing rotational tree harvesting, trees resprouting in resource-poor locations need a longer resting period to recover stored reserves and to also recover lost height after cutting.

  18. Methanol Extract from Anogeissus leiocarpus (DC Guill. et Perr. (Combretaceae Stem Bark Quenches the Quorum Sensing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Ouedraogo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Due to its extensive arsenal of virulence factors and inherent resistance to antibiotics, Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a threat particularly in immunocompromised patients. Considering the central role of quorum sensing in the production of virulence factors, inhibition of bacterial communication mechanism constitute an opportunity to attenuate pathogenicity of bacteria resistant to available antibiotics. Our study aimed to assess the anti-quorum sensing activity of Anogeissus leiocarpus, traditionally used in Burkina Faso, for the treatment of infected burn wounds. Methods: Investigations were carried out on methanol extract from A. leiocarpus stem bark. The reporter strains Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 and P. aeruginosa PAO1 derivatives were used to evidence any interference with the bacterial quorum sensing and expression of related genes. P. aeruginosa PAO1 was used to measure the impact on pyocyanin production. Results: At a sub-inhibitory concentration (100 µg/mL, A. leiocarpus methanol extract quenched the quorum sensing mechanism of P. aeruginosa PAO1 by down-streaming the rhlR gene, with a subsequent reduction of pyocyanin production. Moreover, the antioxidant polyphenols evidenced are able to reduce the oxidative stress induced by pyocyanin. Conclusion: The antioxidant and anti-quorum sensing activities of A. leiocarpus stem bark could justify its traditional use in the treatment of infected burn wounds.

  19. The anthelmintic effect of aqueous methanol extract of Combretum molle (R. Br. x. G. Don) (Combretaceae) in lambs experimentally infected with Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, M K; Ajanusi, O J; Abubakar, M S; Idris, A L; Suleiman, M M

    2012-06-08

    The aqueous methanol extract from the stem-bark of Combretum molle was evaluated for anthelmintic activity in lambs infected with Haemonchus contortus using faecal egg count (FEC) reduction assay. The extract showed a dose-dependent reduction in FEC in infected animals. At doses of 500, 1000 and 2000 mg kg(-1), the extract caused FEC reduction of 63%, 69.25% and 96.23%, respectively. Similarly, the standard anthelmintic (albendazole) at a dose of 200 mg kg(-1) produced FEC reduction of 99.24%. FEC reduction produced by the extract at doses of 500 and 1000 mg kg(-1) is below the minimum standard of 90% FEC recommended by the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP). However, there was no significant (P>0.05) difference between the means of groups treated with 1000 mg kg(-1) and 2000 mg kg(-1) compared to that of albendazole. In this study, C. molle has shown a promising anthelmintic activity against experimental haemonchosis. Nonetheless, further studies to evaluate its detailed toxicity are required for the plant extract to be developed into a useful anthelmintic drug. There is also the need to evaluate other parts of the plant (root, leaves, fruits, etc.) for the same effect. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Land use and land use change effects on nitrous oxide emissions in the seasonally dry ecosystems of Zimbabwe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyamadzawo, G; Chirinda, Ngoni; Mapanda, F

    2012-01-01

    . The savanna woodlands cover over 95% of Zimbabwe’s forest area, and are divided into five woodland types: Acacia, miombo, mopane, teak (Baikiaea Plurijuga) and Terminalia-Combretaceae. This review is aimed at exploring the effects of land-use changes and land management practices on N2O emissions in Zimbabwe...... emissions were mainly concentrated in the wet season as N2O production is strongly enhanced by high soil moisture. During the dry season pyrogenic emissions were also important sources of N2O, contributing, an estimated 6.7 Gg N2O annually. Land use change in the form of biomass burning and conversion...... of emissions of N2O. Land-use change from savanna to agricultural production results in an immediate increase in N2O emissions. However, the emissions will decrease with time. The current estimates are associated with large uncertainties, thus, there is need for more detailed studies on the effects of land-use...

  1. How dietary plant nectar affects the survival, growth, and fecundity of a cursorial spider Cheiracanthium inclusum (Araneae: Miturgidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, R M; Pfannenstiel, R S

    2009-10-01

    We measured the effects of plant nectar consumption on Cheiracanthium inclusum (Hentz) (Miturgidae), an agriculturally important spider. Newly emerged spiderlings were reared on the eggs of Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) at four prey densities, 1, 5, 25, or 125 eggs, three times a week, with or without nectar. Nectar came from the extrafloral nectaries of Indian almond, Terminalia cattapa L. (Combretaceae). The addition of nectar to prey (1) allowed spiderlings on the 1-egg diet to survive longer and molt many more times; (2) allowed virtually all of the spiderlings on the 5-egg diet to become small adults and 50% to mate and reproduce versus those without nectar, none of which matured to adulthood; and (3) increased fecundity of females on 5-egg and 25-egg diets to the level of females fed five times the amount of prey. These results show that spiders that feed on nectar increase their fitness with increased survival, growth, and fecundity, particularly when density of prey is inadequate or marginal.

  2. Contribuição ao conhecimento da sistemática e biologia de buprestídeos minadores do gênero Pachyschelus Solier, 1833: (Coleoptera, Buprestidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Kogan

    1963-12-01

    Full Text Available Buprestid leaf-miners are generally included in the subtribe Trachytes. The genera belonging to this subtribe are commonly very rich in number of species and their systematics envolves huge difficulties. On the other hand the biological knowledge on those insects is very poor. The A. tries to clarify the systematical status of two species of Pachyschelus - P. subundulatus Kerr. and P. fulgidipennis Lucas, and redescribes also P. binderi Obenberger. The hosts of the first two species are recorded, namely: Terminalia catappa (Combretaceae - host-plant of P. subundulatus and Luhea spp. (Tiliaceae - host-plant of P. fulgidipennis. The mines, developmental stages and habits of the three species are described and is made a full redescription of the adults, both male and female. The study is based on reared material from mined leaves, as well as insects assembled in several brazilian collections, both private and public ones. The importance of some biological facts as well as some morphological characters are stressed. The knowledge of the host-plants and the shape and other structural features of the mine were found to be helpfull to the identification of the species. Some morphological features of adults also prooved to be of systematical value. Besides the female pygidium and the male genitalia, the tibiae of the third pair of legs show some intersting structural details, reasonably alike in both sexes and quite different in each species.

  3. Females of the genus Podmosta (Plecoptera: Nemouridae): comparison of terminalia and a new female record in Baltic Amber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhi-Teng

    2018-04-10

    Based on a specimen preserved in Baltic amber from Lithuania, a new fossil female of the nemourid genus Podmosta Ricker, 1952 is described, illustrated and compared to other described species of the genus. The new female specimen is distinguished from other Podmosta females by the "rabbit-shaped" sclerite on sternum 8.

  4. Kinetic study of liquid-phase adsorptive removal of heavy metal ions by almond tree (Terminalia catappa L. leaves waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Horsfall Jnr

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The kinetic sorption of five metal ions – Al3+, Cr6+, Zn2+, Ag+ and Mn2+- from aqueous solution onto almond tree leaves (ATL waste in single component system has been studied. The experimental data was analyzed in terms of intraparticle diffusion and rate of adsorption, thus comparing transport mechanism and chemical sorption processes. The sorption rates based on the pseudo-second order rate constants for the five metal ions are 0.018 (Al3+, 0.016 (Cr6+, 0.023 (Zn2+, 0.021 (Ag+ and 0.022 (Mn2+ g/mg.min. The adsorption rates are rapid and within 180 min of agitation more than 85 percent of these metal ions has been removed from solution by the ATL waste biomass. The kinetic data suggest that the overall adsorption process is endothermic, and that the rate-limiting step is a surface diffusion controlled process. The results from this study have revealed that the ATL waste, which is hitherto an environmental nuisance, has the ability to adsorb metal ions from solution and the data are relevant for optimal design of wastewater treatment plants. The low cost and easy availability of ATL waste make potential industrial application a strong possibility.

  5. Antioxidant activities of some local bangladeshi fruits (Artocarpus heterophyllus, Annona squamosa, Terminalia bellirica, Syzygium samarangense, Averrhoa carambola and Olea europa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soubir, Titov

    2007-03-01

    In the present study, antioxidant activities of the fruits of A. heterophyllus, A. squamosa, T. bellirica, S. samarangense, A. carambola and O. europa were investigated. For this, at first matured fruits of them were sliced into small pieces and dried in the sun and finally crushed in a grinder to make powder. Ethanolic extracts of fruit powder were prepared using 99.99% ethanol. The antioxidative activities of these extracts were determined according to their abilities of scavenging 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical. It was demonstrated that all the ethanolic extracts of A. heterophyllus, A. squamosa, T. bellirica, S. samarangense, A. caranbola and O. europa showed antioxidant activities. The IC50 of the ethanolic extracts of A. heterophyllus, A. squamosa, T. bellirica, S. samarangense, A. carambola and O. europa were 410, 250, 34, 200, 30 and 76 microg/mL, respectively. Among them, A. carambola showed the highest antioxidant activities followed by T. bellirica, O. europa, S. samarangense, A. squamosa and A. heterophyllus indicating that fruits of A. carambola, T. bellirica and O. europa are very beneficial to human health.

  6. Inhibitory activities of selected Sudanese medicinal plants on Porphyromonas gingivalis and matrix metalloproteinase-9 and isolation of bioactive compounds from Combretum hartmannianum (Schweinf) bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohieldin, Ebtihal Abdalla M; Muddathir, Ali Mahmoud; Mitsunaga, Tohru

    2017-04-20

    Periodontal diseases are one of the major health problems and among the most important preventable global infectious diseases. Porphyromonas gingivalis is an anaerobic Gram-negative bacterium which has been strongly implicated in the etiology of periodontitis. Additionally, matrix metalloproteinases-9 (MMP-9) is an important factor contributing to periodontal tissue destruction by a variety of mechanisms. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the selected Sudanese medicinal plants against P. gingivalis bacteria and their inhibitory activities on MMP-9. Sixty two methanolic and 50% ethanolic extracts from 24 plants species were tested for antibacterial activity against P. gingivalis using microplate dilution assay method to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The inhibitory activity of seven methanol extracts selected from the 62 extracts against MMP-9 was determined by Colorimetric Drug Discovery Kit. In search of bioactive lead compounds, Combretum hartmannianum bark which was found to be within the most active plant extracts was subjected to various chromatographic (medium pressure liquid chromatography, column chromatography on a Sephadex LH-20, preparative high performance liquid chromatography) and spectroscopic methods (liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR)) to isolate and characterize flavogalonic acid dilactone and terchebulin as bioactive compounds. About 80% of the crude extracts provided a MIC value ≤4 mg/ml against bacteria. The extracts which revealed the highest potency were: methanolic extracts of Terminalia laxiflora (wood; MIC = 0.25 mg/ml) followed by Acacia totrtilis (bark), Ambrosia maritima (aerial part), Argemone mexicana (seed), C. hartmannianum (bark), Terminalia brownii (wood) and 50% ethanolic extract of T. brownii (bark) with MIC values of 0.5 mg/ml. T. laxiflora (wood) and C. hartmannianum (bark) which belong to combretaceae family showed an inhibitory activity over 50% at

  7. Plantas e constituintes químicos empregados em Odontologia: revisão de estudos etnofarmacológicos e de avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana in vitro em patógenos orais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.R.P. Vieira

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Produtos derivados de plantas podem representar estratégia promissora na odontologia. Desse modo, o objetivo deste trabalho foi levantar na literatura os estudos sobre o uso popular de plantas em afecções orais, bem como os estudos de avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana in vitro de extratos vegetais e compostos isolados sobre patógenos orais, no período de 1996 a 2011. Quarenta e sete famílias botânicas foram referidas, com maior número de citações para Anacardiaceae, sendo Anacardium occidentale L., a espécie mais citada. O levantamento sobre estudos de avaliação antimicrobiana relacionou extratos de sessenta e seis espécies vegetais pertencentes a trinta e oito famílias botânicas, destacando-se Anacardiaceae, com pesquisas realizadas de forma predominante com as folhas, investigadas pelo método de difusão em ágar. Cinquenta e oito substâncias isoladas de plantas foram avaliadas, demonstrando que Terminalia chebula Retz (Combretaceae representa a espécie vegetal com atividade antimicrobiana in vitro mais significativa, apresentando halo de inibição de 32,97 mm contra Staphylococcus aureus, microrganismo encontrado em infecções orais; enquanto ácido tetra iso-alfa isolada de Humulus lupulus L. (Canabinaceae apresentou maior halo de inibição para Streptococcus mutans (26,0 mm. Os resultados apresentados devem estimular o desenvolvimento dos estudos de validação na garantia do uso seguro e eficaz de espécies vegetais em odontologia.

  8. Anti-hyperglycemic and anti-hyperlipidaemic effect of Arjunarishta in high-fat fed animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushant A. Shengule

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Arjunarishta (AA, a formulation used as cardiotonic is a hydroalcoholic formulation of Terminalia arjuna (Roxb. Wight and Arn. (TA belonging to family Combretaceae. Objective: To evaluate the anti-hyperglycemic and anti-hyperlipidemic effect of Arjunarishta on high-fat diet fed animals. Materials and methods: High-fat diet fed (HFD Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups and treated with phytochemically standardized Arjunarishta (1.8 ml/kg, and hydroalcoholic extract of T. arjuna (TAHA (250 mg/kg and rosuvastatin (10 mg/kg, for 3 months. Intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test, blood biochemistry, liver triglyceride and systolic blood pressure were performed in all the groups. Effect of these drugs on the expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1 and peroxisome proliferators activated receptor γ coactivator 1-α (PGC-1α were studied in liver tissue using Quantitative Real-time PCR. Results: HFD increased fasting blood glucose, liver triglyceride, systolic blood pressure and gene expression of TNF-α, IRS-1 and PGC-1α. Treatment of AA and TAHA significantly reduced fasting blood glucose, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol and triglyceride levels. These treatments significantly decreased gene expression of TNF-α (2.4, 2.2 and 2.6 fold change; increased IRS-1 (2.8, 2.9 and 2.8 fold change and PGC-1α (2.9, 3.7 and 3.3 fold change as compared to untreated HFD. Conclusion: Anti-hyperglycemic, anti-hyperlipidemic effect of Arjunarishta may be mediated by decreased TNF-α and increased PGC-1α and IRS-1. Keywords: Rosuvastatin, Type 2 diabetes, Insulin sensitizer genes, Arjunarishta

  9. Metabolic profiling of Hoodia, Chamomile, Terminalia Species and evaluation of commercial preparations using Ultra-High Performance Quadrupole Time of Flight-Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ultra-High Performance-Quadrupole Time of Flight Mass Spectrometr(UHPLC-QToF-MS)profiling has become an impattant tool for identification of marker compounds and generation of metabolic patterns that could be interrogated using chemometric modeling software. Chemometric approaches can be used to ana...

  10. New 4′-substituted benzoyl-β-D glycoside from the fruit pulp of Terminalia belerica with antiplatelet and antioxidant potency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaseem Ahmad Ansari

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: Mass spectra and 1H NMR confirmed the isolated compound structure which was supported by 13C NMR and IR spectra. Tb-01could be promising for future applications in the treatment of blood clots, pulmonary embolism, and other related diseases.

  11. Pre-treatment with α-tocopherol and Terminalia arjuna ameliorates, pro-inflammatory cytokines, cardiac and apoptotic markers in myocardial infracted rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Santosh K; Sharma, Suman B; Singh, Usha R

    2015-03-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the cardioprotective potential of combination of T. arjuna and α-tocopherol in isoproterenol induced myocardial injury. Wistar albino rats were pre-treated with hydroalcoholic extract of T. arjuna (HETA) and α-tocopherol (100 mg/kg b. w) daily for 30 days. Isoproterenol (ISP, 85 mg/kg b.w) was administered on 28th and 29th days at an interval of 24 hr. ISP treated rats showed significant increase in lipid peroxidation (MDA), cardiac markers (CK-MB, SGOT, Trop I and LDH), pro-inflammatory cytokine (IL-6, CRP, TNF-α) levels and apoptotic markers (Bcl-2/Bax) as compared to healthy group. Pre-treatment with HETA 100 mg/kg b. w, reduced the elevated levels of these markers and significant effect (ppresent study concluded that the combination of α-tocopherol (100 mg/kg b. w) and hydroalcoholic extract of T. arjuna (100 mg/kg b. w) augments endogenous antioxidant compounds of rat heart and also prevents the myocardium from ISP-induced myocardial injury and it may have therapeutic and prophylactic value in the treatment of ischemic heart disease.

  12. Polyphenol Extracts from Punica granatum and Terminalia chebula are anti-inflammatory and increase the survival rate of chickens challenged with Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) causes avian colibacillosis, inflammation in multi-organs of chickens, and results in serious economic loss to the chicken industry. Polyphenolic compounds possess a wide range of physiological activities that may contribute to their beneficial effects again...

  13. Ellagic acid derivatives from Terminalia chebula Retz. downregulate the expression of quorum sensing genes to attenuate Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 virulence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajal Sarabhai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Burgeoning antibiotic resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa has necessitated the development of anti pathogenic agents that can quench acylhomoserine lactone (AHL mediated QS with least risk of resistance. This study explores the anti quorum sensing potential of T. chebula Retz. and identification of probable compounds(s showing anti QS activity and the mechanism of attenuation of P. aeruginosa PAO1 virulence factors. METHODS AND RESULTS: Methanol extract of T. chebula Retz. fruit showed anti QS activity using Agrobacterium tumefaciens A136. Bioactive fraction (F7, obtained by fractionation of methanol extract using Sephadex LH20, showed significant reduction (p<0.001 in QS regulated production of extracellular virulence factors in P. aeruginosa PAO1. Biofilm formation and alginate were significantly (p<0.05 reduced with enhanced (20% susceptibility to tobramycin. Real Time PCR of F7 treated P. aeruginosa showed down regulation of autoinducer synthase (lasI and rhlI and their cognate receptor (lasR and rhlR genes by 89, 90, 90 and 93%, respectively. Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry also showed 90 and 64% reduction in the production of 3-oxo-C(12HSL and C(4HSL after treatment. Decrease in AHLs as one of the mechanisms of quorum quenching by F7 was supported by the reversal of inhibited swarming motility in F7-treated P. aeruginosa PAO1 on addition of C(4HSL. F7 also showed antagonistic activity against 3-oxo-C(12HSL-dependent QS in E. coli bioreporter. C. elegans fed on F7-treated P. aeruginosa showed enhanced survival with LT50 increasing from 24 to 72 h. LC-ESI-MS of F7 revealed the presence of ellagic acid derivatives responsible for anti QS activity in T. chebula extract. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report on anti QS activity of T. chebula fruit linked to EADs which down regulate the expression of lasIR and rhlIR genes with concomitant decrease in AHLs in P. aeruginosa PAO1 causing attenuation of its virulence factors and enhanced sensitivity of its biofilm towards tobramycin.

  14. jfewr ©2016 - jfewr Publications

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    B.L. PENUEL

    Terminalia albida, Ziziphus spina-christi, Sena siamea, Annona senegalensis, Terminalia glaucescens, Guiera senegalensis, Tamarindus indica and Grewia venusta while the abundant grass species are: Cenchrus species, Sena obtusifolia, Sida acuta, Hibiscus asper, Tridax procumbens, Croton lobatus and Portulaca.

  15. 1973-IJBCS-Article-Monronkola D O

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    leaf, stem bark and root essential oils were obtained by hydro-distillation using Clevenger-type apparatus, analyzed ... Keywords: Combretaceae, Anogeissus leiocarpus, essential oil, GC-MS. ..... antifungal property of crude plant extracts from.

  16. Inhibitor for the Corrosion of Mild Steel in H 2 SO 4 | Patel | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An extract of Terminalia chebula fruits was investigated as a corrosion inhibitor of mild steel in 0.5 M H2SO4 by means of conventional mass loss, electrochemical polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The mass loss results showed that the extract of Terminalia chebula is ...

  17. Evaluation of phytochemical and antibacterial properties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phytochemical screening of aqueous and ethanol crude extracts of the different plant parts of Terminalia avicennioides was carried out using standard chemical evaluation methods. The antibacterial effects of aqueous and ethanol crude extracts of Terminalia avicennioides against E.coli and S.typhimurium clinical and ...

  18. Separation and characterization of phenolic compounds from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (Combretaceae) is an Ivorian medicinal plant. There is little ethnobotanical and almost no chemical information available for this species. The aim of this study was to isolate phenolic compounds from T. ivoriensis. In this way, its ethyl acetate extract (Ea) was fractionated by silica gel column chromatography followed by ...

  19. Medical Entomology Studies - IX. The Subgenus Christophersiomyia of the Genus Aedes (Diptera: Culicidae) (Contributions of the American Entomological Institute. Volume 14, Number 2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    22-VI-1975, Peyton and Huang), 3d, 3$ terminalia. THAILAND. Chiang Mai . Chiang Mai (25-V-1952, D. C. and E. B. Thurman), Id, ld terminalia; Doi...the labels with pinned adults from Cambodia read “repos sous bois” and “cascade, for& ” Adults also have been taken at light traps in Chiang Mai , Thailand...Lahore District (1962, D. J. Gould), 17?. THAILAND. Chiang Mai . Hoad, Huay Mae Lon (8-X-1963, Neely, Oonruan and Sahem), 6d, 6d terminalia, 5?, 3

  20. Nutrient and phytochemical composition of red and yellow tropical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Ripe fruits of tropical almond (Terminalia catappa) of red and yellow varieties were ... The nutrient compositions were determined using AOAC techniques. ... Conclusion: Moisture, fat and fibre values were similar in the samples.

  1. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 401 - 450 of 1011 ... ... coupling of induction machine for improved thermal performance, Abstract PDF ... Terminalia Superba (White Afara) Timber Specie, Abstract PDF ... Vol 33, No 4 (2014), Evaluating Performances of Traffic Noise ...

  2. Medicinal plants - a potent antibacterial source against bacterial leaf blight (BLB) of rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabeen, R.

    2011-01-01

    The antibacterial potential of indigenous medicinal plants as alternative chemical pesticides for controlling bacterial leaf blight (BLB) of rice was investigated. Twenty-five different species of medicinal plants were collected from various sites in Pakistan. Decoctions of all medicinal plant species were screened by the disc plate diffusion method for testing the susceptibility of an aggressive isolate of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo 105). Out of twenty five medicinal plants, Thuja orientalis (cone + leaves), Azadirachta indica (seeds + fruits), Amomum subulatum (fruits), Terminalia chebula (fruits), Terminalia bellirica (fruits), Anethum graveolens (fruits) and Ferula assa-foetida (fruits) decoctions showed significant activity. The efficacy of decoctions from six promising plants were further tested through detached leaf, glasshouse and field assays. A decoction of Terminalia chebula demonstrated the highest effectiveness in terms of regulating BLB in the plants both under laboratory and field conditions. Bioactive fractions of Terminalia chebula were purified, characterized and tentatively identified as allegic acid. (author)

  3. comparative study on the minerals composition of the flesh of red

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bashar

    The analyses of mineral composition of red and yellow fruits varieties of Terminalia catappa using standard analytical ... the minerals content of these noble fruits and compare .... vitamins, helps to control the effects of stress and possibly result ...

  4. Species discrimination of African savannah trees at leaf level using hyperspectral remote sensing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Majeke, B

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available , Combretum zeyheri, Gymnosporia buxifolia, Gymnosporia senegalenses, Lonchocarpus capassa, Terminalia sericea) were measured using the ASD spectrometer (Analytical Spectral Radiometer (ASD) (350-2500 nm)). Ten (10) leaf reflectances were collected for each...

  5. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP USER

    Efficacy of Terminalia avicennoides and its combination with diminazene aceturate (Berenil. ®. ) ... treating dental caries (Gill & Akinwumi, 1986), skin infections and malaria. ..... (Berenil®) in trypanosome infected pregnant and lactating cows.

  6. Ploceus cucullatus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    YISAU

    representing ten families were found colonized by the bird but Cassia spp, Mangifera indica and Terminalia ... Weaverbirds form large foraging flocks and nesting colonies, and ... the total length of the road axis covered which was measured in ...

  7. Modelling of excess noise attnuation by grass and forest | Onuu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , guinea grass (panicum maximum) and forest which comprises iroko (milicia ezcelea) and white afara (terminalia superba) trees in the ratio of 2:1 approximately. Excess noise attenuation spectra have been plotted for the grass and forest for ...

  8. Hypoglycemic effect of triphala on selected non insulin dependent Diabetes mellitus subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Rajan, Sowmya S.; Antony, Seema

    2008-01-01

    Modern life style is characterized by high stress, increased automation, junk food consumption and sedentary life style which have lead to the incidence of Diabetes. The study involved selection of NIDDM subjects who were supplemented with Triphala powder called, The Three Myrobalans ( Terminalia bellirica - Belliric myrobalan, Terminalia chebula -Inknut, Embilica officinalis - Indian gooseberry) for a period of 45 days. Statistical evaluation of the blood profile showed significant reduction...

  9. Antimicrobial activity of four plants from Peruvian north-east

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz Q., Julio R.; Roque A., Mirtha

    2014-01-01

    The present work investigated the in vitro antimicrobial activities of ethanolic, methonolic and hydroalcoholic extracts corresponding to four plants of north easter of Peru; Cassia reticulata (whole plant), Ilex guayusa Loes (leaves), Piper lineatum (leaves), y Terminalia catappa (leaves). The plants were collected in the department of Cajamarca, except Terminalia catappa (Amazonas). The antimicrobial activity was determinated by the method of agar diffusion. The used microorganisms were the...

  10. Salt tolerances of some mainland tree species select as through nursery screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, Md Abdul Quddus

    2013-09-15

    A study of salt tolerance was carried out on germination, survival and height growth performance of important mesophytic species such as Acacia auriculiformis, Acacia hybrid, Artocarpus heterophyllus, Albizia procera, Albizia lebbeck, Acacia nilotica, Achras sapota, Casuarina equisetifolaia, Emblica officinalis, Leucaena leucocephala, Samania saman, Swetenia macrophylla, Terminalia arjuna, Tamarindus indica, Terminalia bellirica and Thespesia populnea in nursery stage using fresh water and salt (NaCl) solutions of 10, 15 and 20 ppm. Effect of salt on germination, survival performance and height growth performance were examined in this condition. Based on the observation, salt tolerance of these species has been determined Acacia auriculiformis, Acacia hybrid, Achras sapota, Casuarina equisetifolia, Leucaena leucocephala and Tamarindus indica has showed the best capacity to perform in different salinity conditions. Acacia nilotica, Emblica officinalis, Thespesia populnea has performed better. Albizia procera, Samania saman and Terminalia bellirica, germination and height performance showed good but when salinity increases survivability were decreases.

  11. Contributions to the Mosquito Fauna of Southeast Asia. XIV. The Subgenus Stegomyia of Aedes in Southeast Asia I - The Scutellaris Group of Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    2 1, 2 p . I THAILAND. Chiang Mai : Huey Keo (4-H-1953, D. C. Thurman Jr.) Id, Id terminalia. 107/s, REMARKS. There are 3 larval and pupal skin...part of Thailand. In Southeast Asia, it is known from only Chiang Mai , Thailand and is recorded here for the first time from this country. BIOLOGY...1923, Bar- raud), 5d, 59, 1.d terminalia; Punjab: Rawalpindi, Murree, W. Kimal (1922, Gill), Id, 19. THAILAND. Chiang Mai : (4-IV-1953, Thurman), 3d

  12. Dendrochronology and bark anatomy of the frankincense tree

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolera Feyissa, M.

    2013-01-01

    Boswellia papyrifera(Burseraceae) trees grow in drylands south of the Sahara. In Ethiopia, it grows in seasonally dry Combretum-Terminalia woodlands. It is a source of frankincense, an economically important olio-gum resin used for cultural and religious ceremonies throughout

  13. Redescription of Japanagromyza inferna Spencer, first recorded from Brazil, and a key to the Neotropical species of Japanagromyza Sasakawa (Diptera, Agromyzidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane de Sousa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Japanagromyza inferna Spencer is recorded for the first time from Brazil, in the North coast of the State of Rio de Janeiro, inducing galls in Centrosema virginianum L. (Fabaceae. The species is redescribed, with illustrations of male and female terminalia. A key to the identification of the Neotropical species of Japanagromyza Sasakawa is presented.

  14. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tope, SF. Vol 4, No 4 (2010) - Articles Foraging behaviour of Apis mellifera adansonii Latreille (Hymenoptera : Apidae) on Daniellia oliveri, Delonix regia, Hymenocardia acida and Terminalia mantaly flowers in Ngaoundéré (Cameroon) Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1997-342X. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL.

  15. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mbianda, AP. Vol 4, No 4 (2010) - Articles Foraging behaviour of Apis mellifera adansonii Latreille (Hymenoptera : Apidae) on Daniellia oliveri, Delonix regia, Hymenocardia acida and Terminalia mantaly flowers in Ngaoundéré (Cameroon) Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1997-342X. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL ...

  16. Phytochemical and antimicrobial screening of crude extracts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The bark and wood parts of the root of Terminalia mollis was investigated for its phytochemical and antimicrobial properties. Phytochemical screening showed the presence of tannins and resins as the major secondary metabolites. Test for antimicrobial activity of the plant crude extracts using the agar diffusion method ...

  17. Control of Phytolyma lata Walker (Scott.) Attack on Milicia excelsa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    species plot (protected by mesh netting: T1), mixed-species plot (Milicia + Terminalia), mixed-species plot with foliar chemical treatment (T3), mono-species with foliar chemical treatment (T4) and untreated mono-species plot of Milicia excelsa ...

  18. The effect of formulation additives on the properties of films prepared ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Method: Films were prepared by solvent casting method using Terminalia, xanthan gums and hydroxylpropy lmethylcellulose (HPMC). Terminlia was also combined with xanthan, HPMC at different ratios using propylene glycol and glycerol as plaasticizers. The films were characterized using adherence, folding endurance ...

  19. New species of Zygoclistron Rehn, 1905 (Insecta: Orthoptera: Acrididae: Copiocerinae) in the central corridor of the Atlantic Forest biome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Daniela Santos Martins; Pereira, Marcelo Ribeiro; Domenico, Fernando Campos De; Sperber, Carlos Frankl

    2016-06-17

    Herein we describe a new species of Copiocerinae, Zygoclistron ruschii Silva n. sp., from Atlantic Forest remnants in southeastern Brazil, collected from the Reserva Biológica Augusto Ruschi in the Santa Teresa municipality, Espírito Santo state, Brazil. The diagnosis of this new species is based on phallic complex and terminalia characters.

  20. Sobre um novo gênero neotrópico da subfamília Tanypodinae (Diptera, Chironomidae On a new neotropical genus of the subfamily Tanypodinae (Diptera, Chironomidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastião José de Oliveira

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available A new neotropical genus and a new species of a non-biting midge for the subfamily Tanypodinae from Brazil are described. The new genus is near Tanypus Meigen, 1803 and Procladius Skuse, 1889, but differs of both by wings and male terminalia.

  1. Baltileuctra gen. nov., a new genus of Leuctridae (Insecta: Plecoptera) in Baltic amber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhi-Teng

    2018-04-10

    A new genus and species of the stonefly family Leuctridae, Baltileuctra foraminis gen. et sp. nov., is described and illustrated based on a well-preserved male specimen from the Eocene Baltic amber. The new genus possesses typical characters of Leuctridae but has diagnostic characters of the thoracic sclerites and terminalia. The relationship between the new genus and other leuctrids is briefly discussed.

  2. Two new species of Chloroperlidae (Plecoptera) from California

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. W. Baumann; R. L. Bottorff

    1997-01-01

    Abstract - Suwallia sierra and Sweltsa pisteri are described as new species in the family Chloroperlidae from California, USA. Illustrations of the male terminalia of both species and the female and egg of S. sierra are presented. In addition, detailed figures of the epiproct of 2 similar species, Sweltsa townesi and Sweltsa resima, are included. Diagnoses are...

  3. Adsorption isotherme de l'acide acétique par des charbons d'origine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The adsorption properties of six samples of carbons of which two are obtained from AYOUS (Triplochiton Scléroxylon), two from AKOM (Terminalia Superba) and two obtained commercially were studied from their adsorption isotherms of acetic acid at 30° and 45°C. This study has resulted in the determination of the two ...

  4. In vitro study on biomineralization of biphasic calcium phosphate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this study, we report the preparation of a bone graft material, having cylindrical shape, containing biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP), gelatin (G), chitosan (C) and Terminalia chebula (TC) extract. TC extract was used as a crosslinker that gives stability to bone graft when it is placed in SBF. The graft was stable in the SBF ...

  5. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Investigations on the Potential of Indian Almond Tree (Terminalia catappa) Leaf Extracts as Anaesthetic Agent in African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) Abstract · Vol 29, No 1 (2014) - Articles Anaesthetic Efficacy of Sodium Bicarbonate and its Effects on the Blood Parameters of African Catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, ...

  6. Deekae, SN

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Investigations on the Potential of Indian Almond Tree (Terminalia catappa) Leaf Extracts as Anaesthetic Agent in African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) Abstract · Vol 29, No 1 (2014) - Articles Anaesthetic Efficacy of Sodium Bicarbonate and its Effects on the Blood Parameters of African Catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, ...

  7. Modelling the association between in vitro gas production and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vitro gas production of four different browse plants (Azadirachta indica, Terminalia catappa, Mangifera indica and Vernonia amygdalina) was investigated under different extractions. The relationship between the forage composition parameters (dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, acid detergent fibre, neutral ...

  8. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles by plants crude extracts and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The indiscriminate use of antibiotics has fuelled the development of drug resistance at an alarming rate. To overpower this burning problem, the Ag-NPs may prove to be a universal solution. Key words: Nanobiotechnology, silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs), Emblica officinalis, Terminalia catappa and Eucalyptus hybrida.

  9. Bulletin of Materials Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bark extract of Terminalia arjuna (TA) possesses potent medical properties and therefore, holds a reputed position in both Ayurvedic and Unani systems of medicine. Bone substitutes play an inevitable role in traumatic bone damages. Growth factors induce osteoinductivity, but suffer from limitations such as high cost and ...

  10. Parasitism of host trees by the Loranthaceae in the region of Douala ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The infested host trees belong to 16 species gathered into 12 genus and 10 families. The most parasitized host family is Sterculiaceae. The most sensitive host species to the parasitism of Loranthaceae is P. americana (21.51%), followed by C. nitida (17.27%) and Terminalia mantaly (13.65%). Lauraceae is infested by 7 ...

  11. Physicochemical Analysis of the Aqueous Extracts of Six Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: Extracts of Picralima nitida seeds, Detarium microcarpum stem bark, Aframomum melagueta seeds, Terminalia catappa leaves, Acacia nilotica pods, and Morinda lucida stem bark, are under consideration for development into suitable dosage forms for treating diabetes mellitus, sickle cell anemia and malaria.

  12. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Synchronization (5) 15 (GA). Tamrindus indica L. (11). (FT). TA TVA - a Mathematics CD (3) 96 (BR). Teaching quantum physics (1) 63 (CR). Temperature (9) 23 (GA). Temporallogic (5) 26 (GA). Terminalia arjuna (Roxb.ex DC.) Wight & Arn. 4 (FT). The Early life of Albert Einstein: Seeking the Mature Einstein in his Youth.

  13. Relationship between species composition and homegarden size in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Taxa such as Musa species, Vernonia amygdalina, Citrus species, Psidium guajava and Terminalia catappa were found to be the common food/medicinal plants as evidenced by their densities in the study sites. The household members cited most of the plants as food; others as medicinal and ornamentals. Miscellaneous ...

  14. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kinetic studies of alkaline phosphatase extracted from rabbit (Lepus townsendii) liver. Abstract PDF · Vol 10, No 32 (2011) - Articles Sodium metabisulphite induced polymerization of sickle cell haemoglobin incubated in extracts of three medicinal plants (Anacardium occidentale, Psidium guajava and Terminalia catappa)

  15. 10 - 18_Aworinde

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    From the data, Euphorbiaceae,. Solanaceae, Rutaceae, Malvaceae, Caesalpiniaceae, Poaceae and Apocynaceae (in order of decreasing number of species) were the most frequent Families. Taxa such as Musa species,. Vernonia amygdalina, Citrus species, Psidium guajava and Terminalia catappa were found to be the.

  16. A new Amazonian species from the Drosophila annulimana species group (Diptera, Drosophilidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco S. Gottschalk

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Drosophila caxiuana sp. nov., Drosophila subgenus, is described and illustrated. This new species was collected in the Amazonian Biome (Caquajó river, Portel, Pará, Brazil and is an atypical species to the group due the unusual morphology of the male terminalia.

  17. Ecogeographical Amplitude and Habitat of Two Species of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A systematic study involving phytogeography was carried out on two species of the genus-Terminalia in the Central Niger Delta Areas in River State. This research was aimed at establishing their biodynamic distribution and habitat in the study areas using the simple random sampling method based on standard procedure ...

  18. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-10-19

    Oct 19, 2011 ... recommended for use as non-conventional feeding materials. Fresh leaves of Myrianthus arboreus,. Gmelina arborea, Terminalia catappa and Dacroydes edulis were collected from farmlands in Asaba,. Delta State, Nigeria. Proximate analysis was carried out on the dried leaves to determine the levels of.

  19. DJODJOUWIN 2.xps

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP Pro 2000

    guinéennes au Bénin. Terminalia superba est un arbre caractéristique des forêts denses semi-décidues, envahissant les recrûs secondaires. L'espèce est grégaire, de pleine lumière et à croissance rapide. Holoptelea grandis est une espèce exigeante.

  20. Acute and chronic toxicity studies of the water extract from dried ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acute and chronic toxicities of the water extract from the dried fruits of Terminalia bellerica (Gaertn.) Roxb. were assessed in both female and male rats. For the study of acute toxicity, a single oral administration of the water extract at a dose of 5,000 mg/kg body weight (10 female, 10 male) was performed and the results ...

  1. AY Bala, T. Adamu, U. Abubakar, MJ Ladan and MG Abubakar

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acer

    About 20 – 25 parasites per microscope field were dosed with 1, 2 and 4mg/ml of aqueous extracts of .... brucei as test organisms. It is hoped ... in open air in the laboratory to avoid denaturing .... extract of Terminalia spp at 150mg/kg in mice.

  2. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alayande, MO. Vol 9, No 1 (2011) - Articles Bilateral perineal hernia with bladder retroflexion in a 13-year-old intact Jack-Russel Dog: Case report. Abstract PDF · Vol 9, No 2 (2011) - Articles Efficacy of Terminalia avicennoides and its combination with diminazene aceturate (Berenil®) in rats experimentally infected with ...

  3. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rai, K B. Vol 15, No 3 (2014) - Articles Terminalia catappa, an anticlastogenic agent against MMS induced genotoxicity in the human lymphocyte culture and in bone marrow cells of Albino mice. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1110-8630. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors ...

  4. Anti-inflammatory, anti-nociceptive and antipyretic potential of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Materials and Methods: Extracts of Terminalia citrina fruits were evaluated at doses of 200mg/kg, 400mg/kg and 600mg/kg in albino mice for preventive effect in inflammatory edema, peripheral pain sensation and pyrexia. Carrageenan induced paw edema method was utilized to evaluate anti-inflammatory activity.

  5. Occurrence and growth potentials of hydrocarbon degrading ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The surface of leaf samples from ten tropical plants, Anthocleista, Sarcophrynium, Canna, Colocassia, Musa, Cola, Citrus, Mangifera, Terminalia and Annona were cultured for the estimation of total heterotrophic and hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria. The total heterotrophic bacteria ranged from 0.75 x 107 to 0.98 x 107 ...

  6. Description of the female of Ctenodontina nairae Vieira (Diptera, Asilidae, Asilinae, with new distribution records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Vieira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Description of the female of Ctenodontina nairae Vieira (Diptera, Asilidae, Asilinae, with new distribution records. The female of Ctenodontina nairae Vieira, 2012 is described for the first time. Description and illustrations of the habitus, wing and terminalia of the female are provided. The distribution is extended to Bolivia and Peru.

  7. Inhibition of telomerase activity and cell growth by free and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    found in some plants such as Punica granatum,. Terminalia catappa and Combretum molle [10]. It has inhibitory effect on different kinds of cancer cells including prostate and colon cancer cells. [11,12]. However, the in vivo instability of punicalagin has restricted its use in biomedical research [13]. Previous studies showed ...

  8. JMBR VOLUME 15 Number 1 JUNE 2016 - correction.cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fineprint

    2016-06-01

    Jun 1, 2016 ... stem bark of Terminalia macroptera is safe for consumption in rats but caution must be given to ... evidence of the side effects associated with these medicinal plants .... obtain serum with an electric centrifuge- ..... mild inflammatory cells detected in the liver slides .... spectrophotometric method for measuring.

  9. comparative study on the proximate content of the flesh of red and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bashar

    bleomycin-induced genotoxicity in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Cancer Letters. 152;. 115-122. Christian, A. and Ukhun, E. (2006): Nutritional potential of the nut of tropical almond. (Terminalia catappa. L.). Pakistan Journal of. Nutrition. 5(4); 334-336. Corner, E.J.H. (1997): Way side trees of Malaya. 4th edition: The Malayan ...

  10. Effect of seed collection times and pretreatment methods on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-08-18

    Aug 18, 2008 ... Seeds were subjected to four treatment methods each at four ... were deep-green to brown while second collection was done when all .... discarded and the intact plump seeds were surface sterilized with .... Analysis of variance table for cumulative germination of Terminalia sericea for first seed collection.

  11. Resonance – Journal of Science Education | News

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    pp 478-481 Book Review. A Slot Machine, A Broken Test Tube · Vinita Shivakumar Dipshikha Chakravortty · More Details Fulltext PDF. pp 482-482 Information and Announcements. Sixty-Third Refresher Course in Experimental Physics · More Details Fulltext PDF. pp 483-483 Flowering Trees. Terminalia bellirica (Gaertn.).

  12. The use of polliniferous resources by Melipona capixaba, an endangered stingless bee species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, Bruna Danielle Vieira; da Luz, Cynthia Fernandes Pinto; Campos, Lucio Antonio de Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Pollen types present in samples from corbiculae of Melipona capixaba (Moure and Camargo) (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Meliponina) worker bees were analyzed, as well as pollen samples from food pots inside the hives in three sites located at the bees' original habitat. The aim was to find out the sources used as a trophic resource by this species. The dominant pollen grains in the spectrum of the samples belonged to the families Myrtaceae and Melastomataceae. Eucalyptus was the most frequent pollen type in the corbiculae in Conceição do Castelo municipality; Eucalyptus, Myrcia, and Melastomatacea/Combretaceae in the Fazenda do Estado district; and Eucalyptus and Myrcia in the São Paulo de Aracê district, both in the Domingos Martins municipality. Eucalyptus and Melastomataceae/Combretaceae were the predominant pollen types in the food pots. Eucalyptus was the most prevalent type all year round or most of the year. The most common pollen types in the months that Eucalyptus was not present or dominant in the samples were of remaining native forest species, "ruderal" (field) plants, fruit-bearing plants, and introduced ornamental plants.

  13. Effects of Aqueous Root Bark Extracts of Anogeissusleiocarpus (DC Guill&Perrand TerminaliaavicennioidesGuill&Perr on Redox and Haematological Parameters of Diethylnitrosamine-Administered Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amadu Kayode Salau

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study investigated the protective effects of aqueous extracts of Anogeissusleiocarpus (DC Guill&Perr (family: Combretaceae and Terminaliaavicennioides Guill&Perr (family: Combretaceae root barks, as well as their 1:1 (w/w mixture on liver redox and haematological parameters of diethylnitrosamine-treated rats. Methods: Rats were orally administered distilled water, diethylnitrosamine (30 mg/kg body weight once a week on weeks 3 and 4, curcumin (200 mg/kg body weight, extracts and 1:1 mixture (200, 400 and 800 mg/kg body weight for 4 weeks. Malondialdehyde, markers of oxidative stress and hematological indices were evaluated. Results: The extracts and their mixture significantly (P<0.05 reversed the diethylnitrosamine-induced alterations in the levels of liver malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glutathione, vitamin C and platelet counts. The other haematological parameters (red blood cell count, haemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular haemoglobin, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration, white blood cell count, lymphocyte count and neutrophil count were not affected by diethylnitrosamine and extracts. Conclusion: The extracts possess antioxidant, hepatoprotective and haemoprotective activities that compared well with curcumin. These activities were better exhibited by the mixture than the individual extracts.

  14. Triphala, Ayurvedic formulation for treating and preventing cancer: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baliga, Manjeshwar Shrinath

    2010-12-01

    Triphala (Sanskrit tri = three and phala = fruits), composed of the three medicinal fruits Phyllanthus emblica L. or Emblica officinalis Gaertn., Terminalia chebula Retz., and Terminalia belerica Retz. is an important herbal preparation in the traditional Indian system of medicine, Ayurveda. Triphala is an antioxidant-rich herbal formulation and possesses diverse beneficial properties. It is a widely prescribed Ayurvedic drug and is used as a colon cleanser, digestive, diuretic, and laxative. Cancer is a major cause of death, and globally studies are being conducted to prevent cancer or to develop effective nontoxic therapeutic agents. Experimental studies in the past decade have shown that Triphala is useful in the prevention of cancer and that it also possesses antineoplastic, radioprotective and chemoprotective effects. This review for the first time summarizes these results, with emphasis on published observations. Furthermore, the possible mechanisms responsible for the beneficial effects and lacunas in the existing knowledge that need to be bridged are also discussed.

  15. Coenosia Meigen (Diptera: Muscidae) from Angola: new species and records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couri, Marcia S; Pont, Adrian C

    2016-04-18

    The study of unidentified material from Angola (Africa), deposited in the collection of the Natural History Museum, London, United Kingdom, has revealed three new Coenosia species: Coenosia lucens sp. nov., Coenosia flavohumeralis sp. nov. and Coenosia setosa sp. nov., and five new records: Coenosia macrochaeta (Emden, 1940), Coenosia nodosa Stein, 1913, Coenosia ochroprocta (Speiser, 1910), Coenosia planifrons Stein, 1913 and Coenosia translucida (Emden, 1940). Only one species of Coenosia had previously been recorded from Angola: Coenosia sanguenguei Zielke 1971. The new species are described with illustrations of the male terminalia, and diagnoses of the newly-recorded species with descriptions of the male terminalia are given. A list of all Muscidae species recorded from Angola is presented.

  16. Current and future fire regimes and their influence on natural vegetation in Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Breugel, Paulo; Friis, Ib; Demissew, Sebsebe

    2016-01-01

    vegetation types. The effect of climate change varies considerably between climate change models and scenarios, but as general trend expansions of moist Afromontane forest and Combretum–Terminalia woodlands were predicted. Fire-prone areas were also predicted to increase, and including this factor...... in vegetation distribution models resulted in stronger expansion of Combretum–Terminalia woodlands and a more limited increase of moist Afromontane forests. These results underline the importance of fire as a regulating factor of vegetation distribution patterns, and how fire needs to be factored into predict......Fire is a major factor shaping the distribution of vegetation types. In this study, we used a recent high resolution map of potential natural vegetation (PNV) types and MODIS fire products to model and investigate the importance of fire as driver of vegetation distribution patterns in Ethiopia. We...

  17. Formulation and characterization of novel functional beverages with antioxidant and anti-acetylcholinesterase activities

    OpenAIRE

    Suree Nanasombat; Jidapa Thonglong; Jutharat Jitlakha

    2015-01-01

    Background: Nowadays, there is increased consumer demand for high-antioxidant foods. Drinking high-antioxidant beverages may help to protect against aging, Alzheimer’s disease, and other chronic diseases. Grapes and some plants including Phyllanthus emblica, Terminalia chebula, Kaempferia parviflora, Centella asiatica, Nelumbo nucifera, Rauvolfia serpentina, Ginkgo biloba, Crocus sativus, Clitoria ternatea and others are well-known to possess antioxidant, neuroprotective and other hea...

  18. A NEW SPECIES OF CHLEROGAS FROM THE ANDES OF CENTRAL COLOMBIA (HYMENOPTERA: HALICTIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engel M

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTA new species of the long-headed bee genus Chlerogas Vachal (Halictinae:Augochlorini is described and fi gured from a male captured at high elevation in centralColombia. Chlerogas tatamaensis Engel & Gonzalez, new species, is distinguishedfrom its congeners on the basis of integumental coloration and sculpturing as wellas features of the male terminalia. A revised key to the species of Chlerogas isprovided.

  19. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Action antibactérienne de l'extrait éthanolique 70% de Clerodendrum splendens (G. Don) (Verbenacae) sur des souches bactériennes isolées de selles chez des enfants diarrhéiques. Abstract PDF · Vol 8, No 3 (2014) - Articles Effet antibactérien de l'extrait aqueux de l'écorce de Terminalia glaucescens Planch ex Benth ...

  20. JOPAT [14th Edition - Jan to Dec 2009

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Secretary

    Phytochemical and Anti-sickling Activities of Terminalia catappa Linn. 1,2. 3. 3 ... established to be two triterpenic acids (1) 2б, 3в ,24 –Trihydroxyurs –12 – en – 28 – oic acid and (2) .... Hence the result from this experiment was transformed by curve ... Table 1: Rate constant of erythrocyte sickling kinetics in the presence of ...

  1. A new species and new records of Cryptodacus (Diptera: Tephritidae) from Colombia, Bolivia and Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Pedro Alexander; Rodriguez, Erick J; Norrbom, Allen L; Arévalo, Emilio

    2016-05-16

    Cryptodacus bernardoi Rodriguez & Rodriguez, new species, is described from Colombia. It was reared from fruits of Phoradendron sp. near piperoides (Kunth) Trel. New distribution records are reported for Cryptodacus ornatus Norrbom from Colombia and Peru, for Cryptodacus trinotatus Norrbom & Korytkowski from Colombia, and for Cryptodacus obliquus Hendel from Bolivia and Peru. The female abdomen and terminalia of C. obliquus is described for the first time. The Norrbom & Korytkowski (2008)`s key to species was modified to include C. bernardoi n. sp.

  2. Pictorial identification key for species of Sarcophagidae (Diptera of potential forensic importance in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Pinto e Vairo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Pictorial identification key for species of Sarcophagidae (Diptera of potential forensic importance in southern Brazil. Species of the subfamily Sarcophaginae are important to forensic entomology due to their necrophagous habits. This contribution presents a pictorial key for the identification of 22 Sarcophaginae species in 10 genera that are commonly found in southern Brazil. Photographs of the main structures used in species identification, mainly from the male terminalia, are provided.

  3. Floristic Composition, Tree Canopy Structure and Regeneration in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trees were the predominant plant form with 46 species (172 trees ha-1) while 7 shrubs, 15 lianas, 13 herbs, 1 grass and 1 fern species were recorded. Tree basal area and total volume were 10.29±0.88 m2 ha-1 and 22.43±1.85 m3 ha-1 respectively. The tallest tree height (35m) was recorded for Terminalia superba while ...

  4. Calycomyza hyptidis Spencer (Diptera,Agromyzidae: descriptions, redescriptions and first record in Ocimum basilicum (Lamiaceae in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Rodrigues de Sousa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Calycomyza hyptidis Spencer (Diptera, Agromyzidae: descriptions, redescriptions and first record in Ocimum basilicum (Lamiaceae in Brazil. All phases of the leafminer Calycomyza hyptidis Spencer are for the first time described, including the larva, puparium and adult female. Illustrations are presented for male and female terminalia, mine, larva and pupa. The species is first recorded in leaves of Ocimum basilicum L. (Lamiaceae in Brazil.

  5. Bioaccessible contents of inorganic elements in plant based edible materials by INAA and ICPMS methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maharia, R.S.; Dutta, R.K.; Acharya, R.; Reddy, A.V.R.

    2013-01-01

    We report total metal contents and their Bioaccessibility concentrations from Momordica Charantia (karela), Asparagus racemosus (satavari), Terminalia arjuna (arjuna bark) and Syzyzium cumini (jamun). The metal bioaccessibilities were determined by treating the dried powdered samples sequentially in gastric and intestinal fluid of porcine origin and the concentrations of the elements were determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICPMS). (author)

  6. Population Status of Commercially Important Medicinal Plants in Dehradun Forest Division, Uttarakhand (India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ninad B. RAUT

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of forest management in the tropics, in recent decades, has shifted from timber production to biodiversity conservation and maintenance of life support system. However, past forestry practices have greatly influenced the structure of plant communities, preponderance of foreign invasive species, populations of high value medicinal plants as well as other non-wood forest products. We assessed the abundance and distribution of medicinal plants in managed and undisturbed forests of Dehradun Forest Division (DFD, Uttarakhand (India. A total of 80 transects (each 1 km long were laid in various categories of forest types in DFD. This paper deals with distribution, availability and regeneration status of five commercially important species viz., Justicia adhatoda, Aegle marmelos, Phyllanthus emblica, Terminalia bellirica and Terminalia chebula, across different forest types. The study reveals that open canopy forest patches, Lantana infested patches and Acacia catechu-Dalbergia sissoo (Khair -Shisam woodlands in the eastern part of the DFD have excellent potential for the production and sustainable harvest of Justicia adhatoda. Areas those are less suitable for timber production viz., open hill forests, have greater potential for conservation and development of Aegle marmelos, Phyllanthus emblica and Terminalia bellirica. For the production and management of high value medicinal plants in the DFD these ecological considerations need to be kept in mind.

  7. Consumo de hojas por herbívoros en manglares del estuario del Río Dagua, Costa Pacífica Colombiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel C. Romero

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Leaf consumption by herbivores in mangroves of the Dagua river estuary, Pacific coast of Colombia. Herbivore leaf consumption of various mangrove species in relation to environmental factors and leaf hardness were studied in the Dagua river estuary, Colombia. Leaf consumption and damage were assessed by measuring the percentage of area attacked by herbivores, distinguishing between consumption and damage. The species that suffered the highest consumption, such as Avicennia germinans (Avicenniaceae and Laguncularia racemosa (Combretaceae, had softer leaves and less herbivore species when compared with Rhizophora spp. (Rhizophoraceae and Pelliciera rhizophorae (Theaceae. The abundance and diversity of leaf grazing and its variability among mangrove species in the Dagua River estuary, show the importance of the trophic dynamics of live vegetable matter, in spite of their relatively low contribution to removing organic matter. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54 (4: 1205-1214. Epub 2006 Dec. 15

  8. Arqueobotânica de um sambaqui sul-brasileiro: integrando indícios sobre o paleoambiente e o uso de recursos florestais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Ferreira de Melo Júnior

    Full Text Available Resumo Madeiras in natura são testemunhos raros em sítios arqueológicos de tipologia sambaqui. A partir da evidência de estacas encharcadas de madeira na base do sítio, objetivou-se conhecer as espécies vegetais e a sua funcionalidade no contexto arqueológico do sambaqui Cubatão I, localizado na região norte de Joinville, Santa Catarina, e com base datada de 3480 ± 60 AP. A caracterização da madeira foi realizada por meio de preparações histológicas e seguiu a terminologia proposta pela International Association of Wood Anatomists (IAWA. A determinação dos táxons deu-se mediante comparação em coleção de referência. Foram reconhecidas diferentes espécies madeiráveis de ocorrência natural nos ambientes de manguezal, floresta de terras baixas e restinga. Destacaram-se os seguintes táxons: Andira sp. (Fabaceae, Avicennia schaueriana (Acanthaceae, Bauhinia sp. (Fabaceae, Buchenavia sp. (Combretaceae, Handroanthus sp. (Bignoniaceae, Laguncularia racemosa (Combretaceae, Ocotea sp. (Lauraceae, Rhizophora mangle (Rhizophoraceae, Schinus sp. (Anacardiaceae e Xylopia (Annonaceae. Entre as propriedades físicas que conferem qualidade às madeiras identificadas, destaca-se a densidade básica, com valores médios a altos em sua maioria, indicando seu uso potencial em elementos com função estrutural. Dentre as possíveis interpretações, os resultados evidenciam o uso de madeiras para a construção de uma plataforma projetada para dar sustentação ao sítio, possivelmente em função das características plásticas dos solos de manguezal.

  9. Revision of the Neotropical Xanthandrus Verral (Diptera, Syrphidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borges Zuleica M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The Neotropical genus Xanthandrus Verral, 1901 is revised. Six species are redescribed: X. bucephalus (Wiedemann, 1830, X. cubanus Fluke, 1936, X. mellinoides (Macquart, 1846, X. mexicanus Curran, 1930, X. nitidulus Fluke, 1937, and X. plaumanni Fluke, 1937. Three species are included based on original descriptions: X. flavomaculatus Shannon, 1927, X. palliatus (Fluke, 1945, and X. simplex (Loew, 1861. New synonyms proposed: Argentinomyia longicornis (Walker, 1837 = Xanthandrus biguttatus Hull, 1945 syn. nov., and Xanthandrus bucephalus (Wiedemann, 1830 = Melanostoma quadrinotata Bigot, 1884 syn. nov. Description of terminalia, a key for Neotropical species, and illustrations are also presented.

  10. Fate of 15N-labelled urea as affected by organic amendments and oils applied to rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, G.R.; Singh, T.A.

    1987-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to explore the possibility of using 2 organic compounds (p-benzoquinone and catechol), 2 oils (neem oil (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) and linseed oil (Linum usitatissimum Linn.) oil) and 3 polyphenolic plant residues, viz. catechu (Acacia catechu (L.f.) Willd.), babul acacia (Acacia nilotica (Linn.) Willd. ex Del. sub.indica (Benth.) Brenan, syn. A. arabica (Lamk.) Willd.) and yellow myrobalan (Terminalia chebula Retz.) when applied with 15 N-tagged urea to observe their effectiveness in decreasing N losses. (author). 8 refs

  11. IN VITRO ANTIOXIDANT AND α-AMYLASE INHIBITION ACTIVITIES OF PANCHSAKAR CHURNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Kumar B.S.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Panchsakar Churna is the composition of Cassia angustifolia, Terminalia chebula, Zingiber officinale, Foeniculum vulgare and Saindhava lavana. Aqueous extract of churna was used to investigate antioxidant activity by ferrous ion chelating assay and ferric reducing power and alpha amylase inhibition activity by dinitrosalicylic acid method (DNSA. Aqueous extract of churna showed maximum ferrous chelating activity - 42.01 and ferric reducing power - 1.5 and 83.33 % of inhibition protein denaturation at 1000 µg/ml. Panchsakar churna showed significant antioxidant and alpha amylase inhibition activities.

  12. Compartmental model for tritium persistence in the soil-plant system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyengar, T.S.; Sadarangani, S.H.; Vaze, P.K.; Soman, S.D.

    1977-01-01

    A three-component computer model for tritium persistence in the soil-plant system, on the basis of an exponential polynomial is attempted. A series of field experiments with four species of trees, viz. Cardia sebastina, Terminalia catappa, Aracaria bidwilli and Mangifera indica, were carried out to generate data for testing the model. It is observed that there are two short-term components and one long-term component for tritium mean residence time, corresponding to the three phases of tritium in the system, viz. Tissue-Free-Water-Tritium, labile component of Tissue-Bound-Tritium and non-labile component of Tissue-Bound-Tritium. (author)

  13. Ecology and conservation status of canebrakes in Warangal District of Andhra Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Suthari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article describes cane-cum-bat roost site at Palampet (Warangal District, Andhra Pradesh, India. Although notified as a cane reserve by the state government, it is not spared off the usual habitat depletion and destruction. The functional pyramid formed of Calamus-Terminalia-Pteropus is reported here as first of its kind. This article also places on record seven more cane sites besides noting the importance of the ecology of Morancha Vagu and stressing the need for preserving its banks by planting Calamus rotang L. Ecological education to the local people about biodiversity value and conservation at all levels of its organization is called for.

  14. Taxonomic revision of the genus Hirotophora Brown et al. (Diptera: Phoridae) with the description of a new species from Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ament, Danilo cÉsar

    2018-03-16

    The monotypic genus Hirotophora Brown et al. is revised, with a new species from Chile, Hirotophora chilensis sp. nov., described, and Chaetopleurophora dividua and Chaetopleurophora flavimarginata transferred to this genus. The addition of these species is based on the genus diagnosis, which is amended here, and on the synapomorphies recognized for Hirotophora. All species of the genus are extensively illustrated and new diagnostic characters are described. Females of Hirotophora are more structurally divergent than males, which show almost no conspicuous differences in the male terminalia among the species. This is an uncommon scenario for the subfamily Phorinae, and may relate to still-unknown life history particularities of the species of this genus.

  15. Four new species of Luciuranus fireflies from the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest (Coleoptera: Lampyridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Luiz F L da; Souto, Paula M; Mermudes, J R M

    2018-04-20

    Luciuranus Silveira, Khattar Mermudes, 2016 is a firefly genus whose species bear an intricate, species-specific lock-and-key mechanism of reproductive isolation. Here we propose four new species, Luciuranus magnoculus sp. nov., L. desideratus sp. nov., L. takiyae sp. nov. and L. carioca sp. nov., and provide illustrations of their diagnostic features and an updated key to species. As previously reported for their congenerics, each of the four new species have stereotypical morphology of both male and female terminalia, and are regarded as prima facie endemics of single massifs of the Serra da Mantiqueira and Serra do Mar, in the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest.

  16. Vegetation structure characteristics and relationships of Kalahari woodlands and savannas

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Privette, JL

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available modeling has become widespread (e.g., Potter et al., 1993, 1998; Sellers et al., 1996). Nevertheless, knowledge of vegetation canopy struc- ture remains incomplete in many remote areas, such as sub-Saharan Africa. First, comparatively small changes... 929 460 Colophospermum mopane woodland with patches of Terminalia sericea thicket Harry Oppenheimer Okavango Research Centre; Measurements were 3km east of a permanent flux tower 23.591E Okwa River Crossing, Botswana 22.411S 1089 407 Open Kalahari...

  17. Populações de minhocas em sistemas agroflorestais com café convencional e orgânico Earthworms populations in agroforestry systems with conventional and organic coffee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Maria de Aquino

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, neste estudo, determinar se as populações das minhocas são alteradas em função do manejo do café (Coffea arabica em Turrialba, CostaRica. Os seguintes sistemas de cultivo do café foram estudados: a pleno sol (PS e sombreado com eritrina, Erythrina poeppigiana (E; terminalia, Terminalia amazonia (T e cashá, Chloroleucon eurycyclum (Ab. A hipótese foi de que o manejo orgânico do café e o fornecimento da serapilheira de melhor qualidade favoreceria a diversidade, a densidade e a biomassa das minhocas. As populações das minhocas foram alteradas, em função do manejo com insumos sintéticos ou orgânicos , sendo a densidade menor no café a pleno sol. Entre as espécies utilizadas no sombreamento, a eritrina parece limitar a abundância das minhocas. Contudo, favorece a diversidade das mesmas, tendo sido registradas duas espécies de minhocas com papéis ecológicos diferenciados, Pontoscolex corethrurus, endogeica e Metaphire californica, anécica; ao contrário dos demais tratamentos, onde somente foi encontrada a primeira espécie, considerada cosmopolita com distribuição pantropical.The aim of this study was to determine whether the populations of the earthworms are altered by coffee systems in Turrialba, Costa Rica. The following coffee management systems were studied: the sun and shading with Erythrina poeppigiana; terminalia, Terminalia amazonia or cashá, Chloroleucon eurycyclum. The hypothesis was that the organic management of the coffee and the litter input of better quality would favor the diversity, the density and the biomass of the earthworms. The populations of earthworms were differentiated with the synthetic or organic input. However, the density was lower in the coffee under the sun anyone the used species in the agroforestry, the eritrina seems to limit the abundance of the earthworms, but it favors the diversity of the same ones, being registered two species of earthworms with differentiated

  18. Impact of auto vehicular exhaust on some roadside trees during different seasons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafique, M.; Iqbal, M.Z.

    1999-01-01

    The leaf length, width, area and dry weight were used to demonstrate the effect of air pollution on the grown of Alstonia Scholaris, Terminalia arjuna and callistimone citrinus. The automobile emission significantly reduced the growth of T. arjuna and A. Sholaris at the highly polluted sites of the city. The automobile pollutants significantly reduced the leaf length, width and dry weight of T, arjuna at the Mall Road in summer, whereas A. sholaris was significantly (p<0.05) affected at the same site in winter season. Citrinus was found less affected as compared to the other species

  19. Two new Neotropical species of Ceracis Mellié (Coleoptera, Ciidae) and redefinition of the cucullatus group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes-Carvalho, Caio; Lopes-Andrade, Cristiano

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Two new Neotropical species of Ceracis Mellié are described: Ceracis cassumbensis Antunes-Carvalho & Lopes-Andrade, sp. n. from a single locality in northeastern Brazil and Ceracis navarretei Antunes-Carvalho & Lopes-Andrade, sp. n. from a single locality in southern Mexico. Scanning Electron Microscope images of adults and photographs of holotypes and male terminalia are provided for both species, their similarities and differences with other Ceracis are briefly discussed, and the cucullatus species-group is redefined for including the new species described herein. PMID:22140333

  20. Concentração de fluoreto na vegetação próxima do pólo de fertilizantes de Cubatão, São Paulo, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Tagawa,Priscilla Torres; Moruzzi,Durval Libutti; Cury,Jaime Aparecido

    2009-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar se a poluição por fluoreto observada em 1996 em Cubatão (SP), utilizando a vegetação como biomarcador, teve alterações nos últimos dez anos. Folhas de Terminalia cattappa (chapéu do sol), localizadas na região das indústrias de fertilizantes e na área urbana municipal, foram coletadas em 1996 e 2006. As folhas foram desidratadas, pulverizadas e fluoreto extraído com água foi analisado com eletrodo específico. A concentração de fluoreto encontrada nas folh...

  1. Fuelwood quality of promising tree species for alkaline soil sites in relation to tree age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goel, V.L.; Behl, H.M. [National Botanical Research Inst., Lucknow (India). Biomass Research Center

    1996-06-01

    The fuelwood quality of five tree species suitable for afforestation of alkaline soil sites was investigated in relation to tree age for establishing harvest rotation cycles. Prosopis juliflora and Acacia nilotica were found to be the most suitable species for short rotation fuel wood forestry programmes because of their high wood density, biomass yield, low ash and moisture content, and good heat of combustion at the juvenile stage. The performance of other species like Acacia auriculiformis, Terminalia arjuna and Sesbania formosa is discussed. (author)

  2. Triphala in prevention of dental caries and as an antimicrobial in oral cavity- a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanbhag, Vagish K L

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries is a widely prevalent infectious disease afflicting the humans worldwide. Each year oral infections such as dental caries, periodontal diseases and oral candidiasis significantly adds to the economic burden of the world. Though there are standard management techniques for these diseases; they do have side effects and are not cost effective. Ayurveda is a traditional Indian system of medicine that is being practiced in the Indian peninsula since ages. Among the various herbal medicines in ayurveda, triphala occupies a royal position due to its wide beneficial systemic actions. Triphala is a mixture of fruits of Terminalia bellirica, Terminalia chebula and Emblica officinalis. The antimicrobial actions of triphala are well documented in the literature. However availability of review articles regarding triphala as an antimicrobial against oral infections is limited. Need was felt to review this aspect of triphala. The present article reviews the use of triphala and its constituents in the prevention and control of dental caries and other common oral infections. Thorough review of the literature indicated that triphala can be effectively used to manage dental caries, gingival and periodontal diseases. Further it can also be utilized as a root canal irrigant and against oral candida species.

  3. Caracterización química de los extractos colorantes de siete especies forestales y del fijador natural, utilizado en 19 comunidades indígenas de Ucayali, Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Riveros

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó la caracterización química de las sustancias colorantes provenientes de las 07 especies y del fijador natural identificadas en la primera parte de la investigación, y que son utilizados como materia prima para el teñido de telas y artesanías por 19 comunidades indígenas de la Región Ucayali. Estas especies son: Trichilia maynasiana, Trichilia poeppigiana, Swietenia macrophylla, Buchenavia parvifolia, Terminalia oblonga,  Terminalia sp., y Picramnia juniniana. Los tintes y cortezas de estas especies sometidas a un tamizaje fitoquímico presentaron mayormente taninos, lactonas y flavonoides, en diferentes concentraciones, como principales metabolitos, mientras que la especie Picramia juniniana “ami”, de coloración lila, presento básicamente quinonas. En la arcilla empleada como fijador, denominada greda, barro especial o “mano”, se encontraron 32 elementos químicos con predominancia de silicio y aluminio con un pH ácido, mientras que el fijador reacciona con el tinte formando complejos denominados quelatos los cuales fijan el color sobre las fibras naturales.

  4. Triphala, a formulation of traditional Ayurvedic medicine, shows protective effect against X-radiation in HeLa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takauji, Yuki; Miki, Kensuke; Mita, Juma; Hossain, Mohammad Nazir; Yamauchi, Masatake; Kioi, Mitomu; Ayusawa, Dai; Fujii, Michihiko

    2016-12-01

    Ayurveda is a holistic medical system of traditional medicine, and Triphala is one of the most popular formulations in Ayurveda. Triphala is composed of three kinds of herb, Terminalia chebula, Terminalia bellirica, and Emblica officinalis. Since Triphala is shown to exhibit a protective activity against ionizing radiation in mice, we investigated its activity in HeLa cells. We found that Triphala showed the protective effects against X-radiation and bleomycin, both of which generate DNA strand breaks, in HeLa cells. Further, Triphala efficiently eliminated reactive oxygen species (ROS) in HeLa cells. Thus, the antioxidant activity of Triphala would likely play a role in its protective actions against X-radiation and bleomycin because both agents damage DNA through the generation of ROS. These observations suggested that the radioprotective activity of Triphala can be, at least partly, studied with the cells cultured in vitro. The simple bioassay system with human cultured cells would facilitate the understanding of the molecular basis for the beneficial effects of Triphala.

  5. An herbal formulation for hemorrhoids treatment

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    S. Dehdari

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Hemorrhoids is the most painful rectal disease. Straining and pregnancy seem playing chief roles in the development of hemorrhoids. Symptoms of hemorrhoids may include bleeding, inflammation and pain. Despite current medical efforts, many discomforts of hemorrhoids have not been handled. The aim of the present study was to formulate and evaluate Itrifal-e muqil (IM tablet to achieve desired pharmaceutical properties. Method: Quality control tests of Allium ampeloperasum L, Commiphora mukul (Hook. ex Stocks Engl., Phyllanthus emblica L., Terminalia chebula Retz. and Terminalia bellerica Retz. were performed. Afterwards, different formulations were prepared and their physical properties were evaluated. Subsequently, the formulation was coated and its physicochemical characteristics were assessed. Result: All of the herbs demonstrated good results in quality control tests according to United State Pharmacopeia (USP. Formulation-1 that was completely prepared based on explained manufacturing process of IM in traditional medicine manuscripts did not show suitable pharmaceutical properties. Among different formulations, Formulation-3 that consisted of A. ampeloperasum, C. mukul, P. emblica, T. chebula and T. bellerica, displayed best outcomes through different tests. Conclusion: Modern pharmaceutical approaches can excellently be adapted for IM preparations.

  6. Isolation and characterization of antimicrobial compounds in plant extracts against multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii.

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    Yoko Miyasaki

    Full Text Available The number of fully active antibiotic options that treat nosocomial infections due to multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii is extremely limited. Magnolia officinalis, Mahonia bealei, Rabdosia rubescens, Rosa rugosa, Rubus chingii, Scutellaria baicalensis, and Terminalia chebula plant extracts were previously shown to have growth inhibitory activity against a multidrug-resistant clinical strain of A. baumannii. In this study, the compounds responsible for their antimicrobial activity were identified by fractionating each plant extract using high performance liquid chromatography, and determining the antimicrobial activity of each fraction against A. baumannii. The chemical structures of the fractions inhibiting >40% of the bacterial growth were elucidated by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The six most active compounds were identified as: ellagic acid in Rosa rugosa; norwogonin in Scutellaria baicalensis; and chebulagic acid, chebulinic acid, corilagin, and terchebulin in Terminalia chebula. The most potent compound was identified as norwogonin with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 128 µg/mL, and minimum bactericidal concentration of 256 µg/mL against clinically relevant strains of A. baumannii. Combination studies of norwogonin with ten anti-Gram negative bacterial agents demonstrated that norwogonin did not enhance the antimicrobial activity of the synthetic antibiotics chosen for this study. In conclusion, of all identified antimicrobial compounds, norwogonin was the most potent against multidrug-resistant A. baumannii strains. Further studies are warranted to ascertain the prophylactic and therapeutic potential of norwogonin for infections due to multidrug-resistant A. baumannii.

  7. Evaluation of the Effects of Some Brazilian Medicinal Plants on the Production of TNF-α and CCL2 by THP-1 Cells

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    Grasielle S. Gusman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Several plant species are traditionally used in Brazil to treat various inflammatory diseases. Tumor necrosis factor- (TNF- α and chemokine (C-C motif ligand 2 (CCL2 are key inflammatory mediators in diseases like rheumatoid arthritis and atherosclerosis, respectively; nevertheless, only a few extracts have been assayed against these targets. We herein report the effect of 19 plant extracts on TNF-α and CCL2 release by lipopolysaccharide- (LPS- stimulated THP-1 cells, a human monocytic leukemia cell line, along with their radical scavenging activity on DPPH. The extracts of Caryocar brasiliense, Casearia sylvestris, Coccoloba cereifera, and Terminalia glabrescens inhibited TNF-α production in a concentration-dependent manner. Fractionation of these extracts potentiated the anti-TNF-α effect, which was shown to concentrate in polar fractions, mainly composed by polyphenols. Significant CCL2 inhibition was elicited by Lippia sidoides and Terminalia glabrescens extracts, whose fractionation resulted in highly active low polar fractions. All assayed extracts showed strong radical scavenging activity, but antioxidant activity did not correlate with inhibition of TNF-α or CCL2 production. Our results allowed identifying extracts with selective capacity to block cytokine production; therefore, further purification of these extracts may yield molecules that could be useful in the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases.

  8. Therapeutic Uses of Triphala in Ayurvedic Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Christine Tara; Denniston, Kate; Chopra, Deepak

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this article is to review the current literature on the therapeutic uses and efficacy of Triphala. Herbal remedies are among the most ancient medicines used in traditional systems of healthcare such as Ayurveda. Triphala, a well-recognized and highly efficacious polyherbal Ayurvedic medicine consisting of fruits of the plant species Emblica officinalis (Amalaki), Terminalia bellerica (Bibhitaki), and Terminalia chebula (Haritaki), is a cornerstone of gastrointestinal and rejuvenative treatment. A search of the PubMed database was conducted. In addition, numerous additional therapeutic uses described both in the Ayurvedic medical literature and anecdotally are being validated scientifically. In addition to laxative action, Triphala research has found the formula to be potentially effective for several clinical uses such as appetite stimulation, reduction of hyperacidity, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulating, antibacterial, antimutagenic, adaptogenic, hypoglycemic, antineoplastic, chemoprotective, and radioprotective effects, and prevention of dental caries. Polyphenols in Triphala modulate the human gut microbiome and thereby promote the growth of beneficial Bifidobacteria and Lactobacillus while inhibiting the growth of undesirable gut microbes. The bioactivity of Triphala is elicited by gut microbiota to generate a variety of anti-inflammatory compounds. This review summarizes recent data on pharmacological properties and clinical effects of Triphala while highlighting areas in need of additional investigation and clinical development.

  9. In vitro antiplasmodial and cytotoxic properties of some medicinal plants from western Burkina Faso.

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    Sanon, Souleymane; Gansane, Adama; Ouattara, Lamoussa P; Traore, Abdoulaye; Ouedraogo, Issa N; Tiono, Alfred; Taramelli, Donatella; Basilico, Nicoletta; Sirima, Sodiomon B

    2013-01-01

    Resistance of malaria parasites to existing drugs complicates treatment, but an antimalarial vaccine that could protect against this disease is not yet available. It is therefore necessary to find new effective and affordable medicines. Medicinal plants could be a potential source of antimalarial agents. Some medicinal plants from Burkina Faso were evaluated for their antiplasmodial and cytotoxic properties in vitro . Crude dichloromethane, methanol, water-methanol, aqueous and alkaloids extracts were prepared for 12 parts of 10 plants. Chloroquine-resistant malaria strain K1 was used for the in vitro sensibility assay. The Plasmodium lactacte dehydrogenase technique was used to determine the 50% inhibitory concentration of parasites activity (IC 50 ). The cytotoxic effects were determined with HepG2 cells, using the tetrazolium-based colorimetric technique, and the selectivity index (SI) was calculated. Sixty crude extracts were prepared. Seven extracts from Terminalia avicenoides showed IC 50 effect, with SI > 1. The other plants have mostly moderate or no antimalarial effects. Some extracts from Cordia myxa , Ficus capraefolia and Opilia celtidifolia showed cytotoxicity, with an SI ranging between 0.4 and 0.9. Our study showed a good antiplasmodial in vitro activity of Terminalia avicenoides, Combretum collinum and Ficus capraefolia . These three plants may contain antiplasmodial molecules that could be isolated by bio-guided phytochemical studies.

  10. In vitro antiplasmodial and cytotoxic properties of some medicinal plants from western Burkina Faso

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    Souleymane Sanon

    2013-03-01

    Methods: Crude dichloromethane, methanol, water-methanol, aqueous and alkaloids extracts were prepared for 12 parts of 10 plants. Chloroquine-resistant malaria strain K1 was used for the in vitro sensibility assay. The Plasmodium lactacte dehydrogenase technique was used to determine the 50% inhibitory concentration of parasites activity (IC50. The cytotoxic effects were determined with HepG2 cells, using the tetrazolium-based colorimetric technique, and the selectivity index (SI was calculated. Results: Sixty crude extracts were prepared. Seven extracts from Terminalia avicenoides showed IC50  1. The other plants have mostly moderate or no antimalarial effects. Some extracts from Cordia myxa, Ficus capraefolia and Opilia celtidifolia showed cytotoxicity, with an SI ranging between 0.4 and 0.9. Conclusion: Our study showed a good antiplasmodial in vitro activity of Terminalia avicenoides, Combretum collinum and Ficus capraefolia. These three plants may contain antiplasmodial molecules that could be isolated by bio-guided phytochemical studies.

  11. Effect of seven Indian plant extracts on Fenton reaction-mediated damage to DNA constituents.

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    Kar, Indrani; Chattopadhyaya, Rajagopal

    2017-11-01

    The influences of substoichiometric amounts of seven plant extracts in the Fenton reaction-mediated damage to deoxynucleosides, deoxynucleoside monophosphates, deoxynucleoside triphosphates, and supercoiled plasmid DNA were studied to rationalize anticancer properties reported in some of these extracts. Extracts from Acacia catechu, Emblica officinalis, Spondias dulcis, Terminalia belerica, Terminalia chebula, as well as gallic acid, epicatechin, chebulagic acid and chebulinic acid enhance the extent of damage in Fenton reactions with all monomeric substrates but protect supercoiled plasmid DNA, compared to standard Fenton reactions. The damage to pyrimidine nucleosides/nucleotides is enhanced by these extracts and compounds to a greater extent than for purine ones in a concentration dependent manner. Dolichos biflorus and Hemidesmus indicus extracts generally do not show this enhancement for the monomeric substrates though they protect plasmid DNA. Compared to standard Fenton reactions for deoxynucleosides with ethanol, the presence of these five plant extracts render ethanol scavenging less effective as the radical is generated in the vicinity of the target. Since substoichiometric amounts of these extracts and the four compounds produce this effect, a catalytic mechanism involving the presence of a ternary complex of the nucleoside/nucleotide substrate, a plant compound and the hydroxyl radical is proposed. Such a mechanism cannot operate for plasmid DNA as the planar rings in the extract compounds cannot stack with the duplex DNA bases. These plant extracts, by enhancing Fenton reaction-mediated damage to deoxynucleoside triphosphates, slow down DNA replication in rapidly dividing cancer cells, thus contributing to their anticancer properties.

  12. Survey on medicinal plants traditionally used in Senegal for the treatment of tuberculosis (TB) and assessment of their antimycobacterial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diop, ElHadji Assane; Queiroz, Emerson Ferreira; Kicka, Sébastien; Rudaz, Serge; Diop, Tahir; Soldati, Thierry; Wolfender, Jean-Luc

    2018-04-24

    ). These extracts showed no observable toxicity against amoeba host cells (Acanthamoeba castellanii). This study demonstrates that most of the patients do not concomitantly use plants and TB drugs (~90% of informants) but, instead, most are treated with medicinal plants before they are admitted to a hospital (41%). Interestingly, among the aqueous extracts assayed, two extracts (Combretum aculeatum (Combretaceae) and Guiera senegalensis (Combretaceae)) collected within this survey demonstrate antimycobacterial activities on the validated whole-cell based host-pathogen assay. Both extracts showed significant activities against intracellular and extracellular - M. marinum growth presenting IC 50 lower than 0.5mg/ml compared to the reference drug Rifampin (IC 50 of 0.4 and 7µg/ml). No toxicity was observed for amoebae cells at concentration until 0.8mg/ml. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Notas sobre a bionomia de Trichotrigona extranea Camargo & Moure (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponini Notes on the bionomy of Trichotrigona extranea Camargo & Moure (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponini

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    João M. F. Camargo

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Três ninhos de T. extranea, encontrados nas matas de igapó, na localidade de Samaúma, foz do rio Daraã (64°45'35" W, 0°27'7" S, AM, Brasil, são descritos e ilustrados. Este é o único lugar onde esta espécie é conhecida. Todos os ninhos estavam em ocos de ramos secos de "Tanimbuca" - Buchenavia suaveolens Eichler (Combretaceae. Dois deles compartilhavam o oco com ninhos de Frieseomelitta sp. e um era solitário. Um ninho continha 46 células de cria, 43 operárias adultas e uma rainha fisogástrica; o segundo, 240 células, 117 operárias, 25 machos e uma rainha fisogástrica; o terceiro, 260 células, 163 operárias, uma rainha fisogástrica e uma pupa de rainha. As células são construídas na forma de cacho, como em Friseomelitta, e as células de rainha são do mesmo tamanho e forma que as de operária. Não há potes de alimento - este é o único Meliponini que se conhece que não armazena alimento. Supostamente, esta espécie tem hábitos cleptobióticos. Rainhas e machos são também descritos.Three nests of T. extranea, found in "igapó" forests in the locality of Samaúma, mouth of Daraã river (64°45'35" W, 0°27'7" S, AM, Brazil, are described and illustrated. This is the only place from where this species is known. All nests were located in hollow of dried branches of "Tanimbuca" - Buchenavia suaveolens Eichler (Combretaceae. Two of them were sharing the hollow with nests of Frieseomelitta sp. and one was solitary. One nest had 46 brood cells, 43 adult workers and one physogastric queen; the second one, 240 cells, 117 adult workers, 25 males and one physogastric queen; the third one, 260 cells, 163 workers, one physogastric queen and one queen pupa. The cells are arranged in clusters, like in Frieseomelitta, and the queen cells has the same shape and size as the worker ones. There are no food pots - this is the only known Meliponini that does not store food. Supposedly, this species is cleptobiotic. Queens and males are

  14. Phytochemical Screening and Acute Toxicity of Aqueous Extract of Leaves of Conocarpus erectus Linnaeus in Swiss Albino Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Dayane K D; Souza, Ivone A DE; Oliveira, Antônio F M DE; Barbosa, Mariana O; Santana, Marllon A N; Pereira, Daniel F; Lira, Eduardo C; Vieira, Jeymesson R C

    2016-09-01

    Mangroves represent areas of high biological productivity and it is a region rich in bioactive substances used in medicine production. Conocarpus erectus (Combretaceae) known as button mangrove is one of the species found in mangroves and it is used in folk medicine in the treatment of anemia, catarrh, conjunctivitis, diabetes, diarrhea, fever, gonorrhea, headache, hemorrhage, orchitis, rash, bumps and syphilis. The present study aimed to investigate the acute toxicity of aqueous extract of leaves of C. erectus in Swiss albino mice. The plant material was collected in Vila Velha mangroves, located in Itamaracá (PE). The material was subjected to a phytochemical screening where extractive protocols to identify majority molecules present in leaves were used. The evaluation of acute toxicity of aqueous extract of C. erectus followed the model of Acute Toxicity Class based on OECD 423 Guideline, 2001. The majority molecules were identified: flavonoids, tannins and saponins. The LD50 was estimated at 2,000 mg/kg bw. Therefore, the aqueous extract showed low acute toxicity classified in category 5.

  15. Anti- Sporothrix spp. activity of medicinal plants

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    Stefanie Bressan Waller

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Cases of sporotrichosis in humans and animals without satisfactory clinical response have increased, a warning sign of strains resistant to conventional antifungal agents. The urgent search for alternative therapies was an incentive for research on medicinal plants with anti-Sporothrix spp. properties. A bibliographic survey was performed based on scientific papers about in vitro and in vivo antifungal activity of essential oils and extracts of plants in differents solvents against the fungal of the Sporothrix schenckii complex. The study methodology consisted of a literature review in Google Scholar, Science Direct, Pubmed, Bireme and Springer link with papers from 1986 to 2015. We found 141 species of plants that were investigated, of which 100 species were concentrated in 39 botanical families that had confirmed anti-Sporothrix activity. Combretaceae, Asteraceae and Lamiaceae represented the botanical families with the greatest number of plants species with antifungal potential, using different methodologies. However, there are few studies with medicinal plants in experimental infection in animals that prove their activity in the treatment of sporotrichosis. It reinforces the need for further research related to standardization of in vitro methodologies and in vivo studies related to safety and to toxicity potential of these plants with anti-Sporothrix spp. activity.

  16. Utilisation des espèces spontanées dans trois villages contigus du Sud du Burkina Faso

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    Guigma, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of Wild Plants Species in Three Adjoining Village Southern Burkina Faso. Wild species are very important for people in developing countries. To enrich the knowledge of useful wild species, series of ethnobotanical surveys was conducted in three adjoining villages of southern Burkina Faso. This survey has permitted to identify 147 species distributed in 117 genera and 52 families. Woody species represent 60% and grass 40%. Fifty percent of the species used belong to seven families: Poaceae, Caesalpiniaceae, Combretaceae, Mimosaceae, Rubiaceae, Fabaceae and Anacardiaceae. Ninety-seven species are used in medicines, 47 for crafts, 46 for cattle feeding, 40 for human nutrition and 21 to provide fire. In all plants use categories, the calculation of index values showed that there are species that are used more than others. Thus, Sarcocephalus latifolius is the species most commonly used in medicines, Parkia biglobosa in human nutrition, Afzelia africana in cattle feeding, Vitellaria paradoxa in crafts and Detarium microcarpum in wood fuel. The evaluation of the diversity of use revealed that wood species have high diversity of uses than herbaceous. V. paradoxa is the species most diversely used. The top five most used species are V. paradoxa, P. biglobosa, Khaya senegalensis, Tamarindus indica and A. africana. The results of this study provide a database to assess the availability and the evolutionary trend of species widely used in the locality.

  17. Modelo para estimar a área foliar de Combretum leprosum Mart.

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    Willame dos Santos Candido

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Combretum leprosum Mart. -Combretaceae es un arbusto utilizado en la medicina popular del noreste de Brasil como antiulceroso, antihemorrágica y antinociceptiva. En este estudio se desarrolló un modelo para el cálculo de área foliar de Combretum leprosum usando mediciones lineales de longitud (C y ancho máximo (L de la hoja. Se recolectaron 200 láminas de hojas de una población de C. leprosum nativo en un área de conservación de la Caatinga en el campus de la Universidad Federal Rural de la Semi árido en Mossoro, Rio Grande do Norte. Las hojas se obtuvieron de árboles adultos y el área foliar se midió utilizando un integrador (LI-3100, LI-COR. El análisis de regresión se hizo con el programa SAEG. Para estimar el área foliar de C. leprosum se puede utilizar la ecuación lineal simple de regresión A = 0.7103 x (C x L, que es equivalente a tomar 71.03% de los productos de la longitud a lo largo de la nervadura central y el ancho máximo, con un coeficiente de determinación de 0.952617.

  18. Combretum lanceolatum flowers extract shows antidiabetic activity through activation of AMPK by quercetin

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    Carlos Roberto Porto Dechandt

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated the antidiabetic activity of the Combretum lanceolatum Pohl ex Eichler, Combretaceae, flowers extract (ClEtOH in diabetic rats. Streptozotocin-diabetic rats were divided into four groups: diabetic control, diabetic treated with 500 mg/kg of metformin and diabetic treated with 250 or 500 mg/kg of ClEtOH for 21 days. The treatment of diabetic rats with 500 mg/kg of ClEtOH promoted an increase in the weight of liver, white adipose tissues and skeletal muscles, improving body weight gain. Diabetic rats treated with 500 mg/kg of ClEtOH also presented reduction in glycemia, glycosuria and urinary urea levels, and increase in liver glycogen content. HPLC chromatogram showed that quercetin is the major compound in the extract. The phosphorylation levels of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase were increased in liver slices incubated in vitro with 50 µg/mL of ClEtOH, similarly to the incubation with metformin (50 µg/mL or quercetin (10 µg/mL. The antihyperglycemic effect of ClEtOH was similar to that of metformin and appears to be through inhibition of gluconeogenesis, since urinary urea was reduced and skeletal muscle mass was increased. These data indicate that the antidiabetic activity of the Combretum lanceolatum extract could be mediated, at least in part, through activation of adenosine monophosphateactivated protein kinase by quercetin.

  19. Phytochemical Screening and Acute Toxicity of Aqueous Extract of Leaves of Conocarpus erectus Linnaeus in Swiss Albino Mice

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    DAYANE K.D. NASCIMENTO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Mangroves represent areas of high biological productivity and it is a region rich in bioactive substances used in medicine production. Conocarpus erectus (Combretaceae known as button mangrove is one of the species found in mangroves and it is used in folk medicine in the treatment of anemia, catarrh, conjunctivitis, diabetes, diarrhea, fever, gonorrhea, headache, hemorrhage, orchitis, rash, bumps and syphilis. The present study aimed to investigate the acute toxicity of aqueous extract of leaves of C. erectus in Swiss albino mice. The plant material was collected in Vila Velha mangroves, located in Itamaracá (PE. The material was subjected to a phytochemical screening where extractive protocols to identify majority molecules present in leaves were used. The evaluation of acute toxicity of aqueous extract of C. erectus followed the model of Acute Toxicity Class based on OECD 423 Guideline, 2001. The majority molecules were identified: flavonoids, tannins and saponins. The LD50 was estimated at 2,000 mg/kg bw. Therefore, the aqueous extract showed low acute toxicity classified in category 5.

  20. Ethnopharmacological survey of medicinal plants used for the management of pediatric ailments in Kano State, Nigeria

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    U.S. Abubakar

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: The knowledge of traditional uses of plant species used in the management of pediatric diseases in Kano State is still intact with the traditional healers; thus, the present study was aimed to collect, identify and document plant species used traditionally for the management of pediatric diseases in the study area. Methods: The ethnobotanical data was collected through informal interviews with the traditional medicine practitioners, traditional birth attendants, herb sellers and some health workers. Results: A total number of sixty eight plant species belonging to thirty five families were reported to be used in the disease management among children in the study area. Most of the plants species belonged to the Fabaceae, Poaceae, Anarcadiaceae, Asteraceae, Combretaceae and Solanaceae families, while Anogeissus leiocarpus, Boswellia dalzielii and Citrus sinensis were the most frequently mentioned plant species. Leaves and stem bark were the most used plant parts in this study. Conclusions: Further studies should be conducted to evaluate the pharmacological activities of the plant species that have not yet been investigated and also to identify the phytochemical constituents responsible for their activities.

  1. Characterization of the structure and composition of a fragment of coastal area of the Popular Council Belic, municipality Niquero

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    Marcos Manuel Domínguez García

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The investigation was carried out among the months of October from 2014 to May of 2016, in the Popular Council Belic belonging to the municipality Niquero, county Granma, with the objective of characterizing the structure and composition of the swamp ecosystem in this area. The species of the area were listed using the method of band transecto, rushing 13 bands transecto for a total area of 26 000 m2. 84 species of plants and 7 649 individuals belonging to 33 botanical families were determined; being the families Rhizophoraceae, Verbenaceae and Combretaceae the most important to be typical species of this ecosystem like: Rhizophora mangle, Avicennia germinans, Laguncularia racemosa and Conocarpus erectus, which play an important part in the protection of the coastal area. In a general way it is presented in the area a diversity of half species, reinforced approach when determining the indexe of Shannon (1,094. This value of diversity can be associated to the man's intervention, when pouring solid residuals and waste of agricultural parcels to the swamp ecosystem and talar the present species in the coastal area in a stealthy way.

  2. Ampliando o conhecimento sobre a flora fanerogâmica do Ceará

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    Iracema Bezerra Loiola

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A pesquisa teve como objetivo geral conhecer, descrever e atualizar a distribuição geográfica dos representantes de Cactaceae, Capparaceae, Combretaceae e Erythroxylaceae ocorrentes no estado do Ceará. Para a coleta de amostras botânicas foram realizadas, no período de 2011 a 2013, quatro expedições de campo em 24 municípios pré-selecionados. Cada expedição teve duração de cinco dias e a participação de cinco componentes. As coleções foram depositadas no herbário EAC e duplicatas distribuídas a herbários nacionais. Os principais resultados obtidos foram: ampliação do número de coleções georreferenciadas e identificadas corretamente; produção de artigos sobre a flora cearense e descrição de uma nova espécie de Erythroxylum (Erythroxylaceae.

  3. Ethnobotanical Study of Plants Used in the Management of HIV/AIDS-Related Diseases in Livingstone, Southern Province, Zambia

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    Kazhila C. Chinsembu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Faced with critical shortages of staff, long queues, and stigma at public health facilities in Livingstone, Zambia, persons who suffer from HIV/AIDS-related diseases use medicinal plants to manage skin infections, diarrhoea, sexually transmitted infections, tuberculosis, cough, malaria, and oral infections. In all, 94 medicinal plant species were used to manage HIV/AIDS-related diseases. Most remedies are prepared from plants of various families such as Combretaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, and Lamiaceae. More than two-thirds of the plants (mostly leaves and roots are utilized to treat two or more diseases related to HIV infection. Eighteen plants, namely, Achyranthes aspera L., Lannea discolor (Sond. Engl., Hyphaene petersiana Klotzsch ex Mart., Asparagus racemosus Willd., Capparis tomentosa Lam., Cleome hirta Oliv., Garcinia livingstonei T. Anderson, Euclea divinorum Hiern, Bridelia cathartica G. Bertol., Acacia nilotica Delile, Piliostigma thonningii (Schumach. Milne-Redh., Dichrostachys cinerea (L. Wight and Arn., Abrus precatorius L., Hoslundia opposita Vahl., Clerodendrum capitatum (Willd. Schumach., Ficus sycomorus L., Ximenia americana L., and Ziziphus mucronata Willd., were used to treat four or more disease conditions. About 31% of the plants in this study were administered as monotherapies. Multiuse medicinal plants may contain broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents. However, since widely used plants easily succumb to the threats of overharvesting, they need special protocols and guidelines for their genetic conservation. There is still need to confirm the antimicrobial efficacies, pharmacological parameters, cytotoxicity, and active chemical ingredients of the discovered plants.

  4. Ethnobotanical Study of Plants Used in the Management of HIV/AIDS-Related Diseases in Livingstone, Southern Province, Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinsembu, Kazhila C

    2016-01-01

    Faced with critical shortages of staff, long queues, and stigma at public health facilities in Livingstone, Zambia, persons who suffer from HIV/AIDS-related diseases use medicinal plants to manage skin infections, diarrhoea, sexually transmitted infections, tuberculosis, cough, malaria, and oral infections. In all, 94 medicinal plant species were used to manage HIV/AIDS-related diseases. Most remedies are prepared from plants of various families such as Combretaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, and Lamiaceae. More than two-thirds of the plants (mostly leaves and roots) are utilized to treat two or more diseases related to HIV infection. Eighteen plants, namely, Achyranthes aspera L., Lannea discolor (Sond.) Engl., Hyphaene petersiana Klotzsch ex Mart., Asparagus racemosus Willd., Capparis tomentosa Lam., Cleome hirta Oliv., Garcinia livingstonei T. Anderson, Euclea divinorum Hiern, Bridelia cathartica G. Bertol., Acacia nilotica Delile, Piliostigma thonningii (Schumach.) Milne-Redh., Dichrostachys cinerea (L.) Wight and Arn., Abrus precatorius L., Hoslundia opposita Vahl., Clerodendrum capitatum (Willd.) Schumach., Ficus sycomorus L., Ximenia americana L., and Ziziphus mucronata Willd., were used to treat four or more disease conditions. About 31% of the plants in this study were administered as monotherapies. Multiuse medicinal plants may contain broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents. However, since widely used plants easily succumb to the threats of overharvesting, they need special protocols and guidelines for their genetic conservation. There is still need to confirm the antimicrobial efficacies, pharmacological parameters, cytotoxicity, and active chemical ingredients of the discovered plants.

  5. Fungal Planet description sheets: 154-213.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crous, P W; Wingfield, M J; Guarro, J; Cheewangkoon, R; van der Bank, M; Swart, W J; Stchigel, A M; Cano-Lira, J F; Roux, J; Madrid, H; Damm, U; Wood, A R; Shuttleworth, L A; Hodges, C S; Munster, M; de Jesús Yáñez-Morales, M; Zúñiga-Estrada, L; Cruywagen, E M; de Hoog, G S; Silvera, C; Najafzadeh, J; Davison, E M; Davison, P J N; Barrett, M D; Barrett, R L; Manamgoda, D S; Minnis, A M; Kleczewski, N M; Flory, S L; Castlebury, L A; Clay, K; Hyde, K D; Maússe-Sitoe, S N D; Chen, Shuaifei; Lechat, C; Hairaud, M; Lesage-Meessen, L; Pawłowska, J; Wilk, M; Sliwińska-Wyrzychowska, A; Mętrak, M; Wrzosek, M; Pavlic-Zupanc, D; Maleme, H M; Slippers, B; Mac Cormack, W P; Archuby, D I; Grünwald, N J; Tellería, M T; Dueñas, M; Martín, M P; Marincowitz, S; de Beer, Z W; Perez, C A; Gené, J; Marin-Felix, Y; Groenewald, J Z

    2013-12-01

    Novel species of microfungi described in the present study include the following from South Africa: Camarosporium aloes, Phaeococcomyces aloes and Phoma aloes from Aloe, C. psoraleae, Diaporthe psoraleae and D. psoraleae-pinnatae from Psoralea, Colletotrichum euphorbiae from Euphorbia, Coniothyrium prosopidis and Peyronellaea prosopidis from Prosopis, Diaporthe cassines from Cassine, D. diospyricola from Diospyros, Diaporthe maytenicola from Maytenus, Harknessia proteae from Protea, Neofusicoccum ursorum and N. cryptoaustrale from Eucalyptus, Ochrocladosporium adansoniae from Adansonia, Pilidium pseudoconcavum from Greyia radlkoferi, Stagonospora pseudopaludosa from Phragmites and Toxicocladosporium ficiniae from Ficinia. Several species were also described from Thailand, namely: Chaetopsina pini and C. pinicola from Pinus spp., Myrmecridium thailandicum from reed litter, Passalora pseudotithoniae from Tithonia, Pallidocercospora ventilago from Ventilago, Pyricularia bothriochloae from Bothriochloa and Sphaerulina rhododendricola from Rhododendron. Novelties from Spain include Cladophialophora multiseptata, Knufia tsunedae and Pleuroascus rectipilus from soil and Cyphellophora catalaunica from river sediments. Species from the USA include Bipolaris drechsleri from Microstegium, Calonectria blephiliae from Blephilia, Kellermania macrospora (epitype) and K. pseudoyuccigena from Yucca. Three new species are described from Mexico, namely Neophaeosphaeria agaves and K. agaves from Agave and Phytophthora ipomoeae from Ipomoea. Other African species include Calonectria mossambicensis from Eucalyptus (Mozambique), Harzia cameroonensis from an unknown creeper (Cameroon), Mastigosporella anisophylleae from Anisophyllea (Zambia) and Teratosphaeria terminaliae from Terminalia (Zimbabwe). Species from Europe include Auxarthron longisporum from forest soil (Portugal), Discosia pseudoartocreas from Tilia (Austria), Paraconiothyrium polonense and P. lycopodinum from Lycopodium

  6. The use of ethnobotanicals in the management of inflammation in Nigeria: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TR Fasola

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation, one of the leading health issues in recent times call for concern. Many plants used in the management and treatment of inflammation in various parts of Nigeria have not been properly harnessed hence this review. The result of this review revealed that plants commonly used for the treatment of inflammation include: Zingiber officinale, Alstonia boonei, Plumbago zeylanica, Ocimum basilicum, Parquetina nigrescens, Peperomia pellucida, Abrus precatorius, Tetrapleura tetraptera, Alchornea cordifolia, Terminalia ivorensis, Aspilia africana, Ageratum conyzoides and Hymenocardia acida. Altogether 74 plant species are ethnobotanicals used in the management and treatment of inflammation. The plants were enumerated with their family names, common and local names, possible chemical constituents, part(s used, route of administration and subsequent references where available.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v4i2.12620 International Journal of Environment Vol.4(2 2015: 1-18

  7. In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Spices and Medicinal Herbs against Selected Microbes Associated with Juices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romika Dhiman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation, comparison of antimicrobial activities of different spices, Curcuma longa, Zingiber officinale, and Mentha arvensis, and medicinal herbs, such as Withania somnifera, Rauvolfia serpentina, Emblica officinalis, Terminalia arjuna, and Centella asiatica, was evaluated. Different extraction solvents (acetone, methanol, ethanol, and water were used and extracts were examined against Bacillus cereus, Serratia sp., Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, Aspergillus flavus, and Penicillium citrinum isolated from juices. Extracts from the medicinal herb and spices have significant activity. B. cereus was the most sensitive and R. mucilaginosa was the most resistant among the microorganisms tested. Ethanolic and methanolic extract of C. asiatica displayed maximum diameter of inhibition zone against bacteria and yeast and percentage mycelial inhibition against moulds. This study confirmed the potential of selected extracts of spices as effective natural food preservative in juices.

  8. In vitro screening for anti-cholinesterase and antioxidant activity of methanolic extracts of ayurvedic medicinal plants used for cognitive disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya Mathew

    Full Text Available Inhibition of Acetylcholinesterase (AChE is still considered as the main therapeutic strategy against Alzheimer's disease (AD. Many plant derived phytochemicals have shown AChE inhibitory activity in addition to the currently approved drugs for AD. In the present study, methanolic extracts of 20 plants used in Indian Ayurvedic system of medicine for improving cognitive function were screened for acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity by Ellman's microplate colorimetric method. Out of 20 extracts, Emblica officinalis, Nardostachys jatamansi, Nelumbo nucifera, Punica granatum and Raulfia Serpentina showed IC50 values <100 µg/ml for acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. Antioxidant activities of these plants were assessed by DPPH scavenging assay. Among the extracts used, antioxidant activity was highest for Terminalia chebula and Emblica officinalis with IC50 values <10 µg/ml. Considering the complex multifactorial etiology of AD, these plant extracts will be safer and better candidates for the future disease modifying therapies against this devastating disease.

  9. Role of homoeopathic mother tinctures in rheumatoid arthritis: An experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surender Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The objective of present preliminary study was to assess the anti-inflammatory, analgesic and anti-arthritic effect of some homoeopathic mother tinctures viz. Ricinus communis (RCMT, Rauwolfia serpentina (RSMT, Bellis perennis (BPMT, Curcuma longa (CLMT, Terminalia arjuna (TAMT and Tribulus terresteris (TTMT. Materials and Methods: Paw oedema was induced by administration of 0.1ml 1% carrageenan in normal saline into right hind paw. Degree of inflammation was evaluated according to paw swelling. Arthritis was induced by Complete Freund′s Adjuvant (CFA injection in metatarsal footpad of Wistar albino rats. Result: Curcuma longa and Tribulus terresteris mother tinctures reduced hind paw swelling decreased the paw volume in Carrageenan treated rats. Thus, revealed potent activity against inflammation. All homoeopathic mother tinctures showed peripheral analgesic activities in hot plate induced thermal algesia in mice.

  10. In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Spices and Medicinal Herbs against Selected Microbes Associated with Juices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhiman, Romika; Aggarwal, Neeraj; Aneja, Kamal Rai; Kaur, Manpreet

    2016-01-01

    In the present investigation, comparison of antimicrobial activities of different spices, Curcuma longa, Zingiber officinale, and Mentha arvensis, and medicinal herbs, such as Withania somnifera, Rauvolfia serpentina, Emblica officinalis, Terminalia arjuna, and Centella asiatica, was evaluated. Different extraction solvents (acetone, methanol, ethanol, and water) were used and extracts were examined against Bacillus cereus, Serratia sp., Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, Aspergillus flavus, and Penicillium citrinum isolated from juices. Extracts from the medicinal herb and spices have significant activity. B. cereus was the most sensitive and R. mucilaginosa was the most resistant among the microorganisms tested. Ethanolic and methanolic extract of C. asiatica displayed maximum diameter of inhibition zone against bacteria and yeast and percentage mycelial inhibition against moulds. This study confirmed the potential of selected extracts of spices as effective natural food preservative in juices. PMID:26880927

  11. In Vitro Screening for Anti-Cholinesterase and Antioxidant Activity of Methanolic Extracts of Ayurvedic Medicinal Plants Used for Cognitive Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Maya; Subramanian, Sarada

    2014-01-01

    Inhibition of Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is still considered as the main therapeutic strategy against Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Many plant derived phytochemicals have shown AChE inhibitory activity in addition to the currently approved drugs for AD. In the present study, methanolic extracts of 20 plants used in Indian Ayurvedic system of medicine for improving cognitive function were screened for acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity by Ellman’s microplate colorimetric method. Out of 20 extracts, Emblica officinalis, Nardostachys jatamansi, Nelumbo nucifera, Punica granatum and Raulfia Serpentina showed IC50 values <100 µg/ml for acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. Antioxidant activities of these plants were assessed by DPPH scavenging assay. Among the extracts used, antioxidant activity was highest for Terminalia chebula and Emblica officinalis with IC50 values <10 µg/ml. Considering the complex multifactorial etiology of AD, these plant extracts will be safer and better candidates for the future disease modifying therapies against this devastating disease. PMID:24466247

  12. Endophytic Fungi of Various Medicinal Plants Collected From Evergreen Forest Baluran National Park and Its Potential as Laboratory Manual for Mycology Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Murdiyah

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Endophytic fungi found on a variety of medicinal plants may express particular benefit. These fungi provide an alternative to overcome the progressive microbial resistance and as an effort to combat infectious diseases that became one of the leading causes of mortality. The main objective of this study was to isolate endophytic fungi from leaf samples of five medicinal plants species collected from evergreen forests Baluran National Park and its use as laboratory manual for Micology. Research findings showed there were 3 isolates of endophytic fungi isolated from 2 medicinal plants namely Kesambi (Schleicera oleosa and Ketapang (Terminalia catappa. All three isolates formed sporangiophores as asexual reproductive structures, while the structure of sexual still undiscovered therefore its classification has not been determined. The validity tests also showed that the lab manual is feasible for use with the percentage achievement 85.37% and 88.56%.

  13. Activity of a crude extract formulation in experimental hepatic amoebiasis and in immunomodulation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohni, Y R; Bhatt, R M

    1996-11-01

    The activity of a crude extract formulation was evaluated in experimental amoebic liver abscess in golden hamsters and in immunomodulation studies. The formulation comprises the following five plants-Boerhavia diffusa, Tinospora cordifolia, Berberis aristata, Terminalia chebula and Zingiber officinale. The formulation had a maximum cure rate of 73% at a dose of 800 mg/kg/day in hepatic amoebiasis reducing the average degree of infection (ADI) to 1.3 as compared to 4.2 for sham-treated controls. In immunomodulation studies humoral immunity was enhanced as evidenced by the haemagglutination titre. The T-cell counts remained unaffected in the animals treated with the formulation but cell-mediated immune response was stimulated as observed in the leukocyte migration inhibition (LMI) tests.

  14. Restoration of Degraded Soil in the Nanmangalam Reserve Forest with Native Tree Species: Effect of Indigenous Plant Growth-Promoting Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Andimuthu; Radhapriya, Parthasarathy

    Restoration of a highly degraded forest, which had lost its natural capacity for regeneration, was attempted in the Nanmangalam Reserve Forest in Eastern Ghats of India. In field experiment, 12 native tree species were planted. The restoration included inoculation with a consortium of 5 native plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB), with the addition of small amounts of compost and a chemical fertilizer (NPK). The experimental fields were maintained for 1080 days. The growth and biomass varied depending on the plant species. All native plants responded well to the supplementation with the native PGPB. The plants such as Pongamia pinnata, Tamarindus indica, Gmelina arborea, Wrightia tinctoria, Syzygium cumini, Albizia lebbeck, Terminalia bellirica, and Azadirachta indica performed well in the native soil. This study demonstrated, by using native trees and PGPB, a possibility to restore the degraded forest.

  15. Restoration of Degraded Soil in the Nanmangalam Reserve Forest with Native Tree Species: Effect of Indigenous Plant Growth-Promoting Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andimuthu Ramachandran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Restoration of a highly degraded forest, which had lost its natural capacity for regeneration, was attempted in the Nanmangalam Reserve Forest in Eastern Ghats of India. In field experiment, 12 native tree species were planted. The restoration included inoculation with a consortium of 5 native plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB, with the addition of small amounts of compost and a chemical fertilizer (NPK. The experimental fields were maintained for 1080 days. The growth and biomass varied depending on the plant species. All native plants responded well to the supplementation with the native PGPB. The plants such as Pongamia pinnata, Tamarindus indica, Gmelina arborea, Wrightia tinctoria, Syzygium cumini, Albizia lebbeck, Terminalia bellirica, and Azadirachta indica performed well in the native soil. This study demonstrated, by using native trees and PGPB, a possibility to restore the degraded forest.

  16. Microbial transformation of tannin-rich substrate to gallic acid through co-culture method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Rintu; Mukherjee, Gargi; Patra, Krushna Chandra

    2005-05-01

    Modified solid-state fermentation (MSSF) of tannin-rich substrate yielding tannase and gallic acid was carried out using a co-culture of the filamentous fungi, Rhizopus oryzae (RO IIT RB-13, NRRL 21498) and Aspergillus foetidus (GMRB013 MTCC 3557). Powdered fruits of Terminalia chebula and powdered pod cover of Caesalpinia digyna was used in the process and the different process parameters for maximum production of tannase and gallic acid by co-culture method were optimized through media engineering. MSSF was carried out at the optimum conditions of 30 degrees C and 80% relative humidity. The optimal pH and incubation period was 5.0 and 48 h respectively. Through the co-culture technique the maximum yield of tannase and gallic acid was found to be 41.3 U/ml and 94.8% respectively.

  17. Ecological factors governing the distribution of soil microfungi in some forest soils of Pachmarhi Hills, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashi Chauhan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An ecological study of the microfungi occurring in the various forest soils of Pachmarhi Hills, India has been carried-out by the soil plate technique. Soil samples from 5 different forest communities viz., moist deciduous forest dominated by tree ferns, Diospyros forest, Terminalia forest, Shorea forest and scrub forest dominated by Acacia and Dalbergia sp. were collected during October, 1983. Some physico-chemical characteristics of the soil were analysed and their role in distribution of fungi in 5 soil types was studied and discussed. 43 fungal species were isolated, of which Asperigillus niger I and Penicillium janthinellum occurred in all the 5 soil types. Statistically, none of the edaphic factors showed positive significant correlation with the number of fungi.

  18. Graphomya Robineau-Desvoidy from Costa Rica: descriptions and first records (Diptera, Muscidae

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    MS. Couri

    Full Text Available Graphomya Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera, Muscidae occurs in temperate and tropical regions of the world. It is known in the Neotropical Region from fifteen species. The genus is here recorded for the first time from Costa Rica, on the basis of three species: G. auriceps Malloch, 1934; G. mexicana Giglio-Tos, 1893 and G. tropicalis Malloch, 1934. A key for the recognition of these three species is given. G. auriceps is redescribed, including the morphology of male and female terminalia and the male of G. tropicalis is described for the first time. For G. mexicana, a well-known species in the literature, only a brief diagnosis and the material examined are listed.

  19. Firewood crops in areas of brackish water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaturvedi, A.N.

    1984-01-01

    Parts of the Mathura, Agra, Etah and Aligarh districts of Uttar Pradesh have a special problem of brackish water which is the result of the complete destruction of natural vegetation during a period of several centuries. Twenty species of trees and shrubs (listed) were planted during 1981-1982 in plots of 30 x 30 m at a spacing of 1.5 x 1.5 m. A detailed analysis of water from the Forest Research Station, Mathura is presented; pH ranged from 7.00 to 7.85 and electrical conductivity from 4.0 to 6.10. Various salt concentrations were high. At 18 months old the species that were doing well were: Prosopis juliflora, Acacia nilotica, Terminalia arjuna, Syzygium cumini, Albizia lebbek, Pongamia pinnata, Cassia auriculata, Adhatoda vasica and Cassia siamea.

  20. Germination des semences, développement et croissance de quelques essences locales en zone forestière

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mapongmetsem, RM.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Seed Germination, Growth and Development of some Local tree Species of the Forest Zone. Studies were conducted on eight indigenous multipurpose trees species : Alstonia boonei. De Wild, Ceiba pentandra (L. Gearth., Cordia platythyrsa Bark., Milicia excelsa (Welw ce Berg., Pycnanthus angolensis (Welw Warb., Ricinodendron heudelotii (Baill. Pierre ex Pax., Terminalia superba. Engl. et Diels et Triplochiton scleroxylon K. Schum. The objective of the study was to evaluate germination capacity, development and growth rate of the seedlings of the above mentionned species. The results showed that manual of seeds was clearly superior to the use of the other methods. For the initial growth, Ceiba pentandra and Ricinodendron heudelotii had the fastest growth. AH the species developped tap root system.

  1. Timber tree regeneration along abandoned logging roads in a tropical Bolivian forest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nabe-Nielsen, J.; Severiche, W.; Fredericksen, T.

    2007-01-01

    Sustainable management of selectively logged tropical forests requires that felled trees are replaced through increased recruitment and growth. This study compares road track and roadside regeneration with regeneration in unlogged and selectively logged humid tropical forest in north-eastern Boli......Sustainable management of selectively logged tropical forests requires that felled trees are replaced through increased recruitment and growth. This study compares road track and roadside regeneration with regeneration in unlogged and selectively logged humid tropical forest in north......-eastern Bolivia. Some species benefited from increased light intensities on abandoned logging roads. Others benefited from low densities of competing vegetation on roads with compacted soils. This was the case for the small-seeded species Ficus boliviana C.C. Berg and Terminalia oblonga (Ruiz & Pav.) Steud. Some...

  2. Identification of pyrogallol as an antiproliferative compound present in extracts from the medicinal plant Emblica officinalis: effects on in vitro cell growth of human tumor cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mahmud Tareq Hassan; Lampronti, Ilaria; Martello, Dino; Bianchi, Nicoletta; Jabbar, Shaila; Choudhuri, Mohammad Shahabuddin Kabir; Datta, Bidduyt Kanti; Gambari, Roberto

    2002-07-01

    In this study we compared the in vitro antiproliferative activity of extracts from medicinal plants toward human tumor cell lines, including human erythromyeloid K562, B-lymphoid Raji, T-lymphoid Jurkat, erythroleukemic HEL cell lines. Extracts from Emblica officinalis were the most active in inhibiting in vitro cell proliferation, after comparison to those from Terminalia arjuna, Aphanamixis polystachya, Oroxylum indicum, Cuscuta reflexa, Aegle marmelos, Saraca asoka, Rumex maritimus, Lagerstroemia speciosa, Red Sandalwood. Emblica officinalis extracts have been studied previously, due to their hepatoprotective, antioxidant, antifungal, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory medicinal activities. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analyses allowed to identify pyrogallol as the common compound present both in unfractionated and n-butanol fraction of Emblica officinalis extracts. Antiproliferative effects of pyrogallol were therefore determined on human tumor cell lines thus identifying pyrogallol as an active component of Emblica officinalis extracts.

  3. Bioindicators in the tropical forest of Kaiga environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somashekarappa, H.M.; Narayana, Y.; Radhakrishna, A.P.; Karunakara, N.; Balakrishna, K.M.; Siddappa, K.

    1996-01-01

    Investigations on the natural and artificial fallout radionuclides 210 Po and 137 Cs and the primordial radionuclide 40 K in the prominent tree species of Western Ghat tropical forests near Kaiga have been carried out as a part of baseline background radiation studies in the environment of Kaiga where nuclear power reactors are being installed. The prominent tree species of the region Tectona grandis L.f. and Terminalia paniculata Roth., and the commonly available epiphytic plant species Pterobryopsis tumida (Hook.) Dix. and Cymbidium aliofolium (Lo) Swartz. were chosen and concentrations of 40 K, 210 Po and 137 Cs were measured employing well-established nuclear techniques. The different parts of Cumbidium aloifolium (Lo) Swartz. such as leaves, stem, etc. were analysed to understand the absorption mechanism of fallout radionuclides. From a careful analysis of the results, the epiphytic plant species are identified as bioindicators to monitor fallout radionuclides. (Author)

  4. Evaluation of fuel wood quality of four fuel tree species used for fish smoking in the Sene District of the Brong Ahafo Region of Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neequaye-Tetteh, G.A.; Quashie-Sam, S.J.; Dassah, A. L.

    2004-01-01

    Full text. The fuel wood quality of four trees, Terminalia avicennoides, Anogeissus Ieiocarpus, Combretum ghasalense and Pterocarpus arinaceus, which are easily available and widely used as fuel wood for fish smoking in the Sene District of the Brong Ahafo Region of Ghana was assessed. The specific gravity, calorific values, and burning times were determined. The mean specific gravity values for T. avicennoides, A. leiocarpus, C. ghasalense, and P. erinaceus were 0.97, 0.96, and 0.97, respectively. These values were not significantly different (P<0.05). The calorific values were 19,368.0 kj/kg for T avicennoides, 18,905.2 kj/kg for A. leiocarpus, 18,665.8 kj/kg for C. ghasalense, and 19,694.1 kj/kg for P. erinaceus. The values were not significantly different (P<0.05) between T. avicennoides and A. leiocarpus and C. ghasalense. However, there were significant differences (P<0.05) in the calorific values between T. avicennoides and C. ghasalense, A. leiocarpus and P. erinaceus, and C. ghasalense and P. erinaceus. The time in minutes required in burning equal lengths (60 cm) of the four species of fuel wood were 360 for T. avicennoides, 260 for A. leiocarpus, 195 for C. ghasalense, and 175 for P. erinaceus. These values were significantly different (P<0.0 1), with P. erinaceus burning almost twice as fast as T. avicennoides. Ranking the four fuel wood species from least to highest burning times, T. avicennoides burnt slowest, followed by A. leiocarpus, C. ghasalense, and P. erinaceuse. The specific gravity and calorific values recorded indicate that wood from the four species is suitable for use as fuel. Terminalia avicennoides, which burnt slowest, was most preferred for fish smoking, followed by A. leiocarpus and C. ghasalense. The fast-burning P. erinaceus was least preferred for fish smoking. (au)

  5. Concentração de fluoreto na vegetação próxima do pólo de fertilizantes de Cubatão, São Paulo, Brasil Fluoride concentration in the adjacent vegetation next to fertilizer industries of Cubatão, São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla Torres Tagawa

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar se a poluição por fluoreto observada em 1996 em Cubatão (SP, utilizando a vegetação como biomarcador, teve alterações nos últimos dez anos. Folhas de Terminalia cattappa (chapéu do sol, localizadas na região das indústrias de fertilizantes e na área urbana municipal, foram coletadas em 1996 e 2006. As folhas foram desidratadas, pulverizadas e fluoreto extraído com água foi analisado com eletrodo específico. A concentração de fluoreto encontrada nas folhas das árvores localizadas ao redor do pólo de fertilizantes foi doze vezes maior do que a naquelas da área urbana, tanto em 1996 como 2006. Sugere-se que a poluição ambiental por fluoreto em Cubatão não apresentou melhoria em dez anos.The aim of this study was to evaluate if fluoride pollution found in 1996 in Cubatão, SP, Brazil, using the vegetation as biomarker, changed in the last ten years. Leaves of Terminalia cattappa located at the industrial area around the industries of fertilizers and in the urban area of the city were collected in 1996 and 2006. They were dried, powdered and fluoride water soluble extracted was analyzes with specific electrode. The fluoride concentration in the leaves around fertilizer industries was 12 times greater than that found in the urban area, either in 1996 or 2006, respectively. The data suggest that in the last ten years the environmental pollution by fluoride in Cubatão has not improved.

  6. Estructura y composición florística de tres robledales en la región norte de la cordillera central de Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan D León

    2009-12-01

    whether these forests showed similarities in their structure and floristic composition. In each site, a permanent plot of 5000 m2 (0.5 ha was established. All trees with D ≥ 10 cm were sampled and identified to species. The Importance Value Index (IVI was calculated as the sum of relative density (DeR, dominance (DoR and frequency (FR of a species. Trees with 5 ≤ D < 10 cm and 2 ≤ D < 5 cm were registered in sub-plots of 0.05 and 0.0144 ha, respectively. Finally, we used Jaccard’s Index to quantify the floristic similarity among oak forest. When we considered all trees with D ≥ 10 cm in the three forests, the number of species ranged from 18 to 54, whilst the number of individuals ranged from 326 to 680. The Guarne oak forest showed the highest species richness. In all sites, Q. humboldtii (Fagaceae was the most important species in relation to the IVI, while Clusia sp. (Clusiaceae and Myrsine coriaceae (Myrsinaceae were the most important species in San Andrés de Cuerquia, Clethra fagifolia (Clethraceae was important only in Belmira and Myrcia popayanensis (Myrtaceae was important in Guarne. The families with the highest number of species were Fabaceae, Melastomataceae and Rubiaceae. Floristic similarity among places was low. The size distribution of trees had an inverse J- shape curve for all sites with changes in the abundance for size class. The three oak forests differed in their structure and floristic composition probably because of different disturbance degrees. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (4: 1165-1182. Epub 2009 December 01.

  7. Avaliação de efeitos de espécies de mangue na distribuição de Melampus coffeus (Gastropoda, Ellobiidae no Ceará, nordeste do Brasil Evaluation of local effects of mangrove species on the distribution of Melampus coffeus (Gastropoda, Ellobiidae in Ceara, northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela C. Maia

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Melampus coffeus (Linnaeus, 1758 é um gastrópode pulmonado, macrodetritívoro, importante na transferência de energia em manguezais neotropicais, mas sua distribuição em diferentes escalas espaciais ainda é pouco conhecida nas regiões brasileiras. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a distribuição de M. coffeus com relação: 1 às espécies Rhizophora mangle Rhizophoraceae e Laguncularia racemosa Combretaceae; 2 à posição dos rizóforos de R. mangle e 3 à altura das árvores em diferentes manguezais. O seu comportamento ao longo do ciclo de marés também foi descrito. A densidade de M. coffeus foi similar entre R. mangle e L. racemosa, porém os maiores caramujos foram encontrados nas árvores de R. mangle. A distribuição dos caramujos encontrados no sedimento diferiu em relação aos rizóforos, com maior densidade no centro e o maior tamanho na borda da área amostral. Entretanto, não houve relação com a disponibilidade de recursos alimentares formados por folhas. A densidade também foi maior nos manguezais baixo e médio quando comparados ao alto, porém não foram encontradas diferenças de tamanho dos caramujos em mangues de alturas distintas. Observamos também que, durante a maré alta, M. coffeus sobe nas árvores mais próximas. Estes resultados podem estar relacionados principalmente com a disponibilidade de recursos e abrigos fornecidos por R. mangle. Desta forma, novos estudos sobre a distribuição de M. coffeus sob diversas condições são recomendáveis, já que as regiões de manguezais estão cada vez mais sujeitas a perturbações.Melampus coffeus (Linnaeus, 1758 is a pulmonate, macrodetritivore gastropod, important in energy flows in neotropical mangroves, but its distribution in different spatial scales is still unknown in Brazil. The objective of this study was to evaluate the distribution of M. coffeus: 1 among the mangrove trees Rhizophora mangle Rhizophoraceae and Laguncularia racemosa

  8. Woody Vegetation Die off and Regeneration in Response to Rainfall Variability in the West African Sahel

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    Martin Brandt

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The greening in the Senegalese Sahel has been linked to an increase in net primary productivity, with significant long-term trends being closely related to the woody strata. This study investigates woody plant growth and mortality within greening areas in the pastoral areas of Senegal, and how these dynamics are linked to species diversity, climate, soil and human management. We analyse woody cover dynamics by means of multi-temporal and multi-scale Earth Observation, satellite based rainfall and in situ data sets covering the period 1994 to 2015. We find that favourable conditions (forest reserves, low human population density, sufficient rainfall led to a rapid growth of Combretaceae and Balanites aegyptiaca between 2000 and 2013 with an average increase of 4% woody cover. However, the increasing dominance and low drought resistance of drought prone species bears the risk of substantial woody cover losses following drought years. This was observed in 2014–2015, with a die off of Guiera senegalensis in most places of the study area. We show that woody cover and woody cover trends are closely related to mean annual rainfall, but no clear relationship with rainfall trends was found over the entire study period. The observed spatial and temporal variation contrasts with the simplified labels of “greening” or “degradation”. While in principal a low woody plant diversity negatively impacts regional resilience, the Sahelian system is showing signs of resilience at decadal time scales through widespread increases in woody cover and high regeneration rates after periodic droughts. We have reaffirmed that the woody cover in Sahel responds to its inherent climatic variability and does not follow a linear trend.

  9. Woody vegetation die off and regeneration in response to rainfall variability in the west African Sahel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Martin; Tappan, G. Gray; Aziz Diouf, Abdoul; Beye, Gora; Mbow, Cheikh; Fensholt, Rasmus

    2017-01-01

    The greening in the Senegalese Sahel has been linked to an increase in net primary productivity, with significant long-term trends being closely related to the woody strata. This study investigates woody plant growth and mortality within greening areas in the pastoral areas of Senegal, and how these dynamics are linked to species diversity, climate, soil and human management. We analyse woody cover dynamics by means of multi-temporal and multi-scale Earth Observation, satellite based rainfall and in situ data sets covering the period 1994 to 2015. We find that favourable conditions (forest reserves, low human population density, sufficient rainfall) led to a rapid growth of Combretaceae and Balanites aegyptiaca between 2000 and 2013 with an average increase of 4% woody cover. However, the increasing dominance and low drought resistance of drought prone species bears the risk of substantial woody cover losses following drought years. This was observed in 2014–2015, with a die off of Guiera senegalensis in most places of the study area. We show that woody cover and woody cover trends are closely related to mean annual rainfall, but no clear relationship with rainfall trends was found over the entire study period. The observed spatial and temporal variation contrasts with the simplified labels of “greening” or “degradation”. While in principal a low woody plant diversity negatively impacts regional resilience, the Sahelian system is showing signs of resilience at decadal time scales through widespread increases in woody cover and high regeneration rates after periodic droughts. We have reaffirmed that the woody cover in Sahel responds to its inherent climatic variability and does not follow a linear trend.

  10. Pleistocene fossil woods from the Okote Member, site FwJj 14 in the Ileret region, Koobi Fora Formation, northern Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamford, Marion K

    2017-11-01

    On the eastern side of Lake Turkana in northern Kenya are extensive Plio-Pleistocene deposits containing a rich diversity of fossil mammals, hominins and flora within the radiometrically dated tuffaceous, lacustrine and fluvial sequence. Reconstruction of this landscape and paleoenvironment are part of an ongoing multinational and multidisciplinary human evolution project in the eastern Turkana Basin. Today there is a huge lake in the Rift Valley but it has fluctuated since the early Pliocene. Silicified wood is fairly common in some areas of the Koobi Fora Formation. One such site is FwJj 14E, alongside one of the tributaries of the Ileret River. Hominin hand and arm bones have been excavated from here in the Okote Member and dated at 1.56-1.36 Ma. The fossils are associated with hominin and bovid footprints. Sixty of the over 100 wood specimens collected have been sectioned and studied. In general the woods have large vessels and an average vulnerability index of 40, which implies a mesic megathermal environment with no water stress. Taxonomically the woods belong to large African families: Caesalpiniaceae (Didelotia idae), Combretaceae (Anogeissus sp.), Putranjivaceae (Euphorbiaceae; Drypetes sp.), Lamiaceae (cf Premna sp.), Malvaceae (Heritiera sp.) and Sapindaceae (Sapindoxylon sp.). Most of these taxa do not occur in the area today because now it is much drier and the local vegetation is predominantly Acacia-Commiphora-Salvadora shrubland. The reconstruction of the paleovegetation supports the interpretation from the fauna, namely, a tall riverine forest with shady refuge trees, possibly some edible fruits, and wooded grassland and more open bushland in the vicinity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Mapping and Assessment of Ethno-Medicinal Trees in Built Up Areas - University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria

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    Olatunde Sunday Eludoyin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Several urban tree species are important in ethno-medicine, especially in the developing tropical regions. Their assessment in urban landscapes is becoming an important issue. The study assessed and mapped the ethno-medicinal trees in the built up area land use type of the University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria, with a view to examining their spatial variation in terms of composition and diversity between the residential and non-residential areas of the University Park. Materials and Methods: The study employed the use of geographic information system (ArcGIS 9.3 for the mapping. Built up area land use was subdivided into residential and non-residential where the ethno-medicinal trees were recorded, identified and enumerated. Global positioning system was used to determine the coordinates of each tree. The species composition and diversity were calculated and a comparison was made between the residential and non- residential land use types. The pattern of spread of the ethno-medicinal trees was determined by the nearest neighbour analysis. Results: A total of 37 ethno-medicinal trees species were found in the study area, while the species composition was 499 in the residential area and 438 in the non-residential area. Azadirachta indica was the highest (233 in composition. Ethno-medicinal tree species in the study area consist of 19 families of which Anacardiaceae, Rutaceae, Moraceae and Combretaceae were the highest. Species diversity was higher in the non-residential land use (2.698 than in the residential land use (2.222. Conclusion: The nearest neighbour analysis reveals that the z-score value was higher in the non-residential area (-23.06 than in the residential area (-0.30, but the pattern of distribution in both areas were clustered. The study recommended periodic monitoring and the assessment of ethno-medicinal trees in the study area for conservation purposes.

  12. Determination of the silvo-melliferous regions of Benin: a nationwide categorisation of the land based on melliferous plants suitable for timber production

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    Felicien Amakpe

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Perennial plants are the main pollen and nectar sources for bees in the tropical areas where most of the annual flora are burned in dry seasons. Therefore perennial plants constitute the most reliable bio materials for determining and evaluating the beekeeping regions of the Republic of Benin. A silvo-melliferous region (S-MR is a geographical area characterised by a particular set of homogenous melliferous plants that can produce timber. Using both the prevailing climatic and the agro-ecological conditions six S-MRs could be identified, i.e. the South region, the Common Central region, the Central West region, the Central North region, the Middle North region and the Extreme North region. At the country level, the melliferous plants were dominated by Vitellaria paradoxa which is common to all regions. The most diversified family was the Caesalpiniaceae (12 species followed by the Combretaceae (10 species and Combretum being the richest genus. The effect of dominance is particularly high in the South region where Elaeis guineensis alone represented 72.6% of the tree density and 140% of the total plant importance. The total melliferous plant density varied from 99.3 plants ha^(−1 in the Common Central region to 178.0 plants ha^(−1 in the Central West region. On the basis of nectar and pollen source, the best region for beekeeping is the CentralWest region with 46.7% of nectar producing trees, 9.4% of pollen producing trees and 40.6% of plants that issue both, this in opposition to the South region which was characterised by an unbalanced distribution of melliferous trees.

  13. Medicinal plants in the treatment of Helicobacter pylori infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safavi, Maliheh; Shams-Ardakani, Mohammadreza; Foroumadi, Alireza

    2015-07-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a small, spiral, Gram-negative bacillus that plays a role in the pathogenesis of a number of diseases ranging from asymptomatic gastritis to gastric cancer. Schedule compliance, antibiotic drug resistance, and side-effects of triple or quadruple therapy have led to research for novel candidates from plants. The purpose of this paper is to review the most potent medicinal plants of recently published literature with anti-H. pylori activity. For centuries, herbals have been used by traditional healers around the world to treat various gastrointestinal tract disorders such as dyspepsia, gastritis, and peptic ulcer disease. The mechanism of action by which these botanicals exert their therapeutic properties has not been completely and clearly elucidated. Anti-H. pylori properties may be one of the possible mechanisms by which gastroprotective herbs treat gastrointestinal tract disorders. Electronic databases such as PubMed, Google scholar, EBSCO, and local databases were explored for medicinal plants with anti-H. pylori properties between 1984 and 2013 using key words "medicinal plants" and "Helicobacter pylori" or "anti-Helicobacter pylori". A total of 43 medicinal plant species belonging to 27 families including Amaryllidaceae, Anacardiaceae, Apiaceae, Apocynaceae, Asclepiadoideae, Asteraceae, Bignoniaceae, Clusiaceae, Chancapiedra, Combretaceae, Cyperaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, Geraniaceae, Lamiaceae, Lauraceae, Lythraceae, Menispermaceae, Myristicaceae, Myrtaceae, Oleaceae, Papaveraceae, Plumbaginaceae, Poaceae, Ranunculaceae, Rosaceae, and Theaceae were studied as herbs with potent anti-H. pylori effects. Traditional folk medicinal use of some of these plants to treat gastric infections is substantiated by the antibacterial activity of their extracts against H. pylori.

  14. Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used in the treatment of animal diarrhoea in Plateau State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offiah, Nkechi V; Makama, Sunday; Elisha, Ishaku L; Makoshi, Micah S; Gotep, Jurbe G; Dawurung, Christiana J; Oladipo, Olusola O; Lohlum, Ann S; Shamaki, David

    2011-07-11

    The use of medicinal plants in the treatment of diseases has generated renewed interest in recent times, as herbal preparations are increasingly being used in both human and animal healthcare systems. Diarrhoea is one of the common clinical signs of gastrointestinal disorders caused by both infectious and non-infectious agents and an important livestock debilitating condition. Plateau State is rich in savannah and forest vegetations and home to a vast collection of plants upheld in folklore as having useful medicinal applications. There is however scarcity of documented information on the medicinal plants used in the treatment of animal diarrhoea in the state, thus the need for this survey. Ten (10) out of 17 Local Government Areas (LGAs), spread across the three senatorial zones were selected. Farmers were interviewed using well structured, open-ended questionnaire and guided dialogue techniques between October and December 2010. Medicinal plants reported to be effective in diarrhoea management were collected using the guided field-walk method for identification and authentication. A total of 248 questionnaires were completed, out of which 207 respondents (83.47%) acknowledged the use of herbs in diarrhoea management, while 41 (16.53%) do not use herbs or apply other traditional methods in the treatment of diarrhoea in their animals. Medicinal plants cited as beneficial in the treatment of animal diarrhoea numbered 132, from which 57(43.18%) were scientifically identified and classified into 25 plant families with the families Fabaceae (21%) and Combretaceae (14.04%) having the highest occurrence. The plant parts mostly used in antidiarrhoeal herbal preparations are the leaves (43.86%) followed by the stem bark (29.82%). The herbal preparations are usually administered orally. Rural communities in Plateau State are a rich source of information on medicinal plants as revealed in this survey. There is need to scientifically ascertain the authenticity of the claimed

  15. Identification of natural metabolites in mixture: a pattern recognition strategy based on (13)C NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubert, Jane; Nuzillard, Jean-Marc; Purson, Sylvain; Hamzaoui, Mahmoud; Borie, Nicolas; Reynaud, Romain; Renault, Jean-Hugues

    2014-03-18

    Because of their highly complex metabolite profile, the chemical characterization of bioactive natural extracts usually requires time-consuming multistep purification procedures to achieve the structural elucidation of pure individual metabolites. The aim of the present work was to develop a dereplication strategy for the identification of natural metabolites directly within mixtures. Exploiting the polarity range of metabolites, the principle was to rapidly fractionate a multigram quantity of a crude extract by centrifugal partition extraction (CPE). The obtained fractions of simplified chemical composition were subsequently analyzed by (13)C NMR. After automatic collection and alignment of (13)C signals across spectra, hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) was performed for pattern recognition. As a result, strong correlations between (13)C signals of a single structure within the mixtures of the fraction series were visualized as chemical shift clusters. Each cluster was finally assigned to a molecular structure with the help of a locally built (13)C NMR chemical shift database. The proof of principle of this strategy was achieved on a simple model mixture of commercially available plant secondary metabolites and then applied to a bark extract of the African tree Anogeissus leiocarpus Guill. & Perr. (Combretaceae). Starting from 5 g of this genuine extract, the fraction series was generated by CPE in only 95 min. (13)C NMR analyses of all fractions followed by pattern recognition of (13)C chemical shifts resulted in the unambiguous identification of seven major compounds, namely, sericoside, trachelosperogenin E, ellagic acid, an epimer mixture of (+)-gallocatechin and (-)-epigallocatechin, 3,3'-di-O-methylellagic acid 4'-O-xylopyranoside, and 3,4,3'-tri-O-methylflavellagic acid 4'-O-glucopyranoside.

  16. Is the WBE model appropriate for semi-arid shrubs subjected to clear cutting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issoufou, Hassane Bil-Assanou; Rambal, Serge; Le Dantec, Valérie; Oï, Monique; Laurent, Jean-Paul; Saadou, Mahamane; Seghieri, Josiane

    2015-02-01

    It is crucial to understand the adaptive mechanisms of woody plants facing periodic drought to assess their vulnerability to the increasing climate variability predicted in the Sahel. Guiera senegalensis J.F.Gmel is a semi-evergreen Combretaceae commonly found in Sahelian rangelands, fallows and crop fields because of its value as an agroforestry species. We compared canopy leafing, and allometric measurements of leaf area, stem area and stem length and their relationships with leaf water potential, stomatal conductance (gs) and soil-to-leaf hydraulic conductance (KS-L), in mature and current-year resprouts of G. senegalensis in Sahelian Niger. In mature shrubs, seasonal drought reduced the ratio of leaf area to cross-sectional stem area (AL : AS), mainly due to leaf shedding. The canopy of the current-year resprouts remained permanently leafed as the shrubs produced leaves and stems continuously, and their AL : AS ratio increased throughout the dry season. Their KS-L increased, whereas gs decreased. West, Brown and Enquist's (WBE) model can thus describe allometric trends in the seasonal life cycle of undisturbed mature shrubs, but not that of resprouts. Annual clear cutting drives allometric scaling relationships away from theoretical WBE predictions in the current-year resprouts, with scaling exponents 2.5 times greater than those of mature shrubs. High KS-L (twice that of mature shrubs) supports this intensive regeneration process. The adaptive strategy described here is probably common to many woody species that have to cope with both severe seasonal drought and regular disturbance over the long term. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Pharmacognostical studies of leaves of Combretum albidum G. Don

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    Ashish S Zalke

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Combretum albidum Don belonging to family Combretaceae is an unexplored medicinal plant in the Indian medicinal system. According to ethnobotanical information, the leaves are used in the treatment of peptic ulcer and its fruits are used in diarrhoea and dysentery. Stem bark is used in the treatment of jaundice and skin diseases. The problem encountered in standardisation of this medicinal plant is its identification by source. Materials and Methods: The pharmacognostical studies were carried out in terms of organoleptic, macroscopic, microscopic, physicochemical, florescence and phytochemical analysis. Physicochemical parameters such as total ash, moisture content and extractive values are determined by World Health Organization guidelines. The microscopic features of leaf components are observed with Nikon lab photo device with microscopic units. Results: Macroscopically, the leaves are simple, obovate in shape, acuminate apex, entire margin and smooth surface. Microscopically, the leaves showed a large vascular strand that consists of thick walled xylem elements mixed with xylem fibres and phloem which is present in a thin layer along inner and outer portions of xylem. External to the xylem occur a thin line of sclerenchyma. Powder microscopy revealed glandular trichomes in the adaxial epidermal peelings also shows the non-glandular trichomes fairly common in powder and epidermis with anisocytic stomata. Vessels elements are narrow, long, cylindrical and dense multi-seriate bordered pits. Xylem fibres are thin and long, with thick walls, which are lignified. Preliminary phytochemical screening showed the presence of carbohydrate, glycoside, saponin, flavonoid, phytosterols and phenolic compounds. Conclusions: The results of the study can serve as a valuable source of pharmacognostic information as suitable standards for identification of this plant material in future investigations and applications.

  18. Ethnobotanical investigation on medicinal plants in Algoz area (South Kordofan), Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issa, Tahani Osman; Mohamed, Yahya Sulieman; Yagi, Sakina; Ahmed, Reem Hassan; Najeeb, Telal Mohammed; Makhawi, Abdelrafie Mohamed; Khider, Tarig Osman

    2018-04-27

    The inhabitants of western Sudan use traditional medicine for the treatment of various ailments due to lack of medical doctors and unaffordable prices of pharmaceutical products. The present study is the first documentation of the traditional plant knowledge on medicinal uses of plants by healers in Algoz (South Kordofan), Sudan. Ethnobotanical data were collected over a period from March to November 2015 using semi-structured interviews with 30 healers (24 male and 6 female) living in the investigated area. Quantitative indices such as use categories, use value (UV) and informant consensus factor (ICF) were intended to evaluate the importance of medicinal plant species. A total of 94 medicinal plants, which belong to 45 families and 81 genera, were recorded in the study area. The most represented families are Leguminosae with 20 species followed by Combretaceae (6 species), Rubiaceae (5 species) and Asteraceae (4 species). The reported species were belonging to herbs (43%), trees (28%), shrubs (22%), climbers (4%) and parasites (3%). Root and stem (21% each) were the most plant parts used. A majority of remedies are administered orally (67%) where infusion (36%) and maceration (32%) are the most used methods. The highest ICF (0.87) was reported for poisonous animal bites followed by urinary system diseases (0.89), blood system disorders (0.88) and gynaecological diseases (0.87). Anastatica hierochuntica, Ctenolepis cerasiformis, Echinops longifolius, Cleome gynandra, Maerua pseudopetalosa, Martynia annua, Oldenlandia uniflora, Opuntia ficus-indica, Solanum dubium, Sonchus cornutus, Tribulus terrestris and Drimia maritima were reported for the first time in this study. The number of medicinal plants reported in this paper reflects evidence that Algoz area had a high diversity of medicinal plants which will continue to play an important role in the healthcare system in the study area.

  19. [Tri-phalā (Three Myrobalans) as Described in the Second Part of the Bower Manuscript, the Nāvanītaka].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natsume, Yohko

    2015-01-01

    In India, since ancient times Tri-phalā (meaning "three fruits" in Sanskrit) has been considered to be a combination of the following fruits: -Harītakī (Terminalia chebula, Retz.), Āmalaka (Embelica officinalis Gaertn), and Vibhītaka (Terminalia belerica Roxb.). These plants are also listed in the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India. Harītakī and Āmalaka have also been used for medicinal purposes since ancient times in Japan under the Japanese names of (see text) (Kariroku) and (see text) (Annmaroku), respectively. Both have been carefully preserved as treasured drugs in the nationally important Shosoin treasure storehouse. This study attempts to clarify the description of Tri-phalā in the Nāvanītaka, which is the second part of the Bower Manuscript (Bower Ms.), and examines the reasons why these plants were combined. This paper begins with a summary description of Tri-phalā in the context of traditional Asian medicine, followed by the delineation of drug selection principles in Ayurveda. Tri-phalā formulas in the Nāvanītaka are then examined. The Carakasamhitā (CS) treats Tri-phalā as a purifier and tonic (rasāyana), describing it as a formula for rejuvenation and longevity. On the other hand, the Susrutasamhitd (SS) regards Tri-phalā as having the efficacy of balancing kapha (phlegm) and pitta (bile), and also as being a medicine to promote excretion and enhance digestive functions for better nutritional intake. It is described to have an effect of curing diseases by keeping the tridhāu (theree element) valance. Tri-phalā is thus used as an ingredient of laxatives for diseases that result from kapha imbalance and tonic. The Aşţāngahŗdayasamhitā (AHS) considers Tri-phalā to have a particular superiority among cure-all medicines with the power to dispel illness. It controls kapha and overcomes blood diseases. Tri-phalā formulas found in the Nāvanītaka were prescribed for the treatment of abdominal tumors induced by vāyu (wind) disorder

  20. The Roman and Islamic spice trade: New archaeological evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Veen, Marijke; Morales, Jacob

    2015-06-05

    Tropical spices have long been utilized in traditional medicine and cuisine. New archaeological evidence highlights temporal changes in the nature and scale of the ancient spice trade and in the ancient usage of these plants. Furthermore, a study of their 'materiality' highlights that the impact of spices extends beyond their material properties. Here the botanical remains of spices recovered from archaeological excavations at a port active in the Roman and medieval Islamic spice trade are evaluated. Recent excavations at Quseir al-Qadim, an ancient port located on the Red Sea coast of Egypt, have provided new evidence for the spice trade. Due to the arid conditions ancient botanical remains were preserved in abundance and these included spices, as well as a wide range of other food plants. Quseir al-Qadim was active as a transport hub during both the Roman and Islamic periods (ca. AD 1-250, known as Myos Hormos, and again during ca. AD 1050-1500, known as Kusayr), and the remains thus facilitate a study of temporal change in the trade and usage of these spices. Standard archaeobotanical methods were used to recover, identify and analyze these remains. At least seven tropical spices were recovered from the excavations, as well as several other tropical imports, including black pepper (Piper nigrum), ginger (Zingiber officinale), cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum), turmeric (Curcuma sp.), fagara (cf. Tetradium ruticarpum), myrobalan (Terminalia bellirica and Terminalia chebula) and betelnut (Areca catechu). A marked contrast between the two chronological periods in the range of spices recovered points to changes in the nature and scale of the trade between the Roman and medieval Islamic periods, while differences in the contexts from which they were recovered help to identify temporal changes in the way in which the spices were utilized during those periods. Archaeological and textual evidence suggest that in antiquity spices were used in ritual (funeral rites

  1. Effectiveness of native arbuscular mycorrhiza on the growth of four tree forest species from the Santa Marta Mountain, Veracruz (Mexico)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Retama-Ortiz, Y.; Ávila-Bello, C.H.; Alarcón, A.; Ferrera-Cerrato, R.

    2017-11-01

    Aim of the study: The aim of this work was to isolate consortia of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) associated to Liquidambar styraciflua in soils of the Santa Marta Mountain in Veracruz, and to select highly effective mycorrhizal consortia on promoting the growth of four tree forest species with economic and ecological importance. Area of study: Santa Marta Mountain, inside the buffer area of the Los Tuxtlas Biological Reserve in Veracruz (México). Materials and methods: Ten composite samples of rhizosphere soil were collected from L. styraciflua trees of 13-15 cm DBH (diameter at breast height). Roots were fixed in FAA solution to determine the mycorrhizal colonization percentage, the abundance of morphospecies, and its effectiveness in promoting the growth of L. styraciflua, Terminalia amazonia, Cordia alliodora, and Cojoba arborea. Soil physical and chemical characteristics were also analysed, and soil type recognition was performed with the Reference Base for Soil FAO-ISRIC World-SICS. Mycorrhizal colonization was determined by the method of clearing and staining roots with trypan blue; total percentage of colonization was estimated by the Linderman-Biermann method. Spores were extracted for counting and identifying morphospecies from each soil sample, those with more effectiveness were selected and inoculated in the four tree species, based upon a completely random design there were evaluated height, number of leaves, total dry weight and foliar area. Main results: Average mycorrhizal colonization percentage was 45% from natural conditions, samples one and four showed 80% of AMF-colonization. Average number of spores was 617 in 100 g-1 of dry soil. Forty-seven AMF-morphospecies were identified. After eight months significant differences were observed in root colonization, height, number of leaves, total dry weight, leaf area and foliar analysis of N5+, P5+ and K+ on plants inoculated with rhizosphere samples of L. styraciflua. Terminalia amazonia and

  2. Safety of a novel botanical extract formula for ameliorating allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amit, A; Saxena, V S; Pratibha, N; Bagchi, M; Bagchi, D; Stohs, S J

    2003-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis (also known as hay fever) is the most commonly occurring immunological disorder, and it affects 40 million men, women, and children in the United States. Symptomatically, it is an inflammation and irritation of the mucous membranes that line the nose. Allergy is defined as a state of hypersensitivity or hyperimmunity caused by exposure to a particular antigen (allergen) that results in increased reactivity upon subsequent exposure. A novel botanical formulation, Aller-7/NR-A2, was developed for the treatment of allergic rhinitis; it is a combination of medicinal plant extracts from Phyllanthus emblica, Terminalia chebula, Terminalia bellerica, Albizia lebbeck, Piper nigrum, Zingiber officinale, and Piper longum. This novel formulation has demonstrated potent antihistaminic, anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, antioxidant, and mast-cell-stabilization activities. All of the doses for these toxicity studies were selected according to the guidelines of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, the World Health Organization, and the Environmental Protection Agency. Acute toxicity of Aller-7 was evaluated in Swiss Albino mice at doses of 125, 250, 500, 1000, and 1500 mg/kg. After 15 days of treatment, the animals were sacrificed. No histopathological changes were observed in major vital organs. A similar study was conducted in Albino Wistar rats, which were sacrificed at the end of 15 days. No histopathological changes or toxicity was observed at up to 2 g/kg body weight. Subacute toxicity was conducted in Albino Wistar rats at a dose of 90 mg/kg body weight for 3 days, then at 180 mg/kg for the next 3 days, and then at 270 mg/kg for 3 weeks. After 28 days, the animals were sacrificed and tested; no toxicity was observed. In a subchronic toxicity study, there was no observed adverse effect level at 1 g/kg body weight in rats. In a teratological assay, at doses of 3.0 g/kg (20 times the recommended dose) and 1.8 g/kg, respectively, no

  3. Safety of a Novel Botanical Extract Formula for Ameliorating Allergic rhinitis. Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amit, A; Joshua, A J; Bagchi, M; Bagchi, D

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Each year more than 50 million Americans suffer from allergic rhinitis, which is a state of hypersensitivity or hyperimmunity. Basically, allergic rhinitis is symptomatically recognized as the inflammation and irritation of the nasal mucosal membranes; sneezing; stuffy/runny nose; nasal congestion; and itchy; watery, and swollen eyes; and defined as a state of hypersensitivity/ hyperimmunity caused by exposure to a particular allergen (antigen) that results in increased reactivity upon subsequent exposure. A novel polyherbal formulation (Aller-7/NR-A2) was developed for the treatment of allergic rhinitis using a unique combination of extracts from seven medicinal plants, including Phyllanthus emblica, Terminalia chebula, Terminalia bellerica, Albizia lebbeck, Piper nigrum, Zingiber officinale, and Piper longum. Earlier studies in our laboratories have demonstrated potent antihistaminic, anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, antioxidant, and mast-cell stabilization activities of Aller-7 in addition to its efficacy in a clinical setting. A series of preliminary toxicological evaluations were also conducted in the past, which demonstrated its safety. In this study, we have conducted further safety studies on Aller-7, including acute oral, acute dermal, acute dermal irritation, eye irritation, and 90-day repeated dose toxicity studies. Acute oral toxicity of Aller-7 was found to be greater than 5,000 mg/kg body weight in both male and female rats and no mortality or toxicity was observed at this dose, while the acute dermal toxicity was found to be greater than 2,000 mg/kg body weight. In the acute dermal irritation study, the skin irritancy index was found to be 0.0, which classifies Aller-7 as a nonirritant to rabbit skin. In the acute eye irritation study, Aller-7 was found to have minimal irritancy to eyes of rabbits. In the repeated-dose 90-day oral toxicity study, Aller-7 was administered at dose levels of 100, 300, and 1,000 mg/kg rat body weight for 90

  4. Antioxidant properties of Aller-7, a novel polyherbal formulation for allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, P; Amit, A; Saxena, V S; Bagchi, D; Bagchi, M; Stohs, S J

    2004-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis, a frequently occurring immunological disorder affecting men, women and children worldwide, is a state of hypersensitivity that occurs when the body overreacts to a substance such as pollen, mold, mites or dust. Allergic rhinitis exerts inflammatory response and irritation of the nasal mucosal membranes leading to sneezing; stuffy/runny nose; nasal congestion; and itchy, watery and swollen eyes. A novel, safe polyherbal formulation (Aller-7/NR-A2) has been developed for the treatment of allergic rhinitis using a unique combination of extracts from seven medicinal plants including Phyllanthus emblica, Terminalia chebula, Terminalia bellerica, Albizia lebbeck, Piper nigrum, Zingiber officinale and Piper longum. In this study, the antioxidant efficacy of Aller-7 was investigated by various assays including hydroxyl radical scavenging assay, superoxide anion scavenging assay, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2-azinobis-ethyl-benzothiozoline-sulphonic acid diammonium salt (ABTS) radical scavenging assays. The protective effect of Aller-7 on free radical-induced lysis of red blood cells and inhibition of nitric oxide release by Aller-7 in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated murine macrophages were determined. Aller-7 exhibited concentration-dependent scavenging activities toward biochemically generated hydroxyl radicals (IC50 741.73 microg/ml); superoxide anion (IC50 24.65 microg/ml by phenazine methosulfate-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide [PMS-NADH] assay and IC50 4.27 microg/ml by riboflavin/nitroblue tetrazolium [NBT] light assay), nitric oxide (IC50 16.34 microg/ml); 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical (IC50 5.62 microg/ml); and 2,2-azinobis-ethyl-benzothiozoline-sulphonic acid diammonium salt (ABTS) radical (IC50 7.35 microg/ml). Aller-7 inhibited free radical-induced hemolysis in the concentration range of 20-80 microg/ml. Aller-7 also significantly inhibited nitric oxide release from lipopolysaccharide-stimulated murine

  5. Anti-inflammatory activities of Aller-7, a novel polyherbal formulation for allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratibha, N; Saxena, V S; Amit, A; D'Souza, P; Bagchi, M; Bagchi, D

    2004-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis is an immunological disorder and an inflammatory response of nasal mucosal membranes. Allergic rhinitis, a state of hypersensitivity, occurs when the body overreacts to a substance such as pollens or dust. A novel, safe polyherbal formulation (Aller-7/NR-A2) has been developed for the treatment of allergic rhinitis using a unique combination of extracts from seven medicinal plants including Phyllanthus emblica, Terminalia chebula, Terminalia bellerica, Albizia lebbeck, Piper nigrum, Zingiber officinale and Piper longum. Since inflammation is an integral mechanistic component of allergy, the present study aimed to determine the anti-inflammatory activity of Aller-7 in various in vivo models. The efficacy of Aller-7 was investigated in compound 48/80-induced paw edema both in Balb/c mice and Swiss Albino mice, carrageenan-induced paw edema in Wistar Albino rats and Freund's adjuvant-induced arthritis in Wistar Albino rats. The trypsin inhibitory activity of Aller-7 was also determined and compared with ovomucoid. At a dose of 250 mg/kg, Aller-7 demonstrated 62.55% inhibition against compound 48/80-induced paw edema in Balb/c mice, while under the same conditions prednisolone at an oral dose of 14 mg/kg exhibited 44.7% inhibition. Aller-7 significantly inhibited compound 48/80-induced paw edema at all three doses of 175, 225 or 275 mg/kg in Swiss Albino mice, while the most potent effect was observed at 225 mg/kg. Aller-7 (120 mg/kg, p.o.) demonstrated 31.3% inhibition against carrageenan-induced acute inflammation in Wistar Albino rats, while ibuprofen (50 mg/kg, p.o.) exerted 68.1% inhibition. Aller-7 also exhibited a dose-dependent (150-350 mg/kg) anti-inflammatory effect against Freund's adjuvant-induced arthritis in Wistar Albino rats and an approximately 63% inhibitory effect was observed at a dose of 350 mg/kg. The trypsin inhibitory activity of Aller-7 was determined, using ovomucoid as a positive control. Ovomucoid and Aller-7 demonstrated

  6. Effectiveness of native arbuscular mycorrhiza on the growth of four tree forest species from the Santa Marta Mountain, Veracruz (Mexico)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Retama-Ortiz, Y.; Ávila-Bello, C.H.; Alarcón, A.; Ferrera-Cerrato, R.

    2017-01-01

    Aim of the study: The aim of this work was to isolate consortia of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) associated to Liquidambar styraciflua in soils of the Santa Marta Mountain in Veracruz, and to select highly effective mycorrhizal consortia on promoting the growth of four tree forest species with economic and ecological importance. Area of study: Santa Marta Mountain, inside the buffer area of the Los Tuxtlas Biological Reserve in Veracruz (México). Materials and methods: Ten composite samples of rhizosphere soil were collected from L. styraciflua trees of 13-15 cm DBH (diameter at breast height). Roots were fixed in FAA solution to determine the mycorrhizal colonization percentage, the abundance of morphospecies, and its effectiveness in promoting the growth of L. styraciflua, Terminalia amazonia, Cordia alliodora, and Cojoba arborea. Soil physical and chemical characteristics were also analysed, and soil type recognition was performed with the Reference Base for Soil FAO-ISRIC World-SICS. Mycorrhizal colonization was determined by the method of clearing and staining roots with trypan blue; total percentage of colonization was estimated by the Linderman-Biermann method. Spores were extracted for counting and identifying morphospecies from each soil sample, those with more effectiveness were selected and inoculated in the four tree species, based upon a completely random design there were evaluated height, number of leaves, total dry weight and foliar area. Main results: Average mycorrhizal colonization percentage was 45% from natural conditions, samples one and four showed 80% of AMF-colonization. Average number of spores was 617 in 100 g-1 of dry soil. Forty-seven AMF-morphospecies were identified. After eight months significant differences were observed in root colonization, height, number of leaves, total dry weight, leaf area and foliar analysis of N5+, P5+ and K+ on plants inoculated with rhizosphere samples of L. styraciflua. Terminalia amazonia and

  7. The relevance of folkloric usage of plant galls as medicines: Finding the scientific rationale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Seema; Rauf, Abdur; Khan, Haroon

    2018-01-01

    Galls, the abnormal growths in plants, induced by virus, bacteria, fungi, nematodes, arthropods, or even other plants, are akin to cancers in fauna. The galls which occur in a myriad of forms are phytochemically-distinct from the normal plant tissues, for these are the sites of tug-of-war, just like the granuloma in animals. To counter the stressors, in the form of the effector proteins of the invaders, the host plants elaborate a large repertoire of metabolites, which they normally will not produce. Perturbation of the jasmonic acid pathway, and the overexpression of auxin, and cytokinin, promote the tissue proliferation and the resultant galls. Though the plant family characteristics and the attackers determine the gall biochemistry, most of the galls are rich in bioactive phytochemicals such as phenolic acids, anthocyanins, purpurogallin, flavonoids, tannins, steroids, triterpenes, alkaloids, lipophilic components (tanshinone) etc. Throughout the long trajectory of evolution, humans have learned to use the galls as therapeutics, much like other plant parts. In diverse cultures, the evidence of folkloric usage of galls abound. Among others, galls from the plant genus like Rhus, Pistacia, Quercus, Terminalia etc. are popular as ethnomedicine. This review mines the literature on galling agents, and the medicinal relevance of galls. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Leaf blight of catharanthus roseus (l). g. don caused by macrophomina phaseolina (tassi) goid and its in vitro control through bio-pesticides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mridha, M.A.U.; Rehman, M.M.

    2015-01-01

    Catharanthus roseus (L.).G. Don, a highly valued medicinal plant suffers from a serious disease. A survey on the symptom and severity of the leaf blight of C. roseus was performed in the nurseries of the Institute of Forestry and Environmental Sciences (IFESCU), Bangladesh Council of Industrial Research (BCSIR) and Bangladesh Forest Research Institute (BFRI), Bangladesh. An observation was also made in the avenues and garden of King Saud University (KSU), Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. No disease was recorded in KSU, but severe infections were found in all the locations surveyed in Bangladesh. The highest infection percentage and the highest disease index were found in BCSIR nursery followed by BFRI and the lowest was recorded in IFESCU nursery. Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid was isolated and it was proved to be pathogenic. This is the first report of leaf blight of C. roseus caused by M. phaseolina. Azadirachta indica, Ocimum sanctum Vitex negundo, Mucuna pruriens, Calotropis procera, Terminalia arjuna, Allium sativum, Zingiber officinalis and Allium cepa were used as biopesticides. Out of the nine plant species screened, T. arjuna showed the highest (58.37%) inhibition percentage which was followed by A. indica (55.72%) and the lowest (27.4%) inhibition percentage were obtained with V. negundo whereas the rest of the plant extracts showed more or less same inhibitory effect. (author)

  9. SURVEY, IDENTIFICATION AND EVALUATION OF INSECT INJURIES IN ORNAMENTAL TREES IN THE URBAN AREA OF GOIÂNIA, GOIÁS STATE, BRASIL LEVANTAMENTO, IDENTIFICAÇÃO E AVALIAÇÃO DOS DANOS DE INSETOS EM ÁRVORES ORNAMENTAIS NA ÁREA URBANA DE GOIÂNIA (GO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Henrique Garcia

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    From 1800 ornamental trees sampled in Goiânia urban area, Paquira aquatica represented 62,7 %, Cesalpinia sp. 15,3 %, Bauhinia variegata 10 %, Sapthodea campanulata 6 %, Terminalia catappa 3,2 %, Acacia sp. 1,2%, Ponciana sp. 1,0 %, and other species 1 %. The most frequent insect species observed in P. aquatica were Psylla floccosa ( 92,3%, Steirastoma breve (76,7%, Palindia detracta (63,4%, Phelypera shuppeli (43,4% and Euchroma gigantea (23,7%. The most severe injuries to plants are caused by S. breve, which desiccates trunk and stems, and E. gigantea. Its larvae destroy the whole root system and cause the fall of the tree. Orthezia praelonga was observed in 84,6 % of the sampled B. variegata; in 30 trees 20% died after three years and 40% at the of the fourth year; from 50 seedlings 36% were desiccated after one year and 58% 36 months later. O. praelonga was observed in 94,6% of S. campanulata; in 32 trees 8% were desiccated in one year, 18% in the second and the remaining at the end of the third year. Icerya purchasi was observed in 84,7% of Cesalpinia sp.; from 48 trees 5% were desiccated after six, 16 % two years later and 30% at the end of the fourth year; from 50 seedlings of this species, under intense attack, 78% were desiccated in 15 days. Quesadas gigas e Dorisiana sp. were observed in Acacia sp. In Ponciana sp. it was observed the presence of some species of Scolytidae, Platipodidae and Rhinotermitidae, and no injuries were observed in Terminalia catappa.

    KEY-WORDS:

  10. The effects of oxides of carbon and nitrogen emissions on the isotope and element abundances in foliage of C3 plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sucgang, Raymond; Pabroa, Preciosa Corazon; Petrache, Cristina; Bulanhagui, Jaika Faye; Legaspi, Charmaine; Niegas, Elaine; Enerva, Lorna; Luces, Arnicole

    2014-01-01

    The carbon and nitrogen stable isotope abundance of C3 plants mango (Magnifera indica L), molave (Vitex parviflora Juss), talisay (Terminalia catappa L.) leaves harvested from sites with ambient air conditions and sites receiving air pollution contributions from coal-fired power plants were determined and compared. Isotope Ratio Mass Spectroscopy, IRMS was used to determine 13 C and 15 N in the samples. The elemental composition of the samples was determined using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometry, ICP-AES. The 13 C of the leaves grown in ambient air were found to fall within the range of -25.0 to -22.0 per mill and a close agreement with the literature values for the natural abundance of 13 C in C3 plants (-27.0 to -21.0 per mill). The 13 C abundance of plants obtained from sites polluted by coal-fired plants were sporadic from -35 to 24.0 per mille. The 15 N abundance in leaves grown under ambient air condition (-1.0 to 2.0 per mille) were way below the 15 N abundance of plants from coal-fired plant-polluted regions (16.0 to 17.5 per mille). Elemental exposition indicated no differences in element concentrations in leaves from ambient and polluted sites. Differences exist in the Ca, Mg, K ratios across species and are affected by seasonal variation. (author)

  11. Long-term survival of Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii in stored environmental samples from Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escandón, Patricia; Castañeda, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Both Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii have been isolated from a variety of environmental sources in Colombia. To determine the viability of C. neoformans/C. gattii isolates in stored soil samples, filtrates and bird droppings from which these yeasts were previously recovered. A total of 964 samples collected between 2003 and 2009, and kept at room temperature were processed. From them, 653 samples were from trees decaying wood, 274 from soil filtrates and 37 from bird droppings. When C. neoformans or C. gattii were recovered, the molecular type of each isolate was established by PCR fingerprinting using the single primer (GTG)5. Among the processed samples, 161 isolates were recovered. From those, 81 (50.3%) corresponded to C. gattii recovered from decaying wood of Eucalyptus spp., Corymbia ficifolia, Terminalia catappa and Ficus spp. trees, and 80 (49.7%) corresponded to C. neoformans recovered from Ficus spp. and eucalyptus trees, as well as from bird droppings. The most prevalent molecular type among the C. gattii and C. neoformans isolates was VGII and VNI, respectively. The re-isolation of C. neoformans/C. gattii from 10-year stored samples suggests that these yeasts are able to keep viable in naturally colonized samples. Copyright © 2013 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  12. The use of crude extracts from traditional medicinal plants to eliminate Trichodina sp. in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus fingerlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanagun Chitmanat

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The treatment for ectoparasitic diseases in freshwater fish with formalin seems at present to be ineffective. For this reason it is evidently a useless cost. In addition, formalin possibly leaves toxic residues in fish flesh and in the environment which are eventually harmful to consumers. The alternative way to solve this problem is to use traditional medicinal plants instead. The purpose of this research is to determine the possibility of using garlic (Allium sativum and Indian almond (Terminalia catappa as optional chemicals to treat fish ectoparasites, Trichodina sp. The results showed that crude extracts of either garlic or Indian almond at 800 mg/l significantly (P < 0.05 eliminated Trichodina sp. infections in tilapia (average weight 3.62±0.06 g each. To evaluate the acute toxicity of these products to the host fish, groups of 20 tilapia (same size as abovewere exposed to 3 concentrations of each product for 96 h. Mortality was then determined. The 2 h LC50 for tilapia exposed to crude extract of garlic was 2,259.44 mg/L while the 16 h LC50 for tilapia exposed to Indian almond extract was 46,665.94 mg/L. This information is the beneficial and fundamental knowledge to develop guidelines to reduce the use of chemicals and antibiotics in freshwater fish culture businesses. The research is underway to determine the long-term effect of Indian almond and garlic to tilapia, if any.

  13. Evaluation of antitrypanosomal and anti inflammatory activities of selected Nigerian medicinal plants in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelodun, Victoria O; Elusiyan, C A; Olorunmola, F O; Adewoyin, F B; Omisore, N O; Adepiti, A O; Agbedahunsi, J M; Adewunmi, C O

    2013-01-01

    The extracts of nine selected Nigerian medicinal plants were investigated on Trypanosoma brucei brucei infected mice. The anti-inflammatory properties of hexane fraction of the most promising U. chamae extract was assessed by acute oedema of the mice paw model while the modulatory effect of the extract on Delayed-Type Hypersensitivity (DTH) response on in vivo leucocytes mobilization was evaluated. 'Dose-probing acute toxicity tests' established an oral and intraperitoneal LD50 for T. ivorensis stem bark as >1600 5000 mg/kg. Extracts of Khaya senegalensis, Harungana madagascariensis, Terminalia ivorensis, Curcuma longa, Ocimum gratissimum and Alcornea cordifolia showed weak anti-trypanosomal effect and did not exhibit significant clearance in parasitemia at the test dose administered compared with the positive control (Diminal®). However, the leaf extract of U. chamae and its hexane fraction demonstrated a significant response (P < 0.01). The fraction at 1000 mg/kg inhibited oedema by 107%. Uvaria. chamae demonstrated both antitrypanosomal and anti-inflammatory properties by increasing the survival time of infected mice due to reduction in parasitemia caused by T. brucei brucei.

  14. Fauna, Abundance and Dispersion of Sandflies in Three Endemic Areas of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Rural Fars Province

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    F Ahmadipour

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Leishmaniasis is one of important tropical diseases caused by Leishmania parasites which is transmitted by biting of female phlebotomine sandfies. Regarding high densities' and distribution of sandflies in majority areas of Iran, understanding of sandflies identification and distribution as vectors is importation to control disease. Methods: This is a descriptive survey which was done temporarily, Sandflies were sampled from 17 villages of three studied regions to coordinate with authorities of sanitary province to provide the necessary facilities .foci using sticky papers and CDC traps. All sandflies were identified based on external and internal morphological characters of the head and abdominal terminalia, which were slide-mounted in Berlese fluid. Results: In total 3178 Sandflies were sampled and identified. Sandfies species are P. papatasi, P. bergeroti, P. alexandri, P. sergenti, P. mongolensis, P. tobbi and S. dentate, S. sintoni and S. tiberiadis. sandfly species identified and separated based on habitat collections. Females analysed according to their gonotrophic stage which majority were unfed. Conclusion: The collections contained the important putative vectors of Leishmaniasis in Iran. P. papatasi was abundant in three study foci. Of the sandflies recorded from Iran, only P. papatasi was judged to be a proven vector of Leishmaniasis. Understanding criteria of vectors, population variations and ecological aspect of sandflies can help to control better of diseases.

  15. Cardioprotective and Metabolomic Profiling of Selected Medicinal Plants against Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Afsheen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research work, the antioxidant and metabolomic profiling of seven selected medicinally important herbs including Rauvolfia serpentina, Terminalia arjuna, Coriandrum sativum, Elettaria cardamom, Piper nigrum, Allium sativum, and Crataegus oxyacantha was performed. The in vivo cardioprotective potential of these medicinal plants was evaluated against surgically induced oxidative stress through left anterior descending coronary artery ligation (LADCA in dogs. The antioxidant profiling of these plants was done through DPPH and DNA protection assay. The C. oxyacantha and T. arjuna showed maximum antioxidant potential, while the E. cardamom showed poor antioxidative strength even at its high concentration. Different concentrations of extracts of the said plants exhibited the protection of plasmid DNA against H2O2 damage as compared to the plasmid DNA merely treated with H2O2. The metabolomic profiling through LC-MS analysis of these antioxidants revealed the presence of active secondary metabolites responsible for their antioxidant potential. During in vivo analysis, blood samples of all treatment groups were drawn at different time intervals to analyze the cardiac and hemodynamic parameters. The results depicted that the group pretreated with HC4 significantly sustained the level of CK-MB, SGOT, and LDH as well as hemodynamic parameters near to normal. The histopathological examination also confirmed the cardioprotective potential of HC4. Thus, the HC4 being safe and inexpensive cardioprotective herbal combination could be considered as an alternate of synthetic drugs.

  16. Cardioprotective and Metabolomic Profiling of Selected Medicinal Plants against Oxidative Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afsheen, Nadia; Jahan, Nazish; Ijaz, Misbah; Manzoor, Asad; Khan, Khalid Mahmood; Hina, Saman

    2018-01-01

    In this research work, the antioxidant and metabolomic profiling of seven selected medicinally important herbs including Rauvolfia serpentina, Terminalia arjuna, Coriandrum sativum, Elettaria cardamom, Piper nigrum, Allium sativum, and Crataegus oxyacantha was performed. The in vivo cardioprotective potential of these medicinal plants was evaluated against surgically induced oxidative stress through left anterior descending coronary artery ligation (LADCA) in dogs. The antioxidant profiling of these plants was done through DPPH and DNA protection assay. The C. oxyacantha and T. arjuna showed maximum antioxidant potential, while the E. cardamom showed poor antioxidative strength even at its high concentration. Different concentrations of extracts of the said plants exhibited the protection of plasmid DNA against H2O2 damage as compared to the plasmid DNA merely treated with H2O2. The metabolomic profiling through LC-MS analysis of these antioxidants revealed the presence of active secondary metabolites responsible for their antioxidant potential. During in vivo analysis, blood samples of all treatment groups were drawn at different time intervals to analyze the cardiac and hemodynamic parameters. The results depicted that the group pretreated with HC4 significantly sustained the level of CK-MB, SGOT, and LDH as well as hemodynamic parameters near to normal. The histopathological examination also confirmed the cardioprotective potential of HC4. Thus, the HC4 being safe and inexpensive cardioprotective herbal combination could be considered as an alternate of synthetic drugs. PMID:29576858

  17. Is Drosophila nasuta Lamb (Diptera, Drosophilidae currently reaching the status of a cosmopolitan species?

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    Carlos Ribeiro Vilela

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In early March 2015, three males and two females of one unknown species of Drosophila were collected from a compost pile and some garbage cans in the west region of the city of São Paulo, state of São Paulo, Brazil. Morphologically it is easily identified by the presence of the following conspicuous features: a brownish dorsal stripe along pleura, an entirely iridescent silvery-whitish frons when seen directly from the front, and a row of cuneiform setae on anteroventral side of femur of foreleg; the former two traits being more evident in males. The species was easily reared in a modified banana-agar medium and two isofemale lines were established allowing to obtain mitotic cells showing a diploid chromosome number of 2n = 8. Based both on morphological and chromosomal features, in addition to the geographical distribution, we concluded that the unknown flies belong to Drosophila nasuta Lamb, 1914, a tropical species of the nasuta subgroup of the Drosophila immigrans species group. Photomicrographs of male imagines, terminalia, mitotic and meiotic metaphase plates, as well as of female mitotic metaphase, are included.

  18. Anti-Aging Potential of Phytoextract Loaded-Pharmaceutical Creams for Human Skin Cell Longetivity

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    Saima Jadoon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The exposure to ultraviolet radiations (UVR is the key source of skin sunburn; it may produce harmful entities, reactive oxygen species (ROS, leading to aging. The skin can be treated and protected from the injurious effects of ROS by using various pharmaceutical formulations, such as cream. Cream can be loaded with antioxidants to quench ROS leading to photo-protective effects. Moreover, modern medicines depend on ethnobotanicals for protection or treatment of human diseases. This review article summarizes various in vivo antioxidant studies on herbal creams loaded with phyto-extracts. These formulations may serve as cosmeceuticals to protect skin against injurious effects of UVR. The botanicals studied for dermatologic use in cream form include Acacia nilotica, Benincasa hispida, Calendula officinalis, Camellia sinensis, Camellia sinensis, Nelumbo nucifera, Capparis decidua, Castanea sativa, Coffea arabica, Crocus sativus, Emblica officinalis Gaertn, Foeniculum vulgare, Hippophae rhamnoides, Lithospermum erythrorhizon, Malus domestica, Matricaria chamomilla L., Moringa oleifera, Morus alba, Ocimum basilicum, Oryza sativa, Polygonum minus, Punica granatum, Silybum marianum, Tagetes erecta Linn., Terminalia chebula, Trigonella foenum-graecum, and Vitis vinifera. The observed anti-aging effects of cream formulations could be an outcome of a coordinating action of multiple constituents. Of numerous botanicals, the phenolic acids and flavonoids appear effective against UVR-induced damage; however the evidence-based studies for their anti-aging effects are still needed.

  19. GROWTH AND NUTRITIONAL ANALYSIS OF TREE SPECIES IN CONTAMINATED SUBSTRATE BY LEACHABLE HERBICIDES

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    Rebecca de Araújo Fiore

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Ecosystems contamination by residues of pesticides requires special attention to the herbicides subject to leaching. The objective was to select tree species to rhizodegradation contaminated by residues of 2,4-D and atrazine and to recompose riparian areas to agricultural fields, then reducing the risk of contamination of water courses. A total of 36 treatments consisted of the combinations of forest species were evaluated [Inga marginata (Inga, Schizolobium parahyba (guapuruvu, Handroanthus serratifolius (ipê amarelo, Jacaranda puberula (carobinha, Cedrela fissilis (cedro, Calophyllum brasiliensis (landin, Psidium mirsinoides (goiabinha, Tibouchina glandulosa (quaresmeira, Caesalpinia férrea (pau-ferro, Caesalpinia pluviosa (sibipiruna, Terminalia argêntea (capitão and Schinopsis brasiliensis (braúna] and three solutions simulating leachate compound (atrazine, 2,4-D and water - control, with four replicates each. The characteristics measured were plant height, stem diameter, number of leaves, leaf area and dry biomass, and foliar nutrition. Forest species survived the herbicide application, and most showed an increase in macronutrients even under an herbicide application, and the Inga had the highest tolerance regarding growth analysis. It is recommended to use species that are more tolerant to Atrazine and 2,4-D in field experiments to confirm previous results of this simulation.

  20. Eco-friendly synthesis of TiO2, Au and Pt doped TiO2 nanoparticles for dye sensitized solar cell applications and evaluation of toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopinath, K.; Kumaraguru, S.; Bhakyaraj, K.; Thirumal, S.; Arumugam, A.

    2016-04-01

    Driven by the demand of pure TiO2, Au and Pt doped TiO2 NPs were successfully synthesized using Terminalia arjuna bark extract. The eco-friendly synthesized NPs were characterized by UV-Vis-DRS, ATR-FT-IR, PL, XRD, Raman, SEM with EDX and TEM analysis. The synthesized NPs were investigation for dye sensitized solar cell applications. UV-Vis-Diffused Reflectance Spectra clearly showed that the expected TiO2 inter band absorption below 306 nm, incorporation of gold shows surface plasma resonant (SPR) near 555 nm and platinum incorporated TiO2 NPs shows absorbance at 460 nm. The energy conversion efficiency for Au doped TiO2 NPs when compared to pure and Pt doped TiO2 NPs. In addition to that, Au noble metal present TiO2 matrix and an improve open-circuit voltage (Voc) of DSSC. Synthesized NPs was evaluated into antibacterial and antifungal activities by disk diffusion method. It is observed that NPs have not shown any activities in all tested bacterial and fungal strains. In this eco-friendly synthesis method to provide non toxic and environmental friendly nanomaterials can be used for solar energy device application.

  1. Lichen communities as bioindicators of the Aburra Valley air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaramillo C, Margarita M; Botero B, Liliana R

    2010-01-01

    Lichens have been used as bioindicators of air quality. They are sensitive to changes in air composition at any given site affecting their abundance, biomass and vitality.This study evaluated lichen affectation as a consequence of air pollution. Two study areas within the Aburra Valley and the RedAire network were selected: Miguel Aguinaga (high pollution station) and the Medellin University (low pollution station). Four phorophytic tree species were chosen at each site Terminalia catappa Linneaus, Eritrina fusca Loureiro, Mangifera indica Linneaus y Fraxinus chinensis Roxb. The lichen cover by species, the vitality and the fructification were used to analyze the effect of air pollution. Finally, the lichen cover information was used to calculate the index of atmospheric purity (IAP) and the Q factor determination. Total qualitative and quantitative information obtained made evident that Canoparmelia sp. and Parmotrema austrosinensis (Zahlbr) Hale. lichen species are the most sensitive, and therefore appropriate to assess air quality. Additionally, the statistical analysis carried out using the relative abundances by phorophytic trees, showed that Fraxinus chinensis Roxb is the most appropriate tree species for bioindicator lichens studies into the Aburra valley.

  2. Indigenous drugs in ischemic heart disease in patients with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Shridhar; Aggarwal, Amitesh

    2009-11-01

    India is currently facing the silent epidemic of ischemic heart disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), hypertension, and stroke. Both diabetes and ischemic heart disease appear in Indian people a decade earlier compared to whites. The recent evidence that certain medicinal plants possess hypoglycemic, lipid-lowering, and immunomodulating properties on account of their rich flavonoid and/or other glucose-lowering active constituents merits scientific scrutiny in this regard. The present communication aims to give a brief review of those plants that could be useful in T2DM associated with hypertension, ischemic heart disease, and/or dyslipidemia. Aegle marmelos (bael), Allium sativum (garlic), Curcuma domestica (turmeric), Eugenia jambolana (jamun), Murraya koenigii (curry leaves), Trigonella foenum graecum (fenugreek), and Terminalia arjuna (arjun) have been found to be useful in diabetes associated with ischemic heart disease. Their active biomolecules have been identified. They have also been demonstrated to be safe in long-term use. Further clinical research regarding their potency and efficacy vis-à-vis oral hypoglycemics needs to done.

  3. DIVERSITY OF SOIL ARTHROPOD IN GREEN BARRIER AREA PT. PUSRI

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    Arif Hidayat

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted to inventory and identify as well as acknowledge the correlation between vegetation type with soil arthropods in the Green Barrier area of PT Pusri. PT. Pusri green Barrier area is 28 hectares and dominated by 10 types of vegetation, such as, the Angsana (Pterocarpus indicus Wild, Bambu (Bambusa Sp, Beringin (Ficus benyamina, Buah Roda (Hura crepitans L, Jati (Tectona grandis L, Kelampayan (Neolamarckia cadamba , Ketapang (Terminalia catappa L, Mahony (Swietenia macrophylla King, Pulai (Alstonia scholaris, and Sengon (Paraserianthes falcataria L. Soil arthropods were collected by using pit fall traps and funnel barlese-tullgren in every type of vegetation, between July-August 2015. Identification of arthropod genera Identification has been done in Entomology Laboratory of the Agriculture Plant Disease Faculty Sriwijaya University, and analysis of soil organic in the Laboratory of Soil Faculty of Agriculture Sriwijaya University. The results were obtained into 3 classes of soil arthropods belonging to the 10 orders, 28 families and 35 genera. The diversity index value of soil arthropods in various types of vegetation is classified moderately (H= 1-3, and no type of soil arthropods were dominant, mean that soil arthropods with different types spread over in the various types of vegetation in the area of Green Barrier PT. Pusri. Light intensity abiotic factors play an important role in the life of the soil arthropod communities in vegetation Sengon (Paraserianthes falcataria L with a correlation coefficient 1.00 Keywords: soil arthropods, community structure, a biotic factors, Green Barrier PT. Pusri

  4. Role of anaerobic fungi in wheat straw degradation and effects of plant feed additives on rumen fermentation parameters in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagar, S S; Singh, N; Goel, N; Kumar, S; Puniya, A K

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, rumen microbial groups, i.e. total rumen microbes (TRM), total anaerobic fungi (TAF), avicel enriched bacteria (AEB) and neutral detergent fibre enriched bacteria (NEB) were evaluated for wheat straw (WS) degradability and different fermentation parameters in vitro. Highest WS degradation was shown for TRM, followed by TAF, NEB and least by AEB. Similar patterns were observed with total gas production and short chain fatty acid profiles. Overall, TAF emerged as the most potent individual microbial group. In order to enhance the fibrolytic and rumen fermentation potential of TAF, we evaluated 18 plant feed additives in vitro. Among these, six plant additives namely Albizia lebbeck, Alstonia scholaris, Bacopa monnieri, Lawsonia inermis, Psidium guajava and Terminalia arjuna considerably improved WS degradation by TAF. Further evaluation showed A. lebbeck as best feed additive. The study revealed that TAF plays a significant role in WS degradation and their fibrolytic activities can be improved by inclusion of A. lebbeck in fermentation medium. Further studies are warranted to elucidate its active constituents, effect on fungal population and in vivo potential in animal system.

  5. PIGE-PIXE analysis of chewing sticks of pharmacological importance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olabanji, S.O. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Padua (Italy). Lab. Nazionali di Legnaro; Makanju, O.V. [Drug Research and Production Unit, Faculty of Pharmacy, Obafemi Awolowo University (O.A.U.), Ile-Ife (Nigeria); Haque, A.M.I. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Padua (Italy). Lab. Nazionali di Legnaro; Buoso, M.C. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Padua (Italy). Lab. Nazionali di Legnaro; Ceccato, D. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Padua (Italy). Lab. Nazionali di Legnaro]|[Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Padova, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Cherubini, R. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Padua (Italy). Lab. Nazionali di Legnaro; Moschini, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Padua (Italy). Lab. Nazionali di Legnaro]|[Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Padova, I-35131 Padova (Italy)

    1996-06-01

    PIGE and PIXE techniques were employed for the determination of the major, minor and trace elemental concentrations in chewing sticks of pharmacological importance namely: Butyrospermum paradoxum, Garcinia kola, Distemonanthus benthamianus, Bridelia ferruginea, Anogeissus leiocarpus, Terminalia glaucescens and Fagara rubescens, respectively. The concentration of fluorine which is very important for human dental enamel was specially determined using the {sup 19}F(p,p`{gamma}){sup 19}F reaction. For decades these chewing sticks when used alone without toothpastes have proven to be very efficient, effective and reliable in cleaning the teeth of many people particularly in Nigeria and some other countries in Africa. The teeth of users are usually very strong, clean, fresh and devoid of germs and caries. Even with the advent of modern toothpastes with special additions of fluorine, the use of these popular and efficient chewing sticks is still unabated. Many people including the elite use them solely, a few others combine their use with modern toothpastes and brush. Proton beams produced by the 7 MV CN and 2.5 MV AN 2000 Van de Graaff accelerators at INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL), Padova, Italy were used for the PIGE and PIXE analysis, respectively. Results of this novel study are presented and discussed. (orig.).

  6. PIGE-PIXE analysis of chewing sticks of pharmacological importance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olabanji, S.O.; Haque, A.M.I.; Cherubini, R.

    1996-01-01

    PIGE and PIXE techniques were employed for the determination of the major, minor and trace elemental concentrations in chewing sticks of pharmacological importance namely: Butyrospermum paradoxum, Garcinia kola, Distemonanthus benthamianus, Bridelia ferruginea, Anogeissus leiocarpus, Terminalia glaucescens and Fagara rubescens, respectively. The concentration of fluorine which is very important for human dental enamel was specially determined using the 19 F(p,p'γ) 19 F reaction. For decades these chewing sticks when used alone without toothpastes have proven to be very efficient, effective and reliable in cleaning the teeth of many people particularly in Nigeria and some other countries in Africa. The teeth of users are usually very strong, clean, fresh and devoid of germs and caries. Even with the advent of modern toothpastes with special additions of fluorine, the use of these popular and efficient chewing sticks is still unabated. Many people including the elite use them solely, a few others combine their use with modern toothpastes and brush. Proton beams produced by the 7 MV CN and 2.5 MV AN 2000 Van de Graaff accelerators at INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL), Padova, Italy were used for the PIGE and PIXE analysis, respectively. Results of this novel study are presented and discussed. (orig.)

  7. The diet of kudus in a mopane dominated area, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.F. Hooimeijer

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The composition of the plant species eaten by kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros determines the diet quality, which impacts on kudu condition and mortality levels. The yearround diet composition of kudus in the Limpopo Province, a mopane (Colophospermum mopane dominated area, was determined by faecal analysis. The most important dietary plant species were Colophospermum mopane, Grewia bicolor, Terminalia prunioides, Tinnea rhodesiana, Boscia albitrunca and Combretum apiculatum, with C. mopane comprising on average 39.2 % of diet per month. Small amounts of herbs, grasses and seeds made up the remaining part of the diet. The contribution of C. mopane in the diet was negatively correlated with precipitation. Colophospermum mopane was consumed, irrespective of its high condensed tannin load (5.2–9.8 % DW for the majority of the months. No seasonally significant differences were detected for modelled kudu diet crude protein, tannin or phenol concentrations. Colophospermum mopane showed significant seasonal differences with lowest values of protein, tannin and phenols in the late wet season. Surprisingly, crude protein concentrations were positively correlated with high levels of tannins and phenols for C. mopane. The diet of kudus comprised of significantly more species during the wet season compared to the dry season. Diet diversification, instead of protein maximization, seems a potential tool to satisfy protein requirements while reducing potential toxic effects associated with a high intake of secondary compounds. A significant positive correlation was therefore detected between the tannin concentration of C. mopane leaves and the number of plant species in the diet.

  8. Traditional medicinal plants used for the treatment of diabetes in rural and urban areas of Dhaka, Bangladesh--an ethnobotanical survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocvirk, Soeren; Kistler, Martin; Khan, Shusmita; Talukder, Shamim Hayder; Hauner, Hans

    2013-06-24

    The usage of medicinal plants is traditionally rooted in Bangladesh and still an essential part of public healthcare. Recently, a dramatically increasing prevalence brought diabetes mellitus and its therapy to the focus of public health interests in Bangladesh. We conducted an ethnobotanical survey to identify the traditional medicinal plants being used to treat diabetes in Bangladesh and to critically assess their anti-diabetic potentials with focus on evidence-based criteria. In an ethnobotanical survey in defined rural and urban areas 63 randomly chosen individuals (health professionals, diabetic patients), identified to use traditional medicinal plants to treat diabetes, were interviewed in a structured manner about their administration or use of plants for treating diabetes. In total 37 medicinal plants belonging to 25 families were reported as being used for the treatment of diabetes in Bangladesh. The most frequently mentioned plants were Coccinia indica, Azadirachta indica, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Syzygium cumini, Terminalia chebula, Ficus racemosa, Momordica charantia, Swietenia mahagoni. Traditional medicinal plants are commonly used in Bangladesh to treat diabetes. The available data regarding the anti-diabetic activity of the detected plants is not sufficient to adequately evaluate or recommend their use. Clinical intervention studies are required to provide evidence for a safe and effective use of the identified plants in the treatment of diabetes.

  9. The phylogeny of Simulium (Chirostilbia (Diptera: Simuliidae and perspectives on the systematics of the genus in the Neotropical Region

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    Leonardo Henrique Gil-Azevedo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, knowledge of Neotropical Simuliidae has been accumulating quickly. However, information about supra-specific relationships is scarce and diagnoses of Simulium subgenera are unsatisfactory. To investigate the relationships among Simulium (Chirostilbia species and test the subgenus monophyly, we performed a cladistic analysis. The ingroup included all species of this subgenus and the outgroup included representatives of the 17 species groups of Neotropical Simulium and three Holarctic species. The study was based on a data matrix with 31 terminal taxa and 45 morphological characteristics of adult, pupa and larva. The phylogenetic analysis under equal weights resulted in eight most-parsimonious trees (length = 178, consistency index = 34, retention index = 67. The monophyly of the S. (Chirostilbia was not supported in our analysis. The Simulium subpallidum species group was closer to Simulium (Psilopelmia and Simulium (Ectemnaspis than to the Simulium pertinax species group. Additionally, we describe the three-dimensional shape of the terminalia of male and female of Simulium (Chirostilbia for the first time and provide comments about the taxonomic problems involving some species of the subgenus: Simulium acarayense, Simulium papaveroi, S. pertinax, Simulium serranum, Simulium striginotum and S. subpallidum.

  10. Effect of Sri Lankan traditional medicine and Ayurveda on Sandhigata Vata (osteoarthritis of knee joint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Pathirage Kamal; Perera, Manaram; Kumarasinghe, Nishantha

    2014-01-01

    Reported case was a 63-year-old female with end-stage osteoarthritis (OA) (Sandhigata Vata) of the left knee joint accompanied by exostoses. Radiology (X-ray) report confirmed it as a Kellgren-Lawrence grade III or less with exostoses. At the beginning, the Knee Society Rating System scores of pain, movement and stability were poor, and function score was fair. Srilankan traditional and Ayurveda medicine treatment was given in three regimens for 70 days. After 70 days, external treatment of oleation and 2 capsules of Shallaki (Boswellia serrata Triana and Planch) and two tablets of Jeewya (comprised of Emblica officinalis Gaertn., Tinospora cordifolia [Willd.] Millers. and Terminalia chebula Retz.), twice daily were continued over 5 months. Visual analogue scale for pain, knee scores in the Knee Society online rating system and a Ayurveda clinical assessment criteria was used to evaluate the effects of treatments in weekly basis. After treatment for 70 days, the Knee Society Rating System scores of pain, movement and stability were also improved up to good level and function score was improved up to excellent level. During the follow-up period, joint symptoms and signs and the knee scores were unchanged. In conclusion, this OA patient's quality of life was improved by the combined treatment of Sri Lankan traditional medicine and Ayurveda. PMID:26195904

  11. Vegetation change in the coastal-lowland rainforest at Avai'o'vuna Swamp, Vava'u, Kingdom of Tonga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fall, Patricia L.

    2005-11-01

    Avai'o'vuna Swamp, a small coastal wetland in Vava'u, Kingdom of Tonga, produced a 4500-year pollen and sediment record. Results are: (1) a mid-Holocene sea level highstand is confirmed for Tonga between about 4500 and 2600 14C yr B.P.; marine clay contains pollen from mangroves ( Rhizophora mangle), coastal forest trees ( Barringtonia asiatica and Cocos nucifera), and rainforest trees ( Alphitonia, Rhus, Hedycarya and Calophyllum). (2) Microscopic charcoal first appeared at 2600 14C yr B.P., coincident with the arrival of Polynesians. (3) Cocos, Pandanus, Excoecaria, Macaranga, and Elaeocarpaceae pollen reflects the establishment of a mixed coastal-lowland rainforest in the last 2500 years. (4) The loss of Hedycarya, Elaeocarpus, Calophyllum, and Guettarda and the reduction of Terminalia and taxa in the Papilionaceae family by about 1000 years ago may be due to habitat destruction and the loss of dispersal capabilities of some species through the extinction of the two largest pigeons in Tonga.

  12. Tritium behavior pattern in some soil-plant systems in a tropical environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soman, S.D.; Iyengar, T.S.; Sadarangani, S.H.; Vaze, P.K.

    1975-01-01

    A study of the distribution pattern of tritium in the soil/plant environment gives valuable ecological information on the natural water balance. The results of such a study for the conditions obtaining in India are given in this paper. Field studies are carried out by injection of tritium into some soil/plant systems and following the transfer pathways. The method of extraction for tissue-free-water-tritium (TFWT) is based on the vacuum freeze-drying technique while the tissue-bound-tritium (TBT) is estimated by a modified version of the Shoniger method. The determination of residence time of tritium in aqueous and organic phase in a number of tropical trees has been carried out both for stem-injection as well as intake from the soil. From the results of this study the tree biomass and transpiration rates have been determined. The tritium profile over time, for an acute exposure in certain trees such as Morinda Tinetoria, Achras Sapota etc. shows significantly different patterns compared to the normal pattern shown by Mangifera Indica, Terminalia Catappa, Ficus Glomerata etc. The period of investigation in each case varied from 400 to 1000 h. In most of the cases, the TBT fractions were very low compared to TFWT fractions in the initial stages. The tritium behavior in the tree reflects significant characteristics of the tritium behavior in the soil system. The authors have found that the leaf sampling can be used as an indicator of total environmental tritium behavior. (author)

  13. Pictorial identification key for species of Sarcophagidae (Diptera of potential forensic importance in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Pinto e Vairo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Pictorial identification key for species of Sarcophagidae (Diptera of potential forensic importance in southern Brazil. Species of the subfamily Sarcophaginae are important to forensic entomology due to their necrophagous habits. This contribution presents a pictorial key for the identification of 22 Sarcophaginae species in 10 genera that are commonly found in southern Brazil. Photographs of the main structures used in species identification, mainly from the male terminalia, are provided.Chave pictórica para a identificação das espécies de Sarcophagidae (Diptera de potencial importância forense do sul do Brasil. Espécies da subfamília Sarcophaginae são importantes para a entomologia forense devido ao seu hábito necrófago. Este trabalho apresenta uma chave pictórica para a identificação de 22 espécies de Sarcophaginae de 10 gêneros encontradas na região sul do Brasil. São fornecidas fotografias dos principais estruturas das espécies, principalmente da terminália masculina.

  14. Malagasyprinus, a new genus of the Saprininae from Madagascar with description of two new species (Coleoptera, Histeridae, Saprininae (First contribution to the knowledge of the Histeridae of Madagascar

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    Tomáš Lackner

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Based on the results of recent phylogenetic analysis of the higher taxa of the Saprininae as well as external morphological characters, especially the presence of deep and large prosternal foveae, and the shape and position of the sensory organs of the antennal club, the species Saprinus (s.str. caeruleatus Lewis, 1905 is excluded from the genus Saprinus and a new genus Malagasyprinus, exclusive to Madagascar, is established for it. The new genus shows mainly characters that are apomorphic for the subfamily and contains another two, highly similar allopatric species M. perrieri sp. n., and M. diana sp. n., described herein. The three species are best separated from each other by the structure of the prosternum and male terminalia, especially the shape of the aedeagus. We re-describe M. caeruleatus comb. n. and provide M. perrieri and M. diana with brief differential diagnoses. All taxon descriptions are accompanied with color habitat photographs, SEM micrographs and drawings of their male genitalia. A key to the species of Malagasyprinus is given. Sensory structures of the antenna of M. caeruleatus comb. n. are likewise depicted herein. The systematic position of the newly erected genus is discussed. A lectotype of Saprinus caeruleatus Lewis, 1905 is designated.

  15. Physical Characters of Trees And Their Effects on Micro-Climate (Case Study at Urban Forest and Green Open Space at Semarang City

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    Endes N Dahlan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Air temperature in cities are increasing which can cause reduce the human comfort and productivity. Urban forest can make the environment comfortable. The objectiveof the researc hwere: (1. To Determine the effects of urban forest on air temperature and relative humidity, (2. To analyze the effects of physical characters of trees ont he micro-climate amelioration and(3. To Determine species of trees which are very effective for micro-climate amelioration.The results of the research revealed that the average of daily air temperature in the urban forest was 30.2 C with arelative humidityof 74.0%, while the daily air temperature around the urban forest was 31.8 Karakter Fisik Pohon ... (Dahlan E o C with relative humidityof 71.1%. Tree composisitin of all study sites consist of192trees, 29 speciesand 13families. The TinjomoyoForest Tourism has the highest density of trees(406trees/ha, while the lowest in the Parks Minister Supeno (316trees/ha. Value of Key Performance Indicator (KPI of trees based on calculation of tall of trees, diameter of canopies, total leaves area and canopy forms noticed that very effective trees for micro-climate amelioration were: Angsana(Pterocarpus indicus, beringin(Ficus benjamina, flamboyan(Delonix regia , ketapang(Terminalia catappa, mahoni (Swietenia mahogany, andtrembesi (Albizia saman.

  16. Effects of degumming on biodiesel properties of some non-conventional seedoils

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    Abolanle Saheed Adekunle

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effect of degumming process on physicochemical and biodiesel properties of six non-conventional oils in Nigeria extracted from the seeds and flesh of Terminalia catappa (seed, Irvingia gabonesis (seed, Glycine max (seed, Persea americana(flesh, Tithonia diversifolia (seed, and Dacryodes edulis(flesh. The fruits and seeds were air-dried to constant weight and pulverized. Oil was extracted from the milled sample using Soxhlet extraction method. The oils were degummed using 300 μg/mL of NaCl solution to obtain the refined (degummed oil. Physicochemical properties of both degummed and crude oils were carried out using the AOAC (1990 methods. The fuel properties of the biodiesel obtained were carried out using ASTM methods. Results showed that degumming process lead to high biodiesel yield and reduced the acid value and iodine value compared with the crude oils. The study therefore concluded that degummed oils were a better substitute for biodiesel fuels production.

  17. Prospects of apicultural entrepreneurship in coastal districts of eastern India: a melissopalynological evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Debasis; Bhattacharya, Swapan; Ferguson, David K; Bera, Subir

    2014-01-01

    A melissopalynological analysis of fifty-one natural honey samples (twenty four spring, fifteen summer and twelve winter) collected during 2010-2011 from two east-coastal districts (20(0)20/ to 22(0)11/ N, 82(0)39/ to 87(0)01/ E) of Orissa, India was performed. Out of 37 unifloral samples found 25 were contributed by Apis cerana indica, seven by A. dorsata and the remaining five by A. florea. Out of 14 multifloral samples five were contributed by A. cerana indica, five by A. dorsata and the remaining four by A. florea. Principal component analysis confirmed the palynological classification of the unifloral honey samples. Eighty-two bee-plant taxa belonging to forty four families were recovered. The predominant nectariferous taxa of the spring season were Acanthus ilicifolius, Avicennia marina, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, Cocos nucifera, Eucalyptus globulus, Phoenix paludosa, Pongamia pinnata, Prosopis juliflora, Sonneratia apetala and Syzygium cumini. In the summer the predominant nectariferous taxa were Borassus flabellifer, C. nucifera, E. globulus, Syzygium cumini, Terminalia arjuna, Aegiceras corniculatum, P. paludosa and Sonneratia apetala while those of the winter were Brassica nigra, Coriandrum sativum, Zizyphus jujuba, Alstonia scholaris, E. globulus and Bruguiera gymnorrhiza. Very low (entrepreneurship. This should improve the socio-economic status of the people of this region.

  18. Effect of the gene transformer of Anastrepha on the somatic sexual development of Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, María-Fernanda; Sánchez, Lucas

    2010-01-01

    The gene transformer (tra) is the key regulatory memory device for sex determination in tephritid insects. The present manuscript addressed the question about the functional conservation of the tephritid Anastrepha Transformer protein to direct somatic sexual development in Drosophila (Drosophilidae). The transformer cDNA of Anastrepha encoding the putative full-length Tra protein was cloned in pUAST and introduced into Drosophila melanogaster. To express this protein, the GAL4-UAS system was used. The Anastrepha Tra protein induced the female-specific splicing of both dsx and fru pre-mRNAs in Drosophila XY male flies, so that these became transformed into females, though this transformation was incomplete (the sexually dimorphic foreleg basitarsus and the external terminalia were monitored). It was found that the degree of female transformation directly depended on the dose of Anastrepha tra and Drosophila transformer-2 (tra-2) genes, and that the Anastrepha Tra-Drosophila Tra2 complex is not as efficient as the Drosophila Tra-Tra2 complex at inducing the female-specific splicing of Drosophila dsx pre-mRNA. This can explain why the Anastrepha Tra protein cannot fully substitute for the endogenous Drosophila Tra protein.

  19. Study of Herbal Medicine in Zirrah (Touz /Dashtestan/Bushehr province

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    Mohammad ali Ziraee

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ethnopharmacology has been seen as a multidisciplinary approach for novel drug discovery by providing valuable data about medicinal plants in different cultures. The aim of this ethnopharmacological study was to identify medicinal plants of the Zirrah (Touz/Dashtestan/Bushehr province in the North of Persian Gulf. Material and Methods: The medical uses of medicinal plants were gathered from 23 local informants by face to face interviews. The relative frequency of citation (FRC and cultural importance (CI indices were calculated. Results: A total of 131 medicinal plants belonging to 62 families were identified. Malva sylvestris, Zataria multiflora, Terminalia chebula, Cuminum cyminum, Foenicum vulgare, Olivera decumbens, Echium amoenum, Teucriuma polium, Cannabis sativa and Papaver somniferum had the highest cultural importance indices. Ducrosia anethifolia Bioss, Nigella sativa, Capparis spinosa and Urtica dioica had the highest FRC indices. The highest medical uses were for gastrointestinal diseases, gynecological diseases and dermatological uses, infectious diseases, nature of cool and metabolic disorders, respectively. Conclusion: There is a vast variety of medicinal plants in Zirrah (Touz/Dashtestan/Bushehr province. Although most of therapeutic applications of these plants in the Zirrah (Touz/Dashtestan/Bushehr province are the same as Iran’s traditional medicine, but the people of this region use some of these plants for some diseases which are unique for this area. Thus, investigation about these plants should be initiated to discover novel drugs for clinical applications.

  20. Three New Species of Shoot Fly, Atherigona spp., from Northern Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moophayak, Kittikhun; Kurahashi, Hiromu; Sukontason, Kabkaew L.

    2011-01-01

    Three new species of shoot fly, Atherigona Rondani (subgenus Acritochaeta Grimshaw) (Diptera: Muscidae), are described from northern Thailand, based on morphological characteristics of males. Unique features of A. komi sp. n. include a distinct spiral groove on the dorsal aspect of the fore femur and two dark apical wing spots, whereas A. chiangmaiensis sp. n. is recognized by the presence of one large patch on the apical wing spot, appearing as a large and smaller wave-shaped patch, and no distinct pattern on tergites. A. thailandica sp. n. displays a remarkable dark boomerang-shaped patch along the wing margin and fore femur, with two rows of long hairs on the dorsal surface. Male terminalia are also different in the new species, showing distinctive characteristics. This paper also presents five newly recorded species in Thailand; Atherigona maculigera Stein, Atherigona ovatipennis vietnamensis Shinonaga et Thinh, Atherigona pallidipalpis Malloch, Atherigona seticauda Malloch, and Atherigona setitarsus Shinonaga et Thinh. A key is provided for the adult males of Atherigona recorded in Thailand, all belonging to the subgenus Acritochaeta, except for A. soccata Rondani. PMID:22233520

  1. IDENTIFICATION AND AUTHENTICATION OF DRY SAMPLES OF SOME MEDICINAL PLANTS USING LEAF EPIDERMAL FEATURES AS MARKER

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    Abdullahi Alanamu ABDULRAHAMAN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Herbal medicine is the oldest and still the most widely used system of medicine in the world today and they are made exclusively from plants. However, most of these medicines or drugs are adulterated due to lack of proper identification of the plant samples. Method of checking adulteration of drug plants is the main focus of this study. The identification and authentication of dry samples of some medicinal plants were carried out using anatomical features. Twenty-five (25 plants materials were collected in Ibadan and Ilorin, Nigeria. The plants studied include Azardiracta indica, Newboudia leavis, Polyalthia longifolia, Cymbopogon citratus, Anarcardium occidentalis, Nicotiana tobbaccum, Jatropha curcas, Chromoleana odorata, Mangifera indica, Terminalia catappa, Ocimum gratisimum, Morus messosygia, Morinda lucida, Psidium guajava, Vitellaria paradoxa, Annona senegalensis, Vernonia amygdalina, Gliricidium sepium, Ravoulvia vomitora, Telferia occindentalis Citrus aurantifolia, C. limon, C. paradisi and C. sinensis. Leaf epidermal anatomy of these selected plants showed no major variations in stomatal complex types, frequency, size and shape of stomatal cells, epidermal cell wall and trichomes between fresh and dry samples. The variations that occur were between different species but not within species. Leaf epidermal anatomy, therefore, proved to be a significant tool for resolution of taxonomic confusion of dried samples of these plants.

  2. Ethnobotanical study of medicinal flora utilised by traditional healers in the management of sexually transmitted infections in Sesheke District, Western Province, Zambia

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    K.C. Chinsembu

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Since many rural-poor Lozi people of Sesheke District (Western Province, Zambia that suffer from sexually transmitted infections do not usually access public health facilities; they turn to traditional healers who administer remedies extracted from medicinal plants. However, the medicinal plants used for sexually transmitted infections and data on the usage of plants in Sesheke District in particular and Western Province in general have not been documented. In this study, an ethnobotanical survey was conducted to document the indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants that alleviate symptoms of sexually transmitted infections in Sesheke District, Western Province, Zambia. Using semi-structured interviews and questionnaires, ethnobotanical data were collected from twenty traditional healers that manage patients presenting with sexually transmitted infections. The results showed that 52 plant species in 25 families and 43 genera were used to treat gonorrhoea, syphilis, chancroid, chlamydia, genital herpes, and ano-genital warts. Sexually transmitted infections were frequently managed using the following plants: Terminalia sericea, Strychnos cocculoides, Ximenia caffra, Cassia abbreviata, Cassia occidentalis, Combretum hereroense, Combretum imberbe, Dichrostachys cinerea, Boscia albitrunca, Momordica balsamina and Peltophorum africanum. Many of these plants have putative antimicrobial activities which may justify their roles as natural remedies for sexually transmitted infections. Further studies are needed to determine the dosages, minimum inhibitory concentrations, biological activities and toxicities, and characterise the plants' chemical compounds.

  3. Diversité floristique sous canopée en plantation forestière de Mangombe-Edea (Cameroun

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    Makombu, G.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Floristic diversity under canopy in forest plantation of Mangombe-Edea (Cameroon. Trees plantation of Mangombe is situated in rain forest of low altitude. Six plots among which one of Mansonia altissima (A.Chev. A.Chev., 2 of Lovoa trichilioides Harms, 3 of Terminalia ivorensis A.Chev. and one perturbed natural forest are concerned by this study. The work consisted to the evaluation of the floristic diversity under canopy in order to appreciate the influence of forest plantation on natural regeneration. A total of 26 families, 42 genders and 46 species were censured. Meliaceae and Apocynaceae are present in all the plots. In plot one of T. ivorensis, M. altissima and natural forest, the low value of equitability of Pielou traduces the dominance of flora by few species and the transitory situation of the ecosystem. On contrary the rest of plots present a good repartition of individuals among the species. One can notice a weak organization of the ecologic system in M. altissima plot, this corresponds to favourable conditions of environment for installation of many species represented by a few number of individuals. Shannon indices, relatively low in plot one of T. ivorensis characterize an ecosystem where one species is dominant. Globally, the regeneration under canopy is reconstituted progressively and remains less diversified than the nearest natural forest. Creation of genetic pool through selective entertainment under canopy will permit polycyclic management of plots for sustainable production of wood.

  4. Combined effect of gamma radiation and some plant extracts on spodoptera littoralis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, R.S.H.

    2012-01-01

    The present investigation was carried out to study the effects of exposure of male full-grown pupae of the cotton leaf worm Spodoptera littoralis to sub sterilizing doses of gamma radiation (100,150 or 300 Gy), treating larval diet with different concentrations of Terminalia arjuna , Erythrine caffra, Taxodium distichum or Melaleuca cajuputi plant extracts on certain biological aspects of the parental (P 1 ),F 1 generation and combined effect of Taxodium distichum(1.25 ethanol , 2.5% water extracts) and 100 Gy of gamma radiation on also, the certain biological aspects of the parental (P 1 ) and first filial (F 1 ) generations. The biological aspects included the effect on fecundity, egg hatchability, mating ability, and malformation, beside larval survival until adult emergence and sex ratio of the produced adult at different mating crosses between treated and untreated or treated other sex. Special attention was given to inherited sterility of treated male. In addition, the studies also explained the effect of gamma radiation and different concentration of plant extracts of Taxodium disticum and combined effect of both on three tested enzymes (TOC,TAC and Cytochrom p 450 ) . In addition the effect of them on the free testosterone .Using radiation in combination with Taxodium disticum gave synergistic effect by decreasing the activity of these enzymes among F 1 adult male.This means that these treatments also interfered in the functions of these enzymes and hormone.

  5. Anti-Arthritic Effect of Chebulanin on Collagen-Induced Arthritis in Mice.

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    Yinglan Zhao

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic degenerative autoimmune disease characterized by persistent inflammation of synovial membranes, which leads to cartilage destruction and bone erosion. To date, there are no effective therapies to slow the progress of this degenerative condition. Here, we evaluate the anti-arthritic effect of chebulanin, an abundant anti-inflammatory agent isolated from Terminalia chebula, in collagen induced arthritis in DBA/1 mice by intragastric administration. Arthritic severity was scored by performing histopathological evaluation of the joints and measuring the expression of inflammatory cytokines and relative enzymes by immunohistochemical staining. In parallel, bone destruction and erosion were confirmed by micro-CT. Our data revealed that chebulanin significantly improved the severity of arthritis. Specifically, the histopathological characteristics of the tissues were improved and expression of TNF-α, IL-6, MMP-3 and COX-2 in the paws and joints of the treated mice decreased in a dose-dependent manner compared with control mice. Furthermore, micro-CT analysis revealed that chebulanin induced a dose-dependent reduction in cartilage destruction and bone erosion. Taken together, our findings suggest that chebulanin suppresses the expression of inflammatory mediators and prevents cartilage destruction and bone erosion in mice. Therefore, chebulanin is a strong therapeutic alternative for the treatment of RA.

  6. Atividade inseticida de extratos etanólicos de plantas sobre Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E.Smith (Leptopdera noctuidae

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    Sérgio Roberto Rodrigues

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Spodoptera frugiperda é uma importante praga na cultura do milho, e o estudo de plantas com propriedades inseticidas para auxílio no controle desta praga tem aumentado devido aos benefícios que pode proporcionar. Desta forma, desenvolveu-se o trabalho com objetivo de avaliar o efeito de extratos etanólicos de Ocotea minarum, Nectandra megapotamica, Mascagnia pubiflora, Terminalia argentea e Tabebuia aurea, sobre S. frugiperda. Folhas de milho foram imersas nos extratos a 1% (peso/volume e, depois de evaporado o excesso de água, fornecidas à lagartas de primeiro ínstar. Para o estudo de biologia, lagartas recém-eclodidas foram mantidas em tubos de vidro, enquanto que nos testes de preferência alimentar foram acondicionadas em placas de Petri. Os efeitos na biologia de S. frugiperda foram observados para os extratos de O. minarum, N. megapotamica, M. pubiflora e T. argentea. Tabebuia aurea promoveu maior mortalidade larval. Na fase pupal O. lancifolia, T. aurea e T. argentea promoveram redução do peso pupal. Folhas de milho tratadas com extratos de M. pubiflora, T. argentea e N. megapotamica não foram preferidos para alimentação. Todas as espécies vegetais apresentaram efeito inseticida.

  7. Mast cell stabilization, lipoxygenase inhibition, hyaluronidase inhibition, antihistaminic and antispasmodic activities of Aller-7, a novel botanical formulation for allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amit, A; Saxena, V S; Pratibha, N; D'Souza, P; Bagchi, M; Bagchi, D; Stohs, S J

    2003-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis, also known as hay fever, rose fever or summer catarrh, is a major challenge to health professionals. A large number of the world's population, including approximately 40 million Americans, suffers from allergic rhinitis. A novel, botanical formulation (Aller-7) has been developed for the treatment of allergic rhinitis using a combination of extracts from seven medicinal plants, including Phyllanthus emblica, Terminalia chebula, T. bellerica, Albizia lebbeck, Piper nigrum, Zingiber officinale and P. longum, which have a proven history of efficacy and health benefits. The clinical manifestations of allergy are due to a number of mediators that are released from mast cells. The effect of Aller-7 on rat mesenteric mast cell degranulation was studied by incubating different concentrations of Aller-7 and challenging them with a degranulating agent, compound 48/80. The inhibitory activity of Aller-7 was determined against lipoxygenase and hyaluronidase, the key enzymes involved in the initiation and maintenance of inflammatory responses. Furthermore, most of these manifestations are due to histamine, which causes vasodilatation, increasing capillary permeability and leading to bronchoconstriction. Hence, the antihistaminic activity of Aller-7 was determined is isolated guinea pig ileum substrate using cetirizine as a positive control. The antispasmodic effect of Aller-7 on contractions of guinea pig tracheal chain was determined using papaverine and cetirizine as controls. Aller-7 exhibited potent activity in all these in vitro models tested, thus demonstrating the novel anti-allergic potential of Aller-7.

  8. Thermo-Analytical and Physico-Chemical Characterization of Woody and Non-Woody Biomass from an Agro-ecological Zone in Nigeria

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    Ayokunle Oluwabusayo Balogun

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Woody (Albizia pedicellaris and Terminalia ivorensis and non-woody (guinea corn (Sorghum bicolor glume and stalk biomass resources from Nigeria were subjected to thermo-analytical and physico-chemical analyses to determine their suitability for thermochemical processing. They were found to have comparably high calorific values (between 16.4 and 20.1 MJ kg-1. The woody biomass had very low ash content (0.32%, while the non-woody biomass had relatively high ash content (7.54%. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA of the test samples showed significant variation in the decomposition behavior of the individual biomasses. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs derivatives indicated the presence of fatty and resin acids in the dichloromethane (CH2Cl2 extracts. Analytical pyrolysis (Py-GC/MS of the samples revealed that the volatiles liberated consisted mostly of acids, alcohols, ketones, phenols, and sugar derivatives. These biomass types were deemed suitable for biofuel applications.

  9. Arboreal component, phytosociology structure and environmental relations in a remnant of cerradão, Curvelo - MG

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    Thiago José Ornelas Otoni

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to verify the existence of variations in composition and distribution of tree species due to soil characteristics in a fragment of dystrophic savanna in Curvelo-MG. On description in the compartment of the phanerophytes of this plant community, were installed ten permanent plots with 1.000 m2 (20 x 50 m with fixed distances of 100 m between each plot. All alive individuals that had diameter at soil height (DSH - diameter to 0.3 m from ground level > 5.0 cm were sampled. The Individuals with multiple boles were sampled when the value of square root of the sum-square of DSH had been greater than criterion of the inventory. Were collected Soil samples at two depths (0-20 e 20-40 cm and was measured the distances of plots of a watercourse. To study the community were generated ordination diagrams of plots, species and environmental variables by means of a canonical correspondence analysis (CCA. The richness sampled was 92 species, 36 families and 74 genera, Erythroxylum, Byrsonima, Myrcia and Qualea. Jackknife estimators (first and second order designed a wealth of 106.4 and 107.8 species. The species Magonia pubescens, Terminalia argentea, Annona crassiflora, Eugenia dysenterica e Xylopia aromatica were distribuited underneath the environmental gradient.

  10. A charge transfer complex nematic liquid crystalline gel with high electrical conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhargavi, R.; Nair, Geetha G.; Krishna Prasad, S.; Majumdar, R.; Bag, Braja G.

    2014-01-01

    We describe the rheological, dielectric and elastic properties of a nematic liquid crystal gel created using an anthrylidene derivative of arjunolic acid, a chiral triterpenoid, obtained from the extracts of the wood of Terminalia arjuna. In this novel gel, having the electron-donor and acceptor components as minority constituents, the gelation and strengthening of charge-transfer complex (CTC) formation are seen to be occurring concomitantly. In addition to being mechanically strong with a large storage modulus, the gel with the maximized CTC exhibits Frank bend elastic constant values that approach nanonewton levels. The highlight of the study is the observation of 4–5 orders of magnitude increase in electrical conductivity for this gel, a value that is higher than even in the CT complexes of 2-d ordered columnar structures. A further important advantage of the present system over the columnar complex is that the high conductivity is seen for ac probing also, and owing to the nematic nature can be switched between its anisotropic limits. Some of these features are ascribed to a specific molecular packing architecture, which reduces the trapping of the charge carriers.

  11. A charge transfer complex nematic liquid crystalline gel with high electrical conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargavi, R.; Nair, Geetha G.; Krishna Prasad, S.; Majumdar, R.; Bag, Braja G.

    2014-10-01

    We describe the rheological, dielectric and elastic properties of a nematic liquid crystal gel created using an anthrylidene derivative of arjunolic acid, a chiral triterpenoid, obtained from the extracts of the wood of Terminalia arjuna. In this novel gel, having the electron-donor and acceptor components as minority constituents, the gelation and strengthening of charge-transfer complex (CTC) formation are seen to be occurring concomitantly. In addition to being mechanically strong with a large storage modulus, the gel with the maximized CTC exhibits Frank bend elastic constant values that approach nanonewton levels. The highlight of the study is the observation of 4-5 orders of magnitude increase in electrical conductivity for this gel, a value that is higher than even in the CT complexes of 2-d ordered columnar structures. A further important advantage of the present system over the columnar complex is that the high conductivity is seen for ac probing also, and owing to the nematic nature can be switched between its anisotropic limits. Some of these features are ascribed to a specific molecular packing architecture, which reduces the trapping of the charge carriers.

  12. Rhinusa Stephens: a taxonomic revision of the species belonging to the R. tetra and R. bipustulata groups (Coleoptera Curculionidae

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    Roberto Caldara

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The species of Rhinusa Stephens, 1829 (Curculionidae, Curculioninae, Mecinini belonging to the R. tetra and R. bipustulata groups are revised. Four of them from Middle East are new to science. The R. bipustulata group includes five species: R. bipustulata (Rossi, 1792; R. pelletieri sp. nov.; R. scrophulariae Caldara, 2009; R. algirica (Brisout de Barneville, 1862; R. emmrichi (Bajtenov, 1979, whereas the R. tetra group includes nine species: R. tetra (Fabricius, 1792; R. verbasci (Rosenschoeld, 1838; R. ensifer sp. nov.; R. moroderi (Reitter, 1906; R. weilli sp. nov.; R. comosa (Rosenschoeld, 1838; R. acifer sp. nov.; R asellus (Gravenhorst, 1807; R. tenuirostris (Stierlin, 1888. The following new synonym is proposed: Rhinusa bipustulata (Rossi, 1792 (= Gymnetron municipale Voss, 1960 syn. nov.. The neotype of Rhynchaenus asellus Gravenhorst, 1807 was designated. Moreover, the following lectotypes are designated: Cionus spilotus Germar, 1821; Gymnetron bipustulatum var. germari Faust, 1889; Gymnetron bodenheimeri Wagner, 1926; Gymnetron cylindrirostre Gyllenhal, 1838; Gymnetron nasutum Rosenschoeld, 1838; Gymnetron plagiatum Gyllenhal, 1838; Gymnetron polonicum Rosenschoeld, 1838; Gymnetron tenuirostre Stierlin, 1888. A key to the species, diagnoses of species groups, descriptions or redescriptions, notes on type specimens, synonymies, comparative notes, distribution, bionomics when available, photographs of habitus and drawings of rostra, terminalia and other useful characters for taxonomy are provided.

  13. Biosynthesis of tannase and gallic acid from tannin rich substrates by Rhizopus oryzae and Aspergillus foetidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Gargi; Banerjee, Rintu

    2004-01-01

    Modified solid-state fermentation (MSSF) of tannin-rich substrates for production of tannase and gallic acid was carried out using two fungal cultures, Rhizopus oryzae (RO IIT RB-13, NRRL 21498) and Aspergillus foetidus (GMRB013 MTCC 3557). The tannin rich substrates included powdered fruits of Terminalia chebula and Caesalpinia digyna pod cover powder. The different environmental parameters for the maximum production of tannase and gallic acid were optimized through media engineering. The highest yield of tannase and gallic acid was obtained after 60 h in case of Rhizopus oryzae and after 72 h by Aspergillus foetidus with 3 ml of induced inoculum. The optimum initial pH of the fermentation was found to be 4.5 in case of Rhizopus oryzae and 5.0 for Aspergillus foetidus. MSSF was carried out at the optimum conditions of 30 degrees C and 80% relative humidity. Collectively, the data reveal the potential of the modified solid-state fermentation process for the production of tannase and gallic acid from tannin-rich substrates with R. oryzae and A. foetidus.

  14. Viabilidad y germinación de semillas de tres especies arbóreas nativas de la selva tropical, Chiapas, México

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    Carolina Orantes-García

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Se determinó la proporción de semillas viables y la pérdida de viabilidad debido al periodo de almacenamiento, así como el efecto de tratamientos pregerminativos que favorecen la germinación en semillas deCordia alliodora, Terminalia amazoniayBursera bipinnata, árboles nativos de la selva tropical, Chiapas, México. Se encontró que las semillas recién colectadas presentaron más del 90% de viabilidad, la cual fue disminuyendo hasta mostrar un 15% enB. bipinnata, 34% enC. alliodoray 18% enT. amazoniadespués de 12 meses de almacenamiento. De acuerdo con la germinación acumulada se encontraron diferencias significativas entre los tratamientos (pB. bipinnata63%,C. alliodora62% yT. amazonia54%. En conclusión, para poder obtener un mayor porcentaje de semillas germinadas en poco tiempo, es necesario dar un tratamiento previo a la siembra para las semillas de estas especies. El almacenamiento de las semillas durante un año provocó una declinación en la capacidad germinativa.

  15. Anti-pseudomona and Anti-bacilli Activity of Some Medicinal Plants of Iran

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    Gholam Hosein Shahidi Bonjar

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of plants in treatment of burns, dermatophytes, and infectious diseases is common in traditional medicine of Iran. Based on ethno pharmacological and taxonomic information, antibacterial activities of methanol extracts of some medicinal plants of Iran were determined by In Vitro bioassays using agar diffusion-method against standard strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, P. fluorescens, Bacillus subtilis, B. cereus and B. pumilis at 20 mg/ml. From 180 plant species of 72 families, 78 species (43.3% in 42 families (58.3% showed antibacterial activities against B. cereus (88.4%, B. subtilis (39.7%, B. pumilis (37.1%, P. fluorescens (37.1% and P. aeruginos (10.2%. The most active plant families were Apiaceae, Compositae and Labiatae with 9, 8 and 7 active plant species respectively. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC of the active plants were determined using two fold serial dilutions. Most active plant against Bacilli was Myrtus communis L. with MIC of 1.87 mg/ml. For Pseudomonas species, Dianthus caryophyllus L. and Terminalia chebula (Gaertner Retz. were more active with the MIC of 0.46 mg/ml for P. fluorescens and of 1.87 mg/ml for P. aeruginosa respectively.

  16. A field-to-desktop toolchain for X-ray CT densitometry enables tree ring analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Mil, Tom; Vannoppen, Astrid; Beeckman, Hans; Van Acker, Joris; Van den Bulcke, Jan

    2016-06-01

    Disentangling tree growth requires more than ring width data only. Densitometry is considered a valuable proxy, yet laborious wood sample preparation and lack of dedicated software limit the widespread use of density profiling for tree ring analysis. An X-ray computed tomography-based toolchain of tree increment cores is presented, which results in profile data sets suitable for visual exploration as well as density-based pattern matching. Two temperate (Quercus petraea, Fagus sylvatica) and one tropical species (Terminalia superba) were used for density profiling using an X-ray computed tomography facility with custom-made sample holders and dedicated processing software. Density-based pattern matching is developed and able to detect anomalies in ring series that can be corrected via interactive software. A digital workflow allows generation of structure-corrected profiles of large sets of cores in a short time span that provide sufficient intra-annual density information for tree ring analysis. Furthermore, visual exploration of such data sets is of high value. The dated profiles can be used for high-resolution chronologies and also offer opportunities for fast screening of lesser studied tropical tree species. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Diversity and ecology of Varanus indicus in Pepaya Island at Teluk Cenderawasih National Park, West Irian Jaya

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    DENY ANJELIUS IYAI

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Monitor lizard (Varanidae has dispersed widely in Indonesia, even in Papua. Papua contents of six species. It’s distribution, abundance, both in land and island have been known yet, even carrying capacity of feeding relative limited. However, species extinction rates in nature were increasing both in it. This research was done in Papaya Island in Teluk Cenderawasih National Park, Nabire, Papua since 24th -25th October 2005. Descriptive method was done to answer this study. This research resulted that in Papaya island contents only one species that is Varanus indicus. The V. indicus chosen same habitat in southern part of Papaya island. This species dispersed on 0-4 m above sea level, humidity about 78.6%, and temperature about 23.90C. Vegetation was dominated by coconut (Cocos nucifera, bitangur (Calophyllum inophyllum and tikar (Pandanus sp., papaya (Carica papaya, and ketapang (Terminalia catappa. V. indicus chosen Megapodius reinwadt nest as nesting area. Population of V. indicus was estimated as much 36.3 ≈ 36 pieces by King Method. The nest of V. indicus placed in Cassuarina sp. tree where cutting down. The diet of V. indicus was found such as megapods, sea birds, lizard (sauria, butterflies and bats (Macrochyroptera. People were caused threatened both direct and indirect toward the V. indicus existence.

  18. Aquatic dance flies (Diptera, Empididae, Clinocerinae and Hemerodromiinae of Greece: species richness, distribution and description of five new species

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    Marija Ivković

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available All records of aquatic dance flies (37 species in subfamily Clinocerinae and 10 species in subfamily Hemerodromiinae from the territory of Greece are summarized, including previously unpublished data and data on five newly described species (Chelifera horvati Ivković & Sinclair, sp. n., Wiedemannia iphigeniae Ivković & Sinclair, sp. n., W. ljerkae Ivković & Sinclair, sp. n., W. nebulosa Ivković & Sinclair, sp. n. and W. pseudoberthelemyi Ivković & Sinclair, sp. n.. The new species are described and illustrated, the male terminalia of Clinocera megalatlantica (Vaillant are illustrated and the distributions of all species within Greece are listed. The aquatic Empididae fauna of Greece consists of 47 species, with the following described species reported for the first time: Chelifera angusta Collin, Hemerodromia melangyna Collin, Clinocera megalatlantica, Kowarzia plectrum (Mik, Phaeobalia dimidiata (Loew, W. (Chamaedipsia beckeri (Mik, W. (Philolutra angelieri Vaillant and W. (P. chvali Joost. A key to species of aquatic Empididae of Greece is provided for the first time. Information related to the European Ecoregions in which species were found is given. Compared to the other studied countries in the Balkans, the Greek species assemblage is most similar to that of the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia.

  19. Litter production and its nutrient concentration in some fuelwood trees grown on sodic soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garg, V.K. (National Botanical Research Inst., Lucknow (India))

    1992-01-01

    Litter production was estimated in 8-year-old tree plantations of Acacia nilotica, Prosopis juliflora, Dalbergia sisso, and Terminalia arjuna planted in a monoculture tree cropping system on sodic soils of Lucknow Division, India. Mean annual litter fall of these trees amounted to 5.9, 7.4, 5.0 and 5.4 t ha[sup -1], respectively. Irrespective of tree species, the leaf litter concentrations of N, K and Ca were greater than those of P and Mg. The concentration of nutrients in leaf tissues was negatively correlated for N and Ca, with the magnitude of leaf fall in D. sissoo, but was positively correlated for Ca and Mg in A. nilotica; no such correlations were found in P. juliflora and T. arjuna. The variations in the concentration of leaf litter nutrient did not appear to be species specific but depended on adverse edaphic properties including the fertility status of sodic soil. A. nilotica and P. juliflora with bimodal patterns of litter fall return greater amounts of nutrients to the soil surface than D. sissoo and T. arjuna which have unimodal patterns of litter fall. The study indicated the potential benefit of a mixed plantation system having variable leaf fall patterns among the planted trees so providing constant litter mulch to help in conserving soil moisture. (author).

  20. Review of Cyrtomyia Bigot (Diptera, BomByliidae, Ecliminae with a key to the Neotropical genera of Ecliminae and Cyrtomyia species

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    Carlos José Einicker Lamas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Neotropical genus Cyrtomyia Bigot has a distribution restricted to the Andean region of South America, with records only in Argentina and Chile. The genus is composed by two species, which are reviewed and redescribed herein: C. chilensis Paramonov, 1931 and C. pictipennis (Bigot, 1857. The main characters of the external morphology of adults are photographed. Illustrations of the male and female terminalia of C. chilensis are also included. An identification key to species is presented, and the species distribution is briefly discussed.O gênero Neotropical Cyrtomyia Bigot tem uma distribuição restrita à região Andina da América do Sul, com registros assinalados apenas para a Argentina e Chile. O gênero é composto por duas espécies, que são aqui revisadas e redescritas: C. chilensis Paramonov, 1931 e C. pictipennis (Bigot, 1857. Os principais caracteres da morfologia externa dos adultos estão fotografados. Ilustrações das terminálias de machos e de fêmeas de C. chilensis também são incluídas. Uma chave de identificação para as espécies é apresentada e a distribuição das espécies é brevemente discutida.

  1. Socio-economic impacts of charcoal production in Oke-Ogun area of Oyo State, Nigeria

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    Olasimbo Olarinde

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Many households in developing countries experience low energy consumption and this make them depend upon wood fuels for their energy. This study examined socio-economic impacts of charcoal production in Oke-Ogun, Oyo State, Nigeria. Two Local Government Areas were selected based on the accessibility and the availability of charcoal farmers among ten Local Government Areas. Results show that 74% of the respondents were male while 26% were female that are into production of charcoal in the study area. 37.5% of the age range (41–50 of respondent produces more charcoal than other age range. The respondent did not go beyond primary school educationally and they are all married. However, respondents with over 11–20 years of experience in the production of charcoal have higher percentage of frequency. Some of the problem faced by the producers of charcoal in Oke Ogun area are scarcity of trees, wildfire, government disturbance and transportation. Trees commonly used for production are from inherited farms and most of the trees used are Butyrosopermum paradoxium, Dialium guineense, Terminalia glaucencens, Khaya ivorensis. Production is once in a month and later exported. Energy provision is a basic human need and consumption is closely related to the level of a country’s development.

  2. Analysis of bioaccessible concentration of trace elements in plant based edible materials by INAA and ICPMS methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutta, R.K.; Maharia, R.S.; Acharya, R.; Reddy, A.V.R.

    2014-01-01

    The total metal concentration and bioaccessible concentration of Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Se in Momordica charantia, Asparagus racemosus, Terminalia arjuna and Syzyzium cumini were measured by instrumental neutron activation analysis and by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis (ICP-MS). The bioaccessible concentrations were determined in the gastrointestinal digest obtained after treating dried powdered samples sequentially in gastric and intestinal fluid of porcine origin at physiological conditions. The bioaccessible concentration of Fe was in the range of 58-67 mg kg -1 , Mn was 10.2-14.6 mg kg -1 , Cu was 3.7-4.8 mg kg -1 and Zn was 10.6-18.4 mg kg -1 , were within the safety limits set for vegetable food stuff set by Joint FAO/WHO. The bioaccessibility of Zn, an essential element, was high (40-50 %) in M. charantia and in S. cumini. In addition, the total metal contents and bioaccessible concentration of Ni, Se, Cd and Pb in these samples were measured by ICP-MS. The total Cd content in S. cumini (2.6 ± 0.2 mg kg -1 ) and its bioaccessible concentration (0.6 mg kg -1 ) were strikingly high as compared to the other samples. Though total Hg contents were determined by ICP-MS, but their bioaccessible concentrations were below the detection limit (0.036 mg kg -1 ). (author)

  3. PIGE-PIXE analysis of chewing sticks of pharmacological importance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olabanji, S. O.; Makanju, O. V.; Haque, A. M. I.; Buoso, M. C.; Ceccato, D.; Cherubini, R.; Moschini, G.

    1996-06-01

    PIGE and PIXE techniques were employed for the determination of the major, minor and trace elemental concentrations in chewing sticks of pharmacological importance namely: Butyrospermum paradoxum, Garcinia kola, Distemonanthus benthamianus, Bridelia ferruginea, Anogeissus leiocarpus, Terminalia glaucescens and Fagara rubescens, respectively. The concentration of fluorine which is very important for human dental enamel was specially determined using the 19F(p, p'γ) 19F reaction. For decades these chewing sticks when used alone without toothpastes have proven to be very efficient, effective and reliable in cleaning the teeth of many people particularly in Nigeria and some other countries in Africa. The teeth of users are usually very strong, clean, fresh and devoid of germs and caries. Even with the advent of modern toothpastes with special additions of fluorine, the use of these popular and efficient chewing sticks is still unabated. Many people including the elite use them solely, a few others combine their use with modern toothpastes and brush. Proton beams produced by the 7 MV CN and 2.5 MV AN 2000 Van de Graaff accelerators at INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL), Padova, Italy were used for the PIGE and PIXE analysis, respectively. Results of this novel study are presented and discussed.

  4. Metabolomic Tools to Assess the Chemistry and Bioactivity of Endophytic Aspergillus Strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawfike, Ahmed F; Tate, Rothwelle; Abbott, Gráinne; Young, Louise; Viegelmann, Christina; Schumacher, Marc; Diederich, Marc; Edrada-Ebel, RuAngelie

    2017-10-01

    Endophytic fungi associated with medicinal plants are a potential source of novel chemistry and biology that may find applications as pharmaceutical and agrochemical drugs. In this study, a combination of metabolomics and bioactivity-guided approaches were employed to isolate secondary metabolites with cytotoxicity against cancer cells from an endophytic Aspergillus aculeatus. The endophyte was isolated from the Egyptian medicinal plant Terminalia laxiflora and identified using molecular biological methods. Metabolomics and dereplication studies were accomplished by utilizing the MZmine software coupled with the universal Dictionary of Natural Products database. Metabolic profiling, with aid of multivariate data analysis, was performed at different stages of the growth curve to choose the optimized method suitable for up-scaling. The optimized culture method yielded a crude extract abundant with biologically-active secondary metabolites. Crude extracts were fractionated using different high-throughput chromatographic techniques. Purified compounds were identified by HR-ESI-MS, 1D- and 2D-NMR. This study introduced a new method of dereplication utilizing both high-resolution mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy. The metabolites were putatively identified by applying a chemotaxonomic filter. We also present a short review on the diverse chemistry of terrestrial endophytic strains of Aspergillus, which has become a part of our dereplication work and this will be of wide interest to those working in this field. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  5. Larval microhabitats of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) in an endemic focus of visceral leishmaniasis in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, C; Pardo, R; Torres, M; Morrison, A C

    1997-11-01

    An intensive search for the larval habitats of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva) was conducted from November 1992 to October 1993 at a small rural community in Colombia where American visceral leishmaniasis is endemic. Emergence traps constructed from polyvinyl chloride pipes were used to sample a variety of soil microhabitats that included edge areas of covered pigpens, cattle corrals, the base of trees, and leaf litter at sites within 40 m of a house, rocks in fields located between 50 and 500 m from houses, and sites within a patch of secondary forest (rocks, base of palm trees, and leaf litter). The teneral status of the sand flies captured in the emergence traps was confirmed by laboratory studies that determined the rate of terminalia rotation in male L. longipalpis and the rate of cuticular growth layer formation of the thoracic phragma in both sexes of this species. A total of 58 teneral sand flies was captured during the study period (49 wk). Fifteen specimens were L. longipalpis; of these 11 (5 sand flies per square meter) were captured near pigpens, 3 (1.4 sand flies per square meter) were captured near rock resting sites, and 1 (1.6 sand flies per square meter) was collected at the base of a tree. The remainder of the sand flies were either L. trinidadensis (Newstead) or L. cayennensis (Flock & Abonnenc). Our results indicate that L. longipalpis larvae were dispersed widely in sites near houses, rather than concentrated in a few optimal microhabitats.

  6. Description of the male of Lepidodexia (Xylocamptopsis teffeensis (Townsend (Diptera, Sarcophagidae

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    Karlla Patrícia Silva

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Description of the male of Lepidodexia (Xylocamptopsis teffeensis (Townsend (Diptera, Sarcophagidae. The male of Lepidodexia (Xylocamptopsis teffeensis (Townsend, 1927 is described and illustrated for the first time based on material housed in the entomological collection of Museu Nacional, Rio de Janeiro (MNRJ. This monotypic subgenus has been recorded in the Brazilian Amazon Rainforest, first in the state of Amazonas and now in the state of Pará. The general structure of the male terminalia is similar that of other Lepidodexia, especially of the subgenus Lepidodexia, by the short distiphallus, juxta with apical projection, and vesica with a membranous spinous lobe.Descrição do macho de Lepidodexia (Xylocamptopsis teffeensis (Townsend, 1927 (Diptera: Sarcophagidae. O macho de Lepidodexia (Xylocamptopsis teffeensis é descrito e ilustrado pela primeira vez, com base em material depositado na coleção entomológica do Museu Nacional, Rio de Janeiro (MNRJ. Esse subgênero monotípico tem sido registrado na Floresta Amazônica brasileira, primeiramente no estado do Amazonas e agora no Pará. A estrutura geral da terminália masculina é similar a de outras espécies de Lepidodexia, especialmente do subgênero Lepidodexia, pelo distifalo curto, juxta com projeção apical e vesica com lobo membranoso e espinhoso.

  7. Consumo de hojas por herbívoros en manglares del estuario del Río Dagua, Costa Pacífica Colombiana

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    Isabel C. Romero

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Leaf consumption by herbivores in mangroves of the Dagua river estuary, Pacific coast of Colombia. Herbivore leaf consumption of various mangrove species in relation to environmental factors and leaf hardness were studied in the Dagua river estuary, Colombia. Leaf consumption and damage were assessed by measuring the percentage of area attacked by herbivores, distinguishing between consumption and damage. The species that suffered the highest consumption, such as Avicennia germinans (Avicenniaceae and Laguncularia racemosa (Combretaceae, had softer leaves and less herbivore species when compared with Rhizophora spp. (Rhizophoraceae and Pelliciera rhizophorae (Theaceae. The abundance and diversity of leaf grazing and its variability among mangrove species in the Dagua River estuary, show the importance of the trophic dynamics of live vegetable matter, in spite of their relatively low contribution to removing organic matter. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54 (4: 1205-1214. Epub 2006 Dec. 15Se estudió el consumo foliar por herbívoros en hojas de varias especies de mangle con relación a los factores ambientales y la dureza de las hojas en el estuario del río Dagua. La intensidad del consumo o de los daños producidos en las hojas se cuantificó determinando el porcentaje de área foliar afectado por herbívoros separando las distintas señales de consumo o daño de las hojas. Las especies más consumidas, como A germinans y L. racemosa, presentan el menor número de tipos de huellas de daños y menor dureza que las especies menos consumidas como Rhizophora sp. y P. rhizophorae. La abundancia y diversidad de huellas de ataque por herbívoros y su variabilidad a lo largo del estuario del río Dagua, muestra la importancia de los procesos de consumo de tejido vegetal vivo en el bosque de manglar dentro de la red trófica del sistema estuarino

  8. Quantitative analysis of rutin, quercetin, naringenin, and gallic acid by validated RP- and NP-HPTLC methods for quality control of anti-HBV active extract of Guiera senegalensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Perwez; Parvez, Mohammad K; Arbab, Ahmed H; Al-Dosari, Mohammed S

    2017-12-01

    Guiera senegalensis J.F. Gmel (Combretaceae) is a folk medicinal plant used in various metabolic and infectious diseases. In addition to its antiviral activities against herpes and fowlpox, the anti-HBV efficacy is very recently reported. To develop and validate simple, sensitive RP-/NP-HPTLC methods for quantitative determination of biomarkers rutin, quercetin, naringenin, and gallic acid in the anti-HBV active G. senegalensis leaves ethanol-extract. RP-HPTLC (rutin & quercetin; phase- acetonitrile:water, 4:6) and NP-HPTLC (naringenin & gallic acid; phase- toluene:ethyl acetate:formic acid, 6:4:0.8) were performed on glass-backed silica gel plates 60F 254 -RP18 and 60F 254 , respectively. The methods were validated according to the ICH guidelines. Well-separated and compact spots (R f ) of rutin (0.52 ± 0.006), quercetin (0.23 ± 0.005), naringenin (0.56 ± 0.009) and gallic acid (0.28 ± 0.006) were detected. The regression equations (Y) were 12.434x + 443.49, 10.08x + 216.85, 11.253x + 973.52 and 11.082x + 446.41 whereas the coefficient correlations (r 2 ) were 0.997 ± 0.0004, 0.9982 ± 0.0001, 0.9974 ± 0.0004 and 0.9981 ± 0.0001, respectively. The linearity ranges (ng/spot) were 200-1400 (RP-HPTLC) and 100-1200 (NP-HPTLC). The LOD/LOQ (ng/band) were 33.03/100.1 (rutin), 9.67/29.31 (quercetin), 35.574/107.8 (naringenin), and 12.32/37.35 (gallic acid). Gallic acid (7.01 μg/mg) was the most abundant biomarker compared to rutin (2.42 μg/mg), quercetin (1.53 μg/mg) and naringenin (0.14 μg/mg) in the extract. The validated NP-/RP-HPTLC methods were simple, accurate, and sensitive for separating and quantifying antiviral biomarkers in G. senegalensis, and endorsed its anti-HBV activity. The developed methods could be further employed in the standardization and quality-control of herbal formulations.

  9. Neogene vegetation development in the Amazon Basin: evidence from marine well-2, Foz do Amazonas (Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogota-Angel, Raul; Chemale Junior, Farid; Davila, Roberto; Soares, Emilson; Pinto, Ricardo; Do Carmo, Dermeval; Hoorn, Carina

    2014-05-01

    Origen and development of the highly diverse Amazon tropical forest has mostly been inferred from continental sites. However, sediment records in the marine Foz do Amazonas Basin can provide important information to better understand the influence of the Andes uplift and climate change on its plant biomes evolution since the Neogene. Sediment analyses of samples from BP-Petrobras well 1 and 2, drilled in the Amazon Fan, allowed to infer the onset of the transcontinental Amazon river and the fan phase during the middle to late Miocene (c. 10.5 Ma). As part of the CLIMAMAZON research programme we performed pollen analysis on the 10.5 to 0.4 Ma time interval. 76 ditch cutting samples of the upper 4165 m sediments of well 2 permitted us to infer changes in floral composition in the Amazon Basin. The palynological spectra across this interval (nannofossil based age model) include pollen, fern spores, dinocysts and foram lignings. When possible pollen and fern spores were grouped in four vegetation types: estuarine, tropical, mountain forest and high mountain open treeless vegetation. Pollen is generally corroded and reflects the effects of sediment transportation while reworked material is also common. Good pollen producers such as Poaceae, Asteraceae and Cyperaceae are common and reflect indistinctive vegetation types particularly those associated to riverine systems. Rhizophora/Zonocostites spp. indicate "close-distance" mangrove development. Tropical forest biomes are represented by pollen that resemble Moraceae-Urticaceae, Melastomataceae-Combretaceae, Sapotaceae, Alchornea, Euphorbiaceae, Rubiaceae, Bignoniaceae, Mauritia and Arecaceae. Myrica, and particularly sporadic occurrences of fossil fern spores like Lophosoria, and Cyathea suggest the development of a moist Andean forest in areas above 1000 m. First indicators of high altitudes appear in the last part of late Miocene with taxa associated to current Valeriana and particularly Polylepis, a neotropical taxon

  10. Fósseis e idade de um setor da barreira pleistocênica paranaense - FOSSILS AND AGE OF A PARANÁ PLEISTOCENIC BARRIER SECTOR

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    José Carlos Branco

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é caracterizar o conteúdo fossilífero dos depósitos que constituem a planície com cordões litorâneos pleistocênica para auxiliar na interpretação dos ambientes de deposicionais, na determinação de paleoníveis marinhos. Foram identificadas as seguintes fácies: areia com estratificação cruzada swaley (Ssw, planar (Sp, acanalada (St, sigmóide (Ssg, de baixo ângulo (Sli; areia com ondulações e laminação cruzada (Sr, maciça (Sm, com acamamento flaser (Sf; lama maciça (Fm e lama com linsen (Fl. Associados a esta fácies foram observados tubos, moldes de conchas e fragmentos e detritos vegetais. As associações de fácies correspondem a um sistema clástico dominado por ondas com influência de maré num contexto de delta de enchente. Foram identificados dois ichnofósseis: Ophiomorpha atribuída a Callichirus sp e moldes de bivalves. Nos areais ocorrem troncos, raízes e outros fragmentos de madeira associados a lama (fácies Fm e Fl, que foram identificadas como Ilex sp (Aquifoliaceae, Inga sp (Leguminosae Mimosoideae, Calyptranthes sp (Myrtaceae e Laguncularia racemosa (Combretaceae. Nos testemunhos de sondagens o foraminífero Blysmasphaera brasiliensis, espécies características de mangue e estuários. A amostra de madeira proveniente da fácies de lama maciça (Fm, forneceu idade > 40.000 anos A.P. Tubos de Ophiomorpha atribuídos a Callichirus sp, permitem estimar que o paleonível marinho à época de formação da barreira era de oito 8 m superior ao atual. A espécie Blysmasphaera brasiliensis indica fácies depositadas em ambiente estuarino ou marinho raso.

  11. PROSPECÇÃO CIENTÍFICA E TECNOLÓGICA DAS ESPÉCIES Combretum duarteanum Cambess E Combretum mellifluum Eichler

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    Ruth Raquel Soares de Farias

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available O gênero Combretum é nativo do nordeste brasileiro, sendo o maior da família Combretaceae, compreendendo 370 espécies com distribuição tropical e subtropical. Plantas deste gênero são empregadas no tratamento de câncer, lepra, dores lombares, dor de cabeça, resfriados, infertilidade feminina, doenças cardíacas, picadas de cobras e escorpião, infecções, diabetes, malária, hemorragias, diarreia, desordens digestivas e como diurético. Duas espécies deste gênero, Combretum duarteanum e C. mellifluum foram escolhidas para o estudo e o nome científico das mesmas foram utilizados como palavras-chave. As prospecções tecnológica e científica foram desenvolvidas com busca nos bancos de dados eletrônicos: European Patente Office (EPO, World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO, United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO, Derwent Innovations Index® (DII, Banco Latinoamericano de Patentes (LATIPAT Instituto Nacional de Propriedade Intelectual (INPI, Pubmed, ScienceDirect, Web of Science, ScinFinder e Periódicos Capes. Nenhum registro de patente foi encontrado para as espécies. Os artigos encontrados nos bancos de dados Pubmed, ScinFinfer e Periódicos Capes com a espécie C. duarteanum reportam‑se aos mesmos trabalhos, com exceção dos Periódicos Capes que possui um trabalho a mais. Para espécie C. mellifluum não há artigos publicados. Devido à lacuna observada na prospecção desenvolvida com as espécies C. duarteanum e C. mellifluum, o estudo destas se faz necessário para ampliar o conhecimento químico e farmacológico fornecendo dados que venham contribuir para o entendimento das mesmas, além de valorizar a biodiversidade e a preservação da espécie e de seu ambiente.

  12. Crescimento somático do caranguejo-uçá Ucides cordatus (Crustacea, Brachyura, Ocypodidae em laboratório Somatic growth of the mangrove crab Ucides cordatus (Crustacea, Brachyura, Ocypodidae in laboratory

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    Giovana V. Lima

    Full Text Available Em crustáceos, o aumento de tamanho ocorre imediatamente após a muda, quando o animal está com a carapaça mole. O crescimento de Ucides cordatus (Linnaeus, 1763 foi observado em laboratório, através da ocorrência de muda, incremento de muda e período de intermuda. O estudo foi realizado durante os meses de outubro/2000 a março/2002 e um total de 91 caranguejos (15 machos, 33 fêmeas e 43 juvenis foi coletado no manguezal de Itacuruçá - Coroa Grande, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Os animais foram mantidos em dois tipos de tanques: os caranguejos adultos foram mantidos em tanques de 1000 l, durante 18 meses, enquanto os juvenis foram mantidos em tanques plásticos de 20 l de capacidade durante oito meses. Os animais foram mantidos em sistema aberto de circulação de água do mar e alimentados duas vezes por semana com folhas de Rhizophora mangle (L. (Rhizophoraceae e Laguncularia racemosa (Gaertn. (Combretaceae. A largura da carapaça variou entre 50,1 a 70,0 mm nos machos, 40,2 a 80,0 mm entre as fêmeas e 1,1 a 40,1 mm entre os juvenis. A sobrevivência dos espécimes estudados foi de 46,7% entre os machos, 39,4% entre as fêmeas após dezoito meses e 67,4% entre os juvenis, após oito meses de observação. Os machos e as fêmeas realizaram três mudas durante o experimento, enquanto os juvenis realizaram até duas mudas. As mudas ocorreram entre agosto e abril, mostrando maior freqüência durante a primavera e o verão. O incremento na largura da carapaça diminuiu com o tamanho do indivíduo, com média de 2,21 ± 1,39% para os machos, 1,28 ± 0,84% para as fêmeas e 2,89 ± 2,13% para os juvenis. A relação entre o incremento percentual e a largura da carapaça pode ser expresso pela equação IM = -0.0707LC + 4.645 (r²= 0.40. O período de intermuda foi de 191 ± 140 dias entre os machos, 216 ± 76,2 dias entre as fêmeas e 54 ± 1,41 dia entre os juvenis. O incremento de muda foi estatisticamente significativo (p

  13. Composição florísitica e fitossociologia de uma área de caatinga em Contendas do Sincorá, Bahia, microrregião homogênea da Chapada Diamantina Floristic and fitosociological survey of a caatinga area at "Contendas do Sincorá", Bahia State, a homogeneous microregion of the Chapada Diamantina

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    Paulo César Fernandes Lima

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se levantar a cobertura vegetal de 11.034ha da Fazenda Extrema-Lapinha, 295 a 380m de altitude (13º46' a 14ºS e 41º3' a 41º10'W, Contendas do Sincorá, BA, na Chapada Diamantina. O clima é do tipo BSwh', estépico, semi-árido quente, com precipitação anual de 500-700mm, período chuvoso de novembro a janeiro, temperatura média de 23ºC e umidade relativa de 60-80%. Predominam os solos Podzólicos Vermelho-Amarelo Equivalente Eutrófico e solos Litólicos Eutróficos, em relevo levemente ondulado. Foram distribuídas aleatoriamente 100 parcelas de 20x5m, sendo inventariadas as plantas com DAP > a 5cm. Foram encontrados 2.897 indivíduos abrangendo 71 espécies, 51 gêneros e 23 famílias botânicas, não sendo identificados 3,59% dos mesmos. As famílias Euphorbiaceae (15,67%, Mimosaceae (13,80%, Bignoniaceae (12,35%, Caesalpiniaceae (7,14%, Boraginaceae (6,63%, Polygonaceae (6,63%, Anacardiaceae (6,04%, Burseraceae (4,93%, Apocynaceae (4,59% e Combretaceae (4,28% correspondem a 82,09% dos indivíduos inventariados. Para as classes de diâmetro inventariadas, as Cactaceae corresponderam a 0,48%, sugerindo ser esta vegetação de caatinga de caráter xerófilo pouco acentuado. As 10 espécies mais importantes, determinadas pelo índice de valor de importância, foram Commiphora leptophloeos (22,28, Croton zehntneri (19,39, Mimosa sp. (17,24, Tabebuia spongiosa (16,99, Myracrodruon urundeuva (15,38, Anadenanthera tnacrocarpa (14,25, Coccoloba termiflora (11,73, Caesalpinia sp. (11,17, Cordia sp. (10,79 e Tabebuia sp. (10,20.The aim of this work was to conduct a floristic and phytosociological survey on 11,034 hectares of the Extrema Lapinha Farm (13º46' to 14º S and 41º03' to 41º10' W, altitude from 295 to 380m, in the town of "Contendas do Sincorá", in Chapada Diamantina, Bahia State. The climate is of the BSwh' type, hot semi-arid, with an annual rainfall of 500-700mm, the rainy season being from November to January, with

  14. Análise fitossociológica de um remanescente de vegetação na microbacia do Córrego Criminoso (Bacia do Rio Taquari, Coxim, MS, Brasil: subsídios para a recomposição da vegetação Phytosociological analysis of a vegetation remnant in the Córrego Criminoso Basin (Taquari River Basin, Coxim District, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil: data for vegetation recovery studies

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    Adriana Maria Güntzel

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi realizar a análise florística e fitossociológica preliminar em um remanescente de vegetação na área de entorno do Córrego Criminoso, visando subsidiar futuros projetos de recomposição da vegetação. A área total do remanescente foi determinada com o auxílio de GPS e dos programas Pathfinder e Autocad. Amostragens de indivíduos com CAP maior ou igual a 20 cm foram realizadas em 20 parcelas de 300 m² distribuídas na área. Foram encontradas 26 famílias botânicas contendo 36 gêneros e 49 espécies. A família Leguminosae foi a mais rica em espécies, seguida da família Annonaceae. A espécie Xylopia aromatica foi a mais freqüente, apresentando valores de IVI e IVC de 99,77 e 85,73, respectivamente. Observou-se que mais de 50% das espécies presentes na área são pioneiras ou secundárias, sendo cinco consideradas típicas de matas ciliares: Tapirira guianenses, Cecropia pachystachya, Terminalia argentea, Ocotea pulchellae e Luehea grandiflora. O remanescente de vegetação do entorno do Córrego Criminoso encontra-se fortemente degradado, necessitando de ações de manejo específicos nos fragmentos vegetados e nas áreas destituídas de vegetação, cujas recomendações são propostas.The aim of this study was to complete a preliminary, floristic, phytosociological analyses of a vegetation remnant in the Criminoso Stream Basin, in order to provide data for future projects focusing on vegetation recovery. The total area of the remnant was determined using a GPS and the software Pathfinder and Autocad. Samples of individuals larger or equal to 20 cm CBH were made in 20 quadrats that were 300 m². Thirty-six genera and 49 species, within 26 botanical families, were found. The family Leguminosae was the richest in species, followed by the Annonaceae. Xylopia aromatica was the most frequent species, presenting values of IVI and IVC of 99.77 and 85.73, respectively. More than 50% of the species present

  15. Biochemical Studies in Some Indigenous Dye Yielding Plants of Manipur

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    Joylani D. SAIKHOM

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Ten natural dye yielding and two mordant plants were biochemically analyzed. Though natural dyes are widely used, information about the active principles responsible for dyeing is hardly available. In the present experiment, total chlorophyll, carotinoids, tannins, phenolics, flavonoids and curcumin were determined among the dye yielding plants, while K, S, P, Ca, Mg, Mn, Zn, Fe, Cu and Co were determined in the case of mordant plants. In Bixa orellana, used for yellow dyeing, the carotinoid content was 163.11 mg g-1 and in Clerodendrum chinense and Datura stramonium, which were used for green colouring, total chlorophyll content of 10.29 mg and 11.83 mg g-1 was recorded. Curcumin content responsible for orange colouring in Curcuma domestica was 27.7 mg g-1 while flavonoid content in Solanum nigrum and Terminalia chebula, which were used for brown, brown to black dyes was 24.89 and 21.73 mg g-1. Among the plants used for dyeing different colours, Punica granatum and Parkia timoriana were found to contain higher amounts of total phenols and bound phenols by recording 681.2 mg g-1 and 287.6 mg g-1 total phenols and 151.6 mg g-1 and 130.2mg g-1 bound phenols, while higher amounts of orthodihydric phenols and tannins were recorded in Punica granatum and Strobilanthes flaccidifolius by recording 20.11mg g-1 and 9.54mg g-1 orthodihydric phenols and 675.57mg g-1 and 648.12 mg g-1 tannins, respectively. In case of the plants used as mordant, higher contents of Ca, Mg, K, Zn, Fe and Mn were detected in Achyranthes aspera, while higher amounts of P, Fe and Cu were recorded in Garcinia xanthochymus.

  16. Plants promote mating and dispersal of the human pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus.

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    Deborah J Springer

    Full Text Available Infections due to Cryptococcus are a leading cause of fungal infections worldwide and are acquired as a result of environmental exposure to desiccated yeast or spores. The ability of Cryptococcus to grow, mate, and produce infectious propagules in association with plants is important for the maintenance of the genetic diversity and virulence factors important for infection of animals and humans. In the Western United States and Canada, Cryptococcus has been associated with conifers and tree species other than Eucalyptus; however, to date Cryptococcus has only been studied on live Arabidopsis thaliana, Eucalyptus sp., and Terminalia catappa (almond seedlings. Previous research has demonstrated the ability of Cryptococcus to colonize live plants, leaves, and vasculature. We investigated the ability of Cryptococcus to grow on live seedlings of the angiosperms, A. thaliana, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Colophospermum mopane, and the gymnosperms, Pseudotsuga menziesii (Douglas fir, and Tsuga heterophylla (Western hemlock. We observed a broad-range ability of Cryptococcus to colonize both traditional infection models as well as newly tested conifer species. Furthermore, C. neoformans, C. deneoformans, C. gattii (VGI, C. deuterogattii (VGII and C. bacillisporus (VGIII were able to colonize live plant leaves and needles but also undergo filamentation and mating on agar seeded with plant materials or in saprobic association with dead plant materials. The ability of Cryptococcus to grow and undergo filamentation and reproduction in saprobic association with both angiosperms and gymnosperms highlights an important role of plant debris in the sexual cycle and exposure to infectious propagules. This study highlights the broad importance of plants (and plant debris as the ecological niche and reservoirs of infectious propagules of Cryptococcus in the environment.

  17. Análisis cualitativo y cuantitativo de árboles urbanos de un barrio de Bauru, São Paulo, Brasil

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    Renan Borgiani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available El rápido crecimiento de las ciudades ha dado lugar a varios problemas ambientales. Buscando minimizar estos problemas, la arborización en el medio urbano pasó a ser indispensable y se considera un parámetro de calidad de vida de la población. En este contexto, el presente estudio tuvo como objetivo diagnosticar la situación de la arborización urbana en el barrio Jardín Brasil en Bauru, São Paulo, Brasil, a través de un levantamiento cualitativo y cuantitativo de las especies arbóreas presentes. Fue posible registrar 23 familias y 41 especies en un total de 510 individuos de los cuales 11 estaban muertos. El barrio tiene una diversidad relativamente baja y la mayoría de las especies encontradas son exóticas (60,98%. Las especies más comunes son: Licania tomentosa (31,87%, Caesalpinia peltophoroides (11,16%, Lagerstroemia indica (9,56%, Murraya paniculata (6,57% y Terminalia catappa (5,98%. Gran parte de los problemas encontrados son el resultado de no planificar la silvicultura urbana, lo que termina generando conflicto con el cableado eléctrico y la construcción. Entre tanto, fueron pocos los casos de conflictos con el alumbrado público y las señales de tránsito. Se destacó también el gran número de individuos arbóreos atacados por termitas y hormigas (59,34%. Investigaciones como ésta son útiles para la toma de decisiones y la planificación de los árboles urbanos de una ciudad.

  18. Thermic Attenuation on Concrete Sidewalk under Urban Trees. Case Study: Santa Marta – Colombia

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    Carlos Devia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Urban trees provide a number of services including shade and thermal attenuation. This is related to morphological and physiological characteristics of trees and may vary between species and even between individuals of the same species. The aim of this work was to identify thermic attenuations on concrete sidewalks under six tropical urban trees with six different types of shadows. Material and Methods: In Santa Marta City, Colombia (10º12´20” N, 74º13´33” W, 10 meters above sea level and 31ºC temperature, we selected six trees (species with different types of shade, and they are evaluated for soil temperature and the temperature in the shade and off throughout the day for four different days of the year. ANOVA and t-tests were performed with R program in order to identify the influence of the specie, the day, the hour and the position (at the thermic comfort level, surface temperature on the temperature results obtained. Results and Conclusion: Some trees have the most translucent shadows most likely due to nictinastic movements and consequently less temperature attenuation. On the other hand, other trees have denser shadows and can generate more substantial thermic attenuations. Regarding temperature data, the hour of the day shows the greatest influence on the variability of air temperature and the species shows the greatest influence on the variability of surface temperature. Honey berry (Meliccoca bijugatus and Malay almond (Terminalia atappa trees have denser shadows and can generate more substantial thermic attenuations. Tree physiology can play an important role in temperature attenuation in cities as a result of shadow effects and can be applied as a criterion to select urban trees in tropical cities.

  19. Assessing the effects of multiple stressors on the recruitment of fruit harvested trees in a tropical dry forest, Western Ghats, India.

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    Anita Varghese

    Full Text Available The harvest of non-timber forest products (NTFPs, together with other sources of anthropogenic disturbance, impact plant populations greatly. Despite this, conservation research on NTFPs typically focuses on harvest alone, ignoring possible confounding effects of other anthropogenic and ecological factors. Disentangling anthropogenic disturbances is critical in regions such as India's Western Ghats, a biodiversity hotspot with high human density. Identifying strategies that permit both use and conservation of resources is essential to preserving biodiversity while meeting local needs. We assessed the effects of NTFP harvesting (fruit harvest from canopy and lopping of branches for fruit in combination with other common anthropogenic disturbances (cattle grazing, fire frequency and distance from village, in order to identify which stressors have greater effects on recruitment of three tropical dry forest fruit tree species. Specifically, we assessed the structure of 54 populations of Phyllanthus emblica, P. indofischeri and Terminalia chebula spread across the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve, Western Ghats to ask: (1 How are populations recruiting? and (2 What anthropogenic disturbance and environmental factors, specifically forest type and elevation, are the most important predictors of recruitment status? We combined participatory research with an information-theoretic model-averaging approach to determine which factors most affect population structure and recruitment status. Our models illustrate that for T. chebula, high fire frequency and high fruit harvest intensity decreased the proportion of saplings, while lopping branches or stems to obtain fruit increased it. For Phyllanthus spp, recruitment was significantly lower in plots with more frequent fire. Indices of recruitment of both species were significantly higher for plots in more open-canopy environments of savanna woodlands than in dry forests. Our research illustrates an approach for

  20. Variações morfológicas intra e interpopulacionais de Euseius citrifolius Denmark & Muma e Euseius concordis (Chant (Acari, Phytoseiidae Intra and interpopulational morphological variations of Euseius citrifolius Denmark & Muma and Euseius concordis (Chant (Acari, Phytoseiidae

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    Aloyséia Cristina da Silva Noronha

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The determination of morphologic variability within and between populations of phytoseiid mites is important for the precise species identification. Euseius citrifolius Denmark & Muma, 1970 and Euseius concordis (Chant, 1959 are phytoseiids commonly found on different crops in Brazil and other South American countries. The morphologic characterization of populations preliminarily identified as E. citrifolius and E. concordis was done through examination of 10 adult females and 10 adult males of each population and of 2 to 10 adult females and males resulting from crosses between those populations. The plant substrate and collection site of each population were: E. citrijolius: Bauhinia sp. in Arroio do Meio, Rio Grande do Sul, Coffea arabica Linnaeus in Campinas, São Paulo and Terminalia catappa Linnaeus in Petrolina, Pernambuco. E. concordis: Passiflora edulis Sims. i.flavicarpa Deg. in Arroio do Meio, Manihot esculenta (Crantz in Jaguariúna, São Paulo, Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg. in Pontes e Lacerda, Mato Grosso, T. catappa in Petrolina and C arabica in Viçosa, Minas Gerais. A comparison of the measurements of different structures of individuals of each population and of type specimens of E. citrifolius and E. concordis confirmed the preliminary identification of the populations. Significant relationships were observed between mean setal lengths and the respective ranges within each population. Females and males of E. citrifolius from Petrolina and E. concordis from Jaguariúna had some of the setae generally shorter than those of other populations of the same species. Measurements of males resulting from heterogamic crosses indicated that E. citrifolius and E. concordis reproduce by pseudo-arrhenotoky.

  1. Leaf litter breakdown rates and associated fauna of native and exotic trees used in Neotropical Riparia Reforestation; Tasas de perdida de masa de la hojarasca y fauna asociada en especies de arboles comunmente utilizados en la Reforestacion de Riberas Neotropicales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez Isaza, Nataly; Blanco, Juan Felipe

    2014-07-01

    A signature of globalization is the prevalence of exotic trees along reforested urban and rural riparian zones in the neotropics, but little is known about the instream processing of its leaf litter. In this study, leaf litter breakdown rates were measured during 35 days using mesh bags within a reference headwater stream for seven exotic and three native tree species commonly used in urban and rural reforestation. Artocarpus altilis, Schefflera actinophylla and Terminalia catappa scored the highest mass loss rates (>85 %; mean life: t50 <15 d), while Cecropia sp. and Cespedesia macrophylla (mass loss =36 and 15 %; t50 =58 and 172 d, respectively) scored the lowest rates. However, a broad range of rates was observed among the ten species studied. The carbon to phosphorus ratio (c:p) and toughness of the leaf litter were the best predictors of breakdown rates. However, these leaf properties were not correlated with the very low values of macro invertebrates abundance and diversity, and the few morpho classified as shredders. Therefore physical rather than biological controls seem to best explain the observed variability of mass loss rates, and thus slow decomposing leaf litter species seems to provide a habitat rather than a food resource, particularly to collectors. This study suggests that riparian reforestation will propagate species-specific ecological influences on instream processes such as leaf litter processing depending on leaf quality properties, therefore ecosystem-wide influences should be considered for improving reforestation strategies. Future studies should test for differences in breakdown rates and colonization by macro invertebrates relative for leaf litter species origin (native vs. exotic).

  2. Leaf litter breakdown rates and associated fauna of native and exotic trees used in Neotropical Riparia Reforestation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez Isaza, Nataly; Blanco, Juan Felipe

    2014-01-01

    A signature of globalization is the prevalence of exotic trees along reforested urban and rural riparian zones in the neotropics, but little is known about the instream processing of its leaf litter. In this study, leaf litter breakdown rates were measured during 35 days using mesh bags within a reference headwater stream for seven exotic and three native tree species commonly used in urban and rural reforestation. Artocarpus altilis, Schefflera actinophylla and Terminalia catappa scored the highest mass loss rates (>85 %; mean life: t50 <15 d), while Cecropia sp. and Cespedesia macrophylla (mass loss =36 and 15 %; t50 =58 and 172 d, respectively) scored the lowest rates. However, a broad range of rates was observed among the ten species studied. The carbon to phosphorus ratio (c:p) and toughness of the leaf litter were the best predictors of breakdown rates. However, these leaf properties were not correlated with the very low values of macro invertebrates abundance and diversity, and the few morpho classified as shredders. Therefore physical rather than biological controls seem to best explain the observed variability of mass loss rates, and thus slow decomposing leaf litter species seems to provide a habitat rather than a food resource, particularly to collectors. This study suggests that riparian reforestation will propagate species-specific ecological influences on instream processes such as leaf litter processing depending on leaf quality properties, therefore ecosystem-wide influences should be considered for improving reforestation strategies. Future studies should test for differences in breakdown rates and colonization by macro invertebrates relative for leaf litter species origin (native vs. exotic).

  3. Assessing the effects of multiple stressors on the recruitment of fruit harvested trees in a tropical dry forest, Western Ghats, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, Anita; Ticktin, Tamara; Mandle, Lisa; Nath, Snehlata

    2015-01-01

    The harvest of non-timber forest products (NTFPs), together with other sources of anthropogenic disturbance, impact plant populations greatly. Despite this, conservation research on NTFPs typically focuses on harvest alone, ignoring possible confounding effects of other anthropogenic and ecological factors. Disentangling anthropogenic disturbances is critical in regions such as India's Western Ghats, a biodiversity hotspot with high human density. Identifying strategies that permit both use and conservation of resources is essential to preserving biodiversity while meeting local needs. We assessed the effects of NTFP harvesting (fruit harvest from canopy and lopping of branches for fruit) in combination with other common anthropogenic disturbances (cattle grazing, fire frequency and distance from village), in order to identify which stressors have greater effects on recruitment of three tropical dry forest fruit tree species. Specifically, we assessed the structure of 54 populations of Phyllanthus emblica, P. indofischeri and Terminalia chebula spread across the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve, Western Ghats to ask: (1) How are populations recruiting? and (2) What anthropogenic disturbance and environmental factors, specifically forest type and elevation, are the most important predictors of recruitment status? We combined participatory research with an information-theoretic model-averaging approach to determine which factors most affect population structure and recruitment status. Our models illustrate that for T. chebula, high fire frequency and high fruit harvest intensity decreased the proportion of saplings, while lopping branches or stems to obtain fruit increased it. For Phyllanthus spp, recruitment was significantly lower in plots with more frequent fire. Indices of recruitment of both species were significantly higher for plots in more open-canopy environments of savanna woodlands than in dry forests. Our research illustrates an approach for identifying which

  4. DNA barcoding for species identification from dried and powdered plant parts: a case study with authentication of the raw drug market samples of Sida cordifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassou, Sophie Lorraine; Kusuma, G; Parani, Madasamy

    2015-03-15

    The majority of the plant materials used in herbal medicine is procured from the markets in the form of dried or powdered plant parts. It is essential to use authentic plant materials to derive the benefits of herbal medicine. However, establishing the identity of these plant materials by conventional taxonomy is extremely difficult. Here we report a case study in which the species identification of the market samples of Sida cordifolia was done by DNA barcoding. As a prelude to species identification by DNA barcoding, 13 species of Sida were collected, and a reference DNA barcode library was developed using rbcL, matK, psbA-trnH and ITS2 markers. Based on the intra-species and inter-species divergence observed, psbA-trnH and ITS2 were found to be the best two-marker combination for species identification of the market samples. The study showed that none of the market samples belonged to the authentic species, S. cordifolia. Seventy-six per cent of the market samples belonged to other species of Sida. The predominant one was Sida acuta (36%) followed by S. spinosa (20%), S. alnifolia (12%), S. scabrida (4%) and S. ravii (4%). Such substitutions may not only fail to give the expected therapeutic effect, but may also give undesirable effects as in case of S. acuta which contains a 6-fold higher amount of ephedrine compared to the roots of S. cordifolia. The remaining 24% of the samples were from other genera such as Abutilon sp. (8%), Ixonanthes sp., Terminalia sp., Fagonia sp., and Tephrosia sp. (4% each). This observation is in contrast to the belief that medicinal plants are generally substituted or adulterated with closely related species. The current study strongly suggests that the raw drug market samples of herbal medicines need to be properly authenticated before use, and DNA barcoding has been found to be suitable for this purpose. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Inventario taxonómico de drosophilidae (Diptera en el Parque Nacional Yasuni, Amazonia Ecuatoriana Taxonomic survey of drosophilidae (Diptera in the Yasuni National Park, Ecuadorian Amazon

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    Andrea Elizabeth Acurio

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available En el Parque Nacional Yasuní, reconocido como un sector de alto endemismo y biodiversidad, ubicado al noroeste de la Amazonía Ecuatoriana se realizó el inventario taxonómico de la familia Drosophilidae. Para la captura de los individuos se utilizaron trampas con atrayente de banano y solución de levadura de cerveza. La identificación taxonómica se realizó usando caracteres morfológicos y la terminalia de los machos. En total se colectaron 7425 individuos clasificados en 34 especies de los géneros: Drosophila Fallén, 1823, Scaptodrosophila Duda, 1923, Neotanygastrella Duda, 1923 y Zaprionus Coquillett, 1901. Seis de estas especies son nuevos registros para el Ecuador: D. araicas Pavan & Nacrur, 1950, D. equinoxialis Dobzhansky, 1946, D. kikkawai Burla, 1954, D. subsaltans Magalhães, 1956, D. neocordata Magalhães, 1956 y D. peninsularis Patterson & Wheeler, 1942. Estos datos incrementan el número de especies registrados para el país y para la región amazónica.In the Yasuni National Park, a place recognized as a hot spot biodiversity, located in the Northwestern Ecuadorian Amazon was made a taxonomic survey of the Drosophilidae. Individuals were collected using traps with banana and yeast as bait. Taxonomic identifications were made by morphologic characters and male genitalia analysis. We collected 7425 individuals of 34 species, from the genera: Drosophila Fallén, 1823, Scaptodrosophila Duda, 1923, Neotanygastrella Duda, 1923 y Zaprionus Coquillett, 1901. Six of them are new records for Ecuador: D. araicas Pavan & Nacrur, 1950, D. equinoxialis Dobzhansky, 1946, D. kikkawai Burla, 1954, D. subsaltans Magalhães, 1956, D. neocordata Magalhães, 1956 and D. peninsularis Patterson & Wheeler, 1942. This data increase the number of species records to Ecuador and the Amazon Region.

  6. Ethnobotanical survey and toxicity evaluation of medicinal plants used for fungal remedy in the Southern Highlands of Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbunde, Mourice Victor Nyangabo; Innocent, Ester; Mabiki, Faith; Andersson, Pher G

    2017-01-01

    Some of the antifungal drugs used in the current treatments regime are responding to antimicrobial resistance. In rural areas of Southern Tanzania, indigenous people use antifungal drugs alone or together with medicinal plants to curb the effects of antibiotic resistance. This study documented ethnobotanical information of medicinal plants used for managing fungal infections in the Southern Highlands of Tanzania and further assess their safety. Ethnobotanical survey was conducted in Makete and Mufindi districts between July 2014 and December 2015 using semi-structured questionnaires followed by two focus group discussions to verify respondents' information. Cytotoxicity study was conducted on extracts of collected plants using brine shrimp lethality test and analyzed by MS Excel 2013 program. During this survey about 46 plant species belonging to 28 families of angiosperms were reported to be traditionally useful in managing fungal and other health conditions. Among these, Terminalia sericea , Aloe nutii , Aloe lateritia , Zanthoxylum chalybeum , Zanthoxylum deremense , and Kigelia africana were frequently mentioned to be used for managing fungal infections. The preparation of these herbals was mostly by boiling plant parts especially the leaves and roots. Cytotoxicity study revealed that most of the plants tested were nontoxic with LC 50 > 100 which implies that most compounds from these plants are safe for therapeutic use. The dichloromethane extract of Croton macrostachyus recorded the highest with LC 50 value 12.94 µg/ml. The ethnobotanical survey correlated well with documented literature from elsewhere about the bioactivity of most plants. The ethnobotanical survey has revealed that traditional healers are rich of knowledge to build on for therapeutic studies. Most of the plants are safe for use; and thus can be considered for further studies on drug discovery.

  7. Preliminary Screening of a Classical Ayurvedic Formulation for Anticonvulsant Activity

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    Arnab Dhar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Epilepsy is a serious and complex central nervous system disorder associated with recurrent episodes of convulsive seizures due to the imbalance between excitatory (glutamatergic and inhibitory (GABAergic neurotransmitters level in the brain. The available treatments are neither competent to control the seizures nor prevent progress of disease. Since ages, Herbal medicines have remained important sources of medicines in many parts of world which is evidenced through their uses in traditional systems of medicine i.e. Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani, Homeopathy and Chinese etc. Aim: A polyherbal formulation (containing Terminalia chebula Retz., Asparagus racemosus Willd., Embelia ribes Burm. F, Acorus calamus L., Tinospora cordifolia (Willd. Miers, Convolvulus pluricaulis Choisy, Saussurea lappa C.B.Clarke, Achyranthes aspera L. is mentioned in Ayurvedic classics Bhaiṣajya Ratnāvali. The aim of the study was to evaluate the anticonvulsant activity of the formulation in Maximum electroshock and Pentylenetetrazole induced convulsions in rats. Materials and Methods: In the present study, a polyherbal formulation was developed as directed by classical text and evaluated for the anticonvulsant activity using Maximal Electroshock Shock (MES and Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ induced convulsions in rats. Statistical comparison was done by one way ANOVA followed by the Tukey's multiple comparison test. Results: The obtained results showed that the PHF had a protective role on epilepsy. Treatment with PHF significantly improves antioxidant enzymes activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione (GSH levels significantly as compared to controls. PHF also significantly decreased malonaldialdehyde (MDA levels in the brain. Moreover, it also attenuated the PTZ-induced increase in the activity of GABA-T in the rat brain. Conclusion: These findings suggest that PHF might have possible efficacy in the treatment of epilepsy.

  8. Antibacterial activities of leave extracts as bactericides for soaking of skin or hide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suparno, Ono; Panandita, Tania; Afifah, Amalia; Marimin; Purnawati, Rini

    2018-03-01

    Antibacteria, a subtance inhibiting the growth of bacteria, can be obtained from tropical-almond (Terminalia catappa), morinda (Morinda citrifolia), and white leadtree (Leucaena leucocephala) plants, since the plants have phytochemical content functioning as antibacterial agent. Commonly, part of plant that contains higher antibacterial substances is its leaf. The objectives of this study were to determine antibacterial activity of tropical-almond, morinda, and white leadtree leaves extracts, and to analyse the potency of the three extracts as natural bactericide for soaking of skin or hide. The responses measured in this study were phytochemical contents, total flavonoid, tannin content, the inhibition zone, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). Phytochemical contents containing the three leaves extracts were alkaloid, flavonoid, tannin, saponin, phenolic, and glycoside. Total flavonoid and tannin contents of the three extracts were tropical-almond extract of 1.14 % and 1.51 %, respectively; morinda extract of 0.61 % and 0.36 %, respectively; and white leadtree extract of 0.60 % and 4.82 %, respectively. White leadtree leaf extract gave the highest inhibition zone against B. subtilis, S. aureus and E. coli, i.e. 1.50, 1.3, and 1.65 cm, respectively; and the lowest MIC and MBC against B. subtilis, S. aureus and E. coli, i.e. 1500, 3000, and 1500 μg/ml, respectively. Therefore, the white leadtree leave extract had more potential as bactericide for soaking of skin or hide compared to those of the tropical-almond and morinda leaves extracts.

  9. Pruritus Treatment in Viewpoints of Traditional Persian Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jazani, Arezoo Moini; Azgomi, Ramin Nasimi Doost; Shirbeigi, Leila

    2016-05-01

    Pruritus is an unpleasant feeling that can cause the desire of scratching in a person and can be the symptoms of systemic, infectious, and neurological diseases. Pruritus is the most common clinical manifestation of skin diseases. Pruritus prevalence is 8-38% in the general population. Causes and treatments of pruritus have been described by traditional Persian medicine scientists. The aim of this study was to derive general principles of the proposed treatment to reduce or relieve pruritus. This descriptive study, review traditional medicine books including Al canon fil tibb, Al-Hawi, Makhzan ul-adviyyah, Al-Abniyah an-Haghyegh el-adviyah, Tuhfat ul-Momineen and Exir-e-Azam. The above-mentioned documents were derived and classified by keywords such as pruritus, hakka, jarab and sherry. In traditional Persian medicine, there are different causes for pruritus such as accumulation of vapors or acute humors in subcutaneous tissue or weakness of expulsive (Dafi'a) faculty and its treatment is based on removing the causes. Proper nutrition, bathing, and removing pathogenic humors are involved in the treatment. According to this study, some plants such as Cassia fistula, Purslane, Violets, Fumaria, Barley, Coriander, Rose and Terminalia chebula are anti-itching. Proper nutrition is the most important point in health and treatment of humors production with appropriate quality and quantity. Pruritus can be treated by lifestyle modification and using medicinal plants. It could be concluded that traditional Persian medicine therapies can be effective in the treatment of pruritus with mild side effects. By further investigation and research, we can reach more effective treatment methods in the field of traditional Persian medicine along with other new medical therapies.

  10. An ethnopharmacological survey of medicinal plants traditionally used for cancer treatment in the Ashanti region, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agyare, Christian; Spiegler, Verena; Asase, Alex; Scholz, Michael; Hempel, Georg; Hensel, Andreas

    2018-02-15

    Cancer represents a major health burden and drain on healthcare resources in the world. The majority of the people of Africa still patronize traditional medicine for their health needs, including various forms of cancer. The aim of the following study is the identification of medicinal plants used for cancer treatment by the traditional healers in the Ashanti area of Ghana and to cross-reference the identified plant species with published scientific literature. Validated questionnaires were administered to 85 traditional healers in 10 communities within Ashanti region. For cross-validation, also 7 healers located outside Ashanti region were investigated to evaluate regional differences. Interviews and structured conversations were used to administer the questionnaires. Selected herbal material dominantly used by the healers was collected and identified. The ethnopharmacological survey revealed 151 plant species used for cancer treatment. Identified species were classified into different groups according to their frequency of use, resulting in the "top-22" plants. Interestingly group I (very frequent use) contained 5 plant species (Khaya senegalensis, Triplochiton scleroxylon, Azadirachta indica, Entandrophragma angolense, Terminalia superba), three of which belong to the plant family Meliaceae, phytochemically mainly characterized by the presence of limonoids. Cross-referencing of all plants identified by current scientific literature revealed species which have not been documented for cancer therapy until now. Special interest was laid on use of plants for cancer treatment of children. A variety of traditionally used anti-cancer plants from Ghana have been identified and the widespread use within ethnotraditional medicine is obvious. Further in vitro and clinical studies will be performed in the near future to rationalize the phytochemical and functional scientific background of the respective extracts for cancer treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All

  11. Molecular evidence confirms the taxonomic separation of Lutzomyia tihuiliensis from Lutzomyia pia (Diptera: Psychodidae) and the usefulness of pleural pigmentation patterns in species identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Doria, Alveiro; Bejarano, Eduar Elías; Sierra, Diana; Vélez, Iván Darío

    2008-07-01

    The phlebotomine sand flies Lutzomyia pia (Fairchild & Hertig 1961) and Lutzomyia tihuiliensis Le Pont, Torrez-Espejo & Dujardin 1997 (Diptera: Psychodidae) belong to the pia series of the Lu. verrucarum species group, which includes several species that bite humans in Andean foci of leishmaniasis. The females of these two species exhibit isometry and isomorphism in anatomical structures of the head and terminalia commonly used in taxonomic identification of sand flies. They can only be differentiated based on subtle differences in the pigmentation of the pleura. In Lu. tihuiliensis, this is restricted to the basal portions of the katepimeron and katepisternum, whereas in Lu. pia both structures are totally pigmented. Taking into account the subtle morphological differences between these species, the objective of the current study was to evaluate the specific taxonomic status of Lu. tihuiliensis with respect to Lu. pia. A 475-bp portion of the mitochondrial genome was sequenced, composed of the 3' end of the cytochrome b gene, intergenic spacer 1, the transfer RNA gene for serine, intergenic spacer 2, and the 3' end of the gene NAD dehydrogenase 1. Genetic analysis confirms that Lu. tihuiliensis and Lu. pia constitute two distinct species and this is supported by four strong lines of evidence, i.e., the paired genetic distances, size differences and amino acid composition of the cytochrome b protein, presence and absence of intergenic spacer one and divergence observed in the sequence of the transfer RNA gene for serine. It also confirms the validity of the pleural pigmentation pattern as a species diagnostic character and the importance of performing a detailed examination of this character during morphological determination of phlebotomine sand flies in the series pia.

  12. Comunidades liquénicas como bioindicadores de calidad del aire del Valle de Aburrá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaramillo Ciro1 Margarita María

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Los líquenes han sido propuestos como bioindicadores de la calidad del aire por su alta sensibilidad a los cambios que afectan su abundancia, biomasa y vitalidad. Para evaluar las afectaciones que los líquenes manifiestan como consecuencia de la contaminación atmosférica, se seleccionaron dos áreas de muestreo en los alrededores de dos estaciones de la red de monitoreo de calidad del aire RedAire: el edificio Miguel de Aguinaga con alta contaminación y la Universidad de Medellín con baja contaminación. El monitoreo se realizó sobre las cortezas de 4 especies arbóreas como forofitos: Terminalia catappa Linneaus, Eritrina fusca Loureiro, Mangifera indica Linneaus y Fraxinus chinensis Roxb. Para los análisis se consideraron las variables cobertura liquénica por especie, vitalidad y fructificación del talo. Finalmente los datos de cobertura fueron utilizados para determinar el índice de pureza atmosférica (IPA y el factor Q. Los resultados evidenciaron que de las 8 especies de líquenes encontradas, Canoparmelia sp. y Parmotrema austrosinensis (Zahlbr Hale. son las más sensibles y apropiadas para estudios de calidad del aire en el Valle de Aburrá. Los análisis estadísticos realizados a los valores de abundancia relativa por forofito mostraron que Fraxinus chinensis Roxb es la especie vegetal portante más apropiada para estudios de líquenes bioindicadores en el Valle de Aburrá.

  13. Challenges in integrating component level technology and system level information from Ayurveda: Insights from NMR phytometabolomics and anti-HIV potential of select Ayurvedic medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasundar, Rama; Ghatak, Somenath; Makhdoomi, Muzamil Ashraf; Luthra, Kalpana; Singh, Aruna; Velpandian, Thirumurthy

    2018-01-03

    Information from Ayurveda meeting the analytical challenges of modern technology is an area of immense relevance. Apart from the cerebral task of bringing together two different viewpoints, the question at the pragmatic level remains 'who benefits whom'. The aim is to highlight the challenges in integration of information (Ayurvedic) and technology using test examples of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) metabolomics and anti-HIV-1 potential of select Ayurvedic medicinal plants. The other value added objective is implications and relevance of such work for Ayurveda. Six medicinal plants (Azadirachta indica, Tinospora cordifolia, Swertia chirata, Terminalia bellerica, Zingiber officinale and Symplocos racemosa) were studied using high resolution proton NMR spectroscopy based metabolomics and also evaluated for anti-HIV-1 activity on three pseudoviruses (ZM53 M.PB12, ZM109F.PB4, RHPA 4259.7). Of the six plants, T.bellerica and Z.officinale showed minimum cell cytotoxicity and maximum anti-HIV-1 potential. T.bellerica was effective against all the three HIV-1 pseudoviruses. Untargeted NMR profiling and multivariate analyses demonstrated that the six plants, all of which had different Ayurvedic pharmacological properties, showed maximum differences in the aromatic region of the spectra. The work adds onto the list of potential plants for anti-HIV-1 drug molecules. At the same time, it has drawn attention to the different perspectives of Ayurveda and Western medicine underscoring the inherent limitations of conceptual bilinguism between the two systems, especially in the context of medicinal plants. The study has also highlighted the potential of NMR metabolomics in study of plant extracts as used in Ayurveda. Copyright © 2017 Transdisciplinary University, Bangalore and World Ayurveda Foundation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Estrutura da vegetação de mangue associada ao gradiente de inundação no litoral norte do Espírito Santo, Brasil

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    Vinícius Londe

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available O manguezal é um ecossistema de grande complexidade que ocorre na interface entre os ambientes marinhos e terrestres, mas que apresenta baixa riqueza de espécies vegetais adaptadas às suas condições diferenciadas. Avaliar a estrutura e distribuição da vegetação no manguezal do rio Piraquê-Açu, ES, associando-as com parâmetros abióticos ao longo de um gradiente, foi o objetivo deste estudo. Em seis parcelas de 100 m² cada, foram registrados 306 indivíduos vivos e um morto, pertencentes às espécies Laguncularia racemosa, Rhizophora mangle, Avicennia schaueriana, Terminalia catappa e outras quatro indeterminadas, sendo L. racemosa de maior densidade, dominância, área basal e IVI. A altura média das árvores foi de 4,2 m (DP±1,9 e a CAP, de 12,4 cm (DP±9,5, estando a maioria dos indivíduos em classes de CAP até 10 cm. O manguezal encontrava-se em estado juvenil e pouco desenvolvido estruturalmente, e houve distinção na distribuição das espécies na área, com espécies associadas ocorrendo na parcela mais elevada e menos úmida. As variáveis abióticas diferiram entre as parcelas, contudo apenas a umidade do substrato apresentou relação significativa com a abundância de indivíduos e circunferência dos troncos.

  15. Folk medicine in the northern coast of Colombia: an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Traditional remedies are an integral part of Colombian culture. Here we present the results of a three-year study of ethnopharmacology and folk-medicine use among the population of the Atlantic Coast of Colombia, specifically in department of Bolívar. We collected information related to different herbal medicinal uses of the local flora in the treatment of the most common human diseases and health disorders in the area, and determined the relative importance of the species surveyed. Methods Data on the use of medicinal plants were collected using structured interviews and through observations and conversations with local communities. A total of 1225 participants were interviewed. Results Approximately 30 uses were reported for plants in traditional medicine. The plant species with the highest fidelity level (Fl) were Crescentia cujete L. (flu), Eucalyptus globulus Labill. (flu and cough), Euphorbia tithymaloides L. (inflammation), Gliricidia_sepium_(Jacq.) Kunth (pruritic ailments), Heliotropium indicum L. (intestinal parasites) Malachra alceifolia Jacq. (inflammation), Matricaria chamomilla L. (colic) Mentha sativa L. (nervousness), Momordica charantia L. (intestinal parasites), Origanum vulgare L. (earache), Plantago major L. (inflammation) and Terminalia catappa L. (inflammation). The most frequent ailments reported were skin affections, inflammation of the respiratory tract, and gastro-intestinal disorders. The majority of the remedies were prepared from freshly collected plant material from the wild and from a single species only. The preparation of remedies included boiling infusions, extraction of fresh or dry whole plants, leaves, flowers, roots, fruits, and seeds. The parts of the plants most frequently used were the leaves. In this study were identified 39 plant species, which belong to 26 families. There was a high degree of consensus from informants on the medical indications of the different species. Conclusions This study presents new

  16. Folk medicine in the northern coast of Colombia: an overview

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    Medina José

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traditional remedies are an integral part of Colombian culture. Here we present the results of a three-year study of ethnopharmacology and folk-medicine use among the population of the Atlantic Coast of Colombia, specifically in department of Bolívar. We collected information related to different herbal medicinal uses of the local flora in the treatment of the most common human diseases and health disorders in the area, and determined the relative importance of the species surveyed. Methods Data on the use of medicinal plants were collected using structured interviews and through observations and conversations with local communities. A total of 1225 participants were interviewed. Results Approximately 30 uses were reported for plants in traditional medicine. The plant species with the highest fidelity level (Fl were Crescentia cujete L. (flu, Eucalyptus globulus Labill. (flu and cough, Euphorbia tithymaloides L. (inflammation, Gliricidia_sepium_(Jacq. Kunth (pruritic ailments, Heliotropium indicum L. (intestinal parasites Malachra alceifolia Jacq. (inflammation, Matricaria chamomilla L. (colic Mentha sativa L. (nervousness, Momordica charantia L. (intestinal parasites, Origanum vulgare L. (earache, Plantago major L. (inflammation and Terminalia catappa L. (inflammation. The most frequent ailments reported were skin affections, inflammation of the respiratory tract, and gastro-intestinal disorders. The majority of the remedies were prepared from freshly collected plant material from the wild and from a single species only. The preparation of remedies included boiling infusions, extraction of fresh or dry whole plants, leaves, flowers, roots, fruits, and seeds. The parts of the plants most frequently used were the leaves. In this study were identified 39 plant species, which belong to 26 families. There was a high degree of consensus from informants on the medical indications of the different species. Conclusions This study

  17. Folk medicine in the northern coast of Colombia: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Estrada, Harold; Díaz-Castillo, Fredyc; Franco-Ospina, Luís; Mercado-Camargo, Jairo; Guzmán-Ledezma, Jaime; Medina, José Domingo; Gaitán-Ibarra, Ricardo

    2011-09-22

    Traditional remedies are an integral part of Colombian culture. Here we present the results of a three-year study of ethnopharmacology and folk-medicine use among the population of the Atlantic Coast of Colombia, specifically in department of Bolívar. We collected information related to different herbal medicinal uses of the local flora in the treatment of the most common human diseases and health disorders in the area, and determined the relative importance of the species surveyed. Data on the use of medicinal plants were collected using structured interviews and through observations and conversations with local communities. A total of 1225 participants were interviewed. Approximately 30 uses were reported for plants in traditional medicine. The plant species with the highest fidelity level (Fl) were Crescentia cujete L. (flu), Eucalyptus globulus Labill. (flu and cough), Euphorbia tithymaloides L. (inflammation), Gliricidia_sepium_(Jacq.) Kunth (pruritic ailments), Heliotropium indicum L. (intestinal parasites) Malachra alceifolia Jacq. (inflammation), Matricaria chamomilla L. (colic) Mentha sativa L. (nervousness), Momordica charantia L. (intestinal parasites), Origanum vulgare L. (earache), Plantago major L. (inflammation) and Terminalia catappa L. (inflammation). The most frequent ailments reported were skin affections, inflammation of the respiratory tract, and gastro-intestinal disorders. The majority of the remedies were prepared from freshly collected plant material from the wild and from a single species only. The preparation of remedies included boiling infusions, extraction of fresh or dry whole plants, leaves, flowers, roots, fruits, and seeds. The parts of the plants most frequently used were the leaves. In this study were identified 39 plant species, which belong to 26 families. There was a high degree of consensus from informants on the medical indications of the different species. This study presents new research efforts and perspectives on the

  18. Ethnobotanical survey and toxicity evaluation of medicinal plants used for fungal remedy in the Southern Highlands of Tanzania

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    Mourice Victor Nyangabo Mbunde

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: Some of the antifungal drugs used in current treatments regime are responding to antimicrobial resistance. In rural areas of Southern Tanzania, indigenous people use antifungal drugs alone or together with medicinal plants to curb the effects of antibiotic resistance. This study documented ethnobotanical information of medicinal plants used for managing fungal infections in the Southern highlands of Tanzania and further assess their safety. Methods: Ethnobotanical survey was conducted in Makete and Mufindi districts between July 2014 and December 2015 using semi-structured questionnaires followed by two focus group discussions to verify respondents’ information. Cytotoxicity study was conducted on extracts of collected plants using Brine Shrimp Lethality Test and analyzed by MS Excel 2013 programme. Results: During this survey about 46 plant species belonging to 28 families of angiosperms were reported to be traditionally useful in managing fungal and other health conditions. Among these, Terminalia sericea, Aloe nutii, Aloe lateritia, Zanthoxylum chalybeum, Zanthoxym deremense and Kigelia africana were frequently mentioned to be used for managing fungal infections. The preparation of these herbals was mostly by boiling plant parts especially the leaves and roots. Cytotoxicity study revealed that most of the plants tested were non-toxic with LC¬50¬ >100 which implies that most compounds from these plants are safe for therapeutic use. The dichloromethane extract of Croton macrostachys recorded the highest with LC50 value 12.94 μg/ml. The ethnobotanical survey correlated well with documented literature from elsewhere about the bioactivity of most plants. Conclusions: The ethnobotanical survey has revealed that traditional healers are rich of knowledge to build on for therapeutic studies. Most of the plants are safe for use; and thus can be considered for further studies on drug discovery. [J Complement Med Res 2017; 6(1.000: 84-96

  19. Restauración ecológica de bosques tropicales en Costa Rica: efecto de varios modelos en la producción, acumulación y descomposición de hojarasca

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    Danielle Celentano

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Estrategias de restauración tienen el potencial de acelerar el restablecimiento del ciclo de nutrientes en áreas degradadas. En este estudio, se evaluó la producción de hojarasca, su acumulación y descomposición bajo tres tratamientos: plantación (toda la superficie plantada; islas (árboles sembrados en parches de tres tamaños y testigo (regeneración natural. También se compararon bosques secundarios jóvenes (7-9 años. Los tratamientos fueron establecidos en parcelas de 50x50m en junio 2004 en seis sitios en el sur de Costa Rica. Las especies introducidas fueron dos maderables (Terminalia amazonia y Vochysia guatemalensis intercaladas con dos fijadoras de nitrógeno (Erythrina poeppigiana e Inga edulis. La producción total de hojarasca en la plantación y bosque secundario no difirió significativamente, fue mayor que en las islas y el testigo. La plantación presentó mayor acumulación de hojarasca sobre el suelo. Los resultados indican una gran variabilidad entre los sitios. Ambas estrategias de restauración activas aceleraron la producción y acumulación de hojarasca en comparación con la regeneración. No obstante, eso no implica la restauración del ciclo de nutrientes. La elevada acumulación de hojarasca sobre el suelo indica baja tasa de descomposición y de retorno de nutrientes al suelo.

  20. Sexual communication in castniid moths: Males mark their territories and appear to bear all chemical burden.

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    Carmen Quero

    Full Text Available Castniid moths (Lepidoptera: Castniidae display a butterfly-like reproductive behavior, i.e., they use visual stimuli for mate location and females have apparently lost their pheromone glands in an evolutionary context. In this paper we report for the first time the identification of three new compounds, namely n-octadecyl acetate, (Z-9-octadecenyl acetate and (E,Z-2,13-octadecadienyl acetate, in males of the Castniid Palm Borer, Paysandisia archon, which could be involved in its short-range courtship behavior, and also shed light on recent controversies on the sexual behavior of the species. The compounds are produced in a ring-shaped gland of the male terminalia and have occasionally been detected in very minor amounts (ng in ovipositor extracts of females, but only while mating or just after copulation. We also report that males use the already known (E,Z-2,13-octadecadienol to mark their territory by rubbing their midlegs against the upper side of nearby leaves, especially palm leaves. This compound, produced in large amounts, is mostly concentrated in the midleg basitarsi and its maximum production is detected on the sexually mature 1-day-old specimens. In addition, analysis of male wings extracts confirms the presence of Z,E and E,E-farnesals, which are mostly produced in the median band of hindwings of 48-53 h-old insects. The biological significance of farnesals in this species is unknown. Our results point out that the chemical communication of P. archon relies mostly on males, which appear to bear all chemical burden in this respect.

  1. Attenuation of quorum-sensing-dependent virulence factors and biofilm formation by medicinal plants against antibiotic resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa

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    P. Sankar Ganesh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa use small signaling molecules such as acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs, which play an important role in release virulence factors and toxin for further establishment of host infection. Thus, involving with the QS system would provide alternative ways of preventing the pathogenicity. In the present study, totally six medicinal plants (Terminalia bellerica, Celastrus paniculatus, Kingiodendron pinnatum, Schleichera oleosa, Melastoma malabathricum, Garcinia gummi-gutta were screened for anti-QS activity using biomonitor strain of Chromobacterium violaceum CV12472. The primary screening of antimicrobial activity of all the plant extracts have inhibited the growth of tested bacterial species. Of these at the sub-minimum inhibitory concentration the methanol extract of T. bellerica (0.0625–0.5 mg/ml has significantly inhibited violacein production (20.07–66.22% in C. violaceum (CV12472. Consequently, the extract of T. bellerica has reduced the production of pyocyanin, exopolysaccharide and biofilm formation in P. aeruginosa strains. Fluorescence and scanning electron microscopy analysis confirmed the reduction of biofilm formation in P. aeruginosa strains when treated with T. bellerica. GC–MS analysis showed the active compounds inhibited the production of virulence factors of P. aeruginosa. The results suggest the possible use of this T. bellerica as an anti-QS and anti-biofilm agent to control Pseudomonas infection. Interference of QS provides an important means for the inhibition of bacterial virulence and thus aids in treatment strategies.

  2. Preliminary Screening of a Classical Ayurvedic Formulation for Anticonvulsant Activity.

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    Dhar, Arnab; Maurya, Santosh Kumar; Mishra, Ashish; Singh, Gireesh Kumar; Singh, Manoj Kumar; Seth, Ankit

    2016-01-01

    Epilepsy is a serious and complex central nervous system disorder associated with recurrent episodes of convulsive seizures due to the imbalance between excitatory (glutamatergic) and inhibitory (GABAergic) neurotransmitters level in the brain. The available treatments are neither competent to control the seizures nor prevent progress of disease. Since ages, Herbal medicines have remained important sources of medicines in many parts of world which is evidenced through their uses in traditional systems of medicine i.e. Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani, Homeopathy and Chinese etc. A polyherbal formulation (containing Terminalia chebula Retz., Asparagus racemosus Willd., Embelia ribes Burm. F, Acorus calamus L., Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers, Convolvulus pluricaulis Choisy, Saussurea lappa C.B.Clarke, Achyranthes aspera L.) is mentioned in Ayurvedic classics Bhaiṣajya Ratnāvali . The aim of the study was to evaluate the anticonvulsant activity of the formulation in Maximum electroshock and Pentylenetetrazole induced convulsions in rats. In the present study, a polyherbal formulation was developed as directed by classical text and evaluated for the anticonvulsant activity using Maximal Electroshock Shock (MES) and Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) induced convulsions in rats. Statistical comparison was done by one way ANOVA followed by the Tukey's multiple comparison test. The obtained results showed that the PHF had a protective role on epilepsy. Treatment with PHF significantly improves antioxidant enzymes activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH) levels significantly as compared to controls. PHF also significantly decreased malonaldialdehyde (MDA) levels in the brain. Moreover, it also attenuated the PTZ-induced increase in the activity of GABA-T in the rat brain. These findings suggest that PHF might have possible efficacy in the treatment of epilepsy.

  3. Taxonomia e morfologia de espécies neotropicais de Graphomya Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera, Muscidae Taxonomic study of neotropical species of Graphomya Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera, Muscidae

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    Bianca Marques

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Graphomya Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera, Muscidae pode ser reconhecido por padrões cromáticos característicos no mesonoto e abdômen e pelas cerdas catepisternais 0:2. Das 14 espécies citadas na literatura para a Região Neotropical, sete são redescritas, com descrições das terminálias masculina e feminina - G. analis (Macquart, G. maculata (Scopoli, G. meridionalis Townsend, G. mexicana Giglio-Tos, G. occidentalis Arntfield, G. podexaurea(Enderlein e G. tropicalis Malloch, aqui revalidada. Ilustrações coloridas do mesonoto e do abdômen são apresentadas para facilitar o reconhecimento das espécies. O neótipo de G. maculata é designado. A fêmea de G. podexaurea é registrada pela primeira vez. O registro geográfico das seguintes espécies é ampliado: G. meridionalis para o Equador e Peru; G. mexicana e G. podexaurea para o Brasil; G. tropicalis para Colômbia e Brasil.Graphomya Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera, Muscidae is recognized by characteristic color patterns on mesonotum and abdomen and by the disposition of the katepisternal setae 0:2. From the 14 species recorded in the Neotropical Region, seven are redescribed with the descriptions of male and female terminalia - G. analis (Macquart, G. maculata (Scopoli, G. meridionalis Townsend, G. mexicana Giglio-Tos, G. occidentalis Arntfield, G. podexaurea(Enderlein and G. tropicalis Malloch, herein revalidated. Colored illustrations of mesonotum and abdomen are presented in order to aid the recognition of the species. The neotype of G. maculata is designated. The female of G. podexaurea is recorded for the first time. The geographic record of the following species is enlarged: G. meridionalis for Ecuador and Peru; G. mexicana and G. podexaurea for Brazil and G. tropicalis for Colombia and Brazil.

  4. Reduced aboveground tree growth associated with higher arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal diversity in tropical forest restoration.

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    Holste, Ellen K; Holl, Karen D; Zahawi, Rakan A; Kobe, Richard K

    2016-10-01

    Establishing diverse mycorrhizal fungal communities is considered important for forest recovery, yet mycorrhizae may have complex effects on tree growth depending on the composition of fungal species present. In an effort to understand the role of mycorrhizal fungi community in forest restoration in southern Costa Rica, we sampled the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) community across eight sites that were planted with the same species ( Inga edulis, Erythrina poeppigiana, Terminalia amazonia, and Vochysia guatemalensis ) but varied twofold to fourfold in overall tree growth rates. The AMF community was measured in multiple ways: as percent colonization of host tree roots, by DNA isolation of the fungal species associated with the roots, and through spore density, volume, and identity in both the wet and dry seasons. Consistent with prior tropical restoration research, the majority of fungal species belonged to the genus Glomus and genus Acaulospora , accounting for more than half of the species and relative abundance found on trees roots and over 95% of spore density across all sites. Greater AMF diversity correlated with lower soil organic matter, carbon, and nitrogen concentrations and longer durations of prior pasture use across sites. Contrary to previous literature findings, AMF species diversity and spore densities were inversely related to tree growth, which may have arisen from trees facultatively increasing their associations with AMF in lower soil fertility sites. Changes to AMF community composition also may have led to variation in disturbance susceptibility, host tree nutrient acquisition, and tree growth. These results highlight the potential importance of fungal-tree-soil interactions in forest recovery and suggest that fungal community dynamics could have important implications for tree growth in disturbed soils.

  5. Microwave assisted biosynthesis of rice shaped ZnO nanoparticles using Amorphophallus konjac tuber extract and its application in dye sensitized solar cells

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    Naresh Kumar P.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Rice shaped ZnO nanoparticles have been synthesized for the first time by a biological process using Amorphophallus konjac tuber extract and used as a photoanode in a dye sensitized solar cell. The glucomannan present in aqueous tuber extract acted as a reducing agent in the synthesis process, further it also acted as a template which modified and controlled the shape of the nanoparticles. The synthesized nanoparticles were dried by microwave irradiation followed by annealing at 400 °C. The FESEM and TEM images confirmed that the synthesized ZnO nanoparticles had rice shaped morphology. Furthermore, the X-ray diffraction studies revealed that the prepared ZnO nanoparticles exhibited wurtzite phase with average particle size of 17.9 nm. The UV-Vis spectroscopy studies confirmed the value of band gap energy of biosynthesized ZnO nanoparticles as 3.11 eV. The photoelectrodes for dye sensitized solar cells were prepared with the biosynthesized ZnO nanoparticles using doctor blade method. The photoelectrode was sensitized using the fruit extract of Terminalia catappa, flower extracts of Callistemon citrinus and leaf extracts of Euphorbia pulcherrima. The dye sensitized solar cells were fabricated using the sensitized photoelectrode and their open circuit voltages and short circuit current densities were found to be in the range of 0.45 V to 0.55 V and 5.6 mA/cm2 to 6.8 mA/cm2, respectively. Thus, the photovoltaic performances of all the natural dye sensitized ZnO solar cells show better conversion efficiencies due to the morphology and preparation technique.

  6. Traditional Glue, Adhesive and Poison Used for Composite Weapons by Ju/'hoan San in Nyae Nyae, Namibia. Implications for the Evolution of Hunting Equipment in Prehistory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadley, Lyn; Trower, Gary; Backwell, Lucinda; d'Errico, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Ju/'hoan hunters from Nyae Nyae, near Tsumkwe in Namibia, demonstrate the manufacture of three fixative pastes made from plant extracts, and poison made from grubs and plant extracts. Ammocharis coranica and Terminalia sericea produce simple glue. Ozoroa schinzii latex mixed with carbonized Aristeda adscensionis grass is a compound adhesive. Composite poison is made from Chrysomelid grub viscera mixed with salivary extracts of Acacia mellifera inner bark and the tuber sap of Asparagus exuvialis. In order to document potential variability in the chaîne opératoire, and to eliminate inherent biases associated with unique observations, we studied manufacturing processes in three separate Nyae Nyae villages. Although there are methodological similarities in the Nyae Nyae area, we observed a few differences in contemporary traditions of poison manufacture. For example, some hunters make powder from Asparagus exuvialis tuber sap by boiling, reducing, hardening and grinding it, while others simply use heated sap. The Ju/'hoan hunting kit provides insights for archaeologists, but we must exercise caution when looking for continuity between prehistoric and historical technical systems. Some traditions have been lost to modern hunters, while others are new. We should also expect variability in the Stone Age because of geographically restricted resources. Simple glue, compound adhesive, and poison recipes identified in the Stone Age have no modern equivalents. By about 60,000 years ago at Diepkloof, simple glue was used for hafting tools, but at similarly-aged Sibudu there are recipes that combine red ochre powder with plant and/or animal ingredients. At Border Cave, novel poisons and compound adhesives were used in the Early Later Stone Age. It is possible that the complexity that we record in the manufacture of fixative pastes and poison used by Ju/'hoan hunters represents a hafting system both similar to and different from that observed at the Stone Age sites of Diepkloof

  7. Assessing the extent of "conflict of use" in multipurpose tropical forest trees: a regional view.

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    Herrero-Jáuregui, Cristina; Guariguata, Manuel R; Cárdenas, Dairon; Vilanova, Emilio; Robles, Marco; Licona, Juan Carlos; Nalvarte, Walter

    2013-11-30

    In the context of multiple forest management, multipurpose tree species which provide both timber and non-timber forest products (NTFP), present particular challenges as the potential of conflicting use for either product may be high. One key aspect is that the magnitude of conflict of use can be location specific, thus adding complexity to policy development. This paper focuses on the extent to which the potential for conflict of use in multipurpose tree species varies across the Amazonian lowland forests shared by Peru, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador and Venezuela, emphasizing the economic dimension of conflict. Based on a review of the current normative and regulatory aspects of timber and NTFP extraction in the five countries, the paper also briefly discusses the opportunities and constraints for harmonization of timber and NTFP management of multipurpose species across the region. It was found that about half of the 336 timber species reviewed across the five countries also have non-timber uses. Eleven timber species are multipurpose in all five countries: Calophyllum brasiliense, Cedrela odorata, Ceiba pentandra, Clarisia racemosa, Ficus insipida, Jacaranda copaia, Schefflera morototoni, Simarouba amara and Terminalia amazonia. Seven other multipurpose species occurred only in either Venezuela (Tabebuia impetiginosa, Spondias mombin, Pentaclethra macroloba, Copaifera officinalis, Chlorophora tinctoria, Carapa guianensis) or Ecuador (Tabebuia chrysantha). Four multipurpose tree species presented the highest potential of conflict of use across the region: Dipteryx odorata, Tabebuia serratifolia, Hymenaea courbaril and Myroxylon balsamum yet these were not evenly distributed across all five countries. None of the five studied countries have specific legislation to promote sustainable use of any of the multipurpose species reported here and thus mitigate potential conflict of use; nor documented management options for integration or else segregation of both their

  8. A new strategy to inhibit the excision reaction catalysed by HIV-1 reverse transcriptase: compounds that compete with the template–primer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruchaga, Carlos; Anso, Elena; Font, María; Martino, Virginia S.; Rouzaut, Ana; Martinez-Irujo, Juan J.

    2007-01-01

    Inhibitors of the excision reaction catalysed by HIV-1 RT (reverse transcriptase) represent a promising approach in the fight against HIV, because these molecules would interfere with the main mechanism of resistance of this enzyme towards chain-terminating nucleotides. Only a limited number of compounds have been demonstrated to inhibit this reaction to date, including NNRTIs (non-nucleoside RT inhibitors) and certain pyrophosphate analogues. We have found previously that 2GP (2-O-galloylpunicalin), an antiviral compound extracted from the leaves of Terminalia triflora, was able to inhibit both the RT and the RNase H activities of HIV-1 RT without affecting cell proliferation or viability. In the present study, we show that 2GP also inhibited the ATP- and PPi-dependent phosphorolysis catalysed by wild-type and AZT (3′-azido-3′-deoxythymidine)-resistant enzymes at sub-micromolar concentrations. Kinetic and direct-binding analysis showed that 2GP was a non-competitive inhibitor against the nucleotide substrate, whereas it competed with the binding of RT to the template–primer (Kd=85 nM). As expected from its mechanism of action, 2GP was active against mutations conferring resistance to NNRTIs and AZT. The combination of AZT with 2GP was highly synergistic when tested in the presence of pyrophosphate, indicating that the inhibition of RT-catalysed phosphorolysis was responsible for the synergy found. Although other RT inhibitors that compete with the template–primer have been described, this is the first demonstration that these compounds can be used to block the excision of chain terminating nucleotides, providing a rationale for their combination with nucleoside analogues. PMID:17355225

  9. Prospects of Apicultural Entrepreneurship in Coastal Districts of Eastern India: A Melissopalynological Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Debasis; Bhattacharya, Swapan; Ferguson, David K.; Bera, Subir

    2014-01-01

    A melissopalynological analysis of fifty-one natural honey samples (twenty four spring, fifteen summer and twelve winter) collected during 2010–2011 from two east-coastal districts (20020/ to 22011/ N, 82039/ to 87001/ E) of Orissa, India was performed. Out of 37 unifloral samples found 25 were contributed by Apis cerana indica, seven by A. dorsata and the remaining five by A. florea. Out of 14 multifloral samples five were contributed by A. cerana indica, five by A. dorsata and the remaining four by A. florea. Principal component analysis confirmed the palynological classification of the unifloral honey samples. Eighty-two bee-plant taxa belonging to forty four families were recovered. The predominant nectariferous taxa of the spring season were Acanthus ilicifolius, Avicennia marina, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, Cocos nucifera, Eucalyptus globulus, Phoenix paludosa, Pongamia pinnata, Prosopis juliflora, Sonneratia apetala and Syzygium cumini. In the summer the predominant nectariferous taxa were Borassus flabellifer, C. nucifera, E. globulus, Syzygium cumini, Terminalia arjuna, Aegiceras corniculatum, P. paludosa and Sonneratia apetala while those of the winter were Brassica nigra, Coriandrum sativum, Zizyphus jujuba, Alstonia scholaris, E. globulus and Bruguiera gymnorrhiza. Very low (<0.09) HDE/P for 98% of the samples and absence of toxic palynotaxa assure that these honeys are suitable for human consumption. Quite extended honey flow period with spring and summer as best forage seasons for the honeybees and occurrence of 82% of these honeys with APC Group II, III and IV justify the sustainability of the present study area for establishing moderate to large-scale apicultural entrepreneurship. This should improve the socio-economic status of the people of this region. PMID:24740144

  10. Growth responses and metal accumulation capabilities of woody plants during the phytoremediation of tannery sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, O P; Juwarkar, Asha A; Singh, S K; Khan, Shoeb; Rai, U N

    2011-01-01

    Five woody plants species (i.e. Terminalia arjuna, Prosopis juliflora, Populus alba, Eucalyptus tereticornis and Dendrocalamus strictus) were selected for phytoremediation and grow on tannery sludge dumps of Common Effluent Treatment Plant (CETP), Unnao (Uttar Pradesh), India. Concentration of toxic metals were observed high in the raw tannery sludge i.e. Fe-1667>Cr-628>Zn-592>Pb-427>Cu-354>Mn-210>Cd-125>Ni-76 mg kg(-1) dw, respectively. Besides, physico-chemical properties of the raw sludge represented the toxic nature to human health and may pose numerous risks to local environment. The growth performances of woody plants were assessed in terms of various growth parameters such as height, diameter at breast height (DBH) and canopy area of plants. All the plant species have the capabilities to accumulate substantial amount of toxic metals in their tissues during the remediation. The ratio of accumulated metals in the plants were found in the order Fe>Cr>Mn>Pb>Zn>Cu>Cd>Ni and significant changes in physico-chemical parameters of tannery sludge were observed after treatment. All the woody plants indicated high bioconcentration factor for different metals in the order Fe>Cr>Mn>Ni>Cd>Pb>Zn>Cu. After one year of phytoremediation, the level of toxic metals were removed from tannery sludge up to Cr (70.22)%, Ni (59.21)%, Cd (58.4)%, Fe (49.75)%, Mn (30.95)%, Zn (22.80)%, Cu (20.46)% and Pb (14.05)%, respectively. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Determination of potentially toxic heavy metals in traditionally used medicinal plants for HIV/AIDS opportunistic infections in Ngamiland District in Northern Botswana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okatch, Harriet, E-mail: okatchh@mopipi.ub.bw [Department of Chemistry, University of Botswana, Private Bag UB 00704, Gaborone (Botswana); Ngwenya, Barbara [Okavango Research Institute, University of Botswana, Maun (Botswana); Raletamo, Keleabetswe M. [Department of Chemistry, University of Botswana, Private Bag UB 00704, Gaborone (Botswana); Andrae-Marobela, Kerstin [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Botswana, Gaborone (Botswana); Centre for Scientific Research, Indigenous Knowledge and Innovation (CESRIKI), P.O. Box 758, Gaborone (Botswana)

    2012-06-12

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Determine As, Cr, Ni and Pb in traditional plants used to treat HIV/AIDS opportunistic infections. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Metal levels and provisional tolerable weekly intake levels lower than WHO permissive maximum levels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cr > Pb > As > Ni. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Consumption of traditional medicinal plants are not health-comprising with respect to metals. - Abstract: The determination of four potentially toxic heavy metals, arsenic, chromium, lead and nickel in twelve plant species used for the treatment of perceived HIV and AIDS-associated opportunistic infections by traditional healers in Ngamiland District in Northern Botswana, a metal mining area, was carried out using atomic absorption spectrometry. The medicinal plants; Dichrostachys cinerea, Maerua angolensis, Mimusops zeyheri, Albizia anthelmintica, Plumbago zeylanica, Combretum imberbe, Indigofera flavicans, Clerodendrum ternatum, Solanum panduriforme, Capparis tomentosa, Terminalia sericea and Maytenus senegalensis contained heavy metals in varying quantities: arsenic 0.19-0.54 {mu}g g{sup -1}, chromium 0.15-1.27 {mu}g g{sup -1}, lead 0.12-0.23 {mu}g g{sup -1} and nickel 0.09-0.21 {mu}g g{sup -1} of dry weight. Chromium was found to be the most abundant followed by arsenic and lead. Nickel was undetectable in nine plant species. M. senegalensis contained the largest amounts of arsenic, chromium and lead. All metals determined were below the WHO permissive maximum levels. The possible maximum weekly intakes of the heavy metals following treatment regimes were insignificant compared to the provisional tolerable weekly intake levels recommended by WHO and the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. This suggests that heavy metal exposure to patients originating from consumption of traditional medicinal plant preparations is within non health-compromising limits.

  12. Traditional Glue, Adhesive and Poison Used for Composite Weapons by Ju/'hoan San in Nyae Nyae, Namibia. Implications for the Evolution of Hunting Equipment in Prehistory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyn Wadley

    Full Text Available Ju/'hoan hunters from Nyae Nyae, near Tsumkwe in Namibia, demonstrate the manufacture of three fixative pastes made from plant extracts, and poison made from grubs and plant extracts. Ammocharis coranica and Terminalia sericea produce simple glue. Ozoroa schinzii latex mixed with carbonized Aristeda adscensionis grass is a compound adhesive. Composite poison is made from Chrysomelid grub viscera mixed with salivary extracts of Acacia mellifera inner bark and the tuber sap of Asparagus exuvialis. In order to document potential variability in the chaîne opératoire, and to eliminate inherent biases associated with unique observations, we studied manufacturing processes in three separate Nyae Nyae villages. Although there are methodological similarities in the Nyae Nyae area, we observed a few differences in contemporary traditions of poison manufacture. For example, some hunters make powder from Asparagus exuvialis tuber sap by boiling, reducing, hardening and grinding it, while others simply use heated sap. The Ju/'hoan hunting kit provides insights for archaeologists, but we must exercise caution when looking for continuity between prehistoric and historical technical systems. Some traditions have been lost to modern hunters, while others are new. We should also expect variability in the Stone Age because of geographically restricted resources. Simple glue, compound adhesive, and poison recipes identified in the Stone Age have no modern equivalents. By about 60,000 years ago at Diepkloof, simple glue was used for hafting tools, but at similarly-aged Sibudu there are recipes that combine red ochre powder with plant and/or animal ingredients. At Border Cave, novel poisons and compound adhesives were used in the Early Later Stone Age. It is possible that the complexity that we record in the manufacture of fixative pastes and poison used by Ju/'hoan hunters represents a hafting system both similar to and different from that observed at the Stone

  13. Study Of Plant Regeneration Potential In Tropical Moist Deciduous Forest In Northern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish K Mishra

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Regeneration patterns of species population can address climate change by adaptive evolution or by migrating association to survive in their favorable climate and finally decided to particular forest future. In this paper we examined the status of regeneration potential of tree species in tropical moist deciduous forest at Katerniaghat Wildlife Sanctuary, Northern India. To investigate tree, sapling and seedling population distribution, we examine regeneration status in 145 random plots in study area. Total 74 plant species of 60 genera belonging to 32 families out of which 71 species of trees, 56 of seedlings and 60 of saplings were found in the forest. On the basis of importance value index Mallotus philippensis, Tectona grandis, Shorea robusta, Syzygium cumini and Bombax ceiba have been found as dominant species in the study area. As far as the regeneration status is concerned, the maximum tree species (64% have been found in good regeneration category. Significant variations in species richness and population density, between three life form (i. e. tree, sapling and seedling have been found. In which only three new tree species Prosopis juliflora, Psidium guajava and Morus alba were added in sapling and seedling stage. It is major ecological concern that about 19 % economically important plant species like Madhuca longifolia, Terminalia elliptica, Buchanania cochinchinensis, some Ficus species etc. have been found in poor regeneration phage, whereas about 7% species found in no regeneration categories. International Journal of Environment, Volume-2, Issue-1, Sep-Nov 2013, Pages 153-163 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v2i1.9218

  14. The micromorphology of the blesbuck louse Damalinia (Damalinia crenelata as observed under the scanning electron microscope

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    M.L. Turner

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The blesbuck is an important game animal on many game farms and reserves in South Africa. Damalinia crenelata, a biting louse, host-specific to the blesbuck, feed upon epidermal debris of this antelope, leading to severe skin irritation and dermatitis. Symptomatic scratching by the host aggravates these conditions. High infestations may lead to decreased population numbers. Live lice were collected from a blesbuck in the Rietvlei Nature Reserve and prepared for selectron microscopic investigation. Micrographs were recorded. The SEM investigation revealed several micromorphological features not previously described in D. crenelata. Besides the obvious anatomical differences in the reproductive organs of the male and female, several other differences were noted. The antennal flagellae showed morphological differences as well as certain features on the ventral surfaces of the head. Dorsally the forehead was markedly emarginated and showed an acute invagination (clypeo labral suture in the pulvinal area. The ventral surface of the head clearly demonstrated the structures of the preantennal regions such as ventral carina, pulvinus, labrum, mandibles and clypeus. The epipharynx appeared as an underlying extension of the labrum. The rims of the clypeus were more raised and thickened in the female than in that of the male. The mandibles were not notched and were noted to be angular in shape. The three segments of each of the antennae of the male were thicker and more robust than than those of the female. This could suggest sexual dimorphism in this species. The sensilla basoconica comprised 10 pegs. Pit organs were seen within the pore organs. The prothorax and mesothorax were clearly distinguished. The abdominal segments showed six pairs of spiracles. The male andfemale terminalia were confirmed to be strongly sexually dimorphic. The three pairs oflegs each terminated in a single, long and slender, claw.

  15. Sleeping sites and latrines of spider monkeys in continuous and fragmented rainforests: implications for seed dispersal and forest regeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo González-Zamora

    typical of the southeastern Mexican rainforest, such as Terminalia-Dialium, and Brosimum-Dialium.

  16. Sleeping sites and latrines of spider monkeys in continuous and fragmented rainforests: implications for seed dispersal and forest regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Zamora, Arturo; Arroyo-Rodríguez, Víctor; Oyama, Ken; Sork, Victoria; Chapman, Colin A; Stoner, Kathryn E

    2012-01-01

    southeastern Mexican rainforest, such as Terminalia-Dialium, and Brosimum-Dialium.

  17. Determination of potentially toxic heavy metals in traditionally used medicinal plants for HIV/AIDS opportunistic infections in Ngamiland District in Northern Botswana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okatch, Harriet; Ngwenya, Barbara; Raletamo, Keleabetswe M.; Andrae-Marobela, Kerstin

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Determine As, Cr, Ni and Pb in traditional plants used to treat HIV/AIDS opportunistic infections. ► Metal levels and provisional tolerable weekly intake levels lower than WHO permissive maximum levels. ► Cr > Pb > As > Ni. ► Consumption of traditional medicinal plants are not health-comprising with respect to metals. - Abstract: The determination of four potentially toxic heavy metals, arsenic, chromium, lead and nickel in twelve plant species used for the treatment of perceived HIV and AIDS-associated opportunistic infections by traditional healers in Ngamiland District in Northern Botswana, a metal mining area, was carried out using atomic absorption spectrometry. The medicinal plants; Dichrostachys cinerea, Maerua angolensis, Mimusops zeyheri, Albizia anthelmintica, Plumbago zeylanica, Combretum imberbe, Indigofera flavicans, Clerodendrum ternatum, Solanum panduriforme, Capparis tomentosa, Terminalia sericea and Maytenus senegalensis contained heavy metals in varying quantities: arsenic 0.19–0.54 μg g −1 , chromium 0.15–1.27 μg g −1 , lead 0.12–0.23 μg g −1 and nickel 0.09–0.21 μg g −1 of dry weight. Chromium was found to be the most abundant followed by arsenic and lead. Nickel was undetectable in nine plant species. M. senegalensis contained the largest amounts of arsenic, chromium and lead. All metals determined were below the WHO permissive maximum levels. The possible maximum weekly intakes of the heavy metals following treatment regimes were insignificant compared to the provisional tolerable weekly intake levels recommended by WHO and the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. This suggests that heavy metal exposure to patients originating from consumption of traditional medicinal plant preparations is within non health-compromising limits.

  18. Prospects of apicultural entrepreneurship in coastal districts of eastern India: a melissopalynological evaluation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debasis Upadhyay

    Full Text Available A melissopalynological analysis of fifty-one natural honey samples (twenty four spring, fifteen summer and twelve winter collected during 2010-2011 from two east-coastal districts (20(020/ to 22(011/ N, 82(039/ to 87(001/ E of Orissa, India was performed. Out of 37 unifloral samples found 25 were contributed by Apis cerana indica, seven by A. dorsata and the remaining five by A. florea. Out of 14 multifloral samples five were contributed by A. cerana indica, five by A. dorsata and the remaining four by A. florea. Principal component analysis confirmed the palynological classification of the unifloral honey samples. Eighty-two bee-plant taxa belonging to forty four families were recovered. The predominant nectariferous taxa of the spring season were Acanthus ilicifolius, Avicennia marina, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, Cocos nucifera, Eucalyptus globulus, Phoenix paludosa, Pongamia pinnata, Prosopis juliflora, Sonneratia apetala and Syzygium cumini. In the summer the predominant nectariferous taxa were Borassus flabellifer, C. nucifera, E. globulus, Syzygium cumini, Terminalia arjuna, Aegiceras corniculatum, P. paludosa and Sonneratia apetala while those of the winter were Brassica nigra, Coriandrum sativum, Zizyphus jujuba, Alstonia scholaris, E. globulus and Bruguiera gymnorrhiza. Very low (<0.09 HDE/P for 98% of the samples and absence of toxic palynotaxa assure that these honeys are suitable for human consumption. Quite extended honey flow period with spring and summer as best forage seasons for the honeybees and occurrence of 82% of these honeys with APC Group II, III and IV justify the sustainability of the present study area for establishing moderate to large-scale apicultural entrepreneurship. This should improve the socio-economic status of the people of this region.

  19. Modulation of differentiation and self-renewal of tissue specific stem cells for effective mitigation of radiation injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandekar, Mayuri; Patwardhan, R.S.; Maurya, Dharmendra K.; Bhilwade, Hari N.; Sharma, Deepak; Sandur, Santosh Kumar

    2017-01-01

    The use of stem cells in regenerative medicine for the treatment of various human diseases is one of the active research areas. The aim of regenerative medicine is to restore normal tissue functions by replenishing injured tissues using either cell-based therapy or by inducing certain factors that can aid endogenous repair and regeneration. The approach for inducing endogenous repair and regeneration requires in vivo modulation of tissue-specific stem cells by therapeutic agents and enhance their abundance through activation, proliferation, differentiation, or reprogramming. Here we describe three different approaches to enhance the abundance of hematopoietic stem cells in vivo for mitigation of radiation induced toxicity. Baicalein, a flavonoid derived from Chinese and Indian medicinal plants like Scutellaria baicalensis and Terminalia ariuna enhanced the abundance of hematopoietic stem cells through activation of Nrf-2 in the lineage negative cells. Another anti-oxidant, chlorophyllin derived from green plant pigment, chlorophyll also enhanced the abundance of hematopoietic stem cells through modulation of cell cycle in cells of the bone marrow. Treatment of mice with Cobaltus chloride (CoCl_2), a well-known activator of hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIP-1α), also led to increase in the number of hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow. Whereas chlorophyllin offered up to 100 % protection against whole body irradiation (WBI, 8 Gy) induced mortality in mice, baicalein offered up to70%protection. Cobaltus chloride treatment offered 40% protection against 8 Gy of WBI. These studies indicate potential use of stem cell modulating agents as effective mitigators of radiation induced toxicity in vivo. (author)

  20. Chemical composition and fuel wood characteristics of fast growing tree species in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, S. K.; Soni, R.

    2012-04-01

    India is one of the growing economy in the world and energy is a critical input to sustain the growth of development. Country aims at security and efficiency of energy. Though fossil fuel will continue to play a dominant role in energy scenario but country is committed to global environmental well being thus stressing on environment friendly technologies. Concerns of energy security in this changing climatic situation have led to increasing support for the development of new renewable source of energy. Government though is determined to facilitate bio-energy and many projects have been established but initial after-affects more specifically on the domestic fuelwood are evident. Even the biomass power generating units are facing biomass crisis and accordingly the prices are going up. The CDM projects are supporting the viability of these units resultantly the Indian basket has a large number of biomass projects (144 out of total 506 with 28 per cent CERs). The use for fuelwood as a primary source of energy for domestic purpose by the poor people (approx. 80 per cent) and establishment of bio-energy plants may lead to deforestation to a great extent and only solution to this dilemma is to shift the wood harvest from the natural forests to energy plantations. However, there is conspicuous lack of knowledge with regards to the fuelwood characteristics of fast growing tree species for their selection for energy plantations. The calorific value of the species is important criteria for selection for fuel but it is affected by the proportions of biochemical constituents present in them. The aim of the present work was to study the biomass production, calorific value and chemical composition of different short rotation tree species. The study was done from the perspective of using the fast growing tree species for energy production at short rotation and the study concluded that short rotation tree species like Gmelina arborea, Eucalyptus tereticornis, Pongamia pinnata,Terminalia

  1. Potential pitfalls in the nuclear medicine imaging: Experimental models to evaluate the effect of natural products on the radiolabeling of blood constituents, bioavailability of radiopharmaceutical and on the survival of Escherichia coli strains submitted to the treatment with stannous ion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, Scheila F.; Brito, Lavinia C.; Souza, Deise E.; Bernardo, Luciana C.; Oliveira, Joelma F.; Bernardo-Filho, Mario

    2006-01-01

    Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) allows studies of physiological or pathological processes. Red blood cells labeled with technetium-99m ( 99m Tc-RBC) are used as a radiopharmaceutical in several evaluations. The radiolabeling efficiency and bioavailability of radiopharmaceuticals can be altered by natural/synthetic drugs and may induce pitfalls in the analysis of the nuclear medicine imaging. The labeling with 99m Tc requires a reducing agent and stannous chloride (SnCl 2 ) is widely utilized. However, SnCl 2 presents a citotoxic and/or genotoxic potential in Escherichia coli (E. coli) strains. The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of aqueous extracts of Baccharis genistelloides (BG), Terminalia chebula (TC), Maytenus ilicifolia (MI), Cassia angustifolia (CA) and Equisetum arvense (EA) on (i) radiolabeling of blood constituents (ii) bioavailability of sodium pertechnetate(Na 99m TcO 4 ) radiopharmaceutical (iii) survival of E. coli. In vitro labeling of RBC was performed with blood (Wistar rats) incubated with each extract, SnCl 2 and Na 99m TcO 4 . Plasma (P) and blood cells (BC) were isolated, another aliquots precipitated and soluble (SF) and insoluble (IF) fractions isolated and counted. In the bioavailability of Na 99m TcO 4 , Wistar rats were treated (7 days) with aqueous extract or with 0.9%NaCl, the radiopharmaceutical was administered, the animals sacrificed, the organs isolated, weighted and radioactivity counted. To evaluate the effect on the bacterial survival, E. coli was treated with: (a) SnCl 2 ; (b) 0.9% NaCl; (c) vegetal extract; or (d) SnCl 2 and vegetal extract. Radiolabeling efficiency showed a significantly decrease (ANOVA/Tukey post-test, p 99m TcO 4 was altered significantly (unpaired t-student test, p 2 action and this fact can be related to the free radical scavenging properties of the chemical compounds of the extracts. In conclusion these findings could be worthwhile to try to understand and to avoid some

  2. ANALISIS POTENSI SIMPANAN KARBON HUTAN MANGROVE DI AREA PT. INDOCEMENT TUNGGAL PRAKARSA, TBK P 12 TARJUN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Ariani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the structure of the mangrove forest stands in a conservation area PT. Indocement P12 Tarjun, South Kalimantan. To determine the potential amount of carbon stored in vegetation and soils di area mangrove forests. Merumuskah form of management in accordance with mangrove forests owned by PT Indocement Tunggal Tbk P 12 Tarjun. The results of this study show the type of vegetation that are within the plot observation is Aegicera corniculatum, Acivennia alba, Avicennia lanata, Avicennia Marina, Bruguera gymnorrhiza, Bruguiera parviflora, Ceriops decandra, Lumnitzera, Rhizophora apiculate, Rhizophora mucronata, Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea, Sonneratia alba, Xylocarpus granatum, Acanthus ebracteatus, Hibiscus tiliaceus, Nypa fruticans, Terminalia catappa and type of vegetation present in the area of research, but is not included in the observation plot is Acrostichum aureum Linn, Pandanus odoratissima. Importance Value Index (IVI lenata kind Avicennia highest growth rate of the tree that is 80,2%, Rhizophora apiculata at the level of the pole that is 57%, and Nypa fruticans at the seedling stage is 20,8%. To Nypa fruticans, though IVIs largest/highest species of plants in the seedling stage but this type is only found on two research plots only. Total carbon content was found at the study site was at 714,77 per hectare. The study was conducted on biomass carbon on the surface, lower plants, nekromassa (dead trees, and mangrove sediments (ground. Carbon sequestration at a site can be seen from the height and diameter of trees while a vegetation type had no significant effect on the absorption of carbon. Environmental management in the form of replanting are research needs to be done to avoid more severe harm than good because of logging by humans atupun affected by coastal erosion. Type Lumnitzera, Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea, Ceriops decandra should get more attention because it has a very low INP hat is necessary to manage

  3. Inventário arbóreo-urbano do município de Salto de Pirapora, SP

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    Daniele Porto Benatti

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve por objetivo realizar o inventário arbóreo-urbano em 24 bairros do Município de Salto de Pirapora, SP, por meio da avaliação quali-quantitativa. Para tanto, foram obtidas informações relacionadas à: espécie arbórea, situação da copa e do tronco, orientação do tronco, fitossanidade, interceptação das raízes no passeio, necessidade de tratos silviculturais, altura total e altura da primeira bifurcação, assim como características do espaço viário. Foram registrados 868 indivíduos, dos quais 679 foram catalogados em 71 espécies arbóreas. A espécie de maior frequência foi Caesalpinia pluviosa, representando 13,6% do total, seguida de Ficus benjamin (10,4%, Lagerstroemia indica (5,0% e Terminalia catappa (4,8%. Quanto à condição do tronco, 68,8% dos indivíduos arbóreos não apresentaram problemas; 85,7% das árvores observadas possuíam orientação simpodial adequada; poucas árvores apresentavam danos relacionados à fitossanidade que poderiam interferir em sua integridade e, ou, longevidade; 69,6% não interferiam, de forma direta, na calçada; 32,8% das árvores necessitavam de podas por estarem acima da fiação elétrica; 0,5% necessitava de substituição; e 5,7% precisavam ser removidas. Com relação à altura total das árvores, 63,0% apresentavam crescimento menor que 5 m; e 65,3% com altura da primeira bifurcação do tronco inferior a 1,80 m. O Bairro Primavera destacou-se pelo maior número de árvores em sua urbanização. Em contrapartida, o Jardim Amélia apresentou apenas um indivíduo. Dessa forma, observou-se que cada bairro possuía sua particularidade, e ações de manutenção e enriquecimento, tanto relacionadas ao número de espécies quanto à quantidade de indivíduos, deveriam ser consideradas no planejamento urbano-arbóreo daquele município.

  4. Antimicrobial evaluation of plants used for the treatment of diarrhoea in a rural community in northern Maputaland, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vuuren, Sandy F; Nkwanyana, Mduduzi N; de Wet, Helene

    2015-03-10

    Zulu people living in the rural area of Maputaland (KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa) rely heavily on medicinal plants for the treatment of diarrhoea. Abundant availability of medicinal plants in the study area offers low cost health care, but scientific validation is needed in order to lend credibility to the traditional use against many ailments including diarrhoeal infections. With this in mind a study was designed to test the in vitro antimicrobial efficacy of 23 plant species which are used for the treatment of diarrhoea in rural Maputaland. Four 1:1 plant combinations were also evaluated to determine their interactive effects against seven diarrhoea-related bacterial pathogens. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assays were undertaken on dichloromethane-methanol (CH2Cl2: MeOH) and aqueous crude extracts. The following micro-organisms were selected for this study and were tested based on their association with stomach ailments and diarrhoea; Bacillus cereus (ATCC 11778), Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212), Escherichia coli (ATCC 8739), Proteus vulgaris (ATCC 33420), Salmonella typhimurium (ATCC 14028), Shigella flexneri (ATCC 25875) and Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 12600). The fractional inhibitory concentration index (ΣFIC) was determined for plants traditionally used in combination. Shigella flexneri proved to be the most susceptible pathogen, where the organic extract of Terminalia sericea showed the most prominent noteworthy antibacterial activity (mean MIC value of 0.04 mg/mL). The aqueous extracts generally showed poorer antimicrobial activity with some exceptions i.e. Acacia burkei, Brachylaena transvaalensis against B. cereus and B. transvaalensis against S. flexneri. In the combination studies, synergy was predominant with mean (across all pathogens) ΣFIC values of 0.30 for Acanthospermum glabratum with Krauseola mosambicina; ΣFIC values of 0.46 for A. glabratum with Psidium guajava; ΣFIC values of 0.39 for B. transvaalensis with P. guajava and

  5. Methane mitigation potential of phyto-sources from Northeast India and their effect on rumen fermentation characteristics and protozoa in vitro

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    Luna Baruah

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the study was to explore the anti-methanogenic potential of phyto-sources from Northeast region of the country and assess the effect on rumen fermentation characteristics and protozoa for their likely inclusion in animal diet to reduce methane emission. Materials and Methods: Twenty phyto-sources were collected from Northeast state, Assam, during March to April 2014. Phyto-sources were analyzed for their tannin content followed by screening for methane mitigation potential using in vitro system. The effect of tannin on methane production and other fermentation parameters was confirmed by attenuating the effect of tannin with polyethylene glycol (PEG-6000 addition. About 200 mg dried phyto-source samples were incubated for 24 h in vitro, and volume of gas produced was recorded. The gas sample was analyzed on gas chromatograph for the proportion of methane in the sample. The effect of phyto-sources on rumen fermentation characteristics and protozoal population was determined using standard methodologies. Results: Results from studies demonstrated that Litchi chinensis, Melastoma malabathricum, Lagerstroemia speciosa, Terminalia chebula, and Syzygium cumini produced comparatively less methane, while Christella parasitica, Leucas linifolia, Citrus grandis, and Aquilaria malaccensis produced relatively more methane during in vitro incubation. An increase (p<0.05 in gas and methane production from the phyto-sources was observed when incubated with PEG-6000. Entodinimorphs were prominent ciliates irrespective of the phyto-sources, while holotrichs represented only small fraction of protozoa. An increase (p<0.05 in total protozoa, entodinimorphs, and holotrichs was noted when PEG-6000 added to the basal substrate. Our study confirmed variable impact of phyto-sources on total volatile fatty acid production and ammonia-N. Conclusion: It may be concluded that L. chinensis, M. malabathricum, L. speciosa, S. cumini, and T. chebula are having

  6. Trends in diagnosis and control of bovine mastitis: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, Rajib; Kumar, Amit; Chakraborty, Sandip; Verma, Amit Kumar; Tiwari, Ruchi; Dhama, Kuldeep; Singh, Umesh; Kumar, Sushil

    2013-12-01

    Mastitis (inflammation of mammary gland) is a most devastating disease condition in terms of economic losses occurring throughout the world. The etiological agents may vary from place to place depending on climate; animal species and animal husbandry and include wide variety of gram positive and gram negative bacteria; and fungi. They may be either contagious viz. Staphylococcus aureus; Streptococcus agalactiae or environmental viz. S. dysgalactiae, S. uberis, Corynebacterium bovis and Coagulase negative Staphylococcus. Conventional diagnostic tests viz. California Mastitis Test (CMT); R-mastitest and Mast-O-test methods are applied under field conditions; whereas somatic cell count and Bulk Tank Somatic Cell Count (BTSCC) are useful for early mastitis detection and detection of sub clinical or chronic mastitis respectively. In vitro culture based diagnosis require further study as they can detect only viable cells. The advent of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) technology along with its various versions like multiplex and real time PCR has improved the rapidity and sensitivity of diagnosis. Circulating micro RNA (miRNA) based diagnosis; immune assay and proteomics based detection along with biochips and biosensors prove to be asset to diagnosticians for advanced diagnosis of this economically important condition. Improvement of milking hygiene; implementation of post-milking teat disinfection; regular control of the milking equipments; implementation of milking order; Improvement of bedding material are the general measures to prevent new cases of mastitis. The use of antibiotics (intramammary infusions; bacteriocins) and herbs (Terminalia spp.) are important for prophylaxis and therapeutics. Vaccines viz. cell based; Recombinant (staphylococcal enterotoxin type C mutant) or chimeric (pauA); live (S. uberis 0140J stain based) and bacterial surface extract based; DNA-based and DNA-protein based have greatly aided in management of bovine mastitis. Quorum sensing and

  7. Large Scale Screening of Ethnomedicinal Plants for Identification of Potential Antibacterial Compounds

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    Sujogya Kumar Panda

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The global burden of bacterial infections is very high and has been exacerbated by increasing resistance to multiple antibiotics. Antibiotic resistance leads to failed treatment of infections, which can ultimately lead to death. To overcome antibiotic resistance, it is necessary to identify new antibacterial agents. In this study, a total of 662 plant extracts (diverse parts from 222 plant species (82 families, 177 genera were screened for antibacterial activity using the agar cup plate method. The aqueous and methanolic extracts were prepared from diverse plant parts and screened against eight bacterial (two Gram-positive and six Gram-negative species, most of which are involved in common infections with multiple antibiotic resistance. The methanolic extracts of several plants were shown to have zones of inhibition ≥ 12 mm against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The minimum inhibitory concentration was calculated only with methanolic extracts of selected plants, those showed zone of inhibition ≥ 12 mm against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Several extracts had minimum inhibitory concentration ≤ 1 mg/mL. Specifically Adhatoda vasica, Ageratum conyzoides, Alangium salvifolium, Alpinia galanga, Andrographis paniculata, Anogeissus latifolia, Annona squamosa, A. reticulate, Azadirachta indica, Buchanania lanzan, Cassia fistula, Celastrus paniculatus, Centella asiatica, Clausena excavate, Cleome viscosa, Cleistanthus collinus, Clerodendrum indicum, Croton roxburghii, Diospyros melanoxylon, Eleutherine bulbosa, Erycibe paniculata, Eryngium foetidum, Garcinia cowa, Helicteres isora, Hemidesmus indicus, Holarrhena antidysenterica, Lannea coromandelica, Millettia extensa, Mimusops elengi, Nyctanthes arbor-tristis, Oroxylum indicum, Paederia foetida, Pterospermum acerifolium, Punica granatum, Semecarpus anacardium, Spondias pinnata, Terminalia alata and Vitex negundo were shown to have significant antimicrobial

  8. Large Scale Screening of Ethnomedicinal Plants for Identification of Potential Antibacterial Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Sujogya Kumar; Mohanta, Yugal Kishore; Padhi, Laxmipriya; Park, Young-Hwan; Mohanta, Tapan Kumar; Bae, Hanhong

    2016-03-14

    The global burden of bacterial infections is very high and has been exacerbated by increasing resistance to multiple antibiotics. Antibiotic resistance leads to failed treatment of infections, which can ultimately lead to death. To overcome antibiotic resistance, it is necessary to identify new antibacterial agents. In this study, a total of 662 plant extracts (diverse parts) from 222 plant species (82 families, 177 genera) were screened for antibacterial activity using the agar cup plate method. The aqueous and methanolic extracts were prepared from diverse plant parts and screened against eight bacterial (two Gram-positive and six Gram-negative) species, most of which are involved in common infections with multiple antibiotic resistance. The methanolic extracts of several plants were shown to have zones of inhibition ≥ 12 mm against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The minimum inhibitory concentration was calculated only with methanolic extracts of selected plants, those showed zone of inhibition ≥ 12 mm against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Several extracts had minimum inhibitory concentration ≤ 1 mg/mL. Specifically Adhatoda vasica, Ageratum conyzoides, Alangium salvifolium, Alpinia galanga, Andrographis paniculata, Anogeissus latifolia, Annona squamosa, A. reticulate, Azadirachta indica, Buchanania lanzan, Cassia fistula, Celastrus paniculatus, Centella asiatica, Clausena excavate, Cleome viscosa, Cleistanthus collinus, Clerodendrum indicum, Croton roxburghii, Diospyros melanoxylon, Eleutherine bulbosa, Erycibe paniculata, Eryngium foetidum, Garcinia cowa, Helicteres isora, Hemidesmus indicus, Holarrhena antidysenterica, Lannea coromandelica, Millettia extensa, Mimusops elengi, Nyctanthes arbor-tristis, Oroxylum indicum, Paederia foetida, Pterospermum acerifolium, Punica granatum, Semecarpus anacardium, Spondias pinnata, Terminalia alata and Vitex negundo were shown to have significant antimicrobial activity. The species

  9. Floristic structure and biomass distribution of a tropical seasonal rain forest in Xishuangbanna, southwest China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanmughavel, P.; Zheng Zheng; Sha Liqing; Cao Min [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming (China). Dept. of Forest Ecology

    2001-07-01

    The aim of this research was to study the forest community structure, tree species diversity and biomass production of a tropical seasonal rain forest in Xishuangbanna, southwest China. The community structure showed a diversified species composition and supported many species of economic significance. This tropical rain forest in closely related to Malaysian forests. The biomass and its distribution were studied using standard regression analysis and the clear-cut method for shrubs and herbs. The total biomass was 360.9 t/ha and its allocation in different layers was: tree layer 352.5 t/ha, shrub layer 4.7 t/ha, liana 3.1 t/ha and herb layer 0.5 t/ha. Most of the biomass was concentrated in the trees: stem 241.2 t/ha, root 69.6 t/ha, branch 37.2 t/ha and leaves 4.3 t/ha. The DBH class allocation of the tree biomass was concentrated in the middle DBH class. The biomass of six DBH classes from 20 to 80 cm was 255.4 t/ha. There are twenty-six species with biomass over 0.5% of the total biomass of the tree layer, and three species with biomass over 5%, i.e., Pometia tomentosa, Barringtonia macrostachya (5.4%) and Terminalia myriocarpa (5.2%). Data on stem, branch, leaves and root of the individual tree species were used to develop regression models. D{sup 2}H was found to be the best estimator of the biomass in this tropical rain forest. However, higher biomass figures have been reported from tropical forests elsewhere e.g., 415-520 t/ha in the tropical forests of Cambodia, the tropical moist mixed dipterocarp forests, and the tropical moist logged moist evergreen-high, medium, and low yield forests of Sri Lanka. In some forests, lower accumulation of biomass was reported, e.g., 10-295 t/ha in the tropical moist forests of Bangladesh, the tropical moist dense forest of Cambodia, the tropical dry forests of India, the tropical moist forests of Peninsular-Malaysia, the tropical moist mixed dipterocarp forests of Sarawak-Malaysia, the tropical evergreen forests of

  10. Vegetation of the eastern communal conservancies in Namibia: II. Environmental drivers

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    Ben J. Strohbach

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The eastern communal conservancies are situated along the western fringe of the Kalahari basin. Under a very short rainfall gradient, the vegetation abruptly changes from microphyllous Acacia-dominated savannas to mesophyll savannas, dominated by Terminalia sericea and Combretum spp. We hypothesise that this is caused by changes in soil moisture availability brought about by changes in soil texture from loamy soils to deep sands (the ‘inverse texture effect’. For this analysis, we used vegetation and soils data derived from a recognisance survey of the natural resources of the study area. As the sites in the soil and vegetation surveys did not overlap, it was decided to use only synoptic data for the plant associations in the analysis. Non-metric multidimesional scaling ordination was utilised as ordination technique of the vegetation data and various environmental parameters, including soil texture, soil hydraulic parameters, climatic and fire regime parameters, were overlaid as biplots onto the resulting graph, as were various plant functional attributes particularly related to climatic conditions. The main environmental gradient identified within the study area is the rainfall gradient. This relatively short gradient, however, does not explain the marked change in vegetation observed within the study area. This change is attributed to the change in soil type, in particular, the soil texture and the associated soil hydraulic parameters of the soil. This gradient is closely correlated to leaf size, explaining the change from microphyll savannas to mesophyll savannas along the change from loamy to sandy soils. One of the lesser understood mechanisms for the survival of these mesophyll plants on sandy soils seems to be a deep root system, which is actively involved in water redistribution within the soil profile – by hydraulic lift, inverse hydraulic lift and stem flow. Conservation implications: Understanding these mechanisms will greatly

  11. Determination of gamma radiation shielding characteristics of some tropical woods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aigbosuria, E. F.

    2011-01-01

    This study compares the shielding characteristics of twenty-two tropical woods by using gamma scintillation detection method. Woods sourced are Anogeisus Leiocarpus(Ayin), Nesogordonia Papverifera(Oro), Entandrophragma Microphyllum(Anunje), Brachystagia Eurycoma(Ako), Cassia Alata(Asunrun), Afzelia Africana(Apa-Igbo), Khaya Grandifoliala(Gedu), Piptadenistrum Africana(Agbonyin), Nanclea Diderrehii(Opepe), Khaya Ivorensis(Oganwo), Chlorophora Excelsa(Iroko), Masonia altissima(Odogi), Entandrophragma Angolense(Ijebo), Altium Sativum(Ayo), Albizia Zygia(Ayunre), Terminalia Superba(Afara), Cordia Millenii(Omo), Melania(Melania), Pycnanthus Angolensis(Akomu), Triplochitons Scleroxylon(Arere), Pine(Pine), Ceiba Pentradra(Araba). The intensities of the emergent radiation were measured, when each of these woods were placed between a scintillation detector and a standard radioactive source. Analysis of result obtained shows an appreciable evidence of radiation attenuation due to the changes in the chemical composition of the woods and the dependence of the attenuation coefficient on energy and densities of these woods. The descending order of attenuation coefficient determined are; Ayin, Oro, Anuje, Ako, Asunrun, Apa-igbo Gedu, Agbonyin, Opepe Oganwo, Iroko Odogi , Ayo, Ayunre, Afara, Omo, Melania, Akomu, Arere, Pine, Araba. For a constant energy of 0.101MeV, the attenuation coefficient are 0.190cm -1 , 0.165cm -1 , 0.163cm -1 , 0.156cm -1 , 0.149cm -1 , 0.143cm -1 , 0.133cm -1 , 0.132cm -1 , 0.127cm -1 , 0.124cm -1 , 0.085cm -1 , 0.123cm -1 , 0.122cm -1 , 0.113cm -1 , 0.101cm -1 , 0.088cm -1 , 0.087cm -1 , 0.086cm -1 , 0.082cm -1 respectively. The wood in descending order of dependence of attenuation coefficient on density are: Ayin,Oro, Anunje,Ako,Asunrun,Apa-Igbo, Gedu, Agbonyin, Opepe, Oganwo, Iroko, Odogi, Ijebo, Ayo, Ayunre, Afara, Omo, Melania, Akomu, Arere, Pine and Araba. The half value layer shows the thickness at various energy regions.

  12. Chuva de sementes em remanescentes florestais de Campo Verde, MT

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    William Pietro-Souza

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho consistiu em avaliar sazonalmente a produção de sementes provenientes de fragmentos florestais presentes na zona rural de Campo Verde, MT. Essa caracterização ocorreu em termos de produção de sementes e riqueza de espécies vegetais. Foram selecionados três fragmentos florestais caracterizados como Floresta Estacional Semidecidual. Em cada fragmento, cinco coletores foram instalados e confeccionados com canos de PVC (1 m²; malha de náilon de 0,001 m e 0,15 m de profundidade do bojo. O material foi coletado mensalmente, cujas sementes foram quantificadas e separadas conforme a síndrome de dispersão, etapa sucessional e forma de vida. Houve a determinação da densidade, frequência absoluta, índice de diversidade e equitabilidade. Ao todo, foram obtidas 3.622 sementes, pertencentes a 74 táxons. Maiores densidades de sementes foram observadas durante os meses de setembro, outubro e novembro. As lianas Gouania sp., Fridericia speciosa, Heteropterys sp. e Distictella sp. responderam com 55,95% do total de sementes aportadas. Das espécies que compuseram a chuva de sementes, 74% não são dispersas pelo vento. Todavia, quando se verificou a quantidade de diásporos coletados, formas dispersas pelo vento foram predominantes, representando 76% do total. Citam-se como táxons arbóreos importantes para a recomposição florestal na região de Campo Verde, situada no Sudeste de Mato Grosso: Tachigali rubiginosa, Siparuna guianensis, Nectandra sp., Cordia alliodora, Alibertia sp., Terminalia brasiliensis e Myrcia sp. Essas espécies devem ser alvo de estudos mais específicos relacionados ao seu potencial para recuperação de ambientes degradados, considerando-se as Áreas de Preservação Permanente e Reservas Legais.

  13. Determination of gamma radiation shielding characteristics of some tropical woods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aigbosuria, E F [Department of Computer Electronics/Physics, Lead City University, Ibadan (Nigeria)

    2011-10-24

    This study compares the shielding characteristics of twenty-two tropical woods by using gamma scintillation detection method. Woods sourced are Anogeisus Leiocarpus(Ayin), Nesogordonia Papverifera(Oro), Entandrophragma Microphyllum(Anunje), Brachystagia Eurycoma(Ako), Cassia Alata(Asunrun), Afzelia Africana(Apa-Igbo), Khaya Grandifoliala(Gedu), Piptadenistrum Africana(Agbonyin), Nanclea Diderrehii(Opepe), Khaya Ivorensis(Oganwo), Chlorophora Excelsa(Iroko), Masonia altissima(Odogi), Entandrophragma Angolense(Ijebo), Altium Sativum(Ayo), Albizia Zygia(Ayunre), Terminalia Superba(Afara), Cordia Millenii(Omo), Melania(Melania), Pycnanthus Angolensis(Akomu), Triplochitons Scleroxylon(Arere), Pine(Pine), Ceiba Pentradra(Araba). The intensities of the emergent radiation were measured, when each of these woods were placed between a scintillation detector and a standard radioactive source. Analysis of result obtained shows an appreciable evidence of radiation attenuation due to the changes in the chemical composition of the woods and the dependence of the attenuation coefficient on energy and densities of these woods. The descending order of attenuation coefficient determined are; Ayin, Oro, Anuje, Ako, Asunrun, Apa-igbo Gedu, Agbonyin, Opepe Oganwo, Iroko Odogi , Ayo, Ayunre, Afara, Omo, Melania, Akomu, Arere, Pine, Araba. For a constant energy of 0.101MeV, the attenuation coefficient are 0.190cm{sup -1}, 0.165cm{sup -1}, 0.163cm{sup -1}, 0.156cm{sup -1}, 0.149cm{sup -1}, 0.143cm{sup -1}, 0.133cm{sup -1}, 0.132cm{sup -1}, 0.127cm{sup -1}, 0.124cm{sup -1}, 0.085cm{sup -1}, 0.123cm{sup -1}, 0.122cm{sup -1}, 0.113cm{sup -1}, 0.101cm{sup -1}, 0.088cm{sup -1}, 0.087cm{sup -1}, 0.086cm{sup -1}, 0.082cm{sup -1} respectively. The wood in descending order of dependence of attenuation coefficient on density are: Ayin,Oro, Anunje,Ako,Asunrun,Apa-Igbo, Gedu, Agbonyin, Opepe, Oganwo, Iroko, Odogi, Ijebo, Ayo, Ayunre, Afara, Omo, Melania, Akomu, Arere, Pine and Araba. The half value

  14. In vitro antibacterial activity of crude extracts of 9 selected medicinal plants against UTI causing MDR bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monali P. Mishra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infection (UTI has become a more grievous problem today, due to multidrug resistance of infecting Gram-positive (GP and Gram-negative (GN bacteria, sometimes even with multiple infections. This study examines effectivity of 9 tropical flowering plants (Anogeissus acuminata, Azadirachta indica, Bauhinia variegata, Boerhaavia diffusa, Punica granatum, Soymida febrifuga, Terminalia chebula, Tinospora cordifolia and Tribulus terrestris for possible use as source of antimicrobials for multidrug resistant (MDR bacteria, along with main-stream antibiotics. Pathogenic bacteria were isolated from urine samples of patients attending and admitted in the hospital. Antibiograms of 11 isolated bacteria (GPs, Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus aureus; and GNs, Acinetobacter baumannii, Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter aerogenes, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Proteus vulgaris and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were ascertained by the disc-diffusion method, and antibacterial effectivity of plant extracts was monitored by the agar-well diffusion method. Isolated bacteria were floridly MDR to most antibiotics of the day. Methanol extracts of 9 plants were used, and extracts of 3 plants, A. acuminata, P. granatum and S. febrifuga at least caused 25–29 mm as the maximum size of zone of inhibition on bacterial lawns. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC values of methanol extracts of 9 plants were recorded. The methanol extract of A. acuminata had 0.29 mg/ml as the lowest MIC value and 0.67 mg/ml as the lowest MBC value, against MDR S. aureus, signifying effectivity; but, it had the highest MIC value of 3.41 mg/ml. and the highest MBC value of 4.27 mg/ml for most other MDR bacteria including E. coli. Qualitative phytochemical analysis was done for these 9 plants and information on leading phytochemicals was presented retrieved from PubChem database. Thus

  15. Structure of Drosophilidae Assemblage (Insecta, Diptera in Pampa Biome (São Luiz Gonzaga, RS

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    Jean Lucas Poppe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian Pampa (the southernmost end of the country is currently a highly modified environment because of increasing agricultural activities. In many places, only small parts of grasslands remain inside an agricultural landscape. Drosophilidae (Diptera have been widely used as a potential bioindicators to monitor the effects of anthropogenic changes in natural environments. However, the fauna of Drosophilidae in the Pampa Biome from natural and disturbed environments, still remains largely unknown. The present study represents one of the first attempts to fill this gap, showing results from monthly collections in the municipality of São Luiz Gonzaga (28º24'28"S, 54º57'39"W, in the Brazilian Pampa. A species inventory was carried out in two contrasting environments, an urban zone and a forest remnant (rural zone. In both areas banana-baited traps were used to capture adult drosophilids. The identification was made using external morphology and male terminalia. In total, 13,379 drosophilids were analyzed (rural zone: N = 8,812 and Sobs = 25; urban zone: N = 4,567 and Sobs = 16. In the present study, 16 (60% out of 26 species were found exclusively or preferentially in the forest. The period of highest richness was between the months of June to November (roughly winter and spring, and the period of lowest richness was from December to May (roughly summer and autumn. An analysis of cluster by the Coefficient of Jaccard showed that species composition slightly changes when the period of the year with higher temperatures (from January to May is compared with the period with lower temperatures (from June to October. The species abundances were also highly affected by seasonality, as revealed by the Morisita Index, since the samples clustered into similar groups in consecutive periods and in the same season, showing the seasonal preference of some species. The time component was a determinant in the diversity of the assemblage, surpassing the

  16. LA INOCULACIÓN CON Glomus fasciculatum EN EL CRECIMIENTO DE CUATRO ESPECIES FORESTALES EN VIVERO Y CAMPO

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    William Hernández

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación se realizó para conocer la respuesta de 4 especies forestales a la aplicación del Glomus fasciculatum en vivero y campo. En la fase de vivero se evalúo diámetro basal, altura total, peso seco del follaje y radicular, absorción de nutrimentos en el follaje y el sistema radicular. En campo se cuantificó altura total, diámetro, y absorción de nutrimentos en el follaje. Los resultados mostraron que en vivero los mayores incrementos promedio, en los tratamientos inoculados, los registró el ronrón (Astronium graveolens, la teca (Tectona grandis y el amarillón (Terminalia amazonia, con 48,9, 35,2 y 30,6%, respectivamente; mientras que en melina (Gmelina arborea el incremento fue de 16,9%. El mayor incremento se registró en el peso seco del follaje y en el radicular con 30,8 y 63%, respectivamente. En la absorción de nutrimentos el ronrón mostró diferencias en Mg, Cu, Zn, Mn y Fe, tanto en el follaje como en el sistema radicular; sin embargo, melina fue la especie que registró las concentraciones de nutrimentos superiores, aunque no significativas; las demás especies no registraron diferencias significativas. En el campo, en las plantas inoculadas, solamente melina reflejó diferencias significativas en diámetro y altura total, con un incremento de 37,9 y 31,7%, respectivamente. La absorción de nutrimentos de melina, amarillón y ronrón fue en promedio 32,2, 19,8 y 6,6%, respectivamente, con una mayor absorción en Ca, Mn, K y Fe. La mortalidad en vivero fue nula, mientras que en el campo, varió de acuerdo con la especie y el tratamiento. El aumento en el crecimiento de las 4 especies fue la tendencia común, a excepción de teca, que en el campo no mostró resultados positivos.

  17. DISTRIBUIÇÃO NATURAL DE ESPÉCIES ARBÓREAS EM ÁREAS COM DIFERENTES NÍVEIS DE ANTROPIZAÇÃO E RELAÇÃO COM OS ATRIBUTOS QUÍMICOS DO SOLO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemerson Fernandes Calgaro

    2015-04-01

    solo foram superiores. Das 97 espécies encontradas, seis têm potencial para serem utilizadas num programa de conservação genética in situ. São elas: Astronium fraxinifolium, Terminalia argentea, Curatella americana, Cupania vernalis, Qualea jundiahy e Andira cuyabensis.

  18. A revision of the genus Planinasus Cresson (Diptera, Periscelididae

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    Wayne Mathis

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The genus Planinasus Cresson is revised and includes 18 extant and one fossil species. We clarify the status of the three previously described species and describe 15 new species as follows (type locality in parenthesis: P. aenigmaticus (Colombia. Bogota: Bogota (04°35.8`N, 74°08.8`W, P. neotropicus (Panama. Canal Zone: Barro Colorado Island (09°09.1`N, 79°50.8`W, P. kotrbae (Ecuador. Orellana: Rio Tiputini Biodiversity Station (0°38.2`S, 76°08.9`W, P. miradorus (Brazil. Maranhão: Parque Estadual Mirador, Base da Geraldina (06°22.2`S, 44°21.8`W, P. tobagoensis (Trinidad and Tobago. Tobago. St. John: Parlatuvier (11°17.9`N, 60°39`W, P. xanthops (Ecuador. Orellana: Rio Tiputini Biodiversity Station (0°38.2`S, 76°8.9`W, P. argentifacies (Peru. Madre de Dios: Río Manu, Pakitza (11°56.6`S, 71°16.9`W; 250 m, P. insulanus (Dominican Republic. La Vega: near Jarabacoa, Salto Guasara (19°04.4`N, 70°42.1`W, 680 m, P. nigritarsus (Guyana. Conservation of Ecological Interactions and Biotic Associations (CEIBA; ca. 40 km S Georgetown; 06°29.9`N, 58°13.1`W, P. atriclypeus (Brazil. Rio de Janeiro: Rio de Janeiro, Floresta da Tijuca (22°57.6`S, 43°16.4`W, P. atrifrons (Bolivia. Santa Cruz: Ichilo, Buena Vista (4-6 km SSE; Hotel Flora y Fauna; 17°29.95`S, 63°33.15`W; 4-500 m, P. flavicoxalis (West Indies. Dominica. St. David: 1.6 km N of junction of roads to Rosalie and Castle Bruce (15°23.8`N, 61°18.6`W, P. mcalpineorum (Mexico. Chiapas: Cacahoatan (7 km N; 15°04.1`N, 92°07.4`W, P. nigrifacies (Brazil. São Paulo: Mogi das Cruzes, Serra do Itapeti (23°31.5`S, 46°11.2`W, P. obscuripennis (Peru. Madre de Dios: Río Manu, Erika (near Salvación; 12°50.7`S, 71°23.3`W; 550 m. In addition to external characters, we also describe and illustrate structures of the male terminalia and for P. kotrbae sp. n., the internal female reproductive organs. Detailed locality data and distribution maps for all species are provided. For perspective and

  19. A revision of the genus Planinasus Cresson (Diptera, Periscelididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathis, Wayne N; Rung, Alessandra; Kotrba, Marion

    2012-01-01

    The genus Planinasus Cresson is revised and includes 18 extant and one fossil species. We clarify the status of the three previously described species and describe 15 new species as follows (type locality in parenthesis): Planinasus aenigmaticus (Colombia. Bogota: Bogota (04°35.8'N, 74°08.8'W)), Planinasus neotropicus (Panama. Canal Zone: Barro Colorado Island (09°09.1'N, 79°50.8'W)), Planinasus kotrbae (Ecuador. Orellana: Rio Tiputini Biodiversity Station (0°38.2'S, 76°08.9'W)), Planinasus miradorus (Brazil. Maranhão: Parque Estadual Mirador, Base da Geraldina (06°22.2'S, 44°21.8'W)), Planinasus tobagoensis (Trinidad and Tobago. Tobago. St. John: Parlatuvier (11°17.9'N, 60°39'W)), Planinasus xanthops (Ecuador. Orellana: Rio Tiputini Biodiversity Station (0°38.2'S, 76°8.9'W)), Planinasus argentifacies (Peru. Madre de Dios: Río Manu, Pakitza (11°56.6'S, 71°16.9'W; 250 m)), Planinasus insulanus (Dominican Republic. La Vega: near Jarabacoa, Salto Guasara (19°04.4'N, 70°42.1'W, 680 m)), Planinasus nigritarsus (Guyana. Conservation of Ecological Interactions and Biotic Associations (CEIBA; ca. 40 km S Georgetown; 06°29.9'N, 58°13.1'W)), Planinasus atriclypeus (Brazil. Rio de Janeiro: Rio de Janeiro, Floresta da Tijuca (22°57.6'S, 43°16.4'W)), Planinasus atrifrons (Bolivia. Santa Cruz: Ichilo, Buena Vista (4-6 km SSE; Hotel Flora y Fauna; 17°29.95'S, 63°33.15'W; 4-500 m)), P. flavicoxalis (West Indies. Dominica. St. David: 1.6 km N of junction of roads to Rosalie and Castle Bruce (15°23.8'N, 61°18.6'W)), Planinasus mcalpineorum (Mexico. Chiapas: Cacahoatan (7 km N; 15°04.1'N, 92°07.4'W)), Planinasus nigrifacies (Brazil. São Paulo: Mogi das Cruzes, Serra do Itapeti (23°31.5'S, 46°11.2'W)), Planinasus obscuripennis (Peru. Madre de Dios: Río Manu, Erika (near Salvación; 12°50.7'S, 71°23.3'W; 550 m)). In addition to external characters, we also describe and illustrate structures of the male terminalia and for Planinasus kotrbaesp. n., the

  20. A revision of the new world species of Polytrichophora Cresson and Facitrichophora, new genus (Diptera, Ephydridae

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    Wayne Mathis

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The New World species of Polytrichophora Cresson and Fascitrichophora new genus, are revised. Fifteen new species are described (type locality in parenthesis: Fascitrishophora atrella sp. n. (Costa Rica. Guanacaste: Murciélago [10°56.9’N, 85°42.5’W; sandy mud flats around mangrove inlet], F. carvalhorum sp.n. (Brazil. São Paulo: Praia Puruba [23°21’S, 44°55.6’W; beach], F. manza sp. n. (Trinidad and Tobago. Trinidad. St. Andrew: Lower Manzanilla (12 km S; 10°24.5’N, 61°01.5’W, bridge over Nariva River, F. panama sp. n. (Panama. Darien: Garachine [8°04’N, 78°22’W], Polytrichophora adarca sp. n. (Barbados. Christ Church: Graeme Hall Nature Sanctuary [13°04.2’N, 59°34.7’W; swamp], P. arnaudorum sp. n. (Mexico. Baja California. San Felipe [31°01.5’N, 114°50.4’W], P. barba sp. n. (Cuba. Sancti Spiritus: Topes de Collantes [21°54.4’N, 80°01.4’W, 670 m], P. flavella sp. n. (Peru. Madre de Dios: Rio Manu, Pakitza [11°56.6’S, 71°16.9’W; 250 m], P. marinoniorum sp. n. (Brazil. Paraná: Antonina [25°28.4’S, 48°40.9’W; mangal], P. rostra sp. n. (Peru. Madre de Dios: Rio Manu, Pakitza [11°56.6’S, 71°16.9’W; 250 m], P. sinuosa sp. n. (Trinidad and Tobago. Trinidad. St. Andrew: Lower Manzanilla [12 km S; 10°24’N, 61°02’W], P. mimbres sp. n. (United States. New Mexico. Grant: Mimbres River [New Mexico Highway 61 & Royal John Mine Road; 32°43.8’N, 107°52’W; 1665 m], P. salix sp. n. (United States. Alaska. Matanuska-Susitna: Willow Creek [61°46.1’N, 150°04.2’W; 50 m], P. sturtevantorum sp. n. (United States. Tennessee. Shelby: Meeman Shelby State Park [Mississippi River; 35°20.4’N, 90°2.1’W; 98 m], P. prolata sp. n. (Belize. Stann Creek: Cockscomb Basin Wildlife Sanctuary [16°45’N, 88°30’W]. All known New World species of both genera are described with an emphasis on structures of the male terminalia, which are fully illustrated. Detailed locality data and distribution

  1. Antimicrobial activity of southern African medicinal plants with dermatological relevance: From an ethnopharmacological screening approach, to combination studies and the isolation of a bioactive compound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabona, Unathi; Viljoen, Alvaro; Shikanga, Emmanual; Marston, Andrew; Van Vuuren, Sandy

    2013-06-21

    Ethnobotanical reports on more than 100 southern African medicinal plants with dermatological relevance have been highlighted, yet there is still limited scientific data to support claims for their antimicrobial effectiveness against skin pathogens. Guided by ethnobotanical data, this paper explores the antimicrobial efficacies of southern African medicinal plants used to treat skin ailments. To investigate the antimicrobial properties of southern African medicinal plants against dermatologically relevant pathogens. The study also aimed at providing a scientific rationale for the traditional use of plant combinations to treat skin diseases and the isolation of the bio-active compound from the most active species, Aristea ecklonii (Iridaceae). Organic and aqueous extracts (132) were prepared from 47 plant species and screened for antimicrobial properties against dermatologically relevant pathogens using the micro-titre plate dilution method. Four different plant combinations were investigated for interactive properties and the sum of the fractional inhibitory concentration (ƩFIC) calculated. Isobolograms were used to further investigate the antimicrobial interactive properties of Pentanisia prunelloides combined with Elephantorrhiza elephantina at varied ratios. A bioactivity-guided fractionation process was adopted to fractionate the organic leaf extract of Aristea ecklonii. Plants demonstrating notable broad-spectrum activities (MIC values ≤1.00mg/ml) against the tested pathogens included extracts from Aristea ecklonii, Chenopodium ambrosioides, Diospyros mespiliformis, Elephantorrhiza elephantina, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Gunnera perpensa, Harpephyllum caffrum, Hypericum perforatum, Melianthus comosus, Terminalia sericea and Warburgia salutaris. The organic extract of Elephantorrhiza elephantina, a plant reportedly used to treat acne vulgaris, demonstrated noteworthy antimicrobial activity (MIC value of 0.05mg/ml) against Propionibacterium acnes. Similarly

  2. Ethnomedicinal and ecological status of plants in Garhwal Himalaya, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    tropical region and Terminalia belerica in the sub-tropical region were least dominant reported. In the temperate region, Quercus leucotrichophora was the dominant tree and Pyrus pashia the least dominant tree. A total of 10 shrubs were recorded in all three regions: Adhatoda vasica was common species in the tropical and sub-tropical regions however, Rhus parviflora was common species in the sub-tropical and temperate regions. Among the 33 herbs, Sida cordifolia was dominant in the tropical and sub-tropical regions, while Barleria prionitis the least dominant in tropical and Phyllanthus amarus in the sub-tropical region. In temperate region, Vernonia anthelmintica was dominant and Imperata cylindrica least dominant. The consensus survey indicated that the inhabitants have a high level of agreement regarding the usages of single plant. The index value was high (1.0) for warts, vomiting, carminative, pain, boils and antiseptic uses, and lowest index value (0.33) was found for bronchitis. Conclusion The medicinal plants treated various ailments. These included diarrhea, dysentery, bronchitis, menstrual disorders, gonorrhea, pulmonary affections, migraines, leprosy. The ecological studies showed that the tree density and total basal cover increased from the tropical region to sub-tropical and temperate regions. The species composition changed with climatic conditions. Among the localities used for data collection in each climatic region, many had very poor vegetation cover. The herbaceous layer decreased with increasing altitude, which might be an indication that communities at higher elevations were harvesting more herbaceous medicinal plants, due to the lack of basic health care facilities. Therefore, special attention needs to be given to the conservation of medicinal plants in order to ensure their long-term availability to the local inhabitants. Data on the use of individual species of medicinal plants is needed to provide an in-depth assessment of the plants availability

  3. Ethnomedicinal and ecological status of plants in Garhwal Himalaya, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheikh Mehraj A

    2011-10-01

    Ougeinia oojeinensis in the tropical region and Terminalia belerica in the sub-tropical region were least dominant reported. In the temperate region, Quercus leucotrichophora was the dominant tree and Pyrus pashia the least dominant tree. A total of 10 shrubs were recorded in all three regions: Adhatoda vasica was common species in the tropical and sub-tropical regions however, Rhus parviflora was common species in the sub-tropical and temperate regions. Among the 33 herbs, Sida cordifolia was dominant in the tropical and sub-tropical regions, while Barleria prionitis the least dominant in tropical and Phyllanthus amarus in the sub-tropical region. In temperate region, Vernonia anthelmintica was dominant and Imperata cylindrica least dominant. The consensus survey indicated that the inhabitants have a high level of agreement regarding the usages of single plant. The index value was high (1.0 for warts, vomiting, carminative, pain, boils and antiseptic uses, and lowest index value (0.33 was found for bronchitis. Conclusion The medicinal plants treated various ailments. These included diarrhea, dysentery, bronchitis, menstrual disorders, gonorrhea, pulmonary affections, migraines, leprosy. The ecological studies showed that the tree density and total basal cover increased from the tropical region to sub-tropical and temperate regions. The species composition changed with climatic conditions. Among the localities used for data collection in each climatic region, many had very poor vegetation cover. The herbaceous layer decreased with increasing altitude, which might be an indication that communities at higher elevations were harvesting more herbaceous medicinal plants, due to the lack of basic health care facilities. Therefore, special attention needs to be given to the conservation of medicinal plants in order to ensure their long-term availability to the local inhabitants. Data on the use of individual species of medicinal plants is needed to provide an in-depth assessment

  4. Potential pitfalls in the nuclear medicine imaging: Experimental models to evaluate the effect of natural products on the radiolabeling of blood constituents, bioavailability of radiopharmaceutical and on the survival of Escherichia coli strains submitted to the treatment with stannous ion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Scheila F. [Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, Laboratorio de Radiofarmacia Experimental, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Av. 28 de setembro, 87, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 20551-030 (Brazil); Brito, Lavinia C. [Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, Laboratorio de Radiofarmacia Experimental, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Av. 28 de setembro, 87, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 20551-030 (Brazil); Souza, Deise E. [Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, Laboratorio de Radiofarmacia Experimental, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Av. 28 de setembro, 87, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 20551-030 (Brazil); Bernardo, Luciana C. [Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, Laboratorio de Radiofarmacia Experimental, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Av. 28 de setembro, 87, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 20551-030 (Brazil); Oliveira, Joelma F. [Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, Laboratorio de Radiofarmacia Experimental, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Av. 28 de setembro, 87, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 20551-030 (Brazil); Bernardo-Filho, Mario [Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, Laboratorio de Radiofarmacia Experimental, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Av. 28 de setembro, 87, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 20551-030 (Brazil)]. E-mail: bernardo@uerj.br

    2006-12-20

    Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) allows studies of physiological or pathological processes. Red blood cells labeled with technetium-99m ({sup 99m}Tc-RBC) are used as a radiopharmaceutical in several evaluations. The radiolabeling efficiency and bioavailability of radiopharmaceuticals can be altered by natural/synthetic drugs and may induce pitfalls in the analysis of the nuclear medicine imaging. The labeling with {sup 99m}Tc requires a reducing agent and stannous chloride (SnCl{sub 2}) is widely utilized. However, SnCl{sub 2} presents a citotoxic and/or genotoxic potential in Escherichia coli (E. coli) strains. The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of aqueous extracts of Baccharis genistelloides (BG), Terminalia chebula (TC), Maytenus ilicifolia (MI), Cassia angustifolia (CA) and Equisetum arvense (EA) on (i) radiolabeling of blood constituents (ii) bioavailability of sodium pertechnetate(Na{sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}) radiopharmaceutical (iii) survival of E. coli. In vitro labeling of RBC was performed with blood (Wistar rats) incubated with each extract, SnCl{sub 2} and Na{sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}. Plasma (P) and blood cells (BC) were isolated, another aliquots precipitated and soluble (SF) and insoluble (IF) fractions isolated and counted. In the bioavailability of Na{sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}, Wistar rats were treated (7 days) with aqueous extract or with 0.9%NaCl, the radiopharmaceutical was administered, the animals sacrificed, the organs isolated, weighted and radioactivity counted. To evaluate the effect on the bacterial survival, E. coli was treated with: (a) SnCl{sub 2}; (b) 0.9% NaCl; (c) vegetal extract; or (d) SnCl{sub 2} and vegetal extract. Radiolabeling efficiency showed a significantly decrease (ANOVA/Tukey post-test, p<0.05) after treatment with BG, TC, MI and CA extracts. The bioavailability results showed that the uptake of Na{sup 99m}TcO{sub 4} was altered significantly (unpaired t-student test, p<0.05) in blood, lungs (CA

  5. Wild medicinal and food plants used by communities living in Mopane woodlands of southern Angola: Results of an ethnobotanical field investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urso, Valeria; Signorini, Maria Adele; Tonini, Matteo; Bruschi, Piero

    2016-01-11

    diseases (25, 54). The highest values of FIC were recorded for body care (FIC=1.0), circulatory diseases (FIC=0.91), malaria (FIC=0.81) and digestive disorders (FIC=0.55). The plants showing the highest informants' consensus (FL) were Myrothamnus flabellifolia used to treat colds and respiratory diseases (FL=100%), Terminalia prunioides for digestive diseases (93%) and Euphorbia subsalsa for backache (86%). For five plants cited as medicinal by the informants, no reports were found in the consulted ethnobotanical and ethnopharmacological literature; many uses of several already known medicinal plants were also unrecorded. Food products obtained from wild plants include fresh fruit (20 ethnospecies, 287 citations), alcoholic (11, 107) and non-alcoholic (10, 44) beverages, massa, i.e. a kind of mash, (4, 65), vegetables (10, 40), and others. Results show that people living in Mopane communities of southern Angola hold a valuable knowledge of the uses of plant resources and that some of the plants cited by the informants represent an important component of the local livelihood strategies. We also found some plants worthy of more in-depth investigations on their possible pharmacological activity, including: (i) those used to treat diseases which reached the highest FIC, like malaria and various disorders of the gastrointestinal tract; (ii) plants with a high FL; (iii) plants not previously reported in ethnomedical literature, especially those cited by different informants; (iv) plants with possible nutraceutical or pharma-food properties, i.e. plants with considerable contents in vitamins and/or micronutrients and plants whose food and medicinal uses are closely related. Anthropological and historical studies in ethnopharmacology, quality traditional medicines. Botany, Traditional medicine, Africa, Diarrhea, Malaria. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Natural product HTP screening for antibacterial (E.coli 0157:H7) and anti-inflammatory agents in (LPS from E. coli O111:B4) activated macrophages and microglial cells; focus on sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzio, Elizabeth A; Li, Nan; Bauer, David; Mendonca, Patricia; Taka, Equar; Darb, Mohammed; Thomas, Leeshawn; Williams, Henry; Soliman, Karam F A

    2016-11-15

    , MCP-1, IL-6, GCSF, RANTES and NO2-. Data validation studies establish hydrocortisone and dexamethasone as suppressing multiple pro-inflammatory processes, where L-NIL suppressed NO2-, but had no effect on iNOS expression or IL-6. The screening results demonstrate relative few valid hits with anti-inflammatory effects at Polyphenon 60 > (-)-Gallocatechin > Epicatechin > (+)-Catechin), Grapeseed Extract (Vitis vinifera), Chinese Gallnut (its constituents gallic acid > caffeic acid) and gallic acid containing plants such as Babul Chall Bark (Acacia Arabica), Arjun (Terminalia Arjuna) and Bayberry Root Bark (Morella Cerifera). These findings emphasize and validate the previous work of others and identify the most effective CAM anti-inflammatory, antibacterial compounds using these models. Future work will be required to evaluate potential combination strategies for long-term use to prevent chronic inflammation and possibly lower the risk of sepsis in immunocompromised at risk populations.

  7. A revision of the shore-fly genus Hydrochasma Hendel (Diptera, Ephydridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathis, Wayne N; Zatwarnicki, Tadeusz

    2013-01-01

    )), H. simplicum (Costa Rica. Limón: Parque Nacional Barbilla, Sector Casas Negras, (10°01.2'N, 83°26.2'W; 300 m)), H. sinuatum (Belize. Stann Creek: Mullins Creek (17 km N Dangriga; 17°06.2'N, 88°17.8'W)), H. spinosum (Costa Rica. Limón: Westfalia (4 km S; 09°54.5'N, 82°59'W; beach)), H. urnulum (Dominican Republic. Puerto Plata: Río Camu (14 km E Puerto Plata; 19°41.9'N, 70°37.5'W)), H. viridum (Guyana. Karanambo, Rupununi River (ox bow; 03°45.1'N, 59°18.6'W)), H. williamsae (Belize. Stann Creek: Mullins River (17 km N Dangriga; 17°06.2'N, 88°17.8'W)). All known species are described with an emphasis on structures of the male terminalia, which are fully illustrated. Detailed locality data and distribution maps for all species are provided. A lectotype is designated for Discocerina incisum Coquillett and Hydrochasma zernyi Hendel. For perspective and to facilitate genus-group and species-group recognition, the tribe Discocerinini is diagnosed and a key to included genera in the New World is provided.

  8. Formulation and characterization of novel functional beverages with antioxidant and anti-acetylcholinesterase activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suree Nanasombat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nowadays, there is increased consumer demand for high-antioxidant foods. Drinking high-antioxidant beverages may help to protect against aging, Alzheimer’s disease, and other chronic diseases. Grapes and some plants including Phyllanthus emblica, Terminalia chebula, Kaempferia parviflora, Centella asiatica, Nelumbo nucifera, Rauvolfia serpentina, Ginkgo biloba, Crocus sativus, Clitoria ternatea and others are well-known to possess antioxidant, neuroprotective and other health-promoting activities. Thus, it is possible to use these plants for the development of new functional beverages. Methods: Ten formulations of beverages were produced. The 5 non-alcoholic beverages contained dried medicinal plants, fresh grapes and others and are as follows: beverage B1: 10.2% K. parviflora rhizomes, 5.1% brown sugar and 84.7% water; beverage B2: 0.45% Ardisia polycephala leaves, 0.45% C. asiatica leaves, 0.36% C. ternatea flowers, 0.45% C. sativus pollens, 0.45% G. biloba leaves, 0.45% Melodorum fruticosum flowers, 0.90% N. nucifera petals, 0.45% Nymphaea lotus petals, 5.43% crystalline sugar and 90.58% water; beverage B3: 0.62% A. polycephala fruits, 0.35% C. ternatea flowers, 0.44% G. biloba leaves, 2.64% K. parviflora rhizomes, 1.76% P. emblica fruits, 0.88% T. chebula fruits, 5.28% brown sugar and 88.03% water; beverage B4: 0.51% Acorus calamus stems, 0.68% C. ternatea flowers, 4.23% K. parviflora rhizomes, 0.85% N. nucifera petals, 0.85% N. lotus petals, 0.85% M. fruticosum flowers, 0.34% R. serpentina roots, 0.34% U. gambir, 1.69% Zingiber officinale rhizomes, 5.08% brown sugar and 84.60% water; beverage B5: 53.09% fresh grapes, 2.65% brown sugar and 44.25% water. After heating, filtering, and cooling, these beverages were put in sterile bottles. One part of each beverage was stored at 4C for 23 weeks before analyzing, but the other two parts were used to prepare the alcoholic beverage of each formulation. Grapes were mixed with the