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Sample records for terminalia amazonia vochysia

  1. Terminalia (Combretaceae)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    ABSTRACT: A systematic study involving phytogeography was carried out on two species of the genus-. Terminalia in the Central Niger Delta Areas in River State. This research was aimed at establishing their biodynamic distribution and habitat in the study areas using the simple random sampling method based on.

  2. Phaeophleospora vochysiae Savi & Glienke sp. nov. Isolated from Vochysia divergens Found in the Pantanal, Brazil, Produces Bioactive Secondary Metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savi, Daiani C; Shaaban, Khaled A; Gos, Francielly Maria Wilke Ramos; Ponomareva, Larissa V; Thorson, Jon S; Glienke, Chirlei; Rohr, Jürgen

    2018-02-15

    Microorganisms associated with plants are highly diverse and can produce a large number of secondary metabolites, with antimicrobial, anti-parasitic and cytotoxic activities. We are particularly interested in exploring endophytes from medicinal plants found in the Pantanal, a unique and widely unexplored wetland in Brazil. In a bio-prospecting study, strains LGMF1213 and LGMF1215 were isolated as endophytes from Vochysia divergens, and by morphological and molecular phylogenetic analyses were characterized as Phaeophleospora vochysiae sp. nov. The chemical assessment of this species reveals three major compounds with high biological activity, cercoscosporin (1), isocercosporin (2) and the new compound 3-(sec-butyl)-6-ethyl-4,5-dihydroxy-2-methoxy-6-methylcyclohex-2-enone (3). Besides the isolation of P. vochysiae as endophyte, the production of cercosporin compounds suggest that under specific conditions this species causes leaf spots, and may turn into a pathogen, since leaf spots are commonly caused by species of Cercospora that produce related compounds. In addition, the new compound 3-(sec-butyl)-6-ethyl-4,5-dihydroxy-2-methoxy-6-methylcyclohex-2-enone showed considerable antimicrobial activity and low cytotoxicity, which needs further exploration.

  3. Vochysia Aubl. do Estado do Paraná, Brasil = Vochysia Aubl. from the state of Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Rejane Bonato Negrelle

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Apresentam-se resultados de levantamento florístico das espécies de Vochysia Aubl. (Vochysiaceae St. Hil. no Estado do Paraná, baseado em material fresco coletado nas diversas regiões fitogeográficas deste Estado e em material exsicatado, depositado em herbários nacionais e estrangeiros. Foram registradas três espécies: V. tucanorum Mart., V. bifalcata Warm. e V. magnifica Warm. Inclui-se chave dicotômica para identificação, assim como descrições, nomes populares, usos, fenologia, distribuição geográfica e ilustrações paracada espécie identificada.The results of a floristic survey of Vochysia Aubl in the state of Paraná are presented. The analysis was based on fresh material collected in different regions of the state as well as on dried material from several national and foreign herbaria. Three species were registered: V. tucanorum Mart., V. bifalcata Warm. and V. magnifica Warm. A key to differentiate the species is presented and for each species, the botanical description, common names, phenology data, the geographic distribution, uses and illustrations are included.

  4. Predispersal infestation of Vochysia haenkeana seeds by Lius conicus

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    Samara Letícia Oliveira Lourenço

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The deficient development of fertile seeds of native forest plant species in Brazil limits the reproduction of these plants in various conditions. Among the limiting biotic factors in quality and quantity of the forest seeds, borer insects are quite prominent, before and after their dispersion. This study reports for the first time a host of the buprestid beetle Lius conicus (Gory & Laporte, 1840. The larval development of L. conicus takes place in the seed capsules of Vochysia haenkeana Mart. (Vochysiaceae, a typical tree species in the Brazilian cerrado biome. In two regions of the cerrado in Goiás State, Brazil, almost ripe fruits of V. haenkeana were collected directly from the plants. After natural drying, and fruit and seed processing in laboratory, damage caused by the L. conicus larvae was quantified and qualified. Bigger fruits were preferred as hosts. Fruits developing on the eastern side of the plant were most frequently occupied by L. conicus. Seed lots of bigger fruits showed damage up to 37.5% from the infestation by L. conicus larvae. There was only one larva per fruit, which damaged all the seeds of the capsule (three or four and generally consumed around 26% of the seed dry mass.

  5. Terminalia arjuna, a herbal remedy against environmental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... 429 due to AFB1 to 141 due to 5th concentration of Terminalia extracts at 32 h of exposure. Conclusion: The ameliorating potential of Terminalia extracts was dose and time dependant. Keywords: Ayurvedic medicine; Carcinogen; Chromosomal aberration; Sister chromatid exchange; Replication index; Terminalia arjuna ...

  6. Vochysia awasensis (Vochysiaceae, nueva especie de los Bosques Montanos del Chocó ecuatoriano

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    Isau Huamantupa Chuquimaco

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Vochysia awasensis I. Huamantupa, es descrita e ilustrada como especie nueva de la familia Vochysiaceae, perteneciente a la sect. Ciliantha Stafleu subsect. Megalanthae Stafleu, proviene de los bosques montanos de la región biogeográfica del Chocó en el noroeste de Ecuador. Presenta mayor afinidad a V. megalantha y V. duquei, pero a su vez se distingue de estas por presentar el peciolo sésil poco conspicuo y decurrente, limbo foliar de 17-33,5 (-35 x 4,5-10 cm; pétalos florales entre 2,4-3 x 0,6-0,9 cm.

  7. Amazonia and Global Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Michael; Bustamante, Mercedes; Gash, John; Silva Dias, Pedro

    Amazonia and Global Change synthesizes results of the Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA) for scientists and students of Earth system science and global environmental change. LBA, led by Brazil, asks how Amazonia currently functions in the global climate and biogeochemical systems and how the functioning of Amazonia will respond to the combined pressures of climate and land use change, such as • Wet season and dry season aerosol concentrations and their effects on diffuse radiation and photosynthesis • Increasing greenhouse gas concentration, deforestation, widespread biomass burning and changes in the Amazonian water cycle • Drought effects and simulated drought through rainfall exclusion experiments • The net flux of carbon between Amazonia and the atmosphere • Floodplains as an important regulator of the basin carbon balance including serving as a major source of methane to the troposphere • The impact of the likely increased profitability of cattle ranching. The book will serve a broad community of scientists and policy makers interested in global change and environmental issues with high-quality scientific syntheses accessible to nonspecialists in a wide community of social scientists, ecologists, atmospheric chemists, climatologists, and hydrologists.

  8. Antidiabetic activity of Terminalia catappa Linn fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagappa, A N; Thakurdesai, P A; Venkat Rao, N; Singh, Jiwan

    2003-09-01

    In view of alleged antidiabetic potential, effect of the petroleum ether, methanol, and aqueous extracts of Terminalia catappa Linn (combretaceae) fruit, on fasting blood sugar levels and serum biochemical analysis in alloxan-induced diabetic rats were investigated. All the three extracts of Terminalia catappa produced a significant antidiabetic activity at dose levels 1/5 of their lethal doses. Concurrent histological studies of the pancreas of these animals showed comparable regeneration by methanolic and aqueous extracts which were earlier, necrosed by alloxan.

  9. The diversity of antibacterial compounds of Terminalia species (Combretaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinde, S L; Junne, S B; Wadje, S S; Baig, M M V

    2009-11-15

    The antibacterial activity of acetone, hexane, dichloromethane leaf extract of five Terminalia species (Terminalia alata Heyne ex Roth., Terminalia arjuna (Roxb.) Wt. and Am., Terminalia bellerica (Gaertn.) Roxb., Terminalia catappa L. and Terminalia chebula Retz.) were tested by Agar-well-diffusion method against human pathogens E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. The Rf values and relative activities of separated compounds were tested. Hexane and dichloromethane extracts have shown more antibacterial components than the acetone extract indicating the non-polar character of the antibacterial compounds. The non-polar character of the antibacterial compounds was confirmed from the Rf values. It indicated that the antibacterial activity was not due to tannins. Terminalia catappa found to possess the compounds which are more antibacterial. Terminalia arjuna and T. catappa plants were found most promising for isolating antibacterial compounds.

  10. Molecular Analysis of Terminalia spp. Distributed in Thailand and Authentication of Crude Drugs from Terminalia Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intharuksa, Aekkhaluck; Ando, Hirokazu; Miyake, Katsunori; Sirisa-Ard, Panee; Mikage, Masayuki; Sasaki, Yohei

    2016-01-01

    Terminalia, a large genus of Combretaceae, is distributed in Tropical Asia, Africa, and America. Some Terminalia plants are used in folk medicine because they possess powerful medicinal properties. Dried fruits of Terminalia bellirica and Terminalia chebula are used as the main ingredient in Triphala, a famous polyherbal formulation in Ayurvedic medicine and Thai folk medicine, because of their laxative, detoxifying, and rejuvenating effects. To clarify the phylogenetic relationships of medicinal Terminalia species (T. bellirica, T. chebula, and T. catappa) and authenticate their crude drugs, "Samo" and Triphala, nucleotide sequencing alignments in the internal transcribed spacer one-two (ITS 1-2) regions of Terminalia plants collected in Thailand were performed. The amplified fragments of Terminalia species were approximately 800 bp in length. To compare these sequences and DDBJ registered data, a molecular phylogenetic tree was constructed. Phylogenetic analysis clearly separated the sequences into two groups: Asian Terminalia and African Terminalia with some exceptions. In the analyzed sequences, the length of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region was 674 bp in T. chebula, and 677 bp in T. bellirica and T. catappa. Eighty-one single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and nine insertion-deletions (indels) were observed, and the nucleotide sequences of this region showed species-specific sequences. Based on these differences, polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS) were applied to identify medicinal Terminalia species. Moreover, the ARMS method was chosen for fingerprinting analysis of Samo crude drugs and Triphala formulations because it was a fast, cost-effective, and reproducible approach.

  11. Protection of Vochysia elliptica (Vochysiaceae by a nectar-thieving ant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Q. ROMERO

    Full Text Available Vochysia elliptica (Vochysiaceae is a shrubby plant, which does not have EFNs. Camponotus ants thieve nectar, and can decrease plant fitness by making flowers less attractive to pollinators. However, ants remove herbivores, wich can be beneficial. Results show that plants from which ants were excluded had lower rates of termite (simulated herbivore removal than did plants visited by ants. Plants accessible to ants showed higher rates of termite removal in the base of leaves and in the inflorescence, than in the tip of leaves. This occurs because ants must pass through the principal axis to reach the inflorescence. Conclusive results of this cost/benefit analysis of the Camponotus sp. presence for V. elliptica can be obtained, with experimental manipulations.

  12. Antisecretory and analgesic activities of Terminalia bellerica

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-05-03

    May 3, 2010 ... This study describes the antisecretory and analgesic activities of the crude extract of Terminalia bellerica (Tb.Cr). T. bellerica extract inhibited the castor oil-induced intestinal fluid secretion in mice at the dose range of 300 - 1000 mg/kg. The extract also dose-dependently (50 - 100 mg/kg) reduced the.

  13. ANTISICKLING ACTIVITY OF TERMINALIA CATAPPA LEAVES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of Terminalia catappa L. family Combretaceae, a fruit bearing tree, popular in folkloric medicine for the treatment of sickle ... The method employed involved the inhibition of sodium metabisulphite-induced sickling of HbSS red blood cells collected from confirmed non-crisis sickle cell ...

  14. An updated review of Terminalia catappa

    OpenAIRE

    Arumugam Vijaya Anand; Natarajan Divya; Pannerselvam Punniya Kotti

    2015-01-01

    Terminalia catappa Linn. is known for its nutritional fruit and possesses medicinal benefits as well. This is a comprehensive review of the phytoconstituents and pharmacological benefits. T. catappa has been recognized for its medicinally essential phytoconstituents, such as phenol, flavonoid, and carotenoid. Numerous pharmacological investigations have confirmed this plant's ability to exhibit antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, and anticancer activ...

  15. Terminalia arjuna, a herbal remedy against environmental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mohammad Sultan Ahmad

    2013-11-23

    Nov 23, 2013 ... Abstract Background: Medicinal plants have been a major source of therapeutic agents from ancient times to cure diseases. The evaluation of rich heritage of traditional medicine is essential. The bark of Terminalia arjuna is rich in polyphenols (60–70%) including flavonoids and tannins. Aim: The aim of the ...

  16. An Amazonia Symposium: Mixed Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta, Gloria; Shand, Hope

    1978-01-01

    Reporting on the second symposium on "Amazonia: Extinction or Survival" (Madison, Wisconsin, 1978), this article summarizes papers presented on colonization, health, education, law, etc., and presents the symposium's six resolutions. (JC)

  17. Antioxidative action of methanolic extract and buthanolic fraction of Vochysia tucanorum Mart. in the gastroprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Renata de Camargo; Bonamin, Flávia; Darin, Denise Delabio; Seito, Leonardo Noboru; Di Stasi, Luiz Claudio; Dokkedal, Anne Ligia; Vilegas, Wagner; Souza Brito, Alba Regina Monteiro; Hiruma-Lima, Clélia Akiko

    2009-01-30

    Vochysia tucanorum is an important medicinal plant used in the Cerrado of Brazil against gastric disorders and this study reveals the pharmacological action of this traditional medicine use. The methanolic extract (E-MeOH) and buthanolic fraction (Fr-Bu) obtained from V. tucanorum were challenged by different necrotizing agents in rodents. NO-synthase inhibitor (L-NAME) and SH blocker (NEM) were used to evaluate the participation of cytoprotective factors in E-MeOH and Fr-Bu gastroprotection. Antiulcerogenic action of V. tucanorum was evaluated in rats and mice at doses 250, 500 or 1000 mg/kg (E-MeOH) and 37.5, 75 or 150 mg/kg (Fr-Bu). Both E-MeOH and Fr-Bu present elevated gastroprotective action in all in vivo experimental models, without signs of acute toxicity. The mechanisms involved in the gastroprotective action of E-MeOH and Fr-Bu are related to the antioxidant activity and protection to gastric mucosa NO levels. Phytochemical investigations of Fr-Bu identified different pentacyclic triterpenoids such as betulinic acid, erythrodiol, epi-betulinic acid and mixtures of ursolic acid and oleanolic acid derivatives as the major constituents. The presence of such triterpenoids in Fr-Bu is probably related to the potent gastroprotective action of this medicinal plant species. Effectiveness in gastroprotection and the absence of acute toxicity indicate this species as a promising herbal drug that is in accordance with ethnopharmacological use against gastric disorders.

  18. Antibacterial Activity of Endophytic Actinomycetes Isolated from the Medicinal PlantVochysia divergens(Pantanal, Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gos, Francielly M W R; Savi, Daiani C; Shaaban, Khaled A; Thorson, Jon S; Aluizio, Rodrigo; Possiede, Yvelise M; Rohr, Jürgen; Glienke, Chirlei

    2017-01-01

    Endophytic actinomycetes from medicinal plants produce a wide diversity of secondary metabolites (SM). However, to date, the knowledge about endophytes from Brazil remains scarce. Thus, we analyzed the antimicrobial potential of 10 actinomycetes isolated from the medicinal plant Vochysia divergens located in the Pantanal sul-mato-grossense, an unexplored wetland in Brazil. Strains were classified as belonging to the Aeromicrobium, Actinomadura, Microbacterium, Microbispora, Micrococcus, Sphaerisporangium, Streptomyces , and Williamsia genera, through morphological and 16S rRNA phylogenetic analyzes. A susceptibility analysis demonstrated that the strains were largely resistant to the antibiotics oxacillin and nalidixic acid. Additionally, different culture media (SG and R5A), and temperatures (28 and 36°C) were evaluated to select the best culture conditions to produce the active SM. All conditions were analyzed for active metabolites, and the best antibacterial activity was observed from metabolites produced with SG medium at 36°C. The LGMB491 (close related to Aeromicrobium ponti ) extract showed the highest activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), with a MIC of 0.04 mg/mL, and it was selected for SM identification. Strain LGMB491 produced 1-acetyl-β-carboline ( 1 ), indole-3-carbaldehyde ( 2 ), 3-(hydroxyacetyl)-indole ( 4 ), brevianamide F ( 5 ), and cyclo-(L-Pro-L-Phe) ( 6 ) as major compounds with antibacterial activity. In this study, we add to the knowledge about the endophytic community from the medicinal plant V. divergens and report the isolation of rare actinomycetes that produce highly active metabolites.

  19. An updated review of Terminalia catappa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Arumugam Vijaya; Divya, Natarajan; Kotti, Pannerselvam Punniya

    2015-01-01

    Terminalia catappa Linn. is known for its nutritional fruit and possesses medicinal benefits as well. This is a comprehensive review of the phytoconstituents and pharmacological benefits. T. catappa has been recognized for its medicinally essential phytoconstituents, such as phenol, flavonoid, and carotenoid. Numerous pharmacological investigations have confirmed this plant's ability to exhibit antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, and anticancer activities, all of which support its traditional uses.

  20. The emulsifying Properties of Terminalia randii baker F. Gum in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: In this study, the emulsifying properties of Terminalia randii gum were assessed and compared with a standard emulsifier (Tragacanth gum) using castor oil and liquid paraffin . Method: Different concentrations (1-10% w/v) of the mucilages of Terminalia randii gum and Tragacanth were prepared. Using wet gum ...

  1. Litterfall and Nutrient Returns in Isolated Stands of Terminalia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assesses litter production, concentrations and returns of nutrient elements with respect to seasons, so as to provide empirical information on nutrient flux by the isolated exotic stands of Terminalia. Litterfall samples were collected from the isolated stands of Terminalia catappa and adjoining native rainforest which ...

  2. Phytochemical and Anti-sickling Activities of Terminalia catappa Linn.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An ethnobotanical survey revealed that the dried fallen leaves of Terminalia catappa Linn. are used locally in various parts of Nigeria for the management of sickle cell anaemia. This research investigated if Terminalia catappa leaf interferes with the basic mechanism of erythrocyte sickling. Powdered dried fallen leaves of ...

  3. Vochysia Aubl. do Estado do Paraná, Brasil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v29i1.124 Vochysia Aubl. from the state of Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudinei Pedroso Ribas

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Apresentam-se resultados de levantamento florístico das espécies de Vochysia Aubl. (Vochysiaceae St. Hil. no Estado do Paraná, baseado em material fresco coletado nas diversas regiões fitogeográficas deste Estado e em material exsicatado, depositado em herbários nacionais e estrangeiros. Foram registradas três espécies: V. tucanorum Mart., V. bifalcata Warm. e V. magnifica Warm. Inclui-se chave dicotômica para identificação, assim como descrições, nomes populares, usos, fenologia, distribuição geográfica e ilustrações para cada espécie identificada.The results of a floristic survey of Vochysia Aubl in the state of Paraná are presented. The analysis was based on fresh material collected in different regions of the state as well as on dried material from several national and foreign herbaria. Three species were registered: V. tucanorum Mart., V. bifalcata Warm . and V. magnifica Warm. A key to differentiate the species is presented and for each species, the botanical description, common names, phenology data, the geographic distribution, uses and illustrations are included.

  4. Antibacterial Activity of Endophytic Actinomycetes Isolated from the Medicinal Plant Vochysia divergens (Pantanal, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francielly M. W. R. Gos

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Endophytic actinomycetes from medicinal plants produce a wide diversity of secondary metabolites (SM. However, to date, the knowledge about endophytes from Brazil remains scarce. Thus, we analyzed the antimicrobial potential of 10 actinomycetes isolated from the medicinal plant Vochysia divergens located in the Pantanal sul-mato-grossense, an unexplored wetland in Brazil. Strains were classified as belonging to the Aeromicrobium, Actinomadura, Microbacterium, Microbispora, Micrococcus, Sphaerisporangium, Streptomyces, and Williamsia genera, through morphological and 16S rRNA phylogenetic analyzes. A susceptibility analysis demonstrated that the strains were largely resistant to the antibiotics oxacillin and nalidixic acid. Additionally, different culture media (SG and R5A, and temperatures (28 and 36°C were evaluated to select the best culture conditions to produce the active SM. All conditions were analyzed for active metabolites, and the best antibacterial activity was observed from metabolites produced with SG medium at 36°C. The LGMB491 (close related to Aeromicrobium ponti extract showed the highest activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, with a MIC of 0.04 mg/mL, and it was selected for SM identification. Strain LGMB491 produced 1-acetyl-β-carboline (1, indole-3-carbaldehyde (2, 3-(hydroxyacetyl-indole (4, brevianamide F (5, and cyclo-(L-Pro-L-Phe (6 as major compounds with antibacterial activity. In this study, we add to the knowledge about the endophytic community from the medicinal plant V. divergens and report the isolation of rare actinomycetes that produce highly active metabolites.

  5. Phytochemical and antiinflammatory studies on Terminalia catappa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Y M; Xu, L Z; Gao, J; Wang, Y; Tang, X H; Zhao, X N; Zhang, Z X

    2004-06-01

    The antiinflammatory activity of Terminalia catappa leaves ethanolic extract was studied using 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced ear edema in acute and chronic models. A bioassay-oriented fractionation procedure showed that the activity concentrates in the chloroform fraction. Ursolic acid (1) and 2alpha,3beta,23-trihydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid (2), isolated from the chloroform fraction, exhibited strong antiinflammatory activities. The results suggest that the triterpenic acids 1 and 2 are responsible for the antiinflammatory activity of T. catappa leaves. Copyright 2004 Elsevier B.V.

  6. Vochysia rufa Stem Bark Extract Protects Endothelial Cells against High Glucose Damage

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    Neire Moura de Gouveia

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Increased oxidative stress by persistent hyperglycemia is a widely accepted factor in vascular damage responsible for type 2 diabetes complications. The plant Vochysia rufa (Vr has been used in folk medicine in Brazil for the treatment of diabetes. Thus; the protective effect of a Vr stem bark extract against a challenge by a high glucose concentration on EA.hy926 (EA endothelial cells is evaluated. Methods: Vegetal material is extracted with distilled water by maceration and evaporated until dryness under vacuum. Then; it is isolated by capillary electrophoresis–tandem mass spectrometry. Cell viability is evaluated on EA cells treated with 0.5–100 µg/mL of the Vr extract for 24 h. The extract is diluted at concentrations of 5, 10 and 25 µg/mL and maintained for 24 h along with 30 mM of glucose to evaluate its protective effect on reduced glutathione (GSH; glutathione peroxidase (GPx and reductase (GR and protein carbonyl groups. Results: V. rufa stem bark is composed mainly of sugars; such as inositol; galactose; glucose; mannose; sacarose; arabinose and ribose. Treatment with Vr up to 100 µg/mL for 24 h did not affect cell viability. Treatment of EA cells with 30 mM of glucose for 24 h significantly increased the cell damage. EA cells treated with 30 mM of glucose showed a decrease of GSH concentration and increased Radical Oxygen Species (ROS and activity of antioxidant enzymes and protein carbonyl levels; compared to control. Co-treatment of EA with 30 mM glucose plus 1–10 μg/mL Vr significantly reduced cell damage while 5–25 μg/mL Vr evoked a significant protection against the glucose insult; recovering ROS; GSH; antioxidant enzymes and carbonyls to baseline levels. Conclusion: V. rufa extract protects endothelial cells against oxidative damage by modulating ROS; GSH concentration; antioxidant enzyme activity and protein carbonyl levels.

  7. Terminalia macroptera : Immunmodulerende polysakkarider fra Terminalia macroptera og etnofarmakologisk informasjon om to maliske planter

    OpenAIRE

    Dvergsnes, Christina

    2009-01-01

    Tradisjonell medisin er en svært viktig del av helsetilbudet i Mali og mange andre land verden over. Tradisjonelle healere innehar stor kunnskap om bruk av tradisjonell medisin, som er tillært og nedarvet fra generasjon til generasjon. Terminalia macroptera (Guil. & Perr.) har tradisjonelt blitt brukt til behandling av blant annet indre og ytre sår, hoste og soppinfeksjoner. Polysakkarider fra planter har i studier vist immunmodulerende effekt i biologiske systemer. Det var derfor interessant...

  8. Biological activity of Terminalia arjuna on Human Pathogenic Microorganisms

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    Tariq Javed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available World’s population relies chiefly on traditional medicinal plants, using their extracts or active constituents. Terminalia arjuna of family Combretaceae reported to be effective as aphrodisiac, expectorant, tonic, styptic, antidysenteric, sweet, acrid, purgative, laxative, astringent, diuretic, astringent, cirrhosis, cardioprotective and cancer treatment.   In present study, antibacterial, antifungal, brine shrimp lethality and phytotoxic effect of Terminalia arjuna was performed. Our results showed that methanolic extract of Terminalia arjuna leaves has moderate antifungal effect against Microsporm canis and fruit extract possess good antibacterial activity against Staphylococus aureus  and  Preudomonas aeroginosa. Moreover, Dichloromethane extract of Terminalia arjuna bark and fruit posses moderate phytotoxic activity. 

  9. Pharmacognostic studies of the leaves of terminalia macroptera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Terminalia macroptera Guill. & Perr. (Combretaceae) is used for stomach ailments and skin diseases. Macroscopical, microscopical and quantitative evaluation of the leaves, whole and powdered was carried out. Microscopic features include the following parenchyma cells, stomata (anisocytic, anomocytic, actionocytic), ...

  10. Polinização de Vochysia lucida C. Presl (Vochysiaceae em uma área de restinga na Bahia Pollination of Vochysia lucida C. Presl (Vochysiaceae in an area of restinga in Bahia State

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    Miriam Gimenes

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available As espécies de Vochysia são neotropicais e apresentam flores que podem ser visitadas por abelhas, beija-flores e borboletas. Este estudo teve como objetivo a análise das interações entre as flores de Vochysia lucida e seus visitantes florais, em uma área de restinga no Estado da Bahia, Brasil. V. lucida é uma espécie arbórea e apresenta inflorescências do tipo racemo, com cerca de 100 a 170 flores. As flores são zigomorfas, amarelas e foram consideradas melitófilas. O néctar floral é produzido e estocado em esporão, localizado no cálice. O pico de floração de V. lucida ocorreu em novembro e dezembro. Durante o estudo as flores abriam às 6:00 h, quando o estigma já estava receptivo. Na abertura da flor a antera já não estava mais presente e os grãos de pólen estavam depositados na parede do estilete, ocorrendo apresentação secundária de pólen. As pétalas caíam no final da tarde, por volta das 17:00 h. Os beija-flores embora freqüentes nas flores de V. lucida foram considerados visitantes oportunistas. Entre os visitantes florais registrados, as abelhas de grande porte foram consideradas os polinizadores mais eficientes, especialmente Xylocopa frontalis, por ter morfologia e comportamento adequados para contatar as estruturas reprodutivas da flor, durante as coletas de néctar, e por sua elevada freqüência de visita.Vochysia species are Neotropical and present flowers that can be visited by bees, hummingbirds, and butterflies. This study aimed to analyze the interactions between the flowers of Vochysia lucida and their floral visitors in an area of restinga in Bahia State, Brazil. V. lucida is an arborescent species and presents inflorescences of the type raceme, with about 100 to 170 flowers. The flowers are zygomorphic, yellow-coloured, and considered mellitophilous. The floral nectar is produced and stored in the spur, which is localized at the calyx. The flowering peak of V. lucida was in November and December

  11. Asosiasi Cendawan Mikoriza Arbuskula (Cma) pada Ketapang (Terminalia Catappa)

    OpenAIRE

    Wulandari, Reine Suci; hanuddin, Bur; trus, Pe

    2013-01-01

    Association observation of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus (AMF) was conduct in Sylviculture Forestry Faculty Laboratory of Tanjungpura University Pontianak. Soils sample and roots from plant Terminalia catappa which located in sea shore in Dusun Mawar, Sungai Itik Village, Sungai Kakap District, Kubu Raya Regency, Kalimantan Barat. The result of research was in Terminalia catappa plant found the base information that there are association between AMF with the plant, the result characteristi...

  12. Pentacyclic triterpenoids from the leaves of Terminalia brasiliensis; Triterpenoides pentaciclicos das folhas de Terminalia brasiliensis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Delton Servulo; Chaves, Mariana H. [Universidade Federal do Piaui, Teresina, PI (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: mariana@ufpi.br

    2005-11-15

    Eleven oleanane, ursane and lupane-type triterpenes were isolated from the leaves of Terminalia brasiliensis Camb, daturadiol (3{beta},6{beta}-dihydroxy-olean-12-ene), 3{beta}-hydroxy-30-norlupan-20-one, lupenone, {beta}-amyrenone, {alpha}-amyrenone, lupeol, {beta}-amyrin, {alpha}-amyrin, betulin, erythrodiol and uvaol, in addition to squalene, sitosterol and {alpha}-tocopherol. The structures of these compounds were identified by {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR spectral analysis and comparison with literature data. (author)

  13. Potent and Synergistic Extract Combinations from Terminalia Catappa, Terminalia Mantaly and Monodora tenuifolia Against Pathogenic Yeasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammalac Ngouana, Thierry; Jiatsa Mbouna, Cedric Derick; Toghueo Kuipou, Rufin Marie; Tchuente Tchuenmogne, Marthe Aimée; Menkem Zeuko’o, Elisabeth; Ngouana, Vincent; Mallié, Michèle; Bertout, Sebastien; Boyom, Fabrice Fekam

    2015-01-01

    Mycoses caused by Candida and Cryptococcus species, associated with the advent of antifungal drug resistance have emerged as major health problems. Improved control measures and innovative therapies are needed. This paper describes results from the screening of bio-guided fractionated extracts alone and combinations of Terminalia catappa, Terminalia mantaly and Monodora tenuifolia harvested in Cameroon. Crude ethanolic, hydro-ethanolic and aqueous extracts and bio-guided fractions were screened for antifungal activity against isolates of C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis and Cr. neoformans and the reference strain C. albicans NR-29450. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were determined using a broth micro dilution method according to the Clinical & Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Time kill kinetics of extracts alone and in combination were also evaluated. Extracts from T. mantaly stem bark were the most active with the best MIC values ranging from 0.04 mg/mL to 0.16 mg/mL. Synergistic interactions were observed with combinations of sub-fractions from M. tenuifolia, T. mantaly and T. catappa. Combination of sub-fractions from M. tenuifolia and T. mantaly (C36/C12) showed synergistic interaction and fungicidal effect against four out of five tested yeasts. These results support further investigation of medicinal plant extracts alone and in combination as starting points for the development of alternative antifungal therapy. PMID:28930209

  14. Potent and Synergistic Extract Combinations from Terminalia Catappa, Terminalia Mantaly and Monodora tenuifolia Against Pathogenic Yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngouana, Thierry Kammalac; Mbouna, Cedric Derick Jiatsa; Kuipou, Rufin Marie Toghueo; Tchuenmogne, Marthe Aimée Tchuente; Zeuko'o, Elisabeth Menkem; Ngouana, Vincent; Mallié, Michèle; Bertout, Sebastien; Boyom, Fabrice Fekam

    2015-08-26

    Mycoses caused by Candida and Cryptococcus species, associated with the advent of antifungal drug resistance have emerged as major health problems. Improved control measures and innovative therapies are needed. This paper describes results from the screening of bio-guided fractionated extracts alone and combinations of Terminalia catappa, Terminalia mantaly and Monodora tenuifolia harvested in Cameroon. Crude ethanolic, hydro-ethanolic and aqueous extracts and bio-guided fractions were screened for antifungal activity against isolates of C. albicans , C. glabrata , C. parapsilosis and Cr. neoformans and the reference strain C. albicans NR-29450. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were determined using a broth micro dilution method according to the Clinical & Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Time kill kinetics of extracts alone and in combination were also evaluated. Extracts from T. mantaly stem bark were the most active with the best MIC values ranging from 0.04 mg/mL to 0.16 mg/mL. Synergistic interactions were observed with combinations of sub-fractions from M. tenuifolia , T. mantaly and T. catappa. Combination of sub-fractions from M. tenuifolia and T. mantaly (C36/C12) showed synergistic interaction and fungicidal effect against four out of five tested yeasts. These results support further investigation of medicinal plant extracts alone and in combination as starting points for the development of alternative antifungal therapy.

  15. Potent and Synergistic Extract Combinations from Terminalia Catappa, Terminalia Mantaly and Monodora tenuifolia Against Pathogenic Yeasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Kammalac Ngouana

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Mycoses caused by Candida and Cryptococcus species, associated with the advent of antifungal drug resistance have emerged as major health problems. Improved control measures and innovative therapies are needed. This paper describes results from the screening of bio-guided fractionated extracts alone and combinations of Terminalia catappa, Terminalia mantaly and Monodora tenuifolia harvested in Cameroon. Crude ethanolic, hydro-ethanolic and aqueous extracts and bio-guided fractions were screened for antifungal activity against isolates of C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis and Cr. neoformans and the reference strain C. albicans NR-29450. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC were determined using a broth micro dilution method according to the Clinical & Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI. Time kill kinetics of extracts alone and in combination were also evaluated. Extracts from T. mantaly stem bark were the most active with the best MIC values ranging from 0.04 mg/mL to 0.16 mg/mL. Synergistic interactions were observed with combinations of sub-fractions from M. tenuifolia, T. mantaly and T. catappa. Combination of sub-fractions from M. tenuifolia and T. mantaly (C36/C12 showed synergistic interaction and fungicidal effect against four out of five tested yeasts. These results support further investigation of medicinal plant extracts alone and in combination as starting points for the development of alternative antifungal therapy.

  16. Climate change patterns in Amazonia and biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hai; Sinha, Ashish; Cruz, Francisco W; Wang, Xianfeng; Edwards, R Lawrence; d'Horta, Fernando M; Ribas, Camila C; Vuille, Mathias; Stott, Lowell D; Auler, Augusto S

    2013-01-01

    Precise characterization of hydroclimate variability in Amazonia on various timescales is critical to understanding the link between climate change and biodiversity. Here we present absolute-dated speleothem oxygen isotope records that characterize hydroclimate variation in western and eastern Amazonia over the past 250 and 20 ka, respectively. Although our records demonstrate the coherent millennial-scale precipitation variability across tropical-subtropical South America, the orbital-scale precipitation variability between western and eastern Amazonia exhibits a quasi-dipole pattern. During the last glacial period, our records imply a modest increase in precipitation amount in western Amazonia but a significant drying in eastern Amazonia, suggesting that higher biodiversity in western Amazonia, contrary to 'Refugia Hypothesis', is maintained under relatively stable climatic conditions. In contrast, the glacial-interglacial climatic perturbations might have been instances of loss rather than gain in biodiversity in eastern Amazonia, where forests may have been more susceptible to fragmentation in response to larger swings in hydroclimate.

  17. Antimicrobial activity of Terminalia macroptera root.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, O; Duarte, A; Pimentel, M; Viegas, S; Barroso, H; Machado, J; Pires, I; Cabrita, J; Gomes, E

    1997-08-01

    Terminalia macroptera Guill et Perr. (Combretaceae) is a medicinal plant used in Guinea-Bissau and other West African countries to treat infectious diseases. The ethanol extract from T. macroptera decorticated root and their liquid-liquid partition fractions, were screened for antimicrobial activity, by the twofold serial microdilution assay against seven reference bacterial strains and against Candida albicans. The extract and fractions showed some activity against at least one of the test microorganisms. The best results were obtained against Shigella dysenteriae and Vibrio cholerae. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of T. macroptera ethanol extract were also determined for about 100 clinical strains of Campylobacter sp., Escherichia coli, Salmonella sp., Shigella sp. and Vibrio cholerae. The ethanol extract activity against Campylobacter strains is similar to co-trimoxazole, higher than sulfamethoxazole but lower than tetracycline, erythromycin, ampicillin and streptomycin. Ellagitannins are the major compounds in the extract and active fractions. The obtained results suggest a potential importance of this medicinal plant in the treatment of enteric diseases, particularly in Campylobacter infections.

  18. Use of wood characters in the Identification of Terminalia spp in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ND Ruwanpathirana

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available 250 timber species are being used by the timber industry in Sri Lanka and among them major timber consumers are housing developer, furniture manufacturer and wood fabricators.  Once the tree is felled, the identification of the tree become very difficult and need of relying on their macroscopic/ microscopic features and physical properties of timber become necessary. Timber identification is necessary for right use of timber and to check on fraud in timber trading as some timber traders   mix or sell low price different type of timber species deceiving customers implying them to be valuble timbers in order to increase their profit margin. 0 Five timber species of Terminalia namely Terminalia arjuna (Kumbuk, Terminalia bellirica (Bulu, Terminalia catappa (Kottamba, Terminalia chebula (Aralu and  Terminalia parviflora (Hampalanda of the family of Combretaceae were studied anatomically in search of sufficient  features  by which one Terminalia sp can be separated from the other . The examination of the transverse section of wood with a hand lens (x25 does not provide adequate reliable information to differentiate one species from the other for identification due to resemblance of wood structure of five Terminalia spp. Hence for the anatomical examination, transverse section (T.S., radial longitudinal section (R.L.T. and tangential longitudinal section (T.L.S. were obtained using the microtome. In this study, some important wood anatomical and non anatomical features were studied according to IAWA ( 1989. It was found that all the Terminalia spp had diffuse porous wood having vessels mainly solitary and occasionally in 2 -3 vessels of radial multiples. Mean vessel diameter and vessel diameter range were recorded respectively  as 241  µm and 172-331 µm in  Terminallia arjuna,  169 µm and 107-204 µm in Terminalia bellirica , 240 µm and 169-309 µm in Terminallia catappa, 115 µm and 68-175 µm inTerminalia chebula and 124 µm and 75

  19. Edaphic factors that influence the growth of Vochysia guatemalensis in the Northern Huetar Region of Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Mora

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The growth of Vochysia guatemalensis in Ultisols and Inceptisols of the Northern Huetar Region of Costa Rica were evaluated. This paper introduces the conditions of the sites, in the region under study where the species is growing. Making use of physical and chemical soil variables, it tries to explain the behavior of the site index (Is and its relationship with those edaphic variables that show some kind of relation with this indicator of the quality of the land. In addition, working at 2 depths, the factors of the soil which limit or favor the growth of this species are determined, in order to identify the most appropriate, as well as the most inadequate, sites for the species. At to 20 cm depth, the best sites (IS greater than 23, are related to low pH, low calcium concentrations and median concentrations of magnesium, medium sum of bases and medium effective cation exchange capacity, an extractable medium acidity and medium saturation acidity. From 20 to 40 cm, it is observed that the best sites are associated with low apparent density, a high content of clay and iron, and a good amount of organic matter. The soils that show the best chemical condition are those associated with the worst quality of site (IS lesser than 20 for V. guatemalensis. This highlights the low nutritional requirements of this species, V. guatemalensis, which can be considered as adapted to relatively acidic soils of low fertility.

  20. The environment and the hydroelectric in Amazonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La Rovere, E.L.

    1992-01-01

    Some aspects about social and environmental impacts due to the hydroelectric power plants constructed in Amazonia region are presented, including considerations of energy planning and management with international example. (C.G.C.)

  1. Characterization of Terminalia catappa linn oil, Linn oil-based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This need for using fuels with appropriate physico-chemical properties, the reason for other researchers to effectively tap in to potential use of Terminalia Catappa Linn oil and the great awareness worldwide to the need to replace fossil fuels with renewable fuels calls for investigation of local sources of such renewable fuels ...

  2. Comparisons of nutritional potentials of Terminalia catapa and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study reports experiments designed to assess the performance of goats fed Terminalia catappa (Indian almond) and Acalypha wilkesiana (Red acalypha) and an appraisal of the nutrient contents of each plant. Ten West African dwarf goats (bucks) aged 10 – 12 months weighing 5.50 to 9.25kg body weight were ...

  3. Antimalaria activity of ethanolic extracts of leaves of Terminalia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The leaves of Terminalia catappa were air dried, grounded and soaked with ethanol. The extracts obtained (47.23g, TC1) was fractionated sequentially using aqueous methanol with petroleum ether, chloroform and ethyl acetate respectively. The residue of ethanol extract (marc) was extracted with 5M HCl, basified and ...

  4. Effects of dietary levels of chemically treated Terminalia catappa fruit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment to investigate the replacement value of Terminalia catappa fruit waste (TCFW) for maize in the diet of pullet chicks was carried out. A gross (144) silver brown highline breed pullet chicks at day old were randomly allocated to six dietary treatments in a 3 x 2 factorial design feeding trial, to study the replacement ...

  5. Antisecretory and analgesic activities of Terminalia bellerica | Khan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study describes the antisecretory and analgesic activities of the crude extract of Terminalia bellerica (Tb.Cr). T. bellerica extract inhibited the castor oil-induced intestinal fluid secretion in mice at the dose range of 300 - 1000 mg/kg. The extract also dose-dependently (50 - 100 mg/kg) reduced the numbers of acetic ...

  6. Study on osteopotential activity of Terminalia arjuna bark extract ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bark extract of Terminalia arjuna (TA) possesses potent medical properties and therefore, holds a reputed position in both Ayurvedic and Unani systems of medicine. Bone substitutes play an inevitable role in traumatic bone damages. Growth factors induce osteoinductivity, but suffer from limitations such as high cost and ...

  7. Fusarium Damping-off of two Timber Species ( Terminalia Ivorensis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The incidence of the damping–off disease of two timber species Terminalia ivorensis and Nauclea diderrichii sown in ground granite, sharp river sand, topsoil and sawdust was assessed at the nursery site of the Department of. Forestry and Wildlife Management, University of Port Harcourt. The experiment was laid out in a ...

  8. Neuroprotective effect of Terminalia chebula extracts and ellagic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the common neurodegenerative disorders among elderly. The purpose of this study was to determine the neuroprotective effect and mechanisms of action underlying the Terminalia chebula extracts and ellagic acid by using beta-amyloid25-35 (Aβ25-35)-induced cell toxicity ...

  9. Phytochemical, antimicrobial and antiplasmodial investigations of Terminalia brownii

    Science.gov (United States)

    The stem bark of Terminalia brownii was collected from Machakos county, Kenya, in November 2011, and identified at the University Herbarium, School of Biological Sciences, University of Nairobi, where a voucher specimen (JM2011/502) was deposited. The stem bark was air dried in shade and pulverized....

  10. Study on osteopotential activity of Terminalia arjuna bark extract ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Abstract. Bark extract of Terminalia arjuna (TA) possesses potent medical properties and therefore, holds a reputed position in both Ayurvedic and Unani systems of medicine. Bone substitutes play an inevitable role in traumatic bone damages. Growth factors induce osteoinductivity, but suffer from limitations such as high ...

  11. Ethanol extract of Terminalia avicennioides root bark protects ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Environmental exposure to cadmium is widespread and its toxicity has been linked with generation of reactive oxygen species. Dietary antioxidants therefore hold great promise against cadmium intoxication. We investigated the effects of ethanol extract of Terminalia avicennioidesroot bark (ERTA), a rich source of ...

  12. The medicinal properties and phytochemistry of plants of the genus Terminalia (Combretaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cock, I E

    2015-10-01

    Plants of the genus Terminalia are amongst the most widely used plants for traditional medicinal purposes worldwide. Many species are used for their antibacterial, antifungal, antiprotozoal, antiviral, antidiarrhoeal, analgesic, antimalarial, antioxidant, antiinflammatory and anticancer activities. Wound healing and cardiovascular effects have also been credited to some species. Many Terminalia species have multiple beneficial effects for multiple diseases and ailments. Indeed, the Indian species Terminalia chebula is known as the king of plants in Ayurveda due to its broad range of medicinal uses. However, apart from the reported ethnopharmacological uses of many Terminalia species, surprisingly few studies have rigorously examined this important genus for their medical properties/mechanisms and phytochemistry. This is likely due to the high tannin content common to many Terminalia species and the perception that these tannins may be responsible for much of their beneficial properties. As the complexities of tannins make them poor candidates for drug design, most interest in Terminalia species has been for their pharmacognostic and nutraceutical value and they have often been overlooked as potentials for drug discovery. However, recent reports have identified many other interesting phytochemicals and demonstrated that these may be responsible for several of the reported bioactivities of the Terminalia species used in traditional medicinal systems. The last decade has seen a large increase in the number of studies into the use of Terminalia species as therapeutic agents. Several species used in Ayurvedic medicine (Terminalia arjuna, Terminalia bellerica, Terminalia catappa, T. chebula) in particular have received much recent attention. Similarly, recent reports have also highlighted the medicinal potential of species from Africa, Australia and the Americas. The aim of this report is to summarise the recent research into the medicinal properties, phytochemistry and

  13. Bioarang Limbah Daun Ketapang (Terminalia Catappa L.) sebagai Adsorben Zat Warna Metilen Biru dalam Larutan Berair

    OpenAIRE

    Yully, Asnifa; ', Muhdarina; ', Nurhayati

    2015-01-01

    Terminalia catappa leaves waste is a biomass waste that can be found around campus of Riau University. After carbonization at various time at temperature of 300 ˚C, biocharcoal of Terminalia catappa leaves waste was used for the adsorption of methylene blue from aqueous solution. Parameters of contact time and concentration of the adsorbate were varied in order to determine the adsorption capacity. Water and ash content of biocharcoal of Terminalia catappa leaves waste were also identified. T...

  14. Spider assemblage (Arachnida: Araneae associated with canopies of Vochysia divergens (Vochysiaceae in the northern region of the Brazilian Pantanal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro D. Battirola

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study describes the composition and temporal variation of the spider assemblage (Arachnida: Araneae associated with canopies of Vochysia divergens Pohl. (Vochysiaceae in the northern region of the Brazilian Pantanal. Three V. divergens plants were sampled in 2004, at each seasonal period of the northern Pantanal (high water, receding water, dry season and rising water, using thermonebulization of the canopies with insecticide, totaling 396 m2 of sampled canopies. Analysis of abundance and richness of spider families were based on Non-Metric Multidimensional Scaling (NMDS and Variance Analysis (ANOVA and MANOVA. A total of 7,193 spiders were collected (6,330 immatures; 88.0%; 863 adults, 12.0% distributed in 30 families. Araneidae (1,676 individuals, Anyphaenidae (1,631 individuals, Salticidae (1,542 individuals and Pisauridae (906 individuals, were predominant, representing 80.0% of the sample. Ten different guilds were registered: aerial hunters, orb-weavers, nocturnal aerial runners and diurnal space web weavers dominated, sharing most ecological niches. The spider assemblage is affected by changes in the habitat structure, especially by the seasonal hydrological regime and variations in the phenology of V. divergens . The assemblage is composed of different groups of spiders. The dominant taxa and behavioral guilds differ in the different seasonal periods. Spiders were more abundant during the dry and rising water seasons, most likely reflecting a greater supply of potential prey, associated with new foliage and flowering at the canopy. The displacement of soil dwelling spiders to the trunks and canopies before and during the seasonal floods can change the structure and composition of the canopy assemblages. Oonopidae, Gnaphosidae and Caponiidae, were more frequent during the rising and high water seasons, which indicates that these taxa use the canopies of V. divergens as a refuge during the seasonal flooding in the Pantanal.

  15. Albedo do Solo abaixo do Dossel em Área de Vochysia divergens Pohl no Norte do Pantanal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Willian Zangeski Novais

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumo Este artigo analisou o albedo do solo (αsolo abaixo do dossel considerando duas etapas no ciclo hidrológico, a primeira em que o solo estava inundado e a segunda em que o solo estava coberto por serrapilheira acumulada sobre o solo em área inundável de Vochysia divergens Pohl no Pantanal, Brasil. Os valores de αsolo foram calculados pela relação entre as radiação solar global refletida e a incidente medidas abaixo do dossel por meio de estações meteorológicas. A inundação da área ocorreu durante fevereiro a junho e posteriormente houve um aumento gradativo de serrapilheira acumulada sobre o solo. O αsolo variou sazonalmente com maiores valores durante o período seco em que houve um aumento de aproximadamente 42% do αsolo em relação ao período com inundação. Análises de correlação cruzada entre o αsolo e precipitação, umidade do solo e a serrapilheira acumulada sobre o solo explicam em parte a influência direta e/ou indireta sobre o αsolo. A precipitação não influenciou diretamente sobre o αsolo do mês atual, enquanto que a umidade do solo influenciou diretamente sobre o αsolo no mês atual e nos seguintes meses, e a serrapilheira acumulada do solo correlacionou-se positivamente com o αsolo indicando influência direta no mês atual.

  16. Relationship Between Wood Color Parameters Measured by the CIELab System and Extractive and Phenol Content in Acacia mangium and Vochysia guatemalensis from Fast-Growth Plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Tenorio

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The heterogeneity of color distribution between sapwood and heartwood limits the market for wood from fast-growth plantations of tropical species. Wood color is associated with wood extractives contents. This study presents the relationship between wood color parameters measured by the CIELab color system and total amount of extractives and phenolic-type extractives in ethanol-toluene and hot water extracts of wood from two fast-growth plantation species. The results demonstrated that the difference in sapwood and hardwood color in Vochysia guatemalensis and Acacia mangium is caused by lower concentrations of extractives in sapwood of both species. Additionally, variations in total extractive and phenolic content have different effects on the color parameters (L*, a* and b* of both species studied. In Vochysia guatemalensis wood, parameter L* decreases as total extractive and phenolic content increases; however, parameter a* increases as the content of extractives and phenols increases. In Acacia mangium, the amount of phenols showed no relationship with the color parameters. The ethanol-toluene total extractive content, however, shows a relationship with several color parameters. An increase in the content of total extractives in water and ethanol-toluene increases parameter a*, but decreases parameter L*.

  17. Greenhouse gases study in Amazonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Amelio, Monica Tais Siqueira

    2006-01-01

    The Amazon plays an important role on the global carbon cycle, as changing as carbon storage, since Amazon Basin is the biggest area of tropical forest, around 50% of global. Natural's process, deforestation, and use land are CO 2 sources. The Amazon forest is a significant source of N 2 O by soil process, and CH 4 by anaerobic process like flooded areas, rice cultures, and others sources. This project is part of the LBA project (Large-Scale Biosphere Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia), and this project is 'Vertical profiles of carbon dioxide and other trace gas species over the Amazon basin using small aircraft'. Since December 2000 vertical profiles of CO 2 , CH 4 , CO, H 2 , N 2 O and SF 6 have been measured above central Amazonia. The local sampling was over Tapajos National Forest, a primary forest in Para State, where had a CO 2 flux tower and an east impact area with sources like animals, rice cultivation, biomass burning, etc, to compare the influence of an impact area and a preserved area in the profiles. The Reserva Biologica de Cuieiras, at Amazon State, is the other studied place, where there already exists a CO 2 flux tower, and an east preserved area at this State, to compare with the Cuieiras. The sampling has been carried out on vertical profile from 1000 ft up to 12000 ft using a semi-automated sampling package developed at GMD/NOAA and a small aircraft. The analysis uses the MAGICC system (Multiple Analysis of Gases Influence Climate Change) which is installed at the Atmospheric Chemistry Laboratory (LQA) in IPEN (Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares). The results showed that all gases studied, except H 2 gas, has been following the global trend. At the Para State, for the studied years, the Amazonian Forest performed as small CO 2 sink. To compare Wet and Dry Seasons, subtracted the Ascension concentration values in the period to remove the global influence. So that, in the 2004 and 2005 wet seasons and 2004 dry season comparison it was

  18. Investigations on the Potential of Indian Almond Tree ( Terminalia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Potentials of Indian almond tree leaf (Terminalia catappa) as anaesthetic agent in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) were investigated. Juvenile (mean length 26.64 cm ± 3.11SD; mean weight 356.21 g ±12.91SD) and adult fish (mean length 52.13 cm ± 12.91SD; mean weight 1100.30 g ± 41.61SD) were exposed to the ...

  19. Precipitation chemistry in central Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreae, M. O.; Talbot, R. W.; Berresheim, H.; Beecher, K. M.

    1990-01-01

    Rain samples from three sites in central Amazonia were collected over a period of 6 weeks during the 1987 wet season and analyzed for ionic species and dissolved organic carbon. A continuous record of precipitation chemistry and amount was obtained at two of these sites, which were free from local or regional pollution, for a time period of over 1 month. The volume-weighted mean concentrations of most species were found to be about a factor of 5 lower during the wet season compared with previous results from the dry season. Only sodium, potassium, and chloride showed similar concentrations in both seasons. When the seasonal difference in rainfall amount is taken into consideration, the deposition fluxes are only slightly lower for most species during the wet season than during the dry season, again with the exception of chloride, potassium, and sodium. Sodium and chloride are present in the same ratio as in sea salt; rapid advection of air masses of marine origin to the central Amazon Basin during the wet season may be responsible for the observed higher deposition flux of these species. Statistical analysis suggests that sulfate is, to a large extent, of marine (sea salt and biogenic) origin, but that long-range transport of combustion-derived aerosols also makes a significant contribution to sulfate and nitrate levels in Amazonian rain. Organic acid concentrations in rain were responsible for a large fraction of the observed precipitation acidity; their concentration was strongly influenced by gas/liquid interactions.

  20. Non-Official Roads Dilemma in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perz, Stephen G.; Arima, Eugenio; Souza, Carlos, Jr.; Caldas, Marcellus; Brandao, Amintas de O., Jr.; Araujo de Souza, Francisco Kennedy; Walker, Robert

    2005-01-01

    At the beginning of this millennium, "non-official" roads predominate in Amazonia. The opening of these roads, a phenomenon that has not been studied in depth, represents a major dilemma - it generates environmental and social impacts, but it helps to reduce the isolation of the communities in Amazonia and to improve the quality of life for those rural populations. The combined positive and negative aspects of this dilemma mean that it is a matter of crucial importance for the government at last to do a proper job in building these roads; if this is disregarded, in the future, the environment and the Brazilians living in that region will be at risk.

  1. In vivo Anti-plasmodial Activity of ethanolic leaf extract of Terminalia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Terminalia catappa (Tropical almond) is used traditionally in the management of fever, cough, wounds and various ulceration. Oral acute toxicity of the ethanolic leaf extract of Terminalia catappa was evaluated in mice using modified Lorke's method. The ethanolic leaf extract was evaluated for in vivo anti-plasmodial activity ...

  2. ANTIOXIDATIVE ROLE OF TERMINALIA CATAPPA LEAF PROTEIN AGAINST ELA INDUCED MICE

    OpenAIRE

    R.SANTHI*AND S.ANNAPOORANI

    2009-01-01

    The antioxidant activities of Terminalia catappa were quantified using non-enzymic, enzymic antioxidants and livermarker enzyme. The activity of enzymic and non-enzymic antioxidants increased significantly by the intraperitonealinjection of plant protein fraction compared to ELA induced mice whereas it was reversed for liver marker enzymes.Terminalia catappa protein fraction can be considered as a potential free radical scavenging antioxidant.

  3. vochysia guatemalesis en una plantación de 10 años, Tabarcia de Mora, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Fco. Di Stefano

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Para facilitar la comprensión del ciclaje de nutrimentos dentro de una plantación forestal de Vochysia guatemalensis con 10 años, se determinó la caída de hojarasca y la tasa de descomposición de hojas durante un año. Para la caída de hojarasca, se distribuyó al azar trampas rectangulares de 0,71 m2 con cedazo plástico de 1,5x1,5 mm; el material fue recogido mensualmente. Para la descomposición, se colocó bolsas de 0,4 m2 de cedazo metálico de 1,5x1,5 mm, con 8 g (peso seco de hojas maduras, sobre el suelo limpio de hojarasca, en el centro de 19 parcelas a las cuales se les había aplicado diferentes tratamientos de fertilización con P y NPK. Cada 15 días durante los primeros 2 meses, y luego cada mes por 15 meses, se extrajo una bolsa de cada una de las parcelas para determinar su peso seco. Se colectó un total de 750 g m-2 peso seco de hojarasca. La tasa más alta de caída del material se observó durante la época seca entre diciembre y abril. La parte reproductiva presentó 2 picos de caída: uno en mayo compuesto principalmente de flores, y el otro con frutos y semillas en octubre-noviembre. Durante los primeros 2 meses ocurrió una tasa de descomposición relativamente alta, habiéndose perdido alrededor del 40% del material inicial. Posteriormente, la tasa declinó y a los 15 meses todavía quedaba en promedio el 39%. No se encontró diferencias estadísticas entre los tratamientos de fertilización. La acumulación de hojarasca en el suelo se ha visto como una herramienta positiva de manejo, dado que se reduce la posibilidad de pérdida de nutrimentos por lixiviación y se produce una mayor protección del suelo contra la erosión.

  4. The suppressive effects of Vochysia divergens aqueous leaf extract and its 5-methoxyflavone on murine macrophages and lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa, Maria Fernanda Paresqui; Ventura, Thatiana Lopes Biá; Muzitano, Michelle Frazão; da Cruz, Elaine Dos Anjos; Bergonzi, Maria Camilla; Bilia, Anna Rita; Rossi-Bergmann, Bartira; Costa, Sônia Soares

    2018-04-04

    Leaf infusion from the tree Vochysia divergens Pohl (Vochysiaceae), known as "cambará", is used in Brazilian popular medicine against respiratory infections and asthma. To evaluate the health-beneficial effects related to the ethnomedicinal uses of V. divergens (Vd), a biomonitored fractionation of an aqueous leaf extract was carried out. Leaves were extracted by decoction with distilled water, and the extract fractionated by a combination of separation techniques including precipitation, organic partition and chromatography. Chromatographic analyses of active samples were carried out using HPLC-DAD-MS and flavonoid 1 was isolated from n-BuOH fraction through classic chromatography techniques. Inhibitory effects of Vd extract, fractions and flavonoid 1 on NO and TNF-α production by macrophages were assessed by Griess method and L929 cell bioassay and cell viability by LDH release assay. Additionally, the suppressive ability on proliferation of BALB/c lymphocytes was estimated by [ 3 H] thymidine incorporation. Antioxidant activity of samples was verified by SNP and DPPH assay and inhibition ability of iNOS protein expression through Western blotting. The LC-MS analysis of Vd extract led to the identification of 5-methoxyluteolin-7-O-β-glucopyranoside (2), rutin (4) and the tannin galloyl-HHDP-glucopyranoside (3), besides the main flavonoid 3',5-dimethoxyluteolin-7-O-β-glucopyranoside (1), which was biologically evaluated in comparison with luteolin aglycone. Vd extract, n-BuOH fraction and flavonoid 1 inhibit NO and TNF-α production by LPS-stimulated macrophages. The reduction on NO levels was mediated mainly by suppression of iNOS expression. In addition, both Vd extract (IC 50 13.6µg/mL) and flavonoid 1 (IC 50 19.8µg/mL; 41.6µM) strongly inhibited stimulated lymphocyte proliferation when compared to immunosuppressive agent cyclosporin A (IC 50 43.8µg/mL; 36.4µM). Vd extract also showed a scavenging activity toward DPPH and NO free radicals. This is the

  5. Lizards of Brazilian Amazonia (Reptilia: Squamata)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avila-Pires, T.C.S.

    1995-01-01

    Eighty-nine species of lizards, six of which polytypic (forming a total of 97 taxa), are presently known from Brazilian Amazonia. This number includes six species and one subspecies described as new to science in this paper: Stenocercus fimbriatus, Lepidoblepharis hoogmoedi, Leposoma osvaldoi, L.

  6. Miocene flooding events of western Amazonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaramillo, C.; Romero, I.; D’Apolito, C.; Bayona, G.; Duarte, E.; Louwye, S.; Escobar, J.; Luque, J.; Carrillo-Briceño, J.D.; Zapata, V.; Mora, A.; Schouten, S.; Zavada, M.; Harrington, G.; Ortiz, J.; Wesselingh, F.P.

    2017-01-01

    There is a considerable controversy about whether western Amazonia was ever covered by marine waters during theMiocene [23 to 5 Ma (million years ago)]. We investigated the possible occurrence of Miocene marine incursions in theLlanos and Amazonas/Solimões basins, using sedimentological and

  7. The domestication of Amazonia before European conquest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Charles R; Denevan, William M; Heckenberger, Michael J; Junqueira, André Braga; Neves, Eduardo G; Teixeira, Wenceslau G; Woods, William I

    2015-08-07

    During the twentieth century, Amazonia was widely regarded as relatively pristine nature, little impacted by human history. This view remains popular despite mounting evidence of substantial human influence over millennial scales across the region. Here, we review the evidence of an anthropogenic Amazonia in response to claims of sparse populations across broad portions of the region. Amazonia was a major centre of crop domestication, with at least 83 native species containing populations domesticated to some degree. Plant domestication occurs in domesticated landscapes, including highly modified Amazonian dark earths (ADEs) associated with large settled populations and that may cover greater than 0.1% of the region. Populations and food production expanded rapidly within land management systems in the mid-Holocene, and complex societies expanded in resource-rich areas creating domesticated landscapes with profound impacts on local and regional ecology. ADE food production projections support estimates of at least eight million people in 1492. By this time, highly diverse regional systems had developed across Amazonia where subsistence resources were created with plant and landscape domestication, including earthworks. This review argues that the Amazonian anthrome was no less socio-culturally diverse or populous than other tropical forested areas of the world prior to European conquest. © 2015 The Author(s).

  8. The domestication of Amazonia before European conquest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clement, C.R.; Denevan, W.M.; Heckenberger, M.J.; Braga Junqueira, A.; Neves, E.G.; Teixeira, W.G.; Woods, W.I.

    2015-01-01

    During the twentieth century, Amazonia was widely regarded as relatively pristine nature, little impacted by human history. This view remains popular despite mounting evidence of substantial human influence over millennial scales across the region. Here, we review the evidence of an anthropogenic

  9. FACTORES EDÁFICOS QUE INFLUYEN EN EL CRECIMIENTO DE Vochysia guatemalensis EN LA REGIÓN HUETAR NORTE DE COSTA RICA

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Mora; Roger Muñoz; Víctor Meza; William Fonseca

    2015-01-01

    Se evalúa el crecimiento de Vochysia guatemalensis en Ultisoles e Inceptisoles de la Región Huetar Norte de Costa Rica. Este documento presenta las condiciones de los sitios donde la especie está creciendo en la región bajo estudio. Por medio de variables físicas y quími - cas de los suelos, se explicó el comportamiento del índice de sitio (IS) y su relación con aquellas variables edáficas que muestran algún tipo de relación con este indicador de la calidad de los terrenos. Además,...

  10. Antimicrobial activity of extracts of Terminalia catappa root.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, S P; Pal, S C

    2002-06-01

    The effect against bacteria of petroleum ether (60-80 degrees C), chloroform and methanolic extract of dried root of Terminalia catappa Linn. (combrataceae) was employed by cup plate agar diffusion method. The chloroform extract showed prominent antimicrobial activity against S. aureus and E. coli as compared to other tested microorganisms, while petroleum ether extract was devoid of antimicrobial activity. The methanolic: extract exhibited MIC of 0.065 mg/ml against E. coli. and chloroform extract exhibited MIC of 0.4 mg/ml against S. aureus The chloroform has well as methanolic extracts showed good antimicrobial activity against Gram positive and Gram negative microorganisms.

  11. Evaluation of the antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity of Terminalia catappa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, C C; Chen, Y L; Lin, J M; Ujiie, T

    1997-01-01

    The free radical scavenging and antihepatotoxic activity from Terminalia catappa was studied. Treatment with T. catappa water extracts showed antihepatotoxic activity against CCl4-induced toxicity in the rat liver that was tested. The crude drug also exhibited anti-oxidant effects in FeCl2-Ascorbic acid induced lipid peroxidation in the rat liver homogenate. Moreover, the superoxide radical scavenger effect of T. catappa was demonstrated using electron spin resonance (ESR) and spintrapping technique. The results indicate that T. catappa possesses good antihepatotoxic activity and superoxide radical scavenger activity.

  12. Pentacyclic triterpenoids from the leaves of Terminalia brasiliensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, Delton Servulo; Chaves, Mariana H.

    2005-01-01

    Eleven oleanane, ursane and lupane-type triterpenes were isolated from the leaves of Terminalia brasiliensis Camb, daturadiol (3β,6β-dihydroxy-olean-12-ene), 3β-hydroxy-30-norlupan-20-one, lupenone, β-amyrenone, α-amyrenone, lupeol, β-amyrin, α-amyrin, betulin, erythrodiol and uvaol, in addition to squalene, sitosterol and α-tocopherol. The structures of these compounds were identified by 1 H and 13 C NMR spectral analysis and comparison with literature data. (author)

  13. Bioinspired reduced graphene oxide nanosheets using Terminalia chebula seeds extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddinedi, Sireesh Babu; Mandal, Badal Kumar; Vankayala, Raviraj; Kalluru, Poliraju; Pamanji, Sreedhara Reddy

    2015-06-01

    A green one step facile synthesis of graphene nanosheets by Terminalia chebula (T. chebula) extract mediated reduction of graphite oxide (GO) is reported in this work. This method avoids the use of harmful toxic reducing agents. The comparative results of various characterizations of GO and T. chebula reduced graphene oxide (TCG) provide a strong indication of the exclusion of oxygen containing groups from graphene oxide and successive stabilization of the formed reduced graphene oxide (RGO). The functionalization of reduced graphene oxide with the oxidized polyphenols causes their stability by preventing the aggregation. We also have proposed how the oxidized polyphenols are accountable for the stabilization of the formed graphene sheets.

  14. Agricultural intensification increases deforestation fire activity in Amazonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morton, D.C.; de Fries, R.S.; Randerson, J.T; Giglio, L.; Schroeder, W.; van der Werf, G.R.

    2008-01-01

    Fire-driven deforestation is the major source of carbon emissions from Amazonia. Recent expansion of mechanized agriculture in forested regions of Amazonia has increased the average size of deforested areas, but related changes in fire dynamics remain poorly characterized. We estimated the

  15. Biosynthesis of Gold Nanoparticles (Green-gold) Using Leaf Extract of Terminalia Catappa

    OpenAIRE

    Ankamwar, Balaprasad

    2010-01-01

    The synthesis of eco-friendly nanoparticles is evergreen branch of nanoscience for biomedical application. Low cost of synthesis and non toxicity are main features make it more attractive potential option for biomedical field and elsewhere. Here, we report the synthesis of gold nanoparticles in aqueous medium using Terminalia catappa (Almond) leaf extract as the reducing and stabilizing agent. On treating chloroauric acid solutions with Terminalia catappa (TC) leaf extract rapid reduction of ...

  16. In vitro studies reveal antiurolithic effect of Terminalia arjuna using quantitative morphological information from computerized microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mittal

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: For most cases, urolithiasis is a condition where excessive oxalate is present in the urine. Many reports have documented free radical generation followed by hyperoxaluria as a consequence of which calcium oxalate (CaOx deposition occurs in the kidney tissue. The present study is aimed to exam the antilithiatic potency of the aqueous extract (AE of Terminalia arjuna (T. arjuna. Materials and Methods: The antilithiatic activity of Terminalia arjuna was investigated in vitro nucleation, aggregation and growth of the CaOx crystals as well as the morphology of CaOx crystals using the inbuilt software ‘Image-Pro Plus 7.0’ of Olympus upright microscope (BX53. Antioxidant activity of AE of Terminalia arjuna bark was also determined in vitro. Results: Terminalia arjuna extract exhibited a concentration dependent inhibition of nucleation and aggregation of CaOx crystals. The AE of Terminalia arjuna bark also inhibited the growth of CaOx crystals. At the same time, the AE also modified the morphology of CaOx crystals from hexagonal to spherical shape with increasing concentrations of AE and reduced the dimensions such as area, perimeter, length and width of CaOx crystals in a dose dependent manner. Also, the Terminalia arjuna AE scavenged the DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radicals with an IC50 at 13.1µg/mL. Conclusions: The study suggests that Terminalia arjuna bark has the potential to scavenge DPPH radicals and inhibit CaOx crystallization in vitro. In the light of these studies, Terminalia arjuna can be regarded as a promising candidate from natural plant sources of antilithiatic and antioxidant activity with high value.

  17. Chemical, morphological, and thermogravimetric of Terminalia catappa Linn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orquídea Vasconcelos dos SANTOS

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to evaluate the chemical composition, morphology, and the thermogravimetric behavior of the pulp of Terminalia catappa, also known as tropical almond. The analytical results show, based mainly on its lipid content, that this fruit has a considerable energy value. Its fiber content contributes to enhance the functional properties of the fruit. Morphological characteristics show a spongy-like structure with dispersion of starch granules and high concentration of fiber bundles, confirming the results of the chemical composition analysis. The thermogravimetric behavior exhibited by this fruit pulp when submitted to progressive temperature increase under dynamic air atmosphere shows that this raw material has great potential for industrial use due to its high absorption rate of water soluble and/or lipid-based compounds, allowing its use as a dietary complement or supplement ingredient in food products.

  18. Terminalia macroptera, its current medicinal use and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Anh Thu; Dvergsnes, Christina; Togola, Adiaratou; Wangensteen, Helle; Diallo, Drissa; Paulsen, Berit Smestad; Malterud, Karl Egil

    2011-10-11

    The tree Terminalia macroptera (Combretaceae) is widespread in Western Africa, and in this area, different parts have been utilized in the treatment of various diseases. In this article, we report on the medicinal use of T. macroptera in three different districts in Mali (Siby, Dioïla and Dogonland), based on interviews with 78 healers in these districts. Roots, root bark, stem bark, leaves and fruits have all been employed by healers, as has parasitic Loranthus species growing on the tree. Major areas of use comprise treatment of wounds and sores, infections, pain, cough, tuberculosis and hepatitis. Some of the medicinal uses of T. macroptera appear to be rationally explained by its chemical constituents. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Studies of Terminalia catappa L. oil: characterization and biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, I C F; de Carvalho, S H V; Solleti, J I; Ferreira de La Salles, W; Teixeira da Silva de La Salles, K; Meneghetti, S M P

    2008-09-01

    Since the biodiesel program has been started in Brazil, the investigation of alternative sources of triacylglycerides from species adapted at semi-arid lands became a very important task for Brazilian researchers. Thus we initiated studies with the fruits of the Terminalia catappa L (TC), popularly known in Brazil as "castanhola", evaluating selected properties and chemical composition of the oil, as well any potential application in biodiesel production. The oil was obtained from the kernels of the fruit, with yields around 49% (% mass). Also, its fatty acid composition was quite similar to that of conventional oils. The crude oil of the TC was transesterified, using a conventional catalyst and methanol to form biodiesel. The studied physicochemical properties of the TC biodiesel are in acceptable range for use as biodiesel in diesel engines.

  20. Sistema reprodutivo de Anadenanthera peregrina (L. Speg e Vochysia haenkiana (Spreng. Mart. em fragmento de cerrado na Chapada dos Guimarães - MT Reprodutive system of Anadenanthera peregrina and Vochysia haenkiana in a fragment of "Cerrado forest" from Chapada dos Guimarães - MT, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reginaldo Brito da Costa

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo objetivou avaliar o sistema reprodutivo das espécies Anadenanthera peregrina (L. Speg. e Vochysia haenkiana (Spreng. Mart. Foram estudados aspectos do sistema de cruzamento, complementados pelas observações de maturação dos frutos e a germinação das sementes em função dos tipos de cruzamentos testados. As síndromes de dispersão das sementes foram também avaliadas através das características morfológicas dos frutos e sementes. O estudo foi realizado em um fragmento de cerrado com aproximadamente 32 ha, no município de Chapada dos Guimarães, MT, a 15(010' S, 55(035' W, e à altitude de 450m. O delineamento experimental utilizado na determinação do sistema de cruzamento para cada espécie foi o de blocos ao acaso, com seis tratamentos para a espécie Vochysia haenkiana e cinco tratamentos para Anadenanthera peregrina, ambas com três repetições. O sistema de cruzamento detectado para as duas espécies foi o preferencialmente alogâmico, porém, com a possibilidade, não desprezível, de produção de frutos/sementes por autofertilização, sugerindo um aumento gradual de autocompatibilidade genética como estratégia de geração de descendência no ambiente florestal fragmentado. A polinização cruzada em Anadenanthera peregrina é favorecida tanto pelo alto grau de auto-incompatibilidade genética quanto pela protandria detectada. O padrão de maturação dos frutos e sementes e o período de dispersão das sementes foram distintos em ambas as espécies, ocorrendo, entretanto, durante ou no final da estação seca, facilitando a distribuição dos propágulos anemocóricos. A germinação em ambas as espécies foi rápida e em alta percentagem.The study of the breeding system of Anadenanthera peregrina (L. Speg. and Vochysia haenkiana (Spreng. Mart. was the main purpose of this work. It was also studied fruit maturation, seed dispersal and seed germination to characterize the reproductive system of these

  1. Predicting anthropogenic soils across the Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcmichael, C.; Palace, M. W.; Bush, M. B.; Braswell, B. H.; Hagen, S. C.; Silman, M.; Neves, E.; Czarnecki, C.

    2012-12-01

    Hidden under the forest canopy in lowland Amazonia are nutrient-enriched soils, called terra pretas (or Amazonian black earths), which were formed by prehistoric indigenous populations. These anthrosols are in stark contrast to typical nutrient-poor Amazonian soils, and have retained increased nutrient levels for hundreds of years. Because of their long-term nutrient retaining ability, terra pretas may be crucial for developing sustainable agricultural practices in Amazonia, especially given the deforestation necessary for traditional slash-and-burn systems. However, the frequency and distribution of terra preta soils across the landscape remains debatable, and archaeologists have estimated that terra pretas cover anywhere from 0.1% to 10% of the lowland Amazonian forests. The highest concentration of terra preta soils has been found along the central and eastern portions of the Amazon River and its major tributaries, but whether this is a true pattern or simply reflects sampling bias remains unknown. A possible explanation is that specific environmental or biotic conditions were preferred for human settlement and terra preta formation. Here, we use environmental parameters to predict the probabilities of terra preta soils across lowland Amazonian forests. We compiled a database of 2708 sites across Amazonia, including locations that contain terra pretas (n = 917), and those that are known to be terra preta-free (n = 1791). More than 20 environmental variables, including precipitation, elevation, slope, soil fertility, and distance to river were converted into 90-m resolution raster images across Amazonia and used to model the probability of terra preta occurrence. The relationship between the predictor variables and the occurrence of terra preta was examined using three modeling techniques: logistic regression, auto-logistic regression, and maximum entropy estimations. All three techniques provided similar predictions for terra preta distributions and the amount

  2. Modelo de predição para o volume total de Quaruba (Vochysia inundata ducke via análise de fatores e regressão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Diego Rocha Valente

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho propôs-se um método para a construção de um modelo de regressão para determinar o Volume de Madeira Total da espécie florestal (Vochysia inundata ducke Quaruba, em função de suas características (Diâmetro à Altura do Peito (DAP, Idade e Altura. O modelo foi determinado utilizando-se a técnica estatística multivariada de Análise de Fatores com do Método das Componentes Principais via Rotação Ortogonal do Tipo Varimax para Extração dos Fatores, procurando contornar o problema da Multicolinearidade. Por fim desenvolveu-se um modelo de Regressão Linear Simples com base nos Escores Fatoriais. O modelo determinado apresentou-se de fácil interpretação e utilização, usando-se um fator e proporcionando um bom ajuste (R² = 96 % aos dados e uma boa capacidade preditiva. Ele atendeu a todas as suposições teóricas para sua existência e utilização.

  3. Análise da evapotranspiração por wavelet de Morlet em área de Vochysia divergens Pohl no Pantanal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena A. Goulart

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A variação tempo-espacial da evapotranspiração foi analisada por meio de wavelet de Morlet em uma floresta de Vochysia divergens Pohl (Vochysiaceae localmente conhecida como Cambarazal no Pantantal, no estado do Mato Grosso, Brasil Esta área está inserida na planície fisiografia do Pantanal e é sazonalmente inundada. Foram coletadas variáveis micrometeológicas, como: saldo de radiação, radiação solar incidente, temperatura do ar e umidade relativa do ar. Com referencia à evapotranspiração a análise diária da série temporal por wavelet de Morlet foi satisfatória, possibilitando melhor compreensão na dinâmica da evapotranspiração em área alagável e sua relação com a temperatura do ar, umidade relativa do ar e radiação solar global. Conclui-se que ocorreram, durante a estação úmida, os maiores valores de evapotranspiração e maior intensidade de energia na alta escala de frequência devido provavelmente à maior disponibilidade de água em função da precipitação e inundação, e à radiação global.

  4. Miocene flooding events of western Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, Carlos; Romero, Ingrid; D'Apolito, Carlos; Bayona, German; Duarte, Edward; Louwye, Stephen; Escobar, Jaime; Luque, Javier; Carrillo-Briceño, Jorge D; Zapata, Vladimir; Mora, Alejandro; Schouten, Stefan; Zavada, Michael; Harrington, Guy; Ortiz, John; Wesselingh, Frank P

    2017-05-01

    There is a considerable controversy about whether western Amazonia was ever covered by marine waters during the Miocene [23 to 5 Ma (million years ago)]. We investigated the possible occurrence of Miocene marine incursions in the Llanos and Amazonas/Solimões basins, using sedimentological and palynological data from two sediment cores taken in eastern Colombia and northwestern Brazil together with seismic information. We observed two distinct marine intervals in the Llanos Basin, an early Miocene that lasted ~0.9 My (million years) (18.1 to 17.2 Ma) and a middle Miocene that lasted ~3.7 My (16.1 to 12.4 Ma). These two marine intervals are also seen in Amazonas/Solimões Basin (northwestern Amazonia) but were much shorter in duration, ~0.2 My (18.0 to 17.8 Ma) and ~0.4 My (14.1 to 13.7 Ma), respectively. Our results indicate that shallow marine waters covered the region at least twice during the Miocene, but the events were short-lived, rather than a continuous full-marine occupancy of Amazonian landscape over millions of years.

  5. Performance of Terminalia catappa on mild steel corrosion in HCl medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omotosho, Olugbenga Adeshola; Okeniyi, Joshua Olusegun; Loto, Cleophas Akintoye; Popoola, Abimbola Patricia Idowu; Obi, Chukwunonso Ezekiel; Sonoiki, Oluwatobi Oluwasegun Oluwagbenga; Oni, Adeoluwa Barnabas; Alabi, Ayomide Samuel; Olarewaju, Abisola Ebunoluwa

    2016-07-01

    This work investigates Terminalia catappa leaf-extract performance on mild steel corrosion in 0.5 M hydrochloric acid (HCl). Electrochemical linear-sweep-voltametry (LSV) and gravimetric techniques were employed for assessing the mild steel corrosion in the HCl test-environment of immersion having different concentrations of the leaf-extract. Results showed that all the concentrations of the Terminalia catappa leaf-extract employed inhibited mild steel corrosion from the electrochemical (potentiodynamic) and the gravimetric considerations. Also, corrosion rate from LSV exhibited excellent correlation (R = 95.77%, Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE) = 91.72% and p-value = 0.02383) with linear function of the corrosion rate from gravimetric method, for the leaf-extract concentrations employed. From the experimental model, 6 g/L Terminalia catappa exhibited optimal inhibition efficiency, η = 78.07%, while 8 g/L Terminalia catappa was predicted as optimally effective, η = 75.41%, by the correlation fitting model, at inhibiting mild steel corrosion in the medium. However, adsorption isotherm modelling showed that the experimental gravimetric, experimental potentiodynamic and predicted potentiodynamic data exhibited agreements in following the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. All the three data models indicated favourable adsorption and identified physisorption as the prevalent adsorption mechanism of Terminalia catappa leaf-extract on mild steel immersed in the 0.5 M HCl medium.

  6. Carbon stock loss from deforestation through 2013 in Brazilian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Euler Melo; Yanai, Aurora M; Fonseca, Frederico O R; Fearnside, Philip Martin

    2015-03-01

    The largest carbon stock in tropical vegetation is in Brazilian Amazonia. In this ~5 million km(2) area, over 750,000 km(2) of forest and ~240,000 km(2) of nonforest vegetation types had been cleared through 2013. We estimate current carbon stocks and cumulative gross carbon loss from clearing of premodern vegetation in Brazil's 'Legal Amazonia' and 'Amazonia biome' regions. Biomass of 'premodern' vegetation (prior to major increases in disturbance beginning in the 1970s) was estimated by matching vegetation classes mapped at a scale of 1 : 250,000 and 29 biomass means from 41 published studies for vegetation types classified as forest (2317 1-ha plots) and as either nonforest or contact zones (1830 plots and subplots of varied size). Total biomass (above and below-ground, dry weight) underwent a gross reduction of 18.3% in Legal Amazonia (13.1 Pg C) and 16.7% in the Amazonia biome (11.2 Pg C) through 2013, excluding carbon loss from the effects of fragmentation, selective logging, fires, mortality induced by recent droughts and clearing of forest regrowth. In spite of the loss of carbon from clearing, large amounts of carbon were stored in stands of remaining vegetation in 2013, equivalent to 149 Mg C ha(-1) when weighted by the total area covered by each vegetation type in Legal Amazonia. Native vegetation in Legal Amazonia in 2013 originally contained 58.6 Pg C, while that in the Amazonia biome contained 56 Pg C. Emissions per unit area from clearing could potentially be larger in the future because previously cleared areas were mainly covered by vegetation with lower mean biomass than the remaining vegetation. Estimates of original biomass are essential for estimating losses to forest degradation. This study offers estimates of cumulative biomass loss, as well as estimates of premodern carbon stocks that have not been represented in recent estimates of deforestation impacts. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Revisiting Terminalia arjuna – An Ancient Cardiovascular Drug

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    Shridhar Dwivedi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Terminalia arjuna, commonly known as arjuna, belongs to the family of Combretaceae. Its bark decoction is being used in the Indian subcontinent for anginal pain, hypertension, congestive heart failure, and dyslipidemia, based on the observations of ancient physicians for centuries. The utility of arjuna in various cardiovascular diseases needs to be studied further. Therefore, the present review is an effort to give a detailed survey of the literature summarizing the experimental and clinical studies pertinent to arjuna in cardiovascular disorders, which were particularly performed during the last decade. Systematic reviews, meta-analyses, and clinical studies of arjuna were retrieved through the use of PubMed, Google Scholar, and Cochrane databases. Most of the studies, both experimental and clinical, have suggested that the crude drug possesses anti-ischemic, antioxidant, hypolipidemic, and antiatherogenic activities. Its useful phytoconstituents are: Triterpenoids, β-sitosterol, flavonoids, and glycosides. Triterpenoids and flavonoids are considered to be responsible for its beneficial antioxidant cardiovascular properties. The drug has shown promising effect on ischemic cardiomyopathy. So far, no serious side effects have been reported with arjuna therapy. However, its long-term safety still remains to be elucidated. Though it has been found quite useful in angina pectoris, mild hypertension, and dyslipidemia, its exact role in primary/secondary coronary prevention is yet to be explored.

  8. Terminalia catappa Linn seeds as a new food source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monthana Weerawatanakorn

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate their potential use as a new dietary source, the seeds of Terminalia catappa Linn were analyzed for their nutritional and antinutritional properties, and to determine the effect of roasting. The TC seeds contained high levels of protein, oil and essential minerals. The 2 most limiting amino acids were Tryptophan and Lysine. Oleic acid (C18:1 and linoleic acid (C18:2 are the main fatty acids which were determined at 32.4 and 30.3%, respectively. The ratio of saturated: monounsaturated: polyunsaturated fatty acid was close to what is recommended in the dietary guidelines of the American Heart Association. Contents of phenolic compounds and phytates (IP4 + IP5 + IP6 in raw seeds were 64.9 g of GAE/g and 2,110 mg/100g, which are comparable to the values in edible nuts. Trypsin inhibitor activity was 2.3 trypsin inhibitor units/mg. After roasting at 180°C for 4 min, both phenolic compounds and trypsin activity were reduced, while IP6 phytate degraded into IP4 and IP5 forms

  9. Evaluation of wound healing property of Terminalia catappa on excision wound models in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, A A; Kumar, V; Singh, B K; Singh, R

    2014-05-01

    Wound is defined as the loss of breaking cellular and functional continuity of the living tissues. Management of wounds is frequently encountered with different problems. Drug resistance and toxicity hindered the development of synthetic antimicrobial agents with wound healing activity. Many plants with potent pharmacological activities may offer better treatment options viz. Terminalia chebula, Terminalia bellirica and Phyllanthus emblica formulations have shown healing activities on wounds.The present study was planned to investigate the wound healing activity of Terminalia catappa on excision wound model in rats. Ointment was prepared by using bark extract of Terminalia catappa in soft paraffin and preservative. Wistar albino rats (200-250 gm) of either sex were used in the present study. A circular wound of 2 cm in diameter was made on the depilated dorsal thoracic region of the rats under ether anesthesia in aseptic conditions. The ointment was applied for 18 days and percent wound closure observed along with the parameters viz. Epithelization, granuloma weight and scar formation. Animals were observed on 3rd, 6th, 9th, 12th, 15th and 18th post-wounding day.Wound healing activity was compared with that of control and Betadine ointment as standard drug. Animals treated with Terminalia catappa ointment exhibited 97% reduction in wound area as compared to the control animals (81%). Ointment treated wounds were found to induce epithelization faster compared to the control. In conclusion, Terminalia catappa ointment promotes significant wound healing in rats and further evaluation of this activity in humans is suggested. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Pre-Columbian Earthworks in Coastal Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphen Rostain

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available As in other parts of Amazonia, pre-Columbian Indians have profoundly modified the coast of the Guianas. Between 650 and 1650 AD, Arauquinoid people occupied a territory that was approximately 600 km long and used the raised field technique intensively before the European conquest. They erected thousands of raised fields of various shapes, dug canals, ditches, and pathways, and built artificial mounds to establish their villages. All these earthworks changed forever the face of the coastal flooded savannas and their ecology. Such labor was probably organized under the leadership of a central authority: it seems that Arauquinoid societies were organized in a chiefdom system. Statistical calculations, based on the known surface area of raised fields and on their estimated productivity, suggest a population density of 50 to 100 inhabitants per km2. Pre-Columbian inhabitants of the Guianas coast carefully organized, managed and “anthropisized” their territory following a specific pattern.

  11. Factors Controlling Liquid Particulate Matter in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, A. P.; Gong, Z.; de Sá, S. S.; Wernis, R. A.; Yee, L.; Isaacman-VanWertz, G. A.; Goldstein, A. H.; Castillo, P.; Sedlacek, A. J., III; Palm, B. B.; Campuzano-Jost, P.; Day, D. A.; Hu, W.; Jimenez, J. L.; Alexander, L.; Manzi, A. O.; Souza, R. A. F. D.; Artaxo, P.; Martin, S. T.

    2015-12-01

    The hygroscopic response of particulate matter (PM) during GoAmazon 2014/5 was investigated through the use of particle rebound (or lack thereof) during impaction. The hygroscopic response was measured online and in real-time using a custom designed impaction apparatus. The impaction apparatus was calibrated with respect to particle viscosity indicating a liquid state (viscosity hygroscopic response and phase state of the PM under investigation was determined. The hygroscopic response curves were categorized according to the rebound fraction at high RH (80 - 98%) bounded by two extremes. 1) Time periods that resemble pure SOM generated under controlled chamber conditions, where no particle rebound is observed above 80% RH. 2) Time periods that a large fraction (10 - 40%) of particles rebound at RH values >95%, an indication of hydrophobic particles. The role of anthropogenic and biogenic factors in controlling the hygroscopic response of PM in Amazonia is investigated through meteorological conditions and particle chemical composition.

  12. Effect of Terminalia catappa on lipid profile in transplanted fibrosarcoma in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Naitik, Pandya; Prakash, Tigari; Kotresha, Dupadahalli; Rao, Nadendla Rama

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of an antitumor activity of Terminalia catappa on lipid lowering activity in transplanted fibrosarcoma in Wistar albino rats. Methylcholantherene-induced fibrosarcoma was transplanted in rats. After 30 th day when tumor became palpable, started the treatment of ethanolic extract of Terminalia catappa by orally (250 and 500 mg/kg) for a period of 20 days. The blood sample was collected on 21 st day, and the liver and the kidney were also removed for studying the lipid pr...

  13. FACTORES EDÁFICOS QUE INFLUYEN EN EL CRECIMIENTO DE Vochysia guatemalensis EN LA REGIÓN HUETAR NORTE DE COSTA RICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Mora

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evalúa el crecimiento de Vochysia guatemalensis en Ultisoles e Inceptisoles de la Región Huetar Norte de Costa Rica. Este documento presenta las condiciones de los sitios donde la especie está creciendo en la región bajo estudio. Por medio de variables físicas y quími - cas de los suelos, se explicó el comportamiento del índice de sitio (IS y su relación con aquellas variables edáficas que muestran algún tipo de relación con este indicador de la calidad de los terrenos. Además, se determinaron 2 profundida - des los factores del suelo que limitan o favorecen el crecimiento de esta especie, con el propósito de identificar tanto los sitios apropiados como los sitios inadecuados para la especie. A una profundidad de 0 a 20 cm, los mejores sitios (IS mayor de 23, están relacionados con pH bajos, concentraciones bajas de calcio y concentracio - nes medias de magnesio, una suma de bases y una capacidad de intercambio catiónica efectiva medias, una acidez extraíble y una saturación de acidez media. De 20 a 40 cm, se observa que los mejores sitios están asociados con una bajadensidad aparente, un alto contenido de arcilla y de hierro y una buena cantidad de materia orgá - nica. Los suelos que mostraron mejor condición química, son los que presentan la peor calidad de sitio (IS menor de 20 para V . guatemalensis . Esto resalta los bajos requerimientos nutricionales que presenta la especie la cual puede considerarse como una especie adaptada a suelos relativamente ácidos, de baja fertilidad.

  14. The Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia: Analyzing Regional Land Use Change Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael Keller; Maria Assunção Silva-Dias; Daniel C. Nepstad; Meinrat O. Andreae

    2004-01-01

    The Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA) is a multi-disciplinary, multinational scientific project led by Brazil. LBA researchers seek to understand Amazonia in its global context especially with regard to regional and global climate. Current development activities in Amazonia including deforestation, logging, cattle ranching, and agriculture...

  15. On the Relationship of Rainfall and Temperature across Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro Lima, C. H.; AghaKouchak, A.

    2017-12-01

    Extreme droughts in Amazonia seem to become more frequent and have been associated with local and global impacts on society and the ecosystem. The understanding of the dynamics and causes of Amazonia droughts have attracted some attention in the last years and pose several challenges for the scientific community. For instance, in previous work we have identified, based on empirical data, a compounding effect during Amazonia droughts: periods of low rainfall are always associated with positive anomalies of near surface air temperature. This inverse relationship of temperature and rainfall appears at multiple time scales and its intensity varies across Amazonia. To our knowledge, these findings have not been properly addressed in the literature, being not clear whether there is a causal relationship between these two variables, and in this case, which one leads the other one, or they are just responding to the same causal factor. Here we investigate the hypothesis that high temperatures during drought periods are a major response to an increase in the shortwave radiation (due to the lack of clouds) not compensating by an expected increase in the evapotranspiration from the rainforest. Our empirical analysis is based on observed series of daily temperature and rainfall over the Brazilian Amazonia and reanalysis data of cloud cover, outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) and moisture fluxes. The ability of Global Circulation Models (GCMs) to reproduce such compounding effect is also investigated for the historical period and for future RCP scenarios of global climate change. Preliminary results show that this is a plausible hypothesis, despite the complexity of land-atmosphere processes of mass and energy fluxes in Amazonia. This work is a step forward in better understanding the compounding effects of rainfall and temperature on Amazonia droughts, and what changes one might expect in a future warming climate.

  16. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of silver nanoparticles biosynthesized from aqueous leaves extracts of four Terminalia species

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Rafie, Hanaa Mohamed; Abdel-Aziz Hamed, Manal

    2014-09-01

    The environmentally friendly synthesis of nanoparticles process is a revolutionary step in the field of nanotechnology. In recent years plant mediated biological synthesis of nanoparticles has been gaining importance due to its simplicity and eco-friendliness. In this study, a simple and an efficient eco-friendly approach for the biosynthesis of stable, monodisperse silver nanoparticles using aqueous extracts of four Terminalia species, namely, Terminalia catappa, Terminalia mellueri, Terminalia bentazoe and Terminalia bellerica were described. The silver nanoparticles were characterized in terms of synthesis, capping functionalities (polysaccharides, phenolics and flavonoidal compounds) and microscopic evaluation by UV-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The results showed a simple and feasible approach for obtaining stable aqueous monodispersive silver nanoparticles. Furthermore, biological activity of the biosynthesized silver nanoparticles was examined. Concerning this, dose-dependent antioxidant activity of silver nanoparticles imparted by the plant phenolic and flavonoidal components was evaluated using in vitro 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay and found to be comparable to standard ascorbic acid. The same holds true for the anti-inflammatory activity where Terminalia catappa and Terminalia mellueri have a high-test inhibition percentage better than that of ascorbic acid in the carrageenan induced hind paw edema. The results also revealed that the aqueous extract of Terminallia catapa and its silver nanoparticles recorded the most potent in vivo antioxidant effect.

  17. Comparative study of the antioxidant and reactive oxygen species scavenging properties in the extracts of the fruits of Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica and Emblica officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazra, Bibhabasu; Sarkar, Rhitajit; Biswas, Santanu; Mandal, Nripendranath

    2010-05-13

    Cellular damage caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been implicated in several diseases, and hence natural antioxidants have significant importance in human health. The present study was carried out to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant and reactive oxygen species scavenging activities of Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica and Emblica officinalis fruit extracts. The 70% methanol extracts were studied for in vitro total antioxidant activity along with phenolic and flavonoid contents and reducing power. Scavenging ability of the extracts for radicals like DPPH, hydroxyl, superoxide, nitric oxide, hydrogen peroxide, peroxynitrite, singlet oxygen, hypochlorous acid were also performed to determine the potential of the extracts. The ability of the extracts of the fruits in exhibiting their antioxative properties follow the order T. chebula >E. officinalis >T. belerica. The same order is followed in their flavonoid content, whereas in case of phenolic content it becomes E. officinalis >T. belerica >T. chebula. In the studies of free radicals' scavenging, where the activities of the plant extracts were inversely proportional to their IC50 values, T. chebula and E. officinalis were found to be taking leading role with the orders of T. chebula >E. officinalis >T. belerica for superoxide and nitric oxide, and E. officinalis >T. belerica >T. chebula for DPPH and peroxynitrite radicals. Miscellaneous results were observed in the scavenging of other radicals by the plant extracts, viz., T. chebula >T. belerica >E. officinalis for hydroxyl, T. belerica >T. chebula >E. officinalis for singlet oxygen and T. belerica >E. officinalis >T. chebula for hypochlorous acid. In a whole, the studied fruit extracts showed quite good efficacy in their antioxidant and radical scavenging abilities, compared to the standards. The evidences as can be concluded from the study of the 70% methanol extract of the fruits of Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica and Emblica officinalis

  18. Kinetics of Autoxidation of an Oil Extract from Terminalia catappa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omeje, E O; Okide, G B; Esimone, C O; Ajali, U

    2008-01-01

    Soxhlet extractor was used in the extraction of oil from milled seeds of Terminalia catappa using petroleum ether (40-60 degrees ). The optimal oil yield was 56.71+/-1.66% with a viscosity of 40.79+/-1.05 centipoises. Other parameters of the oil were found as follows; specific gravity-0.9248, refractive index-1.4646, acid value-3.35, peroxide value-8.6, saponification value-166.2, and unsaponifiable matter-1.46. The crude oil extract was water-degummed, bleached and deodorized to generate what we called refined oil. Autoxidation of the crude and refined T. catappa oil extract was done at five different temperatures of 0+/-0.1 degrees , 20+/-0.1 degrees , 40+/-0.1 degrees , 60+/-0.1 degrees and 80+/-0.1 degrees and also in the presence of pure alpha-tocopherol at a concentration of 1.0% (w/v) by measuring peroxide value variations over 96 h. In all evaluations, the refined oil exhibited lower tendency towards autoxidation but not at temperatures above 60+/-0.1 degrees . The use of Arrhenius equation revealed generally very low activation energies of 0.0261 cal/degxmol and 0.0122cal/degxmol for crude oil and antioxidant-treated crude oil, respectively and 0.0690 cal/degxmol and 0.0177 cal/degxmol for the refined oil. This study indicates T. catappa seed oil to be potential pharmaceutical oil with excellent characteristics.

  19. Anti-Helicobacter pylori activity of Terminalia macroptera root.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Olga; Viegas, Sílvia; de Mello-Sampayo, Cristina; Costa, Maria João P; Serrano, Rita; Cabrita, José; Gomes, Elsa T

    2012-07-01

    The root of Terminalia macroptera Guill. & Perr. (Combretaceae) is widely used in African traditional medicine to treat various infectious diseases, including stomach-associated diseases. This study investigates the in vitro activity of T. macroptera root extract against reference strains and clinical isolates of H. pylori and attempts to localize the extract bioactivity. T. macroptera hydroethanol (80% V/V) root extract (Tmr) activity was tested against three standard strains and sixty two clinical strains of H. pylori. Tmr liquid-liquid partition fractions were screened against twenty H. pylori strains. Qualitative analysis of Tmr and its fractions was performed by HPLC-UV/DAD. The antibiotic characterization of the H. pylori strains revealed that 20% of the tested clinical isolates were resistant to at least two of the three antibiotics belonging to the main groups of antibiotics used in multi-therapy to eradicate H. pylori infections. In contrast, Tmr showed anti-H. pylori activity against the majority (92%) of the tested strains (MIC(50) and MIC(90)=200 μg/ml). The Tmr water liquid-liquid fraction (Tmr-3) and the precipitate obtained from this fraction (Tmr-5) were the most active tested samples, showing a MIC(50) of 100 μg/ml. The present work proves the in vitro activity of T. macroptera against H. pylori, thus confirming the utility of this traditional medicinal plant to treat stomach complaints due to H. pylori infection. The main compounds of Tmr and of Tmr-3 were the ellagitannins terchebulin and punicalagin. These compounds can be considered as markers of T. macroptera root active extracts against H. pylori. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Terminalia chebula Retz. – an important medicinal plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolla Jayaprakash Narayan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Ayurveda, whispered to be the ancient practice of healthcare existed and contributes a holistic approach to health, healing and longevity. Terminalia chebula Retz. is a popular plant and widely spread all over southern Asia. T. chebula is a native plant of India and its dried fruit is extensively used in various types of home remedies. Dried fruit of T. chebula contains high quantities phenolic compounds that consist of ellagic acid, gallic acid and chebulic acid. The fruit extract of T. chebula is known to display different biological properties like anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-protozoal, antimicrobial, hepato and renal protective activities, and in the management of metabolic syndrome. The phenolic active compounds might play vital role in the influence of biological activity. Fruit extract of T. chebula is widely employed as an important ingredient in various ayurvedic preparations like ‘Triphala’. This formulation is beneficial as detoxifying agent of the colon, purgative in chronic constipation, aids in digestion and as a body rejuvenator. The fruit has great medicinal significance and conventionally applied for the management of various illness conditions, such as sore throat, high cough, asthma, ulcers, gout, heart burn, vomiting, diarrhea, dysentery, bleeding piles and bladder diseases. It is also utilized as mild laxative, antispasmodic and stomachic. Because of these enormous medicinal properties, T. chebula is commonly termed as ‘King of Medicine’ in Tibet and can be called as a ‘wonder herb’. In the present review, recent advances in medicinal properties of T. chebula are discussed.

  1. Predicting pre-Columbian anthropogenic soils in Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMichael, C H; Palace, M W; Bush, M B; Braswell, B; Hagen, S; Neves, E G; Silman, M R; Tamanaha, E K; Czarnecki, C

    2014-02-22

    The extent and intensity of pre-Columbian impacts on lowland Amazonia have remained uncertain and controversial. Various indicators can be used to gauge the impact of pre-Columbian societies, but the formation of nutrient-enriched terra preta soils has been widely accepted as an indication of long-term settlement and site fidelity. Using known and newly discovered terra preta sites and maximum entropy algorithms (Maxent), we determined the influence of regional environmental conditions on the likelihood that terra pretas would have been formed at any given location in lowland Amazonia. Terra pretas were most frequently found in central and eastern Amazonia along the lower courses of the major Amazonian rivers. Terrain, hydrologic and soil characteristics were more important predictors of terra preta distributions than climatic conditions. Our modelling efforts indicated that terra pretas are likely to be found throughout ca 154 063 km(2) or 3.2% of the forest. We also predict that terra preta formation was limited in most of western Amazonia. Model results suggested that the distribution of terra preta was highly predictable based on environmental parameters. We provided targets for future archaeological surveys under the vast forest canopy and also highlighted how few of the long-term forest inventory sites in Amazonia are able to capture the effects of historical disturbance.

  2. Studi Potensi Bioherbisida Ekstrak Daun Ketapang (Terminalia Catappa) terhadap Gulma Rumput Teki (Cyperus Rotundus)

    OpenAIRE

    Purwani, Kristanti Indah; Riskitavani, Denada Visitia

    2013-01-01

    Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui apakah ekstrak daun ketapang (Terminalia catappa) dapat menghambat pertumbuhan gulma rumput teki (Cyperus rotundus) dan untuk mengetahui berapakah konsentrasi ekstrak daun ketapang (T. catappa) dapat menghambat pertumbuhan gulma rumput teki (C. rotundus). Penelitian ini dilakukan dengan cara maserasi ekstrak daun ketapang (T. catappa) dengan pelarut polar yaitu (ethanol 96%) kemudian di aplikasikan terhadap pertumbuhan gulma rumput teki (C. rotundus)....

  3. Effect of Terminalia catappa on lipid profile in transplanted fibrosarcoma in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naitik, Pandya; Prakash, Tigari; Kotresha, Dupadahalli; Rao, Nadendla Rama

    2012-05-01

    To evaluate the effect of an antitumor activity of Terminalia catappa on lipid lowering activity in transplanted fibrosarcoma in Wistar albino rats. Methylcholantherene-induced fibrosarcoma was transplanted in rats. After 30(th) day when tumor became palpable, started the treatment of ethanolic extract of Terminalia catappa by orally (250 and 500 mg/kg) for a period of 20 days. The blood sample was collected on 21(st) day, and the liver and the kidney were also removed for studying the lipid profile in serum and the tissues. The levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) were markedly elevated and high density lipoprotein (HDL) was markedly decreased in the serum of tumor bearing rats. Significant alterations were also observed in the lipid profile of liver and kidney. These changes were significantly reversed in Terminalia catappa (500 mg/kg) treated animals. The reversal of altered lipid levels to normal values in rats with experimentally induced tumor was showed antitumor activity by Terminalia catappa.

  4. Terminalia catappa L. (tropical almond) ofCombretaceae is a large ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Terminalia catappa L. (tropical almond) ofCombretaceae is a large handsome deciduous tree which branches in horizontal whorls. Leaves are simple and large which turn red before falling. Flowers are small, both bisexual and male, are borne in spike inflorescences. Fruits are ellipsoidal, slightly bilaterally compressed ...

  5. New anti-HIV-1, antimalarial, and antifungal compounds from Terminalia bellerica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valsaraj, R.; Pushpangadan, P.; Wagner Smitt, U.

    1997-01-01

    A bioactivity-guided fractionation of an extract of Terminalia bellerica fruit rind led to the isolation of two new lignans named termilignan (1) and thannilignan (2), together with 7-hydroxy-3',4'-(methylenedioxy)flavan (3) and anolignan B (4). All four compounds possessed demonstrable anti-HIV-1...

  6. In vivo toxicity evaluation of aqueous acetone extract of Terminalia bellirica (Gaertn.) Roxb. fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayesh, Kuriakose; Helen, Lal Raisa; Vysakh, A; Binil, Eldhose; Latha, M S

    2017-06-01

    Terminalia bellirica (Gaertn.) Roxb. (Family: Combretaceae), known as Bhibhitaki in Sanskrit and locally known as Behera in India is one of the oldest medicinal plants which has widely been used in the traditional system of medicine, especially in Ayurveda for centuries. The dried fruit of Terminalia bellirica is used for treating various ailments. Aqueous acetone extract of Terminalia bellirica (Gaertn.) Roxb fruits (AATB), showed antioxidant potential in our screening study is selected for the present in vivo toxicity evaluation. Acute administration of AATB was done in female Wistar Albino rats as a single dose up to 2000 mg/kg body weight. At the end of the study, Blood was collected for biochemical and hematological analyses, while histological examinations were performed on liver and kidney. There was no alteration in the behavioral pattern, food and water intake in the treated animals. The relative organ weight, biochemical parameters, hematological parameters and histopathological analysis were also found normal. All the parameters of the toxicity evaluation were found to be normal and the data suggests aqueous acetone extract of Terminalia bellirica fruit is safe, to be used as a traditional herbal formulation for its antioxidant potential and other health benefits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Catalogue of distribution of lizards (Reptilia: Squamata) from the Brazilian Amazonia. IV. Alopoglossidae, Gymnophthalmidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro-Júnior, Marco A; Amaral, Silvana

    2017-05-22

    We present distribution data of all Alopoglossidae and Gymnophthalmidae lizards known from the Brazilian Amazonia, totaling 54 species-level taxa, belonging to 17 genera and two families. This represents 22 more species-level taxa than previously reported. Data were based on 17,431 specimens deposited in three North American and eight Brazilian museums, including the main collections harboring Amazonian material. Most species (~80%) are endemic to Amazonia; non-endemic species are mainly associated with open vegetation (savanna) enclaves or open dry (semideciduous) forest in Amazonia, with a few exceptions. As a whole, seven taxa (including one species complex) are widespread in Amazonia, six are restricted to eastern Amazonia, seven to western Amazonia, two to southwestern Amazonia, 11 to southern Amazonia, 11 to northern Amazonia (either in part of it or widespread in the Guiana region), and six to the southern peripheral portion of Amazonia. Besides, four species present unique distributions. Considering this study and the other three catalogues of distribution of lizards already published, the total number of lizard species from Brazilian Amazonia increased from 97 to 142 species-level tava. It represents an increase of 45 species from the region since the last revision.

  8. Dynamics, patterns and causes of fires in Northwestern Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armenteras, Dolors; Retana, Javier

    2012-01-01

    According to recent studies, two widespread droughts occurred in the Amazon basin, one during 2005 and one during 2010. The drought increased the prevalence of climate-driven fires over most of the basin. Given the importance of human-atmosphere-vegetation interactions in tropical rainforests, these events have generated concerns over the vulnerability of this area to climate change. This paper focuses on one of the wettest areas of the basin, Northwestern Amazonia, where the interactions between the climate and fires are much weaker and where little is known about the anthropogenic drivers of fires. We have assessed the response of fires to climate over a ten-year period, and analysed the socio-economic and demographic determinants of fire occurrence. The patterns of fires and climate and their linkages in Northwestern Amazonia differ from the enhanced fire response to climate variation observed in the rest of Amazonia. The highest number of recorded fires in Northwestern Amazonia occurred in 2004 and 2007, and this did not coincide with the periods of extreme drought experienced in Amazonia in 2005 and 2010. Rather, during those years, Northwestern Amazonia experienced a relatively small numbers of fire hotspots. We have shown that fire occurrence correlated well with deforestation and was determined by anthropogenic drivers, mainly small-scale agriculture, cattle ranching (i.e., pastures) and active agricultural frontiers (including illegal crops). Thus, the particular climatic conditions for air convergence and rainfall created by proximity to the Andes, coupled with the presence of one of the most active colonisation fronts in the region, make this region differently affected by the general drought-induced fire patterns experienced by the rest of the Amazon. Moreover, the results suggest that, even in this wet region, humans are able to modify the frequency of fires and impact these historically well preserved forests.

  9. Dynamics, patterns and causes of fires in Northwestern Amazonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolors Armenteras

    Full Text Available According to recent studies, two widespread droughts occurred in the Amazon basin, one during 2005 and one during 2010. The drought increased the prevalence of climate-driven fires over most of the basin. Given the importance of human-atmosphere-vegetation interactions in tropical rainforests, these events have generated concerns over the vulnerability of this area to climate change. This paper focuses on one of the wettest areas of the basin, Northwestern Amazonia, where the interactions between the climate and fires are much weaker and where little is known about the anthropogenic drivers of fires. We have assessed the response of fires to climate over a ten-year period, and analysed the socio-economic and demographic determinants of fire occurrence. The patterns of fires and climate and their linkages in Northwestern Amazonia differ from the enhanced fire response to climate variation observed in the rest of Amazonia. The highest number of recorded fires in Northwestern Amazonia occurred in 2004 and 2007, and this did not coincide with the periods of extreme drought experienced in Amazonia in 2005 and 2010. Rather, during those years, Northwestern Amazonia experienced a relatively small numbers of fire hotspots. We have shown that fire occurrence correlated well with deforestation and was determined by anthropogenic drivers, mainly small-scale agriculture, cattle ranching (i.e., pastures and active agricultural frontiers (including illegal crops. Thus, the particular climatic conditions for air convergence and rainfall created by proximity to the Andes, coupled with the presence of one of the most active colonisation fronts in the region, make this region differently affected by the general drought-induced fire patterns experienced by the rest of the Amazon. Moreover, the results suggest that, even in this wet region, humans are able to modify the frequency of fires and impact these historically well preserved forests.

  10. Effect of Terminalia chebula extract and chlorhexidine on salivary pH and periodontal health: 2 weeks randomized control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Devanand; Bhaskar, D J; Gupta, Rajendra Kumar; Karim, Bushra; Gupta, Vipul; Punia, Himanshu; Batra, Manu; Jain, Ankita; Agarwal, Amit; Singh, Pradeep

    2014-07-01

    A double blind, randomized, controlled study with three parallel treatment groups was done to evaluate the efficacy of a Terminalia chebula 10% mouth rinse compared with chlorhexidine 0.12% mouth rinse, applied two times daily for 2 weeks, in the treatment of dental plaque and gingivitis. Seventy-eight patients were included in the study. The efficacy variables were periodontal indices on days 0, 7 and 14 after commencement of therapy. Twenty six patients received chlorhexidine mouth rinse, twenty six Terminalia chebula mouth rinse and twenty six received saline solution. The clinical parameters were significantly reduced by both chlorhexidine and Terminalia chebula mouth rinse although no significant difference was seen between the two groups (P > 0.05). This study demonstrated that Terminalia chebula mouth rinse is effective in reducing microbial plaque, gingival inflammation and neutralizing salivary pH. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) Density in Central Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Daniel Gomes da; Sollmann, Rahel; Ramalho, Emiliano Esterci; Ilha, Renata; Tan, Cedric K W

    2016-01-01

    Ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) are presumed to be the most abundant of the wild cats throughout their distribution range and to play an important role in the dynamics of sympatric small-felid populations. However, ocelot ecological information is limited, particularly for the Amazon. We conducted three camera-trap surveys during three consecutive dry seasons to estimate ocelot density in Amanã Reserve, Central Amazonia, Brazil. We implemented a spatial capture-recapture (SCR) model that shared detection parameters among surveys. A total effort of 7020 camera-trap days resulted in 93 independent ocelot records. The estimate of ocelot density in Amanã Reserve (24.84 ± SE 6.27 ocelots per 100 km2) was lower than at other sites in the Amazon and also lower than that expected from a correlation of density with latitude and rainfall. We also discuss the importance of using common parameters for survey scenarios with low recapture rates. This is the first density estimate for ocelots in the Brazilian Amazon, which is an important stronghold for the species.

  12. The mitogenome of Onchocerca volvulus from the Brazilian Amazonia focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crainey, James L; Silva, Túllio R R da; Encinas, Fernando; Marín, Michel A; Vicente, Ana Carolina P; Luz, Sérgio L B

    2016-01-01

    We report here the first complete mitochondria genome of Onchocerca volvulus from a focus outside of Africa. An O. volvulus mitogenome from the Brazilian Amazonia focus was obtained using a combination of high-throughput and Sanger sequencing technologies. Comparisons made between this mitochondrial genome and publicly available mitochondrial sequences identified 46 variant nucleotide positions and suggested that our Brazilian mitogenome is more closely related to Cameroon-origin mitochondria than West African-origin mitochondria. As well as providing insights into the origins of Latin American onchocerciasis, the Brazilian Amazonia focus mitogenome may also have value as an epidemiological resource.

  13. The mitogenome of Onchocerca volvulus from the Brazilian Amazonia focus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James L Crainey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report here the first complete mitochondria genome of Onchocerca volvulus from a focus outside of Africa. An O. volvulus mitogenome from the Brazilian Amazonia focus was obtained using a combination of high-throughput and Sanger sequencing technologies. Comparisons made between this mitochondrial genome and publicly available mitochondrial sequences identified 46 variant nucleotide positions and suggested that our Brazilian mitogenome is more closely related to Cameroon-origin mitochondria than West African-origin mitochondria. As well as providing insights into the origins of Latin American onchocerciasis, the Brazilian Amazonia focus mitogenome may also have value as an epidemiological resource.

  14. Hypotheses to explain the origin of species in Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Haffer

    Full Text Available The main hypotheses proposed to explain barrier formation separating populations and causing the differentiation of species in Amazonia during the course of geological history are based on different factors, as follow: (1 Changes in the distribution of land and sea or in the landscape due to tectonic movements or sea level fluctuations (Paleogeography hypothesis, (2 the barrier effect of Amazonian rivers (River hypothesis, (3 a combination of the barrier effect of broad rivers and vegetational changes in northern and southern Amazonia (River-refuge hypothesis, (4 the isolation of humid rainforest blocks near areas of surface relief in the periphery of Amazonia separated by dry forests, savannas and other intermediate vegetation types during dry climatic periods of the Tertiary and Quaternary (Refuge hypothesis, (5 changes in canopy-density due to climatic reversals (Canopy-density hypothesis (6 the isolation and speciation of animal populations in small montane habitat pockets around Amazonia due to climatic fluctuations without major vegetational changes (Museum hypothesis, (7 competitive species interactions and local species isolations in peripheral regions of Amazonia due to invasion and counterinvasion during cold/warm periods of the Pleistocene (Disturbance-vicariance hypothesis and (8 parapatric speciation across steep environmental gradients without separation of the respective populations (Gradient hypothesis. Several of these hypotheses probably are relevant to a different degree for the speciation processes in different faunal groups or during different geological periods. The basic paleogeography model refers mainly to faunal differentiation during the Tertiary and in combination with the Refuge hypothesis. Milankovitch‡ cycles leading to global main hypotheses proposed to explain barrier formation separating populations and causing the differentiation of species in Amazonia during the course of geological history are based on

  15. Hypotheses to explain the origin of species in Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haffer, J

    2008-11-01

    The main hypotheses proposed to explain barrier formation separating populations and causing the differentiation of species in Amazonia during the course of geological history are based on different factors, as follow: (1) Changes in the distribution of land and sea or in the landscape due to tectonic movements or sea level fluctuations (Paleogeography hypothesis), (2) the barrier effect of Amazonian rivers (River hypothesis), (3) a combination of the barrier effect of broad rivers and vegetational changes in northern and southern Amazonia (River-refuge hypothesis), (4) the isolation of humid rainforest blocks near areas of surface relief in the periphery of Amazonia separated by dry forests, savannas and other intermediate vegetation types during dry climatic periods of the Tertiary and Quaternary (Refuge hypothesis), (5) changes in canopy-density due to climatic reversals (Canopy-density hypothesis) (6) the isolation and speciation of animal populations in small montane habitat pockets around Amazonia due to climatic fluctuations without major vegetational changes (Museum hypothesis), (7) competitive species interactions and local species isolations in peripheral regions of Amazonia due to invasion and counterinvasion during cold/warm periods of the Pleistocene (Disturbance-vicariance hypothesis) and (8) parapatric speciation across steep environmental gradients without separation of the respective populations (Gradient hypothesis). Several of these hypotheses probably are relevant to a different degree for the speciation processes in different faunal groups or during different geological periods. The basic paleogeography model refers mainly to faunal differentiation during the Tertiary and in combination with the Refuge hypothesis. Milankovitch cycles leading to global main hypotheses proposed to explain barrier formation separating populations and causing the differentiation of species in Amazonia during the course of geological history are based on different

  16. Catalogue of distribution of lizards (Reptilia: Squamata) from the Brazilian Amazonia. III. Anguidae, Scincidae, Teiidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro-Júnior, Marco A; Amaral, Silvana

    2016-12-09

    We present distribution data of all Anguidae, Scincidae, and Teiidae lizards known from the Brazilian Amazonia, totaling 29 species-level taxa, belonging to 14 genera. This represents 11 more species-level taxa than previously reported for these families in this area. Data were based on literature and 46,806 specimens deposited in three North American and eight Brazilian museums, including the main collections harboring Amazonian material. Most species (~55%) are endemic to Amazonia. Except for Ameiva ameiva, that is present in several environments and domains, non-endemic species are either associated with open dry (semideciduous) forest or open vegetation (savanna) enclaves in Amazonia, occupying similar environments outside Amazonia, gallery forests within the Cerrado, or present disjunct populations in the Atlantic Forest. As a whole, six taxa are widespread in Amazonia, four are restricted to eastern Amazonia, four to western Amazonia, three to southwestern Amazonia, one to northern Amazonia, and seven to the southern peripheral portion of Amazonia. Besides, two species present apparently more restricted, unique distributions. Only three species have a distribution that is congruent with one of the areas of endemism (AE) recognized for other organisms (birds and primates), of which two occur in AE Guiana and one in AE Inambari.

  17. Catalogue of distribution of lizards (Reptilia: Squamata) from the Brazilian Amazonia. II. Gekkonidae, Phyllodactylidae, Sphaerodactylidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro-Júnior, Marco A

    2015-07-02

    I present distribution data of all geckos (Gekkonidae, Phyllodactylidae and Sphaerodactylidae) known from the Brazilian Amazonia, totaling 19 species, belonging to nine genera. This represents six more taxa than previously reported for these families. Data were based on the direct examination of 23,094 specimens deposited in three North American and eight Brazilian museums. Most species (68.4%) are endemic to the Amazonia; non-endemic species are mainly associated with open dry (semideciduous) forest or open vegetation (savanna) enclaves in Amazonia. As a whole, three taxa are widespread in Amazonia, two are restricted to eastern Amazonia, two to western Amazonia, three to northern Amazonia (either widespread or restriced to parts of the Guiana region), one to southern Amazonia, one to southwestern Amazonia, and three to the southern peripheral portion of Amazonia. Additionally, four species have unique distributions and four species have a distribution that is congruent with one of the areas of endemism recognized for other organisms (birds and primates), of which two occur in the area of endemism of Guiana, one in Inambari, and one in Tapajós.

  18. Isolation and characterization of antimicrobial compounds from Terminalia phanerophlebia Engl. & Diels leaf extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madikizela, B; Aderogba, M A; Finnie, J F; Van Staden, J

    2014-10-28

    The emergence of drug resistant-tuberculosis and other pathogenic diseases over the past decades, constitutes a serious threat to human health worldwide. According to a 2012 report by the World Health Organization (WHO), South Africa, China, India and Russia are the countries with the highest prevalence of Multi-Drug Resistant tuberculosis (MDR-tuberculosis) as they represented 60% of the total. Several reports have documented antimycobacterial properties of Terminalia species but only a few species from this genus have been explored for their antimycobacterial constituents. The crude extracts of Terminalia phanerophlebia showed good antimicrobial activities in our previous study against two Mycobacterium as well as two other bacterial strains responsible for opportunistic infections related to respiratory ailments. This paper studies the isolation of compounds responsible for such activities and to isolate compounds responsible for antimicrobial activities from the crude extracts of Terminalia phanerophlebia leaves. Terminalia phanerophlebia crude extracts obtained from 80% methanol was successively extracted with hexane, dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate (EtOAc) and n-butanol. The fractions obtained and isolated compounds were tested for their antibacterial activities against Mycobacterium aurum, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Bioguided fractionation of the EtOAc fraction afforded two bioactive compounds. Structure elucidation was carried out using NMR (1D and 2D) spectroscopic methods. EtOAc fraction exhibited highest antimicrobial activities and its fractionation afforded methyl gallate (methyl-3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoate) (1) and a phenylpropanoid glucoside, 1,6-di-O-coumaroyl glucopyranoside (2) These compounds are reported from Terminalia phanerophlebia for the first time. Both compounds showed good antimicrobial activity against all bacterial strains tested with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values

  19. Genome sequence of the human pathogen Vibrio cholerae Amazonia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thompson, C.C.; Marin, M.A.; Dias, G.M.; Dutilh, B.E.; Edwards, R.A.; Iida, T.; Thompson, F.L.; Vicente, A.C.

    2011-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae O1 Amazonia is a pathogen that was isolated from cholera-like diarrhea cases in at least two countries, Brazil and Ghana. Based on multilocus sequence analysis, this lineage belongs to a distinct profile compared to strains from El Tor and classical biotypes. The genomic analysis

  20. Molluscan radiations and landscape evolution in Miocene Amazonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesselingh, F.P.

    2008-01-01

    This PhD study aims to exploit the rich archive provided by the Miocene mollusc fauna of the Pebas Formation and other inland Miocene Amazonian formations to reconstruct landscape evolution and biotic development in lowland Amazonia during the Neogene. Over 160 samples from more than 70 Pebas

  1. Astrocaryum (palmae in Amazonia a preliminary treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available ASTROCARYUM (PALMAE EN AMAZONIE. TRAITEMENT PRÉLIMINAIRE. Le genre Astrocaryum est composé de 24 espèces amazoniennes: cinq appartiennent au sous-genre Pleiogynanthus et 19 au sous-genre Monogynanthus (3 à la section Munbaca et 16 à la section Ayri. Une clé d’identification est proposée, ainsi que la description de chaque espèce, complétée par de nouvelles observations et suivie de notes sur la distribution géographique, l’écologie et les utilisations. Six espeses nouvelles sont décrites. ASTROCARYUM (PALMAE EN LA AMAZONIA. TRATAMIENTO PRELIMINAR. Astrocaryum consta de 24 especies amazónicas, 5 de las cuales pertenecen al subgénero Pleiogynanthus y 19 al subgénero Monogynanthus (3 a la sección Munbaca, 16 a la sección Ayri. Se presenta una clave para diferenciar las especies, y para cada una, su descripción con nuevos datos, así como notas sobre la distribución geográfica, la ecología y los usos. Se describen seis especies nuevas. In the Amazon, Astrocaryum includes 24 species of which five belong to the subgenus Pleiogynanthus and 19 to the subgenus Monogynanthus - three in the section Munbaca and 16 in the section Ayri. A key to these 24 species is presented followed by description based on new data, and notes on their distribution, ecology and uses. Six new species are described.

  2. Selective Logging, Fire, and Biomass in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, R. A.

    1999-01-01

    Biomass and rates of disturbance are major factors in determining the net flux of carbon between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere, and neither of them is well known for most of the earth's surface. Satellite data over large areas are beginning to be used systematically to measure rates of two of the most important types of disturbance, deforestation and reforestation, but these are not the only types of disturbance that affect carbon storage. Other examples include selective logging and fire. In northern mid-latitude forests, logging and subsequent regrowth of forests have, in recent decades, contributed more to the net flux of carbon between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere than any other type of land use. In the tropics logging is also becoming increasingly important. According to the FAO/UNEP assessment of tropical forests, about 25% of total area of productive forests have been logged one or more times in the 60-80 years before 1980. The fraction must be considerably greater at present. Thus, deforestation by itself accounts for only a portion of the emissions carbon from land. Furthermore, as rates of deforestation become more accurately measured with satellites, uncertainty in biomass will become the major factor accounting for the remaining uncertainty in estimates of carbon flux. An approach is needed for determining the biomass of terrestrial ecosystems. 3 Selective logging is increasingly important in Amazonia, yet it has not been included in region-wide, satellite-based assessments of land-cover change, in part because it is not as striking as deforestation. Nevertheless, logging affects terrestrial carbon storage both directly and indirectly. Besides the losses of carbon directly associated with selective logging, logging also increases the likelihood of fire.

  3. Particle Rebound and Phase State in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, S. T.; Bateman, A.; Liu, P.; Gong, Z.; Zhang, Y.; Sato, B. B.; Cirino, G. G.; Manzi, A. O.; Ferreira De Brito, J.; Artaxo, P.; Souza, R. A. F. D.

    2014-12-01

    The effect of relative humidity (RH) on the extent of semisolidity of particulate matter during GoAmazon 2014 was investigated through the use of particle rebound (or lack thereof) during impaction. Particle rebound measurements from the same region during the 2013 dry and wet season are also presented. The physics governing particle rebound has been previously modeled and can be attributed to the surface and material properties. Recent studies suggest that a particle phase transition from liquid to semisolid or solid phase states can alter chemical reaction pathways by shifting from absorption to adsorption mechanisms. The phase state of secondary organic material is regulated by the local relative humidity (RH), the recent history of RH in the case of hysteresis, and chemical composition, among other factors. Across the range of atmospheric RH, hygroscopic water uptake can occur and transitions from higher to lower viscosity phases are possible. By varying the particulate matter water content and observing particle rebound as a function of RH, the phase state of the organic material under investigation can be determined. Custom made impactors were employed to study the effects of RH (up to 95%) on the particle phase. Results inferred from the particle rebound measurements indicate that under ambient conditions (RH > 70%) particles in Amazonia can be considered in a liquid phase state. However, during certain time periods, a small fraction (10 - 20 %) of particles are found to rebound during the highest RH conditions, an indication of a semi-solid or solid phase state. The possible chemical composition of this fraction of particles is investigated and correlated with additional measurements from the GoAmazon 2014 campaign.

  4. Caida de hojarasca y tasas de descomposición de las hojas de vochysia guatemalesis en una plantación de 10 años, Tabarcia de Mora, Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    José Fco. Di Stefano; Luis A. Fournier

    2005-01-01

    Para facilitar la comprensión del ciclaje de nutrimentos dentro de una plantación forestal de Vochysia guatemalensis con 10 años, se determinó la caída de hojarasca y la tasa de descomposición de hojas durante un año. Para la caída de hojarasca, se distribuyó al azar trampas rectangulares de 0,71 m2 con cedazo plástico de 1,5x1,5 mm; el material fue recogido mensualmente. Para la descomposición, se colocó bolsas de 0,4 m2 de cedazo metálico de 1,5x1,5 mm, con 8 g...

  5. Neogene Amazonia: Introduction to the special issue Journal of South American Earth Sciences, New contributions on Neogene geography and depositional environments in Amazonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorn, C.; Vonhof, H.B.

    2006-01-01

    The paleontological data presented in this special issue provide a new insight into species migration and radiation in Amazonia during the Miocene. At the time, Amazonia was characterized by a very extensive, long-lived, semi-isolated, freshwater wetland ecosystem that was supplied with water and

  6. The Frequency and Fate of Understory Forest Fires in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, D. C.; le page, Y.; Wang, D.; Chen, Y.; Randerson, J. T.; Collatz, G. J.; Giglio, L.; Hurtt, G. C.; DeFries, R. S.

    2012-12-01

    Fires for deforestation or agricultural management frequently escape their intended boundaries and burn standing Amazon forests. The extent and frequency of understory forest fires are critical to assess forest carbon emissions and the long-term legacy of understory fires in Amazonia. Patterns of understory fire activity under current climate conditions also offer a blueprint for potential changes in Amazon forests under scenarios of future climate and land use. Here, we estimated of the extent and frequency of understory forest fires for the entire arc of deforestation in southern Amazonia using a time series of annual Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data. Understory forest fires burned more than 80,000 km2 during 1999-2010. Fires were widespread along the southern and eastern extents of Amazon forests during the four years with highest fire activity (1999, 2005, 2007, 2010). The interannual variability in understory fires offered new insights into fire-climate dynamics in Amazonia over a range of temporal scales, based on the combination of burned area, MODIS active fire detections, and reanalysis climate data. Initial fire exposure reduces aboveground carbon stocks, and frequent fires are one possible mechanism for long-term changes the structure of Amazon forests. Repeated burning was concentrated in southeastern Amazonia, and >95% of all repeated fires occurred in the Brazilian states of Mato Grosso and Pará. Forests that burned two or more times during this period accounted for 16% of understory fire activity. Finally, deforestation of burned forests was rare, suggesting that forest degradation from understory fires was an independent source of carbon emissions during this period. Modeling the time scales of carbon loss and recovery in burned forests is therefore critical to estimate the net carbon emissions from these fires. The results of this study suggest that understory fires operate as a large-scale edge effect in Amazonia, as

  7. Droughts in Amazonia: Spatiotemporal Variability, Teleconnections, and Seasonal Predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Carlos H. R.; AghaKouchak, Amir

    2017-12-01

    Most Amazonia drought studies have focused on rainfall deficits and their impact on river discharges, while the analysis of other important driver variables, such as temperature and soil moisture, has attracted less attention. Here we try to better understand the spatiotemporal dynamics of Amazonia droughts and associated climate teleconnections as characterized by the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI), which integrates information from rainfall deficit, temperature anomalies, and soil moisture capacity. The results reveal that Amazonia droughts are most related to one dominant pattern across the entire region, followed by two seesaw kind of patterns: north-south and east-west. The main two modes are correlated with sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in the tropical Pacific and Atlantic oceans. The teleconnections associated with global SST are then used to build a seasonal forecast model for PDSI over Amazonia based on predictors obtained from a sparse canonical correlation analysis approach. A unique feature of the presented drought prediction method is using only a few number of predictors to avoid excessive noise in the predictor space. Cross-validated results show correlations between observed and predicted spatial average PDSI up to 0.60 and 0.45 for lead times of 5 and 9 months, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study in the region that, based on cross-validation results, leads to appreciable forecast skills for lead times beyond 4 months. This is a step forward in better understanding the dynamics of Amazonia droughts and improving risk assessment and management, through improved drought forecasting.

  8. Biosynthesis of Gold Nanoparticles (Green-gold Using Leaf Extract of Terminalia Catappa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balaprasad Ankamwar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of eco-friendly nanoparticles is evergreen branch of nanoscience for biomedical application. Low cost of synthesis and non toxicity are main features make it more attractive potential option for biomedical field and elsewhere. Here, we report the synthesis of gold nanoparticles in aqueous medium using Terminalia catappa (Almond leaf extract as the reducing and stabilizing agent. On treating chloroauric acid solutions with Terminalia catappa (TC leaf extract rapid reduction of chloroaurate ions is observed leading to the formation of highly stable gold nanoparticles in solution. TEM analysis of the gold nanoparticles indicated that they ranged in size from 10 to 35 nm with average size of 21.9 nm.

  9. Effect of carboxymethylation on rheological and drug release characteristics of Terminalia catappa gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Radhika; Rana, Vikas

    2017-11-01

    The carboxymethylation of galactomannans, arabinogalactans, arbinoxylan, etc is known to modify solubility, swelling index, rheological behaviour, powder characteristics, etc. Therefore, an attempt had been made to study the effect of carboxymethylation on Terminalia catappa (TC) gum. For this, modified Williamson synthesis reaction was utilized employing Quality by Design (QbD) approach. Grafting of carboxymethyl group on Terminalia catappa was confirmed by ATR-FTIR, H 1 NMR and DSC analyses. The rheological attributes revealed that the carboxymethylation of TC lowers the viscosity, enhance thermal stability (high activation energy), disentanglement was near to re-entanglement, and weak gelling characteristic. However, the soluble fluconazole loaded gel formulation of CMTC showed diffusion based kinetic model indicating good reservoir for effective application on skin/tissue surfaces. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Antimicrobial, antioxidant, and synergistic properties of two nutraceutical plants: Terminalia catappa L. and Colocasia esculenta L.

    OpenAIRE

    CHANDA, Sumitra; RAKHOLIYA, Kalpna; DHOLAKIA, Komal; BARAVALIA, Yogesh

    2013-01-01

    Antibiotics have been effective in treating infectious diseases, but resistance to these drugs has led to the emergence of new and reemergence of old infectious diseases. Using a combination of plant extracts and antibiotics is one way of combating these multidrug-resistant microorganisms. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of 2 nutraceutical plants: Terminalia catappa and Colocasia esculenta. The antimicrobial activity of the plants was...

  11. Chemical, biological and ethnopharmacological studies of two Malian medicinal plants: Terminalia macroptera and Biophytum umbraculum

    OpenAIRE

    Pham, Anh Thu

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to investigate the chemical and biochemical properties of the Malian medicinal plants Terminalia macroptera and Biophytum umbraculum, with main focus on its phenolic substances. This thesis is a part of a research project in which the ultimate goal is to provide efficient, non-toxic and inexpensive medicines for the Malian population. Extraction and purification of fractions from T. macroptera resulted in the isolation of several polyphenolic compounds such as h...

  12. Kjemiske og biokjemiske studier av den maliske medisinplanten Terminalia macroptera : Etnofarmakologiske studier i Mali

    OpenAIRE

    Pham, Anh Thu

    2009-01-01

    Blader fra den vest-afrikanske planten Terminalia macroptera ble ekstrahert suksessivt med diklormetan og metanol. Disse utgjorde råekstraktene, som var utgangspunkt for videre separasjon og fraksjonering ved hjelp av væske-væske ekstraksjon, kolonnekromatografi og tynnsjiktskromatografi. De isolerte forbindelsene ble strukturoppklart ved 1H-, 13C-, APT- og COSY NMR-spektroskopi. Shikimisyre, flavonoidglykosidene rutin og narcissin, og ellagitanninet corilagin ble isolert fra butanol-fasen...

  13. Complement Fixing Polysaccharides from Terminalia macroptera Root Bark, Stem Bark and Leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan-Feng Zou; Bing-Zhao Zhang; Hilde Barsett; Kari Tvete Inngjerdingen; Drissa Diallo; Terje Einar Michaelsen; Berit Smestad Paulsen

    2014-01-01

    The root bark, stem bark and leaves of Terminalia macroptera were sequentially extracted with ethanol, 50% ethanol-water, and 50 °C and 100 °C water using an accelerated solvent extractor. Ten bioactive purified polysaccharide fractions were obtained from those crude extracts after anion exchange chromatography and gel filtration. The polysaccharides and their native extracts were characterized with respect to molecular weight, chemical compositions and effects in the complement assay. The ch...

  14. Struktur- og aktivitetsstudier av Polysakkarider isolert fra Terminalia macroptera og Spilanthes oleracea

    OpenAIRE

    Khasraw Sabir, Dimen

    2014-01-01

    Terminalia macroptera og Spilanthes oleracea er to planter som anvendes mye i tradisjonell medisin blant annet mot malaria. Malaria er en sykdom som er mest utbredt i Afrika. Ved malaria er immunsystemet nedsatt og i flere studier har det blitt vist at polysakkarider har egenskaper til å stimulere immunsystemet. Hovedmålet med denne oppgaven var å isolere polysakkarider og analyseres med hensyn til karbohydratinnhold og struktur. Det ble isolert polysakkarider fra blader, rotbark for Termi...

  15. Formulation of Gastric Floating System Using Bio-Sourced Terminalia Catappa Gum and in vivo Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meka, Venkata Srikanth; Murthy Kolapalli, Venkata Ramana

    2016-01-01

    A central composite design was applied to design a novel gastric floating drug delivery system comprising propranolol HCl in Terminalia catappa gum and to evaluate the buoyancy, in vitro drug release behavior, and pharmacokinetic parameters. All formulations exhibited good buoyancy properties in vitro reflected by floating lag time of 1-110 sec, total floating time of 9-16 h and prolonged release behaviour (upto 12 h). Statistically optimised formulation (PBGRso) was orally administered to human volunteers under both fasted and fed conditions to evaluate gastric floating behavior under different food conditions by X-ray evaluation. In vivo studies of optimised formulations revealed that the gastric residence time of floating tablets was enhanced in the fed but not in the fasted state. Pharmacokinetic studies of the optimised Terminalia catappa formulation and a commercial product (Ciplar LA 80) carried out on healthy human volunteers showed a significant improvement in the bioavailability (132%) of propranolol HCl released from from the experimental Terminalia catappa formulations compared with Ciplar LA 80.

  16. Assessment of macrofilaricidal activity of leaf extracts of Terminalia sp. against bovine filarial parasite Setaria cervi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behera, Dipti Ranjan; Bhatnagar, Sunita

    2018-02-05

    Antifilarial potential of three medicinal plants namely, Terminalia bellerica, Terminalia chebula and Terminalia catappa was explored using Setaria cervi, a bovine filarial parasite at concentrations of 2.5, 5 and 10mg/ml. Amongst all the extracts, methanol extract of T. bellerica showed highest macrofilaricidal activity i.e. 84.63±1.11 at 10mg/ml in MTT reduction assay with IC 50 value of 2.7mg/ml. which was better than the standard DEC i.e. 79.22±3.1% at 10mg/ml with IC 50 value 2.84mg/ml. Other plant extracts showed mild in vitro macrofilaricidal activity. T. bellerica methanol extract exhibited significant GST activity of 18.86±0.21 and 12.83±0.03μM/ml/min at 5 and 10mg/ml with percentage inhibition value of 73.96% and 82.29% respectively. DEC showed GST activity value of 40.03±4.14 and 21.48±6.44μM/ml/min with percentage inhibition value of 21.76% and 58.01% at 5 and 10mg/ml respectively. Thus, methanol extract of leaves of T. bellerica exhibited highly significant antifilarial potential and needs detailed analysis. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Proposed mechanisms of Terminalia catappa in hyperglycaemia and associated diabetic complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behl, Tapan; Kotwani, Anita

    2017-02-01

    Terminalia catappa has shown potent antidiabetic activity in the past; however, the exact molecular mechanisms by which it acts have not been elucidated. This review aims at exploring several hypotheses which have been proposed to explain its mechanism of action, including reduction in oxidative stress, inflammation, angiogenesis, lipid profile correction and direct hypoglycaemic actions. A thorough review of all the articles, research as well as reviews, available regarding the concerned topic was performed. MEDLINE databases were searched using keywords (and their combinations), such as T. catappa, renin oxidative stress, inflammation, angiogenesis, diabetic retinopathy, α-glucosidase and α-amylase, among several others. English-language articles were preferably selected. Apart from metabolic dysfunctions, several hyperglycaemia-induced pathological conditions come into scene as the after-effects of diabetes. These mainly include inflammation, oxidative stress, angiogenesis and lipid profile alteration, which ultimately result in vascular endothelial dysfunction, hepatic steatosis, lipid peroxidation and apoptosis of endothelial, hepatic and neuronal cells. Terminalia catappa effectively attenuates the progression of diabetic retinopathy and shows significant hypoglycaemic actions. The mechanisms behind these effects were explained. Terminalia catappa may provide an effective natural product to treat hyperglycaemia and prevent subsequent diabetic complications. © 2016 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  18. Ethnobotany, phytochemistry, toxicology and pharmacological properties of Terminalia sericea Burch. ex DC. (Combretaceae) - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mongalo, N I; McGaw, L J; Segapelo, T V; Finnie, J F; Van Staden, J

    2016-12-24

    The use of medicinal plants in the treatment of infections is ancient. A wide variety of ethnotherapeutic properties and pharmacological actions has been attributed to Terminalia sericea. Studies by various groups of investigators reveal that it is a multipurpose medicinal plant used mostly in the treatment of diarrhoea, sexually transmitted infections, skin rashes, tuberculosis and other infections. The current paper is aimed at providing an overview of the ethnomedicinal uses, toxicology, pharmacology and the phytochemistry of Terminalia sericea. Information was retrieved using various search engines, including Pubmed, Science Direct, Google Scholar, Scielo, SciFinder and Scopus. The key words used included Terminalia sericea, secondary metabolites, phytochemistry, biological activity, pharmacology, ethnobotanical survey, medicinal uses, safety, toxicology and other related words. Terminalia sericea is an important medicinal plant which possesses anti-HIV, anti-fungal, anti-bacterial, anticancer, lipolytic, wound healing, antiparasitic, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activity, as the most valuable biological activities, thus lending pharmacological support to the plant's folkloric uses in indigenous medicine. Toxicologically, the extracts and isolated compounds from the plant species may have mild toxic effects. Phytochemically, the plant species possesses valuable compounds including triterpenes, alkaloids and flavonoids which may well contribute to its biological activity. Terminalia sericea contains secondary metabolites which are valuable in the treatment of a variety of human infections, including community acquired infections which may be prevalent in developing countries. The degree of toxicity reported in various extracts warrants further exploration of the cytotoxicity of the plant species, both against normal human cell lines and in vivo. Moreover, the acetylcholinesterase inhibitory and anti-inflammatory effects also need to be further

  19. Comparative evaluation of terminalia chebula extract mouthwash and chlorhexidine mouthwash on plaque and gingival inflammation - 4-week randomised control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Devanand; Gupta, Rajendra Kumar; Bhaskar, Dara John; Gupta, Vipul

    2015-01-01

    The present study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of Terminalia chebula on plaque and gingival inflammation and compare it with the gold standard chlorhexidine (CHX 0.2%) and distilled water as control (placebo). A double-blind randomised control trial was conducted among undergraduate students who volunteered. They were randomly allocated into three study groups: 1) Terminalia chebula mouthwash (n = 30); 2) chlorhexidine (active control) (n = 30); 3) distilled water (placebo) (n = 30). Assessment was carried out according to plaque score and gingival score. Statistical analysis was carried out to compare the effect of both mouthwashes. ANOVA and post-hoc LSD tests were performed using SPSS version 17 with p ≤ 0.05 considered statistically significant. Our result showed that Terminalia chebula mouthrinse is as effective as chlorhexidine in reducing dental plaque and gingival inflammation. The results demonstrated a significant reduction of gingival bleeding and plaque indices in both groups over a period of 15 and 30 days as compared to the placebo. The results of the present study indicate that Terminalia chebula may prove to be an effective mouthwash. Terminalia chebula extract mouthrinse can be used as an alternative to chlorhexidine mouthrinse as it has similar properties without the side-effects of the latter.

  20. Greenhouse gases study in Amazonia; Estudo de gases de efeito estufa na Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Amelio, Monica Tais Siqueira

    2006-07-01

    The Amazon plays an important role on the global carbon cycle, as changing as carbon storage, since Amazon Basin is the biggest area of tropical forest, around 50% of global. Natural's process, deforestation, and use land are CO{sub 2} sources. The Amazon forest is a significant source of N{sub 2}O by soil process, and CH{sub 4} by anaerobic process like flooded areas, rice cultures, and others sources. This project is part of the LBA project (Large-Scale Biosphere Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia), and this project is 'Vertical profiles of carbon dioxide and other trace gas species over the Amazon basin using small aircraft'. Since December 2000 vertical profiles of CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, CO, H{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O and SF{sub 6} have been measured above central Amazonia. The local sampling was over Tapajos National Forest, a primary forest in Para State, where had a CO{sub 2} flux tower and an east impact area with sources like animals, rice cultivation, biomass burning, etc, to compare the influence of an impact area and a preserved area in the profiles. The Reserva Biologica de Cuieiras, at Amazon State, is the other studied place, where there already exists a CO{sub 2} flux tower, and an east preserved area at this State, to compare with the Cuieiras. The sampling has been carried out on vertical profile from 1000 ft up to 12000 ft using a semi-automated sampling package developed at GMD/NOAA and a small aircraft. The analysis uses the MAGICC system (Multiple Analysis of Gases Influence Climate Change) which is installed at the Atmospheric Chemistry Laboratory (LQA) in IPEN (Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares). The results showed that all gases studied, except H{sub 2} gas, has been following the global trend. At the Para State, for the studied years, the Amazonian Forest performed as small CO{sub 2} sink. To compare Wet and Dry Seasons, subtracted the Ascension concentration values in the period to remove the global influence. So that

  1. Catalogue of distribution of lizards (Reptilia: Squamata) from the Brazilian Amazonia. I. Dactyloidae, Hoplocercidae, Iguanidae, Leiosauridae, Polychrotidae, Tropiduridae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro-Júnior, Marco A

    2015-07-08

    I present distribution data of all Dactyloidae, Hoplocercidae, Iguanidae, Leiosauridae, Polychrotidae and Tropiduridae lizards known from the Brazilian Amazonia, totaling 40 species-level taxa, belonging to 11 genera. This represents four more species-level taxa than previously reported for these families. Data were based on the direct examination of 41,243 specimens deposited in three North American and eight Brazilian musea, including the main collections harboring Amazonian material. Most species (62.5%) are endemic to the Amazonia; non-endemic species are mainly associated with open dry (semideciduous) forest or open vegetation (savanna) enclaves in Amazonia, with a few exceptions. As a whole, seven taxa are widespread in Amazonia, one is restricted to eastern Amazonia, three to western Amazonia, five to northern Amazonia (either in part of it or widespread in the Guiana region), two to northwestern Amazonia, one to southern Amazonia, nine to southwestern Amazonia, and seven to the southern peripheral portion of Amazonia. Five species have unique distributions and five species have a distribution that is congruent with one of the areas of endemism (AE) recognized for other organisms (birds and primates). The first herpetological gazetteer for the Brazilian Amazonia with about 3,600 georeferenced localities was also produced.

  2. Two-year participatory monitoring of extractivism in Brazilian Amazonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cámara-Leret, Rodrigo; Newton, Peter; Hawes, Joseph

    and establish norms for sustainable use, 2) train community residents to lead monitoring programs, 3) monitor species with high market potential (e.g. palms), 4) monitor species of special interest (e.g. red listed by IUCN), and 5) monitor land-use change. Since 2005, ProBUC has developed pilot projects......Sustainable use of nontimber forest products (NTFP) in Amazonia, the World’s largest remaining contiguous rainforest, largely rests upon understanding patterns of resource use involving rural livelihoods to better inform conservation science. Brazil encompasses three-quarters of Amazonia, where non......-indigenous semi-subsistence groups referred to as caboclos, outnumber native Amerindians by a factor of ten. The Brazilian government has committed to supporting participatory programs where monitoring biodiversity and co-management of natural resources are spearheaded by residents of sustainable-use protected...

  3. Soils of Amazonia with particular reference to the RAINFOR sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. Quesada

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The tropical forests of the Amazon Basin occur on a wide variety of different soil types reflecting a rich diversity of geologic origins and geomorphic processes. We here review the existing literature about the main soil groups of Amazonia, describing their genesis, geographical patterns and principal chemical, physical and morphologic characteristics. Original data is also presented, with profiles of exchangeable cations, carbon and particle size fraction illustrated for the principal soil types; also emphasizing the high diversity existing within the main soil groups when possible. Maps of geographic distribution of soils occurring under forest vegetation are also introduced, and to contextualize soils into an evolutionary framework, a scheme of soil development is presented having as its basis a chemical weathering index. We identify a continuum of soil evolution in Amazonia with soil properties varying predictably along this pedogenetic gradient.

  4. OSL age determinations of Pleistocene fluvial deposits in Central Amazonia

    OpenAIRE

    SOARES, Emílio A.A.; TATUMI, Sonia H.; Riccomini, Claudio

    2010-01-01

    Absolute dating methods have been used in chronological studies of geological processes and sedimentary units of Quaternary age in Central Amazonia, Brazil. Although radiocarbon dating has been very useful in archaeological research and soil studies, the temporal interval of this method is inefficient in evaluating the sedimentation aspects and geological events from the beginning of the Quaternary in the Amazon basin. The use of crystal luminescence dating has been one of the most promising ...

  5. Genome Sequence of the Human Pathogen Vibrio cholerae Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Cristiane C.; Marin, Michel A.; Dias, Graciela M.; Dutilh, Bas E.; Edwards, Robert A.; Iida, Tetsuya; Thompson, Fabiano L.; Vicente, Ana Carolina P.

    2011-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae O1 Amazonia is a pathogen that was isolated from cholera-like diarrhea cases in at least two countries, Brazil and Ghana. Based on multilocus sequence analysis, this lineage belongs to a distinct profile compared to strains from El Tor and classical biotypes. The genomic analysis revealed that it contains Vibrio pathogenicity island 2 and a set of genes related to pathogenesis and fitness, such as the type VI secretion system, present in choleragenic V. cholerae strains. PMID:21952545

  6. UNA NUEVA ESPECIE DE COSTUS (COSTACEAE DE LA AMAZONIA COLOMBIANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SALINAS NELSON

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Se describe e ilustra Costus fissicalyx N. R. Salinas, Clavijo & Betancur, una especienueva del sudeste de la Amazonia colombiana; además, se presenta información sobresus relaciones taxonómicas, distribución y hábitat. Costus fissicalyx se diferencia delas otras especies del género principalmente por la forma y el tipo de crecimientodel cáliz

  7. Deforestation and threats to the biodiversity of Amazonia

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira,ICG.; Toledo,PM.; Silva,JMC.; Higuchi,H.

    2008-01-01

    This is a review of the main factors currently perceived as threats to the biodiversity of Amazonia. Deforestation and the expansion of the agricultural frontier go hand in hand within the context of occupation and land use in the region, followed by a hasty process of industrialization since the 1950s and, more recently, by a nation-wide attempt to adapt Brazil to economic globalization. Intensive agriculture and cattle-raising, lack of territorial planning, the monoculture of certain crops ...

  8. Regeneración natural de plantas leñosas en una plantación costarricense de Vochysia guatemalensis (Vochysiaceae y el efecto de la fertilización con P y NPK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Fco Di Stefano

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Las estrategias de manejo y las especies seleccionadas en plantaciones forestales pueden tener efectos positivos o negativos sobre la regeneración vegetal en los trópicos. Esta investigación estudió la abundancia y riqueza de plantas leñosas bajo el dosel de un monocultivo de Vochysia guatemalensis de diez años. Se evaluaron 19 parcelas de 80 m²en Tabarcia de Mora, con varios tratamientos de fertilización (0-0; 0-50; 50-0, 50-50 g/ planta de P, y NPK, respectivamente, este ultimó se aumentó de 150 a 200 g hasta que la plantación alcanzó los seis años, en un diseño factorial totalmente al azar. Se contaron e identificaron todas las especies leñosas con más de 0.5 m de altura, con un total de aproximadamente 10 000 ind/ha en 90 especies, siendo éstas principalmente nativas de la zona (varias maderables, otras importantes para la fauna, la mayoría con bajos índices de importancia (suma de la densidad y frecuencias relativas. Un 16% alcanzaron alturas superiores a 2.5 m. Se considera que varios factores pudieron favorecer dicha regeneración, como un dosel con una apertura inter-media, un manejo forestal de bajo impacto, la cercanía de un fragmento boscoso maduro, y el establecimiento de la plantación en sustitución de un cafetal donde se aplicaban estrategias de conservación de suelos y se fertilizaba anualmente. Finalmente, se determinó una mayor abundancia y riqueza en las parcelas con solo P (χ²=15.364, gl=3, p=0.002, probablemente porque los árboles de Vochysia tendieron a ser menos desarrollados en comparación con los otros tratamientos.Natural regeneration of woody species in a Costa Rican plantation of Vochysia guatemalensis (Vochysiaceae and the effect of P and NPK fertilization. Forest plantation management strategies, including the selection of species, may have positive or negative effects over plant regeneration in the tropics. in this case, understory woody plants density and richness were studied in

  9. Las palmeras en los valles principales de la Amazonia peruana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available LES PALMIERS DES PRINCIPALES VALLEES DE L’AMAZONIE PERUVIENNE. La distribution géographique des espèces de palmiers de l’Amazonie péruvienne est présentée selon les principales vallées. Pour chaque affluent important est donnée la liste des espèces récoltées, et pour chaque espèce sont réunies les références des échantillons d’herbiers, collecteur(s et numéro de collection, ainsi que les herbiers de dépôt. Se presenta la distribución de las palmeras de la Amazonia en función de los valles principales. Por cada río de mayor importancia, se da la lista de las especies colectadas, las referencias de las muestras botánicas, colector(es y número de colección, y los herbarios de depósito de dichas muestras. PALMS OF THE MAJOR RIVER VALLEYS OF PERUVIAN AMAZONIA. Palm species distribution in Peruvian Amazonia is presented according to the major river valleys. The species collected are listed for each tributary valley. The collection references, collector(s and number of the specimen and the herbaria of deposit are given for each species.

  10. Age of depositional and weathering events in Central Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sant'Anna, Lucy Gomes; Soares, Emílio Alberto do Amaral; Riccomini, Claudio; Tatumi, Sonia Hatsue; Yee, Marcio

    2017-08-01

    In the last three decades, several studies have been devoted to understanding the role of Late Pleistocene-Holocene climate changes in the Amazonia lowlands environment. However, most of these studies used data obtained from sedimentary deposits (lakes, swamps, and colluvium) located away from the central plain or on the edges of the Amazonia region. This article integrates optically stimulated luminescence and accelerated mass spectrometry 14C ages with sedimentological and geomorphological data obtained during this study or compiled from the literature for fluvial and lacustrine deposits of the central alluvial plain of the Solimões-Amazon River. The age data allow us to present a chronological framework for the Late Pleistocene-Holocene deposits and conclude that (i) the dryness of the LGM in central Amazonia lowlands is recorded by the formation of fluvial terraces and their weathering to pedogenic hematite between 25.3 ka and 17.7 ka; (ii) floodplain deposition was contemporaneous with terrace weathering and occurred in a context of decreased water volume in fluvial channels, lowering of river base level and sea level, and isostatic rebound of the continent; and (iii) lateral and mid-channel fluvial bars in the Solimões-Amazon River have a minimum age of 11.5 ± 1.5 ka, and their deposition responded to increased precipitation at the beginning of the Holocene.

  11. The large scale biosphere-atmosphere experiment in Amazonia (LBA); concise experimental plan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LBAScience Planning Group (Cachoeira Paulista),

    1996-01-01

    The large-scale biosphere-atmosphere experiment in Amazonia (LBA) aims at enhancing knowledge of the climatological, ecological, biogeochemical, and hydrological functioning of Amazonia. It will address the effects of changes in land use and climate on these functions, including also the

  12. Possible mechanisms of hypotension produced 70% alcoholic extract of Terminalia arjuna (L. in anaesthetized dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lodagala Durga S

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The bark of Terminalia arjuna L. (Combretaceae is used in Ayurveda since ancient times for the treatment of cardiac disorders. Previous laboratory investigations have demonstrated the use of the bark in cardiovascular complications. The present study was aimed to find the effect of 70% alcoholic extract of Terminalia arjuna on anaesthetized dog blood pressure and probable site of action. Methods Six dogs were anaesthetized with intraperitoneal injection of thiopental sodium and the blood pressure of each dog (n = 6 was measured from the left common carotid artery connected to a mercury manometer on kymograph. The femoral vein was cannulated for administration of drug solutions. The extract of T. arjuna (dissolved in propylene glycol in the dose range of 5 to 15 mg/kg were administered intravenously in a pilot study and the dose (6 mg/kg which produced appreciable hypotension was selected for further studies. Results Intravenous administration of T. arjuna produced dose-dependent hypotension in anaesthetized dogs. The hypotension produced by 6 mg/kg dose of the extract was blocked by propranolol but not by atropine or mepyramine maleate. This indicates that muscarinic or histaminergic mechanisms are not likely to be involved in the hypotension produced by the extract. The blockade by propranolol of the hypotension produced by T. arjuna indicates that the extract might contain active compound(s possessing adrenergic ß2-receptor agonist action and/or that act directly on the heart muscle. Conclusion The results indicated the likely involvement of peripheral mechanism for hypotension produced by the 70% alcoholic extract of Terminalia arjuna and lends support for the claims of its traditional usage in cardiovascular disorders.

  13. Regeneración natural de plantas leñosas en una plantación costarricense de Vochysia guatemalensis (Vochysiaceae y el efecto de la fertilización con P y NPK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Fco Di Stefano

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Las estrategias de manejo y las especies seleccionadas en plantaciones forestales pueden tener efectos positivos o negativos sobre la regeneración vegetal en los trópicos. Esta investigación estudió la abundancia y riqueza de plantas leñosas bajo el dosel de un monocultivo de Vochysia guatemalensis de diez años. Se evaluaron 19 parcelas de 80 m²en Tabarcia de Mora, con varios tratamientos de fertilización (0-0; 0-50; 50-0, 50-50 g/ planta de P, y NPK, respectivamente, este ultimó se aumentó de 150 a 200 g hasta que la plantación alcanzó los seis años, en un diseño factorial totalmente al azar. Se contaron e identificaron todas las especies leñosas con más de 0.5 m de altura, con un total de aproximadamente 10 000 ind/ha en 90 especies, siendo éstas principalmente nativas de la zona (varias maderables, otras importantes para la fauna, la mayoría con bajos índices de importancia (suma de la densidad y frecuencias relativas. Un 16% alcanzaron alturas superiores a 2.5 m. Se considera que varios factores pudieron favorecer dicha regeneración, como un dosel con una apertura inter-media, un manejo forestal de bajo impacto, la cercanía de un fragmento boscoso maduro, y el establecimiento de la plantación en sustitución de un cafetal donde se aplicaban estrategias de conservación de suelos y se fertilizaba anualmente. Finalmente, se determinó una mayor abundancia y riqueza en las parcelas con solo P (χ²=15.364, gl=3, p=0.002, probablemente porque los árboles de Vochysia tendieron a ser menos desarrollados en comparación con los otros tratamientos.

  14. Saponins and a lignan derivative of Terminalia tropophylla from the Madagascar Dry Forest†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Shugeng; Brodie, Peggy J.; Callmander, Martin; Randrianaivo, Richard; Rakotobe, Etienne; Rasamison, Vincent E.; Kingston, David G. I.

    2009-01-01

    A study of an EtOH extract obtained from the roots of the Madagascan plant Terminalia tropophylla H. Perrier (Combretaceae) led to the isolation of the new oleanane-type triterpenoid saponin 1, the new lignan derivative 2, and the two known saponins arjunglucoside I (3) and sericoside (4). The structures of the new compounds 1 (terminaliaside A) and 2 (4′-O-cinnamoyl cleomiscosin A) were elucidated using 1D and 2D NMR experiments and mass spectrometry. Compound 1 showed antiproliferative activity against the A2780 human ovarian cancer cell line with an IC50 value of 1.2 μM. PMID:19875137

  15. Saponins and a lignan derivative of Terminalia tropophylla from the Madagascar Dry Forest†

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Shugeng; Brodie, Peggy J.; Callmander, Martin; Randrianaivo, Richard; Rakotobe, Etienne; Rasamison, Vincent E.; Kingston, David G. I.

    2009-01-01

    A study of an EtOH extract obtained from the roots of the Madagascan plant Terminalia tropophylla H. Perrier (Combretaceae) led to the isolation of the new oleanane-type triterpenoid saponin 1, the new lignan derivative 2, and the two known saponins arjunglucoside I (3) and sericoside (4). The structures of the new compounds 1 (terminaliaside A) and 2 (4′-O-cinnamoyl cleomiscosin A) were elucidated using 1D and 2D NMR experiments and mass spectrometry. Compound 1 showed antiproliferative acti...

  16. Anti-colon cancer activity of endophytic fungal strains from Terminalia chebula Rezt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Shoeb

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Endophytic microorganisms are fungi or bacteria that live inside the healthy tissues of the host plants causing no apparent symptoms of diseases. Five endophytic fungal strains labeled as IR-1, IR-2, IR-4, IR-6 and IR-7 (identified as Penicillium thiomii were isolated from the medicinal plant of Terminalia chebula Retz by culture and sub-culture. The ethyl acetate extract of fungal strains, IR-4, IR-6 and IR-7 inhibited the growth of CaCo-2 colon cancer cell lines in MTT assay with IC50 values of 55, 44 and 67 µg/mL, respectively.

  17. Triterpenóides pentacíclicos das folhas de Terminalia brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araújo Delton Sérvulo

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Eleven oleanane, ursane and lupane-type triterpenes were isolated from the leaves of Terminalia brasiliensis Camb, daturadiol (3b,6beta-dihydroxy-olean-12-ene, 3beta-hydroxy-30-norlupan-20-one, lupenone, beta-amyrenone, alpha-amyrenone, lupeol, beta-amyrin, alpha-amyrin, betulin, erythrodiol and uvaol, in addition to squalene, sitosterol and alpha-tocopherol. The structures of these compounds were identified by ¹H and 13C NMR spectral analysis and comparison with literature data.

  18. STABILITAS FISIK DAN KIMIA MINYAK BIJI KETAPANG (Terminalia catappa L. SELAMA PENYIMPANAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delima Saputri

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Ketapang (Terminalia catappa L. is each one potentialy to producting of nabati oil. The research is purposes to determine effect of storage period on room and extreme temperature of ketapang seeds oil’s physical and chemical stability. Ketapang seeds oil was getted from ketapang seeds extraction by n-hexana with soxhletasi method. Ketapang seeds oil stability evaluation on room temperature 27 – 30 °C as long as 50 days and extreme temperature 65 °C as long as 10 days. Physical stability that color, aroma, and flavor use organolepticly, pH use pH-meter, density use piknometer, and viscosity use Oswald viscometer. Chemical stability that acid value, peroxide value, and soap value by titration method, and amount of tocopherol compound by spectrometry method. The result data was analyzed with linier regretion. The analyzed result of aroma, flavor, pH, density, soap value, and tocopherol compound showed descend linier, viscosity, acid value, and peroxide value showed ascend linier, and color of ketapang seeds oil is stabil as long as storage on room and extreme temperature. Storage period on extreme temperature more significant than room temperature to effect evaluation result of ketapang seeds oil’s physical and chemical parameters. Key Words: Terminalia catappa L., Storage Period, Physical and Chemical Stability.   Abstrak Ketapang (Terminalia catappa L. merupakan salah satu tumbuhan yang berpotensi sebagai penghasil minyak nabati. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh lama penyimpanan pada suhu ruang dan ekstrim terhadap stabilitas fisik dan kimia minyak biji ketapang. Minyak biji ketapang diperoleh dari ekstraksi biji ketapang dengan pelarut n-heksana menggunakan metode soxhletasi. Penentuan stabilitas fisik minyak meliputi warna, bau, dan rasa, pH, bobot jenis, dan viskositas. Penentuan stabilitas kimia meliputi penentuan angka asam, angka peroksida, dan angka penyabunan, serta kandungan tokoferol. Hasil pengujian

  19. A New Aromatic Compound from the Stem Bark of Terminalia catappa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pertuit, David; Mitaine-Offer, Anne-Claire; Miyamoto, Tomofumi; Tanaka, Chiaki; Delemasure, Stéphanie; Dutartre, Patrick; Lacaille-Dubois, Marie-Aleth

    2015-06-01

    A new aromatic compound 3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl-1-O-(4-sulfo)-β-D-glucopyranoside (1), in addition to two triterpenoid saponins (chebuloside II, arjunoglucoside II), two triterpenes (arjunolic acid and 3-betulinic acid) and sitosterol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside have been isolated from the barks of Terminalia catappa. Their structures have been established on the basis of spectroscopic techniques (1D/2D NMR) and MS. Their cytotoxicity and antiinflammatory activity, together with the antioxidant capacity of compound 1 were also evaluated.

  20. Modification of mitomycin C-induced clastogenicity by Terminalia catappa L. in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, T Y; Ho, L K; Tsai, Y C; Chiang, S H; Chao, T W; Li, J H; Chi, C W

    1996-07-19

    The water extract of the leaves of Terminalia catappa L. was tested for inhibition of mitomycin C-induced micronuclei in CHO-K1 cells. The simultaneous and pre-treatment of CHO-K1 cells with T. catappa extract (75 and 150 micrograms/ml) significantly (P catappa extract (4.8 and 24 mg/animal per day) to male ICR mice for 8 days significantly (P catappa dose dependently inhibited lipid peroxidation in vitro and TPA-induced hydrogen peroxide formation in human mononuclear leukocytes. The anticlastogenic effects of T. catappa in vitro and in vivo may be attributed to its antioxidative potential.

  1. Antimicrobial Activity of Terminalia catappa, Manilkara zapota and Piper betel Leaf Extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, R; Chanda, Sumitra

    2008-01-01

    Aqueous and methanol extract of the leaves of Terminalia catappa L., Manilkara zapota L. and Piper betel L. were evaluated for antibacterial activity against 10 Gram positive, 12 Gram negative bacteria and one fungal strain, Candida tropicalis. Piperacillin and gentamicin were used as standards for antibacterial assay, while fluconazole was used as standard for antifungal assay. The three plants showed different degree of activity against the microorganisms investigated. The methanolic extract was considerably more effective than aqueous extract in inhibiting the investigated microbial strains. The most active antimicrobial plant was Piper betel.

  2. Hypoglycemic Effect of Terminalia Chebula Retz. Fruit on Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ei Pye Phyo Aung

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the hypoglycemic effect of ethanolic extract of terminalia chebula Retz. fruits on alloxaninduced diabetic rats compared with standard oral hypoglycemic drug, metformin. Methods: A randomized controlled experimental animal study was done. 30 Wistar albino rats were induced diabetes by alloxan (100 mg/kg. 80%-ethanolic extraction of fruits of terminalia chebula Retz. was performed by using Soxhlet extraction method. Group 1 was normal control. Group 2 was alloxan-induced diabetic control, group 3 was metformin 100 mg/kg standard group, groups 4, 5 and 6 were extracts 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg orally administered fruit extract for 28-days, respectively. Fasting blood glucose (FBG levels were measured at the end of the first, second, third and fourth weeks by using standardized glucometer. Results: At the end of first, second, third and fourth weeks, the FBG levels of diabetic control were 325.7±28.2, 308.5±69.8, 322.7±65.8 and 369.2±57.4 mg/dL, those of metformin (100 mg/kg were 76.2±9.5, 92.5±14.9, 94.5±17.9 and 90.8±9.9 mg/dL, those of the terminalia chebula Retz. extract 100 mg/kg were 232.5±78.6, 122.8±41.4, 109.2±33.6 and 132.3±41.1 mg/dL, extract 200 mg/kg were 82.7±8.2, 82.7±8.2, 89.7±9.8 and 89±15.2 mg/dL, and extract 400 mg/kg were 80.2±9, 83.5±7.1, 91±11.5 and 82.7±5.9 mg/dL, respectively. When all treatment groups were compared with diabetic control, the FBG levels were significantly reduced (p<0.001. There was no significant difference in FBG levels between standard group and extract (200 and 400 mg/kg groups. Conclusion: The 80%-ethanolic extract of terminalia chebula Retz. has significant hypoglycemic effect on alloxaninduced diabetic rats and it was comparable with standard drug, metformin. The effective dose was 200 to 400 mg/kg.

  3. Variations des apports de litière et d'éléments minéraux dans les plantations de limba (Terminalia superba au Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kokolo, A.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Variations in Litter Production and Nutrient Supply in Plantations of Limba (Terminalia superba in Congo. A study was carried out in a chronosequence of Terminalia superba (7, 12 and 48 years and a nearby natural forest. The results show that the peaks of litterfall take place in rainy season contrary to the majority of the forest formations of the humid tropical zone. The return of nutrients to the soil via the leaf litter is higher in plantations than in forest. The calcium released from the leaf litter was up to 175 kg.ha-1.year1. The values obtained indicate a moderate nutrient use efficiency by Terminalia superba.

  4. Analysis of phytochemical profile of Terminalia arjuna bark extract with antioxidative and antimicrobial properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Shreya; Patra, Arpita; Samanta, Animesh; Roy, Suchismita; Mandal, Arpita; Mahapatra, Tapasi Das; Pradhan, Shrabani; Das, Koushik; Nandi, Dilip Kumar

    2013-12-01

    To investigate phytochemical screening, antimicrobial activity and qualitative thin layer chromatographic separation of flavonoid components, antioxidant activity and total flavonoid compound of Terminalia arjuna. For phytochemical screening, some common and available standard tests were done. Antimicrobial bioassay was done through agar well diffusion method. Detection of antioxidant activity and flavonoid compounds were done through thin layer chromatography. Total antioxidant activity was measured by 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) in colorimetric method. Aluminum chloride colorimetric method was used for total flavonoid determination. Phytochemical screening showed the active compounds presence in high concentration, such as phytosterol, lactones, flavonoids, phenolic compounds and tannins and glycosides. The antimicrobial activity of extract showed that greater inhibition zone against Gram negative bacteria than Gram positive bacteria. This methanolic extract showed a promising antioxidant activity, as absorption of DPPH redicles decreased in DPPH free radical scavenging assay. Flavonoids components having antioxidant property present in the methanol extract at a level of 199.00 mg quercetin equivalent/g of dried methanol extract in colorimetric method. The Terminalia arjuna bark extract revealed the presence of bio-active constituents which are known to exhibit medicinal as well as physiological activities. Copyright © 2013 Asian Pacific Tropical Biomedical Magazine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Terminalia catappa as bioindicator of environmental pollution in Cubatao city by SR-TXRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Silvana; Geraldo, Simoni Michetti, E-mail: silvana@fec.unicamp.b [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo. Dept. de Saneamento e Ambiente; Barroso, Regina Cely, E-mail: cely_barroso@hotmail.co [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica. Dept. de Fisica Aplicada; Vives, Ana Elisa Sirito de, E-mail: aesvives@unimep.b [Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP), Santa Barbara D' Oeste, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia, Arquitetura e Urbanismo; Cardoso, Simone Coutinho, E-mail: simone@if.ufrj.b [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia, Arquitetura e Urbanismo. Inst. de Fisica

    2009-07-01

    Fertilizer industries are considered the main environmental polluting of fluoride (F) and the industrial complex of the city of Cubatao, SP, Brazil, is an important fertilizer producer. This study aimed to evaluate the local pollution for toxic elements and its comparison with fluoride concentration using the urban vegetation as biomarker. For this, leaves of Terminalia catappa (popularly known for Hat-of-sun or Almond tree of the beach) were tested. The leaves were collected in the winter of 2007 in the industrial region around the fertilizer plants and other industries, in the municipal urban areas of Cubatao and Santos cities. The samples were dehydrated, powdered and submitted to an acid digestion for multi-elemental determination by Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (SR-TXRF). All the measurements were performed at Synchrotron Light Source Laboratory. The results obtained by SR-TXRF were compared to fluoride determinations. The variance analysis showed the correlation between F and S concentrations (p<0.05). The concentrations of these elements are concentrated around the fertilizer industries (p< 0.05). Using SR-TXRF was possible to determine several elements as: Si, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr and Pb in the leaves of Terminalia catappa. Chromium in the areas near to fertilizer industries and also in Santos city which is considered as a control area, present concentrations higher than 18 mg kg{sup -1}, this is considered a toxic value (author)

  6. Analysis of phytochemical profile of Terminalia arjuna bark extract with antioxidative and antimicrobial properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Shreya; Patra, Arpita; Samanta, Animesh; Roy, Suchismita; Mandal, Arpita; Mahapatra, Tapasi Das; Pradhan, Shrabani; Das, Koushik; Nandi, Dilip Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate phytochemical screening, antimicrobial activity and qualitative thin layer chromatographic separation of flavonoid components, antioxidant activity and total flavonoid compound of Terminalia arjuna. Methods For phytochemical screening, some common and available standard tests were done. Antimicrobial bioassay was done through agar well diffusion method. Detection of antioxidant activity and flavonoid compounds were done through thin layer chromatography. Total antioxidant activity was measured by 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) in colorimetric method. Aluminum chloride colorimetric method was used for total flavonoid determination. Results Phytochemical screening showed the active compounds presence in high concentration, such as phytosterol, lactones, flavonoids, phenolic compounds and tannins and glycosides. The antimicrobial activity of extract showed that greater inhibition zone against Gram negative bacteria than Gram positive bacteria. This methanolic extract showed a promising antioxidant activity, as absorption of DPPH redicles decreased in DPPH free radical scavenging assay. Flavonoids components having antioxidant property present in the methanol extract at a level of 199.00 mg quercetin equivalent/g of dried methanol extract in colorimetric method. Conclusions The Terminalia arjuna bark extract revealed the presence of bio-active constituents which are known to exhibit medicinal as well as physiological activities. PMID:24093787

  7. Labrets in Africa and Amazonia: medical implications and cultural determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garve, Roland; Garve, Miriam; Türp, Jens C; Meyer, Christian G

    2017-02-01

    The custom of wearing labrets has a long tradition. Labrets appeared independently several thousand years ago in various culture groups in Asia, Europe, Africa and the Americas. Today, apart from diverse body modifications as increasingly practiced in western civilisations, lip plates and plugs are found among a small number of tribal groups only in Africa and Amazonia. We summarise the history of labrets in different societies, describe medical consequences of wearing lip plates and plugs for jaws and teeth and address relevant cultural issues. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Ozone concentrations in the Brazilian Amazonia during BASE-A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setzer, A.W.; Kirchhoff, V.W.J.H.; Pereira, M.C.

    1991-01-01

    During the Biomass Burning Airborne and Spaceborne Experiment--Amazonia, thermal images of fires were made with the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on board meteorological NOAA series satellites. The results of ozone measurements made on board the Brazilian Institute for Space Research (INPE) airplane during September of 1989 are presented and analyzed in relation to the temporal and geographical location of fires detected before and during the sampling. Results show that on a synoptic scale, concentrations of ozone rise sharply in regions of more intense burning

  9. Surface Ozone Enrichment Downwind of Manaus City, in Central Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, S.; Rizzo, L. V.; Rodrigues, N. P.; Brito, J.; Cirino, G. G.; Souza, R. A. F. D.; Barbosa, H. M.; Artaxo, P.; Martin, S. T.

    2015-12-01

    Amazonia is a unique place to study the impact of anthropogenic emissions on atmospheric photochemistry, fueled by large inputs of solar radiation, humidity, biogenic emissions and turbulent mixing. In the wet season, thousands of km2 of Amazonian forest areas can be considered pristine, whereas in the dry season biomass burning emissions in regional scale add to picture. The Amazon region is also going through localized urban development, in particular, the Manaus city, with 2 million inhabitants. The GoAmazon2014/5 experiment seeks to understand the interactions between urban and biogenic emissions in Amazonia. The combination of biogenic volatile organic compounds and urban NOx emissions is expected to increase tropospheric O3 production, with impacts to the ecosystem and human health. To investigate this issue, surface O3 measurements were taken between Feb and Dec 2014 at two sites in Amazonia: T2, located in the outflow of the Manaus urban plume, and T3, sitting 60 km downwind of the city. The influence of the urban plume at T3 site was detected by a combination of typical ΔCN/ΔCO ratios, Hysplit backtrajectories and threshold concentrations of tracers such as particle number and black carbon. The transport from T2 to T3 typically lasted 7 hours. At T2, the O3 diurnal cycle showed a diurnal peak of 20 ppb in the wet season and of 35 ppb in the dry season, suggesting the contribution of regional biomass burning to O3 photochemical production. In the absence of urban or biomass burning emissions, O3 diurnal cycle at T3 showed a peak of 15 ppb, similar to observations taken in pristine forest areas in Amazonia. When the Manaus plume reached the T3 site in the afternoon, the diurnal O3 peak increased to 40 ppb, indicating a net O3 production rate of 3.6 ppb h-1 along this diurnal transport. When the Manaus plume reached the T3 site before sunrise, i.e., a transport during the night, the diurnal peak was anticipated and reached 25 ppb.

  10. Eficiencia reproductiva de diferentes genotipos bovinos en la Amazonia Ecuatoriana

    OpenAIRE

    Ortiz Naveda, N. R.; Castro Guamán, W. E.; Marin, P. R.; Universidad de Cuenca; Dirección de Investigación de la Universidad de Cuenca; DIUC

    2015-01-01

    Los problemas reproductivos en el centro de la Amazonia Ecuatoriana, están condicionados por un sin número de factores, que directa e indirectamente conspiran para mejorar los parámetros productivos de la zona. Las condiciones ambientales, el manejo, la falta de energía en la dieta, la salud, la infraestructura y los genotipos utilizados influyen para no lograr una eficiente reproducción Lopez et al., 2014). El anestro posparto es el principal factor que afecta negativamente el desempeño repr...

  11. Diversity of Treegourd (Crescentia cujete Suggests Introduction and Prehistoric Dispersal Routes into Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila A. Moreira

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The use and dispersal of domesticated plants may reflect patterns of early human diffusion of technologies and lifestyles. Treegourd (Crescentia cujete has fruits with ancient utilitarian and symbolic value in the Neotropics. We assessed diversity based on chloroplast (SNPs, nuclear (SSR markers, and fruit shapes of cultivated treegourds and wild relatives across Amazonia and Mesoamerica in order to discuss hypothesis of dispersal routes and diversification of fruits along its distribution. The haplotype network showed three distinct groups: Crescentia amazonica, wild Mesoamerican C. cujete, and cultivated C. cujete from Brazilian Amazonia and Mexico. Mexico and Brazil shared two haplotypes, with slightly different distributions in Amazonia. The most divergent haplotype is well-represented in Eastern Amazonia. Nuclear differentiation between Mesoamerican wild and cultivated C. cujete is relatively low (FST = 0.35, compared with Amazonian cultivated (FST = 0.45–0.61. Differentiation is also higher between wild C. amazonica and cultivated C. cujete (FST = 0.57, but modest within cultivated C. cujete from Amazonia and Mexico (FST = 0.04, with higher genetic similarity in northwestern Amazonia. Mexico and Amazonia showed similar chloroplast nucleotide diversity (4.66 × 10−2 and 5.31 × 10−2, respectively, although sample sizes are very different. Except in Northwestern and Eastern Amazonia, we found ample genetic homogeneity of cultivated C. cujete across Amazonia, but highest morphological diversity in the Northwest, with fruit shapes that are absent in Mexico. We conclude that treegourds introduced into the Amazon Basin and Mexico share a common ancestry with a currently unknown origin. The patterns of genetic diversity across Amazonia allow two hypotheses of the routes of introduction: a northwestern introduction into the Negro and Solimões Rivers, and an eastern introduction from the coastal Guianas into the Amazonas River. The dispersal

  12. Secondary Forests from Agricultural Abandonment in Amazonia 2000-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    Ongoing negotiations to include reducing emissions from tropical deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) in a post-Kyoto climate agreement highlight the critical role of satellite data for accurate and transparent accounting of forest cover changes. In addition to deforestation and degradation, knowledge of secondary forest dynamics is essential for full carbon accounting under REDD+. Land abandonment to secondary forests also frames one of the key tradeoffs for agricultural production in tropical forest countries-whether to incentivize secondary forest growth (for carbon sequestration and biodiversity conservation) or low-carbon expansion of agriculture or biofuels production in areas of secondary forests. We examined patterns of land abandonment to secondary forest across the arc of deforestation in Brazil and Bolivia using time series of annual Landsat and MODIS data from 2000-2009. Rates of land abandonment to secondary forest during 2002-2006 were less than 5% of deforestation rates in these years. Small areas of new secondary forest were scattered across the entire arc of deforestation, rather than concentrated in any specific region of the basin. Taken together, our analysis of the satellite data record emphasizes the difficulties of addressing the pool of new secondary forests in the context of REDD+ in Amazonia. Due to the small total area of secondary forests, land sparing through agricultural intensification will be an important element of efforts to reduce deforestation rates under REDD+ while improving agricultural productivity in Amazonia.

  13. The expansion of intensive agriculture and ranching in Brazilian Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Robert; DeFries, Ruth; del Carmen Vera-Diaz, Maria; Shimabukuro, Yosio; Venturieri, Adriano

    Agriculture in Amazonia has often provoked controversy, given the tremendous ecological value of the region's environment. First with ranching, and now with the soybean boom, tractors and cattle have marched across lands that for millennia supported only closed moist forest, resident ecosystems, and dispersed indigenous peoples. The present chapter considers this expansion, focusing on the Brazilian portion of the basin. Its premise is that effective Amazonian policy must be grounded on an understanding of the region's agriculture. The chapter pursues its objectives by first addressing the development initiatives that created the preconditions for Amazonia's current agricultural economy. The region is remote and has therefore required sustained government intervention to release its potential. The policy discussion is followed by descriptions of cattle ranching and soy farming. For each, market settings and trajectories of expansion are presented. Although these sectoral descriptions are data rich, they do not provide a conceptual framework for analyzing the environmental impacts of evolving market conditions. To accomplish this, the chapter invokes the classical land use model of von Thünen to explain Amazonian land cover dynamics in relation to soy-cattle linkages. It addresses these dynamics with remote sensing data from Mato Grosso, Pará, and Rondônia, and then discusses scenarios of agricultural advances on the forest. Conclusions follow, considering possible policy responses to deforestation, and the social context of agricultural intensification, with special attention to the issues of land tenure security and distributional equity.

  14. Stem-bark of Terminalia arjuna attenuates human monocytic (THP-1) and aortic endothelial cell activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokkiripati, Praveen K; Kamsala, Ratnam V; Bashyam, Leena; Manthapuram, Nalini; Bitla, Prasanth; Peddada, Vidyadhari; Raghavendra, Agepati S; Tetali, Sarada D

    2013-03-27

    Terminalia arjuna - stem bark extract is traditionally used as cardiotonic in Ayurvedic medicine. The present study was aimed to evaluate the molecular basis for cardioprotective potential of Terminalia arjuna (TA) stem bark, using cell cultures of human monocytic (THP-1) and human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs). Inhibitory effect of alcoholic (TAAE) and aqueous (TAWE) extracts of TA-stem bark was assessed on human 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase, lipoprotein lipase (LpL) and lipid peroxidation in rat (wistar) liver and heart homogenates. The patterns of H2O2 induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation were observed by confocal microscopy. The activities of antioxidant enzymes and reducing power of the cells were measured in a microplate reader. Gene transcripts of proinflammatory markers in THP-1 and HAECs were assayed by real time PCR and levels of inflammatory protein markers by ELISA or flow cytometry. Phytochemical analyses of TAAE and TAWE were done using liquid chromatography, coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS). TAAE and TAWE inhibited the lipid peroxidation and HMG-CoA reductase but had no effect on LpL. Both the extracts attenuated H2O2 mediated ROS generation in THP-1 cells by promoting catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities, and by sustaining cellular reducing power. TAAE was highly effective in attenuating proinflammatory gene transcripts in THP-1 cells and HAECs, whereas the response to TAWE depended on the type of transcript and cell type. Both extracts decreased the levels of typical inflammatory marker proteins, viz. LPS induced tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α secreted by THP-1 cells and TNF-α induced cell surface adhesion molecules on HAECs, namely vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and E-selectin. Phytochemical analyses indicated the richness in phenolic compounds and terpenes of TAAE and TAWE, while revealing variability in their metabolite profile. Our study scientifically validates the

  15. Anthropogenic soils in central Amazonia: farmers’ practices, agrobiodiversity and land-use patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braga Junqueira, A.

    2015-01-01

    Keywords: Terra Preta; Amazonian Dark Earths; Shifting cultivation; Homegardens; Intensification; Diversification; Smallholder farming. André Braga Junqueira (2015). Anthropogenic soils in central Amazonia: farmers’ practices, agrobiodiversity and land-use patterns. PhD thesis,

  16. Nuevas especies de Axonopus (Poaceae: Panicoideae: Paniceae de la Amazonia Colombiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giraldo Cañas Diego

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of Axonopus, A. morronei (series Axonopus and A. zuloagae (series Barbigen are described. The new species are known only from the savannas and sandstone plateau of Colombian northwest Amazonia.Se describen dos nuevas especies de Axonopus, A. morronei y A. zuloagae, de las series Axonopus y Barbigeri, respectivamente. Las nuevas especies son conocidas únicamente de las sabanas y afloramientos rocosos de la Amazonia noroccidental colombiana.

  17. Physicochemical properties of Terminalia catappa seed oil as a novel dietary lipid source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supatcha Janporn

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Terminalia catappa Linn (TC is an ornamental tree planted extensively in many countries. It has been known for a long time that the seeds are edible but no research has focused on the realm of its use as food. Our previous data showed that the seed contains high levels of oil content (600 g/kg and possesses the optimum fatty acid balance indicated in fat dietary guidelines. This study aims to investigate the physical and chemical properties and the possibility of using TC seed oil as a new dietary lipid. The effects of extraction conditions, partial refining process, and storage stability on TC oil properties were conducted compared with soybean oil. The results showed that physicochemical properties including the density, refractive index, melting point, acidity, free fatty acid, saponification value, unsaponifiable, peroxide, and fatty acid composition of the extracted oil were comparable with soybean oil and their values followed the dietary standard of edible oil.

  18. Antioxidant and free radical scavenging effects of the tannins of Terminalia catappa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, C C; Hsu, Y F; Lin, T C

    2001-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) react with biological molecules and destroy the structure of cells and eventually cause free radical-induced disease such as inflammation and cancer. Previous studies showed that an aqueus extract of Terminalia catappa L. exhibited superoxide radical scavenger activity and modification of mitomycin C-induced clasto-genicity. In order to investigate the multiple antioxidant effect of the tannin components of T. catappa L., their ability to prevent lipid peroxidation, superoxide formation and their free radical scavenging activity were evaluated. The results indicated that all of these components showed potent antioxidant activity. Punicalagin and punicalin were the most abundant components and had the strongest anti-oxidative effects of this group of tannins.

  19. In vitro anti-Neisseria gonorrhoeae activity of Terminalia macroptera leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Olga; Ferreira, Eugénia; Vaz Pato, M; Caniça, Manuela; Gomes, Elsa T

    2002-12-17

    We used the agar dilution method to evaluate the antibacterial effect of Terminalia macroptera leaf (Tml) extract against nine reference and clinical Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains, including penicillin- and tetracycline-resistant and -susceptible strains. Tml possesses anti-N. gonorrhoeae activity against all of the strains and the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were between 100 and 200 microg ml(-1). We then used a liquid-liquid partition method to divide the Tml extract into five fractions and determined the anti-N. gonorrhoeae activity of each of the fractions. All of the fractions showed antibacterial activity. The most active one was identified as the diethyl ether fraction and had MIC values of between 25 and 50 microg ml(-1) against all of the strains. Copyright 2002 Federation of European Microbiological Societies

  20. DPPH radical scavenging and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of Terminalia macroptera leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Anh Thu; Malterud, Karl Egil; Paulsen, Berit Smestad; Diallo, Drissa; Wangensteen, Helle

    2011-08-01

    From a methanol extract of the leaves of the Malian medicinal tree Terminalia macroptera, cis-polyisoprene (1), chebulic acid trimethyl ester (2), methyl gallate (3), shikimic acid (4), corilagin (5), rutin (6), narcissin (7), chebulagic acid (8) and chebulinic acid (9), were isolated. Cispolyisoprene (1) was the major non-polar constituent. The novel compound 2 showed high radical scavenging activity (IC50 4.7 microg/mL), but was inactive as xanthine oxidase inhibitor. The major substituent of the crude extract, substance 5, showed a high radical scavenger effect (IC50 2.7 microg/mL) and weak xanthine oxidase inhibition (IC50 ca 105 microg/mL). The antioxidant and radical scavenging effects of some of the substances identified in this study may to some extent explain the medical use of this tree in West Africa.

  1. Isoterchebulin and 4,6-O-isoterchebuloyl-D-glucose, novel hydrolyzable tannins from Terminalia macroptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, J; Vogler, B; Reeb, S; Klaiber, I; Papajewski, S; Roos, G; Vasquez, E; Setzer, M C; Kraus, W

    2001-03-01

    Two new hydrolyzable tannins, isoterchebulin (1) and 4,6-O-isoterchebuloyl-D-glucose (2), together with six known tannins, 3-8, were isolated from the bark of Terminalia macroptera. Their structures were elucidated by extensive 1D and 2D NMR studies, MS, and chemical transformations. Biological activities of all compounds were evaluated against the snail Biomphalaria glabrata, the bacteria Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas fluorescens, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, and four cancer cell lines (Hep G2, MCF-7/S, MDA-MB-231, and 5637 cells). All compounds except 3 showed antimicrobial activities against B. subtilis (MIC 8-64 microg/mL), whereas only 1 was active against C. elegans (100 microg/mL) and B. glabrata(LC(100) = 60 microg/mL). 3 and 8 were toxic against 5637 cells with LC(50) = 84.66 and 41.40 microM, respectively.

  2. Phytochemical screening and in vitro anthelmintic activity of methanol extract of Terminalia citrina leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narhari Das

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate anthelmintic activity of methanolic extract of leaves of Terminalia citrina (T. citrina plant belonging to the Combretaceae family. Methods: The tests of phytochemical screening included alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, quinines, anthocyanins, glycosides, carbohydrates and reducing sugars. The anthelmintic activity of methanolic extract of leaves of T. citrina was evaluated against Pheretima posthuma at three different concentrations (25 mg/mL, 50 mg/mL and 100 mg/mL of extracts which involved determination of time of paralysis and time of death of worms. Results: The phytochemical screening of T. citrina leaves revealed the presence of flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids, carbohydrates and reducing sugars. The present study indicated that methanolic extract significantly exhibited paralysis and also caused death of worms especially at highest concentration of 100 mg/mL, as compared to standard reference Albendazole (10 mg/mL. Conclusions: This study suggests that the leaves of T. citrina possess potent anthelmintic activity.

  3. Anti-caries activity of selected Sudanese medicinal plants with emphasis on Terminalia laxiflora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebtihal Abdalla M. Mohieldin

    Full Text Available Abstract In Sudan, some medicinal plants, such as Acacia seyal, Calotropis procera and Balanites aegyptiaca have been used to prevent or treat oral health problems. The stem and stem bark of Terminalia laxiflora Engl., Combretaceae, are used as antiseptics for mouthwash to prevent gingivitis and thrush in Africa. Methanol and 50% hydroethanolic extracts of 25 plants that are used in traditional Sudanese medicine for several diseases and cavity disorders were screened for anti-cavity activities. T. laxiflora methanolic wood extracts, which exhibited such activity, were investigated. The crude extracts were assayed for their antimicrobial activities against Streptococcus sobrinus in terms of minimum inhibitory concentration and glucosyltransferase inhibition. The active extract of T. laxiflora wood was subsequently fractionated by different chromatographic techniques. Isolated compounds were identified by spectroscopic methods and assessed for S. sobrinus and glucosyltransferase inhibitory effects. Methanolic extracts of Terminalia brownii (bark, T. laxiflora (wood, A. seyal (bark, Persicaria glabra (leaves and Tamarix nilotica (stem showed good activities against both S. sobrinus and glucosyltransferase (MIC ≤ 1 mg/ml, IC50 values <50 µg/ml. Over all plant extracts, T. laxiflora demonstrated the good combined activities (MIC 0.5 mg/ml, glucosyltransferase, IC50 10.3 µg/ml; therefore, its methanolic wood extracts were selected for further phytochemical studies. Four constituents were isolated by chromatographic techniques and identified by spectroscopic techniques. Pharmacological evaluation of the obtained compounds showed that flavogallonic acid dilactone had comparatively good antibacterial activity. In the glucosyltransferase inhibitory test, terchebulin displayed potent activity with an IC50 of 7.5 µM. The screening presented in this study showed that methanol extracts of T. laxiflora wood possessed promising anti-cavity effects.

  4. Complement activity of polysaccharides from three different plant parts of Terminalia macroptera extracted as healers do.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yuan-Feng; Zhang, Bing-Zhao; Inngjerdingen, Kari Tvete; Barsett, Hilde; Diallo, Drissa; Michaelsen, Terje Einar; Paulsen, Berit Smestad

    2014-08-08

    Water decoctions of the root bark, stem bark and leaves of Terminalia macroptera are used by traditional healers in Mali to cure a wide range of illnesses, such as wounds, hepatitis, malaria, fever, cough and diarrhea as well as tuberculosis. Plant polysaccharides isolated from crude water extracts have previously shown effects related to the immune system. The aims of this study are comparing the properties of the polysaccharides among different plant parts, as well as relationship between chemical characteristics and complement fixation activities when the plant material has been extracted as the traditional healers do, with boiling water directly. Root bark, stem bark and leaves of Terminalia macroptera were extracted by boiling water, and five purified polysaccharide fractions were obtained by anion exchange chromatography and gel filtration. Chemical compositions were determined by GC of the TMS derivatives of the methyl-glycosides and the linkage determined after permethylation and GC-MS of the derived partly methylated alditol acetates. The bioactivity was determined by the complement fixation assay of the crude extracts and purified fractions. The acidic fraction TRBD-I-I isolated from the root bark was the most active of the fractions isolated. Structural studies showed that all purified fractions are of pectic nature, containing rhamnogalacturonan type I backbone. Arabinogalactan type II side chains were present in all fractions except TRBD-I-II. The observed differences in complement fixation activities among the five purified polysaccharide fractions are probably due to differences in monosaccharide compositions, linkage types and molecular sizes. The crude extracts from root bark and stem bark have similar total activities, both higher than those from leaves. The root bark, leaves and stem bark are all good sources for fractions containing bioactive polysaccharides. But due to sustainability, it is prefer to use leaves rather than the other two plant

  5. Tannin extracts from immature fruits of Terminalia chebula Fructus Retz. promote cutaneous wound healing in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Tannins extracted from immature fruits of Terminalia chebula Fructus Retz. are considered as effective components promoting the process of wound healing. The objective of this study is to explore the optimal extraction and purification technology (OEPT) of tannins, while studying the use of this drug in the treatment of a cutaneous wound of rat as well as its antibacterial effects. Methods The content of tannin extracts was measured by the casein method, and antibacterial ability was studied by the micro-dilution method in vitro. In wound healing experiment, animals in group Ⅰ, Ⅱ and Ⅲ were treated with vaseline ointment, tannin extracts (tannin content: 81%) and erythromycin ointment, respectively (5 mg of ointment were applied on each wound). To evaluate the process of wound healing, selected pharmacological and biochemical parameters were applied. Results After optimal extraction and purification, content of tannin extracts was increased to 81%. Tannin extracts showed the inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella Pneumonia in vitro. After excision of wounds, on days 7 and 10, the percent of wound contraction of group Ⅱ was higher than that of group Ⅰ. After being hurt with wounds, on days 3, 7, and 10, the wound healing quality of group Ⅱ was found to be better than that of group Ⅰ in terms of granulation formation and collagen organization. After wound creation, on day 3, the vascular endothelial growth factor expression of group Ⅱ was higher than that of group Ⅰ. Conclusion The results suggest that tannin extracts from dried immature fruits of Terminalia chebula Fructus Retz. can promote cutaneous wound healing in rats, probably resulting from a powerful anti-bacterial and angiogenic activity of the extracts. PMID:21982053

  6. Tannin extracts from immature fruits of Terminalia chebula Fructus Retz. promote cutaneous wound healing in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kun; Diao, Yunpeng; Zhang, Houli; Wang, Shouyu; Zhang, Zhen; Yu, Bo; Huang, Shanshan; Yang, Hong

    2011-10-07

    Tannins extracted from immature fruits of Terminalia chebula Fructus Retz. are considered as effective components promoting the process of wound healing. The objective of this study is to explore the optimal extraction and purification technology (OEPT) of tannins, while studying the use of this drug in the treatment of a cutaneous wound of rat as well as its antibacterial effects. The content of tannin extracts was measured by the casein method, and antibacterial ability was studied by the micro-dilution method in vitro. In wound healing experiment, animals in group Ⅰ, Ⅱ and Ⅲ were treated with vaseline ointment, tannin extracts (tannin content: 81%) and erythromycin ointment, respectively (5 mg of ointment were applied on each wound). To evaluate the process of wound healing, selected pharmacological and biochemical parameters were applied. After optimal extraction and purification, content of tannin extracts was increased to 81%. Tannin extracts showed the inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella Pneumonia in vitro. After excision of wounds, on days 7 and 10, the percent of wound contraction of group Ⅱ was higher than that of group Ⅰ. After being hurt with wounds, on days 3, 7, and 10, the wound healing quality of group Ⅱ was found to be better than that of group Ⅰ in terms of granulation formation and collagen organization. After wound creation, on day 3, the vascular endothelial growth factor expression of group Ⅱ was higher than that of group Ⅰ. The results suggest that tannin extracts from dried immature fruits of Terminalia chebula Fructus Retz. can promote cutaneous wound healing in rats, probably resulting from a powerful anti-bacterial and angiogenic activity of the extracts.

  7. Sorption study of methylene blue on activated carbon prepared from Jatropha curcas and Terminalia catappa seed coats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismaila Olalekan Saheed

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research work targets the effectiveness of the prepared activated carbon from Jatropha curcas and Terminalia catappa seed coats for the sorption of methylene blue (MB from aqueous solution. The prepared Jatropha activated carbon (JAC and Terminalia activated carbon (TAC were characterised using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM and Branauer- Emmett-Teller (BET surface area analysis. Effect of initial concentration, pH, contact time, adsorbent dose and temperature on the sorption experiments were studied and the adsorption capacity of these adsorbents were found to be 37.84 mg/g and 17.44 mg/g for methylene blue uptake by JAC and TAC respectively. The experimental data were analysed using Langmuir, Fruendlich, and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherms. The data fitted best into Langmuir isotherm for Methylene blue-JAC and Methylene blue-TAC systems. The kinetic studies fitted into pseudo second order kinetics model. The process chemistry was exothermic.

  8. Effect of microwave irradiation time on the physical properties of Terminalia catappa fruit shells-based activated carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awitdrus, Annur, Al; Farma, Rakhmawati; Iwantono, Deraman, Mohamad

    2017-01-01

    Activated carbon (AC) from Terminalia catappa fruit shells has been produced through microwave irradiation assisted chemical activation. Potassium hydroxide (KOH) was used as activating agent with ratio of mass percentage of pre-carbonized of Terminalia catappa fruit shells and KOH of 2:1. The AC was irradiated using microwave with the output power of 630 Watt and different irradiation time of 15, 20, and 25 minutes. The physical properties of ACs i.e. microstructures, surface morphology, and BET surface area were characterized using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and N2 adsorption/desorption isotherm, respectively. Interlayer spacing d002 and d100, and stack width La increased, and stack height Lc decreased with increasing irradiation time. The N2 adsorption/desorption isotherm data of the ACs showed the BET surface area of 365 and 300 m2/g for AC15 and AC25, respectively.

  9. Shuttle imaging radar A analysis of land use in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Thomas A.; Woodwell, George M.

    1988-01-01

    Over large areas in the tropics, satellite imagery is the principal source of data on the area, current stature, and extent of disturbance of the forests. The information from imagery that covers large areas at low resolution is greatly enhanced when different types of imagery can be compared. The paper presents a comparison of data from Landsat MSS and from the Shuttle Imaging Radar (SIR-A) L band HH polarization data for sites in the Amazon Basin. Results indicate that SIR-A backscatter from the undisturbed forest was lower than that from some disturbed areas and from flooded forests and that SIR-A brightness, increases nonlinearly with the Landsat normalized difference vegetation index. It is hypothesized that the brightest radar returns in southern Amazonia are from newly cleared forests that are littered with standing and fallen tree boles that function as corner reflectors; and that backscatter will diminish from disturbed areas over time as fields are burned repeatedly.

  10. Pervasive Rise of Small-scale Deforestation in Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalamandeen, Michelle; Gloor, Emanuel; Mitchard, Edward; Quincey, Duncan; Ziv, Guy; Spracklen, Dominick; Spracklen, Benedict; Adami, Marcos; Aragão, Luiz E O C; Galbraith, David

    2018-01-25

    Understanding forest loss patterns in Amazonia, the Earth's largest rainforest region, is critical for effective forest conservation and management. Following the most detailed analysis to date, spanning the entire Amazon and extending over a 14-year period (2001-2014), we reveal significant shifts in deforestation dynamics of Amazonian forests. Firstly, hotspots of Amazonian forest loss are moving away from the southern Brazilian Amazon to Peru and Bolivia. Secondly, while the number of new large forest clearings (>50 ha) has declined significantly over time (46%), the number of new small clearings (<1 ha) increased by 34% between 2001-2007 and 2008-2014. Thirdly, we find that small-scale low-density forest loss expanded markedly in geographical extent during 2008-2014. This shift presents an important and alarming new challenge for forest conservation, despite reductions in overall deforestation rates.

  11. Drug tourism or spiritual healing? Ayahuasca seekers in Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelman, Michael

    2005-06-01

    This research addresses the question of whether Westerners who seek traditional spiritual medicine known as ayahuasca can be best characterized as "drug tourists" or as people pursuing spiritual and therapeutic opportunities. Participants in an ayahuasca retreat in Amazonia were interviewed regarding their motivations for participation and the benefits they felt that they received. These findings from the interviews were organized to reveal common motivations and benefits. Contrary to the characterization as "drug tourists", the principal motivations can be characterized as: seeking spiritual relations and personal spiritual development; emotional healing; and the development of personal self-awareness, including contact with a sacred nature, God, spirits and plant and natural energies produced by the ayahuasca. The motivation and perceived benefits both point to transpersonal concerns, with the principal perceived benefits involving increased self awareness, insights and access to deeper levels of the self that enhanced personal development and the higher self, providing personal direction in life.

  12. In vivo validation of anti-malarial activity of crude extracts of Terminalia macroptera, a Malian medicinal plant

    OpenAIRE

    Haidara, Mahamane; Haddad, Mohamed; Denou, Adama; Marti, Guillaume; Bourgeade-Delmas, Sandra; Sanogo, Rokia; Bourdy, Geneviève; Aubouy, Agnès

    2018-01-01

    Background Plasmodium falciparum malaria is still one of the most deadly pathology worldwide. Efficient treatment is jeopardized by parasite resistance to artemisinin and its derivatives, and by poor access to treatment in endemic regions. Anti-malarial traditional remedies still offer new tracks for identifying promising antiplasmodial molecules, and a way to ensure that all people have access to care. The present study aims to validate the traditional use of Terminalia macroptera, a Malian ...

  13. In vivo validation of anti-malarial activity of crude extracts of Terminalia macroptera, a Malian medicinal plant

    OpenAIRE

    Haidara, M.; Haddad, Mohamed; Denou, A.; Marti, G.; Bourgeade-Delmas, Sandra; Sanogo, R.; Bourdy, Geneviève; Aubouy, Agnès

    2018-01-01

    Background: Plasmodium falciparum malaria is still one of the most deadly pathology worldwide. Efficient treatment is jeopardized by parasite resistance to artemisinin and its derivatives, and by poor access to treatment in endemic regions. Anti-malarial traditional remedies still offer new tracks for identifying promising antiplasmodial molecules, and a way to ensure that all people have access to care. The present study aims to validate the traditional use of Terminalia macroptera, a Malian...

  14. USOS DE LAS PALMAS EN LA AMAZONIA COLOMBIANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAURA MESA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de obtener un diagnóstico del estado actual de conocimiento sobre usos de las palmas en la Amazonia colombiana, se revisaron las principales fuentes de información. Treinta y seis de las 41 etnias indígenas consideradas tuvieron registros de uso. Se registraron 82 especies de palmas usadas (78% de las potenciales y 165 usos distribuidos en ocho categorías; todos los usos se presentan de manera detallada en un catálogo. Las categorías de uso más importantes fueron: utensilios y herramientas, construcción, y alimentación humana. Las diez especies más importantes fueron Bactris gasipaes, Euterpe precatoria, Mauritia flexuosa, Oenocarpus bataua, Attalea maripa, Oenocarpus minor, Astrocaryum chambira, Iriartea deltoidea, Oenocarpus bacaba y Socratea exorrhiza; la mayoría de ellas también han sido registradas como las más importantes en otras partes del Neotrópico. No se encontró ninguna información sobre usos de palmas para varios grupos indígenas, especialmente para las etnias cocama, letuama, piaroa, pisamira y yurí, para las cuales se requieren investigaciones detalladas. Se concluye que a pesar de los vacíos de información, los resultados muestran que las palmas son un recurso muy importante con un gran potencial, y una pieza fundamental para la seguridad alimentaria y el desarrollo sustentable de la Amazonia colombiana. Sugerimos la inclusión de las especies más importantes en programas de manejo y agroforestales, al igual que la implementación y popularización de técnicas de cosecha no destructivas. Recomendamos además que las investigaciones futuras estén enfocadas en desarrollar estrategias de manejo que garanticen el uso sostenible de todas estas especies útiles.

  15. Two hundred years of local avian extinctions in eastern Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Nárgila G; Lees, Alexander C; Aleixo, Alexandre; Barlow, Jos; Dantas, Sidnei M; Ferreira, Joice; Lima, Maria de Fátima C; Gardner, Toby A

    2014-10-01

    Local, regional, and global extinctions caused by habitat loss, degradation, and fragmentation have been widely reported for the tropics. The patterns and drivers of this loss of species are now increasingly well known in Amazonia, but there remains a significant gap in understanding of long-term trends in species persistence and extinction in anthropogenic landscapes. Such a historical perspective is critical for understanding the status and trends of extant biodiversity as well as for identifying priorities to halt further losses. Using extensive historical data sets of specimen records and results of contemporary surveys, we searched for evidence of local extinctions of a terra firma rainforest avifauna over 200 years in a 2500 km(2) eastern Amazonian region around the Brazilian city of Belém. This region has the longest history of ornithological fieldwork in the entire Amazon basin and lies in the highly threatened Belém Centre of Endemism. We also compared our historically inferred extinction events with extensive data on species occurrences in a sample of catchments in a nearby municipality (Paragominas) that encompass a gradient of past forest loss. We found evidence for the possible extinction of 47 species (14% of the regional species pool) that were unreported from 1980 to 2013 (80% last recorded between 1900 and 1980). Seventeen species appear on the International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List, and many of these are large-bodied. The species lost from the region immediately around Belém are similar to those which are currently restricted to well-forested catchments in Paragominas. Although we anticipate the future rediscovery or recolonization of some species inferred to be extinct by our calculations, we also expect that there are likely to be additional local extinctions, not reported here, given the ongoing loss and degradation of remaining areas of native vegetation across eastern Amazonia. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  16. Marine intervals in Neogene fluvial deposits of western Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonstra, Melanie; Troelstra, Simon; Lammertsma, Emmy; Hoorn, Carina

    2014-05-01

    Amazonia is one of the most species rich areas on Earth, but this high diversity is not homogeneous over the entire region. Highest mammal and tree-alpha diversity is found in the fluvio-lacustrine Pebas system, a Neogene wetland associated with rapid radiation of species. The estuarine to marine origin of various modern Amazonian fish, plants, and invertebrates has been associated with past marine ingressions into this freshwater Pebas system. The exact nature and age of these invasions is, however, debated. Here we present new evidence from fluvial and fluvio-lacustrine deposits of Neogene age in southeast Colombia, that point to periods of widespread marine conditions in western Amazonia. Our evidence is based on an analysis of marine palynomorphs, such as organic linings of foraminifera and dinoflagellate cysts, present in dark sandy clay sediments that outcrop along the Caqueta and Amazon rivers. Characteristically, the foraminiferal linings can be assigned to three benthic morphotypes only, e.g. Ammonia, Elphidium and Trochammina. This low diversity assemblage is associated with estuarine/marginal marine conditions. No distinct marine elements such as shelf or planktonic species were encountered. The observed foraminiferal linings and dinocyst assemblages are typical for a (eutrophic) shallow marine environment, suggesting that the Pebas freshwater wetland system occasionally changed to (marginal) marine. Although some reworked elements are found, a typical Neogene dinocyst taxon is commonly found supporting in situ deposition. Sedimentological features typical for tidal conditions that are reported for sites in Peru and northeastern Brazil likely relate to these marine ingressions. Sea level changes as well as foreland basin development related to Andes formation may have facilitated the entry of marine water during the Neogene.

  17. [Presumptive identification of Cryptococcus gattii isolated from Terminalia catappa in Montería city, Córdoba, Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras Martínez, Orfa Inés; Aycardi Morinelli, María Paulina; Alarcón Furnieles, Jany Luz; Jaraba Ramos, Aparicio Manuel

    2011-01-01

    the members of the Cryptococcus neoformans species complex are responsible for cryptococcosis in animals and humans. Human infection is thought to be acquired by inhalation of airborne propagules from an environmental source; therefore it is greatly important to study their habitat. to determine the ecological relationship of Cryptococcus gattii with Terminalia catappa trees present in urban areas of Montería city in Colombia. a total of 163 Terminalia catappa trees were selected; some samples were taken from the bark, the leaves, the flowers, the fruits of these trees and from the surrounding soil. The yeast was isolated using the Guizotia abyssinica seed agar medium; it was identified thanks to biochemical and morphologic tests whereas the right variety was determined by L-canavanine-glycine-bromothymol blue (CGB), D-proline and D-tryptophan tests. there was obtained 9.050 CFU/g isolate of Cryptococcus spp., 5.795 CFU/g of which were presumptively identified as Cryptococcus gattii. The highest percentage of isolates was found in flowers, followed by bark and fruits, presenting small cellular and capsular sizes. These isolates were more frequent in the south of the city, followed by the center zone and the lowest percentage in the northern zone. these findings confirmed the close relationship of Cryptococcus gattii and Terminalia catappa, being this the first study conducted in Monteria city. These results give us meaningful information for understanding and analyzing the epidemiology of cryptococcosis in Monteria city, Colombia.

  18. Impact of biomass burning aerosol on the monsoon circulation transition over Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Y.; Fu, Rong; Yu, Hongbin; Qian, Yun; Dickinson, Robert; Silva Dias, Maria Assuncao F.; da Silva Dias, Pedro L.; Fernandes, Katia

    2009-05-30

    Ensemble simulations of a regional climate model (RegCM3) forced by aerosol radiative forcing suggest that biomass burning aerosols can work against the seasonal monsoon circulation transition, thus re-enforce the dry season rainfall pattern for Southern Amazonia. Strongly absorbing smoke aerosols warm and stabilize the lower troposphere within the smoke center in southern Amazonia (where aerosol optical depth > 0.3). These changes increase the surface pressure in the smoke center, weaken the southward surface pressure gradient between northern and southern Amazonia, and consequently induce an anomalous moisture divergence in the smoke center and an anomalous convergence occurs in northwestern Amazonia (5°S-5°N, 60°W-40 70°W). The increased atmospheric thermodynamic stability, surface pressure, and divergent flow in Southern Amazonia may inhibit synoptic cyclonic activities propagated from extratropical South America, and re-enforce winter-like synoptic cyclonic activities and rainfall in southeastern Brazil, Paraguay and northeastern Argentina.

  19. Workplan for Catalyzing Collaboration with Amazonian Universities in the Large Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, I. Foster; Moreira, Adriana

    1997-01-01

    Success of the Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmospheric Experiment in Amazonia (LBA) program depends on several critical factors, the most important being the effective participation of Amazonian researchers and institutions. Without host-county counterparts, particularly in Amazonia, many important studies cannot he undertaken due either to lack of qualified persons or to legal constraints. No less important, the acceptance of the LBA program in Amazonia is also dependent on what LBA can do for improving the scientific expertise in Amazonia. Gaining the active investment of Amazonian scientists in a comprehensive research program is not a trivial task. Potential collaborators are few, particularly where much of the research was to be originally focused - the southern arc of Brazilian Amazonia. The mid-term goals of the LBA Committee on Training and Education are to increase the number of collaborators and to demonstrate that LBA will be of benefit to the region.

  20. The ken and barbie gene encoding a putative transcription factor with a BTB domain and three zinc finger motifs functions in terminalia development of Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukacsovich, Tamas; Yuge, Kazuya; Awano, Wakae; Asztalos, Zoltan; Kondo, Shunzo; Juni, Naoto; Yamamoto, Daisuke

    2003-10-01

    Mutations in the ken and barbie locus are accompanied by the malformation of terminalia in adult Drosophila. Male and female genitalia often remain inside the body, and the same portions of genitalia and analia are missing in a fraction of homozygous flies. Rotated and/or duplicated terminalia are also observed. Terminalia phenotypes are enhanced by mutations in the gap gene tailless, the homeobox gene caudal, and the decapentaplegic gene that encodes a TGFbeta-like morphogen. The ken and barbie gene encodes a protein with three CCHH-type zinc finger motifs that are conserved in several transcription factors such as Krüppel and BCL-6. All defects in ken and barbie mutants are fully rescued by the expression of a wild-type genomic construct, which establishes the causality between phenotypes and the gene. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Arcella peruviana sp. nov. (Amoebozoa: Arcellinida, Arcellidae), a new species from a tropical peatland in Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reczuga, Monika K; Swindles, Graeme T; Grewling, Łukasz; Lamentowicz, Mariusz

    2015-10-01

    There has only been one study on the ecology of testate amoebae from Amazonian peatlands, despite Amazonia being a biodiversity hotspot of global importance. During analysis of litter samples from Aucayacu peatland, western (Peruvian) Amazonia, we discovered a testate amoeba with a distinct morphology unlike any other species reported previously. We describe a new species, Arcella peruviana, based on its distinct morphology, compare it to morphologically similar species and provide information about its ecology. This new species is characterised by a distinct cruciform aperture (diameter ranges between 12 and 17μm) which is slightly invaginated. The test is small (height 43-57μm) and polygonal in cross-section. Our discovery suggests the existence of an unknown diversity of testate amoebae in Amazonia. The absence of the new Arcella species in more intensively-sampled regions supports the view that protists have restricted distributions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of Terminalia bellerica Roxb. methanolic extract on mouse immune response in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurasorn Saraphanchotiwitthaya1

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effects of Terminalia bellerica methanolic extract (0.1, 1, 10, 100 and 500 g/ml on the mouse immune system were investigated in vitro. Phagocytic activity and lymphocyte proliferation were assayed. The results indicated the effect of the extract (500 g/ml on the stimulation of macrophage phagocytosis, through the production of superoxide anions and acid phosphatase, with a phagocytic index (PI value of approximately 1.5 and 1.3, respectively. For the lymphocyte proliferation assay, the extract (500 g/ml with phytohemagglutinin exhibited maximal activation, with a stimulation index (SI value of approximately 5.8. With concanavalin A, lipopolysaccharide, and pokeweed mitogen, similar activation (SI 4.5 of lymphocyte proliferation was observed. However, at low concentrations (0.1 g/ml, T. bellerica extract with concanavalin A and pokeweed mitogen caused suppressant activity (SI 0.7. The results suggested that the effect of extract on T-lymphocyte proliferation occurred through the same mechanism as phytohemagglutinin, concanavalin A and B-lymphocyte proliferation through T-cell independent and T-cell dependent mechanisms, in manners similar to lipopolysaccharide and pokeweed mitogen respectively. It might be concluded that the methanolic extract of T. bellerica affected the mouse immune system, specifically both the cellular and humoral immune response in vitro, corresponding with its folklore applications. These results can be further applied to the treatment of human immune mediated diseases.

  3. Biobased green method to synthesise palladium and iron nanoparticles using Terminalia chebula aqueous extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan Kumar, Kesarla; Mandal, Badal Kumar; Siva Kumar, Koppala; Sreedhara Reddy, Pamanji; Sreedhar, Bojja

    2013-02-01

    There are many methods to synthesise metal and metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs) using different reducing agents which are hazardous in nature. Although some researchers have used biobased materials for synthesis of these NPs, further research is needed in this area. To explore the scope of bio-extract for the synthesis of transition metal NPs, the present paper synthesises metal NPs replacing hazardous traditional reducing agents. This paper reports the synthesis of palladium and iron NPs, using aqueous extract of Terminalia chebula fruit. Reduction potential of aqueous extract of polyphenolic rich T. chebula was 0.63 V vs. SCE by cyclic voltammetry study which makes it a good green reducing agent. This helps to reduce palladium and iron salts to palladium and iron NPs respectively. Powder X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) analyses revealed that amorphous iron NPs were within the size less than 80 nm and cubic palladium NPs were within the size less than 100 nm. The synthesised nanomaterials were remarkably stable for a long period and synthesis of stable metal NPs will need to be explored using biobased materials as reducing agents.

  4. Terminalia catappa as bioindicator of environmental pollution in Cubatao city by SR-TXRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, Silvana; Geraldo, Simoni Michetti; Barroso, Regina Cely; Vives, Ana Elisa Sirito de; Cardoso, Simone Coutinho

    2009-01-01

    Fertilizer industries are considered the main environmental polluting of fluoride (F) and the industrial complex of the city of Cubatao, SP, Brazil, is an important fertilizer producer. This study aimed to evaluate the local pollution for toxic elements and its comparison with fluoride concentration using the urban vegetation as biomarker. For this, leaves of Terminalia catappa (popularly known for Hat-of-sun or Almond tree of the beach) were tested. The leaves were collected in the winter of 2007 in the industrial region around the fertilizer plants and other industries, in the municipal urban areas of Cubatao and Santos cities. The samples were dehydrated, powdered and submitted to an acid digestion for multi-elemental determination by Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (SR-TXRF). All the measurements were performed at Synchrotron Light Source Laboratory. The results obtained by SR-TXRF were compared to fluoride determinations. The variance analysis showed the correlation between F and S concentrations (p -1 , this is considered a toxic value (author)

  5. Gastric Antiulcerogenic and Hypokinetic Activities of Terminalia fagifolia Mart. & Zucc. (Combretaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Humberto M. Nunes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The acute toxicity, the antioxidant activity, and the pharmacological activity on the gastrointestinal tract of rodents of the ethanolic extract (TFEE from the bark of Terminalia fagifolia Mart. & Zucc. (Combretaceae and of its aqueous (TFAqF, hydroalcoholic (TFHAF, and hexanic (TFHEXF partition fractions have been evaluated. TFEE presented low acute toxicity, antioxidant, and antiulcerogenic activity against ethanol-induced ulcers, which was partially blocked by pretreatment with L-NAME and indomethacin. It reduced the total acidity and raised the pH of gastric secretion. Additionally, TFEE delayed gastric emptying and slightly inhibited the small intestinal transit and also presented a weakly antidiarrheal activity. The antiulcerogenic and antioxidant activity were also detected in TFAqF and TFHAF but not in TFHEXF. The antisecretory and gastroprotective activity of TFEE partially involve the nitric oxide and prostaglandin participation. Nevertheless, TFEE, TFAqF, and TFHAF drastically reduced the mucus layer adhered to the gastric wall of rats treated with ethanol or indomethacin. Complementary studies are required in order to clarify the paradox of the presence of a gastroprotector activity in this plant that, at the same time, reduces the mucus layer adhered to the gastric wall.

  6. Molluscicidal activity of Sapindus mukorossi and Terminalia chebula against the freshwater snail Lymnaea acuminata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Aparna; Singh, D K

    2011-04-01

    The molluscicidal activity of Sapindus mukorossi and Terminalia chebula fruit powder against the vector snail Lymnaea acuminata was time and concentration dependent. The molluscicidal activity of T. chebula fruit powder (96 h LC(50):93.59 mg L(-1)) was more pronounced than that of S. mukorossi fruit powder (96 h LC(50):119.57 mg L(-1)). Ethanolic extracts of S. mukorossi and T. chebula fruit powder were more toxic than their other organic solvent extracts. The molluscicidal activity of ethanolic extract of S. mukorossi fruit powder (24h LC(50):2.75 mg L(-1)) was more effective than the ethanolic extract of T. chebula fruit powder (24h LC(50):124.06 mg L(-1)). The 96 h LC(50) of column-purified fraction of S. mukorossi fruit powder was 5.43 mg L(-1) whereas those of T. chebula fruit powder was 7.49 mg L(-1). Column, thin layer and high performance liquid chromatography analysis demonstrates that the active molluscicidal component in S. mukorossi and T. chebula is saponin (96 h LC(50):1.31 mg L(-1)) and tannic acid (96 h LC(50):1.64 mg L(-1)), respectively. These plants may be used as potent source of molluscicides against the snail L. acuminata. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Exploration of Phytochemicals Found in Terminalia sp. and their Antiretroviral Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwevedi, Alka; Dwivedi, Raman; Sharma, Yogesh K

    2016-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infects cells of the immune system and destroys their function. Approximately, 2 million people die every year from HIV as reported by the World Health Organization. HIV/AIDS is difficult to treat as the virus continuously develops resistance to drugs being developed. Approach is now turning toward natural products for the development of anti-HIV drugs. Although HIV/AIDS is not a new disease, but research based on plant-derived products is still under clinical trials. Experimentally, it has been proven that plants have the potential for HIV treatment. The process involves identification of the active ingredients responsible for the reported anti-HIV activities, testing of the extract, and development of appropriate bioassays. Further development would require optimization of the formulation and manufacturing in compliance with preclinical safety and efficacy testing. The most challenging task for the natural product scientists is to separate these highly complex extracts containing several compounds into its individual components that are biologically active. Recently developed direct binding assay with mass spectrometry (MS) technology (viz., real-time time-of-flight-MS) is helpful in this respect but needs extensive optimization. At present, we have compiled all the information for the various phytochemicals present in Terminalia catappa having anti-HIV properties. These include tannins, gallotannins, ellagitannins, cyanidin, and flavonoids. Further, we have also discussed their pharmacological as well as pharmacokinetics studies. PMID:28082788

  8. Physicochemical properties of Malaysian-grown tropical almond nuts (Terminalia catappa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Siew; Lasekan, Ola; Muhammad, Kharidah Syed; Hussain, Norhayati; Sulaiman, Rabiha

    2015-10-01

    The seeds of Terminalia catappa from Malaysia were analyzed for their physicochemical properties. The following values were obtained: moisture 6.23 ± 0.09 %, ash 3.78 ± 0.04 %, lipid 54.68 ± 0.14 %, protein 17.66 ± 0.13 %, total dietary fibre 9.97 ± 0.08 %, carbohydrate 7.68 ± 0.06 %, reducing sugar 1.36 ± 0.16 %, starch 1.22 ± 0.15 %, caloric value 593.48 ± 0.24 %. Studies were also conducted on amino acid profile and free fatty acid composition of the seed oil. Results revealed that glutamic acid was the major essential amino acid while methionine and lysine were the limiting amino acids. The major saturated fatty acid was palmitic acid, while the main unsaturated fatty acid was oleic acid followed by linoleic acid. In addition, the seed was rich in sucrose and had trace amount of glucose and fructose. Briefly, the seed was high in proteins and lipids which are beneficial to human.

  9. Mercury adsorption on a carbon sorbent derived from fruit shell of Terminalia catappa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inbaraj, B Stephen; Sulochana, N

    2006-05-20

    A carbonaceous sorbent derived from the fruit shell of Indian almond (Terminalia catappa) by sulfuric acid treatment was used for the removal of mercury(II) from aqueous solution. Sorption of mercury depends on the pH of the aqueous solution with maximum uptake occurring in the pH range of 5-6. The kinetics of sorption conformed well to modified second order model among the other kinetic models (pseudo first order and pseudo second order) tested. The Langmuir and Redlich-Peterson isotherm models defined the equilibrium data precisely compared to Freundlich model and the monolayer sorption capacity obtained was 94.43 mg/g. Sorption capacity increased with increase in temperature and the thermodynamic parameters, DeltaH degrees , DeltaS degrees and DeltaG degrees , indicated the Hg(II) sorption to be endothermic and spontaneous with increased randomness at the solid-solution interface. An optimum carbon dose of 4 g/l was required for the maximum uptake of Hg(II) from 30 mg/l and the mathematical relationship developed showed a correlation of 0.94 between experimental and calculated percentage removals for any carbon dose studied. About 60% of Hg(II) adsorbed was recovered from the spent carbon at pH 1.0, while 94% of it was desorbed using 1.0% KI solution.

  10. Terminalia catappa attenuates urokinase-type plasminogen activator expression through Erk pathways in Hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Chao-Bin; Yu, Yung-Luen; Lin, Chiao-Wen; Chiou, Hui-Ling; Hsieh, Ming-Ju; Yang, Shun-Fa

    2014-04-30

    The survival rate of malignant tumors, and especially hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), has not improved primarily because of uncontrolled metastasis. In our previous studies, we have reported that Terminalia catappa leaf extract (TCE) exerts antimetastasis effects on HCC cells. However, the molecular mechanisms of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA) in HCC metastasis have not been thoroughly investigated, and remain poorly understood. The activities and protein levels of u-PA were determined by casein zymography and western blotting. Transcriptional levels of u-PA were detected by real-time PCR and promoter assays. We found that treatment of Huh7 cells with TCE significantly reduced the activities, protein levels and mRNA levels of u-PA. A chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay showed that TCE inhibited the transcription protein of nuclear factors SP-1 and NF-κB. TCE also did inhibit the effects of u-PA by reducing the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 pathway. These results show that u-PA expression may be a potent therapeutic target in the TCE-mediated suppression of HCC metastasis.

  11. Effective protection of Terminalia catappa L. leaves from damage induced by carbon tetrachloride in liver mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xinhui; Gao, Jing; Wang, Yanping; Fan, Yi-Mei; Xu, Li-Zhi; Zhao, Xiao-Ning; Xu, Qiang; Qian, Zhong Ming

    2006-03-01

    The protective effects of chloroform extracts of Terminalia catappa L. leaves (TCCE) on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver damage and the possible mechanisms involved in the protection were investigated in mice. We found that increases in the activity of serum aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase and the level of liver lipid peroxidation (2.0-fold, 5.7-fold and 2.8-fold) induced by CCl4 were significantly inhibited by oral pretreatment with 20, 50 or 100 mg/kg of TCCE. Morphological observation further confirmed the hepatoprotective effects of TCCE. In addition, the disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential (14.8%), intramitochondrial Ca2+ overload (2.1-fold) and suppression of mitochondrial Ca2+-ATPase activity (42.0%) in the liver of CCl4-insulted mice were effectively prevented by pretreatment with TCCE. It can be concluded that TCCE have protective activities against liver mitochondrial damage induced by CCl4, which suggests a new mechanism of the hepatoprotective effects of TCCE.

  12. Terminalia catappa L. extract improves survival, hematological profile and resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila in Betta sp.

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    Nugroho Rudy Agung

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available To determine the effects of Terminalia catappa extract (TCE immersion on the survival and hematological profile of Betta sp, a group of fish was immersed in 500 ppm TCE and compared with the control group. After three days of immersion, survival, leukocyte (WBC, erythrocyte (RBC, hemoglobin (Hb, hematocrit (Hct, platelet (PLT, and differential leukocyte counts were compared between the two groups. Surviving fish from each group were then divided into three subgroups: subgroup without injection; subgroup injected with normal saline; subgroup injected with Aeromonas hydrophila. Survival, WBC, RBC, Hb, Hct, PLT, the percentage and number of lymphocyte, monocyte, and granulocytes post injection were evaluated for 48 h. The results showed that the survival of immersed fish was significantly higher than that in the control. No significant differences in the hematological profile were noted between the control and the immersed fish. The WBC of control subgroup (A. hydrophila injection was significantly increased after 24 h. The fish immersed and injected with A. hydrophila had the highest PLT. The number of lymphocytes of all subgroups of fish was stable while the percentage of monocytes and granulocytes of the subgroups of immersed fish were increased. This finding suggested that 500 ppm of TCE is beneficial for improving survival, blood profile, and resistance to A. hydrophila.

  13. Hepatoprotective activity of Terminalia catappa L. leaves and its two triterpenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jing; Tang, Xinhui; Dou, Huan; Fan, Yimei; Zhao, Xiaoning; Xu, Qiang

    2004-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the chloroform extract of Terminalia catappa L. leaves (TCCE) on carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced acute liver damage and D-galactosamine (D-GalN)-induced hepatocyte injury. Moreover, the effects of ursolic acid and asiatic acid, two isolated components of TCCE, on mitochondria and free radicals were investigated to determine the mechanism underlying the action of TCCE on hepatotoxicity. In the acute hepatic damage test, remarkable rises in the activity of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (5.7- and 2.0-fold) induced by CCl(4) were reversed and significant morphological changes were lessened with pre-treatment with 50 and 100 mg kg(-1) TCCE. In the hepatocyte injury experiment, the increases in ALT and AST levels (1.9- and 2.1-fold) in the medium of primary cultured hepatocytes induced by D-GalN were blocked by pre-treatment with 0.05, 0.1, 0.5 g L(-1) TCCE. In addition, Ca(2+)-induced mitochondrial swelling was dose-dependently inhibited by 50-500 microM ursolic acid and asiatic acid. Both ursolic acid and asiatic acid, at concentrations ranging from 50 to 500 microM, showed dose-dependent superoxide anion and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity. It can be concluded that TCCE has hepatoprotective activity and the mechanism is related to protection of liver mitochondria and the scavenging action on free radicals.

  14. Exploration of Phytochemicals Found in Terminalia sp. and their Antiretroviral Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwevedi, Alka; Dwivedi, Raman; Sharma, Yogesh K

    2016-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infects cells of the immune system and destroys their function. Approximately, 2 million people die every year from HIV as reported by the World Health Organization. HIV/AIDS is difficult to treat as the virus continuously develops resistance to drugs being developed. Approach is now turning toward natural products for the development of anti-HIV drugs. Although HIV/AIDS is not a new disease, but research based on plant-derived products is still under clinical trials. Experimentally, it has been proven that plants have the potential for HIV treatment. The process involves identification of the active ingredients responsible for the reported anti-HIV activities, testing of the extract, and development of appropriate bioassays. Further development would require optimization of the formulation and manufacturing in compliance with preclinical safety and efficacy testing. The most challenging task for the natural product scientists is to separate these highly complex extracts containing several compounds into its individual components that are biologically active. Recently developed direct binding assay with mass spectrometry (MS) technology (viz., real-time time-of-flight-MS) is helpful in this respect but needs extensive optimization. At present, we have compiled all the information for the various phytochemicals present in Terminalia catappa having anti-HIV properties. These include tannins, gallotannins, ellagitannins, cyanidin, and flavonoids. Further, we have also discussed their pharmacological as well as pharmacokinetics studies.

  15. Rheological characterization and drug release studies of gum exudates of Terminalia catappa Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sadhis V; Sasmal, Dinakar; Pal, Subodh C

    2008-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the gum exudates of Terminalia catappa Linn. (TC gum) as a release retarding excipient in oral controlled drug delivery system. The rheological properties of TC gum were studied and different formulation techniques were used to evaluate the comparative drug release characteristics. The viscosity was found to be dependent on concentration and pH. Temperature up to 60 degrees C did not show significant effect on viscosity. The rheological kinetics evaluated by power law, revealed the shear thinning behavior of the TC gum dispersion in water. Matrix tablets of TC gum were prepared with the model drug dextromethorphan hydrobromide (DH) by direct compression, wet granulation and solid dispersion techniques. The dissolution profiles of the matrix tablets were compared with the pure drug containing capsules using the USP Basket apparatus with 500 ml phosphate buffer of pH 6.8 as a dissolution medium. The drug release from the compressed tablets containing TC gum was comparatively sustained than pure drug containing capsules. Even though all the formulation techniques showed reduction of dissolution rate, aqueous wet granulation showed the maximum sustained release of more than 8 h. The release kinetics estimated by the power law revealed that the drug release mechanism involved in the dextromethorphan matrix is anomalous transport as indicated by the release exponent n values. Thus the study confirmed that the TC gum might be used in the controlled drug delivery system as a release-retarding polymer.

  16. Characterization and in vitro drug release studies of a natural polysaccharide Terminalia catappa gum (Badam gum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meka, Venkata Srikanth; Nali, Sreenivasa Rao; Songa, Ambedkar Sunil; Kolapalli, Venkata Ramana Murthy

    2012-12-01

    The main objective of the present study is the physicochemical characterization of naturally available Terminalia catappa gum (Badam gum [BG]) as a novel pharmaceutical excipient and its suitability in the development of gastroretentive floating drug delivery systems (GRFDDS) to retard the drug for 12 h when the dosage form is exposed to gastrointestinal fluids in the gastric environment. As BG was being explored for the first time for its pharmaceutical application, physicochemical, microbiological, rheological, and stability studies were carried out on this gum. In the present investigation, the physicochemical properties, such as micromeritic, rheological, melting point, moisture content, pH, swelling index, water absorption, and volatile acidity, were evaluated. The gum was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), powder X-ray diffraction studies (PXRD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Gastroretentive floating tablets of BG were prepared with the model drug propranolol HCl by direct compression methods. The prepared tablets were evaluated for all their physicochemical properties, in vitro buoyancy, in vitro drug release, and rate order kinetics. PBG 04 was selected as an optimized formulation based on its 12-h drug release and good buoyancy characteristics. The optimized formulation was characterized with FTIR, DSC, and PXRD studies, and no interaction between the drug and BG was found. Thus, the study confirmed that BG might be used in the gastroretentive drug delivery system as a release-retarding polymer.

  17. Inhibitory Effects of Terminalia catappa on UVB-Induced Photodamage in Fibroblast Cell Line

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    Kuo-Ching Wen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated whether Terminalia catappa L. hydrophilic extract (TCLW prevents photoaging in human dermal fibroblasts after exposure to UVB radiation. TCLW exhibited DPPH free radical scavenging activity and protected erythrocytes against AAPH-induced hemolysis. In the gelatin digestion assay, the rates of collagenase inhibition by TCL methanol extract, TCLW, and its hydrolysates were greater than 100% at the concentration of 1 mg/mL. We found that serial dilutions of TCLW (10–500 μg/mL inhibited collagenase activity in a dose-dependent manner (82.3% to 101.0%. However, TCLW did not significantly inhibit elastase activity. In addition, TCLW inhibited MMP-1 and MMP-9 protein expression at a concentration of 25 μg/mL and inhibited MMP-3 protein expression at a concentration of 50 μg/mL. TCLW also promoted the protein expression of type I procollagen. We also found that TCLW attenuated the expression of MMP-1, -3, and -9 by inhibiting the phosphorylation of ERK, JNK, and p38. These findings suggest that TCLW increases the production of type I procollagen by inhibiting the activity of MMP-1, -3 and -9, and, therefore, has potential use in anti-aging cosmetics.

  18. Squalene content and antioxidant activity of Terminalia catappa leaves and seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Ting-Fu; Weng, Yih-Ming; Chiou, Robin Y-Y

    2002-09-11

    Squalene was identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) spiking analyses in the supercritical CO(2) extracts of freeze-dried abscisic leaves of Terminalia catappa L. When the freeze-dried abscisic, senescent, mature, and immature leaves and seeds were subjected to supercritical CO(2) extraction at 40 degrees C and 3000 psi and HPLC quantitation, squalene contents were 12.29, 2.42, 1.75, 0.9, and 0% in the extracts and corresponding to 1499, 451, 210, 65, and 0 microg/g in the freeze-dried sample, respectively. When the extracts were applied for antioxidative characterization by supplementation in an iron/ascorbate system with linoleic acid and in a pork fat storage system for inhibition of conjugated diene hydroperoxide (CDHP) formation or in a free radical scavenging system with 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH), the extracts of leaves exhibited potent antioxidative and DPPH scavenging activities and increased with an increase of leaf maturity. However, the seed extracts only exhibited potent inhibition of CDHP formation and very low DPPH scavenging activity.

  19. Physicochemical properties of Terminalia catappa seed oil as a novel dietary lipid source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janporn, Supatcha; Ho, Chi-Tang; Chavasit, Visith; Pan, Min-Hsiung; Chittrakorn, Sasivimon; Ruttarattanamongkol, Khanitta; Weerawatanakorn, Monthana

    2015-06-01

    Terminalia catappa Linn (TC) is an ornamental tree planted extensively in many countries. It has been known for a long time that the seeds are edible but no research has focused on the realm of its use as food. Our previous data showed that the seed contains high levels of oil content (600 g/kg) and possesses the optimum fatty acid balance indicated in fat dietary guidelines. This study aims to investigate the physical and chemical properties and the possibility of using TC seed oil as a new dietary lipid. The effects of extraction conditions, partial refining process, and storage stability on TC oil properties were conducted compared with soybean oil. The results showed that physicochemical properties including the density, refractive index, melting point, acidity, free fatty acid, saponification value, unsaponifiable, peroxide, and fatty acid composition of the extracted oil were comparable with soybean oil and their values followed the dietary standard of edible oil. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Nutritional evaluation of outer fleshy coat of Terminalia catappa fruit in two varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikshit, Madhurima; Samudrasok, Rupali Krishna

    2011-02-01

    The nutritional potential of outer (50-55%) fleshy edible cover of Terminalia catappa fruit was selected for investigation in search of a new source of nutrients. Two different varieties, red and yellow in their ripe and unripe stages, were analyzed for proximate and mineral composition along with phytochemicals. In the results (per 100 g sample), the red variety has shown to be a rich source of protein (1.95 g vs. 1.65 g) while the yellow variety has shown a high content of carbohydrate and ash (12.03 g vs. 6.14 g and 1.21 g vs. 0.70 g). Of the phytochemicals, β-carotene and vitamin C were found to be present in high amount in the red variety (2,090 μg vs. 754 μg and 138.6 mg vs. 105.4 mg), wherein the former increased while the latter decreased with ripening of the fruit. The results of the study show that the edible outer cover of tropical almond can contribute significantly to the nutrient intake.

  1. In vitro and in vivo antimetastatic effects of Terminalia catappa L. leaves on lung cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Shu-Chen; Yang, Shun-Fa; Liu, Shang-Jung; Kuo, Wu-Hsien; Chang, Yan-Zin; Hsieh, Yih-Shou

    2007-07-01

    Terminalia catappa L. was a popular folk medicine and has several proven biological activities including antioxidant and anti-inflammatory. The present study investigated the effect of the extract of T. catappa leaves (TCE) on invasion and motility of tumor cells to find that TCE exerted a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on the invasion and motility of highly metastatic A549 and Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cells. To further investigate the precise involvement of TCE in tumor metastasis, A549 and LLC cells were treated with TCE at various concentrations, up to 100 microg/mL, for a specified period and results from zymography and Western blotting showed that a TCE treatment may decrease the expressions of matrix metalloproteinase-2, -9, urokinase plasminogen activator and their endogenous inhibitors, that is tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, the inhibitory effect of TCE on the growth and metastasis of LLC cells in vivo was proven. These results indicated that TCE could be applied to be a potential antimetastatic agent.

  2. Inhibitory Effects of Terminalia catappa on UVB-Induced Photodamage in Fibroblast Cell Line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Kuo-Ching; Shih, I-Chen; Hu, Jhe-Cyuan; Liao, Sue-Tsai; Su, Tsung-Wei; Chiang, Hsiu-Mei

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated whether Terminalia catappa L. hydrophilic extract (TCLW) prevents photoaging in human dermal fibroblasts after exposure to UVB radiation. TCLW exhibited DPPH free radical scavenging activity and protected erythrocytes against AAPH-induced hemolysis. In the gelatin digestion assay, the rates of collagenase inhibition by TCL methanol extract, TCLW, and its hydrolysates were greater than 100% at the concentration of 1 mg/mL. We found that serial dilutions of TCLW (10-500 μg/mL) inhibited collagenase activity in a dose-dependent manner (82.3% to 101.0%). However, TCLW did not significantly inhibit elastase activity. In addition, TCLW inhibited MMP-1 and MMP-9 protein expression at a concentration of 25 μg/mL and inhibited MMP-3 protein expression at a concentration of 50 μg/mL. TCLW also promoted the protein expression of type I procollagen. We also found that TCLW attenuated the expression of MMP-1, -3, and -9 by inhibiting the phosphorylation of ERK, JNK, and p38. These findings suggest that TCLW increases the production of type I procollagen by inhibiting the activity of MMP-1, -3 and -9, and, therefore, has potential use in anti-aging cosmetics.

  3. Complement fixing polysaccharides from Terminalia macroptera root bark, stem bark and leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yuan-Feng; Zhang, Bing-Zhao; Barsett, Hilde; Inngjerdingen, Kari Tvete; Diallo, Drissa; Michaelsen, Terje Einar; Paulsen, Berit Smestad

    2014-06-06

    The root bark, stem bark and leaves of Terminalia macroptera were sequentially extracted with ethanol, 50% ethanol-water, and 50 °C and 100 °C water using an accelerated solvent extractor. Ten bioactive purified polysaccharide fractions were obtained from those crude extracts after anion exchange chromatography and gel filtration. The polysaccharides and their native extracts were characterized with respect to molecular weight, chemical compositions and effects in the complement assay. The chemical compositions showed that the polysaccharides are of pectic nature. The results indicated that there was no great difference of the complement fixation activities in the crude extracts from the different plant parts when extracting with the accelerated solvent extraction system. The purified polysaccharide fractions 100WTSBH-I-I and 100WTRBH-I-I isolated from the 100 °C water extracts of stem and root bark respectively, showed the highest complement fixation activities. These two fractions have rhamnogalacturonan type I backbone, but only 100WTSBH-I-I contains side chains of both arabinogalactan type I and II. Based on the yield and activities of the fractions studied those from the root bark gave highest results, followed by those from leaves and stem bark. But in total, all plant materials are good sources for fractions containing bioactive polysaccharides.

  4. Complement Fixing Polysaccharides from Terminalia macroptera Root Bark, Stem Bark and Leaves

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    Yuan-Feng Zou

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The root bark, stem bark and leaves of Terminalia macroptera were sequentially extracted with ethanol, 50% ethanol-water, and 50 °C and 100 °C water using an accelerated solvent extractor. Ten bioactive purified polysaccharide fractions were obtained from those crude extracts after anion exchange chromatography and gel filtration. The polysaccharides and their native extracts were characterized with respect to molecular weight, chemical compositions and effects in the complement assay. The chemical compositions showed that the polysaccharides are of pectic nature. The results indicated that there was no great difference of the complement fixation activities in the crude extracts from the different plant parts when extracting with the accelerated solvent extraction system. The purified polysaccharide fractions 100WTSBH-I-I and 100WTRBH-I-I isolated from the 100 °C water extracts of stem and root bark respectively, showed the highest complement fixation activities. These two fractions have rhamnogalacturonan type I backbone, but only 100WTSBH-I-I contains side chains of both arabinogalactan type I and II. Based on the yield and activities of the fractions studied those from the root bark gave highest results, followed by those from leaves and stem bark. But in total, all plant materials are good sources for fractions containing bioactive polysaccharides.

  5. Phylogeographic structure of Terminalia franchetii (combretaceae) in southwest China and its implications for drainage geological history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ticao; Sun, Hang

    2011-01-01

    Following the rapid uplift of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, the reorganization of the major river drainages in southwest China was primarily caused by river capture events. However, the impact of these past changes in drainage patterns on the current distribution and genetic structure of the endemic flora of this region remains largely unknown. Here we report a survey of amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) in Terminalia franchetii, an endemic shrub or small tree of the deep and dry-hot river valleys of this region. We surveyed AFLP variation within and among 21 populations (251 individuals) of T. franchetii, distributed disjunctively between northern and southern drainage systems. Using STRUCTURE, principal coordinates analysis, and genetic distance methods, we identified two main population genetic groups (I and II) and four subgroups within the species, as follows: (I) the Upper Jinshajiang Valley (subgroup I((north))) and the Honghe drainage area (subgroup I((south))); (II) the Middle and Lower Jinshajiang and Yalongjiang Valleys (subgroup II((north))) and the Nanpanjiang drainage area (subgroup II((south))). Genetic diversity was lower in group I than in group II. According to the genetic diversity and genetic structure results, we suggest that the modern disjunctive distribution and associated patterns of genetic structure of T. franchetii result from vicariance caused by several historical drainage capture events, involving the separation of the Upper Jinshajiang, Yalongjiang and Daduhe from the Honghe or Nanpanjiang in southwest China.

  6. Antiherpes simplex virus type 2 activity of casuarinin from the bark of Terminalia arjuna Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hua-Yew; Lin, Chun-Ching; Lin, Ta-Chen

    2002-09-01

    Casuarinin, a hydrolyzable tannin isolated from the bark of Terminalia arjuna Linn. (Combretaceae), was investigated for its antiviral activity on herpes simplex type 2 (HSV-2) in vitro. Results showed that the IC(50) of casuarinin in XTT and plaque reduction assays were 3.6+/-0.9 and 1.5+/-0.2 microM, respectively. The 50% cytotoxic concentration for cell growth (CC(50)) was 89+/-1 microM. Thus, the selectivity index (SI) (ratio of CC(50) to IC(50)) of casuarinin was 25 and 59 for XTT and plaque reduction assays, respectively. Casuarinin continued to exhibit antiviral activity even added 12 h after infection. During the attachment assay, casuarinin was shown to prevent the attachment of HSV-2 to cells. Furthermore, casuarinin also exhibited an activity in inhibiting the viral penetration. Interestingly, casuarinin was virucidal at a concentration of 25 microM, reducing viral titers up to 100,000-fold. This study concludes that casuarinin possesses anti-herpesvirus activity in inhibiting viral attachment and penetration, and also disturbing the late event(s) of infection.

  7. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Terminalia chebula extract at room temperature and their antimicrobial studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan Kumar, Kesarla; Sinha, Madhulika; Mandal, Badal Kumar; Ghosh, Asit Ranjan; Siva Kumar, Koppala; Sreedhara Reddy, Pamanji

    2012-06-01

    A green rapid biogenic synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) using Terminalia chebula (T. chebula) aqueous extract was demonstrated in this present study. The formation of silver nanoparticles was confirmed by Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) at 452 nm using UV-visible spectrophotometer. The reduction of silver ions to silver nanoparticles by T. chebula extract was completed within 20 min which was evidenced potentiometrically. Synthesised nanoparticles were characterised using UV-vis spectroscopy, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The hydrolysable tannins such as di/tri-galloyl-glucose present in the extract were hydrolyzed to gallic acid and glucose that served as reductant while oxidised polyphenols acted as stabilizers. In addition, it showed good antimicrobial activity towards both Gram-positive bacteria (S. aureus ATCC 25923) and Gram-negative bacteria (E. coli ATCC 25922). Industrially it may be a smart option for the preparation of silver nanoparticles.

  8. Biome-Scale Forest Properties in Amazonia Based on Field and Satellite Observations

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    Liana O. Anderson

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Amazonian forests are extremely heterogeneous at different spatial scales. This review intends to present the large-scale patterns of the ecosystem properties of Amazonia, and focuses on two parts of the main components of the net primary production: the long-lived carbon pools (wood and short-lived pools (leaves. First, the focus is on forest biophysical properties, and secondly, on the macro-scale leaf phenological patterns of these forests, looking at field measurements and bringing into discussion the recent findings derived from remote sensing dataset. Finally, I discuss the results of the three major droughts that hit Amazonia in the last 15 years. The panorama that emerges from this review suggests that slow growing forests in central and eastern Amazonia, where soils are poorer, have significantly higher above ground biomass and higher wood density, trees are higher and present lower proportions of large-leaved species than stands in northwest and southwest Amazonia. However, the opposite pattern is observed in relation to forest productivity and dynamism, which is higher in western Amazonia than in central and eastern forests. The spatial patterns on leaf phenology across Amazonia are less marked. Field data from different forest formations showed that new leaf production can be unrelated to climate seasonality, timed with radiation, timed with rainfall and/or river levels. Oppositely, satellite images exhibited a large-scale synchronized peak in new leaf production during the dry season. Satellite data and field measurements bring contrasting results for the 2005 drought. Discussions on data processing and filtering, aerosols effects and a combined analysis with field and satellite images are presented. It is suggested that to improve the understanding of the large-scale patterns on Amazonian forests, integrative analyses that combine new technologies in remote sensing and long-term field ecological data are imperative.

  9. Electric systems failures produced by CG lightning in Eastern Amazonia

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    Ana Paula Paes dos Santos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Operational records of power outages of the electric energy distribution systems in eastern Amazonia presented a large number of events attributed to lightning strikes, during the 2006 to 2009 period. The regional electricity concessionary data were compared to actual lightning observations made by SIPAM's LDN system, over two areas where operational sub systems of transmission lines are installed. Statistical relations were drawn between the monthly lightning occurrence density and the number of power outages of the electric systems for both areas studied. The results showed that, although with some delays between these variables peaks, the number of power disruptions has a tendency to follow the behavior of the lightning occurrence densities variations. The numerical correlations were positive and may be useful to the transmission lines maintenance crews at least for the Belém-Castanhal electricity distribution sub system. Evidence was found, that the SST's over certain areas of the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, influence convection over the area of interest, and may help to prognosticate the periods of intense electric storms, requiring repair readiness for the regional electric systems.

  10. Human papillomaviruses in Amerindian women from Brazilian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, E. B.; Martins, S. J.; Menezes, R. C.

    2002-01-01

    We evaluated the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in Amerindian women from a tribe in Brazilian Amazonia. Demographic data, pap smears and cervical samples for HPV DNA detection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were obtained for women aged above 10 years old. In total, 79 (85.9%) out of 92 eligible women who lived there were interviewed; all women already had engaged in sexual activity. Seventy-eight and 49 women allowed collection of pap smears and PCR samples, respectively. Cytological signs of HPV infection were observed in 11 patients; 6 of these were probed for HPV infection and 1 shown to be HPV 16. Overall prevalence of HPV infection detected by PCR was 14.3%. Three patients presented high-risk HPV DNA types:two HPV 16 and one co-infection of HPV 16 and 58. Cervical infection by oncogenic HPV types occurs in Amerindian women and cervical cancer screening should be a priority in this setting. PMID:12113494

  11. Deforestation and threats to the biodiversity of Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, I C G; Toledo, P M; Silva, J M C; Higuchi, H

    2008-11-01

    This is a review of the main factors currently perceived as threats to the biodiversity of Amazonia. Deforestation and the expansion of the agricultural frontier go hand in hand within the context of occupation and land use in the region, followed by a hasty process of industrialization since the 1950s and, more recently, by a nation-wide attempt to adapt Brazil to economic globalization. Intensive agriculture and cattle-raising, lack of territorial planning, the monoculture of certain crops often promoted by official agencies, and the introduction of exotic species by cultivation are some of the factors affecting Amazonian biodiversity. There are still large gaps in knowledge that need to be dealt with for a better understanding of the local ecosystems so as to allow their preservation, but such investigation is subjected to manifold hindrances by misinformation, disinformation and sheer ignorance from the legal authorities and influential media. Data available for select groups of organisms indicate that the magnitude of the loss and waste of natural resources associated with deforestation is staggering, with estimated numbers of lost birds and primates being over ten times that of such animals illegally commercialized around the world in one year. The challenges to be met for an eventual reversal of this situation demand more systematic and concerted studies, the consolidation of new and existing research groups, and a call for a halt to activities depleting the Amazonian rainforest.

  12. Deforestation and threats to the biodiversity of Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ICG. Vieira

    Full Text Available This is a review of the main factors currently perceived as threats to the biodiversity of Amazonia. Deforestation and the expansion of the agricultural frontier go hand in hand within the context of occupation and land use in the region, followed by a hasty process of industrialization since the 1950s and, more recently, by a nation-wide attempt to adapt Brazil to economic globalization. Intensive agriculture and cattle-raising, lack of territorial planning, the monoculture of certain crops often promoted by official agencies, and the introduction of exotic species by cultivation are some of the factors affecting Amazonian biodiversity. There are still large gaps in knowledge that need to be dealt with for a better understanding of the local ecosystems so as to allow their preservation, but such investigation is subjected to manifold hindrances by misinformation, disinformation and sheer ignorance from the legal authorities and influential media. Data available for select groups of organisms indicate that the magnitude of the loss and waste of natural resources associated with deforestation is staggering, with estimated numbers of lost birds and primates being over ten times that of such animals illegally commercialized around the world in one year. The challenges to be met for an eventual reversal of this situation demand more systematic and concerted studies, the consolidation of new and existing research groups, and a call for a halt to activities depleting the Amazonian rainforest.

  13. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-, and positive-controlled clinical pilot study to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of standardized aqueous extracts of Terminalia chebula and Terminalia bellerica in subjects with hyperuricemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usharani P

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Pingali Usharani,1 Chandrasekhar Nutalapati,1 Venkata Kishan Pokuri,1 Chiranjeevi Uday Kumar,1 Gangadhar Taduri,21Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 2Department of Nephrology, Nizam's Institute of Medical Sciences, Panjagutta, Hyderabad, India Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of standardized aqueous extracts of Terminalia chebula and Terminalia bellerica versus febuxostat and placebo on reduction in serum uric acid levels in subjects with hyperuricemia. Materials and methods: A total of 110 eligible subjects with hyperuricemia were enrolled and randomized to either of the five treatment groups – T. chebula 500 mg twice a day (BID, T. bellerica 250 mg BID, T. bellerica 500 mg BID, placebo BID, and febuxostat 40 mg once daily plus an identical placebo – for a duration of 24 weeks. Serum uric acid levels were measured at baseline and at the end of 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, and 24 weeks. Statistical analysis was done using GraphPad Prism Software 4. Results and interpretation: All active treatment groups showed a reduction in serum uric acid levels compared to baseline and placebo. Significant reduction in mean serum uric acid levels started as early as 4 weeks following treatment, compared to baseline, with T. bellerica (500 and 250 mg, febuxostat (P<0.001, and T. chebula 500 mg (P<0.01; an increase in serum uric acid levels was seen with placebo (P<0.05. The serum uric acid levels became steady after 16 weeks of treatment and remained the same until the end of 24 weeks. The reduction of serum uric acid levels in the T. bellerica 500 mg group was nearly twice that of the T. chebula 500 mg group as well as T. bellerica 250 mg group at all time points. T. bellerica 500 mg reduced serum uric acid levels from 8.07±0.87 to 5.78±0.25 compared to febuxostat, which reduced serum uric acid levels from 8.53±0.97 to 4.28±0.67 (P<0.001 at the end of 24 weeks. The efficacy of T. bellerica appeared to be dose dependent

  14. Experimental infection of almond trees seedlings (Terminalia catappa) with an environmental isolate of Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii, serotype C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huérfano, S; Castañeda, A; Castañeda, E

    2001-09-01

    Recently, our laboratory reported the isolation of Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii, serotype C for the first time from almond trees (Terminalia catappa) detritus. The aim of the present study was to establish the survival of C. neoformans in almond trees seedlings. Thirty seedlings were infected in the stems and samples were taken and processed at different times and by different techniques. No morphological alterations (macro or microscopic) were observed in the infected plants. However, C. neoformans was found to be viable for at least 100 days after infection. These data constitute our first approach towards the understanding of the yeast interactions with a host-plant.

  15. Phytochemical Characterization of Terminalia catappa Linn. Extracts and Their antifungal Activities against Candida spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terças, Analucia G.; Monteiro, Andrea de Souza; Moffa, Eduardo B.; dos Santos, Julliana R. A.; de Sousa, Eduardo M.; Pinto, Anna R. B.; Costa, Paola C. da Silva; Borges, Antonio C. R.; Torres, Luce M. B.; Barros Filho, Allan K. D.; Fernandes, Elizabeth S.; Monteiro, Cristina de Andrade

    2017-01-01

    Terminalia catappa Linn bark is used to treat dysentery by various populations in Southeast Asian countries, and its leaves have also been used in traditional medicine to treat hepatitis in India and the Philippines. Here, the antifungal actions of crude hydro-alcoholic extract (TcHE) and fractions from T. catappa leaves were assessed via the agar diffusion and microdilution tests on Candida reference strains and clinical isolates from patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Additionally, the potential cytotoxic effects of TcHE were assessed on cultured human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). T. catappa fractions and sub-fractions were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry with electron impact (GC/MS/EI), high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry “electrospray” ionization in positive mode (HPLC/MS/MS/ESI+) and hydrogen nuclear magnetic resonance (1HNMR). TcHE and its fractions were able to inhibit the growth of all tested Candida strains with the n-butanol (FBuOH) fraction presenting the best antifungal activity. Testing of different FBuOH sub-fractions (SF) showed that SF10 was the most active against Candida spp. Fractioning of SF10 demonstrated that 5 out of its 15 sub-fractions were active against Candida spp., with SF10.5 presenting the highest activity. Chemical analysis of SF10 detected hydrolysable tannins (punicalin, punicalagin), gallic acid and flavonoid C-glycosides. Overall, the results showed that T. catappa L. leaf extract, fractions and sub-fractions were antifungal against Candida spp. and may be useful to treat diseases caused by this fungus. PMID:28443078

  16. Terminalia Chebulanin Attenuates Psoriatic Skin Lesion via Regulation of Heme Oxygenase-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingang An

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Psoriasis is one of the most common inflammatory skin disorders, affecting 3% of the general population. Terminalia chebulanin (TC is a polyphenolic compound that possesses antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. The current study was designed to investigate the effect of TC on psoriatic lesions. Methods: We examined the protective effect of TC against psoriatic lesions in mice and keratinocyte proliferation in HaCaT cells. Results: We found that TC exhibited potent anti-psoriatic activities, as evidenced by improvement of erythema and scaling scores, decrease of epidermal, ear and skinfold thickening, decrease of tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα, interleukin (IL-17A, IL-23 and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-9 expression, and decrease of TBARS content and increase of GSH content in IMQ-treated mice, and decrease of keratinocyte proliferation, TNFα, IL-17A and IL-23 expression, and ROS level in M5-treated cells. All those effects induced by TC were inhibited by zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP, an inhibitor of heme oxygenase (HO-1, indicating that HO-1 was responsible the anti-psoriatic effect of TC. Moreover, TC inhibited the upregulation of p65 NF-κB under in vitro psoriatic condition. ZnPP suppressed TC-induced inhibition of p65 NF-κB expression. Overexpression of p65 NF-κB significantly suppressed TC-induced decrease of TNFα, IL-17A and IL-23 expression and keratinocyte proliferation, indicating that HO-1-mediated downregulation of NF-κB was involved in the anti-psoriatic effect of TC. Conclusions: The data demonstrate that TC may serve as a potential therapeutic option for psoriatic patients.

  17. Modifying effects of Terminalia catappa on azoxymethane-induced colon carcinogenesis in male F344 rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morioka, T; Suzui, M; Nabandith, V; Inamine, M; Aniya, Y; Nakayama, T; Ichiba, T; Yoshimi, N

    2005-04-01

    The modifying effects of dietary administration of an herb, Terminalia catappa (TC), were investigated on rat colon carcinogenesis induced by a carcinogen azoxymethane (AOM). The number of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and beta-catenin accumulated crypts (BCACs) in the colon, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) labelling index in the colonic epithelium were examined in a total of 36 male F344 rats. All animals were randomly divided into five experimental groups (4-10 rats in each group). At 6 weeks of age, rats in groups 1, 2 and 3 were given s.c. injections of AOM once a week for 2 weeks at a concentration of 20 mg/kg body weight. One week before the first injection of AOM, rats in groups 2 and 3 were fed a diet containing 0.02 and 0.1% TC, respectively, throughout the experiment. Rats in group 4 were fed a diet containing 0.1% TC. Rats in group 5 were served as untreated controls. All animals were sacrificed at the experimental week 5 after the start of the experiment. Oral administration of TC at both doses significantly decreased the numbers of both ACF/colon/rat (P<0.05 for 0.02% TC, P<0.005 for 0.1% TC) and BCAC/cm/rat (P<0.05 for both 0.02 and 0.1% TC), when compared with the control group (group 1). Colonic PCNA labelling index in groups 2 and 3 was also significantly lower than that in group 1 (P<0.001 for 0.02% TC, P<0.005 for 0.1% TC). These results suggest that TC has a potent short-term chemopreventive effect on biomarkers of colon carcinogenesis and this effect may be associated with the inhibition of the development of ACF and BCACs.

  18. Mechanisms of hepatoprotection of Terminalia catappa L. extract on D-Galactosamine-induced liver damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xin-Hui; Gao, Ling; Gao, Jing; Fan, Yi-Mei; Xu, Li-Zhi; Zhao, Xiao-Ning; Xu, Qiang

    2004-01-01

    The hepatoprotective effects of the extract of Terminalia catappa L. leaves (TCE) against D-Galactosamine (D-GalN)-induced liver injury and the mechanisms underlying its protection were studied. In acute hepatic injury test, it was found that serum ALT activity was remarkably increased (3.35-fold) after injection of D-GalN in mice. But with oral pretreatment of TCE (20, 50 and 100 mg/kg/d) for 7days, change in serum ALT was notably reversed. In primary cultured hepatocytes from fetal mice, it was found that cell viability was decreased by 45.0% after addition of D-GalN, while incubation with TCE (0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 mg/ml) for 36 hours could prevent the decrease in a dose-dependent manner. Meanwhile, D-GalN-induced both the increase of AST level (1.9-fold) and the decrease of SOD activity (48.0%) in supernatant of primary cultured hepatocytes could also be inhibited by pretreatment with TCE. In order to study the possible mechanisms underlying its hepatoprotective effects, one effective component separated from TCE, 2alpha, 3beta, 23-trihydroxyursane-12-en-28-oic acid (DHUA), was used to determine anti-mitochondrial swelling activity and superoxide radicals scavenging activity in vitro. It was found that at the concentration range of 50-500 micromol/L DHUA, Ca2+ -induced mitochondrial swelling was dose-dependently inhibited, and superoxide radicals scavenging activity was also shown in a dose-dependent manner. It was concluded that TCE has hepatoprotective activity and the mechanisms underlying its protective effects may be related to the direct mitochondrion protection and strong scavenging activity on reactive oxygen species (ROS).

  19. Antitumor and antioxidant status of Terminalia catappa against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma in Swiss albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, Naitik B; Tigari, Prakash; Dupadahalli, Kotresha; Kamurthy, Hemalatha; Nadendla, Rama Rao

    2013-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the antitumor and antioxidant status of ethanol extract of Terminalia catappa leaves against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) in Swiss albino mice. The leaves powder was extracted with Soxhlet apparatus and subjected to hot continuous percolation using ethanol (95% v/v). Tumor bearing animals was treated with 50 and 200 mg/kg of ethanol extract. EAC induced in mice by intraperitoneal injection of EAC cells 1 × 10(6) cells/mice. The study was assed using life span of EAC-bearing hosts, hematological parameters, volume of solid tumor mass and status of antioxidant enzymes such as lipid peroxidation (LPO), reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities. Total phenolics and flavonoids contents from the leaves extract were also determined. Total phenolics and flavonoids contents from the leaves extract were found 354.02 and 51.67 mg/g extract. Oral administration of ethanol extract of T. catappa (50 and 200 mg/kg) increased the life span (27.82% and 60.59%), increased peritoneal cell count (8.85 ± 0.20 and 10.37 ± 0.26) and significantly decreased solid tumor mass (1.16 ± 0.14 cm(2)) at 200 mg/kg as compared with EAC-tumor bearing mice (P catappa significantly decreased levels of LPO and GSH, and increased levels of SOD and CAT activity (P catappa exhibited antitumor effect by modulating LPO and augmenting antioxidant defense systems in EAC bearing mice. The phenolic and flavonoid components in this extract may be responsible for antitumor activity.

  20. Phytochemical Characterization of Terminalia catappa Linn. Extracts and Their antifungal Activities against Candida spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terças, Analucia G; Monteiro, Andrea de Souza; Moffa, Eduardo B; Dos Santos, Julliana R A; de Sousa, Eduardo M; Pinto, Anna R B; Costa, Paola C da Silva; Borges, Antonio C R; Torres, Luce M B; Barros Filho, Allan K D; Fernandes, Elizabeth S; Monteiro, Cristina de Andrade

    2017-01-01

    Terminalia catappa Linn bark is used to treat dysentery by various populations in Southeast Asian countries, and its leaves have also been used in traditional medicine to treat hepatitis in India and the Philippines. Here, the antifungal actions of crude hydro-alcoholic extract (TcHE) and fractions from T. catappa leaves were assessed via the agar diffusion and microdilution tests on Candida reference strains and clinical isolates from patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Additionally, the potential cytotoxic effects of TcHE were assessed on cultured human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). T. catappa fractions and sub-fractions were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry with electron impact (GC/MS/EI), high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry "electrospray" ionization in positive mode (HPLC/MS/MS/ESI + ) and hydrogen nuclear magnetic resonance ( 1 HNMR). TcHE and its fractions were able to inhibit the growth of all tested Candida strains with the n -butanol (FBuOH) fraction presenting the best antifungal activity. Testing of different FBuOH sub-fractions (SF) showed that SF10 was the most active against Candida spp. Fractioning of SF10 demonstrated that 5 out of its 15 sub-fractions were active against Candida spp., with SF10.5 presenting the highest activity. Chemical analysis of SF10 detected hydrolysable tannins (punicalin, punicalagin), gallic acid and flavonoid C-glycosides. Overall, the results showed that T. catappa L. leaf extract, fractions and sub-fractions were antifungal against Candida spp. and may be useful to treat diseases caused by this fungus.

  1. Effect of Terminalia chebula and Allium sativum on in vivo methane emission by sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, A K; Kamra, D N; Bhar, R; Kumar, R; Agarwal, N

    2011-04-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate some plant parts (already tested for their antimethanogenic activity in in vitro gas production test in the authors' laboratory) as feed additive to combat methane emission from sheep. Sixteen male sheep with average body weight of 29.96±1.69 kg (22 months of age) were divided into four groups in a randomized block design. The animals were fed on a diet containing forage to concentrate ratio of 1:1. The concentrate fraction composed (in parts) of maize grain, 32; wheat bran, 45; deoiled soybean meal, 20; mineral mixture, 2 and common salt, 1. The four treatments were control (without additive), seed pulp of Terminalia chebula (Harad), bulb of Allium sativum (Garlic) and a mixture (Mix) of the latter two in equal proportions at the rate of 1% of dry matter (DM) intake. There was no effect on DM intake due to the inclusion of these feed additives. The digestibilities of DM and organic matter tended to be higher (pMethane emission (L/kg digested DM intake) as estimated by open circuit respiration chamber and methane energy loss as per cent of digestible energy intake tended to be lower in T. chebula (p=0.09) and Mix (p=0.08) groups compared with control. The data indicated that T. chebula showed antimethanogenic activity, whereas both T. chebula and A. sativum improved nutrient digestibility. Therefore, these two plants appear to be suitable candidates for use as feed additive to mitigate methane emission and to improve nutrient utilization by sheep. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Environmental Controls of Soil Organic Carbon in Soils Across Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesada, Carlos Alberto; Paz, Claudia; Phillips, Oliver; Nonato Araujo Filho, Raimundo; Lloyd, Jon

    2015-04-01

    Amazonian forests store and cycle a significant amount of carbon on its soils and vegetation. Yet, Amazonian forests are now subject to strong environmental pressure from both land use and climate change. Some of the more dramatic model projections for the future of the Amazon predict a major change in precipitation followed by savanization of most currently forested areas, resulting in major carbon losses to the atmosphere. However, how soil carbon stocks will respond to climatic and land use changes depend largely on how soil carbon is stabilized. Amazonian soils are highly diverse, being very variable in their weathering levels and chemical and physical properties, and thus it is important to consider how the different soils of the Basin stabilize and store soil organic carbon (SOC). The wide variation in soil weathering levels present in Amazonia, suggests that soil groups with contrasting pedogenetic development should differ in their predominant mechanism of SOC stabilization. In this study we investigated the edaphic, mineralogical and climatic controls of SOC concentration in 147 pristine forest soils across nine different countries in Amazonia, encompassing 14 different WRB soil groups. Soil samples were collected in 1 ha permanent plots used for forest dynamics studies as part of the RAINFOR project. Only 0-30 cm deep averages are reported here. Soil samples were analyzed for carbon and nitrogen and for their chemical (exchangeable bases, phosphorus, pH) and physical properties, (particle size, bulk density) and mineralogy through standard selective dissolution techniques (Fe and Al oxides) and by semi-quantitative X-Ray diffraction. In Addition, selected soils from each soil group had SOC fractionated by physical and chemical techniques. Our results indicate that different stabilization mechanisms are responsible for SOC stabilization in Amazonian soils with contrasting pedogenetic level. Ferralsols and Acrisols were found to have uniform mineralogy

  3. Carbon replacement and stability changes in short-term silvo-pastoralo experiments in Colombian Amazonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mosquera Vidal, O.; Buurman, P.; Ramirez, B.L.; Amezquita, M.C.

    2012-01-01

    There is little information on the effects of land use change on soil Carbon stocks in Colombian Amazonia. Such information would be needed to assess the impact of this area on the global C cycle and the sustainability of agricultural systems that are replacing native forest. The aim of this study

  4. Biogeochemical cycling of carbon, water, energy, trace gases and aerosols in Amazonia: the LBA EUSTACH experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andreae, M.O.; Artaxo, P.; Brandão, C.; Carswell, F.E.; Ciccioli, P.; Costa, da A.L.; Culf, A.D.; Esteves, J.L.; Gash, J.H.C.; Grace, J.; Kabat, P.; Lelieveld, J.; Malhi, Y.; Manzi, A.O.; Meixner, F.X.; Nobre, A.D.; Nobre, C.; Lourdes Ruivo, de M.; Silva-Dias, M.A.; Stefani, P.; Valentini, R.; Jouanne, von J.; Waterloo, M.J.

    2002-01-01

    The biogeochemical cycling of carbon, water, energy, aerosols, and trace gases in the Amazon Basin was investigated in the project European Studies on Trace Gases and Atmospheric Chemistry as a Contribution to the Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA-EUSTACH). We present an

  5. Estimates of the height of the boundary layer using SODAR and rawinsoundings in Amazonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisch, G; Santos, L A R dos

    2008-01-01

    During the LBA campaign in Amazonia 2002, simultaneous measurements were made of the boundary layer using different instruments (rawinsoundings and SODAR). The profiles of potential temperature and humidity were used to estimates the height of the boundary layer using 3 different techniques. The SODAR's measurements did not capture the shallow morning boundary layer observed at the profiles

  6. Description of Trichophoromyia velezbernali, a New Sand Fly Species (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) from Colombian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posada-López, L; Galvis-Ovallos, F; Galati, E A B

    2018-01-10

    A new species of phlebotomine sand fly, Trichophoromyia velezbernali sp. n. Posada-López, Galvis & Galati, from Colombian Amazonia is described with illustrations and images of male and female adults. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. An illustrated key to nymphs of Perlidae (Insecta, Plecoptera genera in Central Amazonia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamada Neusa

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available An illustrated key to nymphs of Perlidae collected in streams of Central Amazonia, Brazil is provided. Three genera are reported for this region: Macrogynoplax Enderlein, Anacroneuria Klapálek and Enderleina Jewett. Additional diagnostic characters are provided for Enderleina nymphs.

  8. The Pleasures and Pitfalls of a "Participatory" Documentation Project: An Experience in Northwestern Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenzel, Kristine

    2014-01-01

    This article adds a voice from Amazonia to the reflective discussion on documentation projects designed within a "participatory" or "collaborative" paradigm of language research. It offers a critical assessment of one such documentation project carried out from 2007-2011 with the Kotiria and Wa'ikhana (East Tukano) language…

  9. Estimates of the height of the boundary layer using SODAR and rawinsoundings in Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisch, G [Instituto de Aeronautica e Espaco (IAE/CTA), Sao Jose dos Campos, 12228-904 (Brazil); Santos, L A R dos [Instituto Nacional de Meteorologia (INMET), BrasIlia, 70680-900 (Brazil)], E-mail: gfisch@iae.cta.br, E-mail: landre@inmet.gov.br

    2008-05-01

    During the LBA campaign in Amazonia 2002, simultaneous measurements were made of the boundary layer using different instruments (rawinsoundings and SODAR). The profiles of potential temperature and humidity were used to estimates the height of the boundary layer using 3 different techniques. The SODAR's measurements did not capture the shallow morning boundary layer observed at the profiles.

  10. ECOLOGICAL RESEARCH IN THE LARGE-SCALE BIOSPHERE–ATMOSPHERE EXPERIMENT IN AMAZONIA: EARLY RESULTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Keller; A. Alencar; G. P. Asner; B. Braswell; M. Bustamente; E. Davidson; T. Feldpausch; E. Fern ndes; M. Goulden; P. Kabat; B. Kruijt; F. Luizao; S. Miller; D. Markewitz; A. D. Nobre; C. A. Nobre; N. Priante Filho; H. Rocha; P. Silva Dias; C von Randow; G. L. Vourlitis

    2004-01-01

    The Large-scale Biosphere–Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA) is a multinational, interdisciplinary research program led by Brazil. Ecological studies in LBA focus on how tropical forest conversion, regrowth, and selective logging influence carbon storage, nutrient dynamics, trace gas fluxes, and the prospect for sustainable land use in the Amazon region. Early...

  11. Post-Fire Changes in Forest Biomass Retrieved by Airborne LiDAR in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luciane Sato; Vitor Gomes; Yosio Shimabukuro; Michael Keller; Egidio Arai; Maiza dos-Santos; Irving Brown; Luiz Aragão

    2016-01-01

    Fire is one of the main factors directly impacting Amazonian forest biomass and dynamics. Because of Amazonia’s large geographical extent, remote sensing techniques are required for comprehensively assessing forest fire impacts at the landscape level. In this context, Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) stands out as a technology capable of retrieving direct...

  12. Relating Change Patterns to Anthropogenic Processes to Assess Sustainability: A Case Study in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libia Patricia Peralta Agudelo

    2006-01-01

    This work focuses on identifying deforestation patterns and relating these to social processes in an extractive reserve of Acre (western Amazonia). Using multitemporal satellite imagery deforestation is observed as a series of distinctive patches against the background of forest cover. The study of patterns emphasizes the important relationships existing between...

  13. Evaluating ipe (Tabebuia, Bignoniaceae) logging in Amazonia: sustainable management or catalyst for forest degradation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark Schulze; James Grogan; Chris Uhl; Marco Lentini; Edson. Vidal

    2008-01-01

    Prized for their dense, rot-resistant wood, Tabebuia impetiginosa and T. serratifolia (vernacular name = ipeˆ ) are among the most valuable Amazonian timbers. We analyzed the geographical extent, spread and trajectory of ipeˆ logging in Brazilian Amazonia, and evaluated harvest pressure on this forest resource. We also examine Tabebuia population response to reduced-...

  14. Contrasting andean geodynamics drive evolution of lowland taxa in western Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using a palm lineage of 15 species (Astrocaryum sect. Huicungo), we tested an hypothesis that past geologic events in western Amazonia influenced the modern configuration of the upper Amazon drainage and thus diversification and distribution of these palsm, which found only in this region. The chang...

  15. Economically important species dominate aboveground carbon storage in forests of southwestern Amazonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galia Selaya, N.; Zuidema, Pieter A.; Baraloto, Christopher; Vos, Vincent A.; Brienen, Roel J.W.; Pitman, Nigel C.A.; Brown, Foster Irving; Duchelle, Amy E.; Araujo-Murakami, Alejandro; Oliveiracarillo, Luis A.; Vasquez Colomo, Guido H.; Chupinagua, Severo Meo; Nay, Hugo Fuentes; Perz, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Tree species in tropical forests provide economically important goods and ecosystem services. In submontane forests of southwestern Amazonia, we investigated the degree to which tree species important for subsistence and trade contribute to aboveground carbon storage (AGC). We used 41 1-hectare

  16. Distance decay of tree species similarity in protected areas on terra firme forests in Colombian Amazonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duque, Á.; Phillips, J.F.; von Hildebrand, P.; Posada, C.A.; Prieto, A.; Rudas, A.; Suescún, M.; Stevenson, P.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the pattern of floristic similarity as a function of geographical distances and environmental variability in well-drained uplands (terra firme) in Colombian Amazonia. The study site comprised three National Natural Parks, Tinigua, Chiribiquete, and Amacayacu, located

  17. Amazon forest dynamics under changing abiotic conditions in the early Miocene (Colombian Amazonia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salamanca, S.; van Soelen, E.E.; Teunissen van Manen, Milan L.; Flantua, Suzette G.A.; Ventura Santos, Roberto; Roddaz, M.; Dantas, Elton Luiz; van Loon, Emiel; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Kim, J.H.; Hoorn, Carina

    2016-01-01

    Aim We analysed in detail a past marine incursion event in north-western Amazonia and measured its effect on the forest composition. We also determined the sediment provenance in the fluvio-estuarine system and reconstructed the overall floral composition of the Amazon lowland forest during the

  18. Amazonia through time: Andean uplift, climate change, landscape evolution and biodiversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorn, C.; Wesselingh, F.P.; Steege, ter H.; Bermudez, M.A.; Mora, A.; Sevink, J.; Sanmartín, I.; Sanchez-Meseguer, A.; Anderson, C.L.; Figueiredo, J.P.; Jaramillo, C.; Riff, D.; Negri, F.R.; Hooghiemstra, H.; Lundberg, J.; Stadler, T.; Särkinen, T.; Antonelli, A.

    2010-01-01

    The Amazonian rainforest is arguably the most species-rich terrestrial ecosystem in the world, yet the timing of the origin and volutionary causes of this diversity are a matter of debate. We review the geologic and phylogenetic evidence from Amazonia and compare it with uplift records from the

  19. Miocene fish faunas from the northwestern Amazonia basin (Colombia, Peru, Brazil) with evidence of marine incursions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monsch, KA

    1998-01-01

    New evidence indicates marine influences during the Miocene in the northwestern Amazonia basin. This is the first major survey of the ichthyofauna from this area in the Miocene. Fossil fish remains from taxa such as the Dasyatoidea, Myliobatoidea, Characiformes, Siluriformes and Sciaenidae are

  20. Ecological research in the large-scale biosphere-atmosphere experiment in Amazonia: early results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keller, M.; Alencar, A.; Asner, G.P.; Braswell, B.; Bustamante, M.; Davidson, E.; Feldpausch, T.; Fernandes, E.; Goulden, M.; Kabat, P.; Kruijt, B.; Luizão, F.; Miller, S.; Markewitz, D.; Nobre, A.D.; Nobre, C.A.; Priante Filho, N.; Rocha, da H.; Silva Dias, P.; Randow, von C.; Vourlitis, G.L.

    2004-01-01

    The Large-scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA) is a multinational, interdisciplinary research program led by Brazil. Ecological studies in LBA focus on how tropical forest conversion, regrowth, and selective logging influence carbon storage,. nutrient dynamics, trace gas fluxes,

  1. Palynological differentiation of savanna types in Carajás, Brazil (southeastern Amazonia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Absy, M.L.; Cleef, A.; D'Apolito, C.; da Silva, M.F.F.

    2014-01-01

    Pollen rain studies in Amazonia are scarce but of utmost importance to support interpretations of pollen records. We have investigated modern surface pollen spectra and vegetation in an Amazon location, Carajás, Brazil, where open and woody types of vegetation, swamps and lakes develop under rock

  2. Modeling fire-driven deforestation potential in Amazonia under current and projected climate conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le Page, Y.; van der Werf, G.R.; Morton, D.C.; Pereira, J.M.C.

    2010-01-01

    Fire is a widely used tool to prepare deforested areas for agricultural use in Amazonia. Deforestation is currently concentrated in seasonal forest types along the arc of deforestation, where dry-season conditions facilitate burning of clear-felled vegetation. Interior Amazon forests, however, are

  3. Deux nouvelles espèces de Caryedon consommatrices des graines de Terminalia macroptera (Combretaceae) au Sénégal (Coleoptera, Bruchidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Delobel, Alex

    1997-01-01

    Deux espèces de #Brucidae Pachymerinae$ appartenant au genre #Caryedon$ Schönherr et dont les larves se nourissent des graines de #Terminalia macroptera$ (Combrétacées), sont décrites du Sénégal. (Résumé d'auteur)

  4. Induction of foetal haemoglobin synthesis in erythroid progenitor stem cells: mediated by water-soluble components of Terminalia catappa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aimola, I A; Inuwa, H M; Nok, A J; Mamman, A I

    2014-06-01

    Current novel therapeutic agents for the treatment of sickle cell anaemia (SCA) focus on increasing foetal haemoglobin (HbF) levels in SCA patients. Unfortunately, the only approved HbF-inducing agent, hydroxyurea, has long-term unpredictable side effects. Studies have shown the potential of plant compounds to modulate HbF synthesis in primary erythroid progenitor stem cells. We isolated a novel HbF-inducing Terminalia catappa distilled water active fraction (TCDWF) from Terminalia catappa leaves that induced the commitment of erythroid progenitor stem cells to the erythroid lineage and relatively higher HbF synthesis of 9.2- and 6.8-fold increases in both erythropoietin (EPO)-independent and EPO-dependent progenitor stem cells respectively. TCDWF was differentially cytotoxic to EPO-dependent and EPO-independent erythroid progenitor stem cell cultures as revealed by lactate dehydrogenase release from the cells. TCDWF demonstrated a protective effect on EPO-dependent and not EPO-independent progenitor cells. TCDWF induced a modest increase in caspase 3 activity in EPO-independent erythroid progenitor stem cell cultures compared with a significantly higher (P˂0.05) caspase 3 activity in EPO-dependent ones. The results demonstrate that TCDWF may hold promising HbF-inducing compounds, which work synergistically, and suggest a dual modulatory effect on erythropoiesis inherent in this active fraction. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Scanning electron microscopy of male terminalia and its application to species recognition and phylogenetic reconstruction in the Drosophila saltans group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Tiago Alves Jorge; Noll, Fernando Barbosa; Bicudo, Hermione Elly Melara de Campos; Madi-Ravazzi, Lilian

    2014-01-01

    The Drosophila saltans group consists of five subgroups and 21 species, most of which have been identified only by morphological aspects of the male terminalia revealed by drawings using a camera lucida and a bright-field microscope. However, several species in the group, mainly those included in the saltans subgroup, are difficult to differentiate using only these characteristics. In this study, we used scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to analyze 19 structures of the male terminalia in 10 species from the five saltans subgroups. Among these structures, nine could be identified only through SEM analysis. We aimed to find other characteristics useful for morphological recognition of these species and to use these characteristics for phylogenetic reconstruction. These morphological differences enabled us to effectively distinguish among sibling species. These findings confirmed the monophyly of this group as previously determined in evolutionary studies based on other markers. The single most parsimonious tree (CI = 87 and RI = 90) indicated that the cordata subgroup is the most basal lineage and the saltans subgroup is the most apical lineage, as shown in earlier studies based on morphological data. However, our findings differed somewhat from these studies with respect to the phylogenetic relationships of species in the saltans group indicating that this group is still a puzzle that remains to be deciphered.

  6. Five furofuranone lignan glucosides from Terminalia citrina inhibit in vitro E2-enhanced breast cancer cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhit, Md Abdul; Umehara, Kaoru; Noguchi, Hiroshi

    2016-09-01

    Five new polyalkoxylated furofuranone lignan glucosides, terminalosides L-P (1-5), were isolated from EtOAc extracts of the leaves of Terminalia citrina, a Bangladeshi medicinal plant. The structures of the isolates were deduced primarily by NMR spectroscopy, and four of the isolates were found to contain rare tetraoxygenated aryl groups in their structures. The absolute configurations and conformations of the furofuranone ring were confirmed by ECD spectroscopy. All of the isolates were evaluated for their estrogenic and/or antiestrogenic properties using two estrogen responsive breast cancer cell lines, T47D and MCF-7. At a concentration of 10nM, terminaloside L (1) suppressed E2-enhanced T47D cell proliferation by 90%, while terminaloside M (2) showed 90% antiestrogenic activity against MCF-7 cells. Compared to 2, the antiestrogenic activity of terminaloside O (4) and P (5) was weak, possibly due to the different attachment positions of the sugar moiety that they share in common. This is the first report of furofuranone lignans from any Terminalia species, and also of their antiestrogenic activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. [Isolation and preparation of gallic acid from Terminalia chebula Retz. with high-speed counter-current chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhongqin; Li, Qiuyun; Jiang, Xinglong; Zhang, Kun; Guan, Ruizhang

    2014-12-01

    A separation method based on high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) has been established for the isolation and preparation of gallic acid from the ethanol extract of Terminalia chebula Retz. After comparing five kinds of solvent protocols of HSCCC, the two-phase system of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (1:5:1:5, v/v/v/v) was finally chosen as the operating solvent of HSCCC for the separation of gallic acid, in which the lower phase was used as the mobile phase and the upper phase as stationary phase. The detection in the experiments was performed with an ultraviolet detector at 254 nm. Under the conditions of rotation speed of 850 r/min, lower phase flow rate of 2 mL/min, four peaks (I/II/III/IV) were displayed on HSCCC chromatogram. Among them, only peak III contained a large amount of gallic acid (about 96. 40%), which was confirmed by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) analysis. As much as 8. 6 mg of gallic acid was obtained from 100 mg of the ethanol extract of Terminalia chebula Retz., indicating the method is simple, robust and efficient for the preparation of gallic acid.

  8. Estimating population and energy consumption in Brazilian Amazonia using DMSP night-time satellite data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaral, Silvana; Camara, Gilberto; Monteiro, Antonio Miguel Vieira [INPE - Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, DPI - Divisao de Processamento de Imagens, C.P. 515, CEP 12201-097 SJC-SP, (Brazil); Quintanilha, Jose Alberto [Escola Politecnica da USP-POLI-USP, Av. Almeida Prado, Trav. 2, no. 83, CEP 05508-900 SP-SP, (Brazil); Elvidge, Christopher D. [National Geophysical Data Center, 325 Broadway, Boulder, CO, 80305-3328, (United States)

    2005-03-15

    This paper describes a methodology to assess the evidence of human presence and human activities in the Brazilian Amazonia region using DMSP/OLS night-time satellite sensor imagery. It consists on exploring the potential of the sensor data for regional studies analysing the correlation between DMSP night-time light foci and population, and the correlation between DMSP night-time light foci and electrical power consumption. In the mosaic of DMSP/OLS night-time light imagery from September 1999, 248 towns were detected from a total of 749 municipios in Amazonia. It was found that the night-time light foci were related to human presence in the region, including urban settlements, mining, industries, and civil construction, observed in ancillary Landsat TM and JERS imagery data. The analysis considering only the state of Para revealed a linear relation (R{sup 2} = 0.79) between urban population from the 1996 census data and DMSP night-time light foci. Similarly, electrical power consumption for 1999 was linearly correlated with DMSP night-time light foci. Thus the DMSP/OLS imagery can be used as an indicator of human presence in the analysis of spatial-temporal patterns in the Amazonia region. These results are very useful considering the continental dimension of Amazonia, the absence of demographic information between the official population census (every 10 years), and the dynamics and complexity of human activities in the region. Therefore DMSP night-time light foci are a valuable data source for global studies, modelling, and planning activities when the human dimension must be considered throughout Amazonia. (Author)

  9. LBA-ECO LC-04 Satellite/Census-Based 5-Minute Land Use Data, Amazonia: 1980 and 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set contains 5-minute land use maps for agricultural activity in Amazonia. The data set was produced by the statistical fusion of agricultural...

  10. Hornborg, A. & Hill, J. D. (eds. 2011. Ethnicity in Ancient Amazonia: Reconstructing Past Identities from Archaeology, Linguistics and Ethnohistory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phil Riris

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Book review: Hornborg, A. & Hill, J. D. (eds. 2011. 'Ethnicity in Ancient Amazonia:' 'Reconstructing Past Identities from Archaeology, Linguistics and Ethnohistory.' Boulder: University Press of Colorado, £60

  11. LBA-ECO LC-04 Satellite/Census-Based 5-Minute Land Use Data, Amazonia: 1980 and 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains 5-minute land use maps for agricultural activity in Amazonia. The data set was produced by the statistical fusion of agricultural census data...

  12. FLAVONOIDS AND ANTI-OXIDANT ACTIVITY MEDIATED GASTROPROTECTIVE ACTION OF LEATHERY MURDAH, TERMINALIA CORIACEA (ROXB. WIGHT & ARN. LEAF METHANOLIC EXTRACT IN RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Safwan ALI KHAN

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND Leathery Murdah, Terminalia coriacea (Roxb. Wight & Arn. from family Combretaceae is used in Ayurveda and Siddha traditional systems of medicine to heal ulcers. OBJECTIVE The present study was conducted to assess the gastroprotective effect and understand the fundamental mechanism of action of Leathery Murdah, Terminalia coriacea (Roxb. Wight & Arn. Leaf Methanolic Extract. METHODS The test extract was screened for anti-ulcer activity by Aspirin induced ulcerogenesis in pyloric ligation and ethanol induced gastric ulcers at three doses - 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg, p.o. using Ranitidine 50 mg/kg and Misoprostol 100 μg/kg as standard drug in respective models. Seven parameters were carefully examined, that is, ulcer index, total protein, mucin, catalase, malondialdehyde, and superoxide dismutase levels and histopathology. High Performance Liquid Chromatographic - Ultra Violet profiling and Liquid Chromatography - Mass Spectral analysis of crude Terminalia coriacea leaves methanolic extract were carried out as a part of chemical characterization to identify bioactive compounds. RESULTS All the test doses exhibited significant gastroprotective function, particularly the higher doses demonstrated improved action. The results revealed a significant increase in the levels of catalase, superoxide dismutase, and Mucin with reduction in ulcer index, the levels of total protein, and malondialdehyde. Histopathological observations also illustrated the gastroprotective effect of Terminalia coriacea leaves methanolic extract. CONCLUSION Terminalia coriacea leaves methanolic extract exhibited strong anti-oxidant and anti-secretory activities mediated gastroprotection besides inducing the gastric mucosal production. The observed pharmacological response can be attributed to the flavonoidal compounds namely - Quercetin-3-O-rutinoside, Luteolin-7-O-glucoside, Myricetin hexoside, Quercetin-3-O-glucoside, Isorhamnetin-3-O-rhamnosylglucoside and

  13. Brazilian Amazonia Deforestation Detection Using Spatio-Temporal Scan Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, C. A. O.; Santos, N. T.; Carneiro, A. P. S.; Balieiro, A. A. S.

    2012-07-01

    The spatio-temporal models, developed for analyses of diseases, can also be used for others fields of study, including concerns about forest and deforestation. The aim of this paper is to quantitatively check priority areas in order to combat deforestation on the Amazon forest, using the space-time scan statistic. The study area location is at the south of the Amazonas State and cover around 297.183 kilometre squares, including the municipality of Boca do Acre, Labrea, Canutama, Humaita, Manicore, Novo Aripuana e Apui County on the north region of Brazil. This area has showed a significant change for land cover, which has increased the number of deforestation's alerts. Therefore this situation becomes a concern and gets more investigation, trying to stop factors that increase the number of cases in the area. The methodology includes the location and year that deforestation's alert occurred. These deforestation's alerts are mapped by the DETER (Detection System of Deforestation in Real Time in Amazonia), which is carry out by the Brazilian Space Agency (INPE). The software SatScanTM v7.0 was used in order to define space-time permutation scan statistic for detection of deforestation cases. The outcome of this experiment shows an efficient model to detect space-time clusters of deforestation's alerts. The model was efficient to detect the location, the size, the order and characteristics about activities at the end of the experiments. Two clusters were considered actives and kept actives up to the end of the study. These clusters are located in Canutama and Lábrea County. This quantitative spatial modelling of deforestation warnings allowed: firstly, identifying actives clustering of deforestation, in which the environment government official are able to concentrate their actions; secondly, identifying historic clustering of deforestation, in which the environment government official are able to monitoring in order to avoid them to became actives again; and finally

  14. BRAZILIAN AMAZONIA DEFORESTATION DETECTION USING SPATIO-TEMPORAL SCAN STATISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. O. Vieira

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The spatio-temporal models, developed for analyses of diseases, can also be used for others fields of study, including concerns about forest and deforestation. The aim of this paper is to quantitatively check priority areas in order to combat deforestation on the Amazon forest, using the space-time scan statistic. The study area location is at the south of the Amazonas State and cover around 297.183 kilometre squares, including the municipality of Boca do Acre, Labrea, Canutama, Humaita, Manicore, Novo Aripuana e Apui County on the north region of Brazil. This area has showed a significant change for land cover, which has increased the number of deforestation's alerts. Therefore this situation becomes a concern and gets more investigation, trying to stop factors that increase the number of cases in the area. The methodology includes the location and year that deforestation’s alert occurred. These deforestation's alerts are mapped by the DETER (Detection System of Deforestation in Real Time in Amazonia, which is carry out by the Brazilian Space Agency (INPE. The software SatScanTM v7.0 was used in order to define space-time permutation scan statistic for detection of deforestation cases. The outcome of this experiment shows an efficient model to detect space-time clusters of deforestation’s alerts. The model was efficient to detect the location, the size, the order and characteristics about activities at the end of the experiments. Two clusters were considered actives and kept actives up to the end of the study. These clusters are located in Canutama and Lábrea County. This quantitative spatial modelling of deforestation warnings allowed: firstly, identifying actives clustering of deforestation, in which the environment government official are able to concentrate their actions; secondly, identifying historic clustering of deforestation, in which the environment government official are able to monitoring in order to avoid them to became

  15. Time Resolved Measurements of Primary Biogenic Aerosol Particles in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollny, A. G.; Garland, R.; Pöschl, U.

    2009-04-01

    Biogenic aerosols are ubiquitous in the Earth's atmosphere and they influence atmospheric chemistry and physics, the biosphere, climate, and public health. They play an important role in the spread of biological organisms and reproductive materials, and they can cause or enhance human, animal, and plant diseases. Moreover, they influence the Earth's energy budget by scattering and absorbing radiation, and they can initiate the formation of clouds and precipitation as cloud condensation and ice nuclei. The composition, abundance, and origin of biogenic aerosol particles and components are, however, still not well understood and poorly quantified. Prominent examples of primary biogenic aerosol particles, which are directly emitted from the biosphere to the atmosphere, are pollen, bacteria, fungal spores, viruses, and fragments of animals and plants. During the Amazonian Aerosol Characterization Experiment (AMAZE-08) a large number of aerosol and gas-phase measurements were taken on a remote site close to Manaus, Brazil, during a period of five weeks in February and March 2008. This presented study is focused on data from an ultraviolet aerodynamic particle sizer (UVAPS, TSI inc.) that has been deployed for the first time in Amazonia. In this instrument, particle counting and aerodynamic sizing over the range of 0.5-20 µm are complemented by the measurement of UV fluorescence at 355 nm (excitation) and 420-575 nm (emission), respectively. Fluorescence at these wavelengths is characteristic for reduced pyridine nucleotides (e.g., NAD(P)H) and for riboflavin, which are specific for living cells. Thus particles exhibiting fluorescence signals can be regarded as "viable aerosols" or "fluorescent bioparticles" (FBAP), and their concentration can be considered as lower limit for the actual abundance of primary biogenic aerosol particles. Data from the UVAPS were averaged over 5 minute time intervals. The presence of bioparticles in the observed size range has been

  16. Continuous soil carbon storage of old permanent pastures in Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Clément; Fontaine, Sébastien; Klumpp, Katja; Picon-Cochard, Catherine; Grise, Marcia Mascarenhas; Dezécache, Camille; Ponchant, Lise; Freycon, Vincent; Blanc, Lilian; Bonal, Damien; Burban, Benoit; Soussana, Jean-François; Blanfort, Vincent

    2017-08-01

    Amazonian forests continuously accumulate carbon (C) in biomass and in soil, representing a carbon sink of 0.42-0.65 GtC yr -1 . In recent decades, more than 15% of Amazonian forests have been converted into pastures, resulting in net C emissions (~200 tC ha -1 ) due to biomass burning and litter mineralization in the first years after deforestation. However, little is known about the capacity of tropical pastures to restore a C sink. Our study shows in French Amazonia that the C storage observed in native forest can be partly restored in old (≥24 year) tropical pastures managed with a low stocking rate (±1 LSU ha -1 ) and without the use of fire since their establishment. A unique combination of a large chronosequence study and eddy covariance measurements showed that pastures stored between -1.27 ± 0.37 and -5.31 ± 2.08 tC ha -1  yr -1 while the nearby native forest stored -3.31 ± 0.44 tC ha -1  yr -1 . This carbon is mainly sequestered in the humus of deep soil layers (20-100 cm), whereas no C storage was observed in the 0- to 20-cm layer. C storage in C4 tropical pasture is associated with the installation and development of C3 species, which increase either the input of N to the ecosystem or the C:N ratio of soil organic matter. Efforts to curb deforestation remain an obvious priority to preserve forest C stocks and biodiversity. However, our results show that if sustainable management is applied in tropical pastures coming from deforestation (avoiding fires and overgrazing, using a grazing rotation plan and a mixture of C3 and C4 species), they can ensure a continuous C storage, thereby adding to the current C sink of Amazonian forests. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Terminalia catappa: Chemical composition, in vitro and in vivo effects on Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katiki, L M; Gomes, A C P; Barbieri, A M E; Pacheco, P A; Rodrigues, L; Veríssimo, C J; Gutmanis, G; Piza, A M; Louvandini, H; Ferreira, J F S

    2017-11-15

    Haemonchus contortus is the most important nematode in small ruminant systems, and has developed tolerance to all commercial anthelmintics in several countries. In vitro (egg hatch assay) and in vivo tests were performed with a multidrug strain of Haemonchus contortus using Terminalia catappa leaf, fruit pulp, and seed extracts (in vitro), or pulp and seed powder in lambs experimentally infected with H. contortus. Crude extracts from leaves, fruit pulp and seeds obtained with 70% acetone were lyophilized until used. In vitro, the extracts had LC 50 =2.48μg/mL (seeds), LC 50 =4.62μg/mL (pulp), and LC 50 =20μg/mL (leaves). In vitro, seed and pulp extracts had LC 50 similar to Thiabendazole (LC 50 =1.31μg/mL). Condensed tannins were more concentrated in pulp extract (183.92g of leucocyanidin/kg dry matter) than in either leaf (4.6g) or seed (35.13g) extracts. Phytochemical tests established that all extracts contained alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, phenols, and terpenoids. Based on these results, in vivo tests were performed to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of T. catappa whole fruit (pulp+seed) powder. Male Santa Ines lambs were artificially infected with multidrug-resistant H. contortus and divided, according to similar fecal egg count (FEC) and weight, into two groups: Control (infected/untreated) and treated (infected/treated with whole fruit powder). Whole fruit powder was mixed with concentrate and provided at 2g/kg of body weight (BW) for five days. After treatment, parasitological analysis (FEC and egg hatch assay), renal profile (urea and creatinine), liver profile (aspartate aminotransferase) and BW were determined. In vitro (based on LC 50 ), seed/pulp extracts had ovicidal effect similar to Thiabendazole but whole fruit powder had no anthelmintic effect on adult nematodes in the abomasum. We discuss the plausible causes of the lack of in vivo activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Mid-Late Pleistocene OSL chronology in western Amazonia and implications for the transcontinental Amazon pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetti, Dilce F.; Cohen, Marcelo C. L.; Tatumi, Sonia H.; Sawakuchi, André O.; Cremon, Édipo H.; Mittani, Juan C. R.; Bertani, Thiago C.; Munita, Casimiro J. A. S.; Tudela, Diego R. G.; Yee, Márcio; Moya, Gabriela

    2015-12-01

    The origin of the transcontinental Amazon drainage system remains unrevealed. Sedimentary deposits formed from the Neogene in the Amazonas and Solimões Basins constitute natural archives for reconstructing this event in space and time. However, paleoenvironmental and chronological analyses focusing on these deposits, or even their basic mapping, are still scarce to allow such investigation. In this context, primary interests are fluvial strata related to the lithostratigraphic Içá Formation, mapped over a widespread area in western Amazonian lowlands. Although long regarded as Plio-Pleistocene in age, this unit has not yet been dated and its overall depositional setting remains largely undescribed. The main goal of the present work is to contribute for improving facies analysis and chronology of these deposits, approaching an area in southwestern Amazonia and another in northern Amazonia, which are located more than 1000 km apart. Despite this great distance, the sedimentological and chronological characteristics of deposits from these two areas are analogous. Hence, facies analysis revealed paleoenvironments including active channel, abandoned channel, point bar, crevasse splay and floodplain, which are altogether compatible with meandering fluvial systems. Similarly, optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating revealed thirty three ages ranging from 65.4 ± 16.9 to 219.6 ± 25.1 ky (in addition to three outliners of 54.0 ± 7.6, 337.3 ± 36.9 and 346.6 ± 48.6 ky), and nine 97.1 ± 9.9 to 254.8 ± 23.8 ky for the areas in southwestern and northern Amazonia, respectively. These data lead to establish that deposits mapped as Içá Formation over a vast area of western Brazilian Amazonia have a Mid-Late Pleistocene age, rather than the previously inferred Plio-Pleistocene age. It follows that if Plio-Pleistocene deposits exist in this region they remain to be dated and must be restricted to a narrow belt in western Amazonia, as well as isolated occurrences

  19. Soil and vegetation carbon stocks in Brazilian Western Amazonia: relationships and ecological implications for natural landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, C E G R; do Amaral, E F; de Mendonça, B A F; Oliveira, H; Lani, J L; Costa, L M; Fernandes Filho, E I

    2008-05-01

    The relationships between soils attributes, soil carbon stocks and vegetation carbon stocks are poorly know in Amazonia, even at regional scale. In this paper, we used the large and reliable soil database from Western Amazonia obtained from the RADAMBRASIL project and recent estimates of vegetation biomass to investigate some environmental relationships, quantifying C stocks of intact ecosystem in Western Amazonia. The results allowed separating the western Amazonia into 6 sectors, called pedo-zones: Roraima, Rio Negro Basin, Tertiary Plateaux of the Amazon, Javari-Juruá-Purus lowland, Acre Basin and Rondonia uplands. The highest C stock for the whole soil is observed in the Acre and in the Rio Negro sectors. In the former, this is due to the high nutrient status and high clay activity, whereas in the latter, it is attributed to a downward carbon movement attributed to widespread podzolization and arenization, forming spodic horizons. The youthful nature of shallow soils of the Javari-Juruá-Purus lowlands, associated with high Al, results in a high phytomass C/soil C ratio. A similar trend was observed for the shallow soils from the Roraima and Rondonia highlands. A consistent east-west decline in biomass carbon in the Rio Negro Basin sector is associated with increasing rainfall and higher sand amounts. It is related to lesser C protection and greater C loss of sandy soils, subjected to active chemical leaching and widespread podzolization. Also, these soils possess lower cation exchangeable capacity and lower water retention capacity. Zones where deeply weathered Latosols dominate have a overall pattern of high C sequestration, and greater than the shallower soils from the upper Amazon, west of Madeira and Negro rivers. This was attributed to deeper incorporation of carbon in these clayey and highly pedo-bioturbated soils. The results highlight the urgent need for refining soil data at an appropriate scale for C stocks calculations purposes in Amazonia. There

  20. Amazonia boliviana: arqueología de los Llanos de Mojos Bolivian Amazonia: archaeology of the Llanos de Mojos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio Adolfo Calandra

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A arqueologia da Amazônia boliviana ou das "Terras Baixas" compreende um imenso território que mostra, a luz da informação disponível, significativas descontinuidades espaço-temporais. A identificação nesta área de sociedades constituindo "cacicados da floresta tropical" a partir de critérios baseados em preconceitos, requer a reavaliação da pré-história regional do ponto de vista causal. A arqueologia beniana (de Llanos de Mojos é conhecida, fundamentalmente, a partir das escavações de Erland Nordenskiöld, que sem dúvida estabeleceu as bases conceituais existentes atualmente. Entre os anos de 1977 e 1981 uma missão do Museu de La Plata (Argentina, sob a direção de B. Dougherty, e em estreita colaboração com o Instituto de Arqueologia de La Paz (Bolívia e com o Amazonian Ecosystem Research (EUA, conduziu pesquisas sistemáticas considerando variados itens antropológicos e produzindo numerosas datações de radiocarbono. Estas contribuições ajudaram a esclarecer, mas não a simplificar o panorama pré-hispânico regional, tão importante na temática arqueológica sul-americana. Complementa este artigo uma exaustiva lista de bibliografias que facilita o acesso ao conhecimento sobre este grande território.The archaeology of the Bolivian Amazonia or "Low lands" comprises a large territory that shows, significant time and spatial discontinuities. The identification of societies in this area constituting "Jefaturas de la Floresta Tropical", from criteria based on preconceptions requires the reassessment of regional prehistory from the causal point of view. Benian archeology (Llanos de Mojos is fundamentally known, from the Erland Nordenskiöld excavations, which undoubtedly sets the conceptual bases existing to date. Between 1977 and 1981 a Mission of Museo de La Plata (Argentina, under the direction of B. Dougherty together with the Instituto Nacional de Arqueología of La Paz (Bolivia and the Amazonian Ecosystem

  1. Trial Germination of Coastal Vegetation (Terminalia catappa, Calophyllum inophylum L., and Barringtonia asiatica in the Kima Atas Permanent Nursery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ady Suryawan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available It was estimated that North Sulawesi needs 9,870,093.33 coastal vegetation seeds to rehabilitate the damage of coastal ecosystems which reach 14,805.14 ha, where the largest area 13.884 ha located in other land use. This study aims to provide information of seed germination techniques in Permanent Nursery Kima Atas, Manado. Research was arranged in complete randomized design as factorial with three replications. Ketapang (Terminalia cattapa will obtain high viability in fluctuation of temperature and humidity, i.e used sand media, without wildlings and placed under 25% shade and rain. Keben (Baringtonia asiatica through the incision and decay that placed in the open location will obtain viability until 90% within 2 months. Nyamplung (Calophyllum inophyllum requires shell splitting in order to improve the viability and it can be done by cracking and stripping.

  2. Membrane stability of sickle erythrocytes incubated in extracts of three medicinal plants: Anacardium occidentale, Psidium guajava, and Terminalia catappa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikezie, Paul Chidoka; Uwakwe, Augustine Amadikwa

    2011-04-01

    Many reports showed that medicinal plant extracts cause alterations on the shape and physiology of erythrocytes. The present study seeks to ascertain the osmotic stability of sickle erythrocytes incubated in aqueous extracts of Anacardium occidentale, Psidium guajava, and Terminalia catappa. The fraction of erythrocytes lysed when suspended in saline solution of varying concentrations was investigated by spectrophotometric method. The percentage hemolysis of erythrocytes in the control and test samples showed a sigmoidal relationship with increasing concentrations of saline solution. Membrane stability was ascertained as mean corpuscular fragility (MCF) index of erythrocytes incubated in 400 and 800 mg/dL aqueous concentrations of the three plant extracts. The two experimental concentrations of P. guajava and T. catappa protected the erythrocytes against osmotic stress, as evidenced by decreases in the values of MCF compared with the control sample (P catappa stabilized erythrocyte membrane, higher concentration (800 mg/dL) of A. occidentale exhibited no membrane protective effect.

  3. Partial characterization of protein extracted from Terminalia catappa seed behaving as lectin that is capable of mouse sperm agglutination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haryanto, Hery; Kamilah, Santi Nurul

    2017-05-01

    The objective of this research is to partially characterize proteins extracted from Terminalia catappa seeds that behave like lectin, being capable of mouse sperm agglutination. Cotyledons of the seed were extracted in homogenizing PBS buffer. The supernatant was precipitated with ammonium sulfate to a final concentration of 50% (w/v), then dialyzed with 2 kinds of dialysis tubes, i.e. 6000 and 12000 MWCO. The precipitated proteins were then diluted in 0.9% (w/v) NaCl. Next, dialysis fractions of the precipitated protein were used for the mouse sperm agglutination test. Protein from the dialysis fraction of 6000 MWCO tube could agglutinate mouse sperm. The quantitation of protein was carried out by using the Bradford Coomassie kit from crude extract to dialyzed fractions. Both dialyzed fractions were also run on SDS-PAGE to see the protein profiles.

  4. Sucrose fatty esters from underutilized seed oil of Terminalia catappa as potential steel corrosion inhibitor in acidic medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adewale Adewuyi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Corrosion of metals is a common problem which requires definite attention. In response to this, the oil was extracted from the seed of Terminalia catappa and used to synthesize sucrose fatty esters via simple reaction mechanism which was considered eco-friendly and sustainable. The corrosion inhibition capacity of sucrose fatty esters for mild steel in 1 M HCl was studied using the weight loss method. It was shown that sucrose fatty ester inhibited corrosion process of mild steel and obeyed Langmuir isotherm. Corrosion rate and inhibition efficiency of sucrose fatty esters were found to reduce with increase of immersion time. The study presented sucrose fatty ester as a promising inhibitor of mild steel corrosion in acidic medium.

  5. Antibacterial activities of aqueous extracts of terminalia catappa, momordica charantia and acalypha wilkesiana on escherichia coli isolated from pediatrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odeyemi, A.O.; Olawande, F.T.

    2015-01-01

    Antibacterial activity of aqueous extract of Terminalia catappa, Momordica charantia and Acalypha wilkesiana was investigated against Escherichia coli isolated from pediatrics with the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 0.5mg/mL by agar dilution technique. The antibacterial potency of the extracts as evaluated by broth dilution technique, showed diameter of inhibition zone of 22.80 mm, 14.20 mm and 21.00 mm at a concentration of 0.5 mg/mL for T. catappa, M. charantia and A. wilkesiana, respectively. The antibacterial effect of T. catappa was found to be more pronounced with its plausible use for the treatment of infections caused by E. coli. (author)

  6. Is the current stress state in the Central Amazonia caused by surface water loading?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibanez, Delano M.; Riccomini, Claudio; Miranda, Fernando P.

    2014-11-01

    We present new fault data for the region of the Manaus, Central Amazonia, Brazil. Field measurements concentrate on the Miocene-Holocene sedimentary deposits exposed on the Amazonas River Basin, in order to investigate the development of this region in this time-interval. Two faulting events are distinguished since the Miocene. The oldest one is related to NW-SE extension during Miocene times and associated with paleoseismicity, while the younger is associated with NE-SW extension direction and seems to persist today. These two deformational events may be thereby considered Neotectonic. Moreover, the second extensional pulse with NE-SW orientation can be explained by the surface hydrological loading, which induces the Central Amazonia flexural subsidence and may promote extensional stresses in the upper crust.

  7. Edaphic and light conditions of sympatric plant morphotypes in western Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julissa Roncal

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Here I present a dataset of edaphic and light conditions associated with the occurrence of sympatric morphotypes of Geonoma macrostachys (Arecaceae/Palmae, a candidate case study from Amazonia hypothesized to have evolved under ecological speciation. Transects were established in three lowland rainforests in Peru, and the abundance of each local morphotype of this species was recorded in a total area of 4.95 hectares. Composite soil samples and hemispherical photographs were taken along the transects were the species occurred to obtain information on soil nutrients, soil texture, and indirect measurements of light availability. The raw and summary tables disclose the characteristics of each study site and habitats within them, which could be useful to soil scientists, ecologists, and conservationists engaged in similar research activities or meta-analyses in Amazonia.

  8. Edaphic and light conditions of sympatric plant morphotypes in western Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncal, Julissa

    2014-01-01

    Here I present a dataset of edaphic and light conditions associated with the occurrence of sympatric morphotypes of Geonomamacrostachys (Arecaceae/Palmae), a candidate case study from Amazonia hypothesized to have evolved under ecological speciation. Transects were established in three lowland rainforests in Peru, and the abundance of each local morphotype of this species was recorded in a total area of 4.95 hectares. Composite soil samples and hemispherical photographs were taken along the transects were the species occurred to obtain information on soil nutrients, soil texture, and indirect measurements of light availability. The raw and summary tables disclose the characteristics of each study site and habitats within them, which could be useful to soil scientists, ecologists, and conservationists engaged in similar research activities or meta-analyses in Amazonia.

  9. The survival and growth performance of juvenile cardinal tetra (Paracheirodon axelrodi with application of tropical almond (Terminalia catappa leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NURHIDAYAT

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Nurhidayat, Wardin L, Sitorus E. 2015. The survival and growth performance of juvenile cardinal tetra (Paracheirodon axelrodi with application of tropical almond (Terminalia catappa leaves. Nusantara Bioscience 8: 1-4. The proportional appearance of the length and the weight, and the color pattern are key factors of ornamental fishes. Modification of environment and application of food may be done to increase fish quality. The addition of active compound of tropical almond (Terminalia catappa leaves at certain doses can be done to increase survival rate and the growth of juvenile cardinal tetra (Paracheirodon axelrodi. This research used completely randomized design with four treatments and four replications. Therefore, there were 16 experimental units. The treatments were four doses of almond leaves: D0 (without almond leaves, D1 (0.5 g/L, D2 (1.5 g/L and D3 (2,5 g/L. Experimental fish used in this research was cardinal tetra. The result showed that 0.5 g/L and 1.5 g/L of almond leaves addition resulted in 100% survival rate. Those concentrations also increased the body length by 1.28 cm and increased the weight by 0.092 g. The best water parameters used during the research were: temperature of 25-29oC, dissolved oxygen of 6-6.6 ppm, pH of 6-6.5, alkalinity of 22.66-33.98 ppm, water hardness of 26.17-57.00 ppm, ammonia of 0.0052-0.0104 ppm, and nitrite of 0.0029-0.0696 ppm.

  10. Geochemistry and geochronology of surficial Acre Basin sediments (Western Amazonia): key information for climate reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kronberg, B.I.; Benchimol, R.E.

    1992-01-01

    Geochemical and geochronological analyses of samples of surficial Acre Basin sediments and fossils indicates an extensive fluvial-lacustrine system, occupying this region, desiccated slowly during the last glacial cycle (LGC). This research documents direct evidence for aridity in western Amazonia during the LGC and is important in establishing boundary conditions for LGC climate models as well as in correlating marine and continental (LGC) climate conditions. (author)

  11. Campylobacter fetus Bacteremia in a Healthy Patient Returning from a Trip to the Ecuadorian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez, A C; Barrera, S; Leon, A; Trueba, G

    2017-08-01

    Campylobacter fetus is an opportunistic pathogen which causes bacteremia and other invasive infections in immunocompromised patients who have been exposed to livestock or ingested animal products (uncooked meat or unpasteurized milk). The present report describes a C. fetus infection in a healthy adult (immunocompetent) who returned from a visit to the Ecuadorian Amazonia and who did not report exposure to the typical sources of infection. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. IKONOS imagery for the Large Scale Biosphere–Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    George Hurtt; Xiangming Xiao; Michael Keller; Michael Palace; Gregory P. Asner; Rob Braswell; Brond& #305; Eduardo S. zio; Manoel Cardoso; Claudio J.R. Carvalho; Matthew G. Fearon; Liane Guild; Steve Hagen; Scott Hetrick; Berrien Moore III; Carlos Nobre; Jane M. Read; S& aacute; Tatiana NO-VALUE; Annette Schloss; George Vourlitis; Albertus J. Wickel

    2003-01-01

    The LBA-ECO program is one of several international research components under the Brazilian-led Large Scale Biosphere–Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA). The field-oriented research activities of this study are organized along transects and include a set of primary field sites, where the major objective is to study land-use change and ecosystem dynamics, and a...

  13. A new species of phlebotomine, Trichophoromyia adelsonsouzai (Diptera: Psychodidae of Brazilian Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Vasconcelos dos Santos

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The phlebotomine sandfly Trichophoromyia adelsonsouzai sp. nov. is described and illustrated based on the male and female morphological characteristics of specimens collected at Km 27 of the Trans-Amazonian Highway, municipality of Vitória do Xingu, state of Pará, Brazilian Amazonia. This is an area subject to the direct influence of Belo Monte hydroelectric system. With the description of this new species the number of Trichophoromyia sandflies recorded in Brazil is increased to 20.

  14. Molecular composition of organic aerosols in central Amazonia: an ultra-high-resolution mass spectrometry study

    OpenAIRE

    Kourtchev, I; Godoi, RHM; Connors, S; Levine, JG; Archibald, AT; Godoi, AFL; Paralovo, SL; Barbosa, CGG; Souza, RAF; Manzi, AO; Seco, R; Sjostedt, S; Park, J-H; Guenther, A; Kim, S

    2016-01-01

    The Amazon Basin plays key role in atmospheric chemistry, biodiversity and climate change. In this study we applied nanoelectrospray (nanoESI) ultra-high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHRMS) for the analysis of the organic fraction of PM$_{2.5}$ aerosol samples collected during dry and wet seasons at a site in central Amazonia receiving background air masses, biomass burning and urban pollution. Comprehensive mass spectral data evaluation methods (e.g. Kendrick mass defect, Van Krevelen diagr...

  15. Black and brown carbon over central Amazonia: Long-term aerosol measurements at the ATTO site

    OpenAIRE

    Saturno, Jorge; Holanda, Bruna A.; Pöhlker, Christopher; Ditas, Florian; Wang, Qiaoqiao; Moran-Zuloaga, Daniel; Brito, Joel; Carbone, Samara; Cheng, Yafang; Chi, Xuguang; Ditas, Jeannine; Hoffmann, Thorsten; Hrabe de Angelis, Isabella; Könemann, Tobias; Lavrič, Jošt V.

    2017-01-01

    The Amazon rain forest is considered a very sensitive ecosystem that could be significantly affected by a changing climate. It is still one of the few places on Earth where the atmosphere in the continent approaches near-pristine conditions for some periods of the year. The Amazon Tall Tower Observatory (ATTO) has been built in central Amazonia to monitor the atmospheric and forest ecosystem conditions. The atmospheric conditions at the ATTO site oscillate between biogenic and biomass burning...

  16. The Economic Use of Palms in Amazonia -Raphia taedigera in the estuary-

    OpenAIRE

    CARNEY, Judith; HIRAOKA, Mario; HIDA, Noboru

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a biogeographical and socio-economic study of the significance ofjupati (Raphia taedigera) for peasant livelihood strategies in the Amazon esutuary. It engages current research interest in indigenous agroforestry systems as an alternative to deforestation in Amazonia and especially, the role of palms for providing marketable products and sustainable land use systems. While several studies illuminate the economic importance of marketing w;:ai (Euterpe oleracea) fruits, ther...

  17. Increased Wildfire Risk Driven by Climate and Development Interactions in the Bolivian Chiquitania, Southern Amazonia

    OpenAIRE

    Devisscher, Tahia; Anderson, Liana O.; Arag?o, Luiz E. O. C.; Galv?n, Luis; Malhi, Yadvinder

    2016-01-01

    Wildfires are becoming increasingly dominant in tropical landscapes due to reinforcing feedbacks between land cover change and more severe dry conditions. This study focused on the Bolivian Chiquitania, a region located at the southern edge of Amazonia. The extensive, unique and well-conserved tropical dry forest in this region is susceptible to wildfires due to a marked seasonality. We used a novel approach to assess fire risk at the regional level driven by different development trajectorie...

  18. Interactions between rainfall, deforestation and fires during recent years in the Brazilian Amazonia

    OpenAIRE

    Arag?o, Luiz Eduardo O.C; Malhi, Yadvinder; Barbier, Nicolas; Lima, Andre; Shimabukuro, Yosio; Anderson, Liana; Saatchi, Sassan

    2008-01-01

    Understanding the interplay between climate and land-use dynamics is a fundamental concern for assessing the vulnerability of Amazonia to climate change. In this study, we analyse satellite-derived monthly and annual time series of rainfall, fires and deforestation to explicitly quantify the seasonal patterns and relationships between these three variables, with a particular focus on the Amazonian drought of 2005. Our results demonstrate a marked seasonality with one peak per year for all var...

  19. OSL age determinations of Pleistocene fluvial deposits in Central Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emílio A.A. Soares

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Absolute dating methods have been used in chronological studies of geological processes and sedimentary units of Quaternary age in Central Amazonia, Brazil. Although radiocarbon dating has been very useful in archaeological research and soil studies, the temporal interval of this method is inefficient in evaluating the sedimentation aspects and geological events from the beginning of the Quaternary in the Amazon basin. The use of crystal luminescence dating has been one of the most promising tool for determining the absolute dating of Quaternary deposits in the Amazonian region. Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL dating, following the MAR and SAR protocols, in a tectonic-sedimentary study of Quaternary fluvial deposits in the confluence area of the Negro and Solimões rivers, indicated ages from 1.3 (Holocene to about 67.4 kyears (Late Pleistocene for these sediments. Low radioactive isotope concentrations were found about 2ppm for 235U and 238U; 5ppm for 232Th; and the 40K concentrations were almost zero. A comparison was made between MAR and SAR protocols taking into account the fluvial depositional process.Métodos de datação absoluta têm sido usados em estudos cronológicos de processos geológicos e unidades sedimentares de idade quaternária na Amazônia Central, Brasil. Embora as datações pelo 14C tenham sido muito úteis na pesquisa arqueológica e estudos de solos, o intervalo de tempo abrangido por este método é ineficiente para avaliar aspectos da sedimentação e eventos geológicos do início do Quaternário na bacia Amazônica. O uso da datação por luminescência de cristais tem sido uma das ferramentas mais promissoras para a determinação da idade absoluta de depósitos quaternários na região amazônica. A datação por luminescência opticamente estimulada (LOE, seguindo os protocolos MAR e SAR, em um estudo tectono-sedimentar de depósitos aluviais quaternários da área de confluência dos rios Negro e Solim

  20. Use of Landsat and SRTM Data to Detect Broad-Scale Biodiversity Patterns in Northwestern Amazonia

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    Alfonso Alonso

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Vegetation maps are the starting point for the design of protected areas and regional conservation plans. Accurate vegetation maps are missing for much of Amazonia, preventing the development of effective and compelling conservation strategies. Here we used a network of 160 inventories across northwestern Amazonia to evaluate the use of Landsat and Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM data to identify floristic and edaphic patterns in Amazonian forests. We first calculated the strength of the relationship between these remotely-sensed data, and edaphic and floristic patterns in these forests, and asked how sensitive these results are to image processing and enhancement. We additionally asked if SRTM data can be used to model patterns in plant species composition in our study areas. We find that variations in Landsat and SRTM data are strongly correlated with variations in soils and plant species composition, and that these patterns can be mapped solely on the basis of SRTM data over limited areas. Using these data, we furthermore identified widespread patch-matrix floristic patterns across northwestern Amazonia, with implications for conservation planning and study. Our findings provide further evidence that Landsat and SRTM data can provide a cost-effective means for mapping these forests, and we recommend that maps generated from a combination of remotely-sensed and field data be used as the basis for conservation prioritization and planning in these vast and remote forests.

  1. Poverty and environment in Amazonia: a specific challenge for joint implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitschein, T.A.; Schreiber, V. [Federal University of Para (Brazil). Program Poverty and Environment in Amazonia

    1998-08-01

    The largest continuous tropical forest is found in Amazonia. Its destruction by burning for cattle pastures and subsistence agriculture contributes to the increases in concentrations of CO{sub 2} in the atmosphere and at the same time exhausts the extraordinary biodiversity of this region. In this sense, global ecological problems such as the greenhouse effect and genetic erosion and the future modes of development in Amazonia represent the same side of a coin. This means that the elaboration and implementation of strategies that understand the value of joint implementation as an indispensable element to reverse the tendencies of devastation which are underway in the regional context are required. It is from this principle that the Program Poverty and Environment in Amazonia of the Federal University of Para has been working since its creation in 1992. Through this approach, encroachment on primary forest areas is avoided, while agroforestry systems restore degraded areas in a manner which mimics the natural regeneration of the forest, enriched with species which produce natural products with potential for industrial use. (author)

  2. Forest productivity and water stress in Amazonia: observations from GOSAT chlorophyll fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Eun; Frankenberg, Christian; van der Tol, Christiaan; Berry, Joseph A; Guanter, Luis; Boyce, C Kevin; Fisher, Joshua B; Morrow, Eric; Worden, John R; Asefi, Salvi; Badgley, Grayson; Saatchi, Sassan

    2013-06-22

    It is unclear to what extent seasonal water stress impacts on plant productivity over Amazonia. Using new Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) satellite measurements of sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence, we show that midday fluorescence varies with water availability, both of which decrease in the dry season over Amazonian regions with substantial dry season length, suggesting a parallel decrease in gross primary production (GPP). Using additional SeaWinds Scatterometer onboard QuikSCAT satellite measurements of canopy water content, we found a concomitant decrease in daily storage of canopy water content within branches and leaves during the dry season, supporting our conclusion. A large part (r(2) = 0.75) of the variance in observed monthly midday fluorescence from GOSAT is explained by water stress over moderately stressed evergreen forests over Amazonia, which is reproduced by model simulations that include a full physiological representation of photosynthesis and fluorescence. The strong relationship between GOSAT and model fluorescence (r(2) = 0.79) was obtained using a fixed leaf area index, indicating that GPP changes are more related to environmental conditions than chlorophyll contents. When the dry season extended to drought in 2010 over Amazonia, midday basin-wide GPP was reduced by 15 per cent compared with 2009.

  3. Metabolic Profiling of Hoodia, Chamomile, Terminalia Species and Evaluation of Commercial Preparations Using Ultrahigh-Performance Liquid Chromatography Quadrupole-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avula, Bharathi; Wang, Yan-Hong; Isaac, Giorgis; Yuk, Jimmy; Wrona, Mark; Yu, Kate; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2017-11-01

    Ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QToF-MS) profiling was used for the identification of marker compounds and generation of metabolic patterns that could be interrogated using chemometric modeling software. UHPLC-QToF-MS was used to generate comprehensive fingerprints of three botanicals ( Hoodia, Terminalia , and chamomile), each having different classes of compounds. Detection of a broad range of ions was carried out in full scan mode in both positive and negative modes over the range m/z 100-1700 using high-resolution mass spectrometry. Multivariate statistical analysis was used to extract relevant chemical information from the data to easily differentiate between Terminalia species, chamomile varieties, and quality control of Hoodia products. Using nontargeted analysis, identification of 37 compounds contributed to the differences between Terminalia species, 26 flavonoids were identified to show the differences between German and Roman chamomile, and 43 pregnane glycosides were identified from Hoodia gordonii samples. The UHPLC-QToF-MS-based chemical fingerprinting with principal component analysis was able to correctly distinguish botanicals and their commercial products. This work can be used as a basis to assure the quality of botanicals and commercial products. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. There's no place like home: seedling mortality contributes to the habitat specialisation of tree species across Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortunel, Claire; Paine, C E Timothy; Fine, Paul V A; Mesones, Italo; Goret, Jean-Yves; Burban, Benoit; Cazal, Jocelyn; Baraloto, Christopher

    2016-10-01

    Understanding the mechanisms generating species distributions remains a challenge, especially in hyperdiverse tropical forests. We evaluated the role of rainfall variation, soil gradients and herbivory on seedling mortality, and how variation in seedling performance along these gradients contributes to habitat specialisation. In a 4-year experiment, replicated at the two extremes of the Amazon basin, we reciprocally transplanted 4638 tree seedlings of 41 habitat-specialist species from seven phylogenetic lineages among the three most important forest habitats of lowland Amazonia. Rainfall variation, flooding and soil gradients strongly influenced seedling mortality, whereas herbivory had negligible impact. Seedling mortality varied strongly among habitats, consistent with predictions for habitat specialists in most lineages. This suggests that seedling performance is a primary determinant of the habitat associations of adult trees across Amazonia. It further suggests that tree diversity, currently mostly harboured in terra firme forests, may be strongly impacted by the predicted climate changes in Amazonia. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  5. Enzyme inhibition, antioxidant and immunomodulatory activities, and brine shrimp toxicity of extracts from the root bark, stem bark and leaves of Terminalia macroptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yuan-Feng; Ho, Giang Thanh Thi; Malterud, Karl Egil; Le, Nhat Hao Tran; Inngjerdingen, Kari Tvete; Barsett, Hilde; Diallo, Drissa; Michaelsen, Terje Einar; Paulsen, Berit Smestad

    2014-09-11

    The root bark, stem bark and leaves of Terminalia macroptera have been traditionally used against a variety of ailments such as wounds, hepatitis, malaria, fever, cough, and diarrhea as well as tuberculosis and skin diseases in African folk medicine. Boiling water extracts of Terminalia macroptera, administered orally, are the most common preparations of this plant used by the traditional healers in Mali. This study aimed to investigate the inhibition of the activities of α-glucosidase, 15-lipoxygenase and xanthine oxidase, DPPH scavenging activity, complement fixation activity and brine shrimp toxicity of different extracts obtained by boiling water extraction (BWE) and by ASE (accelerated solvent extraction) with ethanol, ethanol-water and water as extractants from different plant parts of Terminalia macroptera. 27 different crude extracts were obtained by BWE and ASE from root bark, stem bark and leaves of Terminalia macroptera. The total phenolic and carbohydrate contents, enzyme inhibition activities (α-glucosidase, 15-lipoxygenase and xanthine oxidase), DPPH scavenging activity, complement fixation activity and brine shrimp toxicity of these extracts were evaluated. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied for total biological activities evaluation. Several of the extracts from root bark, stem bark and leaves of Terminalia macroptera obtained by BWE and ASE showed potent enzyme inhibition activities, radical-scavenging properties and complement fixation activities. None of the extracts are toxic against brine shrimp larvae in the test concentration. Based on the results from PCA, the ASE ethanol extracts of root bark and stem bark and the low molecular weight fraction of the 50% ethanol-water extract of leaves showed the highest total biological activities. The boiling water extracts were less active, but the bark extracts showed activity as α-glucosidase inhibitors and radical scavengers, the leaf extract being less active. The observed enzyme

  6. Semente de amendoeira (Terminalia catappa L. (Combretaceae como substrato para o cultivo de orquídeas epífitas = Tropical almond seeds (Terminalia catappa L. (Combretaceae as a substrate for epiphytic orchid cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Nascimento Santos

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available O uso de semente de Terminalia catappa L. (Combretaceae como substrato para o cultivo de orquídeas das espécies Oncidium flexuosum Sims, Dendrobium nobile Lindl. e Brassavola tuberculata Hook. foi comparado ao do xaxim (Dicksonia sellowiana Hook. Esta espécie é muito usada para o cultivo de orquídeas, mas está ameaçada de extinção e com a sua exploração proibida por lei. Ao final de 12 meses de cultivo, foram avaliadas as seguintes variáveis: altura da parte aérea, diâmetro dos pseudobulbos, número de pseudobulbos e pH.Não houve interação significativa entre substratos e espécies para as variáveis avaliadas. As orquídeas desenvolvidas em substrato de T. catappa e em xaxim apresentaram alturas da parte aérea, diâmetro dos pseudobulbos e número de pseudobulbos equivalentes. O substrato de T. catappa apresentou baixa velocidade de decomposição, o que manteve a sua boa capacidade de aeração, desenvolvimento das raízes e valor de pH próximo ao encontrado para o xaxim. O uso de T. catappa apresentou-se viável como substituto ao xaxim para o cultivo das orquídeas avaliadas.The use of Terminalia catappa L. (Combretaceae seeds as a substrate for growing orchids of the species Oncidium flexuosum Sims, Dendrobium nobile Lindl. and Brassavola tuberculata Hook was compared to the tree fern fiber Dicksonia sellowiana Hook, largely used for that purpose. This species is endangered and its exploitation is prohibited by law. After twelve months, the following parameters were evaluated: aerial part height, pseudo bulb diameter, number of pseudo bulbs and pH of substrate. There was no significant interaction between substrates and species for the evaluated parameters. The orchids developed on T. catappa substrate and tree fern fiber showed similar aerial parts, diameter and number of pseudo bulbs. T. catappa substrate showed a low rate of decomposition, which maintained good aeration capacity, root development and pH values close to

  7. On the association between hydrometeorological conditions in Amazonia and the extremes of the southern oscillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available ASSOCIATION ENTRE LES CONDITIONS HYDROMÉTÉOROLOGIQUES EN AMAZONIE ET LES EXTRÊMES DE L’OSCILLATION DU SUD. L’Amazonie du nord et du centre montre une tendance vers une anomalie négative de la pluviométrie de l’été au cours des phases avancées d’événements El Niño forts comme ceux de 1982/83, 1986/87 et de 1997/98. Cependant on observe aussi une tendance vers une anomalie positive de la pluviométrie, certaines années El Niño comme 1972/73. Une inversion des variations de la pluviométrie entre le nord et le sud de l’Amazonie est évidente. On a aussi observé que certaines stations en Amazonie reçoivent une pluviométrie excédentaire l’année qui précède le maximum du El Niño, alors que d’autres montrent des tendances nettement négatives au début de l’été, compensées par d’importantes anomalies positives au coeur de la saison des pluies dans l’année du El Niño. De plus un fort événement El Niño est aussi concomitant de nuages de fumées résultants des incendies provoqués par une saison sèche exceptionnellement longue, qui affecte les habitants des principales villes d’Amazonie. SOBRE LAS ASOCIACIONES ENTRE HIDROMETEOROLOGÍA DE LA AMAZONIA Y LOS EXTREMOS DE LA OSCILACIÓN DEL SUR. Las regiones norte y centro de la Amazonia presentan lluvia por debajo de lo normal durante el verano de los años de El Niño, donde el fenómeno alcanza su mayor intensidad, como en los eventos de 1982/83, 1986/87 y el actual 1997/98. De otro lado, también se observa una tendencia hacia lluvias por encima de lo normal durante otros años de El Niño, como en 1972/73. La Amazonia del Norte y del Sur presentan variaciones opuestas en lo que se refiere a lluvia y los efectos de El Niño. Se observa que en algunas estaciones en la Amazonia hay una tendencia por abundante lluvia en el año anterior al pico de El Niño, mientras que en otras estaciones se observan anomalías negativas de lluvia en el inicio del verano y final del

  8. Amazonia Introduced to General Relativity: The May 29, 1919, Solar Eclipse from a North-Brazilian Point of View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crispino, Luís C. B.; de Lima, Marcelo C.

    2016-12-01

    In 1919, A. C. D. Crommelin and C. R. Davidson, British astronomers from the Greenwich Observatory in England, passed by Amazonia on their Brazilian journey aiming to measure the bending of stars' light rays during the total solar eclipse of May 29, 1919, and thereby put the theory of general relativity to the test. In the context of Crommelin's and Davidson's visit, we discuss how Amazonia was introduced to Einstein's theory of gravitation, and also the observations and repercussions of the May 29, 1919, solar eclipse in Belém, capital city of the North-Brazilian Pará state.

  9. In vivo validation of anti-malarial activity of crude extracts of Terminalia macroptera, a Malian medicinal plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidara, Mahamane; Haddad, Mohamed; Denou, Adama; Marti, Guillaume; Bourgeade-Delmas, Sandra; Sanogo, Rokia; Bourdy, Geneviève; Aubouy, Agnès

    2018-02-05

    Plasmodium falciparum malaria is still one of the most deadly pathology worldwide. Efficient treatment is jeopardized by parasite resistance to artemisinin and its derivatives, and by poor access to treatment in endemic regions. Anti-malarial traditional remedies still offer new tracks for identifying promising antiplasmodial molecules, and a way to ensure that all people have access to care. The present study aims to validate the traditional use of Terminalia macroptera, a Malian plant used in traditional medicine. Terminalia macroptera was collected in Mali. Leaves (TML) and roots ethanolic extracts (TMR) were prepared and tested at 2000 mg/kg for in vivo acute toxicity in Albino Swiss mice. Antiplasmodial activity of the extracts was assessed against a chloroquine resistant strain P. falciparum (FcB1) in vitro. In vivo, anti-malarial efficacy was assessed by a 4-day suppressive test at 100 mg/kg in two malaria murine models of uncomplicated malaria (Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi infection) and cerebral malaria (Plasmodium berghei strain ANKA infection). Constituents of TMR were characterized by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry. Top ranked compounds were putatively identified using plant databases and in silico fragmentation pattern. Lethal dose of TML and TMR were greater than 2000 mg/kg in Albino Swiss mice. According to the OECD's Globally Harmonized System of Classification, both extracts are non-toxic orally. Antiplasmodial activity of T. macroptera extracts was confirmed in vitro against P. falciparum FcB1 strain with IC50 values of 1.2 and 1.6 µg/mL for TML and TMR, respectively. In vivo, oral administration of TML and TMR induced significant reduction of parasitaemia (37.2 and 46.4% respectively) in P. chabaudi chabaudi infected mice at the 7th day of infection compared to untreated mice. In the cerebral malaria experimental model, mice treated with TMR and TML presented respectively 50 and 66

  10. Reducing power and iron chelating property of Terminalia chebula (Retz. alleviates iron induced liver toxicity in mice

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    Sarkar Rhitajit

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 70% methanol extract of Terminalia chebula Retz. fruit (TCME was investigated for its in vitro iron chelating property and in vivo ameliorating effect on hepatic injury of iron overloaded mice. Methods The effect of fruit extract on Fe2+-ferrozine complex formation and Fe2+ mediated pUC-18 DNA breakdown was studied in order to find the in vitro iron chelating activity. Thirty-six Swiss Albino mice were divided into six groups of: blank, patient control and treated with 50, 100, 200 mg/kg b.w. of TCME and desirox (standard iron chelator drug with Deferasirox as parent compound. Evaluations were made for serum markers of hepatic damage, antioxidant enzyme, lipid per oxidation and liver fibrosis levels. The reductive release of ferritin iron by the extract was further studied. Results In vitro results showed considerable iron chelation with IC50 of 27.19 ± 2.80 μg/ml, and a significant DNA protection with [P]50 of 1.07 ± 0.03 μg/ml along with about 86% retention of supercoiled DNA. Iron-dextran injection (i.p. caused significant increase in the levels of the serum enzymes, viz., alanine aminotransferase (ALAT, aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP and Bilirubin, which were subsequently lowered by oral administration of 200 mg/kg b.w. dose of the fruit extract by 81.5%, 105.88%, 188.08% and 128.31%, respectively. Similarly, treatment with the same dose of the extract was shown to alleviate the reduced levels of liver antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione S-transferase and non-enzymatic reduced glutathione, by 49.8%, 53.5%, 35.4% and 11% respectively, in comparison to the iron overloaded mice. At the same time, the fruit extract effectively lowered the iron-overload induced raised levels of lipid per oxidation, protein carbonyl, hydroxyproline and liver iron by 49%, 67%, 67% and 26%, respectively, with oral treatment of 200 mg/kg b.w. dose of TCME. The fruit extract

  11. Pre-Columbian agricultural landscapes, ecosystem engineers, and self-organized patchiness in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKey, Doyle; Rostain, Stéphen; Iriarte, José; Glaser, Bruno; Birk, Jago Jonathan; Holst, Irene; Renard, Delphine

    2010-01-01

    The scale and nature of pre-Columbian human impacts in Amazonia are currently hotly debated. Whereas pre-Columbian people dramatically changed the distribution and abundance of species and habitats in some parts of Amazonia, their impact in other parts is less clear. Pioneer research asked whether their effects reached even further, changing how ecosystems function, but few in-depth studies have examined mechanisms underpinning the resilience of these modifications. Combining archeology, archeobotany, paleoecology, soil science, ecology, and aerial imagery, we show that pre-Columbian farmers of the Guianas coast constructed large raised-field complexes, growing on them crops including maize, manioc, and squash. Farmers created physical and biogeochemical heterogeneity in flat, marshy environments by constructing raised fields. When these fields were later abandoned, the mosaic of well-drained islands in the flooded matrix set in motion self-organizing processes driven by ecosystem engineers (ants, termites, earthworms, and woody plants) that occur preferentially on abandoned raised fields. Today, feedbacks generated by these ecosystem engineers maintain the human-initiated concentration of resources in these structures. Engineer organisms transport materials to abandoned raised fields and modify the structure and composition of their soils, reducing erodibility. The profound alteration of ecosystem functioning in these landscapes coconstructed by humans and nature has important implications for understanding Amazonian history and biodiversity. Furthermore, these landscapes show how sustainability of food-production systems can be enhanced by engineering into them fallows that maintain ecosystem services and biodiversity. Like anthropogenic dark earths in forested Amazonia, these self-organizing ecosystems illustrate the ecological complexity of the legacy of pre-Columbian land use. PMID:20385814

  12. New species and geographical records of dactylogyrids (Monogenea) of catfish (Siluriformes) from the Peruvian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Palmero, Carlos A; Scholz, Tomáš; Mendoza-Franco, Edgar F; Kuchta, Roman

    2012-06-01

    Three new species of gill monogeneans (Dactylogyridae: Ancyrocephalinae) are described from siluriform catfish from Iquitos, Peru: Demidospermus mortenthaleri n. sp. from Brachyplatystoma juruense (Boulenger), Demidospermus brevicirrus n. sp. from Pimelodus sp., and Aphanoblastella aurorae n. sp. from Goeldiella eques (Müller & Troschel). Demidospermus mortenthaleri is characterized by a male copulatory organ (MCO) with a small loop at its middle portion; 2 types of hooks, of which pairs 5 and 6 are longer than the remaining hooks; a proximal subunit round and highly depressed thumb; and a sclerotized vagina with a round pad at the vaginal aperture. Demidospermus brevicirrus is distinguished from other congeners by the presence of a short, straight, and robust MCO and boot-shaped accessory piece with a hooked projection directed posteriorly. Aphanoblastella aurorae is the only species of the genus that possesses an arrow-shaped sclerotized vagina and a medial process on the dorsal bar. Another 6 dactylogyrids described previously are recorded for the first time from the Peruvian Amazonia: Cosmetocleithrum bulbocirrus Kritsky, Thatcher and Boeger, 1986 ; Vancleaveus fungulus Kritsky, Thatcher and Boeger, 1986 ; V. janauacaensis Kritsky, Thatcher and Boeger, 1986 ; V. platyrhynchi Kritsky, Thatcher and Boeger, 1986 ; Unilatus unilatus Mizelle and Kritsky, 1967 ; and U. brittani Mizelle, Kritsky and Crane, 1968 . Based on observations of specimens collected in the Peruvian Amazonia, new morphological data for these species are provided. Comparison of new specimens of U. unilatus and U. brittani with those of Unilatus brevispinus Suriano, 1985 and Unilatus longispinus Suriano, 1985 , both originally described from Brazil, has shown that they are conspecific. Therefore, the latter species were synonymized with U. unilatus and U. brittani , respectively. In addition, 56 undescribed monogeneans found in catfish from the Peruvian Amazonia, some of them probably belonging

  13. The Miocene Cyprideis species flock (Ostracoda; Crustacea) of western Amazonia (Solimões Formation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Martin; Ramos, Maria Ines F.; Piller, Werner E.

    2015-04-01

    The Miocene mega-wetland of western Amazonia holds a diverse, largely endemic aquatic invertebrate fauna (e.g., molluscs, ostracods). Among ostracods, the genus Cyprideis experienced a remarkable radiation. Micropalaeontologic investigations of a 400-m-long sediment core (~62 km SW Benjamin Constant, Amazonia, Brazil) permitted a taxonomic revision of about two-thirds of hitherto described Cyprideis species. Ostracod index species enabled a biostratigraphic allocation of the well succession to the Cyprideis minipunctata to Cyprideis cyrtoma biozones (late middle to early late Miocene age). The current study underlines once more Cyprideis' remarkable capability to produce species flocks and western Amazonian Cyprideis comply with the criteria of a species flock: i) endemicity: up to now not a single species is recorded in adjacent areas; ii) monophyly: although hardly verifiable to date and probably Amazonian Cyprideis is not monophyletic s.str., several closely related, quite rapidly evolving species are proved; iii) speciosity: due to the present study, 30 formally described species exist; several further species, left in open nomenclature, are recorded in the literature, which strongly hints to a much higher, still unrecorded species richness; iv) ecological diversity: based on rare sedimentologic cross-references, ecological diversity within a highly structured wetland is possible; the current results demonstrate the sympatric occurrence of up to 12 Cyprideis species, which may indicate adaptations to different microhabitats; v) habitat dominance: regularly Cyprideis holds more than >90 % in western Amazonian ostracod assemblages during the early and middle Miocene. Explanations for this extreme habitat monopolisation are still arguable and touch the highly disputed question about the nature of western Amazonia's environments during the Miocene. It seems, however, evident that a strictly actualistic approach to endemic Neogene Amazonian biota is highly

  14. Environmental impact of geometric earthwork construction in pre-Columbian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, John Francis; Whitney, Bronwen S; Mayle, Francis E; Iriarte, José; Prümers, Heiko; Soto, J Daniel; Watling, Jennifer

    2014-07-22

    There is considerable controversy over whether pre-Columbian (pre-A.D. 1492) Amazonia was largely "pristine" and sparsely populated by slash-and-burn agriculturists, or instead a densely populated, domesticated landscape, heavily altered by extensive deforestation and anthropogenic burning. The discovery of hundreds of large geometric earthworks beneath intact rainforest across southern Amazonia challenges its status as a pristine landscape, and has been assumed to indicate extensive pre-Columbian deforestation by large populations. We tested these assumptions using coupled local- and regional-scale paleoecological records to reconstruct land use on an earthwork site in northeast Bolivia within the context of regional, climate-driven biome changes. This approach revealed evidence for an alternative scenario of Amazonian land use, which did not necessitate labor-intensive rainforest clearance for earthwork construction. Instead, we show that the inhabitants exploited a naturally open savanna landscape that they maintained around their settlement despite the climatically driven rainforest expansion that began ∼2,000 y ago across the region. Earthwork construction and agriculture on terra firme landscapes currently occupied by the seasonal rainforests of southern Amazonia may therefore not have necessitated large-scale deforestation using stone tools. This finding implies far less labor--and potentially lower population density--than previously supposed. Our findings demonstrate that current debates over the magnitude and nature of pre-Columbian Amazonian land use, and its impact on global biogeochemical cycling, are potentially flawed because they do not consider this land use in the context of climate-driven forest-savanna biome shifts through the mid-to-late Holocene.

  15. Food niche overlap between two sympatric leaf-litter frog species from Central Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Talione Sabagh

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We studied the feeding habits and similarities in the diet of two sympatric and syntopic Amazonian frog species, Anomaloglossus stepheni (Aromobatidae and Leptodactylus andreae (Leptodactylidae in a forested area in Central Amazonia. The breadth of the trophic niche of these species was 5.89 and 3.75, respectively, and approximately 85% of their diets were similar. Ants were main food item in the diets of both frog species. The coexistence between these frog species may be facilitated by the significant differences in the size of their mouths. This difference allows them to consume preys items of different sizes.

  16. Conflicts between humans and giant otters (Pteronura brasiliensis) in Amanã Reserve, Brazilian Amazonia

    OpenAIRE

    Lima,Danielle dos Santos; Marmontel,Miriam; Bernard,Enrico

    2014-01-01

    Commercial hunting was determinant in the disappearance of giant river otters along areas of historical occurrence in the Brazilian Amazonia. After approximately 30 years of absence, giant otters were spotted in the Amanã Lake in 2000, after the creation of the Amanã Reserve. Four years of field surveys were carried out to confirm the presence of giant river otters in the area and to assess local threats to the species. Information on the human impact on this otter population was compiled bas...

  17. Anuran amphibians of the urban region of Altamira (Oriental Amazonia, state of Pará, Brazil.

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    Flávio Bezerra Barros

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to take stock of the species of anurans in three localities of the urban region of Altamira, a municipal district in the west of the state of Pará (Oriental Amazonia. Collections were made between January and June of 2004. Fifteen species were recorded during the study. The family Hylidae was the most represented, with eight species. The data was compatible with the degree of conservation of the collection areas. The necessity of making new fauna inventories in all Brazilian biomes is of extreme urgency, particularly in the Amazon, given its vast extension and lack of inventories.

  18. The Flux of Carbon from Selective Logging, Fire, and Regrowth in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, R. A.

    2004-01-01

    The major goal of this work was to develop a spatial, process-based model (CARLUC) that would calculate sources and sinks of carbon from changes in land use, including logging and fire. The work also included Landsat data, together with fieldwork, to investigate fire and logging in three different forest types within Brazilian Amazonia. Results from these three activities (modeling, fieldwork, and remote sensing) are described, individually, below. The work and some of the personnel overlapped with research carried out by Dr. Daniel Nepstad's LBA team, and thus some of the findings are also reported in his summaries.

  19. Amber from western Amazonia reveals Neotropical diversity during the middle Miocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoine, Pierre-Olivier; De Franceschi, Dario; Flynn, John J.; Nel, André; Baby, Patrice; Benammi, Mouloud; Calderón, Ysabel; Espurt, Nicolas; Goswami, Anjali; Salas-Gismondi, Rodolfo

    2006-01-01

    Tertiary insects and arachnids have been virtually unknown from the vast western Amazonian basin. We report here the discovery of amber from this region containing a diverse fossil arthropod fauna (13 hexapod families and 3 arachnid species) and abundant microfossil inclusions (pollen, spores, algae, and cyanophyceae). This unique fossil assemblage, recovered from middle Miocene deposits of northeastern Peru, greatly increases the known diversity of Cenozoic tropical–equatorial arthropods and microorganisms and provides insights into the biogeography and evolutionary history of modern Neotropical biota. It also strengthens evidence for the presence of more modern, high-diversity tropical rainforest ecosystems during the middle Miocene in western Amazonia. PMID:16950875

  20. The effects of bioactive edible film containing Terminalia arjuna on the stability of some quality attributes of chevon sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalem, Insha Kousar; Bhat, Z F; Kumar, Sunil; Noor, Sabahu; Desai, Ajay

    2018-02-19

    The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of calcium alginate edible films incorporated with Terminalia arjuna on the lipid oxidative stability and storage quality of chevon sausages. Chevon sausages were aerobically packaged in the edible films containing different concentrations of T. arjuna viz. T 1 (0.0%), T 2 (0.50%) and T 3 (1.0%) and were stored under refrigerated (4±1 °C) conditions. A significant improvement was observed in the lipid oxidative stability and microbial quality of the products. Products packaged in T 2 and T 3 films exhibited significantly (P < 0.05) lower values for TBARS (mg malonaldehyde/kg), microbial counts (log cfu/g) and FFA (% oleic acid). Higher (P < 0.05) sensory scores were also observed for the products packaged in T 2 and T 3 films. This study shows that application of a bioactive edible film incorporated with T. arjuna is an effective strategy in retarding the lipid oxidation and storage changes in meat products. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. An eco-friendly dyeing of woolen yarn by Terminalia chebula extract with evaluations of kinetic and adsorption characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabbir, Mohd; Rather, Luqman Jameel; Shahid-ul-Islam; Bukhari, Mohd Nadeem; Shahid, Mohd; Ali Khan, Mohd; Mohammad, Faqeer

    2016-01-01

    In the present study Terminalia chebula was used as an eco-friendly natural colorant for sustainable textile coloration of woolen yarn with primary emphasis on thermodynamic and kinetic adsorption aspects of dyeing processes. Polyphenols and ellagitannins are the main coloring components of the dye extract. Assessment of the effect of pH on dye adsorption showed an increase in adsorption capacity with decreasing pH. Effect of temperature on dye adsorption showed 80 °C as optimum temperature for wool dyeing with T. chebula dye extract. Two kinetic equations, namely pseudo first-order and pseudo second-order equations, were employed to investigate the adsorption rates. Pseudo second-order model provided the best fit (R2 = 0.9908) to the experimental data. The equilibrium adsorption data were fitted by Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm models. The adsorption behavior accorded well (R2 = 0.9937) with Langmuir isotherm model. Variety of eco-friendly and sustainable shades were developed in combination with small amount of metallic mordants and assessed in terms of colorimetric (CIEL∗a∗b∗ and K/S) properties measured using spectrophotometer under D65 illuminant (10° standard observer). The fastness properties of dyed woolen yarn against light, washing, dry and wet rubbing were also evaluated. PMID:27222752

  2. Antioxidant and antiproliferative effects of different solvent fractions from Terminalia belerica Roxb. fruit on various cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Tapasree; Panja, Sourav; Ghate, Nikhil Baban; Chaudhuri, Dipankar; Mandal, Nripendranath

    2017-04-01

    Terminalia belerica Roxb. fruits have been previously reported against diabetes, ulcer, microbial problems and hepatotoxicity. The present study was aimed to investigate antioxidant and anticancer potential of sequentially fractionated hexane (TBHE), chloroform (TBCE), ethyl acetate (TBEE), butanol (TBBE) and water (TBWE) extracts from the 70% methanolic extract of T. belerica fruits. TBCE, TBEE, TBBE and TBWE showed excellent ROS (reactive oxygen species) and RNS (reactive nitrogen species) scavenging activities which was investigated using 11 different assays for various free radicals. Among 5 fractions, TBHE and TBCE remained nontoxic to any of the malignant cell lines including normal cells (WI-38). TBBE and TBWE inhibited the proliferation of breast (MCF-7), cervical (HeLa) and brain (U87) cancer cells by inducing G2/M arrest while TBEE caused apoptosis. However, these fractions did not inhibit the proliferation of lung (A549) and liver (HepG2) cancer cells. BrdU incorporation study also suggested the efficient anticancer potential of TBEE, TBBE and TBWE. Moreover, TBBE and TBWE treated MCF-7, HeLa and U87 cells showed upregulation of p53 and p21 proteins. Phytochemical analysis reflected the presence of adequate quantities of different phytochemicals. Moreover, HPLC analysis show peaks of purpurin, catechin, tannic acid, reserpine, ellagic acid, methyl gallate, aconitine and rutin in TBBE, TBWE and TBEE. Hence these polar extracts of T. belerica can be used to develop drug against different types of cancer.

  3. [Experimental inoculation of Terminalia catappa seedlings with an environmental isolate of Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii serotype C ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escandón, Patricia; Huérfano, Sandra; Castañeda, Elizabeth

    2002-12-01

    In 1997, our laboratory reported for the first time the isolation of Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii serotype C associated with almond tree (Terminalia catappa) detritus. This finding led to a more detailed follow up of the association between the plant and the yeast. Preliminary data have shown that survival of the yeast in almond trees seedlings goes beyond 100 days. The aim of the present study was to establish if under the conditions previously studied, C. neoformans var. gattii would remain viable for longer periods. A total of 83 almond tree seedings, 20-40 cm high, were inoculated with C. neoformans var. gattii serotype C (INS-755). Assays were carried out inoculating the stem or the soil where the seedlings were planted. Observations were undertaken for a period of up to 12 months. As processing techniques we employed the endophytic fungi procedure (stems), maceration (roots, leaves) and standard suspension method (soils). Additionally, microscopic visualization of the yeast in plant tissues was done with trypan blue plus lactophenol. C. neoformans var. gattii was recovered from the inoculated plants for a period of up to 12 months post-inoculation; additionally, the fungus had the capacity to migrate from the stem to the soil and viceversa, without causing macroscopic or microscopic alterations in the plant tissues. This finding suggests that there appears to be an association between the host plant and C. neoformans var. gattii in the environment.

  4. The in vitro anthelmintic activity of the ethanol leaf extracts of Terminalia catappa L. on Fasciola gigantica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anuracpreeda, Panat; Chawengkirttikul, Runglawan; Ngamniyom, Arin; Panyarachun, Busaba; Puttarak, Panupong; Koedrith, Preeyaporn; Intaratat, Noppadol

    2017-12-01

    At present, there are no medicinal plant extracts currently available for treatment and control of fasciolosis. The present work could provide, for the first study, conclusions on the in vitro fasciolicidal properties of the ethanol extract of Terminalia catappa L. (TcCE) leaves against adult Fasciola gigantica after incubation with RPMI-1640 medium containing the TcCE at various concentrations and times when compared with triclabendazole (TCZ). The relative motility and survival index values of the TcCE-treated flukes decreased at a more rapid rate than the TCZ-treated flukes. The death of the parasites was observed after exposed to TcCE at 3 h incubation with 400, 800 and 1000 µg mL-1, and at 6 h incubation in 100 and 200 µg mL-1. Vacuolization, blebbings and partial disruption on the parasites' tegument were observed by light microscopy. When examined by scanning electron microscopy, TcCE caused similar tegumental alterations in the parasites as those observed in TCZ treatment but with larger damage at comparative incubation periods, consisting of swelling, blebbing, disrupted blebs, loss of spines, leading to the erosion, lesion and eventual disruption of the total tegument. Therefore, the TcCE may exert its fasciolicidal effect against F. gigantica by initially causing the tegumental alteration.

  5. FRAKSINASI EKSTRAK METANOL KULIT BATANG KETAPANG (Terminalia catappaLinn. DAN UJI TOKSISITASNYA DENGAN METODE BSLT (Brine Shrimp Lethality Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moch. Chasani

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Ketapang (Terminalia catappa Linn. merupakan salah satu tumbuhan anggota famili Combretaceae. Hasil uji senyawa metabolit sekunder pada kulit batang ketapang diketahui mengandung flavonoid, terpenoid, polifenol, steroid dan saponin. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk menemukan fraksi ekstrak dari kulit batang ketapang yang memiliki toksisitas tertinggi terhadap larva udang Artemia salina Leach dengan menggunakan metode BSLT serta mengidentifikasi senyawa metabolit sekundernya. Kulit batang ketapang diekstraksi secara maserasi menggunakan pelarut metanol. Ekstrak metanol yang diperoleh diekstraksi cair-cair dengan pelarut n-heksana, dan etil asetat. Ekstrak metanol (EM, fraksi n-heksana ekstrak metanol (FH, fraksi etil asetat ekstrak metanol (FE, dan residu etil asetat ekstrak metanol (FR diuji toksisitasnya. Fraksi ekstrak dengan toksisitas tertinggi diuji kandungan senyawa metabolit sekundernya menggunakan pereaksi warna pada plat KLT. Hasil uji menunjukkan bahwa EM, FH, FE, dan FR bersifat toksik terhadap larva udang Artemia salina Leach dan FE bersifat paling toksik dengan nilai LC50 sebesar 61,675 ppm. Hasil uji metabolit sekunder menunjukkan FE mengandung senyawa golongan flavonoid, fenolat, terpenoid, dan saponin.

  6. Preparation and properties of cellulose nanocomposite films with in situ generated copper nanoparticles using Terminalia catappa leaf extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthulakshmi, L; Rajini, N; Nellaiah, H; Kathiresan, T; Jawaid, M; Rajulu, A Varada

    2017-02-01

    In the present work, copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) were in situ generated inside cellulose matrix using Terminalia catappa leaf extract as a reducing agent. During this process, some CuNPs were also formed outside the matrix. The CuNPs formed outside the matrix were observed with transmission electron microscope (TEM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Majority of the CuNPs formed outside the matrix were in the size range of 21-30nm. The cellulose/CuNP composite films were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic, X-Ray diffraction and thermogravimetric techniques. The crystallinity of the cellulose/CuNP composite films was found to be lower than that of the matrix indicating rearrangement of cellulose molecules by in situ generated CuNPs. Further, the expanded diffractogram of the composite films indicated the presence of a mixture of Cu, CuO and Cu 2 O nanoparticles. The thermal stability of the composites was found to be lower than that of the composites upto 350°C beyond which a reverse trend was observed. This was attributed to the catalytic behaviour of CuNPs for early degradation of the composites. The composite films possessed sufficient tensile strength which can replace polymer packaging films like polyethylene. Further, the cellulose/CuNP composite films exhibited good antibacterial activity against E.coli bacteria. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Antioxidant and hepatoprotective actions of medicinal herb, Terminalia catappa L. from Okinawa Island and its tannin corilagin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, S; Inoue, Y; Nakama, S; Ichiba, T; Aniya, Y

    2007-11-01

    The antioxidant and hepatoprotective actions of Terminalia catappa L. collected from Okinawa Island were evaluated in vitro and in vivo using leaves extract and isolated antioxidants. A water extract of the leaves of T. catappa showed a strong radical scavenging action for 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and superoxide (O(2)(.-)) anion. Chebulagic acid and corilagin were isolated as the active components from T. catappa. Both antioxidants showed a strong scavenging action for O(2)(.-) and peroxyl radicals and also inhibited reactive oxygen species production from leukocytes stimulated by phorbol-12-myristate acetate. Galactosamine (GalN, 600 mg/kg, s.c.,) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 0.5 microg/kg, i.p.)-induced hepatotoxicity of rats as seen by an elevation of serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities was significantly reduced when the herb extract or corilagin was given intraperitoneally to rats prior to GalN/LPS treatment. Increase of free radical formation and lipid peroxidation in mitochondria caused by GalN/LPS treatment were also decreased by pretreatment with the herb/corilagin. In addition, apoptotic events such as DNA fragmentation and the increase in caspase-3 activity in the liver observed with GalN/LPS treatment were prevented by the pretreatment with the herb/corilagin. These results show that the extract of T. catappa and its antioxidant, corilagin are protective against GalN/LPS-induced liver injury through suppression of oxidative stress and apoptosis.

  8. Effects of an oil spill on the leaf anatomical characteristics of a beach plant (Terminalia catappa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punwong, Paramita; Juprasong, Yotin; Traiperm, Paweena

    2017-09-01

    This study investigated the short-term impacts of an oil spill on the leaf anatomical structures of Terminalia catappa L. from crude oil leakage in Rayong province, Thailand, in 2013. Approximately 3 weeks after the oil spill, leaves of T. catappa were collected along the coastline of Rayong from one affected site, five adjacent sites, and a control site. Slides of the leaf epidermis were prepared by the peeling method, while leaf and petiole transverse sections were prepared by paraffin embedding. Cell walls of adaxial epidermal cell on leaves in the affected site were straight instead of the jigsaw shape found in leaves from the adjacent and control sites. In addition, the stomatal index of the abaxial leaf surface was significantly lower in the affected site. Leaf and petiole transverse sections collected from the affected site showed increased cuticle thickness, epidermal cell diameter on both sides, and palisade mesophyll thickness; in contrast, vessel diameter and spongy mesophyll thickness were reduced. These significant changes in the leaf anatomy of T. catappa correspond with previous research and demonstrate the negative effects of oil spill pollution on plants. The anatomical changes of T. catappa in response to crude oil pollution are discussed as a possible indicator of pollution and may be used in monitoring crude oil pollution.

  9. [Hepatoprotective effects of chloroform extract from leaf of Terminalia catappa in relation to the inhibition of liver IL-6 expression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xin-hui; Gao, Jing; Wang, Yan-ping; Xu, Li-zhi; Zhao, Xiao-ning; Xu, Qiang

    2003-12-01

    To study the hepatoprotective effects of Terminalia catappa chloroform extract (TCCE) and its effects on IL-6 gene over expression in liver of CCl4-treated mice. Mice were orally pretreated with TCCE (20, 50, 100 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1)) for 5 days, and the sALT activity of mice was detected 24 hours after the intraperitoneal injection of CCl4 on the 5 th day. Meanwhile, IL-6 mRNA level was determined by using the method of RT-PCR. And the liver morphological changes were also observed. sALT activity was remarkably increased (5.6 fold) after the injection of CCl4. However, with oral pretreatment of TCCE, changes in sALT were dose-dependently reversed. On the other hand, significant increase in IL-6 mRNA level induced by CCl4 was remarkably decreased. The level of IL-6 mRNA in 100 mg x kg(-1) TCCE treated mice was reversed to that of control. In addition, histological changes such as the infiltration of numerous inflammatory cells and hepatocyte swelling in injured mice were effectively lessened by the pretreatment of TCCE. TCCE has hepatoprotective activity and the mechanisms underlying its protective effects may be related to the inhibition on the over expression of IL-6 gene in liver.

  10. Beach almond (Terminalia catappa, Combretaceae) seed production and predation by scarlet macaws (Ara macao) and variegated squirrels (Sciurus variegatoides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henn, Jonathan J; McCoy, Michael B; Vaughan, Christopher S

    2014-09-01

    Knowledge of ecological impacts of exotic beach almond (Terminalia catappa) in the central Pacific of Costa Rica are little known, but studies have found this species to be a potentially important food source for endangered scarlet macaws (Ara macao). In this study, reproductive phenology and seed predation by variegated squirrels (Sciurus variegatoides) and scarlet macaws were measured during March and April 2011 on beaches of central Pacific coastal Costa Rica. Seed productivity and predation levels were quantified on a weekly basis for 111 beach almond trees to assess the importance of beach almond as a food source for scarlet macaws and the extent of resource partitioning between seed predators. Seed production of the trees was great (about 194 272 seeds) and approximately 67% of seeds were predated by seed predators. Macaws consumed an estimated 49% of seeds while squirrels consumed 18%. Additionally, evidence of resource partitioning between squirrels and macaws was found. Scarlet macaws preferred to feed on the northern side and edge of the canopy while squirrels preferred to feed on the southern and inside parts of the canopy. Both species ate most seeds on the ocean side of the tree. Despite the status of this tree as an exotic species, the beach almond appears to be an important resource for scarlet macaw population recovery. The resource produced by this tree should be taken into account as reforestation efforts continue in Costa Rica.

  11. Beach almond (Terminalia catappa, Combretaceae seed production and predation by scarlet macaws (Ara macao and variegated squirrels (Sciurus variegatoides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan J. Henn

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of ecological impacts of exotic beach almond (Terminalia catappa in the central Pacific of Costa Rica are little known, but studies have found this species to be a potentially important food source for endangered scarlet macaws (Ara macao. In this study, reproductive phenology and seed predation by variegated squirrels (Sciurus variegatoides and scarlet macaws were measured during March and April 2011 on beaches of central Pacific coastal Costa Rica. Seed productivity and predation levels were quantified on a weekly basis for 111 beach almond trees to assess the importance of beach almond as a food source for scarlet macaws and the extent of resource partitioning between seed predators. Seed production of the trees was great (about 194 272 seeds and approximately 67% of seeds were predated by seed predators. Macaws consumed an estimated 49% of seeds while squirrels consumed 18%. Additionally, evidence of resource partitioning between squirrels and macaws was found. Scarlet macaws preferred to feed on the northern side and edge of the canopy while squirrels preferred to feed on the southern and inside parts of the canopy. Both species ate most seeds on the ocean side of the tree. Despite the status of this tree as an exotic species, the beach almond appears to be an important resource for scarlet macaw population recovery. The resource produced by this tree should be taken into account as reforestation efforts continue in Costa Rica. Rev. Biol. Trop. 62 (3: 929-938. Epub 2014 September 01.

  12. The anthelmintic effects of the ethanol extract of Terminalia catappa L. leaves against the ruminant gut parasite, Fischoederius cobboldi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anuracpreeda, Panat; Chankaew, Kanokwan; Puttarak, Panupong; Koedrith, Preeyaporn; Chawengkirttikul, Runglawan; Panyarachun, Busaba; Ngamniyom, Arin; Chanchai, Sumalee; Sobhon, Prasert

    2016-04-01

    Presently, no effective anthelmintic drugs have been used to treat and control paramphistomosis, a severe disease of ruminants. In this study, we have investigated the in vitro anthelmintic effect of the leaves of Terminalia catappa L. crude extract (TcCE) and albendazole (ABZ) on adult Fischoederius cobboldi after incubating the flukes in RPMI-1640 medium containing the TcCE at various doses and times. The TcCE-treated flukes at all dosages exhibited rapid decrease of motility, and the relative motility (RM) values were decreased sharply from start to 3 h. Worms were killed after 6 and 12 h of treatment with 1000, 1500 and 2000 µg mL(-1) as well as 500 µg mL(-1) of TcCE, respectively. By light microscopy examination, the flukes exhibited the earliest alteration in a limited area of the tegument. At scanning electron microscopy level, the flukes' tegument showed similar sequence of morphological alterations after treatment with ABZ and TcCE that consisted of swelling of ridges and folds, followed by blebbing and rupturing of the blebs, leading to the erosion, lesion and disruption of the tegument. Hence, in vivo studies should be performed to examine whether the TcCE may serve as a powerful anthelmintic drug for treatment of paramphistomosis.

  13. Suppressive effects of the leaf of Terminalia catappa L. on osteoclast differentiation in vitro and bone weight loss in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Tomoyuki; Nakajima, Chie; Nishimoto, Sogo; Takami, Masamichi; Woo, Je-Tae; Yazawa, Kazunaga

    2012-01-01

    Oral administration of Terminalia catappa extract (TCE; 1,000 mg/kg) for 5 wk suppressed bone weight loss and trabecular bone loss in ovariectomized mice. An in vitro experiment showed that TCE (1.3-20 µg/mL) did not increase alkaline phosphatase activity, which would indicate osteoclast formation, in osteoblast-like 3T3-L1 cells. On the other hand, TCE (12.5 µg/mL) markedly decreased the number of tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive multinucleated cells, which would indicate osteoclast formation, in a co-culture system (bone marrow cells/osteoblastic UAMS-32 cells). A detailed analysis of the stages of osteoclast differentiation revealed that TCE mainly suppressed the differentiation of bone marrow mononuclear cells into osteoclast progenitor cells in the presence of M-CSF and TGF-β. An additional experiment using fractionated TCE revealed that the water-soluble fraction suppressed the bone weight loss in OVX-mice and osteoclast differentiation in vitro. Therefore, the suppressive effects of TCE on bone weight loss in mice might be due to the suppressive effects of highly polar components on the early stage of osteoclast differentiation.

  14. Antimetastatic effects of Terminalia catappa L. on oral cancer via a down-regulation of metastasis-associated proteases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shun-Fa; Chen, Mu-Kuan; Hsieh, Yih-Shou; Yang, Jia-Sin; Zavras, Athanasios-I; Hsieh, Yih-Hsien; Su, Shih-Chi; Kao, Te-Yu; Chen, Pen-Ni; Chu, Shu-Chen

    2010-04-01

    The incidence and mortality of oral cancer in Taiwan have been increased during the last decade, which could be mainly resulted from the difficulty in treatment related to metastasis. As a potential and popular folk medicine, Terminalia catappa leaves have been proven to possess various biological benefits including anti-cancer activities. However, the detailed effects and molecular mechanisms of T. catappa leaves on the metastasis of oral cancer cells were still unclear. Thus, SCC-4 oral cancer cells were subjected to a treatment with ethanol extracts of T. catappa leaves (TCE) and then analyzed for the effect of TCE on the migration and invasion. Modified Boyden chamber assays revealed that TCE treatment significantly inhibited the cell migration/invasion capacities of SCC-4 cells. Furthermore, results of zymography and western blotting showed that activities and protein levels of MMP-2, MMP-9 and u-PA were all inhibited by TCE. Further studies indicated that TCE may inhibit phosphorylation of ERK1/2, JNK1/2 and Akt while the expression of nuclear protein NF-kappaB, c-Jun and c-Fos were inhibited as well. EMSA assay revealed that the DNA-binding activity with AP-1 and NF-kappaB was also decreased by TCE. In conclusion, TCE may serve as a powerful chemopreventive agent against oral cancer metastasis. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Aqueous Extract of Terminalia chebula Induces Apoptosis in Lung Cancer Cells Via a Mechanism Involving Mitochondria-mediated Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiling Wang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The current study was designed to evaluate the aqueous extract of Terminalia chebula activity, and the main pathway was detected on lung cancer by extracts of T. chebula. Aqueous extract of T. chebula was separated using a zeolite, and five fractions of T. chebula extract were obtained and analyzed by ultraviolet (UV and infrared (IR spectroscopy. Antiproliferative activity was evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT methods against human lung cancer (A549 and mouse lung cancer cell line LLC. T. chebula acts by regulating the Bcl-2 family protein-mediated mitochondrial pathway detected by western blot. Fraction 4 of the T. chebula extract showed much function and was thus studied further. Fraction 4 increased the activation of caspase-3, induced PARP cleavage, and promoted cytochrome c release into the cytoplasm. These data suggest that T. chebula acts by regulating the Bcl-2 family protein-mediated mitochondrial pathway and provide evidence that T. chebula deserves further investigation as a natural agent for treating and preventing cancer.

  16. Terminalia Chebula provides protection against dual modes of necroptotic and apoptotic cell death upon death receptor ligation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yoonjung; Byun, Hee Sun; Seok, Jeong Ho; Park, Kyeong Ah; Won, Minho; Seo, Wonhyoung; Lee, So-Ra; Kang, Kidong; Sohn, Kyung-Cheol; Lee, Ill Young; Kim, Hyeong-Geug; Son, Chang Gue; Shen, Han-Ming; Hur, Gang Min

    2016-04-27

    Death receptor (DR) ligation elicits two different modes of cell death (necroptosis and apoptosis) depending on the cellular context. By screening a plant extract library from cells undergoing necroptosis or apoptosis, we identified a water extract of Terminalia chebula (WETC) as a novel and potent dual inhibitor of DR-mediated cell death. Investigation of the underlying mechanisms of its anti-necroptotic and anti-apoptotic action revealed that WETC or its constituents (e.g., gallic acid) protected against tumor necrosis factor-induced necroptosis via the suppression of TNF-induced ROS without affecting the upstream signaling events. Surprisingly, WETC also provided protection against DR-mediated apoptosis by inhibition of the caspase cascade. Furthermore, it activated the autophagy pathway via suppression of mTOR. Of the WETC constituents, punicalagin and geraniin appeared to possess the most potent anti-apoptotic and autophagy activation effect. Importantly, blockage of autophagy with pharmacological inhibitors or genetic silencing of Atg5 selectively abolished the anti-apoptotic function of WETC. These results suggest that WETC protects against dual modes of cell death upon DR ligation. Therefore, WETC might serve as a potential treatment for diseases characterized by aberrantly sensitized apoptotic or non-apoptotic signaling cascades.

  17. Immunomodulating pectins from root bark, stem bark, and leaves of the Malian medicinal tree Terminalia macroptera, structure activity relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yuan-Feng; Barsett, Hilde; Ho, Giang Thanh Thi; Inngjerdingen, Kari Tvete; Diallo, Drissa; Michaelsen, Terje Einar; Paulsen, Berit Smestad

    2015-02-11

    The root bark, stem bark, and leaves of Terminalia macroptera were sequentially extracted with ethanol, 50% ethanol-water, and 50°C water using an accelerated solvent extractor (ASE). Six bioactive purified pectic polysaccharide fractions were obtained from the 50°C crude water extracts after anion exchange chromatography and gel filtration. The root bark, stem bark, and leaves of T. macroptera were all good sources for fractions containing bioactive polysaccharides. The high molecular weight fraction 50WTRBH-I-I, being the most active fraction in the complement fixation test, has a highly ramified rhamnogalacturonan type I (RG-I) region with arabinogalactan type II (AG-II) side chains. The most abundant fractions from each plant part, 50WTRBH-II-I, 50WTSBH-II-I, and 50WTLH-II-I, were chosen for pectinase degradation. The degradation with pectinase revealed that the main features of these fractions are that of pectic polysaccharides, with hairy regions (RG-I regions) and homogalacturonan regions. The activity of the fractions obtained after pectinase degradation and separation by gel filtration showed that the highest molecular weight fractions, 50WTRBH-II-Ia, 50WTSBH-II-Ia, and 50WTLH-II-Ia, had higher complement fixation activity than their respective native fractions. These results suggest that the complement fixation activities of these pectins are expressed mainly by their ramified regions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Antihyperlipidemic and antiatherogenic activities of Terminalia pallida Linn. fruits in high fat diet-induced hyperlipidemic rats

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    M T Sampathkumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperlipidemia contributes significantly in the manifestation and development of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease (CHD. Although synthetic lipid-lowering drugs are useful in treating hyperlipidemia, there are number of adverse effects. So the current interest has stimulated the search for new lipid-lowering agents with minimal side effects from natural sources. The present study was designed to investigate the antihyperlipidemic and antiatherogenic potentiality of ethanolic extract of Terminalia pallida fruits in high fat diet-induced hyperlipidemic rats. T. pallida fruits ethanolic extract (TPEt was prepared using Soxhlet apparatus. Sprague-Dawley male rats were made hyperlipidemic by giving high fat diet, supplied by NIN (National Institute of Nutrition, Hyderabad, India. TPEt was administered in a dose of 100 mg/kg.b.w./day for 30 days in high fat diet-induced hyperlipidemic rats. The body weights, plasma lipid, and lipoprotein levels were measured before and after the treatment. TPEt showed significant antihyperlipidemic and antiatherogenic activities as evidenced by significant decrease in plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels coupled together with elevation of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and diminution of atherogenic index in high fat diet-induced hyperlipidemic rats. There was a significantly reduced body weight gain in TPEt-treated hyperlipidemic rats than in the control group. The present study demonstrates that TPEt possesses significant antihyperlipidemic and antiatherogenic properties, thus suggesting its beneficial effect in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

  19. Evaluation of in vitro antimicrobial potential and GC–MS analysis of Camellia sinensis and Terminalia arjuna

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    Divya Gupta

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, Camellia sinensis and Terminalia arjuna are being used widely to cure various diseases like cardiovascular diseases, cancer etc. In the present study, extracts of these plants were evaluated for their antimicrobial activities against some human pathogenic bacteria viz. E. coli, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus and fungus C. albicans. In-vitro inhibition of these pathogenic microorganisms produced inhibition zone ranging from 9 to 18 mm. MIC values of these plant extracts ranged from 6.25 to 12.5 mg/ml. MBC of C. sinensis for E. coli, P. aeruginosa and S. aureus was found to be 50 and 12.5 mg/ml, respectively. In case of T. arjuna, the MBC of all the tested microorganisms was found to be 25 mg/ml. The MFC of C. sinensis and T. arjuna against C. albicans was observed to be 50 and 25 mg/ml, respectively. GC–MS analysis of C. sinensis and T. arjuna extract identified 13 and 21 compounds, respectively.

  20. Antiglycation and antioxidation properties of berberis lyceum and terminalia chebula: possible role in curing diabetes and slowing aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, I.; Ahmad, H.; Ahmad, B.; Azam, S.

    2014-01-01

    Plants have been shown to possess a great potential to benefit mankind. Extracts from plants that have antiglycation and antioxidation abilities can be of great therapeutic value in reducing complication of diabetes and slowing down aging. Advanced glycation end-products (AGE's) formation due to non-enzymatic glycation and oxidative stress has been demonstrated in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications and aging processes. In this study we investigated the antiglycation and antioxidation potential of methanolic extracts of Berberis lyceum and Terminalia chebula. Results indicated that the methanolic extract of B. lyceum had more antiglycation ability with a Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC50) of 123 meu g/mL as compared to the MIC50 of 110 meu g/ml of T. chebula. While the results of antioxidation assay showed that T. chebula has more antioxidation potential than B. lyceum. T. chebula had 46.55, 35.01 and 32.81% antioxidation potential at 0.5 mg, 0.25 mg and 0.125 mg respectively as compared to the 16.53, 16.09 and 15.10 % oxidation inhibition at same mass values by B. lycium. (author)

  1. Effect of Extracts of Terminalia chebula on Proliferation of Keratinocytes and Fibroblasts Cells: An Alternative Approach for Wound Healing

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    Dolly Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Terminalia chebula is one of the traditional medicines used in the treatment of many diseases. In the present work, different concentrations of various organic and aqueous extracts (solvent-free of T. chebula were tested on fibroblast (L929 and keratinocytes cells to evaluate its biocompatible concentration by using MTT and live-dead viability/cytotoxic assay. These extracts were found to be effective in decreasing the ammonia accumulation in the media, thereby reducing its toxic effect on cells. DPPH assay further confirmed the free-radical scavenging ability of the extracts which increased with the increase in concentration of each extract. Cell proliferation/apoptosis, cytoskeletal structure, and ECM production were further evaluated by live-dead assay and phalloidin/cytokeratin staining, respectively. The cytoskeletal structure and ECM secretion of the cells treated with extracts showed higher cellular activity in comparison to control. In conclusion, we have demonstrated the effect of these extracts of T. chebula on both types of skin cells and optimized concentration in which it could be used as a bioactive component for wound healing applications by increasing cell proliferation and decreasing free-radical production without affecting the normal cellular matrix. It can also find applications in other therapeutics applications where ammonia toxicity is a limiting factor.

  2. The snakes of the genus Atractus Wagler (Reptilia: Squamata: Colubridae) from the Manaus region, central Amazonia, Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martins, M.; Oliveira, M.E.

    1993-01-01

    Taxonomic and natural history data are presented on eight species of Atractus from the Manaus region, central Amazonia, Brazil, namely: A. alphonsehogei, A. latifrons, A, major, A. poeppigi, A. schach, A. snethlageae, A. torquatus, and A. trilineatus. Four of these species are recorded for the first

  3. Occurrence of filamentous fungi in Simulium goeldii Cerqueira & Nunes de Mello (diptera: simuliidae) larvae in central Amazonia, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Quézia Ribeiro; de Moura Sarquis, Maria Inez; Hamada, Neusa; Alencar, Yamile Benaion

    2008-01-01

    The family Simuliidae is the host of simbiontes fungi that inhabit the digestive tracts of arthropods. This paper reports the presence of fungi in Simulium goeldii Cerqueira & Nunes de Mello larvae in Amazonia. We observed that the larvae are a good component of aquatic systems to isolate filamentous fungi. PMID:24031217

  4. New species and new records of Manota Williston from Colombia, Brazilian Amazonia, and Costa Rica (Diptera, Mycetophilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurina, Olavi; Hippa, Heikki; Amorim, Dalton de Souza

    2017-01-01

    The following five species are described as new: Manota clava sp. n. (Colombia), Manota multilobata sp. n. (Colombia), Manota perplexa sp. n. (Costa Rica), Manota setilobata sp. n. (Colombia) and Manota subaristata sp. n. (Colombia). In addition, new records for the following 11 species are presented: Manota acuminata Jaschhof & Hippa, 2005 (Costa Rica), Manota arenalensis Jaschhof & Hippa, 2005 (Costa Rica), Manota corcovado Jaschhof & Hippa, 2005 (Costa Rica), Manota costaricensis Jaschhof & Hippa, 2005 (Costa Rica), Manota diversiseta Jaschhof & Hippa, 2005 (Colombia, Brazilian Amazonia, Costa Rica), Manota minutula Hippa, Kurina & Sääksjärvi, 2017 (Brazilian Amazonia), Manota multisetosa Jaschhof & Hippa, 2005 (Costa Rica), Manota parva Jaschhof & Hippa, 2005 (Colombia, Costa Rica), Manota pisinna Hippa & Kurina, 2013 (Brazilian Amazonia), Manota spinosa Jaschhof & Hippa, 2005 (Colombia) and Manota squamulata Jaschhof & Hippa, 2005 (Costa Rica). Distribution patterns include (1) species known only locally in Costa Rica or Colombia, (2) distributions connecting Central America to west Andes lowlands, and (3) north-west Neotropical components, extending from Central America to Brazilian Amazonia. The possible biogeographical and taxonomical context of Manota species with a widespread distribution is considered.

  5. Remote sensing of selective logging in Amazonia Assessing limitations based on detailed field observations, Landsat ETM+, and textural analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory P. Asner; Michael Keller; Rodrigo Pereira; Johan C. Zweede

    2002-01-01

    We combined a detailed field study of forest canopy damage with calibrated Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) reflectance data and texture analysis to assess the sensitivity of basic broadband optical remote sensing to selective logging in Amazonia. Our field study encompassed measurements of ground damage and canopy gap fractions along a chronosequence of...

  6. Miocene long-lived lake Pebas as a stage of mollusc radiations, with implications for landscape evolution in western Amazonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesselingh, F.P.

    2006-01-01

    The Miocene Pebas system was a huge (> 1 million km2) system of long-lived lakes and wetlands that occupied most of western Amazonia between c. 23 and 8 Ma. Remarkable endemic radiations of molluscs and ostracods occurred in the Pebas system. The continuity of many of the endemic lineages between c.

  7. Oil palm expansion drives avifaunal decline in the Pucallpa region of Peruvian Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Srinivas

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Oil palm is one of the world’s most rapidly expanding crops, replacing humid forests across tropical regions. Studies examining the effect of this land conversion on biodiversity have tended to focus predominantly on Southeast Asia, where the majority of the world’s oil palm is produced. Because the Amazon possesses the greatest area of suitable land for oil palm expansion, oil palm is considered an emerging threat to Amazonian biodiversity. This is the first study to examine how oil palm agriculture affects avian diversity within the context of Western Amazonia. We used mist nets to conduct avifaunal surveys of forest and oil palm habitat in the Pucallpa region of Peruvian Amazonia. Bird species richness, species evenness, and overall abundance were all significantly higher in the forest than in oil palm habitat. Strikingly, less than 5% of all captured species were common to both forest and oil palm habitat. The species absent from the oil palm plantations were disproportionately habitat specialists, forest interior birds, birds with high sensitivity to disturbance, and insectivores and frugivores. The results suggest that oil palm is particularly poor habitat for Amazonian birds, and that the species that are persist on them are of lower conservation value. Given the apparent lack of diversity on oil palm plantations, preventing further conversion of forests to oil palm should be prioritized.

  8. Outstanding insecurities concerning the use of an Ov16-based ELISA in the Amazonia onchocerciasis focus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Luiz Bessa Luz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In a recent issue of Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, published in Rio de Janeiro in February 2014 (109: 87-92, Adami et al. have published a survey reporting Mansonella parasite prevalence in the Amazon Region. This report makes a useful contribution to the existing knowledge of filarial parasite distribution within the Amazon area, parasite prevalence rates in relation to age and occupation and provides observations on the possible clinical impact of Mansonella ozzardi. Their publication also provides an account of what appears to be a novel ELISA that has recently been used in the Simuliidae and Onchocerciasis Laboratory of the Oswaldo Cruz Institute, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. We are concerned that the publication of this ELISA may have created an excessively positive impression of the effectiveness of the onchocerciasis recrudescence serological surveillance tools that are presently available for use in the Amazonia onchocerciasis focus. In this letter we have, thus, sought to highlight some of the limitations of this ELISA and suggest how continuing insecurities concerning the detection of antibodies to Onchocerca volvulus within the Amazonia onchocerciasis focus might be minimised.

  9. Arsenic, manganese and aluminum contamination in groundwater resources of Western Amazonia (Peru).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Meyer, Caroline M C; Rodríguez, Juan M; Carpio, Edward A; García, Pilar A; Stengel, Caroline; Berg, Michael

    2017-12-31

    This paper presents a first integrated survey on the occurrence and distribution of geogenic contaminants in groundwater resources of Western Amazonia in Peru. An increasing number of groundwater wells have been constructed for drinking water purposes in the last decades; however, the chemical quality of the groundwater resources in the Amazon region is poorly studied. We collected groundwater from the regions of Iquitos and Pucallpa to analyze the hydrochemical characteristics, including trace elements. The source aquifer of each well was determined by interpretation of the available geological information, which identified four different aquifer types with distinct hydrochemical properties. The majority of the wells in two of the aquifer types tap groundwater enriched in aluminum, arsenic, or manganese at levels harmful to human health. Holocene alluvial aquifers along the main Amazon tributaries with anoxic, near pH-neutral groundwater contained high concentrations of arsenic (up to 700μg/L) and manganese (up to 4mg/L). Around Iquitos, the acidic groundwater (4.2≤pH≤5.5) from unconfined aquifers composed of pure sand had dissolved aluminum concentrations of up to 3.3mg/L. Groundwater from older or deeper aquifers generally was of good chemical quality. The high concentrations of toxic elements highlight the urgent need to assess the groundwater quality throughout Western Amazonia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluating the effect of nutrient redistribution by animals on the phosphorus cycle of lowland Amazonia

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    C. Buendía

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus (P availability decreases with soil age and potentially limits the productivity of ecosystems growing on old and weathered soils. Despite growing on ancient soils, ecosystems of lowland Amazonia are highly productive and are among the most biodiverse on Earth. P eroded and weathered in the Andes is transported by the rivers and deposited in floodplains of the lowland Amazon basin creating hotspots of P fertility. We hypothesize that animals feeding on vegetation and detritus in these hotspots may redistribute P to P-depleted areas, thus contributing to dissipate the P gradient across the landscape. Using a mathematical model, we show that animal-driven spatial redistribution of P from rivers to land and from seasonally flooded to terra firme (upland ecosystems may sustain the P cycle of Amazonian lowlands. Our results show how P imported to land by terrestrial piscivores in combination with spatial redistribution of herbivores and detritivores can significantly enhance the P content in terra firme ecosystems, thereby highlighting the importance of food webs for the biogeochemical cycling of Amazonia.

  11. Use of MODIS Sensor Images Combined with Reanalysis Products to Retrieve Net Radiation in Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Gabriel; Brunsell, Nathaniel A; Moraes, Elisabete C; Bertani, Gabriel; Dos Santos, Thiago V; Shimabukuro, Yosio E; Aragão, Luiz E O C

    2016-06-24

    In the Amazon region, the estimation of radiation fluxes through remote sensing techniques is hindered by the lack of ground measurements required as input in the models, as well as the difficulty to obtain cloud-free images. Here, we assess an approach to estimate net radiation (Rn) and its components under all-sky conditions for the Amazon region through the Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land (SEBAL) model utilizing only remote sensing and reanalysis data. The study period comprised six years, between January 2001-December 2006, and images from MODIS sensor aboard the Terra satellite and GLDAS reanalysis products were utilized. The estimates were evaluated with flux tower measurements within the Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA) project. Comparison between estimates obtained by the proposed method and observations from LBA towers showed errors between 12.5% and 16.4% and 11.3% and 15.9% for instantaneous and daily Rn, respectively. Our approach was adequate to minimize the problem related to strong cloudiness over the region and allowed to map consistently the spatial distribution of net radiation components in Amazonia. We conclude that the integration of reanalysis products and satellite data, eliminating the need for surface measurements as input model, was a useful proposition for the spatialization of the radiation fluxes in the Amazon region, which may serve as input information needed by algorithms that aim to determine evapotranspiration, the most important component of the Amazon hydrological balance.

  12. Large-scale expansion of agriculture in Amazonia may be a no-win scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Leydimere J C; Costa, Marcos H; Soares-Filho, Britaldo S; Coe, Michael T

    2013-01-01

    Using simplified climate and land-use models, we evaluated primary forests’ carbon storage and soybean and pasture productivity in the Brazilian Legal Amazon under several scenarios of deforestation and increased CO 2 . The four scenarios for the year 2050 that we analyzed consider (1) radiative effects of increased CO 2 , (2) radiative and physiological effects of increased CO 2 , (3) effects of land-use changes on the regional climate and (4) radiative and physiological effects of increased CO 2 plus land-use climate feedbacks. Under current conditions, means for aboveground forest live biomass (AGB), soybean yield and pasture yield are 179 Mg-C ha −1 , 2.7 Mg-grains ha −1 and 16.2 Mg-dry mass ha −1 yr −1 , respectively. Our results indicate that expansion of agriculture in Amazonia may be a no-win scenario: in addition to reductions in carbon storage due to deforestation, total agriculture output may either increase much less than proportionally to the potential expansion in agricultural area, or even decrease, as a consequence of climate feedbacks from changes in land use. These climate feedbacks, usually ignored in previous studies, impose a reduction in precipitation that would lead agriculture expansion in Amazonia to become self-defeating: the more agriculture expands, the less productive it becomes. (letter)

  13. Avian malaria, ecological host traits and mosquito abundance in southeastern Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fecchio, Alan; Ellis, Vincenzo A; Bell, Jeffrey A; Andretti, Christian B; D'Horta, Fernando M; Silva, Allan M; Tkach, Vasyl V; Weckstein, Jason D

    2017-07-01

    Avian malaria is a vector transmitted disease caused by Plasmodium and recent studies suggest that variation in its prevalence across avian hosts is correlated with a variety of ecological traits. Here we examine the relationship between prevalence and diversity of Plasmodium lineages in southeastern Amazonia and: (1) host ecological traits (nest location, nest type, flocking behaviour and diet); (2) density and diversity of avian hosts; (3) abundance and diversity of mosquitoes; and (4) season. We used molecular methods to detect Plasmodium in blood samples from 675 individual birds of 120 species. Based on cytochrome b sequences, we recovered 89 lineages of Plasmodium from 136 infected individuals sampled across seven localities. Plasmodium prevalence was homogeneous over time (dry season and flooding season) and space, but heterogeneous among 51 avian host species. Variation in prevalence among bird species was not explained by avian ecological traits, density of avian hosts, or mosquito abundance. However, Plasmodium lineage diversity was positively correlated with mosquito abundance. Interestingly, our results suggest that avian host traits are less important determinants of Plasmodium prevalence and diversity in southeastern Amazonia than in other regions in which they have been investigated.

  14. The effects of biomass burning aerosols and clouds on the CO2 flux in Amazonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Paulo H.F.; Artaxo, Paulo; Pires, Carlos; Lucca, Silvia De; Procopio, Aline; Holben, Brent; Schafer, Joel; Cardoso, Luiz F.; Wofsy, Steven C.; Rocha, Humberto R.

    2007-01-01

    Aerosol particles associated with biomass burning emissions affect the surface radiative budget and net ecosystem exchange (NEE) over large areas in Amazonia during the dry season. We analysed CO 2 fluxes as a function of aerosol loading for two forest sites in Amazonia as part of the LBA experiment. Aerosol optical thickness (AOT) measurements were made with AERONET sun photometers, and CO 2 flux measurements were determined by eddy-correlation. The enhancement of the NEE varied with different aerosol loading, as well as cloud cover, solar elevation angles and other parameters. The AOT value with the strongest effect on the NEE in the FLONA-TapajOs site was 1.7, with an enhancement of the NEE of 11% compared with clear-sky conditions. In the RBJ site, the strongest effect was for AOT of 1.6 with an enhancement of 18% in the NEE. For values of AOT lager than 2.7, strong reduction on the NEE was observed due to the reduction in the total solar radiation. The enhancement in the NEE is attributed to the increase of diffuse versus direct solar radiation. Due to the fact that aerosols from biomass burning are present in most tropical areas, its effects on the global carbon budget could also be significant

  15. Land-use in Amazonia and the Cerrado of Brazil: State of Knowledge and GIS Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepstad, Daniel C.

    1997-01-01

    We have assembled datasets to strengthen the LargeScale Biosphere Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA). These datasets can now be accessed through the Woods Hole Research Center homepage (www.whrc.org), and will soon be linked to the Pre-LBA homepages of the Brazilian Space Research Institute's Center for Weather and Climate Prediction (Instituto de Pesquisas Espaciais, Centro de Previsao de Tempo e Estudos Climaticos, INPE/CPTEC) and through the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Distributed Active Archive Center (ORNL/DMC). Some of the datasets that we are making available involved new field research and/or the digitization of data available in Brazilian government agencies. For example, during the grant period we conducted interviews at 1,100 sawmills across Amazonia to determine their production of sawn timber, and their harvest intensities. These data provide the basis for the first quantitative assessment of the area of forest affected each year by selective logging (Nepstad et al, submitted to Nature). We digitized the locations of all of the rural households in the State of Para that have been mapped by the Brazilian malaria combat agency (SUCAM). We also mapped and digitized areas of deforestation in the state of Tocantins, which is comprised largely of savanna (cerrado), an ecosystem that has been routinely excluded from deforestation mapping exercises.

  16. A palaeobiogeographic model for biotic diversification within Amazonia over the past three million years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribas, Camila C.; Aleixo, Alexandre; Nogueira, Afonso C. R.; Miyaki, Cristina Y.; Cracraft, Joel

    2012-01-01

    Many hypotheses have been proposed to explain high species diversity in Amazonia, but few generalizations have emerged. In part, this has arisen from the scarcity of rigorous tests for mechanisms promoting speciation, and from major uncertainties about palaeogeographic events and their spatial and temporal associations with diversification. Here, we investigate the environmental history of Amazonia using a phylogenetic and biogeographic analysis of trumpeters (Aves: Psophia), which are represented by species in each of the vertebrate areas of endemism. Their relationships reveal an unforeseen ‘complete’ time-slice of Amazonian diversification over the past 3.0 Myr. We employ this temporally calibrated phylogeny to test competing palaeogeographic hypotheses. Our results are consistent with the establishment of the current Amazonian drainage system at approximately 3.0–2.0 Ma and predict the temporal pattern of major river formation over Plio-Pleistocene times. We propose a palaeobiogeographic model for the last 3.0 Myr of Amazonian history that has implications for understanding patterns of endemism, the temporal history of Amazonian diversification and mechanisms promoting speciation. The history of Psophia, in combination with new geological evidence, provides the strongest direct evidence supporting a role for river dynamics in Amazonian diversification, and the absence of such a role for glacial climate cycles and refugia. PMID:21795268

  17. Outstanding insecurities concerning the use of an Ov16-based ELISA in the Amazonia onchocerciasis focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Sérgio Luiz Bessa; Crainey, James Lee; Shelley, Anthony John; Rubio, Miguel

    2014-07-01

    In a recent issue of Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, published in Rio de Janeiro in February 2014 (109: 87-92), Adami et al. have published a survey reporting Mansonella parasite prevalence in the Amazon Region. This report makes a useful contribution to the existing knowledge of filarial parasite distribution within the Amazon area, parasite prevalence rates in relation to age and occupation and provides observations on the possible clinical impact of Mansonella ozzardi. Their publication also provides an account of what appears to be a novel ELISA that has recently been used in the Simuliidae and Onchocerciasis Laboratory of the Oswaldo Cruz Institute, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. We are concerned that the publication of this ELISA may have created an excessively positive impression of the effectiveness of the onchocerciasis recrudescence serological surveillance tools that are presently available for use in the Amazonia onchocerciasis focus. In this letter we have, thus, sought to highlight some of the limitations of this ELISA and suggest how continuing insecurities concerning the detection of antibodies to Onchocerca volvulus within the Amazonia onchocerciasis focus might be minimised.

  18. Pre-Columbian floristic legacies in modern homegardens of Central Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lins, Juliana; Lima, Helena P; Baccaro, Fabricio B; Kinupp, Valdely F; Shepard, Glenn H; Clement, Charles R

    2015-01-01

    Historical ecologists have demonstrated legacy effects in apparently wild landscapes in Europe, North America, Mesoamerica, Amazonia, Africa and Oceania. People live and farm in archaeological sites today in many parts of the world, but nobody has looked for the legacies of past human occupations in the most dynamic areas in these sites: homegardens. Here we show that the useful flora of modern homegardens is partially a legacy of pre-Columbian occupations in Central Amazonia: the more complex the archaeological context, the more variable the floristic composition of useful native plants in homegardens cultivated there today. Species diversity was 10% higher in homegardens situated in multi-occupational archaeological contexts compared with homegardens situated in single-occupational ones. Species heterogeneity (β-diversity) among archaeological contexts was similar for the whole set of species, but markedly different when only native Amazonian species were included, suggesting the influence of pre-conquest indigenous occupations on current homegarden species composition. Our findings show that the legacy of pre-Columbian occupations is visible in the most dynamic of all agroecosystems, adding another dimension to the human footprint in the Amazonian landscape.

  19. Economically important species dominate aboveground carbon storage in forests of southwestern Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Galia Selaya

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Tree species in tropical forests provide economically important goods and ecosystem services. In submontane forests of southwestern Amazonia, we investigated the degree to which tree species important for subsistence and trade contribute to aboveground carbon storage (AGC. We used 41 1-hectare plots to determine the species abundance, basal area, and AGC of stems > 10 cm diameter at breast height (dbh. Economically important taxa were classified using ethnobotanical studies and according to their stem density. These taxa (n = 263 accounted for 45% of total stems, 53% of total basal area, and 56% of total AGC, significantly more than taxa with minor or unknown uses (Welch test at p 40 cm and few stems in regeneration classes of dbh < 10 to 20 cm (e.g., Bertholletia excelsa, Cariniana spp., Cedrelinga spp., Ceiba spp., Dipteryx spp., whereas dominant Tetragastris spp., and Pseudolmedia spp. had most stems in low diameter classes and a median diameter of < 30 cm. Bertholletia excelsa, with 1.5 stems per hectare, showed the highest basal area of any species and accounted for 9% of AGC (11 Mg/ha, twice that of the second-ranking species. Our study shows that economic importance and carbon stocks in trees are closely linked in southwestern Amazonia. Unplanned harvests can disrupt synergistic dual roles altering carbon stocks temporally or permanently. Precautionary measures based on species ecology, demography, and regeneration traits should be at the forefront of REDD+ to reconcile maximum harvesting limits, biodiversity conservation, and sustainable forest management.

  20. Outstanding insecurities concerning the use of an Ov16-based ELISA in the Amazonia onchocerciasis focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Sérgio Luiz Bessa; Crainey, James Lee; Shelley, Anthony John; Rubio, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    In a recent issue of Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, published in Rio de Janeiro in February 2014 (109: 87-92), Adami et al. have published a survey reporting Mansonella parasite prevalence in the Amazon Region. This report makes a useful contribution to the existing knowledge of filarial parasite distribution within the Amazon area, parasite prevalence rates in relation to age and occupation and provides observations on the possible clinical impact of Mansonella ozzardi. Their publication also provides an account of what appears to be a novel ELISA that has recently been used in the Simuliidae and Onchocerciasis Laboratory of the Oswaldo Cruz Institute, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. We are concerned that the publication of this ELISA may have created an excessively positive impression of the effectiveness of the onchocerciasis recrudescence serological surveillance tools that are presently available for use in the Amazonia onchocerciasis focus. In this letter we have, thus, sought to highlight some of the limitations of this ELISA and suggest how continuing insecurities concerning the detection of antibodies to Onchocerca volvulus within the Amazonia onchocerciasis focus might be minimised. PMID:25075790

  1. Understorey fire frequency and the fate of burned forests in southern Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, D C; Le Page, Y; DeFries, R; Collatz, G J; Hurtt, G C

    2013-06-05

    Recent drought events underscore the vulnerability of Amazon forests to understorey fires. The long-term impact of fires on biodiversity and forest carbon stocks depends on the frequency of fire damages and deforestation rates of burned forests. Here, we characterized the spatial and temporal dynamics of understorey fires (1999-2010) and deforestation (2001-2010) in southern Amazonia using new satellite-based estimates of annual fire activity (greater than 50 ha) and deforestation (greater than 10 ha). Understorey forest fires burned more than 85 500 km(2) between 1999 and 2010 (2.8% of all forests). Forests that burned more than once accounted for 16 per cent of all understorey fires. Repeated fire activity was concentrated in Mato Grosso and eastern Pará, whereas single fires were widespread across the arc of deforestation. Routine fire activity in Mato Grosso coincided with annual periods of low night-time relative humidity, suggesting a strong climate control on both single and repeated fires. Understorey fires occurred in regions with active deforestation, yet the interannual variability of fire and deforestation were uncorrelated, and only 2.6 per cent of forests that burned between 1999 and 2008 were deforested for agricultural use by 2010. Evidence from the past decade suggests that future projections of frontier landscapes in Amazonia should separately consider economic drivers to project future deforestation and climate to project fire risk.

  2. Evaluating the effect of nutrient redistribution by animals on the phosphorus cycle of lowland Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buendía, Corina; Kleidon, Axel; Manzoni, Stefano; Reu, Björn; Porporato, Amilcare

    2018-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) availability decreases with soil age and potentially limits the productivity of ecosystems growing on old and weathered soils. Despite growing on ancient soils, ecosystems of lowland Amazonia are highly productive and are among the most biodiverse on Earth. P eroded and weathered in the Andes is transported by the rivers and deposited in floodplains of the lowland Amazon basin creating hotspots of P fertility. We hypothesize that animals feeding on vegetation and detritus in these hotspots may redistribute P to P-depleted areas, thus contributing to dissipate the P gradient across the landscape. Using a mathematical model, we show that animal-driven spatial redistribution of P from rivers to land and from seasonally flooded to terra firme (upland) ecosystems may sustain the P cycle of Amazonian lowlands. Our results show how P imported to land by terrestrial piscivores in combination with spatial redistribution of herbivores and detritivores can significantly enhance the P content in terra firme ecosystems, thereby highlighting the importance of food webs for the biogeochemical cycling of Amazonia.

  3. Geostationary satellite estimation of biomass burning in Amazonia during BASE-A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menzel, W.P.; Cutrim, E.C.; Prins, E.M.

    1991-01-01

    This chapter presents the results of using Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) Visible Infrared Spin Scan Radiometer Atmospheric Sounder (VAS) infrared window (3.9 and 11.2 microns) data to monitor biomass burning several times per day in Amazonia. The technique of Matson and Dozier using two window channels was adapted to GOES VAS infrared data to estimate the size and temperature of fires associated with deforestation in the vicinity of Alta Floresta, Brazil, during the Biomass Burning Airborne and Spaceborne Experiment - Amazonia (BASE-A). Although VAS data do not offer the spatial resolution available with AVHRR data 97 km versus 1 km, respectively, this decreased resolution does not seem to hinder the ability of the VAS instrument to detect fires; in some cases it proves to be advantageous in that saturation does not occur as often. VAS visible data are additionally helpful in verifying that the hot spots sensed in the infrared are actually related to fires. Furthermore, the fire plumes can be tracked in time to determine their motion and extent. In this way, the GOES satellite offers a unique ability to monitor diurnal variations in fire activity and transport of related aerosols

  4. Aerosol and precipitation chemistry in a remote site in Central Amazonia: the role of biogenic contribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauliquevis, T.; Lara, L. L.; Antunes, M. L.; Artaxo, P.

    2007-08-01

    A long-term (2-3 years) measurement of aerosol and precipitation chemistry was carried out in a remote site in Central Amazonia, Balbina, (1°55' S, 59°29' W, 174 m above sea level), about 200 km north of Manaus city. Aerosols were sampled using stacked filter units (SFU), which separate fine (dsmoke from biomass burning was the second most important contribution, reaching 77% of fine mode particulate mass during the dry season. Soil dust was responsible by a minor fraction of the aerosol mass (less than 17%). Rainwater chemistry was controlled by biogenic emissions. The volume-weighted mean (VWM) pH was 4.90. The most important contribution to acidity was weak organic acids. The organic acidity was predominantly associated with the presence of acetic acid, instead of formic acid which is more often observed in pristine tropical areas. Deposition rates for major species did not differ significantly between dry and wet season, except for NH4+ and acetate, which had smaller deposition rates during dry season. While biomass burning emissions were clearly identified in the aerosol component, it was not possible to discern any presence of biomass burning emissions in rainwater chemistry. The long-range transport of sea salt and biogenic particles was observed both in aerosols and rainwater composition. The results showed here indicate that in Amazonia it is still possible to observe pristine atmospheric conditions, relatively free of anthropogenic influences.

  5. Sources of water vapor to economically relevant regions in Amazonia and the effect of deforestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, G. F.; Fontes, V. C.

    2017-12-01

    The Amazon rain forest helps regulate the regional humid climate. Understanding the effects of Amazon deforestation is important to preserve not only the climate, but also economic activities that depend on it, in particular, agricultural productivity and hydropower generation. This study calculates the source of water vapor contributing to the precipitation on economically relevant regions in Amazonia according to different scenarios of deforestation. These regions include the state of Mato Grosso, which produces about 9% of the global soybean production, and the basins of the Xingu and Madeira, with infrastructure under construction that will be capable to generate 20% of the electrical energy produced in Brazil. The results show that changes in rainfall after deforestation are stronger in regions nearest to the ocean and indicate the importance of the continental water vapor source to the precipitation over southern Amazonia. In the two more continental regions (Madeira and Mato Grosso), decreases in the source of water vapor in one region were offset by increases in contributions from other continental regions, whereas in the Xingu basin, which is closer to the ocean, this mechanism did not occur. As a conclusion, the geographic location of the region is an important determinant of the resiliency of the regional climate to deforestation-induced regional climate change. The more continental the geographic location, the less climate changes after deforestation.

  6. Methanolic Extract of Leathery Murdah, Terminalia coriacea (Roxb.) Wight and Arn. Leaves Exhibits Anti-inflammatory Activity in Acute and Chronic Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safwan Ali Khan, Mohammed; Khatoon, Nishath; Al-Sanea, Mohammad; Gamal, Mohamed; Rahman, Hidayat Ur

    2018-03-07

    The aim of present study was to evaluate anti-inflammatory activity of methanolic extract of Terminalia coriacea. A methanolic extract of Terminalia coriacea leaves was subjected to carrageenan-induced paw edema, an acute model, and cotton pellet-induced granuloma, a chronic model, at three oral test doses (125, 250 and 500 mg/kg) in albino Wistar rats. Aspirin 100 mg/kg was used as a positive control. Paw volume and wet and dry weights of cotton pellet were determined. The data was analyzed by one-way ANOVA followed by Dunnett's multiple comparison test. The test extract at doses of 125 and 250 mg/kg decreased paw volume, wet and dry weights of cotton pellets. The highest test dose (500 mg/kg) displayed comparable response to that of the standard drug (p < 0.01) on paw volume. The extract produced similar (p < 0.05) decrease in wet weight of the cotton pellet at 125 and 250 mg/kg whereas 500 mg/kg of the extract and aspirin 100 mg/kg produced comparable effect (p < 0.01). The extract of T. coriacea at 500 mg/kg produced most significant (p < 0.01) effect on wet weight of granulomatous tissue. The methanolic extract of Terminalia coriacea leaves successfully decreased paw edema as well as dry and wet weights of granulomatous tissue in both acute and chronic inflammatory models thus confirming the anti-edematogenic, anti-transudative and anti-proliferative properties of T. coriacea. ©2018The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. The movement of pre-adapted cool taxa in north-central Amazonia during the last glacial

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Apolito, Carlos; Absy, Maria Lúcia; Latrubesse, Edgardo M.

    2017-08-01

    The effects of climate change on the lowland vegetation of Amazonia during the last glacial cycle are partially known for the middle and late Pleniglacial intervals (late MIS 3, 59-24 ka and MIS 2, 24-11 ka), but are still unclear for older stages of the last glacial and during the last interglacial. It is known that a more seasonal dry-wet climate caused marginal forest retraction and together with cooling rearranged forest composition to some extent. This is observed in pollen records across Amazonia depicting presence of taxa at glacial times in localities where they do not live presently. The understanding of taxa migration is hindered by the lack of continuous interglacial-glacial lowland records. We present new data from a known locality in NW Amazonia (Six Lakes Hill), showing a vegetation record that probably started during MIS 5 (130-71 ka) and lasted until the onset of the Holocene. The vegetation record unravels a novel pattern in tree taxa migration: (1) from the beginning of this cycle Podocarpus and Myrsine are recorded and (2) only later do Hedyosmum and Alnus appear. The latter group is largely restricted to montane biomes or more distant locations outside Amazonia, whereas the first is found in lowlands close to the study site on sandy soils. These findings imply that Podocarpus and Myrsine responded to environmental changes equally and this reflects their concomitant niche use in NW Amazonia. Temperature drop is not discarded as a trigger of internal forest composition change, but its effects are clearer later in the Pleniglacial rather than the Early Glacial. Therefore early climatic/environmental changes had a first order effect on vegetation that invoke alternative explanations. We claim last glacial climate-induced modifications on forest composition favoured the expansion of geomorphologic-soil related processes that initiated forest rearrangement.

  8. Folk medicine Terminalia catappa and its major tannin component, punicalagin, are effective against bleomycin-induced genotoxicity in Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, P S; Li, J H; Liu, T Y; Lin, T C

    2000-05-01

    Terminalia catappa L. is a popular folk medicine for preventing hepatoma and treating hepatitis in Taiwan. In this paper, we examined the protective effects of T. catappa leaf water extract (TCE) and its major tannin component, punicalagin, on bleomycin-induced genotoxicity in cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells. Pre-treatment with TCE or punicalagin prevented bleomycin-induced hgprt gene mutations and DNA strand breaks. TCE and punicalagin suppressed the generation of bleomycin-induced intracellular free radicals, identified as superoxides and hydrogen peroxides. The effectiveness of TCE and punicalagin against bleomycin-induced genotoxicity could be, at least in part, due to their antioxidative potentials.

  9. Effect of roasting conditions on color development and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR-ATR) analysis of Malaysian-grown tropical almond nuts (Terminalia catappa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Siewsee; Lasekan, Ola; Muhammad, Kharidah; Sulaiman, Rabiha; Hussain, Norhayati

    2014-01-01

    Proper roasting is crucial to flavor, color, and texture development in the final product. In recent years, several research studies have been carried out to establish the best optimum roasting conditions for some common edible nuts such as; hazelnut, peanut, and pistachio nut. Although roasting is an important process for nuts and oilseeds, there is little or no information on the development of color, aroma, and textural changes in Terminalia catappa nuts during roasting. Results showed that color formation and browning index were significantly (P catappa).

  10. Vanillic acid 4-O-beta-D-(6'-O-galloyl) glucopyranoside and other constituents from the bark of Terminalia macroptera Guill.et Perr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, J; Vogler, B; Klaiber, I; Reeb, S; Guse, J H; Roos, G; Kraus, W

    2001-01-01

    A new phenolic glucoside gallate, vanillic acid 4-O-beta-D-(6'-O-galloyl) glucopyranoside (1) was isolated from the bark of Terminalia macroptera Guill.et Perr., together with 3,3',4'-tri-O-methylellagic acid (2) and two triterpene glucopyranosyl esters, 24-deoxysericoside (3) and chebuloside II (4). Compounds 2-4, not described previously for this plant, showed antimicrobial activities against Bacillus subtilis, while 3 and 4 possessed haemolytic properties. In both assays 1 was found to be inactive.

  11. Atividade microbiana de solo e serapilheira em áreas povoadas com Pinus elliottii e Terminalia ivorensis Microbial activity of soil and litter in areas with forest stands of Pinus elliottii e Terminalia ivorensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Mundstock Xavier de Carvalho

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil, as espécies Pinus elliottii e Terminalia ivorensis vêm sendo indicadas para reflorestamento. No entanto, pouco se sabe sobre as características ecológicas destas florestas, o ciclo de nutrientes e suas conseqüências sobre a produtividade e sustentabilidade sob condições tropicais. Visando melhor compreender a dinâmica do C nestes ecossistemas, objetivou-se neste trabalho avaliar a atividade microbiana do solo, serapilheira e da mistura solo + serapilheira em povoamentos florestais de P. elliottii e T. ivorensis. Amostras de solos e serapilheira foram incubadas e a atividade microbiana avaliada por meio da evolução de CO2. Ao final da incubação, a respiração acumulada foi superior para a serapilheira de T. ivorensis. Os demais substratos com serapilheira não diferiram entre si, mas diferiram do solo sob T. ivorensis, que, por sua vez, diferiu do solo sob P. elliottii. Nas condições testadas, a incorporação de solo à serapilheira, bem como a incorporação alternada de solo de um povoamento à serapilheira de outro, não promoveu aumentos significativos na respiração da serapilheira, mostrando que as características químicas da própria serapilheira alteram mais fortemente sua velocidade de degradação que as características químicas e microbianas do solo onde é incorporada.In Brazil, the species Pinus elliottii and Terminalia ivorensis are being recommended for reforestation. However, little is known about the ecological characteristics of such forests, the nutrient cycle and possible consequences on yields and sustainability under tropical conditions. For a better understanding of the C dynamic in these ecosystems, this study aimed to evaluate the microbial activity of soil, litter, and the mixture of soil + litter in forest stands of P. elliottii and T. ivorensis. Samples of soil, litter and mixture were incubated and the microbial activity was evaluated on the basis of CO2 released. At the end of

  12. Intracellular and membrane-damaging activities of methyl gallate isolated from Terminalia chebula against multidrug-resistant Shigella spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharyya, Saurabh; Sarkar, Prodipta; Saha, Dhira R; Patra, Amarendra; Ramamurthy, T; Bag, Prasanta K

    2015-08-01

    Shigella spp. (Shigella dysenteriae, Shigella flexneri, Shigella boydii and Shigella sonnei) cause bacillary dysentery (shigellosis), which is characterized by bloody mucous diarrhoea. Although a variety of antibiotics have been effective for treatment of shigellosis, options are becoming limited due to globally emerging drug resistance. In the present study, in vitro antibacterial activity of methyl gallate (MG) isolated from Terminalia chebula was determined by performing MIC, minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) and time-kill kinetic studies. Bacterial membrane-damaging activity of MG was determined by membrane perturbation and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Cellular drug accumulation, cell infection and assessment of intracellular activities of MG and reference antibiotics were performed using HeLa cell cultures. The bactericidal activity of MG against multidrug-resistant (MDR) Shigella spp. in comparison with other commonly used drugs including fluoroquinolone was demonstrated here. TEM findings in the present study revealed that MG caused the total disintegration of inner and outer membranes, and leakage of the cytoplasmic contents of S. dysenteriae. The level of accumulation of MG and tetracycline in HeLa cells incubated for 24  h was relatively higher than that of ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid (ratio of intracellular concentration/extracellular concentration of antibiotic for MG and tetracycline>ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid). The viable number of intracellular S. dysenteriae was decreased in a time-dependent manner in the presence of MG (4 × MBC) and reduced to zero within 20  h. The significant intracellular activities of MG suggested that it could potentially be used as an effective antibacterial agent for the treatment of severe infections caused by MDR Shigella spp.

  13. Quercus infectoria and Terminalia chebula decrease melanin content and tyrosinase activity in B16/F10 cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Jamshidzadeh

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Context: One of the most complained skin cares in ethnic skin like Asian women is hyperpigmentation, and lightening preparations have been long-standing desired. Due to the side effects of current drugs, medicinal plants have attracted more attentions as a source of novel drugs. Mazo (Quercus infectoria galls and Terminalia chebula fruits have been suggested in Persian Traditional Medicine as a safe treatment for hyperpigmentation. Aims: To evaluate the cytotoxicity and the effect on melanin synthesis in B16/F10 melanoma of Q. infectoria and T. chebula extracts. Methods: After collection and scientific authentication, plants were extracted by maceration method with methanol and were standardized based on total phenolic content. MTT assay and colorimetric method were used for cytotoxicity and determination of melanin content and tyrosinase activity in B16/F10 cells, respectively. Kojic acid was used as a reference compound. Results: Total phenolic content of Q. infectoria and T. chebula was determined as 287.34 ± 4.21 and 172.61 ± 8.67 mg gallic acid equivalent/g dried extract, respectively. Both plants decreased cell viability at 100 µg/mL and significantly reduced intercellular melanin to 66.25% and 71.1%, respectively in comparison to kojic acid (56.63% at 50 µg/mL. In the same concentration, 65.7% and 71.2% tyrosinase activity was inhibited by Q. infectoria and T. chebula, which significantly were different from control (p<0.001. Conclusions: These findings suggest that both plants especially Q. infectoria could inhibit melanogenesis in non-toxic concentrations and would be a good candidate for further studies.

  14. The effect of thermal processing on protein quality and free amino acid profile of Terminalia catappa (Indian Almond) seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adu, O B; Ogundeko, T O; Ogunrinola, O O; Saibu, G M; Elemo, B O

    2015-07-01

    The study examined the effect of various processing methods- boiling, drying and roasting- on the in vitro and in vivo protein digestibility and free amino acid profiles of Terminalia catappa seed. Moisture and crude protein of the various samples were determined. In vitro protein digestibility was determined after pepsin digestion. For the in vivo experiment, defatted T. catappa based diet was fed to 3 weeks old Wistar rats for 4 weeks and compared with animals maintained on casein based and nitrogen- free diets. The biological value (BV), net protein utilisation (NPU) and protein efficiency ratio (PER) of the diets were determined. Free amino acid composition was carried out using thin layer chromatography. Moisture was highest in the boiled T. catappa seed (8.30 ± 0.00 %). The raw, roasted and dried seeds had 5.55 ± 0.07, 3.88 ± 0.22 and 3.75 ± 0.07 % respectively. Crude protein was 19.19, 18.89, 17.62 and 16.36 % in the dried, roasted, boiled and raw seeds respectively. Roasted T. catappa seed had the highest in vitro protein digestibility with 37.52 %, while the dried, boiled and raw samples had digestibility values of 27.57, 27.07 and 24.45 % respectively. All nine essential amino acids were present in T. catappa in high concentrations except methionine and tryptophan. Glutamate was present in the highest concentration. Also, free amino acids were higher in the processed seeds compared to the raw seed. Animals fed T. catappa diet compared favourably with the casein group, thus indicating that the protein is of good quality.

  15. Analysis of sea almond (Terminalia catappa) cracking sites used by wild Burmese long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis aurea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falótico, Tiago; Spagnoletti, Noemi; Haslam, Michael; Luncz, Lydia V; Malaivijitnond, Suchinda; Gumert, Michael

    2017-05-01

    Nut-cracking is shared by all non-human primate taxa that are known to habitually use percussive stone tools in the wild: robust capuchins (Sapajus spp.), western chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus), and Burmese long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis aurea). Despite opportunistically processing nuts, Burmese long-tailed macaques predominantly use stone tools to process mollusks in coastal environments. Here, we present the first comprehensive survey of sea almond (Terminalia catappa) nut-cracking sites created by macaques. We mapped T. catappa trees and nut-cracking sites that we encountered along the intertidal zone and forest border on the coasts of Piak Nam Yai Island, Thailand. For each nut-cracking site, we measured the physical properties (i.e., size, weight, use-wear) of hammer stones and anvils. We found that T. catappa trees and nut-cracking sites primarily occurred on the western coast facing the open sea, and cracking sites clusters around the trees. We confirmed previous results that nut cracking tools are among the heaviest tools used by long-tailed macaques; however, we found our sample of T. catappa stone tools lighter than a previously collected sea almond sample that, unlike our sample, was collected immediately after use within the intertidal zone. The difference was likely the result of tidal influences on tool-use sites. We also found that tool accumulations above the intertidal region do not resemble those within them, possibly leading to incomplete assessments of macaque stone tools through archaeological techniques that would use these durable sites. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Inoculación experimental de Terminalia catappa con un aislamiento ambiental de Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii serotipo C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Escandón

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available En 1997, nuestro laboratorio informó por primera vez el aislamiento de Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii serotipo C asociado con detritus del árbol de almendro, Terminalia catappa. Este hallazgo ha llevado a realizar un seguimiento más detallado de la asociación plantahongo. Datos preliminares habían revelado que la supervivencia del hongo en plántulas de almendro ocurría hasta por 100 días. El propósito de este estudio fue establecer si bajo las mismas condiciones, C. neoformans var. gattii podría permanecer viable por un mayor período de tiempo. Se emplearon 83 plántulas de almendro, de 20 a 40 cm de altura, inoculados con C. neoformans var. gattii, serotipo C (INS-755. Se realizaron ensayos inoculando el tallo o el suelo en el que serían sembradas las plántulas. Las observaciones se realizaron por un período de hasta 12 meses. Como técnicas de procesamiento del material vegetal se emplearon las técnicas de hongos endófitos (tallos, maceración (raíz, hojas y el estándar de suspensión (suelos. Adicionalmente, el hongo fue visualizado microscópicamente en el tejido vegetal con el empleo de azul de tripán y lactofenol. Se observó que C. neoformans var. gattii permanecía viable en la planta hasta por 12 meses posinoculación y que podía migrar desde el suelo hacía el tallo y viceversa, sin causar alteraciones macroscópicas ni microscópicas en la planta. Lo anterior sugiere una posible asociación ambiental entre el hospedero T. catappa y C. neoformans var. gattii.

  17. Antimutagenicity of supercritical CO2 extracts of Terminalia catappa leaves and cytotoxicity of the extracts to human hepatoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Ting-Fu; Weng, Yih-Ming; Lin, Shwu-Bin; Chiou, Robin Y-Y

    2003-06-04

    Natural antimutagens may prevent cancer and are therefore of great interest to oncologists and the public at large. Phytochemicals are potent antimutagen candidates. When the Ames test was applied to examine the antimutagenic potency of supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO(2)) extracts of Terminalia catappa leaves at a dose of 0.5 mg/plate, toxicity and mutagenicity were not detected. The antimutagenic activity of SC-CO(2) extracts increased with decreases of temperature (60, 50, and 40 degrees C) and pressure (4000, 3000, and 2000 psi) used for extraction. The most potent antimutagenicity was observed in extracts obtained at 40 degrees C and 2000 psi. At a dose of 0.5 mg of extract/plate, approximately 80% of the mutagenicity of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P, with S-9) and 46% of the mutagenicity of N-methyl-N '-nitroguanidine (MNNG, without S-9) were inhibited. Media supplemented with SC-CO(2) extracts at a range of 0-500 microg/mL were used to cultivate human hepatoma (Huh 7) and normal liver (Chang liver) cells. The viability of the cells was assayed by measuring cellular acid phosphatase activity. A dose-dependent growth inhibition of both types of cells was observed. The SC-CO(2) extracts were more cytotoxic to Huh 7 cells than to Chang liver cells. The observation that SC-CO(2) extracts of T. catappa leaves did not induce mutagenicity at the doses tested while exhibiting potent antimutagenicity and were more cytotoxic to human hepatoma cells than to normal liver cells is of merit and warrants further investigation.

  18. α-Glucosidase inhibition, 15-lipoxygenase inhibition, and brine shrimp toxicity of extracts and isolated compounds from Terminalia macroptera leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Anh Thu; Malterud, Karl Egil; Paulsen, Berit Smestad; Diallo, Drissa; Wangensteen, Helle

    2014-09-01

    Terminalia macroptera Guill. & Perr. (Combretaceae), a tree that grows in West Africa, has been used in traditional medicine against a variety of diseases such as hepatitis, gonorrhea, skin diseases, and diabetes. To investigate enzyme inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase and 15-lipoxygenase (15-LO) and toxicity against brine shrimp of extracts and compounds from T. macroptera leaves. Methanol extract, ethyl acetate, and butanol extracts obtained from the methanol extract, six isolated polyphenols (chebulagic acid, chebulic acid trimethyl ester, corilagin, methyl gallate, narcissin, and rutin), and shikimic acid were evaluated for enzyme inhibition and toxicity. In enzyme inhibition assays, all extracts showed high or very high activity. Chebulagic acid showed an IC50 value of 0.05 µM towards α-glucosidase and 24.9 ± 0.4 µM towards 15-LO, in contrast to positive controls (acarbose: IC50 201 ± 28 µM towards α-glucosidase, quercetin: 93 ± 3 µM towards 15-LO). Corilagin and narcissin were good 15-LO and α-glucosidase inhibitors, as well, while shikimic acid, methyl gallate, and chebulic acid trimethyl ester were less active or inactive. Rutin was a good α-glucosidase inhibitor (IC50 ca. 3 µM), but less active towards 15-LO. None of the extracts or the isolated compounds seemed to be very toxic in the brine shrimp assay compared with the positive control podophyllotoxin. Inhibition of α-glucosidase in the gastrointestinal tract may be a rationale for the medicinal use of T. macroptera leaves against diabetes in traditional medicine in Mali. The plant extracts and its constituents show strong inhibition of the peroxidative enzyme 15-LO.

  19. Use of browses (Terminalia serecia, Combretum apiculatum or Euclea schimperi) as a supplement for growing Tswana goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aganga, A A; Monyatsiwa, C B

    1999-10-01

    Twenty yearling male castrated Tswana goats were weighed and randomly divided into four groups of 5 animals. All the animals were fed buffel grass hay (Cenchrus ciliaris) as a basal diet, while lucerne (Medicago sativa) was fed to the control group as supplement. The other three groups were fed either Combretum apiculatum, Terminalia serecia or Euclea schimperi as a supplement. The basal diet comprised 60% of the ration, while the lucerne or the browses made up the remaining 40%. Water was provided daily. Leftover water and feed were measured daily. The goats were weigted every 2 weeks, prior to the morning feed. The data collected were subjected to analysis of variance. The average daily dry matter intake of the lucerne, C. apiculatum, T. serecia and E. schimperi supplements was 702.17, 769.91, 776.68 and 752.50 g, respectively, and was not significantly different between treatments (p > 0.05). The average daily water intake was significantly different (p goats fed lucerne drinking significantly more water (1270 +/- 31.62 ml) than the goats on T. serecia (1150 +/- 103.2 ml) but not significantly more than those on C. apiculatum (1166 +/- 52.25 ml) or E. schimperi (1184 +/- 100.15 ml). The average daily body weight gain was higher for the goats on lucerne at 78 g, compared to 77 g, 67 g and 64 g, for the C. apiculatum, E. schimperi and T. serecia supplements, respectively, but these were not significantly different (p > 0.05). Differences in feed conversion ratio were not significant (p > 0.05), but the ratio was lower for the goats on lucerne at 9.00 compared to 10.41, 11.98, and 11.23 for C. apiculatum, T. serecia and E. schimperi, respectively. The study demonstrated that these browses can be used to replace lucerne as a supplement for Tswana goats fed on buffel grass hay as the basal diet.

  20. Multi year aerosol characterization in the tropical Andes and in adjacent Amazonia using AERONET measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Ramírez, Daniel; Andrade-Flores, Marcos; Eck, Thomas F.; Stein, Ariel F.; O'Neill, Norman T.; Lyamani, Hassan; Gassó, Santiago; Whiteman, David N.; Veselovskii, Igor; Velarde, Fernando; Alados-Arboledas, L.

    2017-10-01

    This work focuses on the analysis of columnar aerosol properties in the complex geophysical tropical region of South America within 10-20° South and 50-70° West. The region is quite varied and encompasses a significant part of Amazonia (lowlands) as well as high mountains in the Andes (highlands,∼4000 m a.s.l.). Several AERONET stations were included to study the aerosol optical characteristics of the lowlands (Rio Branco, Ji Parana and Cuiaba in Brazil and Santa Cruz in Bolivia) and the highlands (La Paz, Bolivia) during the 2000-2014 period. Biomass-burning is by far the most important source of aerosol in the lowlands, particularly during the dry season (August-October). Multi-annual variability was investigated and showed very strong burning activity in 2005, 2006, 2007 and 2010. This resulted in smoke characterized by correspondingly strong, above-average AODs (aerosol optical depths) and homogeneous single scattering albedo (SSA) across all the stations (∼0.93). For other years, however, SSA differences arise between the northern stations (Rio Branco and Ji Parana) with SSAs of ∼0.95 and the southern stations (Cuiaba and Santa Cruz) with lower SSAs of ∼0.85. Such differences are explained by the different types of vegetation burned in the two different regions. In the highlands, however, the transport of biomass burning smoke is found to be sporadic in nature. This sporadicity results in highly variable indicators of aerosol load and type (Angstrom exponent and fine mode fraction) with moderately significant increases in both. Regional dust and local pollution are the background aerosol in this highland region, whose elevation places it close to the free troposphere. Transported smoke particles were generally found to be more optical absorbing than in the lowlands: the hypothesis to explain this is the significantly higher amount of water vapor in Amazonia relative to the high mountain areas. The air-mass transport to La Paz was investigated using

  1. Antidepressant like effects of hydrolysable tannins of Terminalia catappa leaf extract via modulation of hippocampal plasticity and regulation of monoamine neurotransmitters subjected to chronic mild stress (CMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekhar, Y; Ramya, E M; Navya, K; Phani Kumar, G; Anilakumar, K R

    2017-02-01

    Terminalia catappa L. belonging to Combretaceae family is a folk medicine, known for its multiple pharmacological properties, but the neuro-modulatory effect of TC against chronic mild stress was seldom explored. The present study was designed to elucidate potential antidepressant-like effect of Terminalia cattapa (leaf) hydro-alcoholic extract (TC) by using CMS model for a period of 7 weeks. Identification of hydrolysable tannins was done by using LC-MS. After the CMS exposure, mice groups were administered with imipramine (IMP, 10mg/kg, i.p.) and TC (25, 50 and 100mg/kg of TC, p.o.). Behavioural paradigms used for the study included forced swimming test (FST), tail suspension test (TST) and sucrose preference test (SPT). After behavioural tests, monoamine neurotransmitter, cortisol, AchE, oxidative stress levels and mRNA expression studies relevant to depression were assessed. TC supplementation significantly reversed CMS induced immobility time in FST and other behavioural paradigms. Moreover, TC administration significantly restored CMS induced changes in concentrations of hippocampal neurotransmitters (5-HT, DA and NE) as well as levels of acetyl cholinesterase, cortisol, monoamine oxidases (MAO-A, MAO-B), BDNF, CREB, and p-CREB. It suggests that TC supplementation could supress stress induced depression by regulating monoamine neurotransmitters, CREB, BDNF, cortisol, AchE level as well as by amelioration of oxidative stress. Hence TC can be used as a complementary medicine against depression-like disorder. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Terminalia chebula Fructus Inhibits Migration and Proliferation of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells and Production of Inflammatory Mediators in RAW 264.7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Ho Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and neointima formation after angioplasty involves vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs migration and proliferation followed by inflammatory responses mediated by recruited macrophages in the neointima. Terminalia chebula is widely used traditional medicine in Asia for its beneficial effects against cancer, diabetes, and bacterial infection. The study was designed to determine whether Terminalia chebula fructus water extract (TFW suppresses VSMC migration and proliferation and inflammatory mediators production in macrophage (RAW 264.7. Our results showed that TFW possessed strong antioxidative effects in 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH scavenging and lipid peroxidation assays. In addition, TFW reduced nitric oxide (NO production, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 expression in RAW 264.7 cells. Also, TFW inhibited platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-BB induced VSMC migration as determined by wound healing and Boyden chamber assays. The antimigratory effect of TFW was due to its inhibitory effect on metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9 expression, focal adhesion kinase (FAK activation, and Rho-family of small GTPases (Cdc42 and RhoA expression in VSMCs. Furthermore, TFW suppressed PDGF-BB induced VSMC proliferation by downregulation of mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs signaling molecules. These results suggest that TFW could be a beneficial resource in the prevention of atherosclerosis.

  3. Terminalia pallida fruit ethanolic extract ameliorates lipids, lipoproteins, lipid metabolism marker enzymes and paraoxonase in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarcted rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Althaf Hussain Shaik

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of Terminalia pallida fruit ethanolic extract (TpFE on lipids, lipoproteins, lipid metabolism marker enzymes and paraoxonase (PON in isoproterenol (ISO-induced myocardial infarcted rats. PON is an excellent serum antioxidant enzyme which involves in the protection of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C from the process of oxidation for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. ISO caused a significant increase in the concentration of total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-C, very low density lipoprotein cholesterol and lipid peroxidation whereas significant decrease in the concentration of high density lipoprotein cholesterol. ISO administration also significantly decreased the activities of lecithin cholesterol acyl transferase, PON and lipoprotein lipase whereas significantly increased the activity of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme-A reductase. Oral pretreatment of TpFE at doses 100, 300 and 500 mg/kg body weight (bw and gallic acid (15 mg/kg bw for 30 days challenged with concurrent injection of ISO (85 mg/kg bw on 29th and 30th day significantly attenuated these alterations and restored the levels of lipids, lipoproteins and the activities of lipid metabolizing enzymes. Also TpFE significantly elevated the serum antioxidant enzyme PON. This is the first report revealed that pretreatment with TPFE ameliorated lipid metabolic marker enzymes and increased the antioxidant PON in ISO treated male albino Wistar rats. Keywords: Terminalia pallida fruit, Gallic acid, Isoproterenol, Lipid metabolism marker enzymes, Paraoxonase, Myocardial infarction

  4. A new species of Scinax from the Purus-Madeira interfluve, Brazilian Amazonia (Anura, Hylidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrão, Miquéias; Moravec, Jiří; de Fraga, Rafael; de Almeida, Alexandre Pinheiro; Kaefer, Igor Luis; Lima, Albertina Pimentel

    2017-01-01

    Abstract A new tree frog species of the genus Scinax from the interfluve between the Purus and Madeira rivers, Brazilian Amazonia, is described and illustrated. The new species is diagnosed by medium body size, snout truncate in dorsal view, ulnar and tarsal tubercles absent, nuptial pads poorly developed, skin on dorsum shagreen, dorsum light brown with dark brown spots and markings, white groin with black spots, anterior and posterior surfaces of thighs black, and iris bright orange. The advertisement call consists of a single short note, with 16−18 pulses and dominant frequency at 1572−1594 Hz. Tadpoles are characterized by body ovoid in dorsal view and triangular in lateral view, tail higher than body, oral disc located anteroventrally and laterally emarginated, dorsum of body uniformly grey-brown with dark brown eye-snout stripe in preservative, fins translucent with small to large irregular diffuse dark brown spots. PMID:29118625

  5. Rhodnius barretti, a new species of Triatominae (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) from western Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad-Franch, Fernando; Pavan, Márcio G; Jaramillo-O, Nicolás; Palomeque, Francisco S; Dale, Carolina; Chaverra, Duverney; Monteiro, Fernando A

    2013-01-01

    Rhodnius barretti , a new triatomine species, is described based on adult specimens collected in rainforest environments within the Napo ecoregion of western Amazonia (Colombia and Ecuador). R. barretti resembles Rhodnius robustus s.l. , but mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequences reveal that it is a strongly divergent member of the “robustus lineage”, i.e., basal to the clade encompassing Rhodnius nasutus , Rhodnius neglectus , Rhodnius prolixus and five members of the R. robustus species complex. Morphometric analyses also reveal consistent divergence from R. robustus s.l. , including head and, as previously shown, wing shape and the length ratios of some anatomical structures. R. barretti occurs, often at high densities, in Attalea butyracea and Oenocarpus bataua palms. It is strikingly aggressive and adults may invade houses flying from peridomestic palms. R. barretti must therefore be regarded as a potential Trypanosoma cruzi vector in the Napo ecoregion, where Chagas disease is endemic. PMID:24473808

  6. Water fluxes in forest of different ages in the Colombian amazonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tellez Guio, Patricia; Boshell, Jose Francisco

    2004-01-01

    Rainfall reaching the canopy of a forest ecosystem may be divided into different fluxes: intercepted water, through fall and stem flow. This partitioning determines the spatial distribution of soil water. This paper describes the fixes and their spatial and temporal variability in a mature forest and three secondary forests of different ages (5, 18 and 30 years old) in the middle Caqueta, in Colombian Amazonia. Results showed that there are no significant differences in the mean rainfall (P) and through fall (TH) among the land uses. However, there were differences in the percentages of TH with respect to different ranges of magnitude of P, mainly for heavy rain showers with more than 20 mm rainfall. The temporal variability of TH was high, while the spatial variability was low. Stem flow (ST) showed significant differences, which were related to the vegetation characteristics. The spatial and temporal variability of ST were high

  7. A new species of Scinax from the Purus-Madeira interfluve, Brazilian Amazonia (Anura, Hylidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrão, Miquéias; Moravec, Jiří; de Fraga, Rafael; de Almeida, Alexandre Pinheiro; Kaefer, Igor Luis; Lima, Albertina Pimentel

    2017-01-01

    A new tree frog species of the genus Scinax from the interfluve between the Purus and Madeira rivers, Brazilian Amazonia, is described and illustrated. The new species is diagnosed by medium body size, snout truncate in dorsal view, ulnar and tarsal tubercles absent, nuptial pads poorly developed, skin on dorsum shagreen, dorsum light brown with dark brown spots and markings, white groin with black spots, anterior and posterior surfaces of thighs black, and iris bright orange. The advertisement call consists of a single short note, with 16-18 pulses and dominant frequency at 1572-1594 Hz. Tadpoles are characterized by body ovoid in dorsal view and triangular in lateral view, tail higher than body, oral disc located anteroventrally and laterally emarginated, dorsum of body uniformly grey-brown with dark brown eye-snout stripe in preservative, fins translucent with small to large irregular diffuse dark brown spots.

  8. Genetic footprints of demographic expansion in North America, but not Amazonia, during the Late Quaternary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessa, Enrique P.; Cook, Joseph A.; Patton, James L.

    2003-01-01

    The biotic consequences of climate change have attracted considerable attention. In particular, the “refugial debate” centers on the possible retraction of habitats to limited areas that may have served as refuges for many associated species, especially during glaciations of the Quaternary. One prediction of such scenarios is that populations must have experienced substantial growth accompanying climatic amelioration and the occupation of newly expanded habitats. We used coalescence theory to examine the genetic evidence, or lack thereof, for late Pleistocene refugia of boreal North American and tropical Amazonian mammals. We found substantial and concordant evidence of demographic expansion in North American mammals, particularly at higher latitudes. In contrast, small mammals from western Amazonia appear to have experienced limited or no demographic expansion after the Late Pleistocene. Thus, demographic responses to climate change can be tracked genetically and appear to vary substantially across the latitudinal gradient of biotic diversity. PMID:12913123

  9. Rupturing of Biological Spores As a Source of Secondary Particles in Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    China, Swarup; Wang, Bingbing; Weis, Johannes; Rizzo, Luciana; Brito, Joel; Cirino, Glauber G; Kovarik, Libor; Artaxo, Paulo; Gilles, Mary K; Laskin, Alexander

    2016-11-15

    Airborne biological particles, such as fungal spores and pollen, are ubiquitous in the Earth's atmosphere and may influence the atmospheric environment and climate, impacting air quality, cloud formation, and the Earth's radiation budget. The atmospheric transformations of airborne biological spores at elevated relative humidity remain poorly understood and their climatic role is uncertain. Using an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM), we observed rupturing of Amazonian fungal spores and subsequent release of submicrometer size fragments after exposure to high humidity. We find that fungal fragments contain elements of inorganic salts (e.g., Na and Cl). They are hygroscopic in nature with a growth factor up to 2.3 at 96% relative humidity, thus they may potentially influence cloud formation. Due to their hygroscopic growth, light scattering cross sections of the fragments are enhanced by up to a factor of 10. Furthermore, rupturing of fungal spores at high humidity may explain the bursting events of new particle formation in Amazonia.

  10. Hydrogen utilization for the reduction of iron ore in the Brazilian Amazonia: prospective natural resources preservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, L.C. de; Arantes, N.A.S. [Uberlandia Univ., MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica

    1998-07-01

    In average 20% the annual energy consumption of Brazil corresponds to the use of wood under the form of either charcoal or fuelwood. The utilization of fuelwood is decreasing and the utilization of charcoal is growing at the same rate (about 2.5%) yearly. The growing demand for charcoal is forcing the charcoal-based iron and steel industry to move to the north of Brazil where wood is still abundant. The objective of the present study is to demonstrate the feasibility of using electrolytic hydrogen instead of charcoal or coke for the reduction of iron ore in the Program Grande Carajas - Amazonia. Technical, economic and environmental aspects will be considered. This study can be beneficial to the Amazon region since natural resources will be preserved. (author)

  11. Rainfall and surface kinematic conditions over central amazonia during ABLE 2B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Steven; Swap, Robert; Garstang, Michael; Ulanski, Stanley; Shipham, Mark

    1990-01-01

    Rainfall, rainfall systems, and surface kinematics of the central Amazon basin wet season are investigated using meteorological and chemical data collected during the wet season Amazon Boundary Layer Experiment (ABLE) near Manaus, Brazil. Through analysis of (GOES-West) imagery, it is determined that, based on location of the initial development, there are three main types of convective systems which influence a mesoscale network near Manaus, namely the Coastal Occurring Systems (COS), the Basin Occurring Systems (BOS), and the Locally Occurring Systems (LOS). Chemical analysis of rainwater delivered by these systems shows significant differences in concentrations of formate, acetate, pyruvate, sulfate, and hydrogen ion, and measurements of aerosol concentrations near Manaus show large influxes of aerosols into central Amazonia after passage of BOS and COS. Results of satellite based classification of the rain-producing systems are discussed.

  12. Deforestation and climate feedbacks threaten the ecological integrity of south–southeastern Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, Michael T.; Marthews, Toby R.; Costa, Marcos Heil; Galbraith, David R.; Greenglass, Nora L.; Imbuzeiro, Hewlley M. A.; Levine, Naomi M.; Malhi, Yadvinder; Moorcroft, Paul R.; Muza, Michel Nobre; Powell, Thomas L.; Saleska, Scott R.; Solorzano, Luis A.; Wang, Jingfeng

    2013-01-01

    A mosaic of protected areas, including indigenous lands, sustainable-use production forests and reserves and strictly protected forests is the cornerstone of conservation in the Amazon, with almost 50 per cent of the region now protected. However, recent research indicates that isolation from direct deforestation or degradation may not be sufficient to maintain the ecological integrity of Amazon forests over the next several decades. Large-scale changes in fire and drought regimes occurring as a result of deforestation and greenhouse gas increases may result in forest degradation, regardless of protected status. How severe or widespread these feedbacks will be is uncertain, but the arc of deforestation in south–southeastern Amazonia appears to be particularly vulnerable owing to high current deforestation rates and ecological sensitivity to climate change. Maintaining forest ecosystem integrity may require significant strengthening of forest conservation on private property, which can in part be accomplished by leveraging existing policy mechanisms. PMID:23610166

  13. Rhodnius barretti, a new species of Triatominae (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) from western Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad-Franch, Fernando; Pavan, Márcio G; Jaramillo-O, Nicolás; Palomeque, Francisco S; Dale, Carolina; Chaverra, Duverney; Monteiro, Fernando A

    2013-01-01

    Rhodnius barretti, a new triatomine species, is described based on adult specimens collected in rainforest environments within the Napo ecoregion of western Amazonia (Colombia and Ecuador). R. barretti resembles Rhodnius robustus s.l., but mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequences reveal that it is a strongly divergent member of the "robustus lineage", i.e., basal to the clade encompassing Rhodnius nasutus, Rhodnius neglectus, Rhodnius prolixus and five members of the R. robustus species complex. Morphometric analyses also reveal consistent divergence from R. robustus s.l., including head and, as previously shown, wing shape and the length ratios of some anatomical structures. R. barretti occurs, often at high densities, in Attalea butyracea and Oenocarpus bataua palms. It is strikingly aggressive and adults may invade houses flying from peridomestic palms. R. barretti must therefore be regarded as a potential Trypanosoma cruzi vector in the Napo ecoregion, where Chagas disease is endemic.

  14. Evaluating the impact of distance measures on deforestation simulations in the fluvial landscapes of amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salonen, Maria; Maeda, Eduardo Eiji; Toivonen, Tuuli

    2014-10-01

    Land use and land cover change (LUCC) models frequently employ different accessibility measures as a proxy for human influence on land change processes. Here, we simulate deforestation in Peruvian Amazonia and evaluate different accessibility measures as LUCC model inputs. We demonstrate how the selection, and different combinations, of accessibility measures impact simulation results. Out of the individual measures, time distance to market center catches the essential aspects of accessibility in our study area. The most accurate simulation is achieved when time distance to market center is used in association with distance to transport network and additional landscape variables. Although traditional Euclidean measures result in clearly lower simulation accuracy when used separately, the combination of two complementary Euclidean measures enhances simulation accuracy significantly. Our results highlight the need for site and context sensitive selection of accessibility variables. More sophisticated accessibility measures can potentially improve LUCC models' spatial accuracy, which often remains low.

  15. A new species of Scinax from the Purus-Madeira interfluve, Brazilian Amazonia (Anura, Hylidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miquéias Ferrão

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A new tree frog species of the genus Scinax from the interfluve between the Purus and Madeira rivers, Brazilian Amazonia, is described and illustrated. The new species is diagnosed by medium body size, snout truncate in dorsal view, ulnar and tarsal tubercles absent, nuptial pads poorly developed, skin on dorsum shagreen, dorsum light brown with dark brown spots and markings, white groin with black spots, anterior and posterior surfaces of thighs black, and iris bright orange. The advertisement call consists of a single short note, with 16−18 pulses and dominant frequency at 1572−1594 Hz. Tadpoles are characterized by body ovoid in dorsal view and triangular in lateral view, tail higher than body, oral disc located anteroventrally and laterally emarginated, dorsum of body uniformly grey-brown with dark brown eye-snout stripe in preservative, fins translucent with small to large irregular diffuse dark brown spots.

  16. Deforestation and climate feedbacks threaten the ecological integrity of south-southeastern Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, Michael T; Marthews, Toby R; Costa, Marcos Heil; Galbraith, David R; Greenglass, Nora L; Imbuzeiro, Hewlley M A; Levine, Naomi M; Malhi, Yadvinder; Moorcroft, Paul R; Muza, Michel Nobre; Powell, Thomas L; Saleska, Scott R; Solorzano, Luis A; Wang, Jingfeng

    2013-06-05

    A mosaic of protected areas, including indigenous lands, sustainable-use production forests and reserves and strictly protected forests is the cornerstone of conservation in the Amazon, with almost 50 per cent of the region now protected. However, recent research indicates that isolation from direct deforestation or degradation may not be sufficient to maintain the ecological integrity of Amazon forests over the next several decades. Large-scale changes in fire and drought regimes occurring as a result of deforestation and greenhouse gas increases may result in forest degradation, regardless of protected status. How severe or widespread these feedbacks will be is uncertain, but the arc of deforestation in south-southeastern Amazonia appears to be particularly vulnerable owing to high current deforestation rates and ecological sensitivity to climate change. Maintaining forest ecosystem integrity may require significant strengthening of forest conservation on private property, which can in part be accomplished by leveraging existing policy mechanisms.

  17. A validated high-performance liquid chromatography method for determination of tannin-related marker constituents gallic acid, corilagin, chebulagic acid, ellagic acid and chebulinic Acid in four Terminalia species from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanani, Tushar; Shah, Sonal; Kumar, Satyanshu

    2015-04-01

    A validated rapid HPLC-PDA method was developed for identification and quantification of five tannin-related constituents gallic acid (GA), corilagin (CL), chebulagic acid (CB), ellagic acid (EA) and chebulinic acid (CN) in the extracts prepared from the bark and fruits of four Terminalia species available in India. The separation of the five analytes was achieved on an RP-18 column (4.6 × 250 mm, 5 µm) at 25°C using a solvent mixture comprising of acetonitrile and (0.05%) trifluoroacetic acid-water in a gradient elution mode. Limit of detection was 1.0, 0.5, 1.0, 0.5 and 1.0 μg/mL for GA, CL, CB, EA and CN, respectively. Similarly, limit of quantification was 2.5, 1.0, 2.5, 1.0 and 2.5 μg/mL for GA, CL, CB, EA and CN, respectively. Good linearity (r(2) > 0.992) was observed for all the five compounds in wide concentration range. Using the developed HPLC method, the five analytes were identified and quantified in bark and fruit extracts of Terminalia chebula, Terminalia bellirica, Terminalia arjuna and Terminalia catappa. This is the first report of identification and quantification of the five tannin-related marker constituents in the bark and fruit extracts of T. chebula, T. bellirica, T. arjuna and T. catappa. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Widespread Forest Vertebrate Extinctions Induced by a Mega Hydroelectric Dam in Lowland Amazonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maíra Benchimol

    Full Text Available Mega hydropower projects in tropical forests pose a major emergent threat to terrestrial and freshwater biodiversity worldwide. Despite the unprecedented number of existing, under-construction and planned hydroelectric dams in lowland tropical forests, long-term effects on biodiversity have yet to be evaluated. We examine how medium and large-bodied assemblages of terrestrial and arboreal vertebrates (including 35 mammal, bird and tortoise species responded to the drastic 26-year post-isolation history of archipelagic alteration in landscape structure and habitat quality in a major hydroelectric reservoir of Central Amazonia. The Balbina Hydroelectric Dam inundated 3,129 km2 of primary forests, simultaneously isolating 3,546 land-bridge islands. We conducted intensive biodiversity surveys at 37 of those islands and three adjacent continuous forests using a combination of four survey techniques, and detected strong forest habitat area effects in explaining patterns of vertebrate extinction. Beyond clear area effects, edge-mediated surface fire disturbance was the most important additional driver of species loss, particularly in islands smaller than 10 ha. Based on species-area models, we predict that only 0.7% of all islands now harbor a species-rich vertebrate assemblage consisting of ≥80% of all species. We highlight the colossal erosion in vertebrate diversity driven by a man-made dam and show that the biodiversity impacts of mega dams in lowland tropical forest regions have been severely overlooked. The geopolitical strategy to deploy many more large hydropower infrastructure projects in regions like lowland Amazonia should be urgently reassessed, and we strongly advise that long-term biodiversity impacts should be explicitly included in pre-approval environmental impact assessments.

  19. Using digital soil maps to infer edaphic affinities of plant species in Amazonia: Problems and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulatlet, Gabriel Massaine; Zuquim, Gabriela; Figueiredo, Fernando Oliveira Gouvêa; Lehtonen, Samuli; Emilio, Thaise; Ruokolainen, Kalle; Tuomisto, Hanna

    2017-10-01

    Amazonia combines semi-continental size with difficult access, so both current ranges of species and their ability to cope with environmental change have to be inferred from sparse field data. Although efficient techniques for modeling species distributions on the basis of a small number of species occurrences exist, their success depends on the availability of relevant environmental data layers. Soil data are important in this context, because soil properties have been found to determine plant occurrence patterns in Amazonian lowlands at all spatial scales. Here we evaluate the potential for this purpose of three digital soil maps that are freely available online: SOTERLAC, HWSD, and SoilGrids. We first tested how well they reflect local soil cation concentration as documented with 1,500 widely distributed soil samples. We found that measured soil cation concentration differed by up to two orders of magnitude between sites mapped into the same soil class. The best map-based predictor of local soil cation concentration was obtained with a regression model combining soil classes from HWSD with cation exchange capacity (CEC) from SoilGrids. Next, we evaluated to what degree the known edaphic affinities of thirteen plant species (as documented with field data from 1,200 of the soil sample sites) can be inferred from the soil maps. The species segregated clearly along the soil cation concentration gradient in the field, but only partially along the model-estimated cation concentration gradient, and hardly at all along the mapped CEC gradient. The main problems reducing the predictive ability of the soil maps were insufficient spatial resolution and/or georeferencing errors combined with thematic inaccuracy and absence of the most relevant edaphic variables. Addressing these problems would provide better models of the edaphic environment for ecological studies in Amazonia.

  20. Helminth fauna of chiropterans in Amazonia: biological interactions between parasite and host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Albuquerque, Ana Cláudia Alexandre; Moraes, Marcela Figueiredo Duarte; Silva, Ana Carolina; Lapera, Ivan Moura; Tebaldi, José Hairton; Lux Hoppe, Estevam G

    2016-08-01

    Amazonia, the largest Brazilian biome, is one of the most diverse biomes around the world. Considering the Brazilian chiropteran species, 120 out of known 167 species are registered in Pará state, with 10 endemic species. Despite the high diversity of bats in Amazonia, studies on their parasites, especially on helminths, are scarce. Therefore, the present study aims to study the helminth fauna of different bats from the Pará state, Amazon biome, determine the descriptors of infection, and evaluate the host-parasite interactions, as well as evaluate differences in ecological indexes in accordance with the feeding guilds. The study was developed on 67 bats of 21 species captured in several areas of the Pará state. The animals were identified, divided into feeding guilds, and necropsied. The parasites obtained were identified and quantified. A total of 182 parasites were found in 20.89 % of the studied bats, representing nine species, as follows: Anenterotrema eduardocaballeroi, Anenterotrema liliputianum, Ochoterenatrema caballeroi, Tricholeiperia sp., Parahistiostrongylus octacanthus, Litomosoides guiterasi, Litomosoides brasiliensis, Capillariinae gen. sp., and Hymenolepididae gen. sp. Also, the results indicated that there was no impact of parasitism on host body condition and no relationship between sex and parasite intensity. In relation to the feeding guilds, the omnivores showed higher prevalence and mean intensity. Animals from regions closer to the equator tend to have greater richness in parasite species, but the present study revealed low diversity and richness in species. In conclusion, the ecological pattern observed for other animal groups, in which higher parasitic diversity are registered in lower latitudes, is not applicable to chiropterans from the study area.

  1. Reproductive traits associated with species turnover of amphibians in Amazonia and its Andean slopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Robles, Octavio; Guayasamin, Juan M; Ron, Santiago R; De la Riva, Ignacio

    2017-04-01

    Assembly of ecological communities is important for the conservation of ecosystems, predicting perturbation impacts, and understanding the origin and loss of biodiversity. We tested how amphibian communities are assembled by neutral and niche-based mechanisms, such as habitat filtering. Species richness, β-diversities, and reproductive traits of amphibians were evaluated at local scale in seven habitats at different elevation and disturbance levels in Wisui Biological Station, Morona-Santiago, Ecuador, on the foothills of the Cordillera del Kutukú; and at regional scale using 109 localities across evergreen forests of Amazonia and its Andean slopes (0-3,900 m a.s.l.). At local scale, species composition showed strong differences among habitats, explained mainly by turnover. Reproductive modes occurred differently across habitats (e.g., prevalence of direct developers at high elevation, where breeding in ground level water disappears). At regional scale, elevation was the most important factor explaining the changes in species richness, reproductive trait occurrences, and biotic dissimilarities. Species number in all groups decreased with elevation except for those with lotic tadpoles and terrestrial reproduction stages. Seasonality, annual precipitation, and relative humidity partially explained the occurrence of some reproductive traits. Biotic dissimilarities were also mostly caused by turnover rather than nestedness and were particularly high in montane and foothill sites. Within lowlands, geographic distance explained more variability than elevation. Habitat filtering was supported by the different occurrence of reproductive traits according to elevation, water availability, and breeding microhabitats at both scales, as well as other assembly mechanisms based in biotic interactions at local scale. Human-generated land use changes in Amazonia and its Andean slopes reduce local amphibian biodiversity by alteration of primary forests and loss of their

  2. Widespread Forest Vertebrate Extinctions Induced by a Mega Hydroelectric Dam in Lowland Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benchimol, Maíra; Peres, Carlos A

    2015-01-01

    Mega hydropower projects in tropical forests pose a major emergent threat to terrestrial and freshwater biodiversity worldwide. Despite the unprecedented number of existing, under-construction and planned hydroelectric dams in lowland tropical forests, long-term effects on biodiversity have yet to be evaluated. We examine how medium and large-bodied assemblages of terrestrial and arboreal vertebrates (including 35 mammal, bird and tortoise species) responded to the drastic 26-year post-isolation history of archipelagic alteration in landscape structure and habitat quality in a major hydroelectric reservoir of Central Amazonia. The Balbina Hydroelectric Dam inundated 3,129 km2 of primary forests, simultaneously isolating 3,546 land-bridge islands. We conducted intensive biodiversity surveys at 37 of those islands and three adjacent continuous forests using a combination of four survey techniques, and detected strong forest habitat area effects in explaining patterns of vertebrate extinction. Beyond clear area effects, edge-mediated surface fire disturbance was the most important additional driver of species loss, particularly in islands smaller than 10 ha. Based on species-area models, we predict that only 0.7% of all islands now harbor a species-rich vertebrate assemblage consisting of ≥80% of all species. We highlight the colossal erosion in vertebrate diversity driven by a man-made dam and show that the biodiversity impacts of mega dams in lowland tropical forest regions have been severely overlooked. The geopolitical strategy to deploy many more large hydropower infrastructure projects in regions like lowland Amazonia should be urgently reassessed, and we strongly advise that long-term biodiversity impacts should be explicitly included in pre-approval environmental impact assessments.

  3. Interactions between rainfall, deforestation and fires during recent years in the Brazilian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragão, Luiz Eduardo O C; Malhi, Yadvinder; Barbier, Nicolas; Lima, Andre; Shimabukuro, Yosio; Anderson, Liana; Saatchi, Sassan

    2008-05-27

    Understanding the interplay between climate and land-use dynamics is a fundamental concern for assessing the vulnerability of Amazonia to climate change. In this study, we analyse satellite-derived monthly and annual time series of rainfall, fires and deforestation to explicitly quantify the seasonal patterns and relationships between these three variables, with a particular focus on the Amazonian drought of 2005. Our results demonstrate a marked seasonality with one peak per year for all variables analysed, except deforestation. For the annual cycle, we found correlations above 90% with a time lag between variables. Deforestation and fires reach the highest values three and six months, respectively, after the peak of the rainy season. The cumulative number of hot pixels was linearly related to the size of the area deforested annually from 1998 to 2004 (r2=0.84, p=0.004). During the 2005 drought, the number of hot pixels increased 43% in relation to the expected value for a similar deforested area (approx. 19000km2). We demonstrated that anthropogenic forcing, such as land-use change, is decisive in determining the seasonality and annual patterns of fire occurrence. Moreover, droughts can significantly increase the number of fires in the region even with decreased deforestation rates. We may expect that the ongoing deforestation, currently based on slash and burn procedures, and the use of fires for land management in Amazonia will intensify the impact of droughts associated with natural climate variability or human-induced climate change and, therefore, a large area of forest edge will be under increased risk of fires.

  4. Atmospheric aerosols in Amazonia and land use change: from natural biogenic to biomass burning conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artaxo, Paulo; Rizzo, Luciana V; Brito, Joel F; Barbosa, Henrique M J; Arana, Andrea; Sena, Elisa T; Cirino, Glauber G; Bastos, Wanderlei; Martin, Scot T; Andreae, Meinrat O

    2013-01-01

    In the wet season, a large portion of the Amazon region constitutes one of the most pristine continental areas, with very low concentrations of atmospheric trace gases and aerosol particles. However, land use change modifies the biosphere-atmosphere interactions in such a way that key processes that maintain the functioning of Amazonia are substantially altered. This study presents a comparison between aerosol properties observed at a preserved forest site in Central Amazonia (TT34 North of Manaus) and at a heavily biomass burning impacted site in south-western Amazonia (PVH, close to Porto Velho). Amazonian aerosols were characterized in detail, including aerosol size distributions, aerosol light absorption and scattering, optical depth and aerosol inorganic and organic composition, among other properties. The central Amazonia site (TT34) showed low aerosol concentrations (PM2.5 of 1.3 +/- 0.7 microg m(-3) and 3.4 +/- 2.0 microg m(-3) in the wet and dry seasons, respectively), with a median particle number concentration of 220 cm(-3) in the wet season and 2200 cm(-3) in the dry season. At the impacted site (PVH), aerosol loadings were one order of magnitude higher (PM2.5 of 10.2 +/- 9.0 microg m(-3) and 33.0 +/- 36.0 microg m(-3) in the wet and dry seasons, respectively). The aerosol number concentration at the impacted site ranged from 680 cm(-3) in the wet season up to 20 000 cm(-3) in the dry season. An aerosol chemical speciation monitor (ACSM) was deployed in 2013 at both sites, and it shows that organic aerosol account to 81% to the non-refractory PM1 aerosol loading at TT34, while biomass burning aerosols at PVH shows a 93% content of organic particles. Three years of filter-based elemental composition measurements shows that sulphate at the impacted site decreases, on average, from 12% of PM2.5 mass during the wet season to 5% in the dry season. This result corroborates the ACSM finding that the biomass burning contributed overwhelmingly to the organic

  5. Biogeographic and diversification patterns of Neotropical Troidini butterflies (Papilionidae) support a museum model of diversity dynamics for Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condamine, Fabien L; Silva-Brandão, Karina L; Kergoat, Gael J; Sperling, Felix A H

    2012-06-12

    The temporal and geographical diversification of Neotropical insects remains poorly understood because of the complex changes in geological and climatic conditions that occurred during the Cenozoic. To better understand extant patterns in Neotropical biodiversity, we investigated the evolutionary history of three Neotropical swallowtail Troidini genera (Papilionidae). First, DNA-based species delimitation analyses were conducted to assess species boundaries within Neotropical Troidini using an enlarged fragment of the standard barcode gene. Molecularly delineated species were then used to infer a time-calibrated species-level phylogeny based on a three-gene dataset and Bayesian dating analyses. The corresponding chronogram was used to explore their temporal and geographical diversification through distinct likelihood-based methods. The phylogeny for Neotropical Troidini was well resolved and strongly supported. Molecular dating and biogeographic analyses indicate that the extant lineages of Neotropical Troidini have a late Eocene (33-42 Ma) origin in North America. Two independent lineages (Battus and Euryades+Parides) reached South America via the GAARlandia temporary connection, and later became extinct in North America. They only began substantive diversification during the early Miocene in Amazonia. Macroevolutionary analysis supports the "museum model" of diversification, rather than Pleistocene refugia, as the best explanation for the diversification of these lineages. This study demonstrates that: (i) current Neotropical biodiversity may have originated ex situ; (ii) the GAARlandia bridge was important in facilitating invasions of South America; (iii) colonization of Amazonia initiated the crown diversification of these swallowtails; and (iv) Amazonia is not only a species-rich region but also acted as a sanctuary for the dynamics of this diversity. In particular, Amazonia probably allowed the persistence of old lineages and contributed to the steady

  6. The metabolic cost of nesting: body condition and blood parameters of Caiman crocodilus and Melanosuchus niger in Central Amazonia

    OpenAIRE

    Barão-Nóbrega, José António Lemos; Marioni, Boris; Botero-Arias, Robinson; Nogueira, António José Arsénia; Lima, Emerson Silva; Magnusson, William Ernest; Da Silveira, Ronis; Marcon, Jaydione Luiz

    2017-01-01

    Although nesting ecology is well studied in several crocodilian species, it is not known how nest attendance influences physiology and body condition of nesting females. In this study, we describe body condition and serum biochemical values of nesting female, non-nesting female and male spectacled caiman (Caiman crocodilus) and black caiman (Melanosuchus niger) in two areas of Central Amazonia. We also evaluated the effect of nest age and nest distance to water on body condition and blood par...

  7. Biogeographic and diversification patterns of Neotropical Troidini butterflies (Papilionidae support a museum model of diversity dynamics for Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Condamine Fabien L

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The temporal and geographical diversification of Neotropical insects remains poorly understood because of the complex changes in geological and climatic conditions that occurred during the Cenozoic. To better understand extant patterns in Neotropical biodiversity, we investigated the evolutionary history of three Neotropical swallowtail Troidini genera (Papilionidae. First, DNA-based species delimitation analyses were conducted to assess species boundaries within Neotropical Troidini using an enlarged fragment of the standard barcode gene. Molecularly delineated species were then used to infer a time-calibrated species-level phylogeny based on a three-gene dataset and Bayesian dating analyses. The corresponding chronogram was used to explore their temporal and geographical diversification through distinct likelihood-based methods. Results The phylogeny for Neotropical Troidini was well resolved and strongly supported. Molecular dating and biogeographic analyses indicate that the extant lineages of Neotropical Troidini have a late Eocene (33–42 Ma origin in North America. Two independent lineages (Battus and Euryades + Parides reached South America via the GAARlandia temporary connection, and later became extinct in North America. They only began substantive diversification during the early Miocene in Amazonia. Macroevolutionary analysis supports the “museum model” of diversification, rather than Pleistocene refugia, as the best explanation for the diversification of these lineages. Conclusions This study demonstrates that: (i current Neotropical biodiversity may have originated ex situ; (ii the GAARlandia bridge was important in facilitating invasions of South America; (iii colonization of Amazonia initiated the crown diversification of these swallowtails; and (iv Amazonia is not only a species-rich region but also acted as a sanctuary for the dynamics of this diversity. In particular, Amazonia probably allowed

  8. Ostracods (Crustacea) and their palaeoenvironmental implication for the Solimões Formation (Late Miocene; Western Amazonia/Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Martin; Ramos, Maria Ines; Caporaletti, Marco; Piller, Werner E

    2013-03-01

    Western Amazonia's landscape and biota were shaped by an enormous wetland during the Miocene epoch. Among the most discussed topics of this ecosystem range the question on the transitory influx of marine waters. Inter alia the occurrence of typically brackish water associated ostracods is repeatedly consulted to infer elevated salinities or even marine ingressions. The taxonomical investigation of ostracod faunas derived from the upper part of the Solimões Formation (Eirunepé; W-Brazil) documents a moderately diverse assemblage (19 species). A wealth of freshwater ostracods (mainly Cytheridella , Penthesilenula ) was found co-occurring with taxa (chiefly Cyprideis ) usually related to marginal marine settings today. The observed faunal compositions as well as constantly very light δ 18 O- and δ 13 C-values obtained by measuring both, the freshwater and brackish water ostracod group, refer to entirely freshwater conditions. These results corroborate with previous sedimentological and palaeontological observations, which proposed a fluvial depositional system for this part of western Amazonia during the Late Miocene. We demonstrate that some endemic, "brackish" water ostracods (i.e., Cyprideis ) have been effectively adapted to freshwater conditions. Thus, their occurrence is no univocal evidence for the influence of brackish or marine waters in western Amazonia during the Miocene.

  9. Maximizing Amazonia's Ecosystem Services: Juggling the potential for carbon storage, agricultural yield and biodiversity in the Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, C. S.; Foley, J. A.; Gerber, J. S.; Polasky, S.

    2011-12-01

    The Amazon is not only an exceptionally biodiverse and carbon-rich tract of tropical forest, it is also a case study in land use change. Over the next forty years it will continue to experience pressure from an urbanizing and increasingly affluent populace: under a business-as-usual scenario, global cropland, pasture and biofuels systems will carry on expanding, while the Amazon's carbon storage potential will likely become another viable revenue source under REDD+. Balancing those competing land use pressures ought also take into account Amazonia's high - but heterogeneous - biodiversity. Knowing where Amazonia has opportunities to make efficient or optimal trade offs between carbon storage, agricultural production and biodiversity can allow policymakers to direct or influence LUC drivers. This analysis uses a spatially-explicit model that takes climate and management into account to quantify the potential agricultural yield of both the Amazon's most important agricultural commodities - sugar, soy and maize - as well as several that are going to come into increasing prominence, including palm oil. In addition, it maps the potential for carbon to be stored in forest biomass and relative species richness across Amazonia. We then compare carbon storage, agricultural yield and species richness and identify areas where efficient trade offs occur between food, carbon, and biodiversity - three critical ecosystem goods and services provided by the world's largest tropical forest.

  10. Terminalia catappa L.: a medicinal plant from the Caribbean pharmacopeia with anti-Helicobacter pylori and antiulcer action in experimental rodent models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro Silva, Laísa; Damacena de Angelis, Célio; Bonamin, Flavia; Kushima, Hélio; José Mininel, Francisco; Campaner Dos Santos, Lourdes; Karina Delella, Flavia; Luis Felisbino, Sergio; Vilegas, Wagner; Regina Machado da Rocha, Lucia; Aparecido Dos Santos Ramos, Matheus; Maria Bauab, Tais; Toma, Walber; Akiko Hiruma-Lima, Clelia

    2015-01-15

    Terminalia catappa L. (Combretaceae) is a medicinal plant listed as a pharmacopeia vegetable from Caribbean to treat gastritis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the gastroprotective and healing effect of the aqueous fraction (FrAq) obtained from the leaves of Terminalia catappa and to determine the antiulcer mechanism of action in experimental rodent models and its activity to Helicobacter pylori. In rodents, the FrAq was challenged by different necrotizing agents, such as absolute ethanol and ischemia-reperfusion injury. The antiulcer mechanism of action of FrAq was assessed and the healing effects of the fraction after seven and 14 days of treatment was evaluated by matrix metalloproteinase activity (MMP-2 and MMP-9). The toxicological effect of subacute treatment with FrAq during 14 days of treatment was also analyzed. The anti-Helicobacter pylori activity was determined by microdilution. The phytochemical study of the fraction was analyzed by experiments with FIA-ESI-IT-MS(n) (Direct Flow Analysis-ionization Electrospray Ion Trap Tandem Mass Spectrometry) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to a photodiode array (PDA). Oral treatment with FrAq (25mg/kg) significantly decreased the number of ulcerative lesions induced by ethanol and ischemia/reperfusion injury. The action of FrAq was mediated by the activation of defensive mucosa-protective factors, such as increases in mucus production, the nitric oxide (NO) pathway and endogenous prostaglandins. Oral treatment with FrAq for seven and 14 days significantly reduced the lesion area (80% and 37%, respectively) compared to the negative control group. Analyses of MMP-9 and MMP-2 activity from gastric mucosa confirmed the accelerated gastric healing effect of FrAq. This extract also presented considerable activity against Helicobacter pylori. The mass spectrum and MS/MS of the aqueous fraction indicates the existence of many different phenolic compounds, including punicalagin

  11. A phylogenetic lineage of closely related trypanosomes (Trypanosomatidae, Kinetoplastida) of anurans and sand flies (Psychodidae, Diptera) sharing the same ecotopes in brazilian amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Robson C; De Souza, Adelson A; Freitas, Rui A; Campaner, Marta; Takata, Carmem S A; Barrett, Toby V; Shaw, Jeffrey J; Teixeira, Marta M G

    2008-01-01

    Analysis of the phylogenetic relationships among trypanosomes from vertebrates and invertebrates disclosed a new lineage of trypanosomes circulating among anurans and sand flies that share the same ecotopes in Brazilian Amazonia. This assemblage of closely related trypanosomes was determined by comparing whole SSU rDNA sequences of anuran trypanosomes from the Brazilian biomes of Amazonia, the Pantanal, and the Atlantic Forest and from Europe, North America, and Africa, and from trypanosomes of sand flies from Amazonia. Phylogenetic trees based on maximum likelihood and parsimony corroborated the positioning of all new anuran trypanosomes in the aquatic clade but did not support the monophyly of anuran trypanosomes. However, all analyses always supported four major clades (An01-04) of anuran trypanosomes. Clade An04 is composed of trypanosomes from exotic anurans. Isolates in clades An01 and An02 were from Brazilian frogs and toads captured in the three biomes studied, Amazonia, the Pantanal and the Atlantic Forest. Clade An01 contains mostly isolates from Hylidae whereas clade An02 comprises mostly isolates from Bufonidae; and clade An03 contains trypanosomes from sand flies and anurans of Bufonidae, Leptodactylidae, and Leiuperidae exclusively from Amazonia. To our knowledge, this is the first study describing morphological and growth features, and molecular phylogenetic affiliation of trypanosomes from anurans and phlebotomines, incriminating these flies as invertebrate hosts and probably also as important vectors of Amazonian terrestrial anuran trypanosomes.

  12. APROVECHAMIENTO DE LAS CARACTERÍSTICAS NUTRICIONALES DEL ALMENDRO DE LA INDIA (Terminalia catappa L. COMO SUPLEMENTO EN LA ALIMENTACIÓN ANIMAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Arrázola P

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar nutricionalmente la semilla del almendro de la india (Terminalia catappa para tres estados de madurez: E1 verde; E2 intermedio y E3 maduro, como una alternativa de suplemento en la alimentación animal. Materiales y métodos. Se determinaron las características fisicoquímicas de la pulpa de los frutos y se les extrajo la semilla a la cual se les realizó el análisis bromatológico mediante los métodos oficiales de análisis químico AOAC. A la grasa extraída de la semilla se le realizó un perfil de composición de ácidos grasos por medio de la técnica de cromatografía gaseosa acoplada a espectrometría de masas. Resultados. Para la semilla se obtuvo en promedio: grasa 54%, proteína 24%, ceniza 4%, fibra 12% y humedad 45%. Los datos se procesaron utilizando un análisis de varianza (ANOVA. Los estados de madurez, presentaron diferencias estadísticas (p£0,05 de composición para la semilla; mientras que para las variables fisicoquímicas de la pulpa, pH, acidez y grados Brix, arrojaron resultados no significativos. El perfil de ácidos grasos del aceite de la semilla para E1, E2 y E3, mostraron similitud en ciertos componentes. Conclusión. Teniendo en cuenta la composición nutricional de la semilla de almendro (Terminalia catappa y su elevado valor en proteína (24%, grasa (54%, fibra (12%, es posible su aprovechamiento para la industrialización e inclusión en concentrados para la alimentación animal.

  13. Antibacterial properties studies of trunk barks of Terminalia ivorensis, a commercial and medicinal species on some methicillin-resistant Staphylococci species strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulibaly, K; Zirihi, G N; Guessennd-Kouadio, N; Oussou, K R; Dosso, M

    2014-09-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus infections are a worldwide concern. Terminalia ivorensis, of Combretaceae family plant, is widely used traditional medicinal in Côte d'Ivoire to treat dermal diseases (affection in which Staphylococci are implied) including local inflammation and also to treat voice-loss. This study focused to investigate the effect in vitro of the extracts of trunk barks of Terminalia ivorensis on some methicillin/oxacillin-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, coagulase-negative S. and reference strain of S. aureus ATCC 25923. Antibacterial activity of aqueous, 70% ethanolic 70% and aqueous residue extracts was assessed using agar disc-diffusion method and liquid medium microdilution method in 96 multi-well micro-titer plates. This method led us to determine minimum inhibition concentration (M.I.C.) and minimum bactericidal concentration (M.B.C.). The presence of chemical groups major was detected qualitatively. Aqueous and 70% ethanolic 70% extracts showed significant activity against all the bacteria except aqueous residue when compared with the standard antibiotic oxacillin (5 µg/ml). M.I.C. for aqueous and 70% ethanolic 70% extracts ranged from 0,83-16,67 mg/ml and 0,156-13,33 mg/ml respectively. Viable cell determination revealed the bactericidal nature of the two barks extracts. The 70% ethanolic 70% extract exhibited the highest activity according to the M.B.C. values. The phytochemical analysis indicates the presence of tannins, saponins, flavonoids, terpen/sterols, coumarins, polyphenols and traces of alkaloid. The in-vitro antibacterial efficacy shown by the barks of this plant and his lushness in chimical compounds, would justify use of this one in the traditional treatment of some diseases of microbial origin. These compounds could be suggested to provide alternative solution to the development of new therapeutic agents.

  14. The Effects of Terminalia catappa L. Leaves Extract on the Water Quality Properties, Survival and Blood Profile of Ornamental fish (Betta sp Cultured

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    Rudy Agung Nugroho

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to determine the phytochemicals content of Terminalia catappa leaves extract (TCL and its effects on the survival and blood profiles of ornamental fish (Betta sp Ninety fish were randomly assigned into six triplicates groups and reared in various concentration of TCL: 0 (control, 125, 250, 375, 500, 625 ppm for 30 days. Temperature, Dissolve oxygen (DO, and pH were monitored during the trial. After 30 days, survival, Red Blood Cells (RBC, White Blood Cells (WBC, haemoglobin (Hb, lymphocyte, and total protein serum (TPS were analyzed. Based on the phytochemicals test, saponin, triterpenoid, quinon, phenolic, tannin, and flavonoid were detected on the TCL. Temperature and DO were not affected by any concentration of TCL. The lowest pH (5.05 was found in fish medium immersed with 625 ppm of TCL. Adding TCL above 375 ppm resulted in significantly higher survival, RBC, and Hb. The highest WBC was found in fish immersed with 625 ppm whereas the lowest lymphocyte was found in fish immersed with 375 of TCL. However, immersing any various concentration of TCL did not affect on the TPS. In summary, immersing TCL above 375 ppm is beneficial to enhance survival, RBC, WBC, and Hb of Betta sp.How to CiteNugroho, R. A., Manurung, H., Saraswati, D., Ladyescha, D. & Nur, F. M. (2016. The Effects of Terminalia catappa L. Leaves Extract on the Water Quality Properties, Survival and Blood Profile of Ornamental fish (Betta sp Cultured. Biosaintifika: Journal of Biology & Biology Education, 8(2, 240-247.

  15. Extreme seasonal droughts and floods in Amazonia: causes, trends and impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marengo, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    J. A. Marengo * and J. C. Espinoza** * Centro Nacional de Monitoramento e Alerta de Desastres Naturais, Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação, Sao Paulo, Brazil ** Subdirección de Ciencias de la Atmósfera e Hidrósfera (SCAH), Instituto Geofísico del Perú, Lima, Peru This paper reviews recent progress in the study and understanding of extreme seasonal events in the Amazon region, focusing on drought and floods. The review includes a history of droughts and floods in the past, in the present and some discussions on future extremes in the context of climate change and its impacts on the Amazon region. Several extreme hydrological events, some of them characterized as 'once in a century', have been reported in the Amazon region during the last decade. While abundant rainfall in various sectors of the basin has determined extreme floods along the river's main stem in 1953, 1989, 1999, 2009, 2012-2015, deficient rainfall in 1912, 1926, 1963, 1980, 1983, 1995, 1997, 1998, 2005 and 2010 has caused anomalously low river levels, and an increase in the risk and number of fires in the region, with consequences for humans. This is consistent with changes in the variability of the hydrometeorology of the basin and suggests that extreme hydrological events have been more frequent in the last two decades. Some of these intense/reduced rainfalls and subsequent floods/droughts were associated (but not exclusively) with La Niña/El Niño events. In addition, moisture transport anomalies from the tropical Atlantic into Amazonia, and from northern to southern Amazonia alter the water cycle in the region year-to-year. We also assess the impacts of such extremes on natural and human systems in the region, considering ecological, economic and societal impacts in urban and rural areas, particularly during the recent decades. In the context of the future climate change, studies show a large range of uncertainty, but suggest that drought might intensify through the 21st

  16. Human Strategies for Coping with El Nino Related Drought in Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moran, E.F. [Anthropological Center for Training in Global Environmental Change ACT, Indiana University, Bloomington (United States); Adams, R. [Center for the Study of Population, Institutions, and Environmental Change CIPEC, Indiana University, Bloomington (United States); Bakoyema, B.; Fiorini, S.T. [Anthropology Department, Indiana University, Bloomington (United States); Boucek, B. [Geography Department, Indiana University, Bloomington (United States)

    2006-08-15

    This article reports on findings of a research project examining farmers' coping strategies in the Brazilian Amazon in response to El Nino related weather events. We examine the extent of vulnerability of small and large farmers to these events in a tropical rainforest environment. Little attention has been given to the impact of ENSO events in Amazonia, despite evidence for devastating fires during ENSOs. Although we found a range of locally developed forecasting techniques and coping mechanisms, farmers have sustained significant losses, and we suggest that increased access to scientific forecasts would greatly enhance the ability of the farmers in our study area to cope with El Nino related weather events. In Amazonia the El Nino phase of the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) climate pattern leads to an extended period of reduced rainfall (Hobbs et al., 1998). This period of reduced rainfall can result in significant agricultural losses for farmers and ranchers in the area and in increased forest flammability. We have found that the majority of our study population uses several methods of forecasting, coping with, and adapting to drought events - and they recognize the economic losses they can experience and the loss of forests through the accidental spread of fire. The poorest farmers in our study area experience El Nino related drought events as a serious threat to their livelihoods. Their vulnerability is heightened during extreme climate events and our observations revealed that all of the farmers in our study would benefit from increased availability of improved forecast information relevant to their locality and their current farming strategies. This paper examines the availability and use of forecasts, the occurrence of accidental fires and techniques to prevent fire related losses, and the coping mechanisms for dealing with El Nino related drought in the agricultural regions surrounding the cities of Altamira and Santarem, in Para State, Brazil

  17. Epidemiology of disappearing Plasmodium vivax malaria: a case study in rural Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Susana; Gozze, Amanda B; Lima, Nathália F; Batista, Camilla L; Bastos, Melissa da Silva; Nicolete, Vanessa C; Fontoura, Pablo S; Gonçalves, Raquel M; Viana, Susana Ariane S; Menezes, Maria José; Scopel, Kézia Katiani G; Cavasini, Carlos E; Malafronte, Rosely dos Santos; da Silva-Nunes, Mônica; Vinetz, Joseph M; Castro, Márcia C; Ferreira, Marcelo U

    2014-08-01

    New frontier settlements across the Amazon Basin pose a major challenge for malaria elimination in Brazil. Here we describe the epidemiology of malaria during the early phases of occupation of farming settlements in Remansinho area, Brazilian Amazonia. We examine the relative contribution of low-density and asymptomatic parasitemias to the overall Plasmodium vivax burden over a period of declining transmission and discuss potential hurdles for malaria elimination in Remansinho and similar settings. Eight community-wide cross-sectional surveys, involving 584 subjects, were carried out in Remansinho over 3 years and complemented by active and passive surveillance of febrile illnesses between the surveys. We used quantitative PCR to detect low-density asexual parasitemias and gametocytemias missed by conventional microscopy. Mixed-effects multiple logistic regression models were used to characterize independent risk factors for P. vivax infection and disease. P. vivax prevalence decreased from 23.8% (March-April 2010) to 3.0% (April-May 2013), with no P. falciparum infections diagnosed after March-April 2011. Although migrants from malaria-free areas were at increased risk of malaria, their odds of having P. vivax infection and disease decreased by 2-3% with each year of residence in Amazonia. Several findings indicate that low-density and asymptomatic P. vivax parasitemias may complicate residual malaria elimination in Remansinho: (a) the proportion of subpatent infections (i.e. missed by microscopy) increased from 43.8% to 73.1% as P. vivax transmission declined; (b) most (56.6%) P. vivax infections were asymptomatic and 32.8% of them were both subpatent and asymptomatic; (c) asymptomatic parasite carriers accounted for 54.4% of the total P. vivax biomass in the host population; (d) over 90% subpatent and asymptomatic P. vivax had PCR-detectable gametocytemias; and (e) few (17.0%) asymptomatic and subpatent P. vivax infections that were left untreated progressed to

  18. Potential application of extracts from Indian almond (Terminalia catappa Linn.) leaves in Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens Regan) culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purivirojkul, Watchariya

    2012-01-01

    Indian almond (Terminalia catappa Linn.) leaves with green and red coloration were tested for bactericidal activity with pathogenic bacteria and their acute toxicity to Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens Regan). Powder of Indian almond leaves was extracted with water at the ratio of 1:10 (w/v) and then freeze-dried to a dry powder. Bactericidal efficacy was tested against 28 isolates of pathogenic bacteria (Aeromonas hydrophila, Edwardsiella tarda, Enterobacter spp., Plesiomonas shigelloides, Pseudomonas spp., Shewanella putrefaciens, Staphylococcus sp. and Streptococcus sp.) isolated from Siamese fighting fish. A paper disc diffusion method was tested on Mueller Hinton Agar (MHA) by inoculating 1 x 106 CFU/mL of each bacterial suspension. Paper disks (5 mm) were impregnated with either 10 microl of green or red Indian almond leaf extract at a concentration of 12,000 ppm, then laid on the surface of the MHA. The results revealed that aqueous extract of red Indian almond leaves could inhibit the growth of tested bacteria better than the green extract. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined. Extracts of green and red leaves were diluted in Mueller Hinton Broth (MHB) to obtain a starting extract concentration of 6,000 ppm then twofold serially diluted in a 96-well microtitre plate. The pathogenic bacteria were inoculated into each well at a density of 1 x 105 CFU/mL and incubated at 35 degrees C for 24 h. The growth of bacteria was detected by 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazoliium bromide. The MIC of the red leaf extract ranged from 187.5 to 375 ppm which was lower than for green leaf extract (375-750 ppm). The MBC range of the red leaf extract was 375-750 ppm which was lower than for the green leaf extract (750-1,500 ppm). Acute toxicity tests (96-h LC50) of Indian almond green and red leaf water extracts in Siamese fighting fish were conducted. A logarithmic-spaced series of Indian

  19. UJI AKTIVITAS ANTIOKSIDAN DAN PENETAPAN KADAR FENOLAT TOTAL FRAKSI AIR DAUN KETAPANG (Terminalia catappa L. DENGAN METODE DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl DAN METODE FOLIN-CIOCALTEU

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    Aldo Sahala

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The aqueous fraction of methanolic extract of Ketapang (Terminalia catappa L.. was investigated for its DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenger activity and the total amount of phenolic using Folin-Ciocalteu method. It was found that the aqueous fraction of methanolic extract of Ketapang tested showed significant DPPH free radicalscavenging with IC50 value 34,071 ± 0,424 µg/mL. The total phenolic amount was 5.429 ± 0.110 mg equivalent mass value of gallic acid per gram aqueous fraction of the methanolic extract of ketapang leaves. Keywords: aqueous fraction, methanolic extract, Terminalia catappa, DPPH, total phenolic.

  20. Synthesis of Disodium Salt of Sulfosuccinate Monoester from the Seed Oil of Terminalia catappa and Its Inhibitive Effect on the Corrosion of Aluminum Sheet in 1 M HCl

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    Adewale Adewuyi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oil was extracted from the seed of Terminalia catappa and used to synthesize disodium salt of sulfosuccinate monoester using simple reaction mechanism. The disodium salt of sulfosuccinate monoester was applied as corrosion inhibitor of aluminum sheet in 1 M HCl via weight loss method. The adsorption was found to obey Langmuir isotherm. The results presented disodium salt of sulfosuccinate monoester as an efficient inhibitor of aluminum sheet corrosion in 1 M HCl.

  1. The Cotingo Dam as a test of Brazil's system for evaluating proposed developments in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearnside, Philip M.; Barbosa, Reinaldo Imbrozio

    1996-09-01

    The proposed Cotingo Dam in Brazil's far northern state of Roraima is examined with the objective of drawing lessons for Brazil's system of evaluating environmental, social, and financial consequences of development decisions. The Cotingo Dam illustrates the difficulty of translating into practice the principles of economic and environmental assessment. Examination of the financial arguments for the Cotingo Dam indicates that justifications in this sphere are insufficient to explain why the project is favored over other alternatives and points to political factors as the best explanation of the project's high priority. Strong pressure from political and entrepreneurial interest groups almost invariably dominates decision making in Amazonia. The analysis indicates the inherent tendency of the present system to produce decisions in favor of large construction projects at the expense of the environment and local peoples. The requirements intended to assure proper weight for these concerns, such as the report on environmental impacts (RIMA) and the public hearing, fail to serve this role. Cotingo also provides a test case for constitutional protections restricting construction of dams in indigenous lands.

  2. Late Miocene sedimentary environments in south-western Amazonia (Solimões Formation; Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Martin; Piller, Werner E.; Ramos, Maria Ines; Douglas da Silva Paz, Jackson

    2011-08-01

    In Miocene times a vast wetland existed in Western Amazonia. Whereas the general development of this amazing ecosystem is well established, many questions remain open on sedimentary environments, stratigraphical correlations as well as its palaeogeographical configuration. Several outcrops located in a barely studied region around Eirunepé (SW Amazonas state, Brazil) were investigated to obtain basic sedimentological data. The observed deposits belong to the upper part of the Solimões Formation and are biostratigraphically dated to the Late Miocene. Vertically as well as laterally highly variable fine-grained clastic successions were recorded. Based on the lithofacies assemblages, these sediments represent fluvial deposits, possibly of an anastomosing river system. Sand bodies formed within active channels and dominant overbank fines are described (levees, crevasse splays/channels/deltas, abandoned channels, backswamps, floodplain paleosols). Lacustrine environments are restricted to local floodplain ponds/lakes. The mollusc and ostracod content as well as very light δ18O and δ13C values, measured on ostracod valves, refer to exclusively freshwater conditions. Based on palaeontological and geological results the existence of a long-lived lake (“Lake Pebas”) or any influx of marine waters can be excluded for that region during the Late Miocene.

  3. Regional-Scale Drivers of Forest Structure and Function in Northwestern Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Mark A.; Asner, Gregory P.; Anderson, Christopher B.; Martin, Roberta E.; Knapp, David E.; Tupayachi, Raul; Perez, Eneas; Elespuru, Nydia; Alonso, Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    Field studies in Amazonia have found a relationship at continental scales between soil fertility and broad trends in forest structure and function. Little is known at regional scales, however, about how discrete patterns in forest structure or functional attributes map onto underlying edaphic or geological patterns. We collected airborne LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) data and VSWIR (Visible to Shortwave Infrared) imaging spectroscopy measurements over 600 km2 of northwestern Amazonian lowland forests. We also established 83 inventories of plant species composition and soil properties, distributed between two widespread geological formations. Using these data, we mapped forest structure and canopy reflectance, and compared them to patterns in plant species composition, soils, and underlying geology. We found that variations in soils and species composition explained up to 70% of variation in canopy height, and corresponded to profound changes in forest vertical profiles. We further found that soils and plant species composition explained more than 90% of the variation in canopy reflectance as measured by imaging spectroscopy, indicating edaphic and compositional control of canopy chemical properties. We last found that soils explained between 30% and 70% of the variation in gap frequency in these forests, depending on the height threshold used to define gaps. Our findings indicate that a relatively small number of edaphic and compositional variables, corresponding to underlying geology, may be responsible for variations in canopy structure and chemistry over large expanses of Amazonian forest. PMID:25793602

  4. The distribution and amount of carbon in the largest peatland complex in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, Frederick C.; Roucoux, Katherine H.; Lawson, Ian T.; Mitchard, Edward T. A.; Honorio Coronado, Euridice N.; Lähteenoja, Outi; Torres Montenegro, Luis; Valderrama Sandoval, Elvis; Zaráte, Ricardo; Baker, Timothy R.

    2014-12-01

    Peatlands in Amazonian Peru are known to store large quantities of carbon, but there is high uncertainty in the spatial extent and total carbon stocks of these ecosystems. Here, we use a multi-sensor (Landsat, ALOS PALSAR and SRTM) remote sensing approach, together with field data including 24 forest census plots and 218 peat thickness measurements, to map the distribution of peatland vegetation types and calculate the combined above- and below-ground carbon stock of peatland ecosystems in the Pastaza-Marañon foreland basin in Peru. We find that peatlands cover 35 600 ± 2133 km2 and contain 3.14 (0.44-8.15) Pg C. Variation in peat thickness and bulk density are the most important sources of uncertainty in these values. One particular ecosystem type, peatland pole forest, is found to be the most carbon-dense ecosystem yet identified in Amazonia (1391 ± 710 Mg C ha-1). The novel approach of combining optical and radar remote sensing with above- and below-ground carbon inventories is recommended for developing regional carbon estimates for tropical peatlands globally. Finally, we suggest that Amazonian peatlands should be a priority for research and conservation before the developing regional infrastructure causes an acceleration in the exploitation and degradation of these ecosystems.

  5. Brazil nut harvesting in Peruvian Amazonia from the perspective of ecosystem services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risto Kalliola

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Brazil nuts are harvested from the primary rainforests in the Amazonian lowlands as a direct form of sustainably using the region’s biological resources. We analyze the ecological economics of Brazil nut production in the Peruvian region of Madre de Dios where nut extraction occurs on hundreds of small-holder concessions operating under long-term agreements. This activity sustains locally important economies that suffer from small volumes and high seasonality. The size and the remoteness of the NTFP concession determine much of its profitability to concessionaires. Seasonality of the harvest generates short-term income peaks for the majority of collectors. The fragility of the Brazil nut economy in the region is compounded by volatile market prices and the overall development pressures in Amazonia, which usually involve deforestation. Although the current regulatory mechanisms in Peru encourage long-term Brazil nut production in concessions, the income level is seldom high enough to help concession-owners to rise from poverty. Auxiliary financial support based on compensations for the non-valued ecosystem services provided by the forest-covered Brazil nut concessions could change the picture. Funds for these could come from international instruments like those of carbon emission control or debt for nature swaps. Green marketing could be developed to consider payments supporting ecosystem values as well as mechanisms supporting indigenous communities working with Brazil nuts. Appropriate indicators are needed to optimize those management, policy and trading conditions that best help to preserve the invaluable ecosystem functions and services.

  6. Regional-scale drivers of forest structure and function in northwestern Amazonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A Higgins

    Full Text Available Field studies in Amazonia have found a relationship at continental scales between soil fertility and broad trends in forest structure and function. Little is known at regional scales, however, about how discrete patterns in forest structure or functional attributes map onto underlying edaphic or geological patterns. We collected airborne LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging data and VSWIR (Visible to Shortwave Infrared imaging spectroscopy measurements over 600 km2 of northwestern Amazonian lowland forests. We also established 83 inventories of plant species composition and soil properties, distributed between two widespread geological formations. Using these data, we mapped forest structure and canopy reflectance, and compared them to patterns in plant species composition, soils, and underlying geology. We found that variations in soils and species composition explained up to 70% of variation in canopy height, and corresponded to profound changes in forest vertical profiles. We further found that soils and plant species composition explained more than 90% of the variation in canopy reflectance as measured by imaging spectroscopy, indicating edaphic and compositional control of canopy chemical properties. We last found that soils explained between 30% and 70% of the variation in gap frequency in these forests, depending on the height threshold used to define gaps. Our findings indicate that a relatively small number of edaphic and compositional variables, corresponding to underlying geology, may be responsible for variations in canopy structure and chemistry over large expanses of Amazonian forest.

  7. Terrestrial mammal assemblages in protected and human impacted areas in Northern Brazilian Amazonia

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    Rodolfo Burgos de Luna

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Mammal communities in the vicinity of human settlements are often subject to subsistence hunting and retaliatory killings. We used fourteen digital camera traps equipped with infrared triggers to sample the medium-sized and large mammal communities for ca. 34 (±1.64 days per site. Diversity was measured as both Shannon entropy and Fager´s number of moves (NMS, and dominance was quantified using the Berger-Parker index. We used Kruskall-Wallis tests to investigate if there were statistically significant differences in richness, diversity and dominance among the sites. At an overall sampling effort of 1,946 trap days we recorded 216 independent observations of a total of 20 species belonging to 17 genera and 15 families. Richness and diversity appeared to be determined by forest structure, since, independent of the level of human impact, the richest areas were those closest to the ombrophilous forests of southern Guyana shield, closest to central Amazonia, whereas the poorest were at those sites closest to the vegetation mosaics of central Guyana shield. The disappearance of Tayassu pecari from the impacted areas as well as higher relative abundances in the protected areas, albeit not significant, foresees a possible bleak future for the mammalian assemblages in the near future.

  8. Juvenile tree growth correlates with photosynthesis and leaf phosphorus content in central Amazonia

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    Ricardo Antonio Marenco

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Light and soil water availability may limit carbon uptake of trees in tropical rainforests. The objective of this work was to determine how photosynthetic traits of juvenile trees respond to variations in rainfall seasonality, leaf nutrient content, and opening of the forest canopy. The correlation between leaf nutrient content and annual growth rate of saplings was also assessed. In a terra firme rainforest of the central Amazon, leaf nutrient content and gas exchange parameters were measured in five sapling tree species in the dry and rainy season of 2008. Sapling growth was measured in 2008 and 2009. Rainfall seasonality led to variations in soil water content, but it did not affect leaf gas exchange parameters. Subtle changes in the canopy opening affected CO2 saturated photosynthesis (A pot, p = 0.04. Although A pot was affected by leaf nutrient content (as follows: P > Mg > Ca > N > K, the relative growth rate of saplings correlated solely with leaf P content (r = 0.52, p = 0.003. At present, reduction in soil water content during the dry season does not seem to be strong enough to cause any effect on photosynthesis of saplings in central Amazonia. This study shows that leaf P content is positively correlated with sapling growth in the central Amazon. Therefore, the positive effect of atmospheric CO2 fertilization on long-term tree growth will depend on the ability of trees to absorb additional amount of P

  9. Functional diversity of bacterial genes associated with aromatic hydrocarbon degradation in anthropogenic dark earth of Amazonia

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    Mariana Gomes Germano

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the catabolic gene diversity for the bacterial degradation of aromatic hydrocarbons in anthropogenic dark earth of Amazonia (ADE and their biochar (BC. Functional diversity analyses in ADE soils can provide information on how adaptive microorganisms may influence the fertility of soils and what is their involvement in biogeochemical cycles. For this, clone libraries containing the gene encoding for the alpha subunit of aromatic ring-hydroxylating dioxygenases (α-ARHD bacterial gene were constructed, totaling 800 clones. These libraries were prepared from samples of an ADE soil under two different land uses, located at the Caldeirão Experimental Station - secondary forest (SF and agriculture (AG -, and the biochar (SF_BC and AG_BC, respectively. Heterogeneity estimates indicated greater diversity in BC libraries; and Venn diagrams showed more unique operational protein clusters (OPC in the SF_BC library than the ADE soil, which indicates that specific metabolic processes may occur in biochar. Phylogenetic analysis showed unidentified dioxygenases in ADE soils. Libraries containing functional gene encoding for the alpha subunit of the aromatic ring-hydroxylating dioxygenases (ARHD gene from biochar show higher diversity indices than those of ADE under secondary forest and agriculture.

  10. Party size and diet of syntopic atelids (Ateles chamek and Lagothrix cana) in Southwestern Brazilian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanaga, S; Ferrari, S F

    2001-01-01

    Syntopic Alouatta seniculus, Ateles chamek and Lagothrix cana (Atelidae) were studied in southwestern Amazonia. Primate populations were first surveyed, and then the party size, diet and vertical spacing were monitored over a 5-month period. Atelids accounted for more than half the survey sightings and Lagothrix was the most abundant. Party sizes recorded for both Alouatta and Lagothrix during monitoring were significantly larger than those recorded during surveys, but no such difference was found for Ateles. Monitored parties were significantly larger in Lagothrix in comparison with either Alouatta or Ateles, as were groups of Ateles in comparison with Alouatta. Mean party size in Ateles decreased progressively during the course of the study, from 8.9 +/- 3.4 in June to 3.9 +/- 2.3 in October. Moraceae was the most important dietary resource for Ateles and Lagothrix, in terms of both feeding records and number of species exploited. There was considerable overlap in the plant taxa exploited, but some notable differences, such as the exclusive use of Hymenaea courbaril (Caesalpinaceae) by Lagothrix and of Euterpe precatoria (Arecaceae) by Ateles. As at other sites in the region, Ateles occupied significantly higher forest strata in comparison with Lagothrix. Despite the preliminary nature of the study, the results indicate a number of ecological differences between species that undoubtedly play an important role in niche separation. Copyright 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel

  11. Chemical characterization of ancient pottery from the southwest Amazonia using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Patricia R.; Munita, Casimiro S.; Neves, Eduardo G.; Zimpel, Carlos A.; Universidade de Sao Paulo

    2017-01-01

    The analyzes carried out in this work aims to contribute to the discussion about the ceramic objects founded in Monte Castelo's sambaqui located at Southwest Amazonia. The first study accomplished by Miller in 1980 suggests that this archaeological site is inserted in the old contexts of production of ceramics in the Amazon. Until today, there are not any physical and chemical analysis studies in this ceramics and this kind of studies may help archaeological studies performed at the sambaqui. With this purpose, this work presents a preliminary study of chemical characterization of eighty-seven ceramic samples using the Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA). The analyzed elements were: As, K, La, Lu, Na, Nd, Sm, U, Yb, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, Rb, Sc, Ta, Tb, Th. With the purpose to study the similarity/dissimilarity between the samples cluster and discriminant analysis were used. The results showed the existence of three different chemical groups that are in agreement with the archaeological studies made by Miller which found a sequence of cultural development, with three main occupational components whose dating ranging from 8.400 to 4.000 b.P. In this way, the results of this work are in agreement with miller's studies and suggest Bacabal's phase as the oldest ceramist culture in the Southwest of the Amazon. (author)

  12. Constructing regional climate networks in the Amazonia during recent drought events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Heng; Ramos, Antônio M T; Macau, Elbert E N; Zou, Yong; Guan, Shuguang

    2017-01-01

    Climate networks are powerful approaches to disclose tele-connections in climate systems and to predict severe climate events. Here we construct regional climate networks from precipitation data in the Amazonian region and focus on network properties under the recent drought events in 2005 and 2010. Both the networks of the entire Amazon region and the extreme networks resulted from locations severely affected by drought events suggest that network characteristics show slight difference between the two drought events. Based on network degrees of extreme drought events and that without drought conditions, we identify regions of interest that are correlated to longer expected drought period length. Moreover, we show that the spatial correlation length to the regions of interest decayed much faster in 2010 than in 2005, which is because of the dual roles played by both the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. The results suggest that hub nodes in the regional climate network of Amazonia have fewer long-range connections when more severe drought conditions appeared in 2010 than that in 2005.

  13. Environmental changes in the western Amazonia: morphological framework, geochemistry, palynology and radiocarbon dating data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horbe, Adriana M.C., E-mail: ahorbe@ufam.edu.b [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Dept. de Geociencias; Behling, Hermann [Georg August Universitaet Goettingen (Germany). Albrecht von Haller Institut fuer Pflanzenwissenschaften. Abteilung fuer Palynologie und Klimadynamik; Nogueira, Afonso C.R. [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias; Mapes, Russell [University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States). Dept. of Geological Science

    2011-09-15

    The sediments from the Coari lake, a 'terra firme' lake sculpted into Plio-Pleistocene deposits, and the Acara lake, a flooding-type lake developed on Quaternary sediments in the flood plain of the mid-Solimoes river, in the western Amazonia, Brazil, were studied to investigate the environmental condition of their developing. This study includes mineral composition, geochemistry, Pb isotope, palynology, radiocarbon-age and morphological framework of the lakes obtained from SRTM satellite images. The geological and the environmental conditions in the two lakes are highly variable and suggest that their evolution reflect autogenic processes under humid rain forest condition. Although kaolinite, quartz, muscovite, illite, and smectite are the main minerals in both lakes, the geochemistry indicates distinct source, the Acara lake sediments have higher concentrations of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, FeO, CaO, K{sub 2}O, MgO, Na{sub 2}O, P{sub 2}O{sub 5}, Ba, V, Cu, Ni, Zn, Pb, Sr, Li, Y and La and have more radiogenic Pb than the Coari lake sediments. The radiocarbon ages suggest that at 10160 yr BP the Coari lake started to be developed due to avulsion of the Solimoes river, and the Acara lake was formed by the meander abandonment of Solimoes river retaining its grass dominated shore at ca. 3710 yr BP. (author)

  14. Allometry and growth of six tree species in a terra firme forest in colombian amazonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraldo Pamplona Wilson A; Dairon, Alvaro; Cardenas Montoya J, Duque

    2011-01-01

    In this study carried out in the Amacayacu National Park in the Colombian Amazonia, we assessed the allometric relationship among different tree structural variables and the growth in diameter and biomass of six species classified according to their wood specific gravity. The tree species chosen were Eschweilera rufolia, Eschweilera itayensis, Conceveiba guianensis, Otoba parvifolia, Pseudolmedia laevis, and Apeiba aspera. The dbh was the most important structural explanatory variable. Regarding the total height dbh model, the allometric coefficient b changed between species showing a trend to increase, and thus a taper decrease, proportional to. There were o significant differences in diameter growth between species (P=0.119, F=1.80) or functional groups (P=0.153, F= 1.19). Likewise, biomass growth did not show significant differences neither between species (P=0.0784, F=2.05) nor functional groups (P=0.0711, F=2.71). However, there was a positive trend between and diameter growth and a negative one between and biomass growth. The results of this study suggest that this forest is recovering in biomass at a constant rate independent of the patch age, which emphasizes on the importance of pioneer species and gap formation on the carbon dynamics and the species coexistence in Amazonian tierra firme forests.

  15. Lipid Oxidation Inhibitory Effects and Phenolic Composition of Aqueous Extracts from Medicinal Plants of Colombian Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ignacio Ruiz-Sanz

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Diverse plants of ethnobotanic interest in Amazonia are commonly used in traditional medicine. We determined the antioxidant potential against lipid peroxidation, the antimicrobial activity, and the polyphenol composition of several Amazonian plants (Brownea rosademonte, Piper glandulosissimum, Piper krukoffii, Piper putumayoense, Solanum grandiflorum, and Vismia baccifera. Extracts from the plant leaf, bark, and stem were prepared as aqueous infusions, as used in folk medicine, and added to rat liver microsomes exposed to iron. The polyphenolic composition was detected by reverse-phase HPLC coupled to diode-array detector and MS/MS analysis. The antimicrobial activity was tested by the spot-on-a-lawn method against several indicator microorganisms. All the extracts inhibited lipid oxidation, except the P. glandulosissimum stem. The plant extracts exhibiting high antioxidant potential (V. baccifera and B. rosademonte contained high levels of flavanols (particularly, catechin and epicatechin. By contrast, S. grandiflorum leaf, which exhibited very low antioxidant activity, was rich in hydroxycinnamic acids. None of the extracts showed antimicrobial activity. This study demonstrates for the first time the presence of bioactive polyphenolic compounds in several Amazonian plants, and highlights the importance of flavanols as major phenolic contributors to antioxidant activity.

  16. Population Development of Zabrotes subfasciatus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in Landrace Bean Varieties Occurring in Southwestern Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, L M; Araújo, A E F; Santos, A C V; Santos, V B; Sousa, A H

    2016-02-01

    The common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris (L.), is one of the most important sources of protein worldwide, and Latin America is one of the recognized centers of diversity of this species. However, storage of this product after harvest is not feasible because of bruchid attacks. This study determined the accumulated normalized rate of emergence and the daily emergence rate of Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae:Bruchinae) in five landrace varieties of common bean (BRL 01, SNA 01, RDR 01, RBC 01, and RBC 13) that occurin southwestern Amazonia. These varieties were selected for this study because they are well-distributed throughout the Amazonian communities. Beans of each variety were infested with 50 unsexed adults, and the insects were removed 13 d after beginning the bioassays. The adult progeny obtained from the feeding substrate were counted and removed every other day after the first emergence, until the end of the emergence period. Differences were observed in the calculated rates of development; however, the time required for development and emergence of the insects was independent. Of the five varieties of bean investigated, we observed that the RDR 01, BRL 01, and SNA 01 cultivars are resistant to Z. subfasciatus; the results indicate that the use of these three varieties can reduce problems associated with bruchid attacks and enable storage of the product after harvesting.

  17. Environmental changes in the western Amazonia: morphological framework, geochemistry, palynology and radiocarbon dating data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horbe, Adriana M.C.; Behling, Hermann; Nogueira, Afonso C.R.; Mapes, Russell

    2011-01-01

    The sediments from the Coari lake, a 'terra firme' lake sculpted into Plio-Pleistocene deposits, and the Acara lake, a flooding-type lake developed on Quaternary sediments in the flood plain of the mid-Solimoes river, in the western Amazonia, Brazil, were studied to investigate the environmental condition of their developing. This study includes mineral composition, geochemistry, Pb isotope, palynology, radiocarbon-age and morphological framework of the lakes obtained from SRTM satellite images. The geological and the environmental conditions in the two lakes are highly variable and suggest that their evolution reflect autogenic processes under humid rain forest condition. Although kaolinite, quartz, muscovite, illite, and smectite are the main minerals in both lakes, the geochemistry indicates distinct source, the Acara lake sediments have higher concentrations of Al 2 O 3 , Fe 2 O 3 , FeO, CaO, K 2 O, MgO, Na 2 O, P 2 O 5 , Ba, V, Cu, Ni, Zn, Pb, Sr, Li, Y and La and have more radiogenic Pb than the Coari lake sediments. The radiocarbon ages suggest that at 10160 yr BP the Coari lake started to be developed due to avulsion of the Solimoes river, and the Acara lake was formed by the meander abandonment of Solimoes river retaining its grass dominated shore at ca. 3710 yr BP. (author)

  18. Megafans and Trumpeter Bird Biodiversity-Psophia Phylogeography and Landscape Evolution in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Justin

    2014-01-01

    Based on geomorphic character and mapped geology, geologists have interpreted the landscape surrounding the Andes Mountains as becoming progressively younger to the East. These sedimentary materials filled the late Miocene swampland that formerly occupied central and western Amazonia. Apart from the ancient landscapes of the Guiana Highlands (top right, figure 1a), Zone Ac is the oldest, followed by Zone Aw, within which megafan Jw is older than megafan Je (figure 1a). DNA-based paleogeography of the trumpeters shows that younger clades diverge from parent lineages with increasing distance from the Andes chain. Thus, Psophia napensis diverges from the P. crepitans parent, and P. ochroptera diverges from P. napensis. The P. ochroptera population is confined solely to the Je megafan (figure 1a). The same trend is seen on the south side of the Amazon depression. Since the timing of the events seems to be of exactly the same order [post-Miocene for the land surfaces and trumpeter divergence within the last 3 million years (figure 1d)], it seems reasonable to think that the megafans provided the substrate on which new bird lineages could speciate. Such physical controls of evolution are becoming more important in the understanding of biodiversity.

  19. The distribution and amount of carbon in the largest peatland complex in Amazonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draper, Frederick C; Baker, Timothy R; Roucoux, Katherine H; Lawson, Ian T; Mitchard, Edward T A; Honorio Coronado, Euridice N; Zaráte, Ricardo; Lähteenoja, Outi; Torres Montenegro, Luis; Valderrama Sandoval, Elvis

    2014-01-01

    Peatlands in Amazonian Peru are known to store large quantities of carbon, but there is high uncertainty in the spatial extent and total carbon stocks of these ecosystems. Here, we use a multi-sensor (Landsat, ALOS PALSAR and SRTM) remote sensing approach, together with field data including 24 forest census plots and 218 peat thickness measurements, to map the distribution of peatland vegetation types and calculate the combined above- and below-ground carbon stock of peatland ecosystems in the Pastaza-Marañon foreland basin in Peru. We find that peatlands cover 35 600 ± 2133 km 2 and contain 3.14 (0.44–8.15) Pg C. Variation in peat thickness and bulk density are the most important sources of uncertainty in these values. One particular ecosystem type, peatland pole forest, is found to be the most carbon-dense ecosystem yet identified in Amazonia (1391 ± 710 Mg C ha −1 ). The novel approach of combining optical and radar remote sensing with above- and below-ground carbon inventories is recommended for developing regional carbon estimates for tropical peatlands globally. Finally, we suggest that Amazonian peatlands should be a priority for research and conservation before the developing regional infrastructure causes an acceleration in the exploitation and degradation of these ecosystems. (letter)

  20. The trophic role of microbial loop in an Amazonia central floodplain lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caraballo, Pedro; Forsberg, Bruce R; Leite, Rosseval G

    2012-01-01

    In order to evaluate the role of heterotrophic bacteria on carbon flow in food chains of an Amazonian floodplain lake, monthly collections of these organisms were made during the hydrological year from December 2007 to November 2008. Littoral, pelagic, and aquatic macrophyte regions of the Catalao Lake in central Amazonia were sampled and bacteria were multiplied in vitro, using dissolved organic carbon (COD) of each one of the regions studied as a substrate. The bacterial biomass obtained was used for stable isotope analyses of carbon and nitrogen. These data were confronted with COD values of the four hydrological periods of the lake (dry, rising, flood and fall). In general, it was found that the main source of carbon for heterotrophic bacteria was that of C4 origin, which presented a minimum contribution of 75% of bacterial biomass, to the extent that the bacteria D13C average value -17.72 Per Mille ± 2.25 was comparing this value with the D13C of zooplankton in the same period (-33.04 Per Mille ± 3.81) permit concludes that the contribution of heterotrophic bacteria in the carbon flow to higher trophic levels in the Catalao lake is minimal.

  1. Open access to information bridges science and development in Amazonia: lessons of the SIAMAZONIA service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalliola, Risto [Department of Geography, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turku (Finland); Toivonen, Tuuli [Department of Geography, University of Helsinki, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Miyakawa, Victor; Mavila, Manuel [Instituto de Investigaciones de la AmazonIa Peruana, Apartado Postal 784, Iquitos (Peru)

    2008-07-15

    Access to and availability of accurate information has often been stated to play an important role in sustainable environmental management. There is a growing trend of setting up internet-based information services to support the availability of relevant information. The current initiatives that aim to facilitate such information sharing through the web are still, however, often premature and unable to ensure constant flow of data from producers to users. We examine these common challenges by using as an example a network-based facility of biodiversity and environmental information about the Peruvian Amazon region called SIAMAZONIA. Launched in 2001, the service includes data provided by 13 different nodes. The experiences of this initiative have been both encouraging and confusing. A good professional level has been reached, but participation by large information holders is impeded. Participation is obviously considered an additional task rather than an attractive option for enhanced performance at the individual or institutional levels. This dilemma reflects a genuine problem in the modern scientific community, which still lacks agreed ways to reward those who share their data and results through the web. If these problems are solved, internet-based information sharing may become a vital resource for environmental management in Amazonia and also elsewhere.

  2. Diversity of bats trypanosomes in hydroeletric area of Belo Monte in Brazilian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Andréa P; Nunes, Pablo Henrique; Leite, Beatriz Helena Santos; Ferreira, Juliana Isabel G da S; Tonhosolo, Renata; da Rosa, Adriana Ruckert; da Rocha, Patricio Adriano; Aires, Caroline Cotrim; Gennari, Solange Maria; Marcili, Arlei

    2016-12-01

    The Trypanosoma comprises flagellates able to infect many mammalian species and is transmitted by several groups of invertebrates. The order Chiroptera can be infected by the subgenera Herpetosoma, Schizotrypanum, Megatrypanum and Trypanozoon. In this study, we described the diversity of bats trypanosomes, inferring the phylogenetic relationships among the trypanosomes from bats caught Belo Monte Hydroeletric area (Brazilian Amazonia). Trypanosomes from bats were isolated by haemoculture, and the molecular phylogeny based on small subunit rDNA (SSU rDNA) and glycosomal-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gGAPDH) gene sequences. Morphological characterization included light and scanning electron microscopy. A total of 157 bats were caught in the area belonging 6 Families (Emballonuridae, Furipteridae, Mormoopidae, Natalidae, Phyllostomidae and Vespertilionidae) and 34 species. The bat trypanosome prevalence, as evaluated through haemoculture, was 5,7%. Phylogenetic trees grouped the isolates in T. cruzi branch (TCI and TCbat lineage), T. cruzi marinkellei and Trypanosoma wauwau from Pteronotus parnellii. This is the first isolate from T. wauwau in Para state. The occurrence of T. cruzi in the ​​ Belo Monte Hydroeletric area (UHE Belo Monte) in Amazon/Brazil attentive to the risk of migration human population required for the works of the dam and new cities that grow in the vicinity of these businesses, but it is a zoonosis already known to the Amazon region, and the presence of unclassified Trypanosoma species, attend to the large parasitic biodiversity still unknown. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Meso-scale effects of tropical deforestation in Amazonia: preparatory LBA modelling studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolman, A.J.; Ashby, M.; Kabat, P. [DLO, Wageningen (Netherlands). Winand Staring Centre; Silva Dias, M.A. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil); Calvet, J.-C.; Delire, C. [Centre National de Recherches Meteorologiques, 31 - Toulouse (France); Tahara, A.S.; Nobre, C.A. [INPE/CPTEC, Cachoeira Paulista (Brazil). Centro de Previsao de Tempo e Estidps Climaticos; Fisch, G.A. [Centro Tecnico Aerospacial, Sao Jose dos Campos (Brazil)

    1999-08-01

    As part of the preparation for the large-scale biosphere atmosphere experiment in amazonia, a mesoscale modelling study was executed to highlight deficiencies in the current understanding of land surface atmosphere interaction at local to subcontinental scales in the dry season. Mesoscale models were run in 1D and 3D mode for the area of Rondonia State, Brazil. The important conclusions are that without calibration it is difficult to model the energy partitioning of pasture; modelling that of forest is easier due to the absence of a strong moisture deficit signal. The simulation of the boundary layer above forest is good, above deforested areas (pasture) poor. The models` underestimate of the temperature of the boundary layer is likely to be caused by the neglect of the radiative effects of aerosols caused by biomass burning, but other factors such as lack of sufficient entrainment in the model at the mixed layer top may also contribute. The Andes generate patterns of subsidence and gravity waves, the effects of which are felt far into the Rondonian area. The results show that the picture presented by GCM modelling studies may need to be balanced by an increased understanding of what happens at the mesoscale. The results are used to identify key measurements for the LBA atmospheric mesoscale campaign needed to improve the model simulations. Similar modelling studies are proposed for the wet season in Rondonia, when convection plays a major role. (orig.) 39 refs.

  4. Patterns of orchid bee species diversity and turnover among forested plateaus of central Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonini, Yasmine; Machado, Carolina de Barros; Galetti, Pedro Manoel; Oliveira, Marcio; Dirzo, Rodolfo; Fernandes, Geraldo Wilson

    2017-01-01

    The knowledge of spatial pattern and geographic beta-diversity is of great importance for biodiversity conservation and interpreting ecological information. Tropical forests, especially the Amazon Rainforest, are well known for their high species richness and low similarity in species composition between sites, both at local and regional scales. We aimed to determine the effect and relative importance of area, isolation and climate on species richness and turnover in orchid bee assemblages among plateaus in central Brazilian Amazonia. Variance partitioning techniques were applied to assess the relative effects of spatial and environmental variables on bee species richness, phylogeny and composition. We hypothesized that greater abundance and richness of orchid bees would be found on larger plateaus, with a set of core species occurring on all of them. We also hypothesized that smaller plateaus would possess lower phylogenetic diversity. We found 55 bee species distributed along the nine sampling sites (plateaus) with 17 of them being singletons. There was a significant decrease in species richness with decreasing size of plateaus, and a significant decrease in the similarity in species composition with greater distance and climatic variation among sampling sites. Phylogenetic diversity varied among the sampling sites but was directly related to species richness. Although not significantly related to plateau area, smaller or larger PDFaith were observed in the smallest and the largest plateaus, respectively.

  5. Isoprene photo-oxidation products quantify the effect of pollution on hydroxyl radicals over Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yingjun; Seco, Roger; Kim, Saewung; Guenther, Alex B; Goldstein, Allen H; Keutsch, Frank N; Springston, Stephen R; Watson, Thomas B; Artaxo, Paulo; Souza, Rodrigo A F; McKinney, Karena A; Martin, Scot T

    2018-04-01

    Nitrogen oxides (NO x ) emitted from human activities are believed to regulate the atmospheric oxidation capacity of the troposphere. However, observational evidence is limited for the low-to-median NO x concentrations prevalent outside of polluted regions. Directly measuring oxidation capacity, represented primarily by hydroxyl radicals (OH), is challenging, and the span in NO x concentrations at a single observation site is often not wide. Concentrations of isoprene and its photo-oxidation products were used to infer the equivalent noontime OH concentrations. The fetch at an observation site in central Amazonia experienced varied contributions from background regional air, urban pollution, and biomass burning. The afternoon concentrations of reactive nitrogen oxides (NO y ), indicative of NO x exposure during the preceding few hours, spanned from 0.3 to 3.5 parts per billion. Accompanying the increase of NO y concentration, the inferred equivalent noontime OH concentrations increased by at least 250% from 0.6 × 10 6 to 1.6 × 10 6 cm -3 . The conclusion is that, compared to background conditions of low NO x concentrations over the Amazon forest, pollution increased NO x concentrations and amplified OH concentrations, indicating the susceptibility of the atmospheric oxidation capacity over the forest to anthropogenic influence and reinforcing the important role of NO x in sustaining OH concentrations.

  6. Empty forest or empty rivers? A century of commercial hunting in Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, André P; Fewster, Rachel M; Venticinque, Eduardo M; Peres, Carlos A; Levi, Taal; Rohe, Fabio; Shepard, Glenn H

    2016-10-01

    The Amazon basin is the largest and most species-rich tropical forest and river system in the world, playing a pivotal role in global climate regulation and harboring hundreds of traditional and indigenous cultures. It is a matter of intense debate whether the ecosystem is threatened by hunting practices, whereby an "empty forest" loses critical ecological functions. Strikingly, no previous study has examined Amazonian ecosystem resilience through the perspective of the massive 20th century international trade in furs and skins. We present the first historical account of the scale and impacts of this trade and show that whereas aquatic species suffered basin-wide population collapse, terrestrial species did not. We link this differential resilience to the persistence of adequate spatial refuges for terrestrial species, enabling populations to be sustained through source-sink dynamics, contrasting with unremitting hunting pressure on more accessible aquatic habitats. Our findings attest the high vulnerability of aquatic fauna to unregulated hunting, particularly during years of severe drought. We propose that the relative resilience of terrestrial species suggests a marked opportunity for managing, rather than criminalizing, contemporary traditional subsistence hunting in Amazonia, through both the engagement of local people in community-based comanagement programs and science-led conservation governance.

  7. Regional-scale drivers of forest structure and function in northwestern Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Mark A; Asner, Gregory P; Anderson, Christopher B; Martin, Roberta E; Knapp, David E; Tupayachi, Raul; Perez, Eneas; Elespuru, Nydia; Alonso, Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    Field studies in Amazonia have found a relationship at continental scales between soil fertility and broad trends in forest structure and function. Little is known at regional scales, however, about how discrete patterns in forest structure or functional attributes map onto underlying edaphic or geological patterns. We collected airborne LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) data and VSWIR (Visible to Shortwave Infrared) imaging spectroscopy measurements over 600 km2 of northwestern Amazonian lowland forests. We also established 83 inventories of plant species composition and soil properties, distributed between two widespread geological formations. Using these data, we mapped forest structure and canopy reflectance, and compared them to patterns in plant species composition, soils, and underlying geology. We found that variations in soils and species composition explained up to 70% of variation in canopy height, and corresponded to profound changes in forest vertical profiles. We further found that soils and plant species composition explained more than 90% of the variation in canopy reflectance as measured by imaging spectroscopy, indicating edaphic and compositional control of canopy chemical properties. We last found that soils explained between 30% and 70% of the variation in gap frequency in these forests, depending on the height threshold used to define gaps. Our findings indicate that a relatively small number of edaphic and compositional variables, corresponding to underlying geology, may be responsible for variations in canopy structure and chemistry over large expanses of Amazonian forest.

  8. Environmental Costs of Government-Sponsored Agrarian Settlements in Brazilian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Maurício; Peres, Carlos A

    2015-01-01

    Brazil has presided over the most comprehensive agrarian reform frontier colonization program on Earth, in which ~1.2 million settlers have been translocated by successive governments since the 1970's, mostly into forested hinterlands of Brazilian Amazonia. These settlements encompass 5.3% of this ~5 million km2 region, but have contributed with 13.5% of all land conversion into agropastoral land uses. The Brazilian Federal Agrarian Agency (INCRA) has repeatedly claimed that deforestation in these areas largely predates the sanctioned arrival of new settlers. Here, we quantify rates of natural vegetation conversion across 1911 agrarian settlements allocated to 568 Amazonian counties and compare fire incidence and deforestation rates before and after the official occupation of settlements by migrant farmers. The timing and spatial distribution of deforestation and fires in our analysis provides irrefutable chronological and spatially explicit evidence of agropastoral conversion both inside and immediately outside agrarian settlements over the last decade. Deforestation rates are strongly related to local human population density and road access to regional markets. Agrarian settlements consistently accelerated rates of deforestation and fires, compared to neighboring areas outside settlements, but within the same counties. Relocated smallholders allocated to forest areas undoubtedly operate as pivotal agents of deforestation, and most of the forest clearance occurs in the aftermath of government-induced migration.

  9. Chemical characterization of ancient pottery from the southwest Amazonia using neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Patricia R.; Munita, Casimiro S.; Neves, Eduardo G.; Zimpel, Carlos A., E-mail: camunita@ipen.br, E-mail: edgneves@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Universidade de Sao Paulo (MAE/USP), SP (Brazil). Museu de Arqueologia e Etnologia

    2017-11-01

    The analyzes carried out in this work aims to contribute to the discussion about the ceramic objects founded in Monte Castelo's sambaqui located at Southwest Amazonia. The first study accomplished by Miller in 1980 suggests that this archaeological site is inserted in the old contexts of production of ceramics in the Amazon. Until today, there are not any physical and chemical analysis studies in this ceramics and this kind of studies may help archaeological studies performed at the sambaqui. With this purpose, this work presents a preliminary study of chemical characterization of eighty-seven ceramic samples using the Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA). The analyzed elements were: As, K, La, Lu, Na, Nd, Sm, U, Yb, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, Rb, Sc, Ta, Tb, Th. With the purpose to study the similarity/dissimilarity between the samples cluster and discriminant analysis were used. The results showed the existence of three different chemical groups that are in agreement with the archaeological studies made by Miller which found a sequence of cultural development, with three main occupational components whose dating ranging from 8.400 to 4.000 b.P. In this way, the results of this work are in agreement with miller's studies and suggest Bacabal's phase as the oldest ceramist culture in the Southwest of the Amazon. (author)

  10. Rupturing of Biological Spores As a Source of Secondary Particles in Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    China, Swarup; Wang, Bingbing; Weis, Johannes; Rizzo, Luciana; Brito, Joel; Cirino, Glauber G.; Kovarik, Libor; Artaxo, Paulo; Gilles, Mary K.; Laskin, Alexander

    2016-11-15

    Airborne biological particles, such as fungal spores and pollen, are ubiquitous in the Earth’s atmosphere and play an important role in the atmospheric environment and climate, impacting air quality, cloud formation, and the Earth’s radiation budget. The atmospheric transformations of airborne biological spores at elevated relative humidity remain poorly understood and their climatic role is uncertain. Using an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM), we observed rupturing of Amazonian fungal spores and subsequent release of nanometer to submicron size fragments after exposure to high humidity. We find that fungal fragments contain elements of inorganic salts (e.g., Na and Cl). They are hygroscopic in nature with a growth factor up to 2.3 at 96% relative humidity, thus they may potentially influence cloud formation. Due to their hygroscopic growth, light scattering cross sections of the fragments are enhanced by up to a factor of 10. Furthermore, rupturing of fungal spores at high humidity may explain the bursting events of nanoparticles and may provide insight into new particle formation in Amazonia.

  11. Open access to information bridges science and development in Amazonia: lessons of the SIAMAZONIA service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalliola, Risto; Toivonen, Tuuli; Miyakawa, Victor; Mavila, Manuel

    2008-01-01

    Access to and availability of accurate information has often been stated to play an important role in sustainable environmental management. There is a growing trend of setting up internet-based information services to support the availability of relevant information. The current initiatives that aim to facilitate such information sharing through the web are still, however, often premature and unable to ensure constant flow of data from producers to users. We examine these common challenges by using as an example a network-based facility of biodiversity and environmental information about the Peruvian Amazon region called SIAMAZONIA. Launched in 2001, the service includes data provided by 13 different nodes. The experiences of this initiative have been both encouraging and confusing. A good professional level has been reached, but participation by large information holders is impeded. Participation is obviously considered an additional task rather than an attractive option for enhanced performance at the individual or institutional levels. This dilemma reflects a genuine problem in the modern scientific community, which still lacks agreed ways to reward those who share their data and results through the web. If these problems are solved, internet-based information sharing may become a vital resource for environmental management in Amazonia and also elsewhere

  12. Microbial diversity of an anoxic zone of a hydroelectric power station reservoir in Brazilian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graças, Diego A; Miranda, Paulo R; Baraúna, Rafael A; McCulloch, John A; Ghilardi, Rubens; Schneider, Maria Paula C; Silva, Artur

    2011-11-01

    Microbial diversity was evaluated in an anoxic zone of Tucuruí Hydroelectric Power Station reservoir in Brazilian Amazonia using a culture-independent approach by amplifying and sequencing fragments of the 16S rRNA gene using metagenomic DNA as a template. Samples obtained from the photic, aphotic (40 m) and sediment (60 m) layers were used to construct six 16S rDNA libraries containing a total of 1,152 clones. The sediment, aphotic and photic layers presented 64, 33 and 35 unique archaeal operational taxonomic units (OTUs). The estimated richness of these layers was evaluated to be 153, 106 and 79 archaeal OTUs, respectively, using the abundance-based coverage estimator (ACE) and 114, 83 and 77 OTUs using the Chao1 estimator. For bacterial sequences, 114, 69 and 57 OTUs were found in the sediment, aphotic and photic layers, which presented estimated richnesses of 1,414, 522 and 197 OTUs (ACE) and 1,059, 1,014 and 148 OTUs (Chao1), respectively. Phylogenetic analyses of the sequences obtained revealed a high richness of microorganisms which participate in the carbon cycle, namely, methanogenic archaea and methanotrophic proteobacteria. Most sequences obtained belong to non-culturable prokaryotes. The present study offers the first glimpse of the huge microbial diversity of an anoxic area of a man-made lacustrine environment in the tropics.

  13. Food habits of Anilius scytale (Serpentes: Aniliidae in the Brazilian Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gleomar F. Maschio

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Information on the diet of Anilius scytale is provided based on the analysis of 162 specimens from the Brazilian Amazonia. Amphisbaenians (Aulura anomala Barbour, 1914; Leposternon polystegumn [Duméril, 1951] and Amphisbaena sp., which are highly specialized for a fossorial life, accounted for 81.25% of the recorded items, followed by snakes - Anilius scytale (Linnaeus, 1758, and Tantilla melanocephala (Linnaeus, 1758: 12.5% - and caecilians - Caecilia cf. gracilis Shaw, 1802: 6.25%. We found a positive, although not significant, relationship between the snout-vent length of A. scytale and the total length of the prey and a tendency for smaller specimens to ingest proportionately larger prey. Anilius scytale forages mainly on the ground, at night, as well as in aquatic environments. The non-selective capture of either proportionately large or small prey by A. scytale may reflect the opportunistic nature of the encounters. A tendency of the juveniles of this species to ingest proportionately larger prey may be associated with either a low availability of prey with a size compatible to that of the juveniles, or with their inexperience in selecting prey. Ingestion of prey headfirst may be an attempt to minimize the risk of injury the prey could cause through their rigid, pointed and sharp structures or powerful bites.

  14. The spatial distribution of Hymenoptera parasitoids in a forest reserve in Central Amazonia, Manaus, AM, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RB. Querino

    Full Text Available Parasitoids are of great importance to forest ecosystems due to their ecological role in the regulation of the population of other insects. The species richness and abundance of parasitoids in the forest canopy and understory, both on the borders and in the interior of a tropical forest reserve in Central Amazonia were investigated. For a 12-month period, specimen collections were made every 15 days from suspended traps placed in the forest canopy and in the understory strata, both on the border and in the interior of forest areas. A total of 12,835 Hymenoptera parasitoids from 23 families were acquired. Braconidae, Diapriidae, Mymaridae, Eulophidae, and Scelionidae were the most represented in the area and strata samples. The results indicate that there were no significant differences in the species richness or abundance of Hymenoptera between the forest borders and the inner forest. The data does show that the presence of Hymenoptera is significantly greater in the understory in both the border and interior areas than in the canopy (vertical stratification. Aphelinidae and Ceraphronidae were significantly associated with the inner forest, while the other seven families with the border of the reserve. The abundance of Hymenoptera parasitoids presented seasonal variations during the year related to the rainy and dry seasons.

  15. EFFECT OF WATER AVAILABILITY ON SOIL MICROBIAL BIOMASS IN SECONDARY FOREST IN EASTERN AMAZONIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Gabrig Turbay Rangel-Vasconcelos

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Soil microbial biomass (SMB plays an important role in nutrient cycling in agroecosystems, and is limited by several factors, such as soil water availability. This study assessed the effects of soil water availability on microbial biomass and its variation over time in the Latossolo Amarelo concrecionário of a secondary forest in eastern Amazonia. The fumigation-extraction method was used to estimate the soil microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen content (SMBC and SMBN. An adaptation of the fumigation-incubation method was used to determine basal respiration (CO2-SMB. The metabolic quotient (qCO2 and ratio of microbial carbon:organic carbon (CMIC:CORG were calculated based on those results. Soil moisture was generally significantly lower during the dry season and in the control plots. Irrigation raised soil moisture to levels close to those observed during the rainy season, but had no significant effect on SMB. The variables did not vary on a seasonal basis, except for the microbial C/N ratio that suggested the occurrence of seasonal shifts in the structure of the microbial community.

  16. Urban Forest and Rural Cities: Multi-sited Households, Consumption Patterns, and Forest Resources in Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Padoch

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In much of the Amazon Basin, approximately 70% of the population lives in urban areas and urbanward migration continues. Based on data collected over more than a decade in two long-settled regions of Amazonia, we find that rural-urban migration in the region is an extended and complex process. Like recent rural-urban migrants worldwide, Amazonian migrants, although they may be counted as urban residents, are often not absent from rural areas but remain members of multi-sited households and continue to participate in rural-urban networks and in rural land-use decisions. Our research indicates that, despite their general poverty, these migrants have affected urban markets for both food and construction materials. We present two cases: that of açaí palm fruit in the estuary of the Amazon and of cheap construction timbers in the Peruvian Amazon. We find that many new Amazonian rural-urban migrants have maintained some important rural patterns of both consumption and knowledge. Through their consumer behavior, they are affecting the areal extent of forests; in the two floodplain regions discussed, tree cover is increasing. We also find changes in forest composition, reflecting the persistence of rural consumption patterns in cities resulting in increased demand for and production of açaí and cheap timber species.

  17. Patterns of orchid bee species diversity and turnover among forested plateaus of central Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Carolina de Barros; Galetti, Pedro Manoel; Oliveira, Marcio; Dirzo, Rodolfo; Fernandes, Geraldo Wilson

    2017-01-01

    The knowledge of spatial pattern and geographic beta-diversity is of great importance for biodiversity conservation and interpreting ecological information. Tropical forests, especially the Amazon Rainforest, are well known for their high species richness and low similarity in species composition between sites, both at local and regional scales. We aimed to determine the effect and relative importance of area, isolation and climate on species richness and turnover in orchid bee assemblages among plateaus in central Brazilian Amazonia. Variance partitioning techniques were applied to assess the relative effects of spatial and environmental variables on bee species richness, phylogeny and composition. We hypothesized that greater abundance and richness of orchid bees would be found on larger plateaus, with a set of core species occurring on all of them. We also hypothesized that smaller plateaus would possess lower phylogenetic diversity. We found 55 bee species distributed along the nine sampling sites (plateaus) with 17 of them being singletons. There was a significant decrease in species richness with decreasing size of plateaus, and a significant decrease in the similarity in species composition with greater distance and climatic variation among sampling sites. Phylogenetic diversity varied among the sampling sites but was directly related to species richness. Although not significantly related to plateau area, smaller or larger PDFaith were observed in the smallest and the largest plateaus, respectively. PMID:28410432

  18. Seasonal Variability of Aerosol Single Scattering Albedo at Biomass Burning Sites in Southern Africa and Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eck, T. F.; Holben, B. N.; Mukelabai, M. M.; Dubovik, O.; Smirnov, A.; Schafer, J. S.; Slutsker, I.

    2002-05-01

    Monitoring of the optical properties of primarily biomass burning aerosols in Mongu, Zambia was initiated in 1995, when an AERONET sun/sky radiometer site was established at the Mongu airport. For the biomass burning season months (July-November), we present monthly means of aerosol single scattering albedo (SSA), aerosol size distributions, and refractive indices from almucantar sky scan retrievals utilizing the algorithm of Dubovik and King (2000). The monthly mean single scattering albedo at 440 nm in Mongu was found to increase significantly from July (0.845) to October (0.93). The slope of the spectral dependence of aerosol single scattering albedo with wavelength decreased as SSA increased from July to October. However, there was no significant change in particle size in either the dominant accumulation or secondary coarse modes during these months. Similarly, seasonal SSA retrievals for Etosha Pan, Namibia also show increasing values through the burning season in 2000. We also analyze the seasonality of SSA for sites in biomass burning regions of Amazonia. We show maps of satellite detected fire counts which indicate that the regions of primary biomass burning shift significantly from July to October. Possible reasons for the seasonal changes in observed SSA include differences in aging to due transport speed and distance from source regions, differences in biomass fuel types in different regions (fraction of woody biomass versus grasses), and differences in fuel moisture content (October is the beginning of the rainy season on both continents).

  19. Responses of Aquatic Saproxylic Macroinvertebrates to Reduced-Impact Logging in Central Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roque, F O; Escarpinati, S C; Valente-Neto, F; Hamada, N

    2015-08-01

    Reduced-impact logging (RIL) is an alternative land use because it reduces damage to forest cover in comparison with clear-cut practices. However, management practices adopted in RIL can affect wood availability and, consequently, fauna associated with dead wood during part of their life cycle (saproxylic). In this study, we evaluated whether aquatic saproxylic macroinvertebrates are affected by reduced-impact logging in Central Amazonia. We selected six streams in areas under reduced-impacted logging and six in primary forest areas and collected submerged woody debris. We did not find any differences in water pH, conductivity, and wood availability between reduced-impacted forest and primary forest streams. We found 248 saproxylic aquatic macroinvertebrates belonging to 37 taxa. We found five wood specialist (Dryops, Lutrochus, Stenochironomus, Oukuriella, and Endotribelos) and 32 generalists, totalling 98 and 150 individuals, respectively. In general, our results show that reduced-impact logging does not affect richness, abundance, and composition of saproxylic macroinvertebrates. The main explanation for this pattern is that management practices do not change important macroinvertebrate niche dimensions, including wood availability and the water's chemical and physical variables. Thus, controlled logging, such as applied in the area of the Central Amazonian streams studied, opens a new prospect for insect conservation and commercial exploitation of wood, which is not possible when clear-cut practices are adopted.

  20. Environmental Costs of Government-Sponsored Agrarian Settlements in Brazilian Amazonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Schneider

    Full Text Available Brazil has presided over the most comprehensive agrarian reform frontier colonization program on Earth, in which ~1.2 million settlers have been translocated by successive governments since the 1970's, mostly into forested hinterlands of Brazilian Amazonia. These settlements encompass 5.3% of this ~5 million km2 region, but have contributed with 13.5% of all land conversion into agropastoral land uses. The Brazilian Federal Agrarian Agency (INCRA has repeatedly claimed that deforestation in these areas largely predates the sanctioned arrival of new settlers. Here, we quantify rates of natural vegetation conversion across 1911 agrarian settlements allocated to 568 Amazonian counties and compare fire incidence and deforestation rates before and after the official occupation of settlements by migrant farmers. The timing and spatial distribution of deforestation and fires in our analysis provides irrefutable chronological and spatially explicit evidence of agropastoral conversion both inside and immediately outside agrarian settlements over the last decade. Deforestation rates are strongly related to local human population density and road access to regional markets. Agrarian settlements consistently accelerated rates of deforestation and fires, compared to neighboring areas outside settlements, but within the same counties. Relocated smallholders allocated to forest areas undoubtedly operate as pivotal agents of deforestation, and most of the forest clearance occurs in the aftermath of government-induced migration.

  1. Dende oil: an analysis of a new bio-fuel for the Amazon region; Oleo de dende: uma analise de um biocombustivel para Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cartaxo, Elizabeth; Silva, Ennio Peres da [Amazonas Univ., Manaus, AM (Brazil). Dept. de Eletricidade

    1997-12-31

    The strategy practicable to Amazonia is implantation of an energy valuation plan of the biomass resource, for example, the natives oleaginous (oil palm, buriti, castanha, etc.) to produce fuel. Presently, the use of the oil plant to produce energy is so insignificant that is not considered in the brazilian energy matrix, despite of being produced and consumed in cooking and and chemistry purposes. This work presents the characteristics of the oil palm cultivated in Amazonia and the possibility of using in diesel engines, when suitably processed and in Elsbett engines for `in natura` oil burning. (author) 6 refs.; e-mail: eliza at fua.br

  2. Aspectos agronómicos sobre el cultivo del arazá (eugenia stipitata me vaugh) Frutal promisorio de la amazonia colombiana

    OpenAIRE

    Quevedo Garcia Enrique

    1995-01-01

    En este trabajo se presenta un estudio del manejo agronómico del cultivo del arazá (Eugenia slipitata Mc. Vaugh) en la Amazonia colombiana y una revisión del manejo del arazá en la Amazonia del Brasil y Perú. Se concluye que esta es una especie en vía de domesticación que puede ser cultivada en otras regiones de C...

  3. Moisture Absorption in Certain Tropical American Woods

    Science.gov (United States)

    1949-08-01

    Honduras, Honduras 29.8 Increase 30 - 40 percent Cedro Granadino (Ccdrela Tonduzii) Courbaril ( Hymenaea courbaril ; Nargusta (Terminalia amazonia...Guiana Courbaril (Hymer>aea Davisii) Mylady (Aspidosperma cruentum) Courbaril ( Hymenaea courbaril ) Honduras, Br. Honduras Honduras Br«, Guiana

  4. TERMINALIA SUPERBA MINALIA SUPERBA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    2010-04-01

    Apr 1, 2010 ... engineering laboratories of the Department of Civil. Engineering, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria. One of the objectives of the testing programme was to allocate the timber specie to appropriate strength classes, and generate uncertainty models of material properties, that may be useful for structural ...

  5. Ecological adaptation of wild peach palm, its in situ conservation and deforestation-mediated extinction in southern Brazilian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Charles R; Santos, Ronaldo P; Desmouliere, Sylvain J M; Ferreira, Evandro J L; Neto, João Tomé Farias

    2009-01-01

    The Arc of Fire across southern Amazonia seasonally attracts worldwide attention as forests are cut and burned for agricultural expansion. These forests contain numerous wild relatives of native South American crops, such as peach palm. Our prospecting expeditions examined critical areas for wild peach palm in the Arc of Fire in Mato Grosso, Pará, Maranhão and Tocantins, as well as areas not previously examined in Amazonas and Amapá states. Recent digitization of the RADAM Brasil project permitted comparison among RADAM's parataxonomists' observations, previous botanical collections and our prospecting. Mapping on soils and vegetation types enabled us to hypothesize a set of ecological preferences. Wild peach palm is best adapted to Ultisols (Acrisols) in open forests across the Arc of Fire and westward into the more humid western Amazonia. Populations are generally small (fewer than 10 plants) on slopes above watercourses. In northern Mato Grosso and southern Pará soybean fields and pastures now occupy numerous areas where RADAM identified wild peach palm. The controversial BR-163 Highway is already eroding wild peach palm as deforestation expands. Many of these populations are now isolated by increasing forest fragmentation, which will lead to decreased reproduction via inbreeding depression and eventual extinction even without complete deforestation. Federal conservation areas are less numerous in the Arc of Fire than in other parts of Brazilian Amazonia, although there are indigenous lands; these conservation areas contain viable populations of wild peach palm and require better protection than they are currently receiving. Ex situ conservation of these populations is not viable given the relative lack of importance of domesticated peach palm and the difficulty of maintaining even economically interesting genetic resources.

  6. Ecological adaptation of wild peach palm, its in situ conservation and deforestation-mediated extinction in southern Brazilian Amazonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles R Clement

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Arc of Fire across southern Amazonia seasonally attracts worldwide attention as forests are cut and burned for agricultural expansion. These forests contain numerous wild relatives of native South American crops, such as peach palm. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our prospecting expeditions examined critical areas for wild peach palm in the Arc of Fire in Mato Grosso, Pará, Maranhão and Tocantins, as well as areas not previously examined in Amazonas and Amapá states. Recent digitization of the RADAM Brasil project permitted comparison among RADAM's parataxonomists' observations, previous botanical collections and our prospecting. Mapping on soils and vegetation types enabled us to hypothesize a set of ecological preferences. Wild peach palm is best adapted to Ultisols (Acrisols in open forests across the Arc of Fire and westward into the more humid western Amazonia. Populations are generally small (fewer than 10 plants on slopes above watercourses. In northern Mato Grosso and southern Pará soybean fields and pastures now occupy numerous areas where RADAM identified wild peach palm. The controversial BR-163 Highway is already eroding wild peach palm as deforestation expands. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Many of these populations are now isolated by increasing forest fragmentation, which will lead to decreased reproduction via inbreeding depression and eventual extinction even without complete deforestation. Federal conservation areas are less numerous in the Arc of Fire than in other parts of Brazilian Amazonia, although there are indigenous lands; these conservation areas contain viable populations of wild peach palm and require better protection than they are currently receiving. Ex situ conservation of these populations is not viable given the relative lack of importance of domesticated peach palm and the difficulty of maintaining even economically interesting genetic resources.

  7. Ecological Adaptation of Wild Peach Palm, Its In Situ Conservation and Deforestation-Mediated Extinction in Southern Brazilian Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Charles R.; Santos, Ronaldo P.; Desmouliere, Sylvain J. M.; Ferreira, Evandro J. L.; Neto, João Tomé Farias

    2009-01-01

    Background The Arc of Fire across southern Amazonia seasonally attracts worldwide attention as forests are cut and burned for agricultural expansion. These forests contain numerous wild relatives of native South American crops, such as peach palm. Methodology/Principal Findings Our prospecting expeditions examined critical areas for wild peach palm in the Arc of Fire in Mato Grosso, Pará, Maranhão and Tocantins, as well as areas not previously examined in Amazonas and Amapá states. Recent digitization of the RADAM Brasil project permitted comparison among RADAM's parataxonomists' observations, previous botanical collections and our prospecting. Mapping on soils and vegetation types enabled us to hypothesize a set of ecological preferences. Wild peach palm is best adapted to Ultisols (Acrisols) in open forests across the Arc of Fire and westward into the more humid western Amazonia. Populations are generally small (fewer than 10 plants) on slopes above watercourses. In northern Mato Grosso and southern Pará soybean fields and pastures now occupy numerous areas where RADAM identified wild peach palm. The controversial BR-163 Highway is already eroding wild peach palm as deforestation expands. Conclusions/Significance Many of these populations are now isolated by increasing forest fragmentation, which will lead to decreased reproduction via inbreeding depression and eventual extinction even without complete deforestation. Federal conservation areas are less numerous in the Arc of Fire than in other parts of Brazilian Amazonia, although there are indigenous lands; these conservation areas contain viable populations of wild peach palm and require better protection than they are currently receiving. Ex situ conservation of these populations is not viable given the relative lack of importance of domesticated peach palm and the difficulty of maintaining even economically interesting genetic resources. PMID:19238213

  8. Disentangling the contribution of multiple land covers to fire-mediated carbon emissions in Amazonia during the 2010 drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Liana Oighenstein; Aragão, Luiz E O C; Gloor, Manuel; Arai, Egídio; Adami, Marcos; Saatchi, Sassan S; Malhi, Yadvinder; Shimabukuro, Yosio E; Barlow, Jos; Berenguer, Erika; Duarte, Valdete

    2015-10-01

    In less than 15 years, the Amazon region experienced three major droughts. Links between droughts and fires have been demonstrated for the 1997/1998, 2005, and 2010 droughts. In 2010, emissions of 510 ± 120 Tg C were associated to fire alone in Amazonia. Existing approaches have, however, not yet disentangled the proportional contribution of multiple land cover sources to this total. We develop a novel integration of multisensor and multitemporal satellite-derived data on land cover, active fires, and burned area and an empirical model of fire-induced biomass loss to quantify the extent of burned areas and resulting biomass loss for multiple land covers in Mato Grosso (MT) state, southern Amazonia-the 2010 drought most impacted region. We show that 10.77% (96,855 km 2 ) of MT burned. We estimated a gross carbon emission of 56.21 ± 22.5 Tg C from direct combustion of biomass, with an additional 29.4 ± 10 Tg C committed to be emitted in the following years due to dead wood decay. It is estimated that old-growth forest fires in the whole Brazilian Legal Amazon (BLA) have contributed to 14.81 Tg of C (11.75 Tg C to 17.87 Tg C) emissions to the atmosphere during the 2010 fire season, with an affected area of 27,555 km 2 . Total C loss from the 2010 fires in MT state and old-growth forest fires in the BLA represent, respectively, 77% (47% to 107%) and 86% (68.2% to 103%) of Brazil's National Plan on Climate Change annual target for Amazonia C emission reductions from deforestation.

  9. Application of the Forhyd model to simulate net precipitation and intercepted water evaporation in forest canopies in Colombian amazonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tellez Guio, Patricia; Boschell Villamarin, Francisco; Tobon Marin, Conrado

    2005-01-01

    Hydrologic simulation is a technique, which allows us to understand the relationships among hydrological, biological and ecological variables in an ecosystem. In this research, the FORHYD model is used to simulate the net precipitation and the water intercepted by the canopies of a mature forest, a 30-year old secondary forest, an 18-year old secondary forest, a 5-year old secondary forest, and a shifting cultivation plot, all located in Colombia's amazonia. The model calculates the water budget of the canopy by using the precipitation rates, canopy drainage and evaporation of the water intercepted by the canopy. This paper is the second one in a series of papers reporting the results of the research on the simulation of the hydrological fluxes in three different land use types of Colombian amazonia. The research was carried out in middle Caqueta of Colombian amazonia (northwest amazon basin). The FORHYD model was calibrated and validated by using field observations of the climate, net precipitation (PT), thoughtful (TH) and stem flow (ST), which were monitored during a period of 15 months from March 2001 to June 2002. These observations were used as both input variables and diagnostic variables to probe the model's precision to simulate field observations. Results showed that FORHYD simulates with a good precision the net precipitation and the evaporation of the water intercepted by the canopy. However, the model's precision depends on a good parameterization, which in turn depends on a good database of field observations. The model is a good tool for simulating the hydrological cycle and can be used to simulate critical scenarios of climate variability

  10. Productividad en plantaciones puras y mixtas de especies forestales nativas en la estación biológica la Selva, Sarapiquí, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Alice

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available El buen crecimiento es indispensable para garantizar el éxito de plantaciones con fines de recuperación de terrenos degradados. Las plantaciones puras y mixtas con especies nativas tienen potencial para recuperar estos terrenos y a la vez representan una fuente de ingreso para los agricultores. En 1991-1992 se establecieron 3 plantaciones experimentales con un total de 12 especies nativas en plantación pura y mixta en la Estación Biológica La Selva, Sarapiquí, Costa Rica. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue determinar su productividad a los 11-12, años así como verificar ecuaciones de crecimiento. El tratamiento mixto de la plantación 1, con las especies Vochysia guatemalensis, Jacaranda copaia y Calophyllum brasiliense, presentó el mayor volumen (430,5 m3 ha-1, pero sin diferencias significativas con V. guatemalensis en plantación pura (417 m3 ha-1. En las otras 2 plantaciones, el tratamiento mixto fue el segundo en productividad. En la plantación 2 las especies con mayor productividad en condición pura fueron Virola koschnyi (411,4 m3 ha-1 y Terminalia amazonia (248,3 m3 ha-1. Esta última especie no presentó diferencias con respecto al tratamiento mixto. En la plantación 3, las especies más productivas fueron Vochysia ferruginea (276,5 m3 ha-1 y Balizia elegans (212,8 m3 ha-1, esta última estadísticamente similar al tratamiento mixto. Al comparar el volumen estimado con base en las mediciones de campo, con respecto al estimado con base en ecuaciones de crecimiento, se observaron sobreestimaciones de más del 10% para el volumen de las especies J. copaia, C. brasiliense y Genipa americana. Mientras que para V. ferruginea, B. elegans y V. guatemalensis las diferencias no superaron este valor. Sólo en B. elegans se observó una subestimación del volumen calculado a través de las ecuaciones ajustadas.

  11. Morphological characterization of Eustrongylides sp. larvae (Nematoda, Dioctophymatoidea) parasite of Rhinella marina (Amphibia: Bufonidae) from Eastern Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Francisco Tiago de Vasconcelos; Melo, Caroline do Socorro Barros; Nascimento, Luciana de Cássia Silva do; Giese, Elane Guerreiro; Furtado, Adriano Penha; Santos, Jeannie Nascimento Dos

    2016-06-07

    Absctract Eustrongylides spp. nematodes have birds as final hosts and uses other vertebrates as intermediate/paratenic host (fish, amphibians and reptiles) and have zoonotic potential. In amphibians, the larvae may be located in the subcutaneous tissues, liver and mesentery, between the muscle fibres, especially in the lower limbs. Rhinella marina, which is widely observed in Brazil, has exhibited complex diversity in its helminth fauna, reflecting the unique habitat of the Amazon biome. For the first time, this study describes the morphological aspects of third-stage larvae of Eustrongylides sp. in Rhinella marina from Santa Cruz do Ararí, Marajó Archipelago, Eastern Amazonia, using light and scanning electron microscopy.

  12. Antioxidant and Cholinesterase Inhibitory Activities of Ethyl Acetate Extract of Terminalia chebula: Cell-free In vitro and In silico Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajmohamed, Mohamed Asik; Natarajan, Suganthy; Palanisamy, Premkumar; Abdulkader, Akbarsha Mohammad; Govindaraju, Archunan

    2017-10-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder clinically characterized by memory loss and impaired cognitive function. Cholinergic enzyme deficiency and oxidative stress are the two major factors implicated in the pathogenesis of AD. The symptomatic treatment, as of now, is the use of cholinesterase inhibitors toward cholinergic "downturn." Therefore, there is a search for compounds that will be useful in focused therapies. There has been suggestion that Terminalia chebula fruit would be a potential source. To assess the anticholinesterase and antioxidant activities of T. chebula fruit which is widely practiced in the Ayurvedic medicines for memory enhancement. Ethyl acetate extract of T. chebula fruit (TCEA) was subjected to phytochemical investigation of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) inhibitory activities and cell-free antioxidant activity. TCEA was further subjected to gas chromatography-mass spectrum (GC-MS) analysis. The bioactive compounds were analyzed for molecular docking with AChE and BuChE proteins. TCEA exhibited potent AChE and BuChE inhibitory activities comparable to the standard drug donepezil. In vitro cell-free antioxidant assays demonstrated that TCEA possesses excellent free radical scavenging activity, reducing power, and potent metal-chelating activity. Total polyphenolic content of TCEA was 596.75 ± 0.35 µg gallic acid equivalents/mg of extract, which correlates with the antioxidant activity of TCEA. Molecular docking of compounds expounded in GC-MS analysis for AChE and BuChE enzyme activities revealed that methyl N-(N-benzyloxycarbonyl-beta-l-aspartyl)-beta-d-glucosaminide as the most potent compound with good predicted activities. Overall, the results revealed that the bioactive molecule methyl N-(N-benzyloxycarbonyl-beta-l-aspartyl)-beta-d-glucosaminide present in TCEA is a potential depressant for the treatment of AD and related neurodegenerative disorders. The present study was

  13. Synergistic impacts of deforestation, climate change and fire on the future biomes distribution in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, G.; Cardoso, M. F.; Nobre, C. A.; Salazar, L. F.

    2013-05-01

    Several studies indicate future increase of environmental risks for the ecosystems in the Amazon region as a result of climate and land-use change, and their synergistic interactions. Modeling studies (e.g. Oyama and Nobre 2004, Salazar et al. 2007, Malhi et al. 2008) project rapid and irreversible replacement of forests by savannas with large-scale losses of biodiversity and livelihoods for people in the region. This process is referred to as the Amazon Dieback, where accelerated plant mortality due to environmental changes lead to forest collapse and savannas expansion after "tipping points" in climate and land surface changes are achieved. In this study we performed new analyses to quantify how deforestation, climate change and fire may combine to affect the distribution of major biomes in Amazonia. Changes in land use consider deforestation scenarios of 0%, 20%, 40%, and 50% (Sampaio et al., 2007), with and without fires (Cardoso et al., 2008), under the two greenhouse gases scenarios B1 and A2 and three "representative concentration pathways" (RCPs): 2.6, 4.5 and 8.5, for years 2015-2034 and 2040-2059 ("2025" and "2050" time-slices), from IPCC AR4 and CMIP5. The results show that the area affected in scenarios A2 and RCP 8.5 is larger than in the climate scenario B1 and RCP 2.6, and in both cases the effect is progressively higher in time. Most important changes occur in the East and South of the Amazon, with replacement of tropical forest by seasonal forest and savanna. The effect of fire in this region is important in all scenarios. The Northwest Amazon presents the smallest changes in the area of tropical forest, indicating that even for substantial land-use modifications and global climate change, the resulting atmospheric conditions would still support tropical forest in the region. In summary, we conclude that the synergistic combination of deforestation, climate change resulting from global warming, and the potential for higher fire occurrence may lead

  14. Chronology of Terra Firme formation in western Amazonia and implications for the diversification of Amazonian biota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pupim, Fabiano do N.; Sawakushi, André O.; Hartmann, Gelvam A.; Savian, Jairo F.; Kern, Andrea K.; Mineli, Thays D.; Cruz, Francisco W.; Almeida, Renato P.; Grohmann, Carlos H.; Ribas, Camila C.; d'Horta, Fernando M.; Bertassoli, Dailson J.; Marconato, André; Nogueira, Luciana; Lohmann, Lúcia G.

    2017-04-01

    The shift from a large wetland dominated by avulsive channels and flooded forests to the incised transcontinental Amazon River valley (Várzea) bounded by non-flooded forests (Terra Firme) is suggested as one of the main drivers of diversification of the mega diverse Amazonian Biota. Nonetheless, there is no consensus about the timing of this landscape shift, with the current literature suggesting a period that ranges from the Miocene (11 Ma) and the Late Pleistocene (100 ka). This uncertainty may be due to a lack of absolute ages for the sediments forming Terra Firme forest substrates in western Amazonian lowlands. In Brazil, the Içá Formation represents the uppermost fluvial deposits of Terra Firme forests substrates in western Amazonia. Therefore, a reliable chronology for the last depositional stage of the Içá Formation is key for an improved understanding of the formation of the current Terra Firme-Várzea system. Four sediment profiles were sampled along the margins of the Solimões and Içá rivers for Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) dating, geomagnetic excursions, and palynological analysis. OSL dating was performed in twelve samples using a Single Aliquot Regeneration (SAR) protocol in quartz sand grains. The equivalent doses ranged from 47 to 130 Gy (Central Age Model) and the dose rate values ranged from 0.4 to 2.0 Gy/ka. The resulting sediment burial ages range from 48 to 112 ka. Paleomagnetic data were obtained from samples collected at same profiles sampled for OSL dating and results suggest the presence of Post-Blake geomagnetic excursion ( 100 ka). The age of 100 ka for Post-Blake excursion are adopted for the Geomagnetic Instability Time Scale. Pollen assemblage data show a similarity to a more modern flora and the presence of Alnus clearly points towards Pleistocene deposition as it is unknown before in South America. The combined OSL, paleomagnetism and pollen data is a robust geochronological dataset that indicates Late Pleistocene

  15. Impacts of Amazonia biomass burning aerosols assessed from short-range weather forecasts

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    S. R. Kolusu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The direct radiative impacts of biomass burning aerosols (BBA on meteorology are investigated using short-range forecasts from the Met Office Unified Model (MetUM over South America during the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA. The impacts are evaluated using a set of three simulations: (i no aerosols, (ii with monthly mean aerosol climatologies and (iii with prognostic aerosols modelled using the Coupled Large-scale Aerosol Simulator for Studies In Climate (CLASSIC scheme. Comparison with observations show that the prognostic CLASSIC scheme provides the best representation of BBA. The impacts of BBA are quantified over central and southern Amazonia from the first and second day of 2-day forecasts during 14 September–3 October 2012. On average, during the first day of the forecast, including prognostic BBA reduces the clear-sky net radiation at the surface by 15 ± 1 W m−2 and reduces net top-of-atmosphere (TOA radiation by 8 ± 1 W m−2, with a direct atmospheric warming of 7 ± 1 W m−2. BBA-induced reductions in all-sky radiation are smaller in magnitude: 9.0 ± 1 W m−2 at the surface and 4.0 ± 1 W m−2 at TOA. In this modelling study the BBA therefore exert an overall cooling influence on the Earth–atmosphere system, although some levels of the atmosphere are directly warmed by the absorption of solar radiation. Due to the reduction of net radiative flux at the surface, the mean 2 m air temperature is reduced by around 0.1 ± 0.02 °C. The BBA also cools the boundary layer (BL but warms air above by around 0.2 °C due to the absorption of shortwave radiation. The overall impact is to reduce the BL depth by around 19 ± 8 m. These differences in heating lead to a more anticyclonic circulation at 700 hPa, with winds changing by around 0.6 m s−1. Inclusion of climatological or prognostic BBA in the MetUM makes a small but significant improvement in forecasts of temperature and relative humidity, but improvements were

  16. Learning to Question: The Roles of Multiple Hypotheses, Successive Approximations, Balloons and Toilet Paper in University Science Programs of Southwestern Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, I. Foster

    2008-01-01

    Learning to question is essential for determining pathways of conservation and development in southwestern Amazonia during a time of rapid global environmental change. Teaching such an approach in graduate science programs in regional universities can be done using play-acting and simulation exercises. Multiple working hypotheses help students…

  17. Meso-scale effects of tropical deforestation in Amazonia: preparatory LBA modelling studies

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    A. J. Dolman

    Full Text Available As part of the preparation for the Large-Scale Biosphere Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia, a meso-scale modelling study was executed to highlight deficiencies in the current understanding of land surface atmosphere interaction at local to sub-continental scales in the dry season. Meso-scale models were run in 1-D and 3-D mode for the area of Rondonia State, Brazil. The important conclusions are that without calibration it is difficult to model the energy partitioning of pasture; modelling that of forest is easier due to the absence of a strong moisture deficit signal. The simulation of the boundary layer above forest is good, above deforested areas (pasture poor. The models' underestimate of the temperature of the boundary layer is likely to be caused by the neglect of the radiative effects of aerosols caused by biomass burning, but other factors such as lack of sufficient entrainment in the model at the mixed layer top may also contribute. The Andes generate patterns of subsidence and gravity waves, the effects of which are felt far into the Rondonian area The results show that the picture presented by GCM modelling studies may need to be balanced by an increased understanding of what happens at the meso-scale. The results are used to identify key measurements for the LBA atmospheric meso-scale campaign needed to improve the model simulations. Similar modelling studies are proposed for the wet season in Rondonia, when convection plays a major role.

    Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (aerosols and particles; biosphere-atmosphere interactions · Meterology and atmospheric dynamics (mesoscale meterology

  18. Fish Consumption during Pregnancy, Mercury Transfer, and Birth Weight along the Madeira River Basin in Amazonia

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    Renata S. Leão

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Birth weight can be a predictor of maternal health issues related to nutrition and environmental contaminants. Total hair mercury (HHg concentration was studied as an indicator of both fish consumption and methylmercury exposure in mothers (and newborns living in selected low income areas of the Madeira River basin, Amazonia, Brazil. This cohort study (n = 1,433 consisted of traditional riverines (n = 396, riverines who had moved to urban (n = 676 and rural (n = 67 settings, and tin miner settlers (n = 294. Median maternal HHg was significantly different (p = 0.00001 between riverine (12.1 µg·g−1, rural (7.82 µg·g−1, urban (5.4 µg·g−1, and tin miner (4.5 µg·g−1 groups studied. The same trend (of medians was observed for newborns’ HHg which also showed significant differences between riverine (3.0 µg·g−1, rural (2.0 µg·g−1, urban (1.5 µg·g−1, and tin miner (0.8 µg·g−1 groups. The correlation between maternal and newborn HHg was statistically significant in the riverine (r = 0.8952; p = 0.0001, urban (r = 0.6744; p = 0.0001, and rural (r = 0.8416; p = 0.0001 groups but not in the mother-infant pairs in the tin miner group (r = 0.0638; p = 0.2752. Birth weight was significantly different among groups but did not show a pattern consistent with that of fish consumption (and HHg. A multiple regression analysis showed that only family income and gestational age had a significant impact on birth weight. Conclusions: Maternal HHg is an important biomarker of maternal fish consumption and of methylmercury exposure during pregnancy. However, in these Amazonian groups, only maternal education and gestational age seemed to affect birth weight positively.

  19. Modern pollen-rain characteristics of tall terra firme moist evergreen forest, southern Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosling, William D.; Mayle, Francis E.; Tate, Nicholas J.; Killeen, Timothy J.

    2005-11-01

    The paucity of modern pollen-rain data from Amazonia constitutes a significant barrier to understanding the Late Quaternary vegetation history of this globally important tropical forest region. Here, we present the first modern pollen-rain data for tall terra firme moist evergreen Amazon forest, collected between 1999 and 2001 from artificial pollen traps within a 500 × 20 m permanent study plot (14°34'50″S, 60°49'48″W) in Noel Kempff Mercado National Park (NE Bolivia). Spearman's rank correlations were performed to assess the extent of spatial and inter-annual variability in the pollen rain, whilst statistically distinctive taxa were identified using Principal Components Analysis (PCA). Comparisons with the floristic and basal area data of the plot (stems ≥10 cm d.b.h.) enabled the degree to which taxa are over/under-represented in the pollen rain to be assessed (using R-rel values). Moraceae/Urticaceae dominates the pollen rain (64% median abundance) and is also an important constituent of the vegetation, accounting for 16% of stems ≥10 cm d.b.h. and ca. 11% of the total basal area. Other important pollen taxa are Arecaceae (cf. Euterpe), Melastomataceae/Combretaceae, Cecropia, Didymopanax, Celtis, and Alchornea. However, 75% of stems and 67% of the total basal area of the plot ≥10 cm d.b.h. belong to species which are unidentified in the pollen rain, the most important of which are Phenakospermum guianensis (a banana-like herb) and the key canopy-emergent trees, Erisma uncinatum and Qualea paraensis.

  20. Annual and interannual variability of forest fires in South America and their temporal scaling in Amazonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becerra Romero, Alejandro; Poveda, German

    2006-01-01

    Investigating the dynamics of forest fires in time is a challenge for environmental sciences, due to their close relation to land use and land change and their connections with the earth's climate through land surface-atmosphere feedbacks, as well as interannual variability associated with ENSO. By means of the ATSR world fire atlas data set (ESA, Europe), pertaining to the GOFC/GOLD-Fire program (monitoring and mapping implementation team), we quantify the annual and interannual variability of forest fires in South America (in three zones: Amazonia, river of La Plata and Colombo Venezuelan plain) on annual and interannual time scales, and the properties of temporary scaling of registered forest fires in the river basin of the Amazon River are quantified for the period 1997-2003. The fires in South America exhibit a noticeable annual cycle that is associated with the annual cycle of precipitations in each zone of study. The effect of the two phases of phenomenon ENSO is demonstrated, with greater fire incidence during El Nino and diminution during La Nina. The power law that relates the area to the fire frequency (fire surface versus number of events) exhibits three zones of scaling such that fires of 1 km 2 or less (θ = 0,4253, R 2 0,9701), between 1 - 20 km 2 θ - 1,1972, R 2 = 0,9893), and between 20 km 2 - 232 km 2 (θ = 2,7354, R 2 - 0,9396). The results reveal that the temporary evolution of forest fires in a site can be modeled like a fractal process of long-term memory, with exponents of scaling between 2,199 (log time vr log factor Fano (t) and 2,2476 (Log Time vr log factor Allan (t)

  1. A New Anthropophilic Species of Simulium (Trichodagmia) (Diptera: Simuliidae) From Amazonia: Morphology, Chromosomes, and DNA Sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Jeane Marcelle Cavalcante Do; Hamada, Neusa; Andrade-Souza, Vanderly; Adler, Peter H

    2018-01-10

    The black fly Simulium (Trichodagmia) hirtipupa Lutz (Diptera: Simuliidae) is widely distributed in southern Brazil, with one report from Amapá state in the northern region of Brazilian Amazonia. Morphological comparison of northern and southern populations revealed differences in all life stages, corroborated by chromosomal and molecular analyses, and indicated that the population previously identified as S. hirtipupa from Amapá state represents an undescribed species. This new species is described based on all life stages above the egg, and its chromosomal and molecular divergence from S. hirtipupa is highlighted. Simulium criniferum n. sp. can be diagnosed by the deeply concave male ventral plate with a prominent median projection bearing a ventral keel; female anal lobe in lateral view with a broadly rounded, distal membranous area about as long as wide; pupa with a boot-shaped cocoon bearing a minutely bubbled surface, cephalic plate and thorax with abundant hair-like tubercles, and gill of 12 translucent filaments with darkly sclerotized, acuminate tips; and larva with the body cuticle bearing spiniform setae, abdomen truncated posteriorly, and gill histoblast in situ with the filament tips directed ventrally. Chromosomally, the new species has five unique fixed inversions and uniquely shares three additional fixed inversions with its nearest relative, S. hirtipupa. Partial COI sequences indicate a genetic distance of ~9% between the new species and S. hirtipupa. Females of the new species are anthropophilic. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Molecular composition of organic aerosols in central Amazonia: an ultra-high-resolution mass spectrometry study

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    I. Kourtchev

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Amazon Basin plays key role in atmospheric chemistry, biodiversity and climate change. In this study we applied nanoelectrospray (nanoESI ultra-high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHRMS for the analysis of the organic fraction of PM2.5 aerosol samples collected during dry and wet seasons at a site in central Amazonia receiving background air masses, biomass burning and urban pollution. Comprehensive mass spectral data evaluation methods (e.g. Kendrick mass defect, Van Krevelen diagrams, carbon oxidation state and aromaticity equivalent were used to identify compound classes and mass distributions of the detected species. Nitrogen- and/or sulfur-containing organic species contributed up to 60 % of the total identified number of formulae. A large number of molecular formulae in organic aerosol (OA were attributed to later-generation nitrogen- and sulfur-containing oxidation products, suggesting that OA composition is affected by biomass burning and other, potentially anthropogenic, sources. Isoprene-derived organosulfate (IEPOX-OS was found to be the most dominant ion in most of the analysed samples and strongly followed the concentration trends of the gas-phase anthropogenic tracers confirming its mixed anthropogenic–biogenic origin. The presence of oxidised aromatic and nitro-aromatic compounds in the samples suggested a strong influence from biomass burning especially during the dry period. Aerosol samples from the dry period and under enhanced biomass burning conditions contained a large number of molecules with high carbon oxidation state and an increased number of aromatic compounds compared to that from the wet period. The results of this work demonstrate that the studied site is influenced not only by biogenic emissions from the forest but also by biomass burning and potentially other anthropogenic emissions from the neighbouring urban environments.

  3. Geochemical characterization of the largest upland lake of the Brazilian Amazonia: Impact of provenance and processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Prafulla Kumar; Guimarães, José Tasso Felix; Souza-Filho, Pedro Walfir Martins; da Silva, Marcio Sousa; Nascimento, Wilson, Júnior; Powell, Mike A.; Reis, Luiza Santos; Pessenda, Luiz Carlos Ruiz; Rodrigues, Tarcísio Magevski; da Silva, Delmo Fonseca; Costa, Vladimir Eliodoro

    2017-12-01

    Lake Três Irmãs (LTI), the largest upland lake in the Brazilian Amazonia, located in Serra dos Carajás, was characterized using multi-elemental and isotope geochemistry (δ13C and δ15N) to understand the significance of organic and inorganic sources, weathering and sedimentary processes on the distribution of elements in lake bottom (surficial) sediments. Carbon and nitrogen isotopes from sedimentary organic matter suggest C3 terrestrial plants (forests > canga vegetation), macrophytes and freshwater DOC as the main sources. Sediments are depleted in most of the major oxides (except Fe2O3 and P2O5) when compared to upper continental crust (UCC) and their spatial distribution is highly influenced by catchment lithology. Principal Component Analysis revealed that most of the trace elements (Ba, Sr, Rb, Sc, Th, U, Zr, Hf, Nb, Y, V, Cr, Ga, Co, Ni) and REEs are closely correlated with Al and Ti (PC1; Group-1), so their redistribution is less influenced by post-depositional process. This is due to their relative immobility and being hosted by Al-bearing minerals during laterization. High Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA), Mafic Index of Alteration (MIA) and Index of Laterization (IOL) values indicate intense chemical weathering at source areas, but the weathering transformation was better quantified by IOL. A-CN-K plot along with elemental ratios (Al/K, Ti/K, Ti/Zr, La/Al, Cr/Th, Co/Th, La/Sm, La/Gd, Zr/Y, and Eu/Eu*) as well as chondrite-normalized REE patterns show that the detritic sediments are mainly sourced from ferruginous laterites and soils in the catchment, which may have characteristics similar to mafic rocks.

  4. The Costs of Evaluating Species Densities and Composition of Snakes to Assess Development Impacts in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Fraga, Rafael; Stow, Adam J.; Magnusson, William E.; Lima, Albertina P.

    2014-01-01

    Studies leading to decision-making for environmental licensing often fail to provide accurate estimates of diversity. Measures of snake diversity are regularly obtained to assess development impacts in the rainforests of the Amazon Basin, but this taxonomic group may be subject to poor detection probabilities. Recently, the Brazilian government tried to standardize sampling designs by the implementation of a system (RAPELD) to quantify biological diversity using spatially-standardized sampling units. Consistency in sampling design allows the detection probabilities to be compared among taxa, and sampling effort and associated cost to be evaluated. The cost effectiveness of detecting snakes has received no attention in Amazonia. Here we tested the effects of reducing sampling effort on estimates of species densities and assemblage composition. We identified snakes in seven plot systems, each standardised with 14 plots. The 250 m long centre line of each plot followed an altitudinal contour. Surveys were repeated four times in each plot and detection probabilities were estimated for the 41 species encountered. Reducing the number of observations, or the size of the sampling modules, caused significant loss of information on species densities and local patterns of variation in assemblage composition. We estimated the cost to find a snake as $ 120 U.S., but general linear models indicated the possibility of identifying differences in assemblage composition for half the overall survey costs. Decisions to reduce sampling effort depend on the importance of lost information to target-issues, and may not be the preferred option if there is the potential for identifying individual snake species requiring specific conservation actions. However, in most studies of human disturbance on species assemblages, it is likely to be more cost-effective to focus on other groups of organisms with higher detection probabilities. PMID:25147930

  5. Tropical Timber Rush in Peruvian Amazonia: Spatial Allocation of Forest Concessions in an Uninventoried Frontier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salo, Matti; Toivonen, Tuuli

    2009-10-01

    Land-use allocation has important implications for the conservation and management of tropical forests. Peru’s forestry regime has recently been reformed and more than 7 million ha has been assigned as forest concessions. This potentially has a drastic impact on the land-use practices and species composition of the assigned areas. Nevertheless, the environmental variation found within the concessions and the process applied to delimit them are poorly studied and documented. Thus, it is difficult to estimate the biological impacts of forestry activities in concessions or plan them sustainably. This paper reveals the characteristics of the current concession allocation in Loreto, Peruvian Amazonia, using environmental and access-related variables and compares the concessions to other major land-use assignments. The work draws on a number of data sets describing land-use, ecosystem diversity, and fluvial network in the region. According to our data, certain environment types such as relatively fertile Pebas soils are overrepresented in the concessions, while others, like floodplain forests, are underrepresented in comparison to other land-use assignments. Concessions also have less anthropogenic disturbance than other areas. Furthermore, concessions are located on average further from the river network than the other land-use assignments studied. We claim that forest classification based on productivity, soil fertility, accessibility, and biodiversity patterns is an achievable long-term goal for forest authorities in Peru, and in many other tropical countries. We present a rough design of a geographic information system incorporating environmental, logging, and access-related data that could be applied to approach this goal in Peru.

  6. Increased Wildfire Risk Driven by Climate and Development Interactions in the Bolivian Chiquitania, Southern Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devisscher, Tahia; Anderson, Liana O; Aragão, Luiz E O C; Galván, Luis; Malhi, Yadvinder

    2016-01-01

    Wildfires are becoming increasingly dominant in tropical landscapes due to reinforcing feedbacks between land cover change and more severe dry conditions. This study focused on the Bolivian Chiquitania, a region located at the southern edge of Amazonia. The extensive, unique and well-conserved tropical dry forest in this region is susceptible to wildfires due to a marked seasonality. We used a novel approach to assess fire risk at the regional level driven by different development trajectories interacting with changing climatic conditions. Possible future risk scenarios were simulated using maximum entropy modelling with presence-only data, combining land cover, anthropogenic and climatic variables. We found that important determinants of fire risk in the region are distance to roads, recent deforestation and density of human settlements. Severely dry conditions alone increased the area of high fire risk by 69%, affecting all categories of land use and land cover. Interactions between extreme dry conditions and rapid frontier expansion further increased fire risk, resulting in potential biomass loss of 2.44±0.8 Tg in high risk area, about 1.8 times higher than the estimates for the 2010 drought. These interactions showed particularly high fire risk in land used for 'extensive cattle ranching', 'agro-silvopastoral use' and 'intensive cattle ranching and agriculture'. These findings have serious implications for subsistence activities and the economy in the Chiquitania, which greatly depend on the forestry, agriculture and livestock sectors. Results are particularly concerning if considering the current development policies promoting frontier expansion. Departmental protected areas inhibited wildfires when strategically established in areas of high risk, even under drought conditions. However, further research is needed to assess their effectiveness accounting for more specific contextual factors. This novel and simple modelling approach can inform fire and land

  7. Increased Wildfire Risk Driven by Climate and Development Interactions in the Bolivian Chiquitania, Southern Amazonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahia Devisscher

    Full Text Available Wildfires are becoming increasingly dominant in tropical landscapes due to reinforcing feedbacks between land cover change and more severe dry conditions. This study focused on the Bolivian Chiquitania, a region located at the southern edge of Amazonia. The extensive, unique and well-conserved tropical dry forest in this region is susceptible to wildfires due to a marked seasonality. We used a novel approach to assess fire risk at the regional level driven by different development trajectories interacting with changing climatic conditions. Possible future risk scenarios were simulated using maximum entropy modelling with presence-only data, combining land cover, anthropogenic and climatic variables. We found that important determinants of fire risk in the region are distance to roads, recent deforestation and density of human settlements. Severely dry conditions alone increased the area of high fire risk by 69%, affecting all categories of land use and land cover. Interactions between extreme dry conditions and rapid frontier expansion further increased fire risk, resulting in potential biomass loss of 2.44±0.8 Tg in high risk area, about 1.8 times higher than the estimates for the 2010 drought. These interactions showed particularly high fire risk in land used for 'extensive cattle ranching', 'agro-silvopastoral use' and 'intensive cattle ranching and agriculture'. These findings have serious implications for subsistence activities and the economy in the Chiquitania, which greatly depend on the forestry, agriculture and livestock sectors. Results are particularly concerning if considering the current development policies promoting frontier expansion. Departmental protected areas inhibited wildfires when strategically established in areas of high risk, even under drought conditions. However, further research is needed to assess their effectiveness accounting for more specific contextual factors. This novel and simple modelling approach can

  8. CO2 and CO emission rates from three forest fire controlled experiments in Western Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, J. A., Jr.; Amaral, S. S.; Costa, M. A. M.; Soares Neto, T. G.; Veras, C. A. G.; Costa, F. S.; van Leeuwen, T. T.; Krieger Filho, G. C.; Tourigny, E.; Forti, M. C.; Fostier, A. H.; Siqueira, M. B.; Santos, J. C.; Lima, B. A.; Cascão, P.; Ortega, G.; Frade, E. F., Jr.

    2016-06-01

    Forests represent an important role in the control of atmospheric emissions through carbon capture. However, in forest fires, the carbon stored during photosynthesis is released into the atmosphere. The carbon quantification, in forest burning, is important for the development of measures for its control. The aim of this study was to quantify CO2 and CO emissions of forest fires in Western Amazonia. In this paper, results are described of forest fire experiments conducted in Cruzeiro do Sul and Rio Branco, state of Acre, and Candeias do Jamari, state of Rondônia, Brazil. These cities are located in the Western portion of the Brazilian Amazon region. The biomass content per hectare, in the virgin forest, was measured by indirect methods using formulas with parameters of forest inventories in the central hectare of the test site. The combustion completeness was estimated by randomly selecting 10% of the total logs and twelve 2 × 2 m2 areas along three transects and examining their consumption rates by the fire. The logs were used to determine the combustion completeness of the larger materials (characteristic diameters larger than 10 cm) and the 2 × 2 m2 areas to determine the combustion completeness of small-size materials (those with characteristic diameters lower than 10 cm) and the. The overall biomass consumption by fire was estimated to be 40.0%, 41.2% and 26.2%, in Cruzeiro do Sul, Rio Branco and Candeias do Jamari, respectively. Considering that the combustion gases of carbon in open fires contain approximately 90.0% of CO2 and 10.0% of CO in volumetric basis, the average emission rates of these gases by the burning process, in the three sites, were estimated as 191 ± 46.7 t ha-1 and 13.5 ± 3.3 t ha-1, respectively.

  9. Dark Earths and manioc cultivation in Central Amazonia: a window on pre-Columbian agricultural systems?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Fraser

    Full Text Available Many commentators highlight the fertility of Anthropogenic Dark Earths (ADE, emphasizing their potential for sustainable agriculture. Some scholars believe that terra mulata (the less fertile, more extensive form of ADE was created by means of agricultural practices used by large settled populations of pre-Columbian farmers. But what was it that these Amerindian farmers were growing? Until recently, scholarly consensus held that manioc does not perform well on ADE. New research on the middle Madeira River is showing, however, that this consensus was premature. In this region, the most common crop in ADE fields is bitter manioc. Farmers there have various landraces of manioc that they believe yield particularly well on ADE, and logically plant more of these varieties on ADE. Aspects of the behaviour and perception of manioc cultivation among 52 farmers at the community of Barro Alto were measured quantitatively on four terra firme soil types (Terra Preta, Terra Mulata, Oxisols and Ultisols. These farmers plant different configurations of landraces in different soils, according to their perception of the suitability of particular landraces and their characteristics to certain soil types and successional processes. This, in turn, shapes selective pressures on these varieties, as new genetic material incorporated from volunteer seedlings is more likely to contain traits present in the most prevalent landrace(s in each soil type. Owing to localized population pressure at Barro Alto, manioc is under more intensive cultivation systems, with shorter cropping periods (5-10 months and shorter fallow periods (1-2 years. The outcome of these processes is different co-evolutionary dynamics on ADE as opposed to non-anthropogenic soils. Further anthropological study of manioc swiddening in one of the richest agricultural environments in Amazonia can fill a gap in the literature, thus opening an additional window on the pre-Columbian period.

  10. Dark Earths and manioc cultivation in Central Amazonia: a window on pre-Columbian agricultural systems?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Fraser

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Many commentators highlight the fertility of Anthropogenic Dark Earths (ADE, emphasizing their potential for sustainable agriculture. Some scholars believe that terra mulata (the less fertile, more extensive form of ADE was created by means of agricultural practices used by large settled populations of pre-Columbian farmers. But what was it that these Amerindian farmers were growing? Until recently, scholarly consensus held that manioc does not perform well on ADE. New research on the middle Madeira River is showing, however, that this consensus was premature. In this region, the most common crop in ADE fields is bitter manioc. Farmers there have various landraces of manioc that they believe yield particularly well on ADE, and logically plant more of these varieties on ADE. Aspects of the behaviour and perception of manioc cultivation among 52 farmers at the community of Barro Alto were measured quantitatively on four terra firme soil types (Terra Preta, Terra Mulata, Oxisols and Ultisols. These farmers plant different configurations of landraces in different soils, according to their perception of the suitability of particular landraces and their characteristics to certain soil types and successional processes.This, in turn, shapes selective pressures on these varieties, as new genetic material incorporated from volunteer seedlings is more likely to contain traits present in the most prevalent landrace(s in each soil type. Owing to localized population pressure at Barro Alto, manioc is under more intensive cultivation systems, with shorter cropping periods (5-10 months and shorter fallow periods (1-2 years. The outcome of these processes is different co-evolutionary dynamics on ADE as opposed to non-anthropogenic soils. Further anthropological study of manioc swiddening in one of the richest agricultural environments in Amazonia can fill a gap in the literature, thus opening an additional window on the pre-Columbian period.

  11. Allocating logging rights in Peruvian Amazonia--does it matter to be local?

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    Matti Salo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The fate of tropical forests is a global concern, yet many far-reaching decisions affecting forest resources are made locally. We explore allocation of logging rights using a case study from Loreto, Peruvian Amazonia, where millions of hectares of tropical rainforest were offered for concession in a competitive tendering process that addressed issues related to locality. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: After briefly presenting the study area and the tendering process, we identify and define local and non-local actors taking part in the concession process. We then analyse their tenders, results of the tendering, and attributes of the concession areas. Our results show that there was more offer than demand for concession land in the tendering. The number of tenders the concession areas received was related to their size and geographic location in relation to the major cities, but not to their estimated timber volumes or median distances from transport routes. Small and Loreto-based actors offered lower yearly area-based fees compared to larger ones, but the offers did not significantly affect the results of the tenders. Local experience in the form of logging history or residence near the solicited concession areas, as well as being registered in the region of Loreto, improved the success of the tenders. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The allocation process left a considerable number of forest areas under the management of small and local actors, and if Peru is to reach its goal of zero deforestation rate by safeguarding 75 per cent of its forests by 2020, the small and the local actors need to be integrated to the forest regime as important constituents of its legitimacy.

  12. Las palmas entre los grupos cazadores-recolectores de la Amazonia Colombiana

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    Morcote Ríos Gaspar

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available We compare past and present systems of management of palms in the Colombian Amazon, based on archaeological studies of preceramic groups in the middle Caquetá region and ethnographic research on the nomadic Nukak people, who inhabit northeastern Guaviare department. Astrocaryum aculeatum, Attalea maripe, Mauritia flexuosa, Oenocarpus bataua, Oenocarpus bacaba y Oenocarpus mapora, have been used from the early Holocene through the present time. Among these, Oenocarpus bataua has remained the most important food species. We conclude that one of the mananging strategies of the tropical rain forest is the simultaneous improvement of ecological units, especially in the tertiary sedimentary plains, and that such management probably has a long history in the region.Se presenta una comparación sobre el manejo de las palmas en la Amazonia Colombiana, basado en los resultados de un estudio arqueológico de grupos precerámicos en la región del Medio Caquetá y uno etnográfico del pueblo nómada Nukak que habita la zona nororiental del departamento del Guaviare. Se encontró que Astrocaryum aculeatum, A ttalea maripa, Mauritia flexuosa, Oenocarpus bataua, Oenocarpus bacaba y Oenocarpus mapora son algunas de las palmas usadas desde el Holoceno temprano hasta el presente. Entre estas Oenocarpus bataua es la especie más importante como fuente de alimento. Así mismo, se concluye que una de las estrategias de manejo en el bosque húmedo tropical es el aprovechamiento simultáneo de diferentes unidades ecológicas, con predominio del plano sedimentario terciario. Es probable que este tipo de manejo tenga en la región una larga historia.

  13. DISTRIBUTION OF ORGANIC CARBON IN DIFFERENT SOIL FRACTIONS IN ECOSYSTEMS OF CENTRAL AMAZONIA

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    Jean Dalmo de Oliveira Marques

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Organic matter plays an important role in many soil properties, and for that reason it is necessary to identify management systems which maintain or increase its concentrations. The aim of the present study was to determine the quality and quantity of organic C in different compartments of the soil fraction in different Amazonian ecosystems. The soil organic matter (FSOM was fractionated and soil C stocks were estimated in primary forest (PF, pasture (P, secondary succession (SS and an agroforestry system (AFS. Samples were collected at the depths 0-5, 5-10, 10-20, 20-40, 40-60, 60-80, 80-100, 100-160, and 160-200 cm. Densimetric and particle size analysis methods were used for FSOM, obtaining the following fractions: FLF (free light fraction, IALF (intra-aggregate light fraction, F-sand (sand fraction, F-clay (clay fraction and F-silt (silt fraction. The 0-5 cm layer contains 60 % of soil C, which is associated with the FLF. The F-clay was responsible for 70 % of C retained in the 0-200 cm depth. There was a 12.7 g kg-1 C gain in the FLF from PF to SS, and a 4.4 g kg-1 C gain from PF to AFS, showing that SS and AFS areas recover soil organic C, constituting feasible C-recovery alternatives for degraded and intensively farmed soils in Amazonia. The greatest total stocks of carbon in soil fractions were, in decreasing order: (101.3 Mg ha-1 of C - AFS > (98.4 Mg ha-1 of C - FP > (92.9 Mg ha-1 of C - SS > (64.0 Mg ha-1 of C - P. The forms of land use in the Amazon influence C distribution in soil fractions, resulting in short- or long-term changes.

  14. The Challenges from Extreme Climate Events for Sustainable Development in Amazonia: the Acre State Experience

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    Araújo, M. D. N. M.

    2015-12-01

    In the past ten years Acre State, located in Brazil´s southwestern Amazonia, has confronted sequential and severe extreme events in the form of droughts and floods. In particular, the droughts and forest fires of 2005 and 2010, the 2012 flood within Acre, the 2014 flood of the Madeira River which isolated Acre for two months from southern Brazil, and the most severe flooding throughout the state in 2015 shook the resilience of Acrean society. The accumulated costs of these events since 2005 have exceeded 300 million dollars. For the last 17 years, successive state administrations have been implementing a socio-environmental model of development that strives to link sustainable economic production with environmental conservation, particularly for small communities. In this context, extreme climate events have interfered significantly with this model, increasing the risks of failure. The impacts caused by these events on development in the state have been exacerbated by: a) limitations in monitoring; b) extreme events outside of Acre territory (Madeira River Flood) affecting transportation systems; c) absence of reliable information for decision-making; and d) bureaucratic and judicial impediments. Our experience in these events have led to the following needs for scientific input to reduce the risk of disasters: 1) better monitoring and forecasting of deforestation, fires, and hydro-meteorological variables; 2) ways to increase risk perception in communities; 3) approaches to involve more effectively local and regional populations in the response to disasters; 4) more accurate measurements of the economic and social damages caused by these disasters. We must improve adaptation to and mitigation of current and future extreme climate events and implement a robust civil defense, adequate to these new challenges.

  15. Global warming and climate change in Amazonia: Climate-vegetation feedback and impacts on water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marengo, José; Nobre, Carlos A.; Betts, Richard A.; Cox, Peter M.; Sampaio, Gilvan; Salazar, Luis

    This chapter constitutes an updated review of long-term climate variability and change in the Amazon region, based on observational data spanning more than 50 years of records and on climate-change modeling studies. We start with the early experiments on Amazon deforestation in the late 1970s, and the evolution of these experiments to the latest studies on greenhouse gases emission scenarios and land use changes until the end of the twenty-first century. The "Amazon dieback" simulated by the HadCM3 model occurs after a "tipping point" of CO2 concentration and warming. Experiments on Amazon deforestation and change of climate suggest that once a critical deforestation threshold (or tipping point) of 40-50% forest loss is reached in eastern Amazonia, climate would change in a way which is dangerous for the remaining forest. This may favor a collapse of the tropical forest, with a substitution of the forest by savanna-type vegetation. The concept of "dangerous climate change," as a climate change, which induces positive feedback, which accelerate the change, is strongly linked to the occurrence of tipping points, and it can be explained as the presence of feedback between climate change and the carbon cycle, particularly involving a weakening of the current terrestrial carbon sink and a possible reversal from a sink (as in present climate) to a source by the year 2050. We must, therefore, currently consider the drying simulated by the Hadley Centre model(s) as having a finite probability under global warming, with a potentially enormous impact, but with some degree of uncertainty.

  16. Meso-scale effects of tropical deforestation in Amazonia: preparatory LBA modelling studies

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    A. J. Dolman

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available As part of the preparation for the Large-Scale Biosphere Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia, a meso-scale modelling study was executed to highlight deficiencies in the current understanding of land surface atmosphere interaction at local to sub-continental scales in the dry season. Meso-scale models were run in 1-D and 3-D mode for the area of Rondonia State, Brazil. The important conclusions are that without calibration it is difficult to model the energy partitioning of pasture; modelling that of forest is easier due to the absence of a strong moisture deficit signal. The simulation of the boundary layer above forest is good, above deforested areas (pasture poor. The models' underestimate of the temperature of the boundary layer is likely to be caused by the neglect of the radiative effects of aerosols caused by biomass burning, but other factors such as lack of sufficient entrainment in the model at the mixed layer top may also contribute. The Andes generate patterns of subsidence and gravity waves, the effects of which are felt far into the Rondonian area The results show that the picture presented by GCM modelling studies may need to be balanced by an increased understanding of what happens at the meso-scale. The results are used to identify key measurements for the LBA atmospheric meso-scale campaign needed to improve the model simulations. Similar modelling studies are proposed for the wet season in Rondonia, when convection plays a major role.Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (aerosols and particles; biosphere-atmosphere interactions · Meterology and atmospheric dynamics (mesoscale meterology

  17. Polyspecific associations between squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) and other primates in eastern Amazonia.

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    Pinheiro, Tatyana; Ferrari, Stephen F; Lopes, Maria Aparecida

    2011-11-01

    One of the most common types of polyspecific association observed in Neotropical primate communities is that between squirrel monkeys (Saimiri) and capuchins (Cebus). The present study focused on association patterns in two Saimiri sciureus groups in eastern Brazilian Amazonia, between March and October, 2009. The associations were analyzed in terms of the species involved, the degree of association, and niche breadth and overlap. The study involved two S. sciureus groups (B4 and GI) on the right and left bank of the Tocantins River, respectively, within the area of the Tucuruí reservoir in southeastern Pará. Relations between species were classified as associations (individuals within 50 m and moving in the same direction), and encounters (individuals within 50 m and no coordinated movement). Group B4 was in association with Cebus apella during 100% of monitoring, and with Chiropotes satanas in 20.2%. By contrast, Group GI associated with Cebus 54.8% of the time, and with Chiropotes utahickae 2.5%. Encounters with Alouatta belzebul and Saguinus niger were recorded at both sites, with Aotus azarae and Dasyprocta prymnolopha at B4, and with Callicebus moloch, Dasyproct aleporina, Mazama gouazoubira, and Nasua nasua at GI. Overall, Saimiri had a broader niche than Cebus in terms of vertical spacing and diet, but not for substrate use. This pattern did not appear to be affected by association. While group GI spent significantly (P < 0.05) more time in association with Cebus during the wet season, group B4 associated with Chiropotes more during the dry season. Despite the higher association rates, niche overlap was greater for all variables at B4. This may reflect differences in the ranging and foraging patterns at the two sites, and the varying potential benefits of association for Saimiri. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. High genetic diversity among and within bitter manioc varieties cultivated in different soil types in Central Amazonia

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    Alessandro Alves-Pereira

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Although manioc is well adapted to nutrient-poor Oxisols of Amazonia, ethnobotanical observations show that bitter manioc is also frequently cultivated in the highly fertile soils of the floodplains and Amazonian dark earths (ADE along the middle Madeira River. Because different sets of varieties are grown in each soil type, and there are agronomic similarities between ADE and floodplain varieties, it was hypothesized that varieties grown in ADE and floodplain were more closely related to each other than either is to varieties grown in Oxisols. We tested this hypothesis evaluating the intra-varietal genetic diversity and the genetic relationships among manioc varieties commonly cultivated in Oxisols, ADE and floodplain soils. Genetic results did not agree with ethnobotanical expectation, since the relationships between varieties were variable and most individuals of varieties with the same vernacular name, but grown in ADE and floodplain, were distinct. Although the same vernacular name could not always be associated with genetic similarities, there is still a great amount of variation among the varieties. Many ecological and genetic processes may explain the high genetic diversity and differentiation found for bitter manioc varieties, but all contribute to the maintenance and amplification of genetic diversity within the manioc in Central Amazonia.

  19. Co-Evolution and Bio-Social Construction: The Kichwa Agroforestry Systems (Chakras in the Ecuadorian Amazonia

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    Daniel Coq-Huelva

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Polycultured agrarian systems in Ecuadorian Amazonia (also called chakras or swollen gardens are characterised by a market-oriented crop for the generation of monetary income, for example, cocoa, other agricultural products (e.g., banana and cassava, and livestock for family farm consumption. Moreover, a chakra is an outstanding example of agroforestry production, in which ecological, social and economic elements co-evolve from a set of close and strong connections. In this context, the conservation and transformation of their biological subsystems can be understood as the result of complex interactions between anthropogenic and non-anthropogenic factors. In turn, such interactions are essential to provide food and monetary income to the indigenous community. Relevant agency capabilities exist that could cause an agroforestry system to take a different path of co-evolution, that is, towards greater or lesser sustainability associated with different levels of complexity. In conclusion, chakras have key ecological features that can mitigate the impact of human population growth in Amazonia. Additionally, chakras have their own processes of social self-regulation which enhance the possibilities of adaptation of Kichwa communities to changing environmental conditions, being essential elements in local food sovereignty, equitable gender relations and the respect of ancestral wisdom.

  20. The effects of biomass burning aerosols and clouds on the CO{sub 2} flux in Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Paulo H.F. E-mail: pauloh@if.usp.br; Artaxo, Paulo; Pires, Carlos; Lucca, Silvia De [Laboratorio de Fisica Atmosferica, Inst. de Fisica, Univ. de Sao Paulo, Rua do Matao, Travessa R, 187, Sao Paulo, SP, CEP 05508-900 (Brazil); Procopio, Aline [Dept. de Engenharia Bioquimica, Univ. Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Av. Brig. Trompowski, Rio de Janeiro, R.J., CEP: 21949-900 (Brazil); Holben, Brent; Schafer, Joel [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt (United States); Cardoso, Luiz F. [UNIR Fundacao Univ. Federal de Rondonia, Campus de Ji-Parana, Ji-Parana (Brazil); Wofsy, Steven C. [Harvard Univ., Dept. of Earth and Planetary Science, 29 Oxford St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Rocha, Humberto R. [Dept. de Ciencias Atmosfericas - IAG - Univ. de Sao Paulo, Rua do Matao, 1226 - CEP 05508-900, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2007-07-15

    Aerosol particles associated with biomass burning emissions affect the surface radiative budget and net ecosystem exchange (NEE) over large areas in Amazonia during the dry season. We analysed CO{sub 2} fluxes as a function of aerosol loading for two forest sites in Amazonia as part of the LBA experiment. Aerosol optical thickness (AOT) measurements were made with AERONET sun photometers, and CO{sub 2} flux measurements were determined by eddy-correlation. The enhancement of the NEE varied with different aerosol loading, as well as cloud cover, solar elevation angles and other parameters. The AOT value with the strongest effect on the NEE in the FLONA-TapajOs site was 1.7, with an enhancement of the NEE of 11% compared with clear-sky conditions. In the RBJ site, the strongest effect was for AOT of 1.6 with an enhancement of 18% in the NEE. For values of AOT lager than 2.7, strong reduction on the NEE was observed due to the reduction in the total solar radiation. The enhancement in the NEE is attributed to the increase of diffuse versus direct solar radiation. Due to the fact that aerosols from biomass burning are present in most tropical areas, its effects on the global carbon budget could also be significant.