WorldWideScience

Sample records for terminal study volume

  1. Sleep apnea termination decreases cerebral blood volume: a near-infrared spectroscopy case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, Jaakko; Noponen, Tommi; Salmi, Tapani; Toppila, Jussi; Meriläinen, Pekka

    2009-07-01

    Medical near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) can be used to estimate cerebral haemodynamic changes non-invasively. Sleep apnea is a common sleep disorder where repetitive pauses in breathing decrease the quality of sleep and exposes the individual to various health problems. We have measured oxygenated and deoxygenated haemoglobin concentration changes during apneic events in sleep from the forehead of one subject using NIRS and used principal component analysis to extract extracerebral and cortical haemodynamic changes from NIRS signals. Comparison of NIRS signals with EEG, bioimpedance, and pulse oximetry data suggests that termination of apnea leads to decreases in cerebral blood volume and flow that may be related to neurological arousal via neurovascular coupling.

  2. Volume of hydration in terminal cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruera, E; Belzile, M; Watanabe, S; Fainsinger, R L

    1996-03-01

    In this retrospective study we reviewed the volume and modality of hydration of consecutive series of terminal cancer patients in two different settings. In a palliative care unit 203/290 admitted patients received subcutaneous hydration for 12 +/- 8 days at a daily volume of 1015 +/- 135 ml/day. At the cancer center, 30 consecutive similar patients received intravenous hydration for 11.5 +/- 5 days (P > 0.2) but at a daily volume of 2080 +/- 720 ml/day (P palliative care unit patients required discontinuation of hydration because of complications. Hypodermoclysis was administered mainly as a continuous infusion, an overnight infusion, or in one to three 1-h boluses in 62 (31%), 98 (48%) and 43 (21%) patients, respectively. Our findings suggest that, in some settings, patients may be receiving excessive volumes of hydration by less comfortable routes such as the intravenous route. Increased education and research in this area are badly needed.

  3. Blood volume studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, S.M.; Yin, J.A.L.

    1986-01-01

    The use of dilution analysis with such radioisotopes as 51 Cr, 32 P, sup(99m)Tc and sup(113m)In for measuring red cell volume is reviewed briefly. The use of 125 I and 131 I for plasma volume studies is also considered and the subsequent determination of total blood volume discussed, together with the role of the splenic red cell volume. Substantial bibliography. (UK)

  4. Safe use of mine winding ropes, volume 3: rope terminations.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Borrello, M

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Previous work which was carried out on splice demonstrated that the efficiency of this type of termination was sensitive to both rigger skill and operating loads. It was therefore suggested that future research should be aimed at identifying...

  5. A hanging drop culture method to study terminal erythroid differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Laura; Lindeboom, Fokke; Ferreira, Rita; Drissen, Roy; Grosveld, Frank; Whyatt, David; Philipsen, Sjaak

    2005-10-01

    To design a culture method allowing the quantitative and qualitative analysis of terminal erythroid differentiation. Primary erythroid progenitors derived either from mouse tissues or from human umbilical cord blood were differentiated using hanging drop cultures and compared to methylcellulose cultures. Cultured cells were analyzed by FACS to assess differentiation. We describe a practical culture method by adapting the previously described hanging drop culture system to conditions allowing terminal differentiation of primary erythroid progenitors. Using minimal volumes of media and small numbers of cells, we obtained quantitative terminal erythroid differentiation within two days of culture in the case of murine cells and 4 days in the case of human cells. The established methods for ex vivo culture of primary erythroid progenitors, such as methylcellulose-based burst-forming unit-erythroid (BFU-E) and colony-forming unit-erythroid (CFU-E) assays, allow the detection of committed erythroid progenitors but are of limited value to study terminal erythroid differentiation. We show that the application of hanging drop cultures is a practical alternative that, in combination with clonogenic assays, enables a comprehensive assessment of the behavior of primary erythroid cells ex vivo in the context of genetic and drug-induced perturbations.

  6. Prediction of drug terminal half-life and terminal volume of distribution after intravenous dosing based on drug clearance, steady-state volume of distribution, and physiological parameters of the body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezhkovskiy, Leonid M

    2013-02-01

    The steady state, V(ss), terminal volume of distribution, V(β), and the terminal half-life, t(1/2), are commonly obtained from the drug plasma concentration-time profile, C(p)(t), following intravenous dosing. Unlike V(ss) that can be calculated based on the physicochemical properties of drugs considering the equilibrium partitioning between plasma and organ tissues, t(1/2) and V(β) cannot be calculated that way because they depend on the rates of drug transfer between blood and tissues. Considering the physiological pharmacokinetic model pertinent to the terminal phase of drug elimination, a novel equation that calculates t(1/2) (and consequently V(β)) was derived. It turns out that V(ss), the total body clearance, Cl, equilibrium blood-plasma concentration ratio, r; and the physiological parameters of the body such as cardiac output, and blood and tissue volumes are sufficient for determination of terminal kinetics. Calculation of t(1/2) by the obtained equation appears to be in good agreement with the experimentally observed vales of this parameter in pharmacokinetic studies in rat, monkey, dog, and human. The equation for the determination of the pre-exponent of the terminal phase of C(p)(t) is also found. The obtained equation allows to predict t(1/2) in human assuming that V(ss) and Cl were either obtained by allometric scaling or, respectively, calculated in silico or based on in vitro drug stability measurements. For compounds that have high clearance, the derived equation may be applied to calculate r just using the routine data on Cl, V(ss), and t(1/2), rather than doing the in vitro assay to measure this parameter. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Evaluating primary forest fuel rail terminals with discrete event simulation: A case study from Austria

    OpenAIRE

    Ulrich J. Wolfsmayr; Rossana Merenda; Peter Rauch; Francesco Longo; Manfred Gronalt

    2016-01-01

    Biomass rail transport is a useful alternative to unimodal truck transport for medium or long transport distances, if only a short road pre-haulage is required. Up to now primary forest fuels (PFF) are rarely transported on the rail network in Austria and rail terminals able to tranship notable volumes are not established yet. The objective of this study is to investigate the potentials of existing transhipment infrastructure for introducing and operating PFF terminals. Such PFF terminals ena...

  8. A Study of Job Demands and Curriculum Development in Agricultural Training Related to the Muskegon County Wastewater Management System. Final Report. Volume III. Student Terminal Performance Objectives and Instructional Modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Harold S.; And Others

    This is the third volume of a four-volume report of a research project designed to (1) identify job needs for agricultural occupations which will result from the Muskegon County Wastewater Management System and perform a task analysis on each occupation, (2) develop instructional modules and determine their place in either high school or 2-year…

  9. Modular space station, phase B extension. Information management advanced development. Volume 2: Communications terminal breadboard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, C. R.

    1972-01-01

    The design and development of the communications terminal breadboard for the modular space station are discussed. The subjects presented are: (1) history of communications terminal breadboard, (2) requirements analysis, (3) technology goals in terminal design, and (4) communications terminal board integration tests.

  10. Third party access to LNG terminals. GIIGNL - Commercial Study Group Topic 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-11-01

    This report has been elaborated in the context of the GIIGNL Commercial Study Group (CSG) activities, which include as one of its topics the 'Third Party Access to LNG terminals' (Topic 8), led by Enagas. The 2010 edition is the third update to the report presented during the meeting of the GIIGNL Commercial Study Group in Tokyo, Japan, in September 2007. - Section 1 includes a review of the regulatory TPA regimes of LNG terminals in operation in Europe. The existing regime in each country, or for each terminal, is reviewed following a number of subsections. Each subsection follows the same structure in order to better understand the different arrangements and facilitate comparisons. - Section 2 shows data on effective usage and TPA access to each LNG terminal since 2000. Three main data are shown where available: number of cargoes delivered, volumes unloaded / sent-out, and the part of these cargoes/volumes that correspond to third parties. - Section 3 includes a tariff comparison for TPA to LNG terminals in Europe, taking into account the terms and conditions in force as of July 2010. - A description of the regulatory situation in the US in Sections 4. Access conditions to the three terminals under regulated TPA have been included for the first time: Lake Charles, Cove Point and Elba Island. An overview of Mexico and Canada is also reported. - An overview of the regulatory situation in Japan is provided in Section 5. The information required for the elaboration of this report has been collected from official web sites (LNG operators, regulatory authorities and industry associations), public reports and industry and statistical data Enagas deems to be reliable. For the adoption of certain hypothesis in Section 3 Enagas has also relied in information directly provided by operators

  11. Engineering study: disposition of terminal liquors for interim storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metz, W.P.; Ogren, W.E.

    1975-02-01

    Eight alternative processes were chosen as being technologically feasible within the time frame dictated by budgeting procedures and terminal liquor availability. Solidified waste products acceptable for single-shell tank storage were assumed to be placed in available single-shell tanks. Double-shell tanks were used only for the more mobile terminal liquors or semi-solid mush products. The mush, chemical neutralization, and clay in-tank processes offer potential savings of tens of millions of dollars over double-shell tank storage of terminal liquors. In order to achieve this cost savings, the process development and demonstration must be completed prior to the beginning of double-shell tank construction (Dec. 1976) expected to be funded from a fiscal year 1977 line item. Budgeting for these additional double-shell tanks must proceed since the processing options discussed here are not yet available and may not prove to be available at the required time. This study indicates the following topics for additional study: Process technology development to achieve interim storage of terminal liquor products receives the greatest emphasis as a means of reducing capital expenditures. Interim storage product criteria, waste inventory, and conversion to final form require definition to allow comparison of the alternatives for disposition of terminal liquors. The pseudotechnical nature of product acceptability criteria is important to the evaluation of the partial neutralization and aluminum removal alternatives. More accurate estimates of terminal liquor quantity and composition are required to give a sound technical basis for choosing the appropriate processing alternative. Retrieval and reprocessing operations may affect the comparisons presented by this study

  12. Prehospital tidal volume influences hospital tidal volume: A cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoltze, Andrew J; Wong, Terrence S; Harland, Karisa K; Ahmed, Azeemuddin; Fuller, Brian M; Mohr, Nicholas M

    2015-06-01

    The purposes of the study are to describe current practice of ventilation in a modern air medical system and to measure the association of ventilation strategy with subsequent ventilator care and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Retrospective observational cohort study of intubated adult patients (n = 235) transported by a university-affiliated air medical transport service to a 711-bed tertiary academic center between July 2011 and May 2013. Low tidal volume ventilation was defined as tidal volumes less than or equal to 8 mL/kg predicted body weight. Multivariable regression was used to measure the association between prehospital tidal volume, hospital ventilation strategy, and ARDS. Most patients (57%) were ventilated solely with bag valve ventilation during transport. Mean tidal volume of mechanically ventilated patients was 8.6 mL/kg predicted body weight (SD, 0.2 mL/kg). Low tidal volume ventilation was used in 13% of patients. Patients receiving low tidal volume ventilation during air medical transport were more likely to receive low tidal volume ventilation in the emergency department (P tidal volume (P = .840). Low tidal volume ventilation was rare during air medical transport. Air transport ventilation strategy influenced subsequent ventilation but was not associated with ARDS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. United States National Waste Terminal Storage argillaceous rock studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunton, G.D.

    1981-01-01

    The past and present argillaceous rock studies for the US National Waste Terminal Storage Program consist of: (1) evaluation of the geological characteristics of several widespread argillaceous formations in the United States; (2) laboratory studies of the physical and chemical properties of selected argillaceous rock samples; and (3) two full-scale in situ surface heater experiments that simulate the emplacement of heat-generating radioactive waste in argillaceous rock

  14. United States National Waste Terminal Storage argillaceous rock studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunton, G.D.

    1979-01-01

    The past and present argillaceous rock studies for the US National Waste Terminal Storage Program consist of: (1) evaluation of the geological characteristics of several widespread argillaceous formations in the United States; (2) laboratory studies of the physical and chemical properties of selected argillaceous rock samples; and (3) two full-scale in-situ surface heater experiments that simulate the emplacement of heat-generating radioactive waste in argillaceous rock

  15. National Waste Terminal Storage Program Information Management Plan. Volume I. Management summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-05-01

    A comprehensive information management plan is needed for the processing of the large amount of documentation that will accumulate in the National Waste Terminal Storage program over the next decade. The plan will apply to all documentation from OWI contractors, subcontractors, and suppliers, and to external documentation from OWI organizations

  16. Vickers Terminator. Volume 3C(VT) - Technical appraisal. Consultants' 1983 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    A report is given by a team of consultants on the estimated cost of converting wave energy to electrical energy by a 2 GW array of Vickers Terminator wave energy devices and delivering the electricity to a sub-station on the west coast of Skye. Comparisons with the estimates made by the team developing the concept are presented and are largely in agreement, except for the capital cost per device and the power chain efficiency. A detailed engineering assessment is given.

  17. Inventory of Federal Energy-Related Environment and Safety Research for FY 1978. Volume III, interactive terminal users guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, C. E.; Barker, Janice F.

    1979-12-01

    This users' guide was prepared to provide interested persons access to, via computer terminals, federally funded energy-related environmental and safety research projects for FY 1978. Although this information is also available in hardbound volumes, this on-line searching capability is expected to reduce the time required to answer ad hoc questions and, at the same time, produce meaningful reports. The data contained in this data base are not exhaustive and represent research reported by the following agencies: Department of Agriculture, Department of Commerce, Department of Defense, Department of Energy, Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Department of the Interior, Department of Transportation, Federal Energy Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, National Science Foundation, Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Tennessee Valley Authority, U.S. Coast Guard, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

  18. National Waste Terminal Storage Program: information management plan. Volume II. Plan description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-05-01

    A comprehensive information management plan to provide for the systematic processing of large amounts of internally prepared and externally acquired documentation that will accrue to the Office of Waste Isolation (OWI) during the next decade is outlined. The Information Management Plan of the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) Program is based on time proven procedures developed by government and industry for the requirements determination, acquisition, and the administration of documentation. The NWTS Information Management Plan is designed to establish the basis for the planning, development, implemenation, operation and maintenance of the NWTS Information Management System. This plan will help assure that documentation meets required quality standards and that each organization's needs are reflected when soliciting documentation from subcontractors. An example would be the Quality Assurance documentation requirement necessary to comply with eventual NRC licensing regulations. The provisions of the NWTS Information Management Plan will apply to all documentation from OWI contractors, subcontractors, and suppliers, and to OWI organizations for documentation prepared periodically for external dissemination

  19. Comprehensive study of gate-terminated and source-terminated field-plate 0.13 µm NMOS transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, Hsien-Chin; Lin, Shao-Wei; Cheng, Chia-Shih; Wei, Chien-Cheng

    2008-01-01

    This study systematically investigated microwave noise, power and linearity characteristics of field-plate (FP) 0.13 µm CMOS transistors in which the field-plate metal is connected to the gate terminal and the source terminal. The gate-terminated FP NMOS (FP-G NMOS) provided the best noise figure (NF) at 6 GHz compared with standard devices and the source-terminated FP device (FP-S NMOS) as the lowest gate resistance (R g ) was obtained by this structure. By adopting the field-plate metal in NMOS, both FP-S and FP-G devices achieved higher current density at high gate bias voltages. Moreover, these two devices also had higher efficiency under high drain-to-source voltages at the high input power swing. The third-order inter-modulation product (IM3) is −39.4 dBm for FP-S NMOS at P in of −20 dBm; the corresponding values for FP-G and standard devices are −34.9 dBm and −37.3 dBm, respectively. Experimental results indicate that the FP-G architecture is suitable for low noise applications and FP-S is suitable for high power and high linearity operation

  20. Are Career Termination Concerns Only for Athletes? A Case Study of the Career Termination of an Elite Female Coach

    OpenAIRE

    Kenttä, G.; Mellalieu, S.D.; Roberts, Claire-Marie

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a case study of an elite female coach and her career termination from a 20+ year career following a critical life incident. A novel autobiographical approach was adopted whereby the participant undertook expressive writing to describe her experiences prior to, during, and following coaching an athlete at the 2012 Summer Olympic Games. Thematic analysis indicated seven phases related to the participant’s experiences of the critical incident: Build up to the event, the event...

  1. Railway transport and terminal transhipment of Short Rotation Willow Crops. Pre-study; Taagtransport och terminal-hantering av Salix. Foerstudie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsberg, Maya

    2009-07-01

    The overall aim of this pre-study is to contribute to an increased co-handling of biomass from forest and field at terminal and railway transport, in order to find effective transport solutions with regard to costs and environment. The aim of the pre-study is also to get an overall picture of transport of biomass on railway. The objective is to draw conclusions of use for interested parties within the agricultural sector, on what possibilities there are to handle biomass from forestry and agriculture with the same logistical infrastructure. Conclusions are drawn especially with regard to Short Rotation Willow Crops (here Salix) handled as chips or bundles, but also briefly for other energy crops suitable for combustion. Furthermore, the study draws conclusions on how to design effective terminals and related costs. The pre-study is intended as a planning material for a more in-depth study of a mobile terminal solution, with active participation from interested players in the agricultural sector. When considering railway transport and terminal transhipment of large volumes of biomass, there is a clear economical benefit in designing large terminals and making investments in effective handling equipment, in order to get a high use of equipment and a high storage turnover. A more simple and temporary terminal solution may be suitable for smaller flows of biomass, such as agricultural fuels, which need to be collected in different areas according to availability. An intermodal solution, i.e. which involves the transportation of freight in the same type of carrier (a container for example) when changing modes of transportation, is suitable for this purpose. The solution should also build on standardised equipment, involve low terminal investments and flexible and temporary transhipment in different areas near the location of the biomass. For railway transport, the same handling equipment may be used for wood chips and Salix chips, i.e. standardised container systems

  2. Computer simulation study International Container Terminal "Tanjung Perak", Surabaya, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenveld, R.; Wanders, S.

    1998-01-01

    The Tanjung Perak harbour of the city of Surabaya on the island Java, Indonesia has experienced a considerable growth of container traffic. In order to adequately deal with the expected continuing increase of container traffic in the future, the International container terminal is presently being

  3. National waste terminal storage repository in a bedded salt formation for spent unreprocessed fuel. Volume I. Conceptual design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-12-01

    In February 1976, the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA), now the Department of Energy (DOE), established a National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) program. As a part of this program, two parallel conceptual design efforts were initiated in January 1977. One was for deep geologic storage, in domed salt, of high level waste resulting from the reprocessing of spent fuel. The other was for deep geologic storage of unreprocessed spent fuel in bedded salt. These two concepts are identified as NWTS Repository 1 and Repository 2, respectively. Repository 2 (NWTSR2) is the concept which is covered by this Conceptual Design Report. Volume I of the conceptual design report contains the following information: physical description of the report; project purpose and justification; principal safety, fire, and health hazards; environmental impact considerations; quality assurance considerations; assessment of operational interfaces; assessment of research and development interfaces; project schedule; proposed method of accomplishment; summary cost estimate; and outline specifications. The conceptual design for Repository 2 was developed in sufficient detail to permit determination of scope, engineering feasibility, schedule, and cost estimates, all of which are necessary for planning and budgeting the project

  4. Functional and Symbolic Values of Cloud Terminals: A Study of User Acceptance and Purchasing Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Yu Pan; Lijuan Luo; Dan Liu; Li Gao; Hengyi Rao

    2014-01-01

    The purchasing behavior of cloud terminals is increasingly shaped by the emerging cloud services. Rather than its hardware configuration, performance of cloud intelligent terminals such as the Chromebook is more and more dependent on the cloud service capability. However, it remains unknown what factors will drive user's acceptance and purchase of these cloud terminals. Using the Chromebook and MacBook as two representative products, this study models user's acceptance and purchasing behavior...

  5. Finding Boundaries Inside Prison Walls: Case Study of a Terminally Ill Inmate

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Mary-Frances

    2004-01-01

    The number of terminally ill prison inmates rises each year. Mental health professionals are uniquely prepared to provide therapy during the end-of-life process with their assessment, training, empathy, and communication skills. This case study examines the six-month therapy of one terminally ill inmate, using a client-centered approach. Drawing…

  6. Model Test Study of the Breakwater at the Dubai Port Terminal in Callao, Peru

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Burcharth, Hans F.

    This report deals with a two-dimensional model test study of the new breakwater for the Dubai Port terminal in Callao, Peru. Two cross-sections were tested namely the outer part of the breakwater (Section C) and a cross-section at the container terminal area (Section A). The length scale used...

  7. Blanket comparison and selection study. Volume II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-10-01

    This volume contains extensive data for the following chapters: (1) solid breeder tritium recovery, (2) solid breeder blanket designs, (3) alternate blanket concept screening, and (4) safety analysis. The following appendices are also included: (1) blanket design guidelines, (2) power conversion systems, (3) helium-cooled, vanadium alloy structure blanket design, (4) high wall loading study, and (5) molten salt safety studies

  8. Technical conservatisms in NWTS repository conceptual designs. National Waste Terminal Storage Repository No. 1: special study No. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-09-01

    Prior studies have developed conceptual designs for National Waste Terminal Storage Repositories 1 and 2. Due to the considerable detail and volume of the documents describing these designs, it is often difficult to identify and comprehend the substantial conservatisms contained within them. This study identifies and explains the major technical conservatisms in these two conceptual designs in a concise and readily understandable format. The areas discussed include thermal loading of the geologic structure, rock mechanics and underground design, waste throughput capacity, hoisting systems, nuclear criticality safety, confinement of radioactive materials, occupational exposure and health physics, environmental effects, and cost estimates. Conservatisms are described in detail, quantified where possible, and compared to appropriate criteria

  9. Early termination of prostate cancer hyperfractionated dose escalation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forman, Jeffrey D; Porter, Arthur T; Kocheril, Paul; Grignon, David; Orton, Colin

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: This study was initiated to determine the maximum tolerable dose of hyperfractionated radiation in patients with locally advanced prostate cancer. Materials and Methods: Forty-nine patients with locally advanced prostate cancer (T3-T4 Nx, 0, 1 M0 and/or Gleason Score ≥ 8) were treated on the first two steps of a prospective dose-escalation study using hyperfractionated conformal radiotherapy. The first 25 patients received a minimum dose of 78Gy to the clinical tumor volume (CTV) including the prostate, seminal vesicle and a 5mm margin at 1.3Gy b.i.d. The second group (24 patients) received a minimum dose to the CTV of 82.8Gy at 1.15Gy b.i.d. Twenty eight patients received neo-adjuvant hormonal therapy in conjunction with their radiation (8 of 25 patients at 78Gy and 20 of 24 patients at 82.8Gy). Toxicity was scored according to the RTOG grading scale. Efficacy was evaluated by PSA levels and ultrasound guided biopsies. Median follow up was 36 and 18 months for the 78Gy and 82.8Gy dose levels, respectively. Results: No grade 3 or 4 gastrointestinal (GI) or genitourinary (GU) toxicity was noted. At 36 months, the actuarial probability of Grade 2 GI and GU toxicity were 16 and 20%, respectively. Twelve to 18 months following radiation, 41 patients (86%) underwent ultrasound guided biopsy. At 78Gy, 60% of 20 patients had a biopsy which was negative or showed a marked therapeutic effect. At 82.8Gy, these combined rates were 95% in the 21 patients who had biopsies. Nine patients (50%) who did not receive neo-adjuvant hormones had positive biopsies. No patient who received neo-adjuvant hormones plus 78Gy (5 patients) or 82.8Gy (18 patients) had a positive biopsy. Conclusion: Proceeding to the next dose level (87.4Gy) was justified by the lack of severe chronic toxicity. However, in view of the high rate of histologic sterilization when hyperfractionated irradiation was given in conjunction with neo-adjuvant hormonal therapy, it was felt to be unethical to

  10. A study on RFID adoption for vehicle tracking in container terminal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.L. Ting

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Numerous studies discuss that Radio Frequency Identification (RFID technology can provide better container handling efficiency; however, relative lack of research concerns the tracking and monitoring the movement of vehicle in the container terminal environment. Thus, this study aims at discussing the feasibility of applying RFID for vehicle tracking purpose in a container terminal. Design/methodology/approach: This study makes use of a series of experiments in a container terminal to discuss the factors that affect the use of RFID in the terminal. The possibility and accuracy of using RFID in such challenging environment is also investigated. These propositions are investigated by a case study. Findings: The experimental results indicate that the RFID communication is good at the containers area which occupies nearly all the area in the container terminal. However, in other area such as sea side and free area, the performance is not good and 100% readability only achieved in 5m and 10m in free area and sea side respectively. Originality/value: The container terminal environment, which consists of different transport vehicles for onward transportation, will affect the performance of RFID readability. Poor setup of the RFID reader and tag will lower the feasibility of RFID adoption as well as increase the cost. In order to address the challenges of implementing RFID in the container terminal environment, this paper provides a series of real site testing experiments to study the RFID performance in the container terminal environment. This represents an original contribution of value to future research and practice in the RFID adoptions in container terminal environment.

  11. A Study on the Efficiency of Container Terminals in Korea and China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Bin Zheng

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to derive implications required for efficiency improvement and management level enhancement by selecting container terminals within major large ports of Korea and China as comparison units, evaluating their relative efficiencies and analyzing the trend of changes in their efficiencies. Since the scope of comparison subjects has been narrowed down to container terminals unlike previous studies, it is expected that the study results would have significant meaning due to the fact that it would be possible to compare and analyze in more detail. To achieve the objective, 30 major container terminals in both countries are selected, input and output variables are defined for each terminal and the DEA (data envelopment analysis model is used to conduct an analysis. The results show that the efficiency of major terminals in Korea (CCR: 0.815, BCC: 0.886 showed similar efficiency with China's terminals (CCR: 0.817, BCC: 0.887. While previous studies conclude that the efficiency of ports in Korea is far lower than that of ports in China.

  12. Extent and Determinants of Error in Doctors' Prognoses in Terminally Ill Patients: Prospective Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Lamont, Elizabeth; Christakis, Nicholas

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To describe doctors' prognostic accuracy in terminally ill patients and to evaluate the determinants of that accuracy. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: Five outpatient hospice programmes in Chicago. Participants: 343 doctors provided survival estimates for 468 terminally ill patients at the time of hospice referral. Main outcome measures: Patients' estimated and actual survival. Results: Median survival was 24 days. Only 20% (92/468) of predictions were acc...

  13. User Delay Cost Model and Facilities Maintenance Cost Model for a Terminal Control Area : Volume 1. Model Formulation and Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-05-01

    The User Delay Cost Model (UDCM) is a Monte Carlo computer simulation of essential aspects of Terminal Control Area (TCA) air traffic movements that would be affected by facility outages. The model can also evaluate delay effects due to other factors...

  14. Teenage pregnancy: a comparative study of teenagers choosing termination of pregnancy or antenatal care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, V A; Owen, M R; Phillips, D R; Gray, D J; Marshall, M N

    1995-01-01

    A comparative study of 167 pregnant teenagers in Devon attending either antenatal booking clinics or for National Health Service (NHS) termination of pregnancy was carried out to determine differences in their characteristics, use and experience of local family planning services. Teenagers presenting for termination of pregnancy were younger and more likely to say that they had wished to avoid getting pregnant. Whether the teenager was in a stable relationship was strongly associated with the outcome of the pregnancy, with single girls being more likely to choose a termination of pregnancy. The termination of pregnancy group were also more likely to be condom users, and to have learned about their method of contraception from school rather than from health care professionals. Teenagers' frequency of contact with family planning services suggested that teenagers choosing a termination were less likely than antenatal attenders to have attended regularly. This was mainly due to differences in behaviour among teenagers attending their general practitioner (GP) for contraceptive advice: teenagers having a termination were more likely to describe their visit to their GP as embarrassing. These findings have implications for local family planning services attempting to reduce the number of unwanted teenage pregnancies. PMID:7562806

  15. Research Studies Index. Authors and Subjects. Volume 1 through Volume 43 (1929-1975).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drazan, Joseph, Comp.; Scott, Paula, Comp.

    This volume contains author and subject indexes for volumes 1 through 43 (1929-1975) of "Research Studies," a scholarly, multi-disciplinary quarterly published at Washington State University. Each author index entry includes the title, volume, and inclusive pagination of the article. The subject index is a keyword-out-of-context…

  16. Studies on nerve terminations in human mucosa and skin

    OpenAIRE

    Hilliges, Marita

    1997-01-01

    - In spite of their accessibility and important sensory function,the nervous tissue components of human oral and vaginal mucosa and skin have beensubject to very few, if any, systematic investigations. Studies on the innervationof oral tissues have mainly focused on the dental pulp, the periodontium and thegingiva, probably because of specific clinical interest, thus largely neglectingthe mucosa. Genital studies comprise only in a few cases the vagina and when thevagina is i...

  17. Microroentgenographic study of the pancreatic vessels at terminal state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirlekov, Ya.; Sazonova, N.A.; Kharlampovich, S.I.

    1986-01-01

    The authors summed up the results of a study of the peripheral vascular channel of the pancreas on the autopsy material using microroentgenography. It was shown that the vascularization of the pancreas in patients who died from cardiovascular insufficiency developing in the presence of myocardial infraction or acute disorder of the cerebral circulation, reflected with a sufficient degree of accuracy the energetic level which was typical of the body during disease

  18. N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide and abnormal brain aging: The AGES-Reykjavik Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabayan, Behnam; van Buchem, Mark A; de Craen, Anton J M; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Zhang, Qian; Harris, Tamara B; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Arai, Andrew E; Launer, Lenore J

    2015-09-01

    To investigate the independent association of serum N-terminal fragment of the prohormone natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) with structural and functional features of abnormal brain aging in older individuals. In this cross-sectional study based on the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility (AGES)-Reykjavik Study, we included 4,029 older community-dwelling individuals (born 1907 to 1935) with a measured serum level of NT-proBNP. Outcomes included parenchymal brain volumes estimated from brain MRI, cognitive function measured by tests of memory, processing speed, and executive functioning, and presence of depressive symptoms measured using the Geriatric Depression Scale. In a substudy, cardiac output of 857 participants was assessed using cardiac MRI. In multivariate analyses, adjusted for sociodemographic and cardiovascular factors, higher levels of NT-proBNP were independently associated with lower total (p brain volumes. Likewise, in multivariate analyses, higher levels of NT-proBNP were associated with worse scores in memory (p = 0.005), processing speed (p = 0.001), executive functioning (p brain parenchymal volumes, impaired executive function and processing speed, and higher depressive symptoms were independent of the level of cardiac output. Higher serum levels of NT-proBNP, independent of cardiovascular risk factors and a measure of cardiac function, are linked with alterations in brain structure and function. Roles of natriuretic peptides in the process of brain aging need to be further elucidated. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.

  19. N. E. L. Floating Terminator. Volume 3C(NFT) - Technical appraisal. Consultants' 1983 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    A report is given by a team of Consultants on the estimated cost of converting wave energy into electrical energy by a 2 GW array of NEL Floating Terminator Devices and delivering the electricity to a sub-station on the west coast of Skye. A detailed engineering assessment is given. Comparisons with the estimates made by the team developing the concept are presented and discrepancies discussed. The main cost differences are caused by the different assessments of the power conversion efficiency and the electrical transmission costs.

  20. Engineering study: disposition of terminal liquors for interim storage. [Eight alternative processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metz, W.P.; Ogren, W.E.

    1975-02-01

    Eight alternative processes were chosen as being technologically feasible within the time frame dictated by budgeting procedures and terminal liquor availability. Solidified waste products acceptable for single-shell tank storage were assumed to be placed in available single-shell tanks. Double-shell tanks were used only for the more mobile terminal liquors or semi-solid mush products. The mush, chemical neutralization, and clay in-tank processes offer potential savings of tens of millions of dollars over double-shell tank storage of terminal liquors. In order to achieve this cost savings, the process development and demonstration must be completed prior to the beginning of double-shell tank construction (Dec. 1976) expected to be funded from a fiscal year 1977 line item. Budgeting for these additional double-shell tanks must proceed since the processing options discussed here are not yet available and may not prove to be available at the required time. This study indicates the following topics for additional study: Process technology development to achieve interim storage of terminal liquor products receives the greatest emphasis as a means of reducing capital expenditures. Interim storage product criteria, waste inventory, and conversion to final form require definition to allow comparison of the alternatives for disposition of terminal liquors. The pseudotechnical nature of product acceptability criteria is important to the evaluation of the partial neutralization and aluminum removal alternatives. More accurate estimates of terminal liquor quantity and composition are required to give a sound technical basis for choosing the appropriate processing alternative. Retrieval and reprocessing operations may affect the comparisons presented by this study. (DLC)

  1. Terminal illness and the increased mortality risk of conventional antipsychotics in observational studies: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luijendijk, Hendrika J; de Bruin, Niels C; Hulshof, Tessa A; Koolman, Xander

    2016-02-01

    Numerous large observational studies have shown an increased risk of mortality in elderly users of conventional antipsychotics. Health authorities have warned against use of these drugs. However, terminal illness is a potentially strong confounder of the observational findings. So, the objective of this study was to systematically assess whether terminal illness may have biased the observational association between conventional antipsychotics and risk of mortality in elderly patients. Studies were searched in PubMed, CINAHL, Embase, the references of selected studies and articles referring to selected studies (Web of Science). Inclusion criteria were (i) observational studies that estimated (ii) the risk of all-cause mortality in (iii) new elderly users of (iv) conventional antipsychotics compared with atypical antipsychotics or no use. Two investigators assessed the characteristics of the exposure and reference groups, main results, measured confounders and methods used to adjust for unmeasured confounders. We identified 21 studies. All studies were based on administrative medical and pharmaceutical databases. Sicker and older patients received conventional antipsychotics more often than new antipsychotics. The risk of dying was especially high in the first month of use, and when haloperidol was administered per injection or in high doses. Terminal illness was not measured in any study. Instrumental variables that were used were also confounded by terminal illness. We conclude that terminal illness has not been adjusted for in observational studies that reported an increased risk of mortality risk in elderly users of conventional antipsychotics. As the validity of the evidence is questionable, so is the warning based on it. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Study of the complexation of oxacillin in 1-(4-Carbomethoxypyrrolidone)-terminated PAMAM dendrimers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jon Stefan; Ficker, Mario; Petersen, Johannes Fabritius

    2013-01-01

    The complexation of oxacillin to three generations of 1-(4-carbomethoxypyrrolidone)-terminated PAMAM dendrimers was studied with NMR in CD3OD and CDCl3. The stochiometries, which were determined from Job plots, were found to be both solvent- and generation-dependent. The dissociation constants (Kd......) and Gibbs energies for complexation of oxacillin into the 1-(4-carbomethoxypyrrolidone)-terminated PAMAM dendrimer hosts were determined by (1)H NMR titrations and showed weaker binding of oxacillin upon increasing the size (generation) of the dendrimer....

  3. Validity study of the 16PF in terminal air traffic control work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karson, S.; O'Dell, J.W.

    1976-01-01

    Personality test scores obtained in 1966 from the 16PF, Form A are compared with supervisory ratings on overall job ability made at least two years later on a sample of 510 terminal area journeymen controllers. Those rated above average were found to differ significantly from those rated below average in ability on one primary personality factor, namely, C (ego strength). Other factors which approached significance are also discussed. The present study represents an attempt to determine whether personality factor scores are valid over longer periods of time in successfully discriminating journeymen terminal controllers rated above and below average in overall ability by their supervisors

  4. Training Corrective Maintenance Performance on Electronic Equipment with CAI Terminals: I. A Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigney, Joseph W.

    A report is given of a feasibility study in which several possible relationships between student, computer terminal, and electronic equipment were considered. The simplest of these configurations was set up and examined in terms of its feasibility for teaching the performance of fault localization on a Navy transceiver. An instructional program…

  5. Qualitative and Quantitative Assessment of Wastewater of Pistachio Processing Terminals (Case Study: Kerman city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Khademi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Wastewaters resulting from seasonal processing such as pistachio processing industry are one of the most important factors of environmental pollution. High concentration of pollutants are the qualitative characteristics of wastewaters that due high consumption of water and energy resources as well as high levels production of waste have a good potential to realization of projects to reduce the environmental impacts and optimizing the consumption of energy resources.The aim of this study was to determine the wastewater̛ s quality and quantity of pistachio processing terminals. Methods: this study is cross-sectional study that has been implemented from mid –September until late October (pistachio harvest season in each of the years 2012-2013-2014 in Kerman.Firstely according to field study, the characteristics and location of 20 pistachio processing terminals were determined by a GPS device. Then 8 pistachio processing terminals were selected in around of wastewater collection system. Composite sampling method with total of 72 samples was done in each year during pistachio operation. Samples were conducted from pistachio processing wastewater screen filter outlet. In each of samples BOD5, COD, TSS, pH and Total phenolic were determined. Sampling and tests were done according to water and wastewater standard methods book (20th edition. Concentration of Phenolic compounds was measured by folin ciocaltive method. The Data was analyzed by SPSS software. Results: the average of total produced wastewater in pistachio processing terminals in this study was 85.9m3/d. The average BOD5, COD, TSS, Total phenolic and PH were 6106, 21570, 682, 4154 (mg/L and 5.5 respectively. Conclusion: The obtained results from raw wastewater of pistachio processing terminals showed they have high BOD and COD. This is caused by presentation of priority pollutants (phenolic compounds which have high potential in pollution and toxicity for discharging any

  6. Opportunity of Constructing a Cargo Terminal – Case Study Brașov International Airport, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel BRĂTUCU

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Air transport and especially air cargo transport became ever more important during the last 25 years, with a signifi cant impact upon economic development. Air cargo transport supports regional economic development, provided there is suffi cient local demand for its services. In our study, we have identifi ed signifi cant elements of the impact a cargo terminal at the International Brașov-Ghimbav Airport would have upon local economic development. For this purpose, we have conducted a quantitative market research. We have reached the conclusion that constructing a cargo terminal at the Brașov-Ghimbav Airport is a necessary investment in the current economic context, with an important contribution to the economic development of its surrounding counties. The positive results registered in our study could contribute to improving the economic and fi nancial prospects of Brașov-Ghimbav Airport and attract investors in this project.

  7. Body Loss Study of Beamforming Mode in LTE MIMO Mobile Terminals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Shuai; Zhao, Kun; Ying, Zhinong

    2015-01-01

    This paper mainly focuses on the investigation of the body loss of beamforming mode in LTE MIMO mobile terminals with CTIA user effects. The research of the body loss and radiation efficiency is carried out over different phase differences between two ports of each MIMO antenna. During studies......, four kinds of typical LTE MIMO antennas are used, namely, collocated ground free (GF), parallel GF, parallel on ground (OG) and orthogonal OG MIMO antennas, under four mobile terminal lengths at low and high frequencies. Two kinds of CTIA user effects are included in the research. From the studies......, the parallel GF MIMO antenna type exhibits the best beamforming performance in the four MIMO antenna types. In order to verify the simulations, envelope correlation coefficients of two MIMO antenna prototypes are measured. All the measured results agree well with the simulated....

  8. Mars power system concept definition study. Volume 2: Appendices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littman, Franklin D.

    1994-01-01

    This report documents the work performed by Rockwell International's Rocketdyne Division on NASA Contract No. NAS3-25808 (Task Order No. 16) entitled 'Mars Power System Definition Study'. This work was performed for NASA's Lewis Research Center (LeRC). The report is divided into two volumes as follows: Volume 1 - Study Results; and Volume 2 - Appendices. The results of the power system characterization studies, operations studies, and technology evaluations are summarized in Volume 1. The appendices include complete, standalone technology development plans for each candidate power system that was investigated.

  9. The Tiny Terminators

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 5. The Tiny Terminators - Mosquitoes and Diseases. P K Sumodan. General Article Volume 6 Issue 5 May 2001 pp 48-55. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/006/05/0048-0055 ...

  10. Microtribological study of perfluoropolyether with different functional groups coated on hydrogen terminated Si

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minn, Myo; Satyanarayana, Nalam [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, 9 Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Sinha, Sujeet K., E-mail: mpesks@nus.edu.sg [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, 9 Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Kondo, Hirofumi [Sony Chemical and Information Device Corporation, R and D Division, 1078 Kamiishikawa, Kanuma 322-8503 (Japan)

    2012-01-15

    Friction and wear properties of different perfluoropolyether (PFPE) films with and without hydrogen termination on Si (Si-H) were studied using a ball-on-disk tribometer. The physical and chemical properties of the films were evaluated using contact angle measurement, atomic force microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Coating of PFPEs onto bare Si has lowered the coefficient of friction (from 0.6 for Si to {approx}0.05 with PFPE) and enhanced the wear durability (20,000 times) in comparison with those for bare Si which failed immediately. The introduction of hydrogen termination onto Si prior to PFPE coating has further increased the wear durability of PFPE with different functional groups several times (>5 times) under a normal load of 30 mN and a sliding speed of 0.052 m/s.

  11. Drug and Alcohol Studies (Volume 5: Interventions)

    OpenAIRE

    MacGregor, S; Thom, B

    2014-01-01

    VOLUME FIVE: INTERVENTIONS Natural Recovery from Alcohol Problems Harald Klingemann School-Based Programmes to Prevent Alcohol, Tobacco and Other Drug Use Gilbert Botvin and Kenneth Griffin Community Prevention of Alcohol Problems Harold Holder Can Screening and Brief Intervention Lead to Population-Level Reductions in Alcohol-Related Harm? Nick Heather Sharpening the Focus of Alcohol Policy from Aggregate Consumption to Harm and Risk Reduction Tim Stockwell et al A Review of the Efficacy and...

  12. Surface study of organopalladium molecules on S-terminated GaAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konishi, Tomoya; Toujyou, Takashi; Ishikawa, Takuma; Teraoka, Teruki; Ueta, Yukiko; Kihara, Yoshifumi; Moritoki, Hideji; Tono, Tatsuo; Musashi, Mio; Tada, Takashi; Tsukamoto, Shiro; Nishiwaki, Nagatoshi; Fujikawa, Seiji; Takahasi, Masamitu; Bell, Gavin; Shimoda, Masahiko

    2011-01-01

    Organopalladium species ({Pd}) immobilized on an S-terminated GaAs substrate (S/GaAs) effectively catalyzes C-C bond formation in the Mizoroki-Heck reaction with cycle durability. However, the immobilizing mechanism of {Pd} is unknown. In this study, we deposited Pd(OCOCH 3 ) 2 on S/GaAs in two different methods, namely dry-physical vapor-deposition and wetchemical deposition, and compared the catalytic activities in the Mizoroki-Heck reaction. Also, S-termination and {Pd}-immobilization on GaAs grains were performed by the wet-chemical method to monitor the change in the surface chemical structure during the preparation process with diffuse reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). FT-IR measurements implied that the immobilization of catalytic active {Pd} was related to the OH groups on the S-terminated surface. {Pd}-S/GaAs prepared dryphysically showed poor catalytic activity, because {Pd} was not immobilized under absence of OH groups. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  13. Binding and Translocation of Termination Factor Rho Studied at the Single-Molecule Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koslover, Daniel J.; Fazal, Furqan M.; Mooney, Rachel A.; Landick, Robert; Block, Steven M.

    2012-01-01

    Rho termination factor is an essential hexameric helicase responsible for terminating 20–50% of all mRNA synthesis in E. coli. We used single- molecule force spectroscopy to investigate Rho-RNA binding interactions at the Rho- utilization (rut) site of the ? tR1 terminator. Our results are consistent with Rho complexes adopting two states, one that binds 57 ±2 nucleotides of RNA across all six of the Rho primary binding sites, and another that binds 85 ±2 nucleotides at the six primary sites plus a single secondary site situated at the center of the hexamer. The single-molecule data serve to establish that Rho translocates 5′-to-3′ towards RNA polymerase (RNAP) by a tethered-tracking mechanism, looping out the intervening RNA between the rut site and RNAP. These findings lead to a general model for Rho binding and translocation, and establish a novel experimental approach that should facilitate additional single- molecule studies of RNA-binding proteins. PMID:22885804

  14. The Study of Congenital Anomalies Resulting in Legal Termination of Pregnancy in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Dastgiri

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives : Safe pregnancy is among the goals and missions of reproductive health which has an important part in Millennium Development Goals. Unfortunately, bad conditions in reproductive health are the major cause of women mortality in fertility age all over the world especially in developing countries. Congenital anomalies are pregnancy problems that in case of early diagnosis, the anomaly will be done according to list 51. The aim of this study was to determine families’ demographic situations, frequency of congenital anomalies types and the factors of legally termination of pregnancy to suggest solutions in order to reduce anomalies and promote reproductive health. Material and Methods : This is a case-control study carried out for 1 year period from 2010 to 2011 in which 603 pregnant women that were diagnosed/recommended to the Legal Medicine Organization for the termination of pregnancy as having a fetus with some types of birth defect(s. Among them, 201 were categorized as case group (receiving termination permission because their pregnancy was before week 20 and 402 of them were categorized as control group 1 (not receiving termination permission because their pregnancy was after week 20 and 200 women as control group 2 who referred to Alzahra hospital to give childbirth. A questionnaire containing demographic and geographical information was made for all the women in those three groups. Results : The average age of mothers in this study was 27.2 years (15-47 years old. In 100 % of women, at least 1 ultrasound examination was performed and genetic and Amniocentesis tests were conducted in 2.1 % and 3.5 % respectively in order to diagnose anomaly. In total, 33 % of pregnant women with congenital anomalies received pregnancy termination permission. The majority of congenital anomalies were neural tube defects 16.9 %, hydrocephaly 8.6 %, limb deformation 7.7 % and Down syndrome 6.4 %. Mother’s age, the history of

  15. Effective orbital volume and eyeball position: an MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detorakis, Efstathios T; Drakonaki, Eleni; Papadaki, Efrosini; Pallikaris, Ioannis G; Tsilimbaris, Miltiadis K

    2010-10-01

    Previous studies have examined factors affecting the position of the eyeball to the orbit. This study examined the role of effective orbital volume (EOV), defined as the difference between orbital and eyeball volume, as a determinant of eyeball position, using MRI scans. Forty-six patients were recruited from the Department of Ophthalmology of the University Hospital of Heraklion, Crete Greece. Patients with a history of orbital disease were excluded. Distances between eyeball poles and orbital landmarks were measured in T1 weighted transverse, sagittal and coronal orbital images. The protrusion of the eyeball in the sagittal and transverse planes was recorded. The volume of the eyeball and bony orbit, the EOV, the volume of the extraocular muscles as well as clinical information (age, gender, Hertel exophthalmometry) were also recorded. EOV was significantly associated with orbital volume but not with eyeball volume. EOV was also significantly associated with transverse and sagittal globe protrusions. Females displayed significantly lower orbital and eyeball volumes as well as EOV than males but higher transverse globe protrusion than males. Variations in EOV are associated with orbital volume rather than with eyeball volume. EOV is associated with globe protrusion and may be taken into account in the planning of various procedures, including orbital decompression, treatment of enophthalmos or the size of orbital implants following enucleation.

  16. Mars power system concept definition study. Volume 1: Study results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littman, Franklin D.

    1994-01-01

    A preliminary top level study was completed to define power system concepts applicable to Mars surface applications. This effort included definition of power system requirements and selection of power systems with the potential for high commonality. These power systems included dynamic isotope, Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) regenerative fuel cell, sodium sulfur battery, photovoltaic, and reactor concepts. Design influencing factors were identified. Characterization studies were then done for each concept to determine system performance, size/volume, and mass. Operations studies were done to determine emplacement/deployment maintenance/servicing, and startup/shutdown requirements. Technology development roadmaps were written for each candidate power system (included in Volume 2). Example power system architectures were defined and compared on a mass basis. The dynamic isotope power system and nuclear reactor power system architectures had significantly lower total masses than the photovoltaic system architectures. Integrated development and deployment time phasing plans were completed for an example DIPS and reactor architecture option to determine the development strategies required to meet the mission scenario requirements.

  17. Copper-Catalyzed Eglinton Oxidative Homocoupling of Terminal Alkynes: A Computational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Jover

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The copper(II acetate mediated oxidative homocoupling of terminal alkynes, namely, the Eglinton coupling, has been studied with DFT methods. The mechanism of the whole reaction has been modeled using phenylacetylene as substrate. The obtained results indicate that, in contrast to some classical proposals, the reaction does not involve the formation of free alkynyl radicals and proceeds by the dimerization of copper(II alkynyl complexes followed by a bimetallic reductive elimination. The calculations demonstrate that the rate limiting-step of the reaction is the alkyne deprotonation and that more acidic substrates provide faster reactions, in agreement with the experimental observations.

  18. Study of band terminating in the A ≅ 100 by EUROGAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gizon, J.; Gizon, A.; Genevey, J.; Santos, D.; Nyako, B.M.; Timar, J.; Zolnai, L.; Boston, A.J.; Zoss, D.T.; Paul, E.S.; Semple, A.T.; O'Brien, N.J.; Parry, C.M.; Cata-Danil, Gh.; Bucurescu, D.; Afanasjev, A.V.; Ragnarsson, I.

    1997-01-01

    Terminating bands in nuclei in the A≅ 100 region have been investigated using the EUROGAM2 array. Results have been obtained for Pd (Z 46) and Rh (Z = 45) isotopes. In the nucleus 102 Pd, eight terminating configurations are identified. It is the first nucleus where terminating bands built on the valence space configurations and on core excited configurations are observed. Terminating bands have been also found in 103 Pd and 102 Rh. For 102 Rh it is the first case of band terminations identified in a doubly-odd nucleus below the Z = 50 shell closure. (authors)

  19. Docking Studies of Binding of Ethambutol to the C-Terminal Domain of the Arabinosyltransferase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Salgado-Moran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The binding of ethambutol to the C-terminal domain of the arabinosyltransferase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis was studied. The analysis was performed using an in silico approach in order to find out, by docking calculations and energy descriptors, the conformer of Ethambutol that forms the most stable complex with the C-terminal domain of arabinosyltransferase. The complex shows that location of the Ethambutol coincides with the cocrystallization ligand position and that amino acid residues ASH1051, ASN740, ASP1052, and ARG1055 should be critical in the binding of Ethambutol to C-terminal domain EmbC.

  20. Prosthetic Jamming Terminal Device: A Case Study of Untethered Soft Robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Nadia; Amend, John; Farrell, Todd; Latour, Debra; Martinez, Carlos; Johansson, Jen; McNicoll, Anthony; Wartenberg, Marek; Naseef, Samuel; Hanson, William; Culley, William

    2016-12-01

    This article illuminates the major and often overlooked challenge of untethering soft robotic systems through the context of recent work, in which soft robotic gripper technology enabled by jamming of granular media was applied to a prosthetic jamming terminal device (PJTD). The PJTD's technical and market feasibility was evaluated in a pilot study with two upper-limb amputees. A PJTD prototype was tested against a commercial device (Motion Control electric terminal service with a one degree-of-freedom pinching mechanism) using two existing hand function tests: the first quantified the device's speed in picking and placing small blocks and the second evaluated a person's ability to perform activities of daily living (ADLs). The PJTD prototype performed slightly slower than its commercial counterpart in the first test. While both participants successfully completed all the ADLs with both devices in the second test, the commercial device scored marginally higher. Results suggested that PJTD can have potential benefits over existing terminal devices, such as providing the capability to firmly grasp tools due to the ability of PJTD to conform to arbitrary surfaces and reducing compensatory shoulder movements due to its axisymmetric design. Some downsides were that users reported fatigue while operating the PJTD, as most operations require pushing the PJTD against target objects to adequately conform to them. The greatest drawback for the PJTD is also a major roadblock preventing a number of soft robotic research projects from making an impact in real-world applications: pneumatic technology required for operating the PJTD is currently too large and heavy to enable compact untethered operation.

  1. Quantifying normal ankle joint volume: An anatomic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Draeger Reid

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many therapeutic and diagnostic modalities such as intraarticular injections, arthrography and ankle arthroscopy require introduction of fluid into the ankle joint. Little data are currently available in the literature regarding the maximal volume of normal, nonpathologic, human ankle joints. The purpose of this study was to measure the volume of normal human ankle joints. Materials and Methods: A fluoroscopic guided needle was passed into nine cadaveric adult ankle joints. The needle was connected to an intracompartmental pressure measurement device. A radiopaque dye was introduced into the joint in 2 mL boluses, while pressure measurements were recorded. Fluid was injected into the joint until three consecutive pressure measurements were similar, signifying a maximal joint volume. Results: The mean maximum ankle joint volume was 20.9 ± 4.9 mL (range, 16-30 mL. The mean ankle joint pressure at maximum volume was 142.2 ± 13.8 mm Hg (range, 122-166 mm Hg. Two of the nine samples showed evidence of fluid tracking into the synovial sheath of the flexor hallucis longus tendon. Conclusion: Maximal normal ankle joint volume was found to vary between 16-30 mL. This study ascertains the communication between the ankle joint and the flexor hallucis longus tendon sheath. Exceeding maximal ankle joint volume suggested by this study during therapeutic injections, arthrography, or arthroscopy could potentially damage the joint.

  2. PROSPECTIVE ANALYTICAL STUDY ON THE MEDICAL TERMINATION OF PREGNANCIES IN A TERTIARY CARE CENTRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gayathriedevi Sellathamby

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND This study is carried out to estimate incidence of medical termination of pregnancies in a tertiary care centre, to analyse the causes of medical termination of pregnancies, to analyse the success of the methods of abortion and adoption family planning procedures in a tertiary care centre (Government Rajaji Hospital, Madurai. This may provide the baseline measures for safe abortion practices and to increase the awareness among men and women of reproductive age, the availability of safe abortion services at locality. The aim of the study is to know the incidence of medical termination of pregnancies in a tertiary level hospital, to study the causes for seeking MTP, to analyse the success of the methods of abortion and adoption of family planning methods. MATERIALS AND METHODS This study was carried out in Government Rajaji Hospital, Madurai, during the period of 12 months from September 2011- August 2012. Of 3516 patients attending the family planning OP, 496 women seek MTP. Among them, every 5 th women were selected and thus 100 cases were included in this study. Social parameters like age, education, residence, marital status, family pattern, number of living children, sex of the living children, obstetric parameters like parity, trimester of abortion, methods of abortion, causes for MTP, adoption of family planning methods, basic investigation like Hb%, BT, CT, urine albumin, RFT, blood sugar, blood grouping and typing and VCTC were included. RESULTS Induced abortions were common in women in 20-29-year age group, more in third gravid, Hindus, from rural areas, living in nuclear family, married and educated. Most of the women seek 1 st trimester abortion with underlying social cause. Majority had surgical abortion. Majority adopted transabdominal tubectomy as the concurrent family planning method. Second trimester abortions common in unmarried, uneducated women. CONCLUSION The variables analysed in this study bring into light the

  3. Volume 2. Probabilistic analysis of HTGR application studies. Supporting data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-09-01

    Volume II, Probabilistic Analysis of HTGR Application Studies - Supporting Data, gives the detail data, both deterministic and probabilistic, employed in the calculation presented in Volume I. The HTGR plants and the fossil plants considered in the study are listed. GCRA provided the technical experts from which the data were obtained by MAC personnel. The names of the technical experts (interviewee) and the analysts (interviewer) are given for the probabilistic data

  4. Abortion and mental health : A longitudinal study of common mental disorders among women who terminated an unwanted pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    van Ditzhuijzen, J.M.

    2017-01-01

    In the last decade there has been renewed interest in the question whether termination of an unwanted pregnancy is linked to subsequent mental health disorders. Most research in this field is characterized by methodological limitations, and conclusions often remain disputable. To offer insight in the mental health of women who have abortions, both before and after the pregnancy termination, a prospective longitudinal cohort study was conducted, the “Dutch Abortion and Mental Health Study” (DA...

  5. Study on New Smart Transformer Terminal Unit Based on ARM and GPRS Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Wu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Distribution transformer is one of the most important power equipments in distribution network, whose running state exercises a great influence on the stability of the network. Transformer Terminal Unit (TTU is an effective device to monitor the running state of transformers in the distribution automation system. In this paper, we study a new smart TTU which uses ARM7 series chip as processor, equipped with ATT7022B based electric meter module and GPRS module for remote data transmission control. We focus on the corresponding hardware, software design and the measurement principle of harmonics of TTU. The new TTU can measure the electric parameters of the distribution transformer precisely. Taking advantage of the powerful ARM processor, it can analyze harmonic of the power line effectively. Due to the always-on-line feature of GPRS, TTU can achieve reliable communication with the remote terminal and the master station. Compared with other similar units, the new unit outperforms in terms of real-time, precision and reliability, which can fully meet with the high-speed development of distribution automation system.

  6. Barriers to accessing termination of pregnancy in a remote and rural setting: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, R; Purcell, C; Mackay, L; Caird, L; Cameron, S T

    2016-09-01

    To explore the experiences of women from a remote and rural setting who had a termination of pregnancy (TOP), in relation to any barriers they may have experienced trying to access TOP. Qualitative interview study. Scottish Highlands and Western Isles. Women who had undergone TOP in the Scottish Highlands National Health Service between October 2014 and May 2015. Sixteen semi-structured, audio-recorded telephone interviews were conducted by a researcher with women who had consented to be interviewed at their initial assessment. Six stages of thematic analysis were followed to explore themes in and across participant accounts. Themes derived from interview transcripts. Four themes emerged relating to barriers to access and experience: (1) the impact of travel for TOP, (2) temporal factors unique to this population and how they affected women, (3) the attitude of health professionals, notably general practitioners, as a result of local culture, and (4) stigma surrounding TOP and the expectation that abortion will be traumatising. Women in remote and rural areas experience barriers to accessing TOP. Prompt referrals, more providers of TOP and tackling stigma associated with TOP could make delivery of this service more equitable and improve women's journey through TOP. Women in remote and rural areas of Scotland face multiple barriers to accessing termination of pregnancy. © 2016 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  7. Abstracts of Remediation Case Studies, Volume 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report, published by the Federal Remediation Technologies Roundtable (FRTR), is a collection of recently published abstracts summarizing 13 cost and performance case studies on the use of remediation technologies at contaminated sites.

  8. Study on the High Volume Reduction of Radioactive Wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ki Hong; Sik, Kang Il; Seok, Hong Dae [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ho, Jeon Gil [RADIN Co. Ltd., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    The solidification of radioactive wastes by the mixing method always increases their volume due to the limitation of incorporation ratio (waste/solidification agent). But if the powdered wastes can be compacted as the high density pellets and also the pellets can be filled up in a waste drum as much as possible while solidifying them with a very sticky solidification agent including a void formed in the filling step of pellets, it might be more desirable to reduce the waste volume as compared with the mixing method. So in this study, we designed and manufactured a high volume reduction machine which has the special size and shape of a pellet pocket, which the pellets can be extracted from easily and filled up in a large amount in drum, a pressurizing device to press 2 rolls, and the uniform feeding device of powder to the roll tyre. Some operational parameters which affect the formation of pellets from a powder were investigated, and then the volume reduction of a powder was evaluated. The briquetting machine, popular in general industry, was modified to apply for the volume reduction of the powered radioactive wastes (dried concentrate, sludge, spent ion-exchange resin, ash, depleted uranium powder, and etc.). In this developed high volume reduction machine, the capacity was 25 ∼ 62.5 kg/h at the optimum conditions, and the estimated volume reduction was about 2.95 (2.74/0.93) on the basis of between a powder (bulk density = 0.93 g/cm{sup 3}) and the pellet (2.74 g/cm{sup 3}). But on the basis of 200L drum, the calculated volume reduction was about 1.34 in consideration of a void volume originated in the filling step of the pellets.

  9. National Television Violence Study. Volume 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seawell, Margaret, Ed.

    The National Television Violence Study (NTVS) was a 3-year effort to assess the effects of violence on television, of particular interest to education professionals is the effects of television violence on children. Funded by the National Cable Television Association, the project began in June 1994 and involved the participation of media scholars…

  10. National Television Violence Study. Volume 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seawell, Margaret, Ed.

    The National Television Violence Study (NTVS) was a 3-year effort to assess the effects of violence on television, of particular interest to education professionals is the effects of television violence on children. Funded by the National Cable Television Association, the project began in June 1994 and involved the participation of media scholars…

  11. National Television Violence Study. Volume 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seawell, Margaret, Ed.

    The National Television Violence Study (NTVS) was a 3-year effort to assess the effects of violence on television, of particular interest to education professionals is the effects of television violence on children. Funded by the National Cable Television Association, the project began in June 1994 and involved the participation of media scholars…

  12. A Case Study on the Walking Speed of Pedestrian at the Bus Terminal Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Ali Mohd Firdaus

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Walking speed is one of the factors in understanding the pedestrian walking behaviours. Every pedestrian has different level of walking speed that are regulated by some factors such as gender and age. This study was conducted at a bus terminal area with two objectives in which the first one was to determine the average walking speed of pedestrian by considering the factors of age, gender, people with and without carrying baggage; and the second one was to make a comparison of the average walking speed that considered age as the factor of comparison between pedestrian at the bus terminal area and crosswalk. Demographic factor of pedestrian walking speed in this study are gender and age consist of male, female, and 7 groups of age categories that are children, adult men and women, senior adult men and women, over 70 and disabled person. Data of experiment was obtained by making a video recording of the movement of people that were walking and roaming around at the main lobby for 45 minutes by using a camcorder. Hence, data analysis was done by using software named Human Behaviour Simulator (HBS for analysing the data extracted from the video. The result of this study was male pedestrian walked faster than female with the average of walking speed 1.13m/s and 1.07m/s respectively. Averagely, pedestrian that walked without carrying baggage had higher walking speed compared to pedestrian that were carrying baggage with the speed of 1.02m/s and 0.70m/s respectively. Male pedestrian walks faster than female because they have higher level of stamina and they are mostly taller than female pedestrian. Furthermore, pedestrian with baggage walks slower because baggage will cause distractions such as pedestrian will have more weight to carry and people tend to walk slower.

  13. A Case Study on the Walking Speed of Pedestrian at the Bus Terminal Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firdaus Mohamad Ali, Mohd; Salleh Abustan, Muhamad; Hidayah Abu Talib, Siti; Abustan, Ismail; Rahman, Noorhazlinda Abd; Gotoh, Hitoshi

    2018-03-01

    Walking speed is one of the factors in understanding the pedestrian walking behaviours. Every pedestrian has different level of walking speed that are regulated by some factors such as gender and age. This study was conducted at a bus terminal area with two objectives in which the first one was to determine the average walking speed of pedestrian by considering the factors of age, gender, people with and without carrying baggage; and the second one was to make a comparison of the average walking speed that considered age as the factor of comparison between pedestrian at the bus terminal area and crosswalk. Demographic factor of pedestrian walking speed in this study are gender and age consist of male, female, and 7 groups of age categories that are children, adult men and women, senior adult men and women, over 70 and disabled person. Data of experiment was obtained by making a video recording of the movement of people that were walking and roaming around at the main lobby for 45 minutes by using a camcorder. Hence, data analysis was done by using software named Human Behaviour Simulator (HBS) for analysing the data extracted from the video. The result of this study was male pedestrian walked faster than female with the average of walking speed 1.13m/s and 1.07m/s respectively. Averagely, pedestrian that walked without carrying baggage had higher walking speed compared to pedestrian that were carrying baggage with the speed of 1.02m/s and 0.70m/s respectively. Male pedestrian walks faster than female because they have higher level of stamina and they are mostly taller than female pedestrian. Furthermore, pedestrian with baggage walks slower because baggage will cause distractions such as pedestrian will have more weight to carry and people tend to walk slower.

  14. The relationship between sociodemographic factors and reporting having terminated a pregnancy among Ghanaian women: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dankwah, Emmanuel; Steeves, Megan; Ramsay, Dana; Feng, Cindy; Farag, Marwa

    2018-05-19

    Pregnancy termination is an illegal medical procedure in Ghana and 88% of induced abortions are performed in unsafe conditions, thus recipients face an elevated risk of abortion-related complications. This study aims to explore the associations between sociodemographic factors and reporting having terminated a pregnancy among Ghanaian women. Logistic regression models were estimated using data from the 2014 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey (n=9396). ORs were computed for the associations between reporting pregnancy termination and select demographic and socio-economic factors. Education level, employment status, financial status and marital status of women are significantly associated with reporting having terminated a pregnancy. Women who are employed, cohabit with a partner and are considered middle class or wealthy are more likely than their counterparts to report having terminated a pregnancy. Ghanaian women with intermediate levels of education are more likely than both their more- and less-educated counterparts to report having terminated a pregnancy. These findings highlight the need for the development of policies aimed at reducing unsafe abortions associated with unintended pregnancies. Specific recommendations include providing family planning education and outreach to high-risk groups to reduce unintended pregnancies and improving working conditions for expectant mothers, including provisions for paid maternity leave and job protection.

  15. ICPP tank farm closure study. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spaulding, B.C.; Gavalya, R.A.; Dahlmeir, M.M. [and others

    1998-02-01

    The disposition of INEEL radioactive wastes is now under a Settlement Agreement between the DOE and the State of Idaho. The Settlement Agreement requires that existing liquid sodium bearing waste (SBW), and other liquid waste inventories be treated by December 31, 2012. This agreement also requires that all HLW, including calcined waste, be disposed or made road ready to ship from the INEEL by 2035. Sodium bearing waste (SBW) is produced from decontamination operations and HLW from reprocessing of SNF. SBW and HLW are radioactive and hazardous mixed waste; the radioactive constituents are regulated by DOE and the hazardous constituents are regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Calcined waste, a dry granular material, is produced in the New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF). Two primary waste tank storage locations exist at the ICPP: Tank Farm Facility (TFF) and the Calcined Solids Storage Facility (CSSF). The TFF has the following underground storage tanks: four 18,400-gallon tanks (WM 100-102, WL 101); four 30,000-gallon tanks (WM 103-106); and eleven 300,000+ gallon tanks. This includes nine 300,000-gallon tanks (WM 182-190) and two 318,000 gallon tanks (WM 180-181). This study analyzes the closure and subsequent use of the eleven 300,000+ gallon tanks. The 18,400 and 30,000-gallon tanks were not included in the work scope and will be closed as a separate activity. This study was conducted to support the HLW Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) waste separations options and addresses closure of the 300,000-gallon liquid waste storage tanks and subsequent tank void uses. A figure provides a diagram estimating how the TFF could be used as part of the separations options. Other possible TFF uses are also discussed in this study.

  16. ICPP tank farm closure study. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spaulding, B.C.; Gavalya, R.A.; Dahlmeir, M.M.

    1998-02-01

    The disposition of INEEL radioactive wastes is now under a Settlement Agreement between the DOE and the State of Idaho. The Settlement Agreement requires that existing liquid sodium bearing waste (SBW), and other liquid waste inventories be treated by December 31, 2012. This agreement also requires that all HLW, including calcined waste, be disposed or made road ready to ship from the INEEL by 2035. Sodium bearing waste (SBW) is produced from decontamination operations and HLW from reprocessing of SNF. SBW and HLW are radioactive and hazardous mixed waste; the radioactive constituents are regulated by DOE and the hazardous constituents are regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Calcined waste, a dry granular material, is produced in the New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF). Two primary waste tank storage locations exist at the ICPP: Tank Farm Facility (TFF) and the Calcined Solids Storage Facility (CSSF). The TFF has the following underground storage tanks: four 18,400-gallon tanks (WM 100-102, WL 101); four 30,000-gallon tanks (WM 103-106); and eleven 300,000+ gallon tanks. This includes nine 300,000-gallon tanks (WM 182-190) and two 318,000 gallon tanks (WM 180-181). This study analyzes the closure and subsequent use of the eleven 300,000+ gallon tanks. The 18,400 and 30,000-gallon tanks were not included in the work scope and will be closed as a separate activity. This study was conducted to support the HLW Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) waste separations options and addresses closure of the 300,000-gallon liquid waste storage tanks and subsequent tank void uses. A figure provides a diagram estimating how the TFF could be used as part of the separations options. Other possible TFF uses are also discussed in this study

  17. Reusable Agena study. Volume 2: Technical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, W. K.; Piper, J. E.; Douglass, D. A.; Waller, E. W.; Hopkins, C. V.; Fitzgerald, E. T.; Sagawa, S. S.; Carter, S. A.; Jensen, H. L.

    1974-01-01

    The application of the existing Agena vehicle as a reusable upper stage for the space shuttle is discussed. The primary objective of the study is to define those changes to the Agena required for it to function in the reusable mode in the 100 percent capture of the NASA-DOD mission model. This 100 percent capture is achieved without use of kick motors or stages by simply increasing the Agena propellant load by using optional strap-on-tanks. The required shuttle support equipment, launch and flight operations techniques, development program, and cost package are also defined.

  18. Blanket comparison and selection study. Volume I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-10-01

    The objectives of the Blanket Comparison and Selection Study (BCSS) can be stated as follows: (1) Define a small number (approx. 3) of blanket design concepts that should be the focus of the blanket R and D program. A design concept is defined by the selection of all materials (e.g., breeder, coolant, structure and multiplier) and other major characteristics that significantly influence the R and D requirements. (2) Identify and prioritize the critical issues for the leading blanket concepts. (3) Provide the technical input necessary to develop a blanket R and D program plan. Guidelines for prioritizing the R and D requirements include: (a) critical feasibility issues for the leading blanket concepts will receive the highest priority, and (b) for equally important feasibility issues, higher R and D priority will be given to those that require minimum cost and short time

  19. Nuclear Aircraft Feasibility Study. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-03-01

    Iso Dose 10-12 10.1.4-3 Absorption Cross Section Ratio 10-14 10.1.5-1 Engine Systems Study Diagram 10-15 10.1.8-1 Life Cycle Cost for 60...0 00 ■ 3 15.00 OC z ^ 10.00 X s -i 1 UJ 5 < oc D I 50.00 40.00 30.00 20.00 1 ’ ISO LBS/SQ FT WING...4.1.6-1. Payload vs Wing Loading 4-17 m I - 27000 | i i ^1 ̂ N GROSS WEIGHT > 1.600,000 LBS 523 FT/SEC P 30.000 FT ONE GAS REACTOR 1

  20. Radioactivity studies. Progress report. Volume I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, N.

    1981-09-01

    A model was developed to be used to calculate the accumulation of uranium in the organs of the human body for different kinds of exposure. The proposed model divides the human body into compartments: red cell, short-term bone, long-term bone, kidney, and urine. The transfer rate between compartments is governed by 1st order kinetics. Transfer from plasma to the other compartments is instantaneous. Feedback from compartments to plasma is taken into account. The division of blood into plasma and red cell compartment is important to the calculations of uranium transport during the first few days after exposure. It was noted that uranium in bone has two different half-lives depending on the site of deposition, a short-term and a long-term bone component. An analytical solution to the model was proposed for any time-dependent exposure to uranium. This methodology is unique to this model and represents a significant change in analytical solutions. Specific analytical solutions for common cases of uranium exposure were derived. These include: single injection dose to the blood; exposure to background levels of natural uranium by ingestion; exposure through inhalation during working hours for uranium workers; single inhalation dose; constant inhalation exposure during a finite interval of time; and single ingestion dose. For model verification five baboons were injected intravenously with uranium nitrate and the partition of uranium between plasma and red cells was studied. The half-life in short-term bone was derived and the distribution in soft tissues four days after injection was studied: the kidney was the main organ for uranium deposition. The concentration in human skeleton was equal to 0.02 μg U/g ash. For this concentration in skeleton the gastrointestinal absorption factor was calculated as 23% and the daily excretion as 0.24 μg U/day

  1. Systems study 'Andere Entsorgung'. Main volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Closs, K.D.; Engelmann, H.J.; Fuerst, W.; Loser, H.; Mehling, O.; Motoi, V.; Papp, R.

    1984-12-01

    In the framework of a comparative assessment study the reference concept of direct Entsorgung was contrasted to Integrated Entsorgung (IE). The comparison was based on the following criteria: radiological safety and safeguards as well as economics and security of supply with uranium. Analyses of radiological and of long-term safety in the geologic repository did not yield a decisive advantage for either one of both fuel cycles. As to safeguarding a geologic repository for spent fuel some questions were left open. From the standpoint of cost, direct disposal will remain superior in the foreseeable future. On the other hand, macro-economic impacts of Entsorgung are not easily quantifiable. If aspects such as preservation of technology and utilization of resources are stressed, fuel reprocessing has to be favored. These results lead to the conclusion that fuel reprocessing should be continued as a matter of priority; simultaneously, the direct disposal technology is to be brought to maturity. Later on, this Entsorgung option ought to complement fuel reprocessing. (orig./HP) [de

  2. Radioactivity studies. Progress report. Volume II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, N.

    1981-09-01

    The metabolism of 243 244 Cm in nine adult female baboons following intravenous injection was studied. Curium-243,244 was administered as a single injection of curium citrate in dosages of 0.053 to 0.220 μCi/kg. The behavior of 243 244 Cm at these low dosages was quantitated by external whole-body and partial-body counting, bioassay of blood, urine and feces samples, liver biopsies, and post-mortem tissues analysis. Curium-243,244 rapidly passed from the blood to other tissues. At 1 and 24 h after injection, the amounts circulating were 10% and 1%, respectively. At 24 h after injection 70% of the 243 244 Cm was located within soft tissues, probably associated with extracellular fluid; the liver alone contained 32% of the injected activity. During the first weeks the content of 243 244 Cm in soft tissues decreased sharply. As time progressed, significant deposition was noted in the liver and the skeleton. Approximately 20% of the injected activity was in the liver at 1 month with a 40 day half-time. The skeleton reached a maximum burden of 57% by 100 days; the half-time observed in bone was 4 to 16 y. During the first 24 h, 10% of the injected activity appeared in the urine decreasing to 0.1%/day at 30 days and 0.01%/day at 200 days. Fecal excretion increased reaching a maximum level at four weeks. The amount of 243 244 Cm excreted in the feces during the initial 4 to 5 months (approx. 20%) and the rate of elimination in the feces after the first month paralleled the retention in the liver indicating an hepatic-biliary-fecal pathway. A model illustrating the interaction of seven internal compartments with respect to the translocation kinetics of 243 244 Cm was derived based upon this data. Solutions of the model were derived for two specific time-related exposures

  3. Fuel quality processing study, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohara, J. B.; Bela, A.; Jentz, N. E.; Syverson, H. T.; Klumpe, H. W.; Kessler, R. E.; Kotzot, H. T.; Loran, B. L.

    1981-01-01

    A fuel quality processing study to provide a data base for an intelligent tradeoff between advanced turbine technology and liquid fuel quality, and also, to guide the development of specifications of future synthetic fuels anticipated for use in the time period 1985 to 2000 is given. Four technical performance tests are discussed: on-site pretreating, existing refineries to upgrade fuels, new refineries to upgrade fuels, and data evaluation. The base case refinery is a modern Midwest refinery processing 200,000 BPD of a 60/40 domestic/import petroleum crude mix. The synthetic crudes used for upgrading to marketable products and turbine fuel are shale oil and coal liquids. Of these syncrudes, 50,000 BPD are processed in the existing petroleum refinery, requiring additional process units and reducing petroleum feed, and in a new refinery designed for processing each syncrude to produce gasoline, distillate fuels, resid fuels, and turbine fuel, JPGs and coke. An extensive collection of synfuel properties and upgrading data was prepared for the application of a linear program model to investigate the most economical production slate meeting petroleum product specifications and turbine fuels of various quality grades. Technical and economic projections were developed for 36 scenarios, based on 4 different crude feeds to either modified existing or new refineries operated in 2 different modes to produce 7 differing grades of turbine fuels. A required product selling price of turbine fuel for each processing route was calculated. Procedures and projected economics were developed for on-site treatment of turbine fuel to meet limitations of impurities and emission of pollutants.

  4. Ironmaking Process Alternative Screening Study, Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lockwood Greene, . .

    2005-01-06

    Iron in the United States is largely produced from iron ore mined in the United States or imported from Canada or South America. The iron ore is typically smelted in Blast Furnaces that use primarily iron ore, iron concentrate pellets metallurgical coke, limestone and lime as the raw materials. Under current operating scenarios, the iron produced from these Blast Furnaces is relatively inexpensive as compared to current alternative iron sources, e.g. direct iron reduction, imported pig iron, etc. The primary problem the Blast Furnace Ironmaking approach is that many of these Blast furnaces are relatively small, as compared to the newer, larger Blast Furnaces; thus are relatively costly and inefficient to operate. An additional problem is also that supplies of high-grade metallurgical grade coke are becoming increasingly in short supply and costs are also increasing. In part this is due to the short supply and costs of high-grade metallurgical coals, but also this is due to the increasing necessity for environmental controls for coke production. After year 2003 new regulations for coke product environmental requirement will likely be promulgated. It is likely that this also will either increase the cost of high-quality coke production or will reduce the available domestic U.S. supply. Therefore, iron production in the United States utilizing the current, predominant Blast Furnace process will be more costly and would likely be curtailed due to a coke shortage. Therefore, there is a significant need to develop or extend the economic viability of Alternate Ironmaking Processes to at least partially replace current and declining blast furnace iron sources and to provide incentives for new capacity expansion. The primary conclusions of this comparative Study of Alternative Ironmaking Process scenarios are: (1) The processes with the best combined economics (CAPEX and OPEX impacts in the I.R.R. calculation) can be grouped into those Fine Ore based processes with no scrap

  5. Prospective Study on Music Therapy in Terminally Ill Cancer Patients during Specialized Inpatient Palliative Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordovan, Sarah; Preissler, Pia; Kamphausen, Anne; Bokemeyer, Carsten; Oechsle, Karin

    2016-04-01

    This study was a prospective evaluation of feasibility, acceptance, and potential beneficial effects of music therapy in terminally ill cancer patients on a specialized palliative care inpatient ward. Intervention had to consist of at least two sessions, but frequency and duration was left to the patients` decision. Different music therapy methods were offered to the patient at the beginning of every session. Patients rated their subjective benefit. Disease-related and sociodemographic factors were considered as potentially influencing factors. A total of 166 music therapy sessions were performed with 41 patients (average, 4; range, 2-10). Average session duration was 41 minutes (range, 20-70). Most favored methods were therapeutic conversation in 84% of sessions; listening to relaxing music, 39%; playing an instrument, 31%; and music-lead imagination, 11%. Receptive music therapy was applied in 45%, active forms in 25%, a combination of both in 7%, and therapeutic conversation only in 23%. Music therapy was rated to be "helpful" in 68%. Positive effects were significantly associated with frequency (p = 0.009) and duration (p = 0.040), living in a partnership (p = 0.017), having children (p = 0.035), psycho-oncologic therapy (p = 0.043), experience with music therapy (p = 0.007), role of music in life (p = 0.035), playing an instrument (p = 0.021), and singing regularly (p = 0.003). Music therapy techniques, especially receptive methods, are feasible and well accepted in terminally ill cancer patients. Therapeutic conversation seems to play an important role. Frequency and duration of music therapy, previous experience with music and music therapy, as well as sociodemographic factors influence positive effects of music therapy.

  6. Anatomical study of terminal peroneal artery perforators and their clinical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendran Purushothaman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Peroneal artery gives off plenty of perforators that pass through fascial septum to supply skin and tenosynovium of peroneal muscles. Aim: The aim of this study was to study the anatomical basis of perforators from terminal part of peroneal artery axiality and to make use of this knowledge in reconstructing defects of posterior heel with the advantage of reducing the morbidity of conventional flaps. Materials and Methods: Our study was conducted at Department of Plastic surgery, Madras Medical College and Rajiv Gandhi Government General Hospital, India. We have carried out eleven cadaver dissections (from six cadavers-four fresh cadavers and two preserved cadavers and delineated all septocutaneous and septosynovial perforators of distal peroneal axis and studied their relation with short saphenous vein (SSV and sural nerve. Using this anatomical knowledge we have fashioned perforator based flaps in 13 patients (three propeller, four V-Y advancement, six tenosynovial flaps for reconstruction of defects over tendo achilles and pericalcaneal region . Results: In all cases, SSV and sural nerve were preserved and donor site was closed primarily. No total flap loss was noted. Conclusion: Perforator based flaps from distal most part of peroneal artery provide a good and reliable method for reconstruction of pericalcaneal and tendo achilles region defects with preservation of SSV and sural nerve. It also avoids contour deformity of the grafted donor site of the classical lateral calcaneal artery axial flap.

  7. Surgical volume and conversion rate in laparoscopic hysterectomy: does volume matter? A multicenter retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keurentjes, José H M; Briët, Justine M; de Bock, Geertruida H; Mourits, Marian J E

    2018-02-01

    A multicenter, retrospective, cohort study was conducted in the Netherlands. The aim was to evaluate whether surgical volume of laparoscopic hysterectomies (LHs) performed by proven skilled gynecologists had an impact on the conversion rate from laparoscopy to laparotomy. In 14 hospitals, all LHs performed by 19 proven skilled gynecologists between 2007 and 2010 were included in the analysis. Surgical volume, conversion rate and type of conversion (reactive or strategic) were retrospectively assessed. To estimate the impact of surgical volume on the conversion rate, logistic regressions were performed. These regressions were adjusted for patient's age, Body Mass Index (BMI), ASA classification, previous abdominal surgery and the indication (malignant versus benign) for the LH. During the study period, 19 proven skilled gynecologists performed a total of 1051 LHs. Forty percent of the gynecologists performed over 20 LHs per year (median 17.3, range 5.4-49.5). Conversion to laparotomy occurred in 5.0% of all LHs (53 of 1051); 38 (3.6%) were strategic and 15 (1.4%) were reactive conversions. Performing over 20 LHs per year was significantly associated with a lower overall conversion rate (OR adjusted 0.43, 95% CI 0.24-0.77), a lower strategic conversion rate (OR adjusted 0.32, 95% CI 0.16-0.65), but not with a lower reactive conversion rate (OR adjusted 0.96, 95% CI 0.33-2.79). A higher annual surgical volume of LHs by proven skilled gynecologists is inversely related to the conversion rate to laparotomy, and results in a lower strategic conversion rate.

  8. ZIF-8 gate tuning via terminal group modification: a computational study

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Bin; Wang, Lian Li; Du, Lifei; Huang, Kuo-Wei; Du, Huiling

    2016-01-01

    Tuning the pore structure of zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs) enables unique control of their material properties. In this work, we used computational methods to examine the gate structure of ZIF-8 tuned by substitution terminal groups

  9. Does Individual Gambling Behavior Vary across Gambling Venues with Differing Numbers of Terminals? An Empirical Real-World Study using Player Account Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagoe, Dominic; Pallesen, Ståle; Griffiths, Mark D; Mentzoni, Rune A; Leino, Tony

    2018-01-01

    Research examining gambling behavior via experiments, self-report, and/or observation presents many methodical challenges particularly in relation to objectivity. However, the use of player account-based gambling data provides purely objective data. Based on this real-world data, the primary aim of the present study was to examine gambling behavior in gambling venues with different numbers of gambling terminals (i.e., venues with one terminal; 2-5 terminals; 6-10 terminals; 11-16 terminals). Player account-based gambling data aggregated over a year (2015) amounting to 153,379 observations within 93,034 individual gamblers (males = 74%; mean age = 44.1, SD = 16.4 years) were analyzed. Gambling frequency was highest in venues with 2-5 terminals (54.5%) and lowest in venues with 11-16 terminals (1.6%). Approximately half of the sample (52.5%) gambled in only one venue category, with the majority (81.5%) preferring venues with 2-5 terminals present. Only 0.8% of the sample gambled in all four venue categories. Compared to venues with one terminal, venues with two or more terminals were associated with gamblers placing more bets, and spending more time and money per session. However, gamblers had higher losses (albeit small) in venues with one terminal compared to venues with 2-5 terminals. No differences in net outcome were found between venues with one terminal and those with 6-10 and 11-16 terminals. Overall, the present study demonstrates that in the natural gambling environment, gambling behavior is reinforced in venues with multiple terminals.

  10. Does Individual Gambling Behavior Vary across Gambling Venues with Differing Numbers of Terminals? An Empirical Real-World Study using Player Account Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic Sagoe

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Research examining gambling behavior via experiments, self-report, and/or observation presents many methodical challenges particularly in relation to objectivity. However, the use of player account-based gambling data provides purely objective data. Based on this real-world data, the primary aim of the present study was to examine gambling behavior in gambling venues with different numbers of gambling terminals (i.e., venues with one terminal; 2–5 terminals; 6–10 terminals; 11–16 terminals. Player account-based gambling data aggregated over a year (2015 amounting to 153,379 observations within 93,034 individual gamblers (males = 74%; mean age = 44.1, SD = 16.4 years were analyzed. Gambling frequency was highest in venues with 2–5 terminals (54.5% and lowest in venues with 11–16 terminals (1.6%. Approximately half of the sample (52.5% gambled in only one venue category, with the majority (81.5% preferring venues with 2–5 terminals present. Only 0.8% of the sample gambled in all four venue categories. Compared to venues with one terminal, venues with two or more terminals were associated with gamblers placing more bets, and spending more time and money per session. However, gamblers had higher losses (albeit small in venues with one terminal compared to venues with 2–5 terminals. No differences in net outcome were found between venues with one terminal and those with 6–10 and 11–16 terminals. Overall, the present study demonstrates that in the natural gambling environment, gambling behavior is reinforced in venues with multiple terminals.

  11. National Waste Terminal Storage Program information meeting, December 7-8, 1976. [Slides only, no text

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-12-06

    Volume II of the report comprises copies of the slides from the talks presented at the second session of the National Waste Terminal Storage Program information meeting. This session was devoted to geologic studies. (LK)

  12. National Waste Terminal Storage Program information meeting, December 7-8, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    Volume II of the report comprises copies of the slides from the talks presented at the second session of the National Waste Terminal Storage Program information meeting. This session was devoted to geologic studies

  13. North American Natural Gas Markets: Selected technical studies. Volume 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huntington, H.G.; Schuler, G.E. [eds.

    1989-04-01

    The Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) was established in 1976 at Stanford University to provide a structural framework within which energy experts, analysts, and policymakers could meet to improve their understanding of critical energy problems. The ninth EMF study, North American Natural Gas Markets, was conducted by a working group comprised of leading natural gas analysts and decision-makers from government, private companies, universities, and research and consulting organizations. The EMF 9 working group met five times from October 1986 through June 1988 to discuss key issues and analyze natural gas markets. This third volume includes technical papers that support many of the conclusions discussed in the EMF 9 summary report (Volume 1) and full working group report (Volume 2). These papers discuss the results from the individual models as well as some nonmodeling analysis related to US natural gas imports and industrial natural gas demand. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  14. Ghana Journal of Development Studies, Volume 7, Number 2

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UDS-CAPTURED

    Ghana Journal of Development Studies, Volume 7, Number 2 2010. 53 ... The use of motorcycles for urban passenger transport in Nigeria popularly called okada is a source of ..... Gap in Mexico Washington, DC: The World Bank. Becker, S. G. ...

  15. Diesel oil safety stock in storage and distribution terminals: a case study: Porto Velho/Rio, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, Rubens C. [Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (ANP), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); D' agosto, Marcio A. [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents a methodology for calculating diesel oil safety stock in distributor terminals located in the northern of Brazil, applied on a case study for terminals in the state of Rondonia. From the mapping of logistic flows related to transport and storage of diesel oil, the risk factors that cause uncertainties in lead time were analyzed and quantified. Through a research conducted among economic agents (producers, distributors and carriers) operating in the region, it was measured the relevance and impact of risk factors on the safety stock in the terminals. The safety stock was calculated by the classical equation of inventories, as well as by the methodology proposed in this paper. The difference between the two methods has unveiled inefficiencies derived from uncertainties in lead time. Recommendations of actions to mitigate the risk factors are included at the end of this paper. (author)

  16. Study of the Use of a Terminal Controller Technique for Reentry Guidance of a Capsule-Type Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foudriat, Edwin C.

    1961-01-01

    A study has been made of the use o f a terminal controller technique i n the guidance of a high-drag, variable-lift reentry vehicle to a desired landing point. The technique uses linearized equations of motion attained by the perturbation of the dependent variables from those of a reference trajectory. The guidance system continuously predicts the terminal range error and uses this error to control the angle of attack of the vehicle in an on-off manner until the predicted range error is within +-O.1 degrees of the required arc or +-6.9 miles.

  17. Thirty Percent of Female Footballers Terminate Their Careers Due to Injury - A Retrospective Study Among Former Polish Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grygorowicz, Monika; Michałowska, Martyna; Jurga, Paulina; Piontek, Tomasz; Jakubowska, Honorata; Kotwicki, Tomasz

    2017-09-27

    Female football is becoming an increasingly popular women's team sports discipline around the world. The Women's Football Committee in Polish Football Association (WFC_PFA) has developed a long-term strategic plan to popularize the discipline across the country and enhance girls' participation. On one hand, it is postulated to increase the number of female footballers, and on the other hand it is crucial to decrease the number of girls quitting football prematurely. To find the reasons for sports career termination among female football players. cross-sectional with retrospective information about reasons of career termination. On-line questionnaire was filled out by on-line access. Ninety-three former female footballers. factors leading to career termination. Participants completed the on-line questionnaire. The analysis was performed referring to two groups: "injury group" - in which the injury was the main reason for quitting football, and "other group" - in which the female player stopped playing football due to all other factors. Thirty percent of former Polish female football players terminated their career due to a long-term treatment for an injury. Over 27 percent (27.7%) females had ended their careers because they were not able to reconcile sports with work/studying. Over 10 percent (10.8%) of former football players reported that becoming a wife and/or mother was the reason for career termination. Losing motivation and interest in sport was reported by 9.2%(n=6) of present study participants who decided to terminate the career due to non-injury reasons. The results clearly show that more effort is needed to support female football players, especially after an injury, so that they do not quit the sport voluntarily.

  18. Comprehensive Cooling Water Study. Volume 1. Summary of environmental effects, Savannah River Plant. Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gladden, J.B.; Lower, M.W.; Mackey, H.E.; Specht, W.L.; Wilde, E.W.

    1985-07-01

    This volume summarizes the technical content of Volumes II through XI of the annual report. Volume II provides a description of the SRP environment, facilities, and operation, and presents the objectives and design for the CCWS. Volume III presents information on water quality of SRP surface waters. Results of radionuclide and heavy metal transport studies are presented in Volume IV. Volume V contains findings from studies of wetland plant communities. Volume VI presents findings from studies of the lower food chain components of SRP aquatic habitats. The results of fisheries studies are reported in Volume VII. Studies of semi-aquatic vertebrate populations are reported in Volume VIII. Water-fowl utilization of SRP habitats is discussed in Volume IX. The status of endangered species that utilize SRP aquatic habitats is presented in Volume X. The findings from studies of Parr Pond ecosystem are presented in Volume XI

  19. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF MIFEPRISTONE AND MISOPROSTOL VERSUS MISOPROSTOL ALONE IN MID TRIMESTER TERMINATION OF PREGNANCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surendra Nath Soren

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Termination of pregnancy in second trimester continues to be a challenge in developing countries especially in rural areas. There is an exponential rise in complications of abortion along with advancing gestational age. The search is on for an ideal method of abortion, which is reliable, safe and cheap. This study was conducted in M.K.C.G. Medical College and Hospital, Berhampur, from November 2015 to October 2017 with the aim of finding an effective method to induce second trimester abortion within reasonable time with fewer complications. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 80 patients were studied to compare combination of mifepristone and misoprostol (30 patients with single drug misoprostol alone (50 patients for second trimester abortion. The Induction Abortion Interval (IAI, success rate, misoprostol dose requirement and side effects with demographic characteristics were compared between the two groups. RESULTS There was a significant difference in the IAI in both the groups. The mean IAI was 562.218 minutes in study group, whereas in control group, IAI was 922.698 minutes. The success rate (complete abortion was 92.5% in study group and 68.4% in control group, and this was statistically significant. Misoprostol dose requirement (average in study group was 1081.48 μg and in control group was 1675.67 μg. More side effects were observed in the control group. CONCLUSION Mifepristone followed by misoprostol was more effective than misoprostol alone as it had a shorter IAI, better success rate, less requirement of misoprostol and fewer side effects.

  20. Pharmacologic study of C-terminal fragments of frog skin calcitonin gene-related peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladram, Ali; Besné, Isabelle; Breton, Lionel; de Lacharrière, Olivier; Nicolas, Pierre; Amiche, Mohamed

    2008-07-01

    The calcitonin gene-related peptide from the skin of the frog Phyllomedusa bicolor (pbCGRP) is a 37-residue neuropeptide that differs from human alpha CGRP (halphaCGRP) at 16 positions. The affinities of the C-terminal fragments of pbCGRP and halphaCGRP were evaluated in SK-N-MC cells: pbCGRP(8-37) (K(i)=0.2nM) and pbCGRP(27-37) (K(i)=95nM) were, respectively, 3 times and 20 times more potent than the human fragments halphaCGRP(8-37) and halphaCGRP(27-37). Their antagonistic potencies were measured in SK-N-MC and Col 29 cells, and the rat vas deferens. pbCGRP(8-37) inhibited the halphaCGRP-stimulated production of cAMP by SK-N-MC and Col 29 cells 3 to 4 times more strongly than halphaCGRP(8-37). Thus pbCGRP(8-37) is the most potent CGRP-1 competitive antagonist of all the natural sequences reported to date. pbCGRP(27-37) was also as potent as [D(31), A(34), F(35)] halphaCGRP(27-37), a prototypic antagonist analog derived from structure-activity relationship studies of halphaCGRP(8-37).

  1. DFT study of IR and Raman spectra of phosphotrihydrazone dendrimer with terminal phenolic groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furer, V. L.; Vandyukov, A. E.; Majoral, J. P.; Caminade, A. M.; Kovalenko, V. I.

    2017-09-01

    FT Raman and infrared spectra of phosphotrihydrazone (S)P[N(CH3)Ndbnd CHsbnd C6H4sbnd OH]3 (G0) were recorded. This compound is a zero generation phosphorus dendrimer with terminal phenolic groups. Optimal geometry and vibrational frequencies were calculated for G0 using the density functional theory (DFT). The molecule studied has C3 symmetry. In the molecule G0, each sbnd C6H4sbnd CHdbnd Nsbnd N(CH3)sbnd P arm is flat. Optimized geometric parameters correspond to experimental data. The core of the dendrimer manifests itself as a band at 647 cm-1 in the Raman spectrum of G0 related to Pdbnd S stretching. Phenolic end functions exhibit a well-defined band at 3374 cm-1 in the experimental IR spectrum of G0. The observed frequency of the OH stretching vibrations of the phenolic groups is lower than the theoretical value due to the intermolecular Osbnd H⋯O hydrogen bond. This hydrogen bond is also responsible for the higher intensity of this band in the experimental IR spectrum compared with the theoretical value. DFT calculations suggest full assignment of normal modes. Global and local descriptors characterize the reactivity of the core and end groups.

  2. A longitudinal study of brain volume changes in normal aging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takao, Hidemasa, E-mail: takaoh-tky@umin.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8655 (Japan); Hayashi, Naoto [Department of Computational Diagnostic Radiology and Preventive Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8655 (Japan); Ohtomo, Kuni [Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8655 (Japan)

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of normal aging on brain volumes and examine the effects of age and sex on the rates of changes in global and regional brain volumes. Methods: A total of 199 normal subjects (65 females and 134 males, mean age = 56.4 ± 9.9 years, age range = 38.1–82.9 years) were included in this study. Each subject was scanned twice, at an interval of about 2 years (range = 1.5–2.3 years). Two-time-point percentage brain volume change (PBVC) was estimated with SIENA 2.6. Results: The mean annualized PBVC was −0.23%/y. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) for annual brain volume changes revealed a main effect of age. There was no main effect of sex, nor was there a sex-by-age interaction. Voxel-wise analysis revealed a negative correlation between age and edge displacement values mainly in the periventricular region. Conclusions: The results of our study indicate that brain atrophy accelerates with increasing age and that there is no gender difference in the rate of brain atrophy.

  3. A longitudinal study of brain volume changes in normal aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takao, Hidemasa; Hayashi, Naoto; Ohtomo, Kuni

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of normal aging on brain volumes and examine the effects of age and sex on the rates of changes in global and regional brain volumes. Methods: A total of 199 normal subjects (65 females and 134 males, mean age = 56.4 ± 9.9 years, age range = 38.1–82.9 years) were included in this study. Each subject was scanned twice, at an interval of about 2 years (range = 1.5–2.3 years). Two-time-point percentage brain volume change (PBVC) was estimated with SIENA 2.6. Results: The mean annualized PBVC was −0.23%/y. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) for annual brain volume changes revealed a main effect of age. There was no main effect of sex, nor was there a sex-by-age interaction. Voxel-wise analysis revealed a negative correlation between age and edge displacement values mainly in the periventricular region. Conclusions: The results of our study indicate that brain atrophy accelerates with increasing age and that there is no gender difference in the rate of brain atrophy

  4. Trans-Caspian gas pipeline feasibility study. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This study, conducted by Enron Engineering and Construction Company, was funded by the US Trade and Development Agency. The study provides detailed information concerning natural gas demand in Turkey and Southern Europe. The purpose of the study is to estimate the rate at which new gas can be absorbed in the Turkish market and be re-exported to the markets in Europe, as well as to forecast Turkish natural gas demand for the period up to 2020. The study also evaluates gas demand and pricing for the market in the 2002--2005 time frame. This is Volume 2 of a 3-volume report, and it is divided into the following sections: (1) Executive Summary; (2) Policy, Legal and Administrative Framework; (3) Assessment of Alternatives; (4) Baseline Conditions in the Project Area; (5) Potential (Unmitigated) Environment, Health and Safety Impacts; (6) Proposed Environmental Prevention and Mitigation; (7) Projected Net Environmental Impacts; (8) Bibliography

  5. Trans-Caspian gas pipeline feasibility study. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This study, conducted by Enron Engineering and Construction Company, was funded by the US Trade and Development Agency. The study provides detailed information concerning natural gas demand in Turkey and Southern Europe. The purpose of the study is to estimate the rate at which new gas can be absorbed in the Turkish market and be re-exported to the markets in Europe, as well as to forecast Turkish natural gas demand for the period up to 2020. The study also evaluates gas demand and pricing for the market in the 2002--2005 time frame. This is Volume 1 of a 3-volume report, and is divided into the following sections: (1) Task A: Gas Sales; (2) Task B: Initial Economic Screening; (3) Task D: Project Cost Analysis

  6. Trans-Caspian gas pipeline feasibility study. Volume 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This study, conducted by Enron Engineering and Construction Company, was funded by the US Trade and Development Agency. The study provides detailed information concerning natural gas demand in Turkey and Southern Europe. The purpose of the study is to estimate the rate at which new gas can be absorbed in the Turkish market and be re-exported to the markets in Europe, as well as to forecast Turkish natural gas demand for the period up to 2020. The study also evaluates gas demand and pricing for the market in the 2002--2005 time frame. This is Volume 3 of a 3-volume report, and it is divided into the following sections: (1) Executive Summary; (2) Task C: Technical Feasibility and Preliminary Design; (3) Task F: Project Implementation Strategy

  7. NWTS conceptual reference repository description (CRRD). Volume III. Criteria, bases, special studies, and codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-05-01

    This volume documents the criteria, design bases, and special studies and provides the backup for the design presented in Volume II. The criteria presented here were developed by ONWI as a draft version for consideration in this conceptual report. Since these criteria were developed subsequent to preparation of the reports used as a basis for the CRRD, not all of the criteria could be fully considered in preparation of the CRRD. However, they were used as guidelines wherever possible. The criteria for terminal storage of waste are still in development. The chapter on the design bases identifies the important design considerations and provides the justification for their selection. The design bases were developed not so much to give exact values for parameters as to identify the parameters that are significant to the design. They also serve as a common basis for coordinating analysis and design studies unitl the next design phase is completed. Some of the design bases presented here were taken directly from the Stearns-Roger NWTS-R1 Conceptual Design Report. The special studies document technical aspects of the design that are of particular importance or that furnish additional information pertaining to the design

  8. User Delay Cost Model and Facilities Maintenance Cost Model for a Terminal Control Area : Volume 2. User's Manual and Program Documentation for the User Delay Cost Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-05-01

    The User Delay Cost Model (UDCM) is a Monte Carlo simulation of certain classes of movement of air traffic in the Boston Terminal Control Area (TCA). It incorporates a weather module, an aircraft generation module, a facilities module, and an air con...

  9. Effect of cyclic training model on terminal structure of rabbit Achilles tendon: an experimental study

    OpenAIRE

    Chang-lin HUANG; Wang GAO; Tao HUANG; Zhen-hai GUO

    2012-01-01

    Objective  To observe the effect of cyclic training on histomorphology of the terminal structure of rabbit Achilles tendon, and explore its preventive effect on training-based enthesiopathy. Methods  Seventy-two Japanese white rabbits were randomly assigned to four groups: control group, jumping group, running group and cyclic training group, 18 for each. Three rabbits of each group were sacrificed at the 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 6th, 8th and 10th week. The terminal insertion tissues of bilateral Achil...

  10. ZIF-8 gate tuning via terminal group modification: a computational study

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Bin

    2016-06-24

    Tuning the pore structure of zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs) enables unique control of their material properties. In this work, we used computational methods to examine the gate structure of ZIF-8 tuned by substitution terminal groups. The substitution position and electron affinity of the added groups were shown to be key factors in gate size. Electrostatic interactions are responsible for the variation in gate opening. These results suggest that the post-modification of terminal group in ZIFs can be used to finely tune the pore gate, opening up new strategies in the design of ZIFs with desired properties.

  11. High Octane Fuel: Terminal Backgrounder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriarty, Kristi [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-02-11

    The Bioenergy Technologies Office of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy sponsored a scoping study to assess the potential of ethanol-based high octane fuel (HOF) to reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. When the HOF blend is made with 25%-40% ethanol by volume, this energy efficiency improvement is potentially sufficient to offset the reduced vehicle range often associated with the decreased volumetric energy density of ethanol. The purpose of this study is to assess the ability of the fuel supply chain to accommodate more ethanol at fuel terminals. Fuel terminals are midstream in the transportation fuel supply chain and serve to store and distribute fuels to end users. While there are no technical issues to storing more ethanol at fuel terminals, there are several factors that could impact the ability to deploy more ethanol. The most significant of these issues include the availability of land to add more infrastructure and accommodate more truck traffic for ethanol deliveries as well as a lengthy permitting process to erect more tanks.

  12. Longitudinal study of hippocampal volumes in heavy cannabis users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenders, L; Lorenzetti, V; de Haan, L; Suo, C; Vingerhoets, Wam; van den Brink, W; Wiers, R W; Meijer, C J; Machielsen, Mwj; Goudriaan, A E; Veltman, D J; Yücel, M; Cousijn, J

    2017-08-01

    Cannabis exposure, particularly heavy cannabis use, has been associated with neuroanatomical alterations in regions rich with cannabinoid receptors such as the hippocampus in some but not in other (mainly cross-sectional) studies. However, it remains unclear whether continued heavy cannabis use alters hippocampal volume, and whether an earlier age of onset and/or a higher dosage exacerbate these changes. Twenty heavy cannabis users (mean age 21 years, range 18-24 years) and 23 matched non-cannabis using healthy controls were submitted to a comprehensive psychological assessment and magnetic resonance imaging scan at baseline and at follow-up (average of 39 months post-baseline; standard deviation=2.4). Cannabis users started smoking around 16 years and smoked on average five days per week. A novel aspect of the current study is that hippocampal volume estimates were obtained from manual tracing the hippocampus on T1-weighted anatomical magnetic resonance imaging scans, using a previously validated protocol. Compared to controls, cannabis users did not show hippocampal volume alterations at either baseline or follow-up. Hippocampal volumes increased over time in both cannabis users and controls, following similar trajectories of increase. Cannabis dose and age of onset of cannabis use did not affect hippocampal volumes. Continued heavy cannabis use did not affect hippocampal neuroanatomical changes in early adulthood. This contrasts with prior evidence on alterations in this region in samples of older adult cannabis users. In young adults using cannabis at this level, cannabis use may not be heavy enough to affect hippocampal neuroanatomy.

  13. Chlamydia trachomatis prevalence in undocumented migrants undergoing voluntary termination of pregnancy: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irion Olivier

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlamydia trachomatis infection (CTI is the most frequent sexual transmitted disease (STI in Switzerland but its prevalence in undocumented migrants is unknown. We aimed to compare CTI prevalence among undocumented migrants undergoing termination of pregnancy (ToP to the prevalence among women with residency permit. Methods This prospective cohort study included all pregnant, undocumented women presenting from March 2005 to October 2006 to the University hospital for ToP. The control group consisted of a systematic sample of pregnant women with legal residency permit coming to the same hospital during the same time period for ToP Results One hundred seventy five undocumented women and 208 women with residency permit (controls were included in the study. Mean ages were 28.0 y (SD 5.5 and 28.2 y (SD 7.5, respectively (p = 0.77. Undocumented women came primarily from Latin-America (78%. Frequently, they lacked contraception (23%, controls 15%, OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.04;2.9. Thirteen percent of undocumented migrants were found to have CTI (compared to 4.4% of controls; OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.4;7.3. Conclusion This population of undocumented, pregnant migrants consisted primarily of young, Latino-American women. Compared to control women, undocumented migrants showed higher prevalence rates of genital CTI, which indicates that health professionals should consider systematic screening for STI in this population. There is a need to design programs providing better access to treatment and education and to increase migrants' awareness of the importance of contraception and transmission of STI.

  14. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of the C-terminal domain of outer membrane protein A from enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, Jiang; Ji, Xiaowei; Qi, Jianxun; Ma, Ying; Mao, Xuhu; Zou, Quanming

    2010-01-01

    In this study, recombinant OmpAC from EHEC was purified and crystallized and a diffraction data set was collected to 2.7 Å resolution. Outer membrane protein A (OmpA) of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) plays multiple roles in bacterial physiology and pathogenesis, such as mediation of bacterial conjunction, maintenance of cell shape, induction of adhesion of EHEC to host cells etc. Better understanding of the functions of OmpA will help in the control of EHEC infections. OmpA is composed of two domains: the N-terminal domain and the C-terminal domain. The N-terminal domain is a β-barrel structure and embeds in the outer membrane of the bacterium. The structure and function of the C-terminal domain of OmpA (OmpAC) remain elusive. In this study, recombinant OmpAC from EHEC was purified and crystallized and a diffraction data set was collected to 2.7 Å resolution. The crystals belonged to space group I4 1 32, with unit-cell parameter a = 158.99 Å. The Matthews coefficient and solvent content were calculated to be 2.55 Å 3 Da −1 and 51.77%, respectively, for two molecules in the asymmetric unit

  15. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE EFFECTS OF DETONATION NANODIAMONDS WITH VARIED PROPERTIES ON FUNCTIONAL STATE OF BRAIN NERVE TERMINALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Galkin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to compare the effects of detonation nanodiamond preparations from different batches cleaned from impurities by diverse methods of chemical treatment on the membrane potential and glutamate transport characteristics of rat brain nerve terminals. The size of nanodiamond particles vary from 10–20 nm to 10 μm. There are carbonyl, hydroxyl and carboxyl functional groups on the surface of the particles. Physical-chemical properties such as a magnetic susceptibility and the amount of incombustible residue in samples of detonation nanodia-mond vary depending on the synthesis regime and the method of chemical cleaning of the product and therefore, the neuroactive properties of nanodiamonds from different batches can be different. It was shown by dynamic light scattering analysis that nanodiamond preparations from different batches treated by diverse technologies of chemical treatment had varied average size of particles and distribution of particles by size. Nanodiamond preparations from different batches changed the plasma membrane potential and caused membrane depolarization of nerve terminals. Analysis of the effects of nanodiamonds on transporter-mediated L-[14C]glutamate uptake by nerve terminals also revealed that all studied nanodiamond preparations decreased abovementioned parameter. Therefore, detonation nanodiamonds from different batches have similar principal effects on functional state of nerve terminals, however variability in their physical and chemical properties is associated with diverse strength of these effects.

  16. Functional mechanism of C-terminal tail in the enzymatic role of porcine testicular carbonyl reductase: a combined experiment and molecular dynamics simulation study of the C-terminal tail in the enzymatic role of PTCR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minky Son

    Full Text Available Porcine testicular carbonyl reductase, PTCR which is one of the short chain dehydrogenases/reductases (SDR superfamily catalyzes the NADPH-dependent reduction of carbonyl compounds including steroids and prostaglandins. Previously we reported C-terminal tail of PTCR was deleted due to a nonsynonymous single nucleotide variation (nsSNV. Here we identified from kinetic studies that the enzymatic properties for 5α-dihydrotestosterone (5α-DHT were different between wild-type and C-terminal-deleted PTCRs. Compared to wild-type PTCR, C-terminal-deleted PTCR has much higher reduction rate. To investigate structural difference between wild-type and C-terminal-deleted PTCRs upon 5α-DHT binding, we performed molecular dynamics simulations for two complexes. Using trajectories, molecular interactions including hydrogen bonding patterns, distance between 5α-DHT and catalytic Tyr193, and interaction energies are analyzed and compared. During the MD simulation time, the dynamic behavior of C-terminal tail in wild-type PTCR is also examined using essential dynamics analysis. The results of our simulations reveal that the binding conformation of 5α-DHT in C-terminal-deleted PTCR is more favorable for reduction reaction in PTCR, which shows strong agreement with kinetic data. These structural findings provide valuable information to understand substrate specificity of PTCR and further kinetic properties of enzymes belonging to the SDR superfamily.

  17. Complement activation in leprosy: a retrospective study shows elevated circulating terminal complement complex in reactional leprosy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahia El Idrissi, N; Hakobyan, S; Ramaglia, V; Geluk, A; Morgan, B Paul; Das, P Kumar; Baas, F

    2016-06-01

    Mycobacterium leprae infection gives rise to the immunologically and histopathologically classified spectrum of leprosy. At present, several tools for the stratification of patients are based on acquired immunity markers. However, the role of innate immunity, particularly the complement system, is largely unexplored. The present retrospective study was undertaken to explore whether the systemic levels of complement activation components and regulators can stratify leprosy patients, particularly in reference to the reactional state of the disease. Serum samples from two cohorts were analysed. The cohort from Bangladesh included multi-bacillary (MB) patients with (n = 12) or without (n = 46) reaction (R) at intake and endemic controls (n = 20). The cohort from Ethiopia included pauci-bacillary (PB) (n = 7) and MB (n = 23) patients without reaction and MB (n = 15) patients with reaction. The results showed that the activation products terminal complement complex (TCC) (P ≤ 0·01), C4d (P ≤ 0·05) and iC3b (P ≤ 0·05) were specifically elevated in Bangladeshi patients with reaction at intake compared to endemic controls. In addition, levels of the regulator clusterin (P ≤ 0·001 without R; P < 0·05 with R) were also elevated in MB patients, irrespective of a reaction. Similar analysis of the Ethiopian cohort confirmed that, irrespective of a reaction, serum TCC levels were increased significantly in patients with reactions compared to patients without reactions (P ≤ 0·05). Our findings suggests that serum TCC levels may prove to be a valuable tool in diagnosing patients at risk of developing reactions. © 2016 British Society for Immunology.

  18. Site directed spin labeling studies of Escherichia coli dihydroorotate dehydrogenase N-terminal extension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couto, Sheila G. [Instituto de Fisica de Sao Carlos, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Trabalhador Sao-carlense 400, C.P. 369, 13560-970, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Grupo de Biofisica e Fisica Aplicada a Medicina, Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Goias, Campus Samambaia, C.P. 131, 74001-970, Goiania, GO (Brazil); Cristina Nonato, M. [Laboratorio de Cristalografia de Proteinas, Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas de Ribeirao Preto, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. do Cafe S/N, 14040-903, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil); Costa-Filho, Antonio J., E-mail: ajcosta@ffclrp.usp.br [Instituto de Fisica de Sao Carlos, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Trabalhador Sao-carlense 400, C.P. 369, 13560-970, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Departamento de Fisica, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras de Ribeirao Preto, Av. Bandeirantes 3900, 14040-901, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2011-10-28

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EcDHODH is a membrane-associated enzyme and a promising target for drug design. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Enzyme's N-terminal extension is responsible for membrane association. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer N-terminal works as a molecular lid regulating access to the protein interior. -- Abstract: Dihydroorotate dehydrogenases (DHODHs) are enzymes that catalyze the fourth step of the de novo synthesis of pyrimidine nucleotides. In this reaction, DHODH converts dihydroorotate to orotate, using a flavine mononucleotide as a cofactor. Since the synthesis of nucleotides has different pathways in mammals as compared to parasites, DHODH has gained much attention as a promising target for drug design. Escherichia coli DHODH (EcDHODH) is a family 2 DHODH that interacts with cell membranes in order to promote catalysis. The membrane association is supposedly made via an extension found in the enzyme's N-terminal. In the present work, we used site directed spin labeling (SDSL) to specifically place a magnetic probe at positions 2, 5, 19, and 21 within the N-terminal and thus monitor, by using Electron Spin Resonance (ESR), dynamics and structural changes in this region in the presence of a membrane model system. Overall, our ESR spectra show that the N-terminal indeed binds to membranes and that it experiences a somewhat high flexibility that could be related to the role of this region as a molecular lid controlling the entrance of the enzyme's active site and thus allowing the enzyme to give access to quinones that are dispersed in the membrane and that are necessary for the catalysis.

  19. Recruiting Terminally Ill Patients into Non-Therapeutic Oncology Studies: views of Health Professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleiderman Erika

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-therapeutic trials in which terminally ill cancer patients are asked to undergo procedures such as biopsies or venipunctures for research purposes, have become increasingly important to learn more about how cancer cells work and to realize the full potential of clinical research. Considering that implementing non-therapeutic studies is not likely to result in direct benefits for the patient, some authors are concerned that involving patients in such research may be exploitive of vulnerable patients and should not occur at all, or should be greatly restricted, while some proponents doubt whether such restrictions are appropriate. Our objective was to explore clinician-researcher attitudes and concerns when recruiting patients who are in advanced stages of cancer into non-therapeutic research. Methods We conducted a qualitative exploratory study by carrying out open-ended interviews with health professionals, including physicians, research nurses, and study coordinators. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed. Analysis was carried out using grounded theory. Results The analysis of the interviews unveiled three prominent themes: 1 ethical considerations; 2 patient-centered issues; 3 health professional issues. Respondents identified ethical issues surrounding autonomy, respect for persons, beneficence, non-maleficence, discrimination, and confidentiality; bringing to light that patients contribute to science because of a sense of altruism and that they want reassurance before consenting. Several patient-centered and health professional issues are having an impact on the recruitment of patients for non-therapeutic research. Facilitators were most commonly associated with patient-centered issues enhancing communication, whereas barriers in non-therapeutic research were most often professionally based, including the doctor-patient relationship, time constraints, and a lack of education and training in research

  20. Studies on the termination of immunological tolerance in the mouse thymus cell population after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amagai, Takashi

    1981-01-01

    Immunological tolerance in the mouse thymus cell population induced by the intravenous injection of deaggregated bovine gamma globulin was terminated by whole body irradiation. After irradiation, the weight of the thymus recovered biphasically, and the termination of tolerance occurred as early as in the first phase. Both Thy-1 antigen expression and helper activity of the thymus cell population in irradiated mice recovered in parallel with the recovery of the thymus weight. Sensitivity of the regenerating thymus cells to the tolerogen was not different from that of the normal thymus cells. The first phase of thymus regeneration may be caused by the proliferation and differentiation of relatively radioresistant and tolerogen insensitive precursors residing in the thymus. Tolerogen and/or immunogen reactive thymus cells may originate from the precursor. (author)

  1. Effects of a Video Lottery Terminal (VLT) Banner on Gambling: A Field Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Timothy; Nicki, Richard; Otteson, Amy; Elliott, Heather

    2011-01-01

    The effects of a warning banner, informing patrons of the randomness of Video Lottery Terminal (VLT) outcomes, on gambling behaviour and beliefs were tested in a field setting using a mixed-model 2 x 3 design over a six-week period with 27 problem and 27 non-problem gamblers recruited from bars in a Canadian city with a population of 85,000.…

  2. A study of nasal cavity volume by magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tosa, Yasuyoshi [Showa Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    1992-04-01

    The nasal cavity volume in 69 healthy volunteers from 8 to 23 years old (17 males and 52 females) was studied using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Merits of MRI such as no radiation exposure, less artifact due to bone and air and measurement of intravascular blood flow; and demerits such as contraindication in users of heart pace-makers or magnetic clips, contraindication in people with claustrophobia and influence of environmental magnetic fields must be considered. A Magunetom M10 (Siemens), a superconduction device with 1.0 Tesla magnetic flux density was used. Enhanced patterns of T[sub 1], and pulse lines were photographed at 600 msec TR (repetition time) and 19 msec TE (echo time) using SE (spin echo) and short SE (spin echo), and 3 or 4 mm slices. Photographs were made of the piriform aperture, choana, superior-middle-inferior concha including the nasal meatus, the frontal sinus, maxillary sinus, cribriform plate, and upper surface of the palate. The line connecting the maximum depression point in the nasal root and the pontomedullary junction was selected by sagittal median section, because this corresponds well with the CM (canthomeatal) line which is useful in CT (computed tomography). The transverse section of the nasal cavity volume was traced by display console with an accessory MRI device and calculated by integration of the slice width. The increase of height and body weight neared a plateau at almost 16 years, whereas increase of nasal cavity volume continued until about 20 years. Pearson's coefficient of correlation and regression line were significant. There were no significant differences in these parameters between male and female groups. Comparatively strong correlation between nasal cavity volume, and age, height and body weight was statistically evident. (author).

  3. Free volume of cyanate resins studied by positron annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, T.; Oki, Y.; Numajiri, M.; Miura, T.; Kondo, K.; Oshima, N.; Hayashi, T.; Nakamura, H.; Ito, Y.

    1996-01-01

    The polymerization process of bisphenol-A dicyanate (BADCy) has been studied using a positron-annihilation lifetime technique (PAL). The polymerization was conducted at 150 deg C, and the process was followed by PAL. Seven kinds of samples with different curing times were also formed at 150 deg C, and the relation between the period of the curing time and the degree of polymerization was studied. It has been shown that the ο-Ps lifetime increases in samples with a higher polymerization than 85%, which is consistent with measurements of the specific volume of BADCy. (author)

  4. Medical termination of pregnancy in general practice in Australia: a descriptive-interpretive qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Angela J; Nicolls, Rachel; Bateson, Deborah; Doab, Anna; Estoesta, Jane; Brassil, Ann; Sullivan, Elizabeth A

    2017-03-14

    Australian Government approval in 2012 for the use of mifepristone and misoprostol for medical termination of pregnancy (MTOP) allows general practitioners (GPs) to provide early gestation abortion in primary care settings. However, uptake of the MTOP provision by GPs appears to be low and the reasons for this have been unclear. This study investigated the provision of and referral for MTOP by GPs. We undertook descriptive-interpretive qualitative research and selected participants for diversity using a matrix. Twenty-eight semi-structured interviews and one focus group (N = 4), were conducted with 32 GPs (8 MTOP providers, 24 non MTOP providers) in New South Wales, Australia. Interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. A framework to examine access to abortion services was used to develop the interview questions and emergent themes identified thematically. Three main themes emerged: scope of practice; MTOP demand, care and referral; and workforce needs. Many GPs saw abortion as beyond the scope of their practice (i.e. a service others provide in specialist private clinics). Some GPs had religious or moral objections; others regarded MTOP provision as complicated and difficult. While some GPs expressed interest in MTOP provision they were concerned about stigma and the impact it may have on perceptions of their practice and the views of colleagues. Despite a reported variance in demand most MTOP providers were busy but felt isolated. Difficulties in referral to a local public hospital in the case of complications or the provision of surgical abortion were noted. Exploring the factors which affect access to MTOP in general practice settings provides insights to assist the future planning and delivery of reproductive health services. This research identifies the need for support to increase the number of MTOP GP providers and for GPs who are currently providing MTOP. Alongside these actions provision in the public sector is required. In addition

  5. Anatomic relationship between arachnoid granulations in the transverse sinus and the termination of the vein of Labbe: an angiographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gailloud, P.; Muster, M.; Khaw, N.; Martin, J.B.; Murphy, K.J.; Ruefenacht, D.A.; Fasel, J.H.D.

    2001-01-01

    We studied the anatomic relationship between arachnoid granulations in the transverse sinus and the termination of the vein of Labbe in 57 consecutive angiograms. Patients with pathology in intracranial venous structures or with inadequate image quality of the venous system were excluded. Arachnoid granulations were found in 12 of the 57 patients (21.1 %), always at the junction of the vein of Labbe and the transverse sinus; the vein of Labbe was present in 55 patients (96.5 %), most often without associated arachnoid granulations; the latter, however, were not observed in the absence of a vein of Labbe. This study confirms the close, constant anatomic relationship between arachnoid granulations in the transverse sinus and the termination of the vein of Labbe. This observation may help to differentiate arachnoid granulations from pathologic conditions involving the transverse sinus such as dural sinus thrombosis. The constant character of this relationship suggests a developmental role of afferent veins in the formation of arachnoid granulations. (orig.)

  6. Effect of Li Termination on the Electronic and Hydrogen Storage Properties of Linear Carbon Chains: A TAO-DFT Study

    OpenAIRE

    Seenithurai, Sonai; Chai, Jeng-Da

    2017-01-01

    Accurate prediction of the electronic and hydrogen storage properties of linear carbon chains (C n ) and Li-terminated linear carbon chains (Li2C n ), with n carbon atoms (n?=?5?10), has been very challenging for traditional electronic structure methods, due to the presence of strong static correlation effects. To meet the challenge, we study these properties using our newly developed thermally-assisted-occupation density functional theory (TAO-DFT), a very efficient electronic structure meth...

  7. Nontraumatic terminal ileal perforation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wani Rauf A

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is still confusion and controversy over the diagnosis and optimal surgical treatment of non traumatic terminal ileal perforation-a cause of obscure peritonitis. Methods This study was a prospective study aimed at evaluating the clinical profile, etiology and optimal surgical management of patients with nontraumatic terminal ileal perforation. Results There were 79 cases of nontraumatic terminal ileal perforation; the causes for perforation were enteric fever(62%, nonspecific inflammation(26%, obstruction(6%, tuberculosis(4% and radiation enteritis (1%. Simple closure of the perforation (49% and end to side ileotransverse anastomosis(42% were the mainstay of the surgical management. Conclusion Terminal ileal perforation should be suspected in all cases of peritonitis especially in developing countries and surgical treatment should be optimized taking various accounts like etiology, delay in surgery and operative findings into consideration to reduce the incidence of deadly complications like fecal fistula.

  8. N-Terminal pro-Brain Natriuretic Peptide and Associations With Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI Features in Middle Age: The CARDIA Brain MRI Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian T. Ferguson

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveAs part of research on the heart–brain axis, we investigated the association of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP with brain structure and function in a community-based cohort of middle-aged adults from the Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging sub-study of the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA Study.Approach and resultsIn a cohort of 634 community-dwelling adults with a mean (range age of 50.4 (46–52 years, we examined the cross-sectional association of NT-proBNP to total, gray (GM and white matter (WM volumes, abnormal WM load and WM integrity, and to cognitive function tests [the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST, the Stroop test, and the Rey Auditory–Verbal Learning Test]. These associations were examined using linear regression models adjusted for demographic and cardiovascular risk factors and cardiac output. Higher NT-proBNP concentration was significantly associated with smaller GM volume (β = −3.44; 95% CI = −5.32, −0.53; p = 0.003, even after additionally adjusting for cardiac output (β = −2.93; 95% CI = −5.32, −0.53; p = 0.017. Higher NT-proBNP levels were also associated with lower DSST scores. NT-proBNP was not related to WM volume, WM integrity, or abnormal WM load.ConclusionIn this middle-aged cohort, subclinical levels of NT-proBNP were related to brain function and specifically to GM and not WM measures, extending similar findings in older cohorts. Further research is warranted into biomarkers of cardiac dysfunction as a target for early markers of a brain at risk.

  9. Terminal Ballistics

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenberg, Zvi

    2012-01-01

    This book covers the important issues of terminal ballistics in a comprehensive way combining experimental data, numerical simulations and analytical modeling. The first chapter reviews the experimental equipment which are used for ballistic tests and the diagnostics for material characterization under impulsive loading conditions. The second chapter covers essential features of the codes which are used for terminal ballistics such as the Euler vs. Lagrange schemes and meshing techniques, as well as the most popular material models. The third chapter, devoted to the penetration mechanics of rigid penetrators, brings the update of modeling in this field. The fourth chapter deals with plate perforation and the fifth chapter deals with the penetration mechanics of shaped charge jets and eroding long rods. The last two chapters discuss several techniques for the disruption and defeating of the main threats in armor design. Throughout the book the authors demonstrate the advantages of numerical simulations in unde...

  10. Terminal structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Frank [Langenhagen, DE; Allais, Arnaud [Hannover, DE; Mirebeau, Pierre [Villebon sur Yvette, FR; Ganhungu, Francois [Vieux-Reng, FR; Lallouet, Nicolas [Saint Martin Boulogne, FR

    2009-10-20

    A terminal structure (2) for a superconducting cable (1) is described. It consists of a conductor (2a) and an insulator (2b) that surrounds the conductor (2a), wherein the superconducting cable (1) has a core with a superconducting conductor (5) and a layer of insulation that surrounds the conductor (5), and wherein the core is arranged in such a way that it can move longitudinally in a cryostat. The conductor (2a) of the terminal structure (2) is electrically connected with the superconducting conductor (5) or with a normal conductor (6) that is connected with the superconducting conductor (5) by means of a tubular part (7) made of an electrically conductive material, wherein the superconducting conductor (5) or the normal conductor (6) can slide in the part (7) in the direction of the superconductor.

  11. Termination unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traeholt, Chresten; Willen, Dag; Roden, Mark; Tolbert, Jerry C.; Lindsay, David; Fisher, Paul W.; Nielsen, Carsten Thidemann

    2016-05-03

    Cable end section comprises end-parts of N electrical phases/neutral, and a thermally-insulation envelope comprising cooling fluid. The end-parts each comprises a conductor and are arranged with phase 1 innermost, N outermost surrounded by the neutral, electrical insulation being between phases and N and neutral. The end-parts comprise contacting surfaces located sequentially along the longitudinal extension of the end-section. A termination unit has an insulating envelope connected to a cryostat, special parts at both ends comprising an adapter piece at the cable interface and a closing end-piece terminating the envelope in the end-section. The special parts houses an inlet and/or outlet for cooling fluid. The space between an inner wall of the envelope and a central opening of the cable is filled with cooling fluid. The special part at the end connecting to the cryostat houses an inlet or outlet, splitting cooling flow into cable annular flow and termination annular flow.

  12. Regulated phosphorylation of the K-Cl cotransporter KCC3 at dual C-terminal threonines is a potent switch of intracellular potassium content and cell volume homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma C. Adragna

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The defense of cell volume against excessive shrinkage or swelling is a requirement for cell function and organismal survival. Cell swelling triggers a coordinated homeostatic response termed regulatory volume decrease (RVD, resulting in K+ and Cl– efflux via the activation of K+ channels, volume-regulated anion channels (VRACs, and the K+-Cl– cotransporters, including KCC3. Here, we show genetic alanine (Ala substitution at threonines (Thr 991 and 1048 in the KCC3a isoform carboxyl-terminus, preventing inhibitory phosphorylation at these sites, not only significantly up-regulates KCC3a activity up to 25-fold in normally inhibitory isotonic conditions, but is also accompanied by reversal of activity of the related bumetanide-sensitive Na+-K+-2Cl– cotransporter isoform 1 (NKCC1. This results in a rapid (90 % reduction in intracellular K+ content (Ki via both Cl-dependent (KCC3a + NKCC1 and Cl-independent (DCPIB [VRAC inhibitor]-sensitive pathways, which collectively renders cells less prone to acute swelling in hypotonic osmotic stress. Together, these data demonstrate the phosphorylation state of Thr991/Thr1048 in the KCC3a encodes a potent switch of transporter activity, Ki homeostasis, and cell volume regulation, and reveal novel observations into the functional interaction among ion transport molecules involved in RVD.

  13. Nuclear Power Options Viability Study. Volume 3. Nuclear discipline topics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trauger, D.B.; White, J.D.; Bowers, H.I.

    1986-09-01

    Innovative reactor concepts are described and evaluated in accordance with criteria established in the study. The reactors to be studied were chosen on the basis of three ground rules: (1) the potential for commercialization between 2000-2010, (2) economic competiveness with coal-fired plants, and (3) the degree of passive safety in the design. The concepts, classified by coolants, were light water reactors, liquid metal reactors, and high temperature reactors, and most were of modular design. All the concepts appear to be potentially viable in the time frame selected, but the information available is not adequate for a definitive evaluation of their economic competitiveness. This volume primarily reports in greater detail on several topics from the study. These are: Construction, Economics, Regulation, Safety and Economic Risk, Nuclear Waste Transportation and Disposal, and Market Acceptance. Although treated generically, the topics are presented in the context of the reactor concepts of the study

  14. Nuclear Power Options Viability Study. Volume 3. Nuclear discipline topics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trauger, D B; White, J D; Bowers, H I; Braid, R B; Cantor, R A; Daniels, L; Davis, R M; Delene, J G; Gat, U; Hood, T C

    1986-09-01

    Innovative reactor concepts are described and evaluated in accordance with criteria established in the study. The reactors to be studied were chosen on the basis of three ground rules: (1) the potential for commercialization between 2000-2010, (2) economic competiveness with coal-fired plants, and (3) the degree of passive safety in the design. The concepts, classified by coolants, were light water reactors, liquid metal reactors, and high temperature reactors, and most were of modular design. All the concepts appear to be potentially viable in the time frame selected, but the information available is not adequate for a definitive evaluation of their economic competitiveness. This volume primarily reports in greater detail on several topics from the study. These are: Construction, Economics, Regulation, Safety and Economic Risk, Nuclear Waste Transportation and Disposal, and Market Acceptance. Although treated generically, the topics are presented in the context of the reactor concepts of the study.

  15. Structure-activity studies with carboxy- and amino-terminal fragments of neurotensin on hypothalamic neurons in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldino, F; Davis, L G; Wolfson, B

    1985-09-09

    The purpose of this study was to determine the structural requirements for the activity of neurotensin (NT1-13) on preoptic/anterior hypothalamic (POAH) neurons in vitro. Standard explant culture electrophysiological techniques were employed. NT was administered to POAH cultures through the superfusion fluid, or, to the vicinity of individual neurons by pressure ejection (0.5-10 psi) from micropipettes. Computer-generated, peri-event histograms were used to quantitate neuronal responses. Pressure ejection of NT1-13 (50 pM to 1 microM) consistently produced an excitatory effect on 30 of 42 neurons. The remaining cells were either inhibited or unaffected. Application of the C-terminal hexapeptide, NT8-13, but not the N-terminal octapeptide, NT1-8 (less than or equal to 1 mM), produced an excitatory response in 21 of 30 neurons, but was less potent than NT1-13. Application of an N-acetylated NT8-13 fragment (NTAC8-13) produced a response that was similar to that produced by NT8-13. The excitatory effects of NT1-13 and NT8-13 were maintained in medium which effectively blocked synaptic transmission (0 mM Ca2+/12 mM Mg2+ 1 mM EGTA). These data indicate that the C-terminal hexapeptide, but not the N-terminal octapeptide, produces a dose-related, excitatory effect on single neurons in the POAH in vitro. The persistence of these effects in Ca2+-free medium supports a postsynaptic site of action for these peptides.

  16. Volumizing effects of a smooth, highly cohesive, viscous 20-mg/mL hyaluronic acid volumizing filler: prospective European study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoffmann Klaus

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Facial volume loss contributes significantly to facial aging. The 20-mg/mL hyaluronic acid (HA formulation used in this study is a smooth, highly cohesive, viscous, fully reversible, volumizing filler indicated to restore facial volume. This first prospective study evaluated use in current aesthetic clinical practice. Methods A pan-European evaluation conducted under guidelines of the World Association of Opinion and Marketing Research, the trial comprised a baseline visit (visit 1 and a follow-up (visit 2 at 14 ± 7 days posttreatment. Physicians photographed patients at each visit. Each patient was treated with the 20-mg/mL HA volumizing filler as supplied in standard packaging. Procedural details, aesthetic outcomes, safety, and physician and patient ratings of their experience were recorded. Results Fifteen physicians and 70 patients (91% female; mean age: 50 years participated. Mean volume loss at baseline was 3.7 (moderate on the Facial Volume Loss Scale. Local anesthesia was used in 64.3% of cases. Most injections (85% were administered with needles rather than cannulas. Of the 208 injections, 59% were in the malar region, primarily above the periosteum. Subcutaneous injections were most common for other sites. The mean total injection volume per patient was 4.6 mL. The mean volume loss score declined significantly (P Conclusion The 20-mg/mL smooth, highly cohesive, viscous, volumizing HA filler was effective, well tolerated, and easy to use in current clinical practice. Participants were very likely to recommend this product to colleagues and friends, and patients would be very or quite likely to request this product for future treatments.

  17. Nuclear spin-spin coupling constants of linear carbon chains terminated by coronene molecules: a first principles study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Joao Paulo Cavalcante; Mota, F. de Brito; Rivelino, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Full text. Carbon nano wires made of long linear atomic chains have attracted considerable interest due to their potential applications in nano electronics. We report a density-functional-theory study of the nuclear spin-spin coupling constants for nano assemblies made of two coronene molecules bridged by carbon linear chains, considering distinct sizes and spin multiplicities. Also, we examine the effects of two terminal conformations (syn and anti) of the terminal anchor pieces on the magnetic properties of the carbon chains via 13 C NMR calculations. Our results reveal that simplified chemical models such as those based on cumulenes or polyynes are not appropriate to describe the linear chains with sp 2 terminations. For these types of atomic chains, the electronic ground state of the even-numbered chains can be singlet or triplet, whereas the ground state of the odd-numbered chains can be doublet or quartet. We discuss how the 13 C NMR chemical shift absorption is affected by increasing the size and changing the parity of the linear carbon chains. We have found that the J coupling constants between the carbon atoms in the linear chains present a well-defined pattern, in good accordance with our electronic structure calculations. For example, in the -C 4 - units we obtain couplings of 43.8, 114.5, 84.6, 114.5, and 43.8 Hz from one end to the other

  18. Respiratory health of two cohorts of terminal grain elevator workers studied 30 years apart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimich-Ward, Helen; Beking, Kris J; Dybuncio, Anne; Bartlett, Karen H; Karlen, Barbara J; Chow, Yat; Chan-Yeung, Moira

    2011-04-01

    We evaluated the respiratory health of two cohorts of grain terminal elevator workers who participated in one of either respiratory health surveys undertaken in 1978 and 2008. Questionnaire and spirometry data from 584 workers from the 1978 survey and 215 workers from the 2008 survey were compared using logistic regression and general linear modeling. The geometric means of area samples of grain dust averaged 8.28 mg/m(3) in 1978 and 2.06 mg/m(3) in 2008. Workers in the 1978 survey had a significantly higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms (with the largest adjusted odds ratio of 3.78, 95% CI 2.07-7.25, for shortness of breath), a lower prevalence of atopic conditions and lower mean lung function. Current grain workers had a lower risk of respiratory health consequences and a greater prevalence of atopic conditions than workers surveyed 30 years prior, most likely associated with reduced exposure to grain dust in the terminal elevator environment. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Experimental study on airflow fluctuation characteristic of an underfloor air supply terminal unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jinping [School of Electric Power, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); State Key Laboratory of Subtropical Building Science, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Wu, Yanfang [Design Institute of Guangzhou Metro Corporation, Guangzhou 510010 (China)

    2010-11-15

    In order to investigate dynamic characteristic of underfloor air supply terminal unit, an IFV900A hot-wire anemometer was used to measure the corresponding velocity field. Turbulence intensity and power spectrum density exponent of air velocity signal were analyzed. The result showed that the outlet velocity distribution of underfloor air supply terminal unit was uniform. With increment of height, the velocity distribution trends to be uniform. Two velocity attenuation regions appear during airflow development. Turbulence intensity changes obviously with height. It is lower than that of mechanical wind. Turbulence intensity goes up with the increment of jetting distance. Power spectrum density exponent trends to the value of natural wind with increase of jetting distance and decrease of wind velocity. The exponent value approaches to the value of typical natural wind for the air velocity is 0.5 m/s under high supply air rate. With airflow diffusion, the fluctuation characteristic of airflow varies obviously with the jetting direction. The fluctuation characteristic of airflow changes to that of natural wind with the increase of height which can improve comfort of indoor environment. (author)

  20. Study of 4H-SiC junction barrier Schottky diode using field guard ring termination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng-Ping, Chen; Yu-Ming, Zhang; Hong-Liang, Lü; Yi-Men, Zhang; Jian-Hua, Huang

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports that the 4H-SiC Schottky barrier diode, PiN diode and junction barrier Schottky diode terminated by field guard rings are designed, fabricated and characterised. The measurements for forward and reverse characteristics have been done, and by comparison with each other, it shows that junction barrier Schottky diode has a lower reverse current density than that of the Schottky barrier diode and a higher forward drop than that of the PiN diode. High-temperature annealing is presented in this paper as well to figure out an optimised processing. The barrier height of 0.79 eV is formed with Ti in this work, the forward drop for the Schottky diode is 2.1 V, with an ideality factor of 3.2, and junction barrier Schottky diode with blocking voltage higher than 400 V was achieved by using field guard ring termination. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  1. Experimental studies on canine terminal carotid arterial aneurysm models pre- and post-embolized with microcoil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Qihong; Zhou Liangfu; Gong Jianqiu; Dai Jianhua; Zhang Xiaojun; Zhang Xinyuan

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To establish canine terminal saccular aneurysm model of common carotid artery (CCA), and evaluate the images and hemodynamic changes of aneurysm cavities pre- and post-embolized with microcoil (MC). Methods: Seven CCA terminal saccular aneurysm models had been created by using improved microsurgical technique. Seven to fourteen days after surgery, models were undergone color Doppler, Magnetic resonance image (MRI), Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), digital subtraction angiography (DSA), and then the analysis of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) on these animal models were conducted. Afterwards they were compactly packed with MC, and then aneurysms again were examed under these methods, and simulation of pathological changes. Results: Models were created successfully with good MC compactly pack aneurysm cavities. DSA combined with other imaging methods can improve the diagnosis of aneurysms completely. CFD models can show the imitation hemodynamics of canine carotid aneurysms. Conclusions: This kind of aneurysm model is an ideal one on the area for the research of aneurysm embolization. Non-DSA imaging examination can noninvasively, repeatedly, clearly evaluate aneurysms pre- and post-embolized with MC. The interference on the inflow zone of the aneurysm is an effective method for cure and preventing recurrence of aneurysms. (authors)

  2. Clinical associations of total kidney volume: the Framingham Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roseman, Daniel A; Hwang, Shih-Jen; Oyama-Manabe, Noriko; Chuang, Michael L; O'Donnell, Christopher J; Manning, Warren J; Fox, Caroline S

    2017-08-01

    Total kidney volume (TKV) is an imaging biomarker that may have diagnostic and prognostic utility. The relationships between kidney volume, renal function and cardiovascular disease (CVD) have not been characterized in a large community-dwelling population. This information is needed to advance the clinical application of TKV. We measured TKV in 1852 Framingham Heart Study participants (mean age 64.1 ± 9.2 years, 53% women) using magnetic resonance imaging. A healthy sample was used to define reference values. The associations between TKV, renal function and CVD risk factors were determined using multivariable logistic regression analysis. Overall, mean TKV was 278 ± 54 cm3 for women and 365 ± 66 cm3 for men. Risk factors for high TKV (>90% healthy referent size) were body surface area (BSA), diabetes, smoking and albuminuria, while age, female and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) kidney damage including albuminuria and eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2, while high TKV is associated with diabetes and decreased odds of eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2. Prospective studies are needed to characterize the natural progression and clinical consequences of TKV. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA 2016. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  3. PET functional volume delineation: a robustness and repeatability study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatt, Mathieu; Cheze-le Rest, Catherine; Albarghach, Nidal; Pradier, Olivier; Visvikis, Dimitris

    2011-01-01

    Current state-of-the-art algorithms for functional uptake volume segmentation in PET imaging consist of threshold-based approaches, whose parameters often require specific optimization for a given scanner and associated reconstruction algorithms. Different advanced image segmentation approaches previously proposed and extensively validated, such as among others fuzzy C-means (FCM) clustering, or fuzzy locally adaptive bayesian (FLAB) algorithm have the potential to improve the robustness of functional uptake volume measurements. The objective of this study was to investigate robustness and repeatability with respect to various scanner models, reconstruction algorithms and acquisition conditions. Robustness was evaluated using a series of IEC phantom acquisitions carried out on different PET/CT scanners (Philips Gemini and Gemini Time-of-Flight, Siemens Biograph and GE Discovery LS) with their associated reconstruction algorithms (RAMLA, TF MLEM, OSEM). A range of acquisition parameters (contrast, duration) and reconstruction parameters (voxel size) were considered for each scanner model, and the repeatability of each method was evaluated on simulated and clinical tumours and compared to manual delineation. For all the scanner models, acquisition parameters and reconstruction algorithms considered, the FLAB algorithm demonstrated higher robustness in delineation of the spheres with low mean errors (10%) and variability (5%), with respect to threshold-based methodologies and FCM. The repeatability provided by all segmentation algorithms considered was very high with a negligible variability of <5% in comparison to that associated with manual delineation (5-35%). The use of advanced image segmentation algorithms may not only allow high accuracy as previously demonstrated, but also provide a robust and repeatable tool to aid physicians as an initial guess in determining functional volumes in PET. (orig.)

  4. STUDY OF FACTORS RELATED TO STRESS AMONG WOMEN UNDERGOING TERMINATION OF PREGNANCY (TOP IN A COLLECTIVIST CULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka H

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND India is a country where people are dependent on each other for psychological support. Traditional Indian culture follows a collectivist pattern where the woman cares more about her family and society than herself. An unmarried woman who is pregnant poses a problem for both herself and her baby here, where traditional values are held high and pregnancy without marriage is almost always a taboo. AIMS To find the impact of Termination of Pregnancy (TOP on the anxiety and depression levels among pregnant women, correlation with period of gestation and the impact of perceived social support on anxiety and depression levels of these women. SETTING One hundred women who attended the outpatient department of ESICMC- PGIMSR, Bengaluru, India, requesting for Termination of Pregnancy, between August 2011 and December 2014 were studied. DESIGN A Prospective Observational study. METHODS AND MATERIAL Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS and Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (Zimet, 1988 were measured both pre-TOP and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS was measured post TOP in women fulfilling the Inclusion and Exclusion criteria. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS Averages and proportions were calculated for the study and appropriate statistical tests like Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test and Spearman’s Correlation Coefficient were done using MiniTab version 16. RESULTS 1 There is a reduction of depression and anxiety after Termination of pregnancy (p <0.05 more so among unmarried women with an unwanted pregnancy. 2 The higher the period of gestation, the higher the levels of HADS anxiety levels were observed (p value of <0.05. 3 The lower the social support scores, the higher the levels of HADS anxiety and depression (p value of <0.05. CONCLUSIONS There is a need for larger number of abortion care providers in India with increased contraception awareness and education regarding the need for Termination of Pregnancy in medical

  5. Delivery of tidal volume from four anaesthesia ventilators during volume-controlled ventilation: a bench study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallon, G; Bonnet, A; Guérin, C

    2013-06-01

    Tidal volume (V(T)) must be accurately delivered by anaesthesia ventilators in the volume-controlled ventilation mode in order for lung protective ventilation to be effective. However, the impact of fresh gas flow (FGF) and lung mechanics on delivery of V(T) by the newest anaesthesia ventilators has not been reported. We measured delivered V(T) (V(TI)) from four anaesthesia ventilators (Aisys™, Flow-i™, Primus™, and Zeus™) on a pneumatic test lung set with three combinations of lung compliance (C, ml cm H2O(-1)) and resistance (R, cm H2O litre(-1) s(-2)): C60R5, C30R5, C60R20. For each CR, three FGF rates (0.5, 3, 10 litre min(-1)) were investigated at three set V(T)s (300, 500, 800 ml) and two values of PEEP (0 and 10 cm H2O). The volume error = [(V(TI) - V(Tset))/V(Tset)] ×100 was computed in body temperature and pressure-saturated conditions and compared using analysis of variance. For each CR and each set V(T), the absolute value of the volume error significantly declined from Aisys™ to Flow-i™, Zeus™, and Primus™. For C60R5, these values were 12.5% for Aisys™, 5% for Flow-i™ and Zeus™, and 0% for Primus™. With an increase in FGF, absolute values of the volume error increased only for Aisys™ and Zeus™. However, in C30R5, the volume error was minimal at mid-FGF for Aisys™. The results were similar at PEEP 10 cm H2O. Under experimental conditions, the volume error differed significantly between the four new anaesthesia ventilators tested and was influenced by FGF, although this effect may not be clinically relevant.

  6. Information management system study results. Volume 1: IMS study results

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-01-01

    The information management system (IMS) special emphasis task was performed as an adjunct to the modular space station study, with the objective of providing extended depth of analysis and design in selected key areas of the information management system. Specific objectives included: (1) in-depth studies of IMS requirements and design approaches; (2) design and fabricate breadboard hardware for demonstration and verification of design concepts; (3) provide a technological base to identify potential design problems and influence long range planning (4) develop hardware and techniques to permit long duration, low cost, manned space operations; (5) support SR&T areas where techniques or equipment are considered inadequate; and (6) permit an overall understanding of the IMS as an integrated component of the space station.

  7. An experimental study on the excitation of large volume airguns in a small volume body of water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Baoshan; Yang, Wei; Yuan, Songyong; Ge, Hongkui; Chen, Yong; Guo, Shijun; Xu, Ping

    2010-01-01

    A large volume airgun array is effective in generating seismic waves, which is extensively used in large volume bodies of water such as oceans, lakes and reservoirs. So far, the application of large volume airguns is subject to the distribution of large volume bodies of water. This paper reports an attempt to utilize large volume airguns in a small body of water as a seismic source for seismotectonic studies. We carried out a field experiment in Mapaoquan pond, Fangshan district, Beijing, during the period 25–30 May 2009. Bolt LL1500 airguns, each with volumes of 2000 in 3 , the largest commercial airguns available today, were used in this experiment. We tested the excitation of the airgun array with one or two guns. The airgun array was placed 7–11 m below the water's surface. The near- and far-field seismic motions induced by the airgun source were recorded by a 100 km long seismic profile composed of 16 portable seismometers and a 100 m long strong motion seismograph profile, respectively. The following conclusions can be drawn from this experiment. First, it is feasible to excite large volume airguns in a small volume body of water. Second, seismic signals from a single shot of one airgun can be recognized at the offset up to 15 km. Taking advantage of high source repeatability, we stacked records from 128 shots to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio, and direct P-waves can be easily identified at the offset ∼50 km in stacked records. Third, no detectable damage to fish or near-field constructions was caused by the airgun shots. Those results suggest that large volume airguns excited in small bodies of water can be used as a routinely operated seismic source for mid-scale (tens of kilometres) subsurface explorations and monitoring under various running conditions

  8. Laser fusion study. Final report, volume I, study results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-06-01

    The primary goal of this study was to devise, evaluate, and conceptually design a complete, end-to-end, alignment system capable of handling 30 to 32 Shiva amplifier chains to specified accuracies in space and time. A secondary goal was to accomplish the primary goal with an acceptably low development and procurement cost and with an acceptably high day-after-day performance reliability. This report presents such a system: it is comprised of sensors, actuating mechanisms, controls, and displays that perform well within the current art-state. (U.S.)

  9. Channeling, volume reflection, and volume capture study of electrons in a bent silicon crystal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. N. Wistisen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We present the experimental data and analysis of experiments conducted at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory investigating the processes of channeling, volume-reflection and volume-capture along the (111 plane in a strongly bent quasimosaic silicon crystal. These phenomena were investigated at 5 energies: 3.35, 4.2, 6.3, 10.5, and 14.0 GeV with a crystal with bending radius of 0.15 m, corresponding to curvatures of 0.053, 0.066, 0.099, 0.16, and 0.22 times the critical curvature, respectively. Based on the parameters of fitting functions we have extracted important parameters describing the channeling process such as the dechanneling length, the angle of volume reflection, the surface transmission, and the widths of the distribution of channeled particles parallel and orthogonal to the plane.

  10. Service requirement for terminal delivery: An empirical study from the perspective of online shoppers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjie Xu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available To investigate customer’s service requirement for parcel delivery, combining with theoretical analysis and empirical test, a measuring model of customer service requirement was proposed for terminal delivery. Based on literature reviews, five potential dimensions with 27 items were initially discussed. Through exploratory factor analysis on samples collected from Taobao networks, four dimensions with 18 measurement items were finally confirmed including service attitude, service reliability, service standardization and service flexibility. By further confirmatory factor analysis, the fitness of this measuring model was proved to be acceptable. The research revealed that online shoppers paid attention to not only service result but also service process, so related suggestions were also proposed for express firms to promote their service management.

  11. Acute treatment with fluvoxamine elevates rat brain serotonin synthesis in some terminal regions: An autoradiographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muck-Seler, Dorotea; Pivac, Nela; Diksic, Mirko

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: A considerable body of evidence indicates the involvement of the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT) in the pathogenesis and treatment of depression. Methods: The acute effect of fluvoxamine, on 5-HT synthesis rates was investigated in rat brain regions, using α- 14 C-methyl-L-tryptophan as a tracer. Fluvoxamine (25 mg/kg) and saline (control) were injected intraperitoneally, one hour before the injection of the tracer (30 μCi). Results: There was no significant effect of fluvoxamine on plasma free tryptophan. After Benjamini–Hochberg False Discovery Rate correction, a significant decrease in the 5-HT synthesis rate in the fluvoxamine treated rats, was found in the raphe magnus (− 32%), but not in the median (− 14%) and dorsal (− 3%) raphe nuclei. In the regions with serotonergic axon terminals, significant increases in synthesis rates were observed in the dorsal (+ 41%) and ventral (+ 43%) hippocampus, visual (+ 38%), auditory (+ 65%) and parietal (+ 37%) cortex, and the substantia nigra pars compacta (+ 56%). There were no significant changes in the 5-HT synthesis rates in the median (+ 11%) and lateral (+ 24%) part of the caudate-putamen, nucleus accumbens (+ 5%), VTA (+ 16%) or frontal cortex (+ 6%). Conclusions: The data show that the acute administration of fluvoxamine affects 5-HT synthesis rates in a regionally specific pattern, with a general elevation of the synthesis in the terminal regions and a reduction in some cell body structures. The reasons for the regional specific effect of fluvoxamine on 5-HT synthesis are unclear, but may be mediated by the presynaptic serotonergic autoreceptors.

  12. Geologic Characterization Report for the Paradox Basin Study Region Utah Study Areas, Volume V, Appendices

    OpenAIRE

    United States Department of Energy

    1982-01-01

    This study is a part of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Waste Terminal Storage Program (NWTS). The scope of DOE's NWTS responsibilities include providing the technology and facilities to isolate high-level radio-active wastes for as long as the wastes represent a hazard. Emplacement of waste packages in mined geologic repositories deep underground in various types of rock formations is one method being evaluated. Using a basic site selection process (Figure 1-1), regions bei...

  13. Literacy & Numeracy Studies Volume 15 No 2 Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Lee

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This issue of Literacy and Numeracy Studies takes up two major themes shaping the landscape of research and practice in adult literacy. The first of these is the more recent of the two: the intersections between literacy and professional and workplace practice. The second is perhaps a more sustained and enduring concern in the field with the relationship of literacy to context, place and culture. In this sense, this issue of the journal is an expression of the reach and diversity of concerns with literacy in ‘social participation, the utilisation of social resources and the quality of life’ (Green, Lo Bianco and Wyn, this volume and carries forward critical debates for the field across the span of practice from the workplace, to the classroom to the community.

  14. Chronic myelocytic leukaemia with unusual (27 years) complete remission terminating in acute undifferentiated leukaemia: a clinical and karyotypic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najean, Y; Miclea, M; Tanzer, J; Lessard, M; Sigaux, F

    1991-07-01

    A case of clinically typical CML (300 x 10(6)/l leukocytes, 400 x 10(6)/l platelets, splenomegaly) is presented. After complete remission induced by busulphan, no clinical or haematological abnormalities were observed for 27 years until the development of acute leukaemia (type M1), which was rapidly fatal after a brief chemotherapy-induced remission. The cytogenetic findings were also original: no chromosome Ph1 (during remission 3 years after the onset of the disease), no translocation (banding study 5 years later), and no bcr/abl rearrangement (during the terminal phase).

  15. USAF Logistics Process Optimization Study for the Aircraft Asset Sustainment Process. Volume 2

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adamson, Anthony

    1998-01-01

    .... It is published as three separate volumes. Volume I, USAF Logistics Process Optimization Study for the Aircraft Asset Sustainment Process -- Phase II Report, discusses the result and cost/benefit analysis of testing three initiatives...

  16. USAF Logistics Process Optimization Study for the Aircraft Asset Sustainment Process. Volume 1

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adamson, Anthony

    1998-01-01

    .... It is published as three separate volumes. Volume I, USAF Logistics Process Optimization Study for the Aircraft Asset Sustainment Process -- Phase II Report, discusses the result and cost/benefit analysis of testing three initiatives...

  17. Integrated Yard Space Allocation and Yard Crane Deployment Problem in Resource-Limited Container Terminals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caimao Tan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Yard storage space and yard crane equipment are the core resources in the container terminal yard area. This paper studies the integrated yard space allocation (outbound container space and yard crane deployment problem in resource-limited container terminals where yard space and yard cranes are extremely scarce. Two corresponding counterstrategies are introduced, respectively, and the integrated problem is solved as mixed integer programming. The model this paper formulated considers the container volume fluctuation of the service line, and the objective is a trade-off between yard sharing space and terminal operation cost. In numerical experiments, this paper tries to reveal the management meaning in practical operation of container terminal and provides decision support for terminal managers; therefore a series of scenarios are presented to analyze the relations among the yard sharing space, the number of yard cranes, the size of yard subblock, and the cost of terminal operation.

  18. Terminal ballistics

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenberg, Zvi

    2016-01-01

    This book comprehensively discusses essential aspects of terminal ballistics, combining experimental data, numerical simulations and analytical modeling. Employing a unique approach to numerical simulations as a measure of sensitivity for the major physical parameters, the new edition also includes the following features: new figures to better illustrate the problems discussed; improved explanations for the equation of state of a solid and for the cavity expansion process; new data concerning the Kolsky bar test; and a discussion of analytical modeling for the hole diameter in a thin metallic plate impacted by a shaped charge jet. The section on thick concrete targets penetrated by rigid projectiles has now been expanded to include the latest findings, and two new sections have been added: one on a novel approach to the perforation of thin concrete slabs, and one on testing the failure of thin metallic plates using a hydrodynamic ram.

  19. Volume measurement study for large scale input accountancy tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchikoshi, Seiji; Watanabe, Yuichi; Tsujino, Takeshi

    1999-01-01

    Large Scale Tank Calibration (LASTAC) facility, including an experimental tank which has the same volume and structure as the input accountancy tank of Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant (RRP) was constructed in Nuclear Material Control Center of Japan. Demonstration experiments have been carried out to evaluate a precision of solution volume measurement and to establish the procedure of highly accurate pressure measurement for a large scale tank with dip-tube bubbler probe system to be applied to the input accountancy tank of RRP. Solution volume in a tank is determined from substitution the solution level for the calibration function obtained in advance, which express a relation between the solution level and its volume in the tank. Therefore, precise solution volume measurement needs a precise calibration function that is determined carefully. The LASTAC calibration experiments using pure water showed good result in reproducibility. (J.P.N.)

  20. Density functional study of manganese atom adsorption on hydrogen-terminated armchair boron nitride nanoribbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdullahi, Yusuf Zuntu [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Kaduna State University, P.M.B. 2339, Kaduna State (Nigeria); Rahman, Md. Mahmudur, E-mail: mahmudur@upm.edu.my [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Shuaibu, Alhassan [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Nigerian Defence Academy, P.M.B 2109 Kaduna (Nigeria); Abubakar, Shamsu [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Yobe State University, P.M.B. 1144, Yobe State (Nigeria); Zainuddin, Hishamuddin [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Institute for Mathematical Research, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Muhida, Rifki [Department of Physics-Energy Engineering, Surya University, Gedung 01 Scientia Business Park, Jl. Boulevard Gading Serpong Blok O/1, Summarecon Serpong, Tangerang 15810, Banten (Indonesia); Setiyanto, Henry [Analytical Chemistry Research Group, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesha no. 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

    2014-08-15

    In this paper, we have investigated stable structural, electric and magnetic properties of manganese (Mn) atom adsorption on armchair hydrogen edge-terminated boron nitride nanoribbon (A-BNNRs) using first principles method based on density-functional theory with the generalized gradient approximation. Calculation shows that Mn atom situated on the ribbons of A-BNNRs is the most stable configuration, where the bonding is more pronounced. The projected density of states (PDOS) of the favored configuration has also been computed. It has been found that the covalent bonding of boron (B), nitrogen (N) and Mn is mainly contributed by s, d like-orbitals of Mn and partially occupied by the 2p like-orbital of N. The difference in energy between the inner and the edge adsorption sites of A-BNNRs shows that Mn atoms prefer to concentrate at the edge sites. The electronic structures of the various configurations are wide, narrow-gap semiconducting and half-metallic, and the magnetic moment of Mn atoms are well preserved in all considered configurations. This has shown that the boron nitride (BN) sheet covered with Mn atoms demonstrates additional information on its usefulness in future spintronics, molecular magnet and nanoelectronics devices.

  1. Density functional study of manganese atom adsorption on hydrogen-terminated armchair boron nitride nanoribbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdullahi, Yusuf Zuntu; Rahman, Md. Mahmudur; Shuaibu, Alhassan; Abubakar, Shamsu; Zainuddin, Hishamuddin; Muhida, Rifki; Setiyanto, Henry

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we have investigated stable structural, electric and magnetic properties of manganese (Mn) atom adsorption on armchair hydrogen edge-terminated boron nitride nanoribbon (A-BNNRs) using first principles method based on density-functional theory with the generalized gradient approximation. Calculation shows that Mn atom situated on the ribbons of A-BNNRs is the most stable configuration, where the bonding is more pronounced. The projected density of states (PDOS) of the favored configuration has also been computed. It has been found that the covalent bonding of boron (B), nitrogen (N) and Mn is mainly contributed by s, d like-orbitals of Mn and partially occupied by the 2p like-orbital of N. The difference in energy between the inner and the edge adsorption sites of A-BNNRs shows that Mn atoms prefer to concentrate at the edge sites. The electronic structures of the various configurations are wide, narrow-gap semiconducting and half-metallic, and the magnetic moment of Mn atoms are well preserved in all considered configurations. This has shown that the boron nitride (BN) sheet covered with Mn atoms demonstrates additional information on its usefulness in future spintronics, molecular magnet and nanoelectronics devices.

  2. XPS and NEXAFS study of tyrosine-terminated propanethiol assembled on gold

    CERN Document Server

    Petoral, R M

    2003-01-01

    Tyrosine-terminated propanethiol (TPT), tyrosine linked to 3-mercaptopropionic acid through an amide bond, is adsorbed to gold surfaces. The adsorbates are characterized by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (NEXAFS). XPS is used to investigate the chemical binding and electronic structure of the monolayer. Strong molecular binding of the tyrosine derivative on the gold surface through the sulfur atom is attained. Angle-dependent XPS results shows that TPT molecules are oriented with the sulfur atoms molecularly oriented close to the gold surface and that the phenol moiety is oriented away from the gold surface. Average orientation of the adsorbate on gold is deduced using the NEXAFS results. It shows that the main molecular axis is tilted approximately 38 deg. relative to the Au surface normal. The ring plane of the phenol moiety exhibits a preferential orientation with an average tilt angle of the normal of the ring plane from the surfa...

  3. Uncovering the role of the flexible C-terminal tail: A model study with Strep-tagged GFP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassalle, Michael W; Kondou, Shinobu

    2016-06-01

    Recently, it has been recognized that, much like an electric current in an electric circuit, dynamic disruptions from flexible, unstructured regions distal to the active region are transferred through the contact network to the active site and influence protein stability and/or function. As transmembrane proteins frequently possess the β-barrel structure, studies of proteins with this topology are required. The unstructured lid segments of the β-barrel GFP protein are conserved and could play a role in the backbone stabilization required for chromophore function. A study of the disordered C-terminus and the function within the lid is necessary. In this study, we entirely truncated the flexible C-terminal tail and investigated the N-terminal Strep-tagged GFP by fluorescence spectroscopy, and the temperature- and GdnHCl-induced unfolding by circular dichroism. The introduction of the unstructured Strep-tag itself changed the unfolding pathway. Truncating the entire flexible tail did not decrease the fluorescence intensity to a large extent; however, the protein stability changed dramatically. The temperature for half-denaturation T 1/2 changed significantly from 79 °C for the wild-type to 72.8 °C for the mutant. Unfolding kinetics at different temperatures have been induced by 4 M GdnHCl, and the apparent Arrhenius activation energy decreased by 40% as compared to the wild-type.

  4. Uncovering the role of the flexible C-terminal tail: A model study with Strep-tagged GFP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael W. Lassalle

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, it has been recognized that, much like an electric current in an electric circuit, dynamic disruptions from flexible, unstructured regions distal to the active region are transferred through the contact network to the active site and influence protein stability and/or function. As transmembrane proteins frequently possess the β-barrel structure, studies of proteins with this topology are required. The unstructured lid segments of the β-barrel GFP protein are conserved and could play a role in the backbone stabilization required for chromophore function. A study of the disordered C-terminus and the function within the lid is necessary. In this study, we entirely truncated the flexible C-terminal tail and investigated the N-terminal Strep-tagged GFP by fluorescence spectroscopy, and the temperature- and GdnHCl-induced unfolding by circular dichroism. The introduction of the unstructured Strep-tag itself changed the unfolding pathway. Truncating the entire flexible tail did not decrease the fluorescence intensity to a large extent; however, the protein stability changed dramatically. The temperature for half-denaturation T1/2 changed significantly from 79 °C for the wild-type to 72.8 °C for the mutant. Unfolding kinetics at different temperatures have been induced by 4 M GdnHCl, and the apparent Arrhenius activation energy decreased by 40% as compared to the wild-type.

  5. Sudbury soils study : summary of volume 3 : ecological risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-03-15

    The Sudbury soils study was comprised of 3 volumes: (1) a background, study organization and 2001 soils survey; (2) a human health risk assessment; and (3) an ecological risk assessment (ERA). This document provided details of the ERA, which was conducted to characterize the current and future risks of chemicals of concern (COC) to terrestrial and ecosystem components from Sudbury smelter particulate emissions. The extent to which COC are preventing the recovery of regionally representative terrestrial plant communities was investigated. Risks to terrestrial wildlife populations and endangered species and communities were evaluated. Samples of soil, water, sediment, plants, terrestrial invertebrates, and fish tissue were collected. Data were then analyzed by scientists and independent consultants in order to assess the impacts of arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, copper, lead, nickel and selenium. Results of the study indicated that terrestrial plant communities in the region continue to be impacted by COC in the soil, as well as by soil erosion, low nutrient levels, and a lack of soil organic matter. Direct impacts on wildlife populations were also observed. 5 refs., 7 tabs., 21 figs.

  6. Trends in teenage termination of pregnancy and its risk factors: a population-based study in Finland, 1987-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppälahti, S; Gissler, M; Mentula, M; Heikinheimo, O

    2012-09-01

    What are the current trends in teenage termination of pregnancy (TOP) and its risk factors? The incidence of teenage TOP fluctuated substantially during the study period and the incidence of repeat TOP among adolescents increased markedly in the 2000s. Teenage pregnancy is associated with difficulties in psychological, sexual and overall health. The proportion of teenage pregnancies resulting in termination varies by country and time, but only few countries have reliable statistics on TOPs. This nationwide retrospective register study included all the TOPs (n= 52 968) and deliveries (n= 58 882) in Finland between 1987 and 2009 among girls pregnancy. The cohorts were divided into three subgroups; 13-15- (n= 6087), 16-17- (n= 18 826) and 18-19- (n= 28 055) year-olds. After an initial steady decline, the incidence of teenage TOP increased by 44% between 1993 (8.0/1000) and 2003 (11.5/1000), and thereafter declined by 16% until 2009 (9.7/1000). The incidence was higher in older adolescents, but the trends were alike in all age groups. Early TOPs (performed at teenage TOP seems to rapidly reflect changes in national sexual and reproductive health services and policy. The rising rate of repeat TOP is alarming and may represent a sign of marginalization among these girls. All efforts to maintain a low rate of teenage pregnancy are welcomed.

  7. Effect of cyclic training model on terminal structure of rabbit Achilles tendon: an experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-lin HUANG

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To observe the effect of cyclic training on histomorphology of the terminal structure of rabbit Achilles tendon, and explore its preventive effect on training-based enthesiopathy. Methods  Seventy-two Japanese white rabbits were randomly assigned to four groups: control group, jumping group, running group and cyclic training group, 18 for each. Three rabbits of each group were sacrificed at the 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 6th, 8th and 10th week. The terminal insertion tissues of bilateral Achilles tendons were harvested from these rabbits for observing the pathomorphological changes under light microscope, and pathological scoring and statistical analysis were carried out. Results  Light microscopy showed that the tendon fibers and fibrocartilage in the Achilles tendon insertion region were severely damaged in the jumping group, and though the tendon fibers were damaged severely, the injury to the fibrocartilage was comparatively less serious in the running group. The injuries to the tendon fibers and fibrocartilage were milder in the cyclic training group than in the jumping group and running group. In the 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 6th and 8th week, the histopathology score of insertion of Achilles tendon was 1.17±0.12, 2.19±0.15, 3.23±0.20, 4.66±0.16, 4.71±0.18, 4.63±0.13 respectively in the jumping group, and 1.16±0.13, 1.15±0.14, 2.18±0.12, 2.99±0.15, 3.98±0.16, 4.01±0.12 respectively in the running group. Increase in pathological score appeared earlier in the jumping group than in the running group, and a significant increase began at the 3rd week. The difference in pathological score between the two groups originated mainly from the changes in the tidemark. In the 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 6th, 8th and 10th week, the pathological score of Achilles tendon insertion was 1.13±0.14, 1.16±0.17, 1.15±0.13, 2.18±0.13, 2.17±0.12, 2.92±0.11 respectively in the cyclic training group, and they showed no significant changes as compared with control

  8. [Primary Study on Predicting the Termination of Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation Based on a Novel RdR RR Intervals Scatter Plot].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hongwei; Zhang, Chenxi; Sun, Ying; Hao, Zhidong; Wang, Chunfang; Tian, Jiajia

    2015-08-01

    Predicting the termination of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF) may provide a signal to decide whether there is a need to intervene the AF timely. We proposed a novel RdR RR intervals scatter plot in our study. The abscissa of the RdR scatter plot was set to RR intervals and the ordinate was set as the difference between successive RR intervals. The RdR scatter plot includes information of RR intervals and difference between successive RR intervals, which captures more heart rate variability (HRV) information. By RdR scatter plot analysis of one minute RR intervals for 50 segments with non-terminating AF and immediately terminating AF, it was found that the points in RdR scatter plot of non-terminating AF were more decentralized than the ones of immediately terminating AF. By dividing the RdR scatter plot into uniform grids and counting the number of non-empty grids, non-terminating AF and immediately terminating AF segments were differentiated. By utilizing 49 RR intervals, for 20 segments of learning set, 17 segments were correctly detected, and for 30 segments of test set, 20 segments were detected. While utilizing 66 RR intervals, for 18 segments of learning set, 16 segments were correctly detected, and for 28 segments of test set, 20 segments were detected. The results demonstrated that during the last one minute before the termination of paroxysmal AF, the variance of the RR intervals and the difference of the neighboring two RR intervals became smaller. The termination of paroxysmal AF could be successfully predicted by utilizing the RdR scatter plot, while the predicting accuracy should be further improved.

  9. 7 CFR 983.89 - Termination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Miscellaneous Provisions § 983.89 Termination. (a) The Secretary may at any time..., That such majority has, during such representative period, produced for market more than fifty percent of the volume of such pistachios produced for market, but such termination shall be announced at...

  10. Feasibility study report for Operable Unit 4: Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    This report documents the Feasibility Study (FS) phase of the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) Operable Unit 4 Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) Program. The FEMP, formerly known as the Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC), is a US Department of Energy (DOE) facility that operated from 1952 to 1989. The facility's primarily function was to provide high purity uranium metal products to support United States defense programs. Production operations were suspended in 1989 to focus on environmental restoration and waste management activities at the facility. The RI/FS is being conducted pursuant to the terms of a Consent Agreement between DOE and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under Sections 120 and 106(a) of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended. The Ohio Environmental Protection Agency (OEPA) is also participating in the RI/FS process at the FEMP through direct involvement in program review meetings and technical review of project documentation. The objective of the RI/FS process is to gather information to support an informed risk management decision regarding which remedy appears to be the most appropriate action for addressing the environmental concerns identified at the FEMP. This volume contains appendices A--E

  11. Mobile Termination and Mobile Penetration

    OpenAIRE

    Hurkens, Sjaak; Jeon, Doh-Shin

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we study how access pricing affects network competition when subscription demand is elastic and each network uses non-linear prices and can apply termination-based price discrimination. In the case of a fixed per minute termination charge, we find that a reduction of the termination charge below cost has two oppos- ing effects: it softens competition but helps to internalize network externalities. The former reduces mobile penetration while the latter boosts it. We find that fi...

  12. Mobile termination and mobile penetration

    OpenAIRE

    Hurkens, Sjaak

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we study how access pricing affects network competition when subscription demand is elastic and each network uses non-linear prices and can apply termination-based price discrimination. In the case of a fixed per minute termination charge, we find that a reduction of the termination charge below cost has two opposing effects: it softens competition but helps to internalize network externalities. The former reduces mobile penetration while the latter boosts it. We find that firm...

  13. Satellite Power Systems (SPS) concept definition study. Volume 6: SPS technology requirements and verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, G.

    1978-01-01

    Volume 6 of the SPS Concept Definition Study is presented and also incorporates results of NASA/MSFC in-house effort. This volume includes a supporting research and technology summary. Other volumes of the final report that provide additional detail are as follows: (1) Executive Summary; (2) SPS System Requirements; (3) SPS Concept Evolution; (4) SPS Point Design Definition; (5) Transportation and Operations Analysis; and Volume 7, SPS Program Plan and Economic Analysis.

  14. ANALYSIS ON BILLING SYSTEM IMPLEMENTATION QUALITY IN ENDEAVOR TO INCREASE CUSTOMER SATISFACTION IN IMPORT ACTIVITY: STUDY OF SURABAYA CONTAINER TERMINAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzulkirom M.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine and explain the simultaneous and partial effects of service quality components consisting of reliability, responsiveness, assurance to customer satisfaction in PT. Terminal Petikemas Surabaya, аnd to know аnd explаin which between the three service quаlity vаriаbles thаt hаve а dominаnt effect on customer sаtisfаction. The type of reseаrch used is explаnаtory reseаrch with populаtion or census method with quаntitаtive аpproаch. Sаmples taken were 35 Billing Service users registered in PT. Terminal Petikemas Surabaya. Dаtа collection method used is questionnаire. The result of multiple lineаr regression аnаlysis shows thаt the three independent vаriаbles reliability, responsiveness, аssurаnce hаve significаnt influence on the dependent vаriаble thаt is customer sаtisfаction.

  15. Termination unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traeholt, Chresten [Frederiksberg, DK; Willen, Dag [Klagshamn, SE; Roden, Mark [Newnan, GA; Tolbert, Jerry C [Carrollton, GA; Lindsay, David [Carrollton, GA; Fisher, Paul W [Heiskell, TN; Nielsen, Carsten Thidemann [Jaegerspris, DK

    2014-01-07

    This invention relates to a termination unit comprising an end-section of a cable. The end section of the cable defines a central longitudinal axis and comprising end-parts of N electrical phases, an end-part of a neutral conductor and a surrounding thermally insulation envelope adapted to comprising a cooling fluid. The end-parts of the N electrical phases and the end-part of the neutral conductor each comprising at least one electrical conductor and being arranged in the cable concentrically around a core former with a phase 1 located relatively innermost, and phase N relatively outermost in the cable, phase N being surrounded by the neutral conductor, electrical insulation being arrange between neighboring electrical phases and between phase N and the neutral conductor, and wherein the end-parts of the neutral conductor and the electrical phases each comprise a contacting surface electrically connected to at least one branch current lead to provide an electrical connection: The contacting surfaces each having a longitudinal extension, and being located sequentially along the longitudinal extension of the end-section of the cable. The branch current leads being individually insulated from said thermally insulation envelope by individual electrical insulators.

  16. Are PCI Service Volumes Associated with 30-Day Mortality? A Population-Based Study from Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tsung-Hsien; Chou, Ying-Yi; Wei, Chung-Jen; Tung, Yu-Chi

    2017-11-09

    The volume-outcome relationship has been discussed for over 30 years; however, the findings are inconsistent. This might be due to the heterogeneity of service volume definitions and categorization methods. This study takes percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) as an example to examine whether the service volume was associated with PCI 30-day mortality, given different service volume definitions and categorization methods. A population-based, cross-sectional multilevel study was conducted. Two definitions of physician and hospital volume were used: (1) the cumulative PCI volume in a previous year before each PCI; (2) the cumulative PCI volume within the study period. The volume was further treated in three ways: (1) a categorical variable based on the American Heart Association's recommendation; (2) a semi-data-driven categorical variable based on k-means clustering algorithm; and (3) a data-driven categorical variable based on the Generalized Additive Model. The results showed that, after adjusting the patient-, physician-, and hospital-level covariates, physician volume was associated inversely with PCI 30-day mortality, but hospital volume was not, no matter which definitions and categorization methods of service volume were applied. Physician volume is negatively associated with PCI 30-day mortality, but the results might vary because of definition and categorization method.

  17. Impact of atmospheric particulate matter pollutants to IAQ of airport terminal buildings: A first field study at Tianjin Airport, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jianlin; Cao, Xiaodong; Liu, Junjie

    2018-04-01

    Passengers usually spend hours in the airport terminal buildings waiting for their departure. During the long waiting period, ambient fine particles (PM2.5) and ultrafine particles (UFP) generated by airliners may penetrate into terminal buildings through open doors and the HVAC system. However, limited data are available on passenger exposure to particulate pollutants in terminal buildings. We conducted on-site measurements on PM2.5 and UFP concentration and the particle size distribution in the terminal building of Tianjin Airport, China during three different seasons. The results showed that the PM2.5 concentrations in the terminal building were considerably larger than the values guided by Chinese standard and WHO on all of the tested seasons, and the conditions were significantly affected by the outdoor air (Spearman test, p air quality and health of passengers in airport terminal buildings.

  18. Modeled Urea Distribution Volume and Mortality in the HEMO Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Tom; Depner, Thomas A.; Levin, Nathan W.; Chertow, Glenn M.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives In the Hemodialysis (HEMO) Study, observed small decreases in achieved equilibrated Kt/Vurea were noncausally associated with markedly increased mortality. Here we examine the association of mortality with modeled volume (Vm), the denominator of equilibrated Kt/Vurea. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Parameters derived from modeled urea kinetics (including Vm) and blood pressure (BP) were obtained monthly in 1846 patients. Case mix–adjusted time-dependent Cox regressions were used to relate the relative mortality hazard at each time point to Vm and to the change in Vm over the preceding 6 months. Mixed effects models were used to relate Vm to changes in intradialytic systolic BP and to other factors at each follow-up visit. Results Mortality was associated with Vm and change in Vm over the preceding 6 months. The association between change in Vm and mortality was independent of vascular access complications. In contrast, mortality was inversely associated with V calculated from anthropometric measurements (Vant). In case mix–adjusted analysis using Vm as a time-dependent covariate, the association of mortality with Vm strengthened after statistical adjustment for Vant. After adjustment for Vant, higher Vm was associated with slightly smaller reductions in intradialytic systolic BP and with risk factors for mortality including recent hospitalization and reductions in serum albumin concentration and body weight. Conclusions An increase in Vm is a marker for illness and mortality risk in hemodialysis patients. PMID:21511841

  19. Study of the density of ganglion cells in the terminal bowel of rats with anorectal malformations Estudo da densidade das células ganglionares no intestino terminal de ratos portadores de anomalia anorretal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Macedo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To study the ganglion cells (GC in the terminal bowel of rats with ethylenethiourea (ETU induced anorectal malformations (ARM. METHODS: The animals were divided into three groups: Group A - normal fetuses from pregnant rats that were not administered ETU; Group B - fetuses without ARM born from pregnant rats that were administered ETU and Group C - fetuses with ARM born from pregnant rats that received ETU. ETU was administered on the 11th day of pregnancy at the dose of 125 mg/kg body weight by gastric gavage. The rats had cesarean section on the 21st day of gestation. The fetuses’ terminal bowel tissue was analyzed by immunohistochemistry to demonstrate ganglion cells. RESULTS: Statistically significant differences were found between groups A, B and C regarding ganglion cell densities. Group A had the highest cell density, followed by Group B and the lowest density was found in Group C. CONCLUSION: Ganglion cell densities are decreased in the terminal bowel of rats with ARM.OBJETIVO: Estudar as células ganglionares (CG no intestino terminal de ratos portadores de anomalia anorretal (AAR induzida pela etilenotiouréia (ETU. MÉTODOS: Os animais foram distribuídos em três grupos: Grupo A - fetos normais, obtidos de ratas grávidas às quais não foi administrada ETU; Grupo B - fetos não portadores de AAR obtidos de ratas grávidas às quais foi administrada ETU e Grupo C - fetos portadores de AAR obtidos de ratas grávidas às quais foi administrada ETU. A ETU foi administrada no décimo primeiro dia de gestação na dose de 125 mg/Kg, por gavagem. As ratas foram submetidas à laparotomia e histerotomia para retirada dos fetos no vigésimo primeiro dia de gestação. O intestino terminal dos fetos foi retirado e analisado por imunohistoquímica para pesquisa de CG. RESULTADOS: Foram encontradas diferenças estatisticamente significantes entre os grupos A, B e C quanto à densidade de CG. O grupo A apresentou a maior densidade

  20. Quantified terminal ileal motility during MR enterography as a potential biomarker of Crohn's disease activity: a preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menys, Alex; Atkinson, David; Ahmed, Asia; Punwani, Shonit; Halligan, Steve; Odille, Freddy; Novelli, Marco; Rodriguez-Justo, Manuel; Proctor, Ian; Taylor, Stuart A.

    2012-01-01

    To compare quantified terminal ileal (TI) motility during MR enterography (MRE) with histopathological severity of acute inflammation in Crohn's disease. A total of 28 Crohn's patients underwent MRE and endoscopic TI biopsy. Axial and coronal TrueFISP, HASTE and post-gadolinium VIBE images were supplemented by multiple coronal TrueFISP cine motility sequences through the small bowel volume. TI motility index (MI) was quantified using validated software; an acute inflammation score (eAIS; 0-6) was assigned to the biopsy. Two observers qualitatively scored mural thickness, T2 signal, contrast enhancement and perimural oedema (0-3) to produce an activity score (aMRIs) based on anatomical MRI. The association among the MI, eAIS and aMRIs was tested using Spearman's rank correlation. Wilcoxon rank sum test compared motility in subjects with and without histopathological inflammation. Mean MI and mean eAIS were 0.27 (range 0.06-0.55) and 1.5 (range 0-5), respectively. There was a significant difference in MI between non-inflamed (mean 0.37, range 0.13-0.55) and inflamed (mean 0.19, range 0.06-0.44) TI, P = 0.002, and a significant negative correlation between MI and both eAIS (Rho = -0.52, P = 0.005) and aMRIs (R = -0.7, P < 0.001). Quantified TI motility negatively correlates with histopathological measures of disease activity and existing anatomical MRI activity biomarkers. (orig.)

  1. Control volume based hydrocephalus research; a phantom study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Benjamin; Voorhees, Abram; Madsen, Joseph; Wei, Timothy

    2009-11-01

    Hydrocephalus is a complex spectrum of neurophysiological disorders involving perturbation of the intracranial contents; primarily increased intraventricular cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) volume and intracranial pressure are observed. CSF dynamics are highly coupled to the cerebral blood flows and pressures as well as the mechanical properties of the brain. Hydrocephalus, as such, is a very complex biological problem. We propose integral control volume analysis as a method of tracking these important interactions using mass and momentum conservation principles. As a first step in applying this methodology in humans, an in vitro phantom is used as a simplified model of the intracranial space. The phantom's design consists of a rigid container filled with a compressible gel. Within the gel a hollow spherical cavity represents the ventricular system and a cylindrical passage represents the spinal canal. A computer controlled piston pump supplies sinusoidal volume fluctuations into and out of the flow phantom. MRI is used to measure fluid velocity and volume change as functions of time. Independent pressure measurements and momentum flow rate measurements are used to calibrate the MRI data. These data are used as a framework for future work with live patients and normal individuals. Flow and pressure measurements on the flow phantom will be presented through the control volume framework.

  2. Studies on biodegradation of crosslinked hydroxy terminated-poly(proplyene fumarate) and formation of scaffold for orthopedic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalumon, K T; Jayabalan, M

    2009-12-01

    Biodegradation of crosslinked-hydroxy terminated-poly(proplyene fumarate) (X-HTPPF) has been studied in simulated physiological media to assess the formation of porous scaffold structure for bone growth and remodeling in load bearing orthopedic applications. Variation in crosslink density and surface hydrophilicity of X-HTPPF are observed due to non-stoichiometric mass of reacting partners. These variations influence absorption of the medium and biodegradation during aging. Though the initial absorption of medium is relatively higher with the crosslinked polymer (PNVP1) having 63.6% HT-PPF and 36.4% comonomer n-vinyl pyrrolidone (NVP) during the initial period of aging, the weight loss due to subsequent degradation with time is relatively lesser. PNVP1 undergo slow degradation with formation of fibril structure on the surface. The present crosslinked material PNVP1 is a candidate for the load bearing orthopedic applications.

  3. Life sciences payload definition and integration study. Volume 3: Appendices

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    Detail design information concerning payloads for biomedical research projects conducted during space missions is presented. Subjects discussed are: (1) equipment modules and equipment item lists, (2) weight and volume breakdown by payload and equipment units, (3) longitudinal floor arrangement configuration, and (4) nonbaseline second generation layouts.

  4. Study on a volume-production H- ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takama, S.

    1988-01-01

    H - ions formed by volume-production are extracted from a multicuspion source. By applying a large positive bias to the plasma electrode, the ratio I - /I e becomes 1/20. H - ion current of 0.4mA is extracted from a 0.3cm 2 circular aperture at an arc current of 10A. (author)

  5. Compaction and binding properties of the intrinsically disordered C-terminal domain of Henipavirus nucleoprotein as unveiled by deletion studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blocquel, David; Habchi, Johnny; Gruet, Antoine; Blangy, Stéphanie; Longhi, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    Henipaviruses are recently emerged severe human pathogens within the Paramyxoviridae family. Their genome is encapsidated by the nucleoprotein (N) within a helical nucleocapsid that recruits the polymerase complex via the phosphoprotein (P). We have previously shown that in Henipaviruses the N protein possesses an intrinsically disordered C-terminal domain, N(TAIL), which undergoes α-helical induced folding in the presence of the C-terminal domain (P(XD)) of the P protein. Using computational approaches, we previously identified within N(TAIL) four putative molecular recognition elements (MoREs) with different structural propensities, and proposed a structural model for the N(TAIL)-P(XD) complex where the MoRE encompassing residues 473-493 adopt an α-helical conformation at the P(XD) surface. In this work, for each N(TAIL) protein, we designed four deletion constructs bearing different combinations of the predicted MoREs. Following purification of the N(TAIL) truncated proteins from the soluble fraction of E. coli, we characterized them in terms of their conformational, spectroscopic and binding properties. These studies provided direct experimental evidence for the structural state of the four predicted MoREs, and showed that two of them have clear α-helical propensities, with the one spanning residues 473-493 being strictly required for binding to P(XD). We also showed that Henipavirus N(TAIL) and P(XD) form heterologous complexes, indicating that the P(XD) binding regions are functionally interchangeable between the two viruses. By combining spectroscopic and conformational analyses, we showed that the content in regular secondary structure is not a major determinant of protein compaction.

  6. Prematurely terminated slug tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karasaki, K.

    1990-07-01

    A solution of the well response to a prematurely terminated slug test (PTST) is presented. The advantages of a PTST over conventional slug tests are discussed. A systematized procedure of a PTST is proposed, where a slug test is terminated in the midpoint of the flow point, and the subsequent shut-in data is recorded and analyzed. This method requires a downhole shut-in device and a pressure transducer, which is no more than the conventional deep-well slug testing. As opposed to slug tests, which are ineffective when a skin is present, more accurate estimate of formation permeability can be made using a PTST. Premature termination also shortens the test duration considerably. Because in most cases no more information is gained by completing a slug test to the end, the author recommends that conventional slug tests be replaced by the premature termination technique. This study is part of an investigation of the feasibility of geologic isolation of nuclear wastes being carried out by the US Department of Energy and the National Cooperative for the Storage of Radioactive Waste of Switzerland

  7. Termination of pregnancy following a prenatal diagnosis of Down syndrome: A qualitative study of the decision-making process of pregnant couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Stina; Carstensen, Kathrine; Petersen, Olav Bjørn; Nielsen, Camilla Palmhøj; Hvidman, Lone; Lanther, Maja Retpen; Vogel, Ida

    2018-05-23

    In Denmark, first trimester screening has a very high uptake (>90%). If Down syndrome is diagnosed, termination rates are high (>95%). The aim of this study was to investigate the timing of the decision to terminate pregnancy following a diagnosis of Down syndrome and the factors influencing this decision. Semi-structured, qualitative interview study with 21 couples who had received a prenatal diagnosis of Down syndrome and decided to terminate the pregnancy. Participants were recruited from obstetric departments between February 2016 and July 2017. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Five themes were identified: "initial decision-making", "consolidating the decision", "reasons and concerns shaping the termination of pregnancy decision", "the right decision is also burdensome", and "perceived influences in decision-making". For most couples, the initial decision to terminate pregnancy was made before or during the diagnostic process, but it was re-addressed and consolidated following the actual diagnosis. Imagining a family future with a severely affected Down syndrome child was the main factor influencing the termination of pregnancy decision. The decision was articulated as "right" but also as existentially burdensome for some, due to fear of regret and concern about ending a potential life. The decision to terminate pregnancy was considered a private matter between the couple, but was refined through interactions with clinicians and social networks. All couples made an initial decision prior to receiving the Down syndrome diagnosis. Knowledge of the couple's initial decision may facilitate patient-centered communication during and after the diagnostic process. Couples may benefit from counseling to deal with grief and existential concerns. © 2018 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  8. Structural and dynamic properties of the C-terminal region of the Escherichia coli RNA chaperone Hfq: integrative experimental and computational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Bin; Wang, Weiwei; Zhang, Jiahai; Gong, Qingguo; Shi, Yunyu; Wu, Jihui; Zhang, Zhiyong

    2017-08-09

    In Escherichia coli, hexameric Hfq is an important RNA chaperone that facilitates small RNA-mediated post-transcriptional regulation. The Hfq monomer consists of an evolutionarily conserved Sm domain (residues 1-65) and a flexible C-terminal region (residues 66-102). It has been recognized that the existence of the C-terminal region is important for the function of Hfq, but its detailed structural and dynamic properties remain elusive due to its disordered nature. In this work, using integrative experimental techniques, such as nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and small-angle X-ray scattering, as well as multi-scale computational simulations, new insights into the structure and dynamics of the C-terminal region in the context of the Hfq hexamer are provided. Although the C-terminal region is intrinsically disordered, some residues (83-86) are motionally restricted. The hexameric core may affect the secondary structure propensity of the C-terminal region, due to transient interactions between them. The residues at the rim and the proximal side of the core have significantly more transient contacts with the C-terminal region than those residues at the distal side, which may facilitate the function of the C-terminal region in the release of double-stranded RNAs and the cycling of small non-coding RNAs. Structure ensembles constructed by fitting the experimental data also support that the C-terminal region prefers to locate at the proximal side. From multi-scale simulations, we propose that the C-terminal region may play a dual role of steric effect (especially at the proximal side) and recruitment (at the both sides) in the binding process of RNA substrates. Interestingly, we have found that these motionally restricted residues may serve as important binding sites for the incoming RNAs that is probably driven by favorable electrostatic interactions. These integrative studies may aid in our understanding of the functional role of the C-terminal region of Hfq.

  9. Active volume studies with depleted and enriched BEGe detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sturm, Katharina von [Eberhard Karls Universitaet Tuebingen (Germany); Universita degli Studi di Padova, Padua (Italy); Collaboration: GERDA-Collaboration

    2013-07-01

    The Gerda experiment is currently taking data for the search of the 0νββ decay in {sup 76}Ge. In 2013, 30 newly manufactured Broad Energy Germanium (BEGe) diodes will be deployed which will double the active mass within Gerda. These detectors were fabricated from high-purity germanium enriched in {sup 76}Ge and tested in the HADES underground laboratory, owned by SCK.CEN, in Mol, Belgium. As the BEGes are source and detector at the same time, one crucial parameter is their active volume which directly enters into the evaluation of the half-life. This talk illustrates the dead layer and active volume determination of prototype detectors from depleted germanium as well as the newly produced detectors from enriched material, using gamma spectroscopy methods and comparing experimental results to Monte-Carlo simulations. Recent measurements and their results are presented, and systematic effects are discussed.

  10. Barnwell Nuclear Fuels Plant applicability study. Volume III. Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-03-01

    Volume III suppliees supporting information to assist Congress in making a decision on the optimum utilization of the Barnwell Nuclear Fuels Plant. Included are applicable fuel cycle policies; properties of reference fuels; description and evaluation of alternative operational (flue cycle) modes; description and evaluation of safeguards systems and techniques; description and evaluation of spiking technology; waste and waste solidification evaluation; and Department of Energy programs relating to nonproliferation

  11. Study of accurate volume measurement system for plutonium nitrate solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosoma, T. [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Works

    1998-12-01

    It is important for effective safeguarding of nuclear materials to establish a technique for accurate volume measurement of plutonium nitrate solution in accountancy tank. The volume of the solution can be estimated by two differential pressures between three dip-tubes, in which the air is purged by an compressor. One of the differential pressure corresponds to the density of the solution, and another corresponds to the surface level of the solution in the tank. The measurement of the differential pressure contains many uncertain errors, such as precision of pressure transducer, fluctuation of back-pressure, generation of bubbles at the front of the dip-tubes, non-uniformity of temperature and density of the solution, pressure drop in the dip-tube, and so on. The various excess pressures at the volume measurement are discussed and corrected by a reasonable method. High precision-differential pressure measurement system is developed with a quartz oscillation type transducer which converts a differential pressure to a digital signal. The developed system is used for inspection by the government and IAEA. (M. Suetake)

  12. National waste terminal storage repository in a bedded salt formation for spent unreprocessed fuel. Special study No. 1. 25-year retrievability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-12-01

    National Waste Terminal Storage Repository 2 (NWTSR2), in bedded salt, for spent unreprocessed fuel is the subject of a conceptual design project which began in January 1977. In the base conceptual design the spent fuel is to be stored in a retrievable mode for 5 years. This report presents the results of a separate study on 25-year retrievability with open storage rooms. Drawings prepared for 25-year retrievability are only those which differ from the companion 5-year retrievability drawings which comprise Volume II of the Conceptual Design Report (CDR). NWTSR2 capital facilities originally were to be constructed in phases. Phase I was to include those facilities required for the first 5 years of operation, which were hypothesized to be from 1985 through 1990; Phase II was to include facilities required from 1991 until the capacity of the 2000-acre mine was reached. These dates are used as the basis for conceptual design and for Special Study No. 1 but do not represent actual schedule dates for the repository. The terms Phase I and Phase II are used throughout the drawings and test, so they need to be understood. However, it is not now intended to phase the capital construction because of the relatively small effort represented by Phase II surface construction. An optional future expansion of the mine, Phase III, would add 1000 acres on the end of the mine opposite the shaft pillar. The optional Phase III expansion would commence operation upon completion of Phase II operations. The drawings and design comparisons for Phase III mine operations appear only in this report

  13. Recovery Experiences of Taiwanese Women after Terminating Abusive Relationships: A Phenomenology Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Wen-Li; Ko, Nai-Ying; Shu, Bih-Ching

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the recovery experiences of women who had suffered intimate partner violence in Taiwan. A phenomenological study design using semi-structured interviews was used to obtain data from a purposive sample of eight women. Colaizzi's approach to narrative analysis was applied. Findings indicate that "reconstructing the self"…

  14. Recidivism Study: Positive Terminations from J. F. Ingram State Technical College, 1976-1986.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogburn, Helen E.

    In 1988, a study was conducted by the J. F. Ingram State Technical College (ISTC) to determine recidivism rates for incarcerated individuals who earned a diploma and/or a General Educational Development (GED) certificate at ISTC during the years 1976 through 1986. The identification numbers of 2,844 students who had completed programs at ISTC were…

  15. Adrenal gland volume measurement in septic shock and control patients: a pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nougaret, Stephanie; Aufort, S.; Gallix, B. [Hopital Saint Eloi, Department of Abdominal Imaging, CHU Montpellier, Montpellier, Cedex 5 (France); Jung, B.; Chanques, G.; Jaber, S. [Hopital Saint Eloi, Intensive Care Unit, Department of Critical Care and Anesthesiology: DAR B, CHU Montpellier, Montpellier, Cedex 5 (France)

    2010-10-15

    To compare adrenal gland volume in septic shock patients and control patients by using semi-automated volumetry. Adrenal gland volume and its inter-observer variability were measured with tomodensitometry using semi-automated software in 104 septic shock patients and in 40 control patients. The volumes of control and septic shock patients were compared and the relationship between volume and outcome in intensive care was studied. The mean total volume of both adrenal glands was 7.2 {+-} 2.0 cm{sup 3} in control subjects and 13.3 {+-} 4.7 cm{sup 3} for total adrenal gland volume in septic shock patients (p < 0.0001). Measurement reproducibility was excellent with a concordance correlation coefficient value of 0.87. The increasing adrenal gland volume was associated with a higher rate of survival in intensive care. The present study reports that with semi-automated software, adrenal gland volume can be measured easily and reproducibly. Adrenal gland volume was found to be nearly double in sepsis compared with control patients. The absence of increased volume during sepsis would appear to be associated with a higher rate of mortality and may represent a prognosis factor which may help the clinician to guide their strategy. (orig.)

  16. Adrenal gland volume measurement in septic shock and control patients: a pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nougaret, Stephanie; Aufort, S.; Gallix, B.; Jung, B.; Chanques, G.; Jaber, S.

    2010-01-01

    To compare adrenal gland volume in septic shock patients and control patients by using semi-automated volumetry. Adrenal gland volume and its inter-observer variability were measured with tomodensitometry using semi-automated software in 104 septic shock patients and in 40 control patients. The volumes of control and septic shock patients were compared and the relationship between volume and outcome in intensive care was studied. The mean total volume of both adrenal glands was 7.2 ± 2.0 cm 3 in control subjects and 13.3 ± 4.7 cm 3 for total adrenal gland volume in septic shock patients (p < 0.0001). Measurement reproducibility was excellent with a concordance correlation coefficient value of 0.87. The increasing adrenal gland volume was associated with a higher rate of survival in intensive care. The present study reports that with semi-automated software, adrenal gland volume can be measured easily and reproducibly. Adrenal gland volume was found to be nearly double in sepsis compared with control patients. The absence of increased volume during sepsis would appear to be associated with a higher rate of mortality and may represent a prognosis factor which may help the clinician to guide their strategy. (orig.)

  17. Study of the Interaction User Head-Ultrawideband MIMO Antenna Array for Mobile Terminals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhekov, Stanislav Stefanov; Tatomirescu, Alexandru; Franek, Ondrej

    2016-01-01

    aspects of the interaction are considered: 1) the influence of the user head on the antenna operation, and 2) the exposure of the human head tissue to antenna electromagnetic radiation. The first aspect is related to the degradation of the antenna performance in a proximity to the user which is evaluated......This paper presents a numerical study of the interaction between the user head and MIMO antenna array for mobile phones. The antenna array is composed of two identical antennas and covers the frequency ranges 698-990 MHz and 1710-5530 MHz with a good radiation efficiency in free space. The two...... by the reduction of the antenna radiation efficiency. The second aspect refers to the antenna operation effect on the human and the exposure of the user head is studied by Specific Absorption Ratio (SAR)....

  18. Exploring pregnancy termination experiences and needs among Malaysian women: A qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Tong Wen; Low Wah; Wong Yut; Choong Sim; Jegasothy Ravindran

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Malaysia has relatively liberal abortion laws in that they permit abortions for both physical and mental health cases. However, abortion remains a taboo subject. The stagnating contraceptive prevalence rate combined with the plunging fertility rate suggests that abortion might be occurring clandestinely. This qualitative study aimed to explore the experiences of women and their needs with regard to abortion. Methods Women from diverse backgrounds were purposively selected ...

  19. An anatomical study of variations in termination of brachial artery, with its embryological basis and clinical significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa T. K

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The brachial artery is the main artery of the arm. It begins as the continuation of 3rd part of axillary artery, at the level of inferior border of teres major muscle. It ends at the level of the neck of radius by dividing into radial and ulnar arteries. In the present study we found higher division of brachial artery at mid arm level into its terminal branches with superficial course of radial artery. The present study was done on 51 cadavers from our dept. of Anatomy. The upper limbs of the cadaver were dissected and observed for any variations in the branching pattern of brachial artery. In the present study, a total number of 51 cadaver’s, 102 upper limbs were studied. In one male cadaver we found bilateral higher division of brachial artery, trifurcation on left side and bifurcation on right side brachial artery, with superficial course of radial artery. The knowledge of variation in origin and course of brachial artery is useful for orthopaedicians, physicians, radiologist, vascular and plastic surgeons.

  20. Stability Estimates for a Twisted Rod Under Terminal Loads: A Three-dimensional Study

    KAUST Repository

    Majumdar, Apala

    2012-03-01

    The stability of an inextensible unshearable elastic rod with quadratic strain energy density subject to end loads is considered. We study the second variation of the corresponding rod-energy, making a distinction between in-plane and out-of-plane perturbations and isotropic and anisotropic cross-sections, respectively. In all cases, we demonstrate that the naturally straight state is a local energy minimizer in parameter regimes specified by material constants. These stability results are also accompanied by instability results in parameter regimes defined in terms of material constants. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  1. Stability Estimates for a Twisted Rod Under Terminal Loads: A Three-dimensional Study

    KAUST Repository

    Majumdar, Apala; Prior, Christopher; Goriely, Alain

    2012-01-01

    The stability of an inextensible unshearable elastic rod with quadratic strain energy density subject to end loads is considered. We study the second variation of the corresponding rod-energy, making a distinction between in-plane and out-of-plane perturbations and isotropic and anisotropic cross-sections, respectively. In all cases, we demonstrate that the naturally straight state is a local energy minimizer in parameter regimes specified by material constants. These stability results are also accompanied by instability results in parameter regimes defined in terms of material constants. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  2. Termination of pregnancy for fetal anomaly after 23 weeks of gestation: a European register-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garne, E; Khoshnood, B; Loane, M

    2010-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of termination of pregnancy for fetal anomaly (TOPFA) after 23 weeks of gestation in European countries, and describe the spectrum of anomalies for which late TOPFA is recorded....

  3. A Curriculum Activities Guide to Water Pollution and Environmental Studies, Volume II - Appendices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershey, John T., Ed.; And Others

    This publication, Volume II of a two volume set of water pollution studies, contains seven appendices which support the studies. Appendix 1, Water Quality Parameters, consolidates the technical aspects of water quality including chemical, biological, computer program, and equipment information. Appendix 2, Implementation, outlines techniques…

  4. Exploring pregnancy termination experiences and needs among Malaysian women: A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Wen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaysia has relatively liberal abortion laws in that they permit abortions for both physical and mental health cases. However, abortion remains a taboo subject. The stagnating contraceptive prevalence rate combined with the plunging fertility rate suggests that abortion might be occurring clandestinely. This qualitative study aimed to explore the experiences of women and their needs with regard to abortion. Methods Women from diverse backgrounds were purposively selected from an urban family planning clinic in Penang, Malaysia based on inclusion criteria of being aged 21 and above and having experienced an induced abortion. A semi-structured interview guide consisting of open ended questions eliciting women’s experiences and needs with regard to abortion were utilized to facilitate the interviews. Audio recordings were transcribed verbatim and analyzed thematically. Results Thirty-one women, with ages ranging from 21–43 years (mean 30.16 ±6.41, who had induced surgical/medical abortions were recruited from an urban family planning clinic. Ten women reported only to have had one previous abortion while the remaining had multiple abortions ranging from 2–8 times. The findings revealed that although women had abortions, nevertheless they faced problems in seeking for abortion information and services. They also had fears about the consequences and side effects of abortion and wish to receive more information on abortion. Women with post-abortion feelings ranged from no feelings to not wanting to think about the abortion, relief, feeling of sadness and loss. Abortion decisions were primarily theirs but would seek partner/husband’s agreement. In terms of the women’s needs for abortion, or if they wished for more information on abortion, pre and post abortion counseling and post-abortion follow up. Conclusions The existing abortion laws in Malaysia should enable the government to provide abortion services within the

  5. Exploring pregnancy termination experiences and needs among Malaysian women: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Wen Ting; Low, Wah Yun; Wong, Yut Lin; Choong, Sim Poey; Jegasothy, Ravindran

    2012-09-05

    Malaysia has relatively liberal abortion laws in that they permit abortions for both physical and mental health cases. However, abortion remains a taboo subject. The stagnating contraceptive prevalence rate combined with the plunging fertility rate suggests that abortion might be occurring clandestinely. This qualitative study aimed to explore the experiences of women and their needs with regard to abortion. Women from diverse backgrounds were purposively selected from an urban family planning clinic in Penang, Malaysia based on inclusion criteria of being aged 21 and above and having experienced an induced abortion. A semi-structured interview guide consisting of open ended questions eliciting women's experiences and needs with regard to abortion were utilized to facilitate the interviews. Audio recordings were transcribed verbatim and analyzed thematically. Thirty-one women, with ages ranging from 21-43 years (mean 30.16 ± 6.41), who had induced surgical/medical abortions were recruited from an urban family planning clinic. Ten women reported only to have had one previous abortion while the remaining had multiple abortions ranging from 2-8 times. The findings revealed that although women had abortions, nevertheless they faced problems in seeking for abortion information and services. They also had fears about the consequences and side effects of abortion and wish to receive more information on abortion. Women with post-abortion feelings ranged from no feelings to not wanting to think about the abortion, relief, feeling of sadness and loss. Abortion decisions were primarily theirs but would seek partner/husband's agreement. In terms of the women's needs for abortion, or if they wished for more information on abortion, pre and post abortion counseling and post-abortion follow up. The existing abortion laws in Malaysia should enable the government to provide abortion services within the law. Unfortunately, the study findings show that this is generally not so, most

  6. Alkyl-terminated Si(111) surfaces: A high-resolution, core level photoelectron spectroscopy study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terry, J.; Linford, M.R.; Wigren, C.; Cao, R.; Pianetta, P.; Chidsey, C.E. [Stanford University, Stanford, California 94309 (United States)

    1999-01-01

    The bonding of alkyl monolayers to Si(111) surfaces has been studied with high-resolution core level photoelectron spectroscopy (PES). Two very different wet-chemical methods have been used to prepare the alkyl monolayers: (i) Olefin insertion into the H{endash}Si bond of the H{endash}Si(111) surface, and (ii) replacement of Cl on the Cl{endash}Si(111) surface by an alkyl group from an alkyllithium reagent. In both cases, PES has revealed a C 1s component shifted to lower binding energy and a Si 2p component shifted to higher binding energy. Both components are attributed to the presence of a C{endash}Si bond at the interface. Along with photoelectron diffraction data [Appl. Phys. Lett. {bold 71}, 1056, (1997)], these data are used to show that these two synthetic methods can be used to functionalize the Si(111) surface. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  7. A study of operational cycle of terminal distributed power supply based on Big-data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Erbao; Liu, Zhoubin; He, Jinhong; Li, Chao

    2018-01-01

    In China, the distributed power supply industry enjoys a rapid development trend. For the users’ side of the distributed power mode of operation, there are various types. This paper, take rural as an example, mainly studies the all round life cycle operation mode of rural distributed solar power plant, including the feasibility study plan and investment suggestion of the initial construction of the rural power station, and the operation and maintenance in the middle period. China’s vast rural areas, areas per capita is large, average households have independent housing and courtyards, available building area is no problem. Compared with the urban areas, the return rate of investment is low, the investment options is rare, the collective is strong, the risk tolerance is weak and so on. Aiming at the characteristics of the rural areas in the above rural areas, three kinds of investment schemes of rural distributed photovoltaic power plants are put forward, and their concrete implementation plans are analyzed in detail. Especially the second option, for the farmers to consider the risk of investment, given their principal security, which greatly reduces the farmers into the power plant loss of funds risk. At the same time, according to the respective risk of farmers, given the corresponding investment advice. Rural income is generally low, the expected benefits of distributed photovoltaic power plant can significantly improve the income of farmers, improve the quality of life of farmers, coupled with the strong rural collective farmers, rural distributed photovoltaic power plants will mushroom, which On China’s photovoltaic construction and even the supply of clean energy is of great significance, so as to truly benefit the national energy strategy and rural construction.

  8. Cone-beam volume CT mammographic imaging: feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Biao; Ning, Ruola

    2001-06-01

    X-ray projection mammography, using a film/screen combination or digital techniques, has proven to be the most effective imaging modality for early detection of breast cancer currently available. However, the inherent superimposition of structures makes small carcinoma (a few millimeters in size) difficult to detect in the occultation case or in dense breasts, resulting in a high false positive biopsy rate. The cone-beam x-ray projection based volume imaging using flat panel detectors (FPDs) makes it possible to obtain three-dimensional breast images. This may benefit diagnosis of the structure and pattern of the lesion while eliminating hard compression of the breast. This paper presents a novel cone-beam volume CT mammographic imaging protocol based on the above techniques. Through computer simulation, the key issues of the system and imaging techniques, including the x-ray imaging geometry and corresponding reconstruction algorithms, x-ray characteristics of breast tissues, x-ray setting techniques, the absorbed dose estimation and the quantitative effect of x-ray scattering on image quality, are addressed. The preliminary simulation results support the proposed cone-beam volume CT mammographic imaging modality in respect to feasibility and practicability for mammography. The absorbed dose level is comparable to that of current two-view mammography and would not be a prominent problem for this imaging protocol. Compared to traditional mammography, the proposed imaging protocol with isotropic spatial resolution will potentially provide significantly better low contrast detectability of breast tumors and more accurate location of breast lesions.

  9. Theoretical Study of Terminal Vanadium(V Chalcogenido Complexes Bearing Chlorido and Methoxido Ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Tetteh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Solvent (methanol coordinated vanadium(V chalcogenido complexes bearing chlorido and methoxido ligands have been studied computationally by means of density functional (DFT methods. The gas phase complexes were fully optimized using B3LYP/GEN functionals with 6-31+G⁎⁎ and LANL2DZ basis sets. The optimized complexes show distorted octahedral geometries around the central vanadium atom. The ligand pπ-vanadium dπ interactions were analyzed by natural bond order (NBO and natural population analyses (NPA. These results show strong stabilization of the V=O bond as was further confirmed by the analyses of the frontier molecular orbitals (FMOs. Second-order perturbation analyses also revealed substantial delocalization of lone pair electrons from the oxido ligand into vacant non-Lewis (Rydberg orbitals as compared to the sulfido and seleno analogues. These results show significant ligand-to-metal charge transfer (LMCT interactions. Full interaction map (FIM of the reference complex confirms hydrogen bond interactions involving the methanol (O-H and the chlorido ligand.

  10. Termination of pregnancy among very preterm births and its impact on very preterm mortality : results from ten European population-based cohorts in the MOSAIC study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papiernik, E.; Zeitlin, J.; Delmas, D.; Draper, E. S.; Gadzinowski, J.; Kuenzel, W.; Cuttini, M.; Di Lallo, D.; Weber, T.; Kollee, L.; Bekaert, A.; Breart, G.

    Objective To study the impact of terminations of pregnancy (TOP) on very preterm mortality in Europe. Design European prospective population-based cohort study. Setting Ten regions from nine European countries participating in the MOSAIC (Models of OrganiSing Access to Intensive Care for very

  11. Health care providers' attitudes towards termination of pregnancy: A qualitative study in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orner Phyllis

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite changes to the abortion legislation in South Africa in 1996, barriers to women accessing abortion services still exist including provider opposition to abortions and a shortage of trained and willing abortion care providers. The dearth of abortion providers undermines the availability of safe, legal abortion, and has serious implications for women's access to abortion services and health service planning. In South Africa, little is known about the personal and professional attitudes of individuals who are currently working in abortion service provision. Exploring the factors which determine health care providers' involvement or disengagement in abortion services may facilitate improvement in the planning and provision of future services. Methods Qualitative research methods were used to collect data. Thirty four in-depth interviews and one focus group discussion were conducted during 2006 and 2007 with health care providers who were involved in a range of abortion provision in the Western Cape Province, South Africa. Data were analysed using a thematic analysis approach. Results Complex patterns of service delivery were prevalent throughout many of the health care facilities, and fragmented levels of service provision operated in order to accommodate health care providers' willingness to be involved in different aspects of abortion provision. Related to this was the need expressed by many providers for dedicated, stand-alone abortion clinics thereby creating a more supportive environment for both clients and providers. Almost all providers were concerned about the numerous difficulties women faced in seeking an abortion and their general quality of care. An overriding concern was poor pre and post abortion counselling including contraceptive counselling and provision. Conclusion This is the first known qualitative study undertaken in South Africa exploring providers' attitudes towards abortion and adds to the body of

  12. Studies of left ventricular volume estimation from single photon emission computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiraki, Yoshio; Shimizu, Mitsuharu; Joja, Ikuo; Aono, Kaname; Yanagi, Hidekiyo; Indo, Haruaki; Seno, Yoshimasa; Teramoto, Shigeru; Nagaya, Isao.

    1988-01-01

    We studied the comparative accuracy of 99m Tc cardiac blood pool Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) for the measurement of left ventricular volume in 20 patients undergoing SPECT and single plane contrast left ventriculography (LVG). Left ventricular volume was calculated based on the total number of voxels in left ventricle. End-diastolic left ventricular volume (EDV) and end-systolic left ventricular volume (ESV) calculated from SPECT were compared with those from LVG. SPECT volume values showed a high degree of correlation with those by LVG (r = 0.923 for EDV, r = 0.903 for ESV). We appreciated the usefulness and accuracy of SPECT in measuring left ventricular volume because of its three-dimensional information. (author)

  13. Exploring Dutch surgeons' views on volume-based policies: a qualitative interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesman, Roos; Faber, Marjan J; Westert, Gert P; Berden, Bart

    2018-01-01

    Objective In many countries, the evidence for volume-outcome associations in surgery has been transferred into policy. Despite the large body of research that exists on the topic, qualitative studies aimed at surgeons' views on, and experiences with, these volume-based policies are lacking. We interviewed Dutch surgeons to gain more insight into the implications of volume-outcome policies for daily clinical practice, as input for effective surgical quality improvement. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 20 purposively selected surgeons from a stratified sample for hospital type and speciality. The interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and underwent inductive content analysis. Results Two overarching themes were inductively derived from the data: (1) minimum volume standards and (2) implications of volume-based policies. Although surgeons acknowledged the premise 'more is better', they were critical about the validity and underlying evidence for minimum volume standards. Patients often inquire about caseload, which is met with both understanding and discomfort. Surgeons offered many examples of controversies surrounding the process of determining thresholds as well as the ways in which health insurers use volume as a purchasing criterion. Furthermore, being held accountable for caseload may trigger undesired strategic behaviour, such as unwarranted operations. Volume-based policies also have implications for the survival of low-volume providers and affect patient travel times, although the latter is not necessarily problematic in the Dutch context. Conclusions Surgeons in this study acknowledged that more volume leads to better quality. However, validity issues, undesired strategic behaviour and the ways in which minimum volume standards are established and applied have made surgeons critical of current policy practice. These findings suggest that volume remains a controversial quality measure and causes polarization that is not

  14. Positron annihilation analysis of epoxy/hydroxyl terminated butyl nitrile rubber (EP/HTBN) system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Minfeng; Chen Ning; Ji Genzhong; Sun Xudong; Zhao Rener; Xiao Huiquan; Qi Chenze; Wang Baoyi

    2007-01-01

    The free volume properties of epoxy/hydroxyl terminated butyl nitrile rubber (EP/HTBN) have been studied by means of positron annihilation technique. The toughness effect is found to be correlated with the content of HTBN and the free volume properties of the EP/HTBN interfaces. When the content of HTBN component is 5%, the free volume size in the interface is close to that of EP, and the toughness effect is strong. But with further addition of HTBN, holes with big size free volume are formed in the interface, and the toughness effect is limited. (authors)

  15. Review paper. Terminal lucidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiriboga-Oleszczak Boris Alejandro

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Terminal lucidity is a term used in the medical literature to determine the improvement of mental functioning shortly before death, even among patients with serious and long-term disorders. In 19th century, cases of mind clarity recovery shortly before death, were often recognized by doctors and interpreted as a sign of an impending death. In 20th century, the interest in this phenomenon decreased and then, virtually disappear. In recent years, on the wave of publications concerning near death experiences and related events such as the end of life experiences, papers about the improvement of mental functioning shortly before death, exponentially grew and got a new name, terminal lucidity. In this paper, an overview of the available literature is presented to outline the historical, phenomenological and clinical picture of this phenomenon and its possible implications for medical care and future studies.

  16. Design cost scoping studies. Nevada Test Site Terminal Waste Storage Program, Subtask 1.3: facility hardening studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanev, P.I.; Owen, G.N.

    1978-04-01

    As part of a program being conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, to determine the feasibility of establishing a terminal waste storage repository at the Nevada Test Site, URS/John A. Blume and Associates, Engineers, made approximate determinations of the additional costs required to provide protection of structures against seismic forces. A preliminary estimate is presented of the added costs required to harden the surface structures, underground tunnels and storage rooms, and vertical shafts of the repository against ground motion caused by earthquakes and underground nuclear explosions (UNEs). The conceptual design of all of the structures was adapted from proposed bedded-salt waste-isolation repositories. Added costs for hardening were calculated for repositories in three candidate geological materials (Eleana argillite, Climax Stock granite, and Jackass Flats tuff) for several assumed peak ground accelerations caused by earthquakes (0.3g, 0.5g, and 0.7g) and by UNEs (0.5g, 0.7g, and 1.0g). Hardening procedures to protect the tunnels, storage rooms, and shafts against incremental seismic loadings were developed from (1) qualitative considerations of analytically determined seismic stresses and (2) engineering evaluations of the dynamic response of the rock mass and the tunnel support systems. The added costs for seismic hardening of the surface structures were found to be less than 1% of the estimated construction cost of the surface structures. For the underground structures, essentially no hardening was required for peak ground accelerations up to 0.3g; however, added costs became significant at 0.5g, with a possible increase in structural costs for the underground facilities of as much as 35% at 1.0g

  17. Volume growth trends in a Douglas-fir levels-of-growing-stock study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert O. Curtis

    2006-01-01

    Mean curves of increment and yield in gross total cubic volume and net merchantable cubic volume were derived from seven installations of the regional cooperative Levels-of-Growing-Stock Study (LOGS) in Douglas-fir. The technique used reduces the seven curves for each treatment for each variable of interest to a single set of readily interpretable mean curves. To a top...

  18. Free volume changes in mechanically milled PS and PC studied by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Günther-Schade, K.; Castricum, H.L.; Ziegler, H.J.; Bakker, H.; Faupel, F.

    2004-01-01

    The effect of mechanical milling on free volume was studied by means of positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) in polystyrene (PS) as a typical brittle polymer and in polycarbonate (PC) as a tough representative. Long-time milling increases the free volume, while a decrease is observed

  19. Some aspects of free volume studies in molecular substances using positron annihilation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shantarovich, V.P.; Gustov, V.W.; Kevdina, I.B.; Suzuki, T.; Djourelov, N.; Shimazu, A.

    2005-01-01

    Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy is accepted now as a method for the studies of elementary free volumes (free volume holes) in solids, in polymers in particular. The aim of this paper is to discuss some problems, the difficulties on the way of this application and to illustrate them by several examples obtained by the authors. (author)

  20. Commingled uranium-tailings study. Volume II. Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-06-30

    Public Law 96-540, Section 213, directs the Secretary of Energy to develop a plan for a cooperative program to provide assistance in the stabilization and management of defense-related uranium mill tailings commingled with other tailings. In developing the plan, the Secretary is further directed to: (1) establish the amount and condition of tailings generated under federal contracts; (2) examine appropriate methodologies for establishing the extent of federal assistance; and (3) consult with the owners and operators of each site. This technical report summarizes US Department of Energy (DOE) and contractor activities in pursuit of items (1), (2), and (3) above. Recommendations regarding policy and a cooperative plan for federal assistance are under separate cover as Volume I.

  1. Waste acceptance criteria study: Volume 2, Appendixes: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, E.R.; McLeod, N.B.; McBride, J.A.

    1988-09-01

    These appendices to the report on Waste Acceptance Criteria have been published as a separate volume for the convenience of the reader. They consist of the text of the 10CFR961 Contract for disposal of spent fuel, estimates of the cost (savings) to the DOE system of accepting different forms of spent fuel, estimates of costs of acceptance testing/inspection of spent fuel, illustrative specifications and procedures, and the resolution of comments received on a preliminary draft of the report. These estimates of costs contained herein preliminary and are intended only to demonstrate the trends in costs, the order of magnitude involved, and the methodology used to develop the costs. The illustrative specifications and procedures included herein have been developed for the purpose of providing a starting point for the development of a consensus on such matters between utilities and DOE

  2. Vibrational spectra study of fluorescent dendrimers built from the cyclotriphosphazene core with terminal dansyl and carbamate groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furer, V. L.; Vandyukova, I. I.; Vandyukov, A. E.; Fuchs, S.; Majoral, J. P.; Caminade, A. M.; Kovalenko, V. I.

    2011-08-01

    The FTIR and FT Raman spectra of the "Janus"-type dendrimers, possessing five carbamate groups on one side and five fluorescent dansyl derivatives on the other side, with amide G1 and hydrazone G2 central linkages were studied. These surface-block dendrimers are obtained by the coupling of two different dendrons. The FTIR and FT-Raman spectra of the zero generation dendrons, built from the hexafunctional cyclotriphosphazene core, with five dansyl terminal groups and one carbamate G0 v and one oxybenzaldehyde function G0v have been recorded. The structural optimization and normal mode analysis were performed for dendron G0v on the basis of the density functional theory (DFT). The calculated geometrical parameters and harmonic vibrational frequencies are predicted in a good agreement with the experimental data. It was found that dendron molecule G0v has a concave lens structure with planar -O-C6H4-CHdbnd O fragments and slightly non-planar cyclotriphosphazene core. The experimental IR and Raman spectra of dendron G0v were interpreted by means of potential energy distributions. Relying on DFT calculations a complete vibrational assignment is proposed. The strong band 1597 cm -1 show marked changes of the optical density in dependence of substituents in the aromatic ring. The frequencies of ν(N-H) bands in the IR spectra reveal the presence of the different types of H-bonds in the dendrimers.

  3. ICPP tank farm closure study. Volume 2: Engineering design files

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-02-01

    Volume 2 contains the following topical sections: Tank farm heel flushing/pH adjustment; Grouting experiments for immobilization of tank farm heel; Savannah River high level waste tank 20 closure; Tank farm closure information; Clean closure of tank farm; Remediation issues; Remote demolition techniques; Decision concerning EIS for debris treatment facility; CERCLA/RCRA issues; Area of contamination determination; Containment building of debris treatment facility; Double containment issues; Characterization costs; Packaging and disposal options for the waste resulting from the total removal of the tank farm; Take-off calculations for the total removal of soils and structures at the tank farm; Vessel off-gas systems; Jet-grouted polymer and subsurface walls; Exposure calculations for total removal of tank farm; Recommended instrumentation during retrieval operations; High level waste tank concrete encasement evaluation; Recommended heavy equipment and sizing equipment for total removal activities; Tank buoyancy constraints; Grout and concrete formulas for tank heel solidification; Tank heel pH requirements; Tank cooling water; Evaluation of conservatism of vehicle loading on vaults; Typical vault dimensions and approximately tank and vault void volumes; Radiological concerns for temporary vessel off-gas system; Flushing calculations for tank heels; Grout lift depth analysis; Decontamination solution for waste transfer piping; Grout lift determination for filling tank and vault voids; sprung structure vendor data; Grout flow properties through a 2--4 inch pipe; Tank farm load limitations; NRC low level waste grout; Project data sheet calculations; Dose rates for tank farm closure tasks; Exposure and shielding calculations for grout lines; TFF radionuclide release rates; Documentation of the clean closure of a system with listed waste discharge; and Documentation of the ORNL method of radionuclide concentrations in tanks

  4. ICPP tank farm closure study. Volume 2: Engineering design files

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    Volume 2 contains the following topical sections: Tank farm heel flushing/pH adjustment; Grouting experiments for immobilization of tank farm heel; Savannah River high level waste tank 20 closure; Tank farm closure information; Clean closure of tank farm; Remediation issues; Remote demolition techniques; Decision concerning EIS for debris treatment facility; CERCLA/RCRA issues; Area of contamination determination; Containment building of debris treatment facility; Double containment issues; Characterization costs; Packaging and disposal options for the waste resulting from the total removal of the tank farm; Take-off calculations for the total removal of soils and structures at the tank farm; Vessel off-gas systems; Jet-grouted polymer and subsurface walls; Exposure calculations for total removal of tank farm; Recommended instrumentation during retrieval operations; High level waste tank concrete encasement evaluation; Recommended heavy equipment and sizing equipment for total removal activities; Tank buoyancy constraints; Grout and concrete formulas for tank heel solidification; Tank heel pH requirements; Tank cooling water; Evaluation of conservatism of vehicle loading on vaults; Typical vault dimensions and approximately tank and vault void volumes; Radiological concerns for temporary vessel off-gas system; Flushing calculations for tank heels; Grout lift depth analysis; Decontamination solution for waste transfer piping; Grout lift determination for filling tank and vault voids; sprung structure vendor data; Grout flow properties through a 2--4 inch pipe; Tank farm load limitations; NRC low level waste grout; Project data sheet calculations; Dose rates for tank farm closure tasks; Exposure and shielding calculations for grout lines; TFF radionuclide release rates; Documentation of the clean closure of a system with listed waste discharge; and Documentation of the ORNL method of radionuclide concentrations in tanks.

  5. Cone-beam volume CT breast imaging: Feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Biao; Ning Ruola

    2002-01-01

    X-ray projection mammography, using a film/screen combination, or digital techniques, has proven to be the most effective imaging modality currently available for early detection of breast cancer. However, the inherent superimposition of structures makes a small carcinoma (a few millimeters in size) difficult to detect when it is occult or in dense breasts, leading to a high false-positive biopsy rate. Cone-beam x-ray-projection-based volume imaging using flat panel detectors (FPDs) may allow obtaining three-dimensional breast images, resulting in more accurate diagnosis of structures and patterns of lesions while eliminating the hard compression of breasts. This article presents a novel cone-beam volume computed tomographic breast imaging (CBVCTBI) technique based on the above techniques. Through a variety of computer simulations, the key issues of the system and imaging techniques were addressed, including the x-ray imaging geometry and corresponding reconstruction algorithms, x-ray characteristics of breast tissue and lesions, x-ray setting techniques, the absorbed dose estimation, and the quantitative effect of x-ray scattering on image quality. The preliminary simulation results support the proposed CVBCTBI modality for breast imaging in respect to its feasibility and practicability. The absorbed dose level is comparable to that of current mammography and will not be a prominent problem for this imaging technique. Compared to conventional mammography, the proposed imaging technique with isotropic spatial resolution will potentially provide significantly better low-contrast detectability of breast tumors and more accurate location of breast lesions

  6. Efficiency analysis of container ports and terminals

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Q.

    2010-01-01

    In the past two decades the steady growth of seaborne trade has resulted in the increase of container ships, container ports and their terminals. The structure of the shipping market is, moreover, continuously evolving. On the carrier side, shipping companies form consortia and alliances; on the port side, global terminal operators and dedicated container terminals are emerging. The aim of this research is to evaluate the efficiency of container ports and terminals and to study...

  7. Change in brain and lesion volumes after CEE therapies: the WHIMS-MRI studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, Laura H; Espeland, Mark A; Hogan, Patricia E; Resnick, Susan M; Bryan, R Nick; Robinson, Jennifer G; Goveas, Joseph S; Davatzikos, Christos; Kuller, Lewis H; Williamson, Jeff D; Bushnell, Cheryl D; Shumaker, Sally A

    2014-02-04

    To determine whether smaller brain volumes in older women who had completed Women's Health Initiative (WHI)-assigned conjugated equine estrogen-based hormone therapy (HT), reported by WHI Memory Study (WHIMS)-MRI, correspond to a continuing increased rate of atrophy an average of 6.1 to 7.7 years later in WHIMS-MRI2. A total of 1,230 WHI participants were contacted: 797 (64.8%) consented, and 729 (59%) were rescanned an average of 4.7 years after the initial MRI scan. Mean annual rates of change in total brain volume, the primary outcome, and rates of change in ischemic lesion volumes, the secondary outcome, were compared between treatment groups using mixed-effect models with adjustment for trial, clinical site, age, intracranial volumes, and time between MRI measures. Total brain volume decreased an average of 3.22 cm(3)/y in the active arm and 3.07 cm(3)/y in the placebo arm (p = 0.53). Total ischemic lesion volumes increased in both arms at a rate of 0.12 cm(3)/y (p = 0.88). Conjugated equine estrogen-based postmenopausal HT, previously assigned at WHI baseline, did not affect rates of decline in brain volumes or increases in brain lesion volumes during the 4.7 years between the initial and follow-up WHIMS-MRI studies. Smaller frontal lobe volumes were observed as persistent group differences among women assigned to active HT compared with placebo. Women with a history of cardiovascular disease treated with active HT, compared with placebo, had higher rates of accumulation in white matter lesion volume and total brain lesion volume. Further study may elucidate mechanisms that explain these findings.

  8. Parsing partial molar volumes of small molecules: a molecular dynamics study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Nisha; Dubins, David N; Pomès, Régis; Chalikian, Tigran V

    2011-04-28

    We used molecular dynamics (MD) simulations in conjunction with the Kirkwood-Buff theory to compute the partial molar volumes for a number of small solutes of various chemical natures. We repeated our computations using modified pair potentials, first, in the absence of the Coulombic term and, second, in the absence of the Coulombic and the attractive Lennard-Jones terms. Comparison of our results with experimental data and the volumetric results of Monte Carlo simulation with hard sphere potentials and scaled particle theory-based computations led us to conclude that, for small solutes, the partial molar volume computed with the Lennard-Jones potential in the absence of the Coulombic term nearly coincides with the cavity volume. On the other hand, MD simulations carried out with the pair interaction potentials containing only the repulsive Lennard-Jones term produce unrealistically large partial molar volumes of solutes that are close to their excluded volumes. Our simulation results are in good agreement with the reported schemes for parsing partial molar volume data on small solutes. In particular, our determined interaction volumes() and the thickness of the thermal volume for individual compounds are in good agreement with empirical estimates. This work is the first computational study that supports and lends credence to the practical algorithms of parsing partial molar volume data that are currently in use for molecular interpretations of volumetric data.

  9. Mortality and preoperative cardiac function in vascular amputees : an N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riemersma, Marcel; Dijkstra, Pieter U.; van Veldhuisen, Dirk Jan; Muskiet, Frits A. J.; van den Dungen, Jan A. M. M.; Geertzen, Jan H. B.

    Objective: To determine preoperative ventricular function in vascular amputees by measuring N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and to analyse the relationship between NT-proBNP levels and 30-day postoperative mortality. Design: Prospective pilot study. Subjects and methods: In 19

  10. Scandium Terminal Imido Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Erli; Chu, Jiaxiang; Chen, Yaofeng

    2018-02-20

    of two p-d π bonds between the scandium ion and the nitrogen atom of the imido ligand and showed that the dianionic [NR] 2- imido ligand acts as a 2σ,4π electron donor. Subsequent studies of the scandium terminal imides revealed highly versatile and intriguing reactivity of the Sc═N bond. This included cycloaddition toward various unsaturated bonds, C-H/Si-H/B-H bond activations and catalytic hydrosilylation, dehydrofluorination of fluoro-substituted benzenes/alkanes, CO 2 and H 2 activations, activation of elemental selenium, coordination with other transition metal halides, etc. Since our initial success in 2010, and with contributions from us and across the community, this young, vibrant research field has rapidly flourished into one of the most active frontiers of rare-earth metal chemistry. The prospect of extending Ln═N chemistry to other rare-earth metals and/or different metal oxidation states, as well as exploiting their stoichiometric and catalytic reactivities, continues to attract research effort. Herein we present an account of our investigations into scandium terminal imido chemistry as a timely summary, in the hope that our studies will be of interest to this readership.

  11. Continuous subcutaneous infusion of compound oxycodone for the relief of dyspnea in patients with terminally ill cancer: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata, Masahiro; Kaneishi, Keisuke

    2013-05-01

    Pain and dyspnea are the most prevalent and distressing symptoms in patients with terminally ill cancer. Evidences have accumulated for the effects of morphine on dyspnea, whereas little is known about the effects of oxycodone on dyspnea. We investigated the effectiveness of oxycodone for dyspnea in patients with terminally ill cancer. The injectable form of compound oxycodone (iOC) containing hydrocotarnine was administered continuously via subcutaneous route. We administered iOC to 136 patients. The effect on dyspnea was less conspicuous than pain, yet iOC was effective for dyspnea with varying degrees. None of the adverse effects observed were serious. These results suggest that continuous subcutaneous administration of oxycodone could be one of the reasonable alternatives in the management of dyspnea in patients with terminally ill cancer.

  12. Association of menopause age and N-terminal pro brain natriuretic peptide: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebong, Imo A; Watson, Karol E; Goff, David C; Bluemke, David A; Srikanthan, Preethi; Horwich, Tamara; Bertoni, Alain G

    2015-05-01

    Menopause age can affect the risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD). The purpose of this study was to investigate the associations of early menopause (menopause occurring before age 45 y) and menopause age with N-terminal pro brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), a potential risk marker of CVD and heart failure. Our cross-sectional study included 2,275 postmenopausal women, aged 45 to 85 years and without clinical CVD (2000-2002), from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Participants were classified as having or not having early menopause. NT-proBNP was log-transformed. Multivariable linear regression was used for analysis. Five hundred sixty-one women had early menopause. The median (25th-75th percentiles) NT-proBNP value was 79.0 (41.1-151.6) pg/mL for all participants, 83.4 (41.4-164.9) pg/mL for women with early menopause, and 78.0 (40.8-148.3) pg/mL for women without early menopause. The mean (SD) age was 65 (10.1) and 65 (8.9) years for women with and without early menopause, respectively. No significant interactions between menopause age and ethnicity were observed. In multivariable analysis, early menopause was associated with a 10.7% increase in NT-proBNP levels, whereas each 1-year increase in menopause age was associated with a 0.7% decrease in NT-proBNP levels. Early menopause is associated with greater NT-proBNP levels, whereas each 1-year increase in menopause age is associated with lower NT-proBNP levels, in postmenopausal women.

  13. A comparative study of self-consolidating concretes incorporating high-volume natural pozzolan or high-volume fly ash

    KAUST Repository

    Celik, Kemal

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the effects of Portland cement replacement on the strength and durability of self-consolidating concretes (SSC). The two replacement materials used are high-volume natural pozzolan (HVNP), a Saudi Arabian aluminum-silica rich basaltic glass and high-volume Class-F fly ash (HVFAF), from Jim Bridger Power Plant, Wyoming, US. As an extension of the study, limestone filler (LF) is also used to replace Portland cement, alongside HVNP or HVFAF, forming ternary blends. Along with compressive strength tests, non-steady state chloride migration and gas permeability tests were performed, as durability indicators, on SCC specimens. The results were compared to two reference concretes; 100% ordinary Portland cement (OPC) and 85% OPC - 15% LF by mass. The HVNP and HVFAF concrete mixes showed strength and durability results comparable to those of the reference concretes; identifying that both can effectively be used to produce low-cost and environmental friendly SCC. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A comparative study of self-consolidating concretes incorporating high-volume natural pozzolan or high-volume fly ash

    KAUST Repository

    Celik, Kemal; Meral, Cagla; Mancio, Mauricio; Mehta, P. Kumar; Monteiro, Paulo J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the effects of Portland cement replacement on the strength and durability of self-consolidating concretes (SSC). The two replacement materials used are high-volume natural pozzolan (HVNP), a Saudi Arabian aluminum-silica rich basaltic glass and high-volume Class-F fly ash (HVFAF), from Jim Bridger Power Plant, Wyoming, US. As an extension of the study, limestone filler (LF) is also used to replace Portland cement, alongside HVNP or HVFAF, forming ternary blends. Along with compressive strength tests, non-steady state chloride migration and gas permeability tests were performed, as durability indicators, on SCC specimens. The results were compared to two reference concretes; 100% ordinary Portland cement (OPC) and 85% OPC - 15% LF by mass. The HVNP and HVFAF concrete mixes showed strength and durability results comparable to those of the reference concretes; identifying that both can effectively be used to produce low-cost and environmental friendly SCC. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. N-terminal amphipathic helix as a trigger of hemolytic activity in antimicrobial peptides: a case study in latarcins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyansky, Anton A; Vassilevski, Alexander A; Volynsky, Pavel E; Vorontsova, Olga V; Samsonova, Olga V; Egorova, Natalya S; Krylov, Nicolay A; Feofanov, Alexei V; Arseniev, Alexander S; Grishin, Eugene V; Efremov, Roman G

    2009-07-21

    In silico structural analyses of sets of alpha-helical antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are performed. Differences between hemolytic and non-hemolytic AMPs are revealed in organization of their N-terminal region. A parameter related to hydrophobicity of the N-terminal part is proposed as a measure of the peptide propensity to exhibit hemolytic and other unwanted cytotoxic activities. Based on the information acquired, a rational approach for selective removal of these properties in AMPs is suggested. A proof of concept is gained through engineering specific mutations that resulted in elimination of the hemolytic activity of AMPs (latarcins) while leaving the beneficial antimicrobial effect intact.

  16. Semiautomatic regional segmentation to measure orbital fat volumes in thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy. A validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comerci, M; Elefante, A; Strianese, D; Senese, R; Bonavolontà, P; Alfano, B; Bonavolontà, B; Brunetti, A

    2013-08-01

    This study was designed to validate a novel semi-automated segmentation method to measure regional intra-orbital fat tissue volume in Graves' ophthalmopathy. Twenty-four orbits from 12 patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy, 24 orbits from 12 controls, ten orbits from five MRI study simulations and two orbits from a digital model were used. Following manual region of interest definition of the orbital volumes performed by two operators with different levels of expertise, an automated procedure calculated intra-orbital fat tissue volumes (global and regional, with automated definition of four quadrants). In patients with Graves' disease, clinical activity score and degree of exophthalmos were measured and correlated with intra-orbital fat volumes. Operator performance was evaluated and statistical analysis of the measurements was performed. Accurate intra-orbital fat volume measurements were obtained with coefficients of variation below 5%. The mean operator difference in total fat volume measurements was 0.56%. Patients had significantly higher intra-orbital fat volumes than controls (p<0.001 using Student's t test). Fat volumes and clinical score were significantly correlated (p<0.001). The semi-automated method described here can provide accurate, reproducible intra-orbital fat measurements with low inter-operator variation and good correlation with clinical data.

  17. Study on water boiling noises in a large volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masagutov, R.F.; Krivtsov, V.A.

    1977-01-01

    Presented are the results of measurement of the noise spectra during boiling of water in a large volume at the pressure of 1 at. Boiling of the distilled water has been accomplished with the use of the heaters made of the Kh18N10T steel, 50 mm in length, 2 mm in the outside diameter, with the wall thickness of 0.1 mm. The degree of water under heating changed during the experiments from 0 to 80 deg C, and the magnitude of the specific heat flux varied from o to 0.7 - 0.9 qsup(x), where qsup(x) was the specific heat flux of the tube burn-out. The noise spectrum of the boiling water was analyzed at frequencies of 0.5 to 200 kHz. The submerge-type pressure-electric transmitters were used for measurements. At underheating boiling during the experiment the standing waves have formed which determine the structure of the measured spectra. During saturated boiling of water no standing waves were revealed. At underheating over 15 - 20 deg C the water boiling process is accompanied by the noises within the ultrasonic frequency range. The maximum upper boundary of the noise in the experiments amounts to 90 - 100 kHz

  18. Energy study of railroad freight transportation. Volume 2. Industry description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-08-01

    The United States railroad industry plays a key role in transporting materials to support our industrial economy. One of the oldest industries in the US, the railroads have developed over 150 years into their present physical and operational configuration. Energy conservation proposals to change industry facilities, equipment, or operating practices must be evaluated in terms of their cost impact. A current, comprehensive and accurate data baseline of railroad economic activity and energy consumption is presented. Descriptions of the history of railroad construction in the US and current equipment, facilities, and operation practices follow. Economic models that relate cost and energy of railroad service to the volume of railroad output and to physical and operational parameters are provided. The analyses and descriptions should provide not only an analytical baseline for evaluating the impact of proposed conservation measures, but they should also provide a measure of understanding of the system and its operations to analysts and policy makers who are involved in proposing, analyzing, and implementing such changes.

  19. Kajian Kinerja Terminal Batu Ampar Kota Balikpapan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randha Alief Chikita

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Batu Ampar Terminal Balikpapan is the only type A passenger terminal in Balikpapan City. The purpose of this study is to determine the operational performance of the terminal at this time and also to determine the level of service in the terminal. The results of this study indicate that for FIFO queue discipline analysis on AKDP and AKAP bus lines, it is known that ρ <1 means that there is currently no queue in the terminal. For the analysis of terminal facilities it is known that there are still some terminal facilities that are not yet available from the main facilities and supporting facilities, therefore the need for additional facilities in order to meet the standard of passenger terminal type A. In the next 15 years analysis for traffic intensity value is approaching 1 which means in the future will cause the queue in the terminal, so it is necessary for the improvement of terminal performance. For the service performance with IPA method there are 35 variables that there are 7 variables that enter in quadrant I. In the next step to do analysis to know the priority of handling by using QFD method. Keywords: Batu Ampar Terminal Balikpapan, IPA, terminal performance, QFD

  20. Procollagen type III amino terminal peptide and myocardial fibrosis: A study in hypertensive patients with and without left ventricular hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos Moreira, Carlos; Serejo, Fátima; Alcântara, Paula; Ramalhinho, Vítor; Braz Nogueira, J

    2015-05-01

    An exaggerated accumulation of type I and type III fibrillar collagens occurs throughout the free wall and interventricular septum of patients with primary hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). In the present study the serum concentration of procollagen type III amino terminal peptide (PIIIP) was measured to determine the value of this peptide as a potential marker of ventricular fibrosis in hypertensive patients, particularly those with LVH. The study population consisted of patients with never-treated mild to moderate essential hypertension and 30 normotensive control subjects. Clinical, echocardiographic, electrocardiographic and biochemical parameters were assessed in all patients. Heart rate, body mass index and levels of blood pressure were increased in hypertensives, particularly those with LVH, compared to normotensive controls. Posterior wall thickness, left ventricular (LV) mass and LV mass index, and serum PIIIP concentration were also increased in hypertensives, with significant differences between the two hypertensive groups. The ratio between maximal early and late transmitral flow velocity measured during diastole was lower in hypertensives, particularly those with LVH, than in normotensive controls. The increase in PIIIP indicates that type III collagen synthesis increases in hypertensives, particularly those with LVH, implying that alterations in the heart in hypertension are the result not solely of hypertrophied LV muscle, but also of increased collagen deposition within the ventricular wall and around the coronary vessels. Thus, measurement of serum PIIIP could be a practical and useful tool in the non-invasive assessment of myocardial remodeling in hypertension. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of hospital volume on processes of breast cancer care: A National Cancer Data Base study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Tina W F; Pezzin, Liliana E; Li, Jianing; Sparapani, Rodney; Laud, Purushuttom W; Nattinger, Ann B

    2017-05-15

    The purpose of this study was to examine variations in delivery of several breast cancer processes of care that are correlated with lower mortality and disease recurrence, and to determine the extent to which hospital volume explains this variation. Women who were diagnosed with stage I-III unilateral breast cancer between 2007 and 2011 were identified within the National Cancer Data Base. Multiple logistic regression models were developed to determine whether hospital volume was independently associated with each of 10 individual process of care measures addressing diagnosis and treatment, and 2 composite measures assessing appropriateness of systemic treatment (chemotherapy and hormonal therapy) and locoregional treatment (margin status and radiation therapy). Among 573,571 women treated at 1755 different hospitals, 38%, 51%, and 10% were treated at high-, medium-, and low-volume hospitals, respectively. On multivariate analysis controlling for patient sociodemographic characteristics, treatment year and geographic location, hospital volume was a significant predictor for cancer diagnosis by initial biopsy (medium volume: odds ratio [OR] = 1.15, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.05-1.25; high volume: OR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.14-1.49), negative surgical margins (medium volume: OR = 1.15, 95% CI = 1.06-1.24; high volume: OR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.13-1.44), and appropriate locoregional treatment (medium volume: OR = 1.12, 95% CI = 1.07-1.17; high volume: OR = 1.16, 95% CI = 1.09-1.24). Diagnosis of breast cancer before initial surgery, negative surgical margins and appropriate use of radiation therapy may partially explain the volume-survival relationship. Dissemination of these processes of care to a broader group of hospitals could potentially improve the overall quality of care and outcomes of breast cancer survivors. Cancer 2017;123:957-66. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  2. Relationship between Quality of Building Maintenance Management Services for Indoor Environmental Quality and Occupant Satisfaction: Case Study of Bus Terminal Buildings in Penang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Full Chong Choon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Maintenance is often defined as the series of activities undertaken to take care of the building structure and services to ensure the intended functions and optimal performance of a building life cycle. The management department of a building is usually responsible for the enhancement of the indoor environment quality by service delivery and for boosting occupant productivity and satisfaction. Thus, a salient point of this study is to determine the current level of the building’s maintenance management service for indoor environmental quality in Penang bus terminals, along with its occupant satisfaction with regards to the services provided in the building. The assessment of the indoor environmental quality includes the evaluation of thermal comfort, lighting condition, air quality and cleanliness. Apart from that, qualitative and quantitative methodologies were applied during the process of data collection and analysis. A questionnaire survey was distributed to 500 of the targeted population for each bus terminal, including passengers and the staff. In this study, the conclusion was drawn in which the maintenance management service level of the bus terminal was directly proportional to occupant satisfaction. However, the current quality of maintenance management services in the bus terminals are still not up to the level of the occupants’ satisfaction.

  3. Phantom study of PET/CT guided delineation of radiation therapy volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Lin; Zheng Rong; Wang Yibin; Geng Jianhua; Wu Ning; Zhao Ping

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To propose a model-based method for calculating the threshold in GTV determination by 18 F-FDG PET in a phantom study. Methods: A phantom was constructed of a 9 L cylindrical tank.Glass spheres with volumes ranging from 0.5 to 16 ml (0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8 and 16 ml) were suspended within the tank. The six spheres were filled with an identical concentration of FDG (203.5 MBq/L) and suspended within 3 different background baths of FDG (6.179, 16.021, 0 MBq/L) solutions, creating 3 target-to-background ratios of 32.96 : 1, 12.69 : 1 and target to zero background. A linear regressive function was constructed which represented the relationship between the threshold and the average activity concentration of the target. A 40% of maximum intensity threshold and the linear regressive function method were applied to define the spheres filled with 18 F-FDG. The volume differences between the two methods and the true volumes of the spheres were compared with t-test. Results: The linear regressive function model was derived as:threshold =(mean target concentration + 2.6227)/1.9752. The results indicated that a smaller deviation occurred when the function was utilized to estimate the volumes of the phantoms as compared to the 40% of maximum intensity threshold method, but there were no significant differences between them (t=0.306, P>0.05). The effect of the linear regressive function on volume was such that when the phantom sphere volumes were ≥ 1 ml, the average deviation between the defined volumes and the true volumes of phantoms was 1.01%; but when the phantom sphere volume was 0.5 ml, the average deviation was 9.53%. When the 40% of maximum intensity threshold method was applied to define the phantom spheres of volume ≥2 ml, the average deviation between the defined volumes and the true volumes of phantoms was -4.62%; but, the average deviation of that was 19.9% when the volumes of spheres were 0.5 and 1 ml. When the linear regressive function was applied to

  4. Occipital Lobe Gray Matter Volume in Male Patients with Chronic Schizophrenia: A Quantitative MRI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onitsuka, Toshiaki; McCarley, Robert W.; Kuroki, Noriomi; Dickey, Chandlee C.; Kubicki, Marek; Demeo, Susan S.; Frumin, Melissa; Kikinis, Ron; Jolesz, Ferenc A.; Shenton, Martha E.

    2008-01-01

    Schizophrenia is characterized by deficits in cognition as well as visual perception. There have, however, been few magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of the occipital lobe as an anatomically defined region of interest in schizophrenia. To examine whether or not patients with chronic schizophrenia show occipital lobe volume abnormalities, we measured gray matter volumes for both the primary visual area (PVA) and the visual association areas (VAA) using MRI based neuroanatomical landmarks and three-dimensional information. PVA and VAA gray matter volumes were measured using high-spatial resolution MRI in 25 male patients diagnosed with chronic schizophrenia and in 28 male normal controls. Chronic schizophrenia patients showed reduced bilateral VAA gray matter volume (11%), compared with normal controls, whereas patients showed no group difference in PVA gray matter volume. These results suggest that reduced bilateral VAA may be a neurobiological substrate of some of the deficits observed in early visual processing in schizophrenia. PMID:17350226

  5. Abortion and mental health : A longitudinal study of common mental disorders among women who terminated an unwanted pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ditzhuijzen, J.M.

    2017-01-01

    In the last decade there has been renewed interest in the question whether termination of an unwanted pregnancy is linked to subsequent mental health disorders. Most research in this field is characterized by methodological limitations, and conclusions often remain disputable. To offer insight in

  6. National Waste Terminal Storage Program information meeting, December 7-8, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-12-01

    Volume I of the report comprises copies of the slides from the talks presented at the first session of the National Waste Terminal Storage Program information meeting. The agenda for the first day included an overview of the program plus presentations on such subjects as schedules and controls, facility projects, systems studies, regulatory affairs and technical support

  7. Experimental and computational studies on the reactivity of a terminal thorium imidometallocene towards organic azides and diazoalkanes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Wenshan [Beijing Normal Univ. (China). Dept. of Chemistry; Southwest Univ., Chongqing (China). College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering; Zhou, Enwei; Fang, Bo; Hou, Guohua; Zi, Guofu; Fang, De-Cai [Beijing Normal Univ. (China). Dept. of Chemistry; Walter, Marc D. [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie

    2014-10-13

    The reaction of the base-free terminal thorium imido complex [{η"5-1,2,4-(Me_3C)_3C_5H_2}{sub 2}Th=N(p-tolyl)] (1) with p-azidotoluene yielded irreversibly the tetraazametallacyclopentene [{η"5-1,2,4-(Me_3C)_3C_5H_2}{sub 2}Th{N(p-tolyl)N=N-N(p-tolyl)}] (2), whereas the bridging imido complex [{[η"5-1,2,4-(Me_3C)_3C_5H_2]Th(N_3)_2}{sub 2}{μ-N(p-tolyl)}{sub 2}][(n-C{sub 4}H{sub 9}){sub 4}N]{sub 2} (3) was isolated from the reaction of 1 with [(n-C{sub 4}H{sub 9}){sub 4}N]N{sub 3}. Unexpectedly, upon the treatment of 1 with 9-diazofluorene, the NN bond was cleaved, an N atom was transferred, and the η{sup 2}-diazenido iminato complex [{η"5-1,2,4-(Me_3C)_3C_5H_2}{sub 2}Th{η"2-[N=N(p-tolyl)]}{N=(9-C_1_3H_8)}] (4) was formed. In contrast, the reaction of 1 with Me{sub 3}SiCHN{sub 2} gave the nitrilimido complex [{η"5-1,2,4-(Me_3C)_3C_5H_2}{sub 2}Th{NH(p-tolyl)}{N_2CSiMe_3}] (5), which slowly converted into [{η"5-1,2,4-(Me_3C)_3C_5H_2}{η"5:κ-N-1,2-(Me_3C)_2-4-CMe_2(CH_2NN=CHSiMe_3)C_5H_2}Th{NH (p-tolyl)}] (6) by intramolecular C-H bond activation. The experimental results are complemented by density functional theory (DFT) studies.

  8. Comparative study of the blinking time between young adult and adult video display terminal users in indoor environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Tânia Mara Cunha; Schaefer, Arthur Rubens Cunha; Abib, Fernando Cesar; José, Newton Kara

    2009-01-01

    Investigate the average blinking time in conversation and in Video Display Terminal use of young adults and adults in the presbyopic age group. A transversal analytical study in a readily accessible sample consisting of Volkswagen do Brasil - Curitiba, Paraná employees was performed. The cohort group consisted of 108 subjects divided into two age groups: Group 1, the young adult group (age range 20-39): 77 employees, mean age of 30.09 +/- 5.09; Group 2, the presbyopic adult group, (age range 40-53): 31 employees, mean age of 44.17 +/- 3. Subjects under 18 years of age, with a history of ocular disorders, contact lens wearers and computer non-users were excluded. The subjects had their faces filmed for 10 minutes in conversation and VDT reading. Student's t-test was used and the statistical significance level was 95%. The average time between blinks in Group 1 for conversation and VDT reading was 5.16 +/- 1.83 and 10.42 +/- 7.78 seconds, respectively; in Group 2. 4,9 +/- 1.49 and 10.46 +/- 5.54 seconds. In both age groups, the time between blinks in VDT reading situations was higher (pgroups were compared (p>0.05). There was an increase in the blinking time between young adults and the presbyopic group in VDT use situations when compared with reading situations. The difference in the blinking frequency between young adults and the presbyopic group in VDT use and reading situations was not statistically significant.

  9. Surface reactivity of mercury on the oxygen-terminated hematite(0001) surface: a first-principle study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, J. E.; Wilcox, J.

    2016-12-01

    Hematite (α-Fe2O3) is a common mineral found in Earth's near-surface environment. Due to its nontoxicity, corrosion-resistance, and high thermal stability, α-Fe2O3 has attracted attentions as materials for various applications such as photocatalysts, gas sensors, as well as for the removal of heavy metals. In this study, α-Fe2O3 is chosen for potential mercury (Hg) sorbent in order to remove Hg from coal-fired power plants. Specifically, theoretical approaches using density functional theory (DFT) is used to understand surface reactivity of Hg on oxygen (O) terminated α-Fe2O3(0001) surface. The most probable adsorption sites of Hg, chlorine (Cl), and mercury chloride (HgCl) on the α-Fe2O3 surface are found based on adsorption energy calculations, and the oxidation states of the adsorbates are determined by Bader charge analysis. Additionally, projected density of states (PDOS) analysis characterizes the surface-adsorbate bonding mechanism. The results of adsorption energy calculation proposes that Hg physisorbs to the α-Fe2O3(0001) surface with adsorption energy of -0.278 eV, and the subsequent Bader charge analysis confirms that Hg is slightly oxidized. In addition, Cl introduced to the Hg-adsorbed surface strengthens Hg stability on the α-Fe2O3(0001) surface as evidenced by a shortened Hg-surface equilibrium distance. The PDOS analysis also suggests that Cl enhances the chemical bonding between the surface and the adsorbate, thereby increasing adsorption strength. In summary, α-Fe2O3 has ability to adsorb and oxidize Hg, and this reactivity is enhanced in the presence of Cl.

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    Data.gov (United States)

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  9. Organizational Relationship Termination Competence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritter, Thomas; Geersbro, Jens

    2011-01-01

    termination are found to significantly affect a firm's relationship termination competence. The findings suggest that managers should regard termination as a legitimate option in customer relationship management. In order to decrease the number of unwanted customers, managers must accept termination......Most firms are involved in a number of customer relationships that drain the firm's resources. However, many firms are hesitant to address this problem. This paper investigates customer relationship termination at the organizational level. We develop and analyze the organizational dimensions...... of organizational termination in order to improve our understanding of the management of termination. The impact of these termination dimensions on the percentage of unwanted customers is developed and tested using PLS on data gathered from a cross-sectional survey of more than 800 sales representatives. We find...

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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  14. kttd Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  15. pmdy Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  16. kont Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  17. kyng Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  18. kcwa Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  19. kflg Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  20. krsw Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  1. kmyl Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  2. krbg Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  3. kril Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  4. ksus Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  5. padq Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  6. kbil Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  7. krfd Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  8. kdug Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  9. ktix Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  10. kcod Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  11. kslk Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  12. kgfl Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  13. kguc Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  14. kmlu Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  15. kbff Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  16. ksmn Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  17. kdro Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  18. kmce Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  19. ktpa Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  20. kmot Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  1. kcre Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  2. klws Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  3. kotm Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  4. khqm Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  5. kabr Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  6. klal Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  7. kelp Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  8. kecg Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  9. khbg Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  10. kpbf Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  11. konp Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  12. pkwa Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  13. ktvf Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  14. paga Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  15. khks Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  16. kdsm Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  17. kpsm Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  18. kgrb Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  19. kgmu Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  20. papg Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  1. kbgm Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  2. pamc Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  3. klrd Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  4. ksan Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  5. patk Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  6. kowb Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  7. klru Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  8. kfxe Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  9. kjct Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  10. kcrg Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  11. paaq Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  12. kaex Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  13. klbx Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  14. kmia Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  15. kpit Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  16. kcrw Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  17. paen Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  18. kast Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  19. kuin Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  20. kmht Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  1. kcys Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  2. kflo Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  3. pakn Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  4. pabt Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  5. krdg Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  6. khdn Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  7. kjac Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  8. kphx Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  9. When Terminal Illness Is Worse Than Death: A Multicenter Study of Health-Care Providers' Resuscitation Desires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, Luis O; Einav, Sharon; Varon, Joseph

    2017-11-01

    To investigate how a terminal illness may affect the health-care providers' resuscitation preferences. We conducted a cross-sectional survey in 9 health-care institutions located in 4 geographical regions in North and Central America, investigating attitudes toward end-of-life practices in health-care providers. Statistical analysis included descriptive statistics and χ 2 test for the presence of associations ( P < 0.05 being significant) and Cramer V for the strength of the association. The main outcome measured the correlation between the respondents' present code status and their preference for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in case of terminal illness. A total of 852 surveys were completed. Among the respondents, 21% (n = 180) were physicians, 36.9% (n = 317) were nurses, 10.5% (n = 90) were medical students, and 265 participants were other staff members of the institutions. Most respondents (58.3%; n = 500) desired "definitely full code" (physicians 73.2%; n = 131), only 13.8% of the respondents (physicians 8.33%; n = 15) desired "definitely no code" or "partial support," and 20.9% of the respondents (n = 179; among physicians 18.4%; n = 33) had never considered their code status. There was an association between current code status and resuscitation preference in case of terminal illness ( P < .001), but this association was overall quite weak (Cramer V = 0.180). Subgroup analysis revealed no association between current code status and terminal illness code preference among physicians ( P = .290) and nurses ( P = .316), whereupon other hospital workers were more consistent ( P < .01, Cramer V = .291). Doctors and nurses have different end-of-life preferences than other hospital workers. Their desire to undergo CPR may change when facing a terminal illness.

  10. Kelvin probe force microscopy studies of the charge effects upon adsorption of carbon nanotubes and C60 fullerenes on hydrogen-terminated diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kölsch, S.; Fritz, F.; Fenner, M. A.; Kurch, S.; Wöhrl, N.; Mayne, A. J.; Dujardin, G.; Meyer, C.

    2018-01-01

    Hydrogen-terminated diamond is known for its unusually high surface conductivity that is ascribed to its negative electron affinity. In the presence of acceptor molecules, electrons are expected to transfer from the surface to the acceptor, resulting in p-type surface conductivity. Here, we present Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) measurements on carbon nanotubes and C60 adsorbed onto a hydrogen-terminated diamond(001) surface. A clear reduction in the Kelvin signal is observed at the position of the carbon nanotubes and C60 molecules as compared with the bare, air-exposed surface. This result can be explained by the high positive electron affinity of carbon nanotubes and C60, resulting in electron transfer from the surface to the adsorbates. When an oxygen-terminated diamond(001) is used instead, no reduction in the Kelvin signal is obtained. While the presence of a charged adsorbate or a difference in work function could induce a change in the KPFM signal, a charge transfer effect of the hydrogen-terminated diamond surface, by the adsorption of the carbon nanotubes and the C60 fullerenes, is consistent with previous theoretical studies.

  11. A theoretical study of a direct contact membrane distillation system coupled to a salt-gradient solar pond for terminal lakes reclamation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez, Francisco; Tyler, Scott W; Childress, Amy E

    2010-08-01

    Terminal lakes are water bodies that are located in closed watersheds with the only output of water occurring through evaporation or infiltration. The majority of these lakes, which are commonly located in the desert and influenced by human activities, are increasing in salinity. Treatment options are limited, due to energy costs, and many of these lakes provide an excellent opportunity to test solar-powered desalination systems. This paper theoretically investigates utilization of direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) coupled to a salt-gradient solar pond (SGSP) for sustainable freshwater production at terminal lakes. A model for heat and mass transport in the DCMD module and a thermal model for an SGSP were developed and coupled to evaluate the feasibility of freshwater production. The construction of an SGSP outside and inside of a terminal lake was studied. As results showed that freshwater flows are on the same order of magnitude as evaporation, these systems will only be successful if the SGSP is constructed inside the terminal lake so that there is little or no net increase in surface area. For the study site of this investigation, water production on the order of 2.7 x 10(-3) m(3) d(-1) per m(2) of SGSP is possible. The major advantages of this system are that renewable thermal energy is used so that little electrical energy is required, the coupled system requires low maintenance, and the terminal lake provides a source of salts to create the stratification in the SGSP. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Blood volume-monitored regulation of ultrafiltration in fluid-overloaded hemodialysis patients: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hecking Manfred

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data generated with the body composition monitor (BCM, Fresenius show, based on bioimpedance technology, that chronic fluid overload in hemodialysis patients is associated with poor survival. However, removing excess fluid by lowering dry weight can be accompanied by intradialytic and postdialytic complications. Here, we aim at testing the hypothesis that, in comparison to conventional hemodialysis, blood volume-monitored regulation of ultrafiltration and dialysate conductivity (UCR and/or regulation of ultrafiltration and temperature (UTR will decrease complications when ultrafiltration volumes are systematically increased in fluid-overloaded hemodialysis patients. Methods/design BCM measurements yield results on fluid overload (in liters, relative to extracellular water (ECW. In this prospective, multicenter, triple-arm, parallel-group, crossover, randomized, controlled clinical trial, we use BCM measurements, routinely introduced in our three maintenance hemodialysis centers shortly prior to the start of the study, to recruit sixty hemodialysis patients with fluid overload (defined as ≥15% ECW. Patients are randomized 1:1:1 into UCR, UTR and conventional hemodialysis groups. BCM-determined, ‘final’ dry weight is set to normohydration weight −7% of ECW postdialysis, and reached by reducing the previous dry weight, in steps of 0.1 kg per 10 kg body weight, during 12 hemodialysis sessions (one study phase. In case of intradialytic complications, dry weight reduction is decreased, according to a prespecified algorithm. A comparison of intra- and post-dialytic complications among study groups constitutes the primary endpoint. In addition, we will assess relative weight reduction, changes in residual renal function, quality of life measures, and predialysis levels of various laboratory parameters including C-reactive protein, troponin T, and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, before and after the first study

  13. Distributional map of the terminal and sub-terminal sugar residues of the glycoconjugates in the prepubertal and postpubertal testis of a subject affected by complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (Morris's syndrome): lectin histochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheri, G; Vannelli, G B; Marini, M; Zappoli Thyrion, G D; Gheri, R G; Sgambati, E

    2004-01-01

    In the present research we have investigated the distribution of the sugar residues of the glycoconjugates in the prepubertal and postpubertal testes of a subject with Morris's syndrome (CAIS, Complete Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome). For this purpose a battery of six horseradish peroxidase-conjugated lectins was used (SBA, PNA, WGA, ConA, LTA and UEAI). We have obtained a complete distributional map of the terminal and sub-terminal oligosaccharides in the tunica albuginea, interstitial tissue, lamina propria of the seminiferous tubules, Leydig cells, Sertoli cells, spermatogonia, mastocytes and endothelial cells. Furthermore the present study has shown that a large amount of sugar residues were detectable in the prepubertal and postpubertal testes but that some differences exist with particular regard to the Sertoli cells. The Sertoli cells and the Leydig cells of the retained prepubertal testis of the patient affected by Morris's syndrome were characterized by the presence of alpha-L-fucose, which was absent in the retained prepubertal testis of the normal subjects. Comparing the results on the postpubertal testis with those obtained on the same aged testis of healthy subjects we have demonstrated that alpha-L-fucose in the Sertoli and Leydig cells and D-galactose-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine in the Leydig cells are a unique feature of the subject affected by Morris's syndrome. D-galactose (ss1,3)-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine and sialic acid, which are present in the Leydig cells of the normal testis were never observed in the same cells of the postpubertal testis of the CAIS patient.

  14. Delayed recall, hippocampal volume and Alzheimer neuropathology: findings from the Nun Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortimer, J A; Gosche, K M; Riley, K P; Markesbery, W R; Snowdon, D A

    2004-02-10

    To examine the associations of hippocampal volume and the severity of neurofibrillary lesions determined at autopsy with delayed verbal recall performance evaluated an average of 1 year prior to death. Hippocampal volumes were computed using postmortem brain MRI from the first 56 scanned participants of the Nun Study. Quantitative neuropathologic studies included lesion counts, Braak staging, and determination of whether neuropathologic criteria for Alzheimer disease (AD) were met. Multiple regression was used to assess the association of hippocampal volume and neuropathologic lesions with the number of words (out of 10) recalled on the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease Delayed Word Recall Test administered an average of 1 year prior to death. When entered separately, hippocampal volume, Braak stage, and the mean neurofibrillary tangle counts in the CA-1 region of the hippocampus and the subiculum were strongly associated with the number of words recalled after a delay, adjusting for age and education. When hippocampal volume was entered together with each neuropathologic index, only hippocampal volume retained a significant association with the delayed recall measure. The association between hippocampal volume and the number of words recalled was present in both demented and nondemented individuals as well as in those with and without substantial AD neurofibrillary pathology. The association of neurofibrillary tangles with delayed verbal recall may reflect associated hippocampal atrophy.

  15. Imouraren mining exploitation : Complementary studies Synthetic report Volum B - Mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The object of the current study is to determine the main technical characteristics of the reference project of a mine that can supply the necessary ore quantity at a production of 3000 tonnes uranium per year, along 10 years. The project is one of the possible solutions for exploiting the mine. The current study permits to establish : investment and functioning cost estimation, overall project of the mining exploitation program, necessary strength estimation, average ore grades evaluation and variations of these grades, utilities needs, production vizing program, main exploitation methods and necessary materials. Reference project study of the mine serves as base to the economics studies and studies optimization [fr

  16. Army Personnel Management System Study (PMS2). Volume II. Appendices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-11-06

    demonstrated desirability, some functions would be facilitated, costs need further study, and mobilization capabilities should be emphasized. PMS2 is basis for current reorganization planning within ODCSPER.

  17. Iranian Journal of Language Studies (IJLS). Volume 2, Issue 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmani-Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    Iranian Journal of Language Studies (IJLS) is devoted to all areas of language and linguistics. Its aim is to present work of current interest in all areas of language study. No particular linguistic theories or scientific trends are favored: scientific quality and scholarly standing are the only criteria applied in the selection of papers…

  18. Ornamental Horticulture. Course of Study Outlines. 1975 Edition. Volume XXX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Aubry

    These courses of study in ornamental horticulture for secondary and adult technical education levels are based on a 1972 Rutgers University study and are designed to accomodate occupational needs in the field of ornamental horticulture. Job titles emphasized at the secondary level are caretaker, nurserymen, flower grower, and flower salesperson;…

  19. National Childcare Consumer Study: 1975. Volume IV: Supplemental Documentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unco, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This document is the fourth and final report of a study sponsored by the Office of Child Development of the U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare to determine patterns of child care usage and related consumer preferences, attitudes and opinions about child care. The study was based on 4609 personal interviews conducted in 1975 from a…

  20. Studies on Aculeines: Synthetic Strategy to the Fully Protected Protoaculeine B, the N-Terminal Amino Acid of Aculeine B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiozaki, Hiroki; Miyahara, Masayoshi; Otsuka, Kazunori; Miyako, Kei; Honda, Akito; Takasaki, Yuichi; Takamizawa, Satoshi; Tukada, Hideyuki; Ishikawa, Yuichi; Sakai, Ryuichi; Oikawa, Masato

    2018-05-23

    A synthetic strategy for accessing protoaculeine B (1), the N-terminal amino acid of the highly modified peptide toxin aculeine, was developed via the synthesis of the fully protected natural homologue of 1 with a 12-mer poly(propanediamine). The synthesis of mono(propanediamine) analog 2, as well as core amino acid 3, was demonstrated by this strategy. New amino acid 3 induced convulsions in mice; however, compound 2 showed no such activity.

  1. Project Termination from a Benefit Realisation Management Approach : An abductive study of IT and R&D projects

    OpenAIRE

    Franco Gonzalez, Jose Miguel; Luzuriaga Ubilla, Daniela Lorena

    2018-01-01

    Bad or failing projects drain organisational resources in vain, affect team morale,and are a detriment to corporate strategy. Theimportance of terminating a project that will not deliver as promised canhardly be overemphasized, however it is still a major managerial challenge. Throughout this papera call is made toidentify andterminate failing projectsvia a benefit realisation management process, as successful projectsare only those thatdeliver the expected benefits. Thus, the research questi...

  2. 6809 Volume 12 No. 6 October 2012 COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. Ayoola S.O

    2012-10-06

    Clarias gariepinus), pituitary extract and non-piscine; frog (Haplobutrachus occipitalis) pituitary extracts. The study was carried out in the Department of Marine. Sciences, University of Lagos, Lagos state Nigeria.

  3. Integration of Diagnostics into Ground Equipment Study. Volume 1

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kumara, Soundar; Gautam, N; Hall, Dave; Purao, Sandeep; Garga, Amulya; Grimes, Barney

    2004-01-01

    ...) for Ground Equipment used by the U.S. Marine Corps. The study reviewed the sources of Autonomic Logistics data, the data requirements, the timeliness or required "pull" of such data, its transmission means...

  4. Nevada potential repository preliminary transportation strategy Study 2. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to build on the findings of the Nevada Potential Repository Preliminary Transportation Strategy Study 1 (CRWMS M ampersand O 1995b), and to provide additional information for input to the repository environmental impact statement (EIS) process. In addition, this study supported the future selection of a preferred rail corridor and/or heavy haul route based on defensible data, methods, and analyses. Study research did not consider proposed legislation. Planning was conducted according to the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program Plan (DOE 1994a). The specific objectives of Study 2 were to: eliminate or reduce data gaps, inconsistencies, and uncertainties, and strengthen the analysis performed in Study 1; develop a preliminary list of rail route evaluation criteria that could be used to solicit input from stakeholders during scoping meetings. The evaluation criteria will be revised based on comments received during scoping; restrict and refine the width of the four rail corridors identified in Study 1 to five miles or less, based on land use constraints and engineering criteria identified and established in Study 2; evaluate national-level effects of routing spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste to the four identified branch lines, including the effects of routing through or avoiding Las Vegas; continue to gather published land use information and environmental data to support the repository EIS; continue to evaluate heavy haul truck transport over three existing routes as an alternative to rail and provide sufficient information to support the repository EIS process; and evaluate secondary uses for rail (passenger use, repository construction, shared use)

  5. Site locality identification study: Hanford Site. Volume II. Data cataloging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-07-01

    Data compilation and cataloging for the candidate site locality identification study were conducted in order to provide a retrievable data cataloging system for the present siting study and future site evaluation and licensng processes. This task occurred concurrently with and also independently of other tasks of the candidate site locality identification study. Work in this task provided the data utilized primarily in the development and application of screening and ranking processes to identify candidate site localities on the Hanford Site. The overall approach included two steps: (1) data acquisition and screening; and (2) data compilation and cataloging. Data acquisition and screening formed the basis for preliminary review of data sources with respect to their probable utilization in the candidate site locality identification study and review with respect to the level of completeness and detail of the data. The important working assumption was that the data to be used in the study be based on existing and available published and unpublished literature. The data compilation and cataloging provided the basic product of the Task; a retrievable data cataloging system in the form of an annotated reference list and key word index and an index of compiled data. The annotated reference list and key word index are cross referenced and can be used to trace and retrieve the data sources utilized in the candidate site locality identification study

  6. Thermal loading study for FY 1996. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to provide recommendations for Mined Geologic Disposal System requirements affected by thermal loading that will provide sufficient definition to facilitate development of design concepts and support life cycle cost determinations. The study reevaluated and/or redefined selected thermal goals used for design and are currently contained in the requirements documents or the Controlled Design Assumption Document. The study provided recommendations as to what, if any, actions (such as edge loading and limiting of the heat variability between waste packages) are needed and must be accommodated in the design. Additionally, the study provided recommendations as to what alternative thermal loads should be maintained for continued flexibility. Section 1 provides the study objective, background, scope, and organization of the report. Section 2 documents the requirements and standards to include quality assurance (QA) requirements, any requirements used or evaluated, and the inputs and assumptions considered. Section 3 provides the analysis and recommendations for the thermal goals reevaluation. Section 4 discusses the evaluation of edge loading and provides conclusions. Section 5 provides the analyses done to establish recommendations as to what requirements need to be implemented to either limit or manage the amount of heat output variability that may occur. Section 6 discusses alternate thermal loadings; Section 7 provides the study conclusions and recommendations; Section 8 provides the references, standards, and regulations; and Section 9 contains the acronym list

  7. An Economic Evaluation of Onshore and Floating Liquefied Natural Gas Receiving Terminals: the Case Study of Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giranza, M. J.; Bergmann, A.

    2018-05-01

    Indonesia has abundant natural gas resources, however the primary fuel used for electricity generation is coal and oil. Insufficient natural gas infrastructure with-in the country acts as a barrier to increased natural gas usage. In Indonesia LNG is the most efficient and effective method for distributing natural gas given the difficult geographical conditions, the world’s largest archipelago and located in a deep sea area. The Government is planning to initiate natural gas imports by 2019 to meet the country’s energy demands. In order to allocate adequate amounts of natural gas across the geographic regions Indonesia must build more LNG regasification terminals. The Indonesia government has not yet determined if the additional regasification terminals will be floating or land-based facilities. This paper assesses the two options and identifies which facility attains greater profitability. The financial analysis of investing in the Sorong LNG regasification terminal project is conducted using NPV, IRR, and sensitivity analysis. This analysis demonstrates that FSRU facilities have greater economic viability than onshore LNG regasification facilities. The FSRU project earns greater than a 12% IRR as compared to a negative IRR earned by an onshore project. The government can make the onshore projects viable by increasing the sales fee from US10.00/MMBTU to US10.60/MMBTU.

  8. Long-term decontamination engineering study. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geuther, W.J.

    1995-04-03

    This report was prepared by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) with technical and cost estimating support from Pacific Northwest Laboratories (PNL) and Parsons Environmental Services, Inc. (Parsons). This engineering study evaluates the requirements and alternatives for decontamination/treatment of contaminated equipment at the Hanford Site. The purpose of this study is to determine the decontamination/treatment strategy that best supports the Hanford Site environmental restoration mission. It describes the potential waste streams requiring treatment or decontamination, develops the alternatives under consideration establishes the criteria for comparison, evaluates the alternatives, and draws conclusions (i.e., the optimum strategy for decontamination). Although two primary alternatives are discussed, this study does identify other alternatives that may warrant additional study. hanford Site solid waste management program activities include storage, special processing, decontamination/treatment, and disposal facilities. This study focuses on the decontamination/treatment processes (e.g., waste decontamination, size reduction, immobilization, and packaging) that support the environmental restoration mission at the Hanford Site.

  9. Long-term decontamination engineering study. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geuther, W.J.

    1995-01-01

    This report was prepared by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) with technical and cost estimating support from Pacific Northwest Laboratories (PNL) and Parsons Environmental Services, Inc. (Parsons). This engineering study evaluates the requirements and alternatives for decontamination/treatment of contaminated equipment at the Hanford Site. The purpose of this study is to determine the decontamination/treatment strategy that best supports the Hanford Site environmental restoration mission. It describes the potential waste streams requiring treatment or decontamination, develops the alternatives under consideration establishes the criteria for comparison, evaluates the alternatives, and draws conclusions (i.e., the optimum strategy for decontamination). Although two primary alternatives are discussed, this study does identify other alternatives that may warrant additional study. hanford Site solid waste management program activities include storage, special processing, decontamination/treatment, and disposal facilities. This study focuses on the decontamination/treatment processes (e.g., waste decontamination, size reduction, immobilization, and packaging) that support the environmental restoration mission at the Hanford Site

  10. Volume 1. Probabilistic analysis of HTGR application studies. Technical discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    May, J.; Perry, L.

    1980-01-01

    The HTGR Program encompasses a number of decisions facing both industry and government which are being evaluated under the HTGR application studies being conducted by the GCRA. This report is in support of these application studies, specifically by developing comparative probabilistic energy costs of the alternative HTGR plant types under study at this time and of competitive PWR and coal-fired plants. Management decision analytic methodology was used as the basis for the development of the comparative probabilistic data. This study covers the probabilistic comparison of various HTGR plant types at a commercial development stage with comparative PWR and coal-fired plants. Subsequent studies are needed to address the sequencing of HTGR plants from the lead plant to the commercial plants and to integrate the R and D program into the plant construction sequence. The probabilistic results cover the comparison of the 15-year levelized energy costs for commercial plants, all with 1995 startup dates. For comparison with the HTGR plants, PWR and fossil-fired plants have been included in the probabilistic analysis, both as steam electric plants and as combined steam electric and process heat plants

  11. Terminal weather information management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Alfred T.

    1990-01-01

    Since the mid-1960's, microburst/windshear events have caused at least 30 aircraft accidents and incidents and have killed more than 600 people in the United States alone. This study evaluated alternative means of alerting an airline crew to the presence of microburst/windshear events in the terminal area. Of particular interest was the relative effectiveness of conventional and data link ground-to-air transmissions of ground-based radar and low-level windshear sensing information on microburst/windshear avoidance. The Advanced Concepts Flight Simulator located at Ames Research Center was employed in a line oriented simulation of a scheduled round-trip airline flight from Salt Lake City to Denver Stapleton Airport. Actual weather en route and in the terminal area was simulated using recorded data. The microburst/windshear incident of July 11, 1988 was re-created for the Denver area operations. Six experienced airline crews currently flying scheduled routes were employed as test subjects for each of three groups: (1) A baseline group which received alerts via conventional air traffic control (ATC) tower transmissions; (2) An experimental group which received alerts/events displayed visually and aurally in the cockpit six miles (approx. 2 min.) from the microburst event; and (3) An additional experimental group received displayed alerts/events 23 linear miles (approx. 7 min.) from the microburst event. Analyses of crew communications and decision times showed a marked improvement in both situation awareness and decision-making with visually displayed ground-based radar information. Substantial reductions in the variability of decision times among crews in the visual display groups were also found. These findings suggest that crew performance will be enhanced and individual differences among crews due to differences in training and prior experience are significantly reduced by providing real-time, graphic display of terminal weather hazards.

  12. Energy policy study. Volume 10. Nuclear power regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikodem, Z.D.; Reynolds, A.W.; Clark, R.G.

    1980-05-01

    This report examines the programs for regulating the safety, design, and operation of domestic nuclear power plants. The first part of the study describes the Federal and State regulatory procedures. It describes the legal foundations for the Federal licensing process and the associated State regulatory activities. It then analyzes the aspects of these procedures that affect the cost and supply of nuclear-generated electricity. The second part of this study examines the effects of nuclear safety regulations on the planning and construction lead time for nuclear power stations, the cost of nuclear power, and, ultimately, the decision to invest in nuclear power

  13. Ghana Journal of Development Studies, Volume 7, Number 2

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UDS-CAPTURED

    concentration of national resources in the export-oriented cocoa, timber and mining sectors (Tonah,. 1994), which are all located in ... The import of rice from Asia and the USA has led to the abandonment of many rice farms in northern .... electricity and cooling facilities, such as the study communities. In order to evaluate the ...

  14. Thermal loading study for FY 1996. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to provide recommendations for Mined Geologic Disposal System requirements affected by thermal loading that will provide sufficient definition to facilitate development of design concepts and support life cycle cost determinations. The study reevaluated and/or redefined selected thermal goals used for design and are currently contained in the requirements documents or the Controlled Design Assumption Document. The study provided recommendations as to what, if any, actions (such as edge loading and limiting of the heat variability between waste packages) are needed and must be accommodated in the design. Additionally, the study provided recommendations as to what alternative thermal loads should be maintained for continued flexibility. This report contains seven appendices: Technical basis for evaluation of thermal goals below the potential nuclear was repository at Yucca Mountain; Thermal-mechanical evaluation of the 200 C drift-wall temperature goal; Evaluation of ground stability and support; Coupled ventilation and hydrothermal evaluations; Heat flow and temperature calculations for continuously ventilated emplacement drifts; Thermal management using aging and/or waste package selection; and Waste stream evaluations

  15. Strategic Studies Quarterly. Volume 10, Number 3. Fall 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Function Amanda M. Schrand DARPA Emerging Technologies Maj Paul Calhoun, USAF Book Essay : The Future of Artificial Intelligence Allison Berke...Paul Calhoun, USAF Book Essay The Future of Artificial Intelligence ............................................... 114 Allison Berke Book Review...Worlds Many readers of Strategic Studies Quarterly will no doubt remember lyrics from the song “In the Year 2525,” released in 1969, written and

  16. Cost effectiveness studies of environmental technologies: Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, E.M.; Booth, S.R.

    1994-02-01

    This paper examines cost effectiveness studies of environmental technologies including the following: (1) In Situ Air Stripping, (2) Surface Towed Ordinance Locator System, (3) Ditch Witch Horizontal Boring Technology, (4) Direct Sampling Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer, (5) In Situ Vitrification, (6) Site Characterization and Analysis Penetrometer System, (7) In Situ Bioremediation, and (8) SEAMIST Membrane System Technology

  17. Improving School Leadership. Volume 2: Case Studies on System Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, David, Ed.; Nusche, Deborah, Ed.; Pont, Beatriz, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    This book explores what specialists are saying about system leadership for school improvement. Case studies examine innovative approaches to sharing leadership across schools in Belgium (Flanders), Finland and the United Kingdom (England) and leadership development programmes for system improvement in Australia and Austria. As these are emerging…

  18. Strategic Studies Quarterly. Volume 8, Number 1, Spring 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    columnist in the IT trade press: “My fear is that when it comes to cyber war- fare there is no Billy Mitchell today in Washington,” http...from Michael Roth and Murat Sever, “The Kurdish Workers Party (PKK) as Criminal Syndicate : Funding Terrorism through Organized Crime,” Studies in

  19. Vessel Monitoring Systems Study. Volume I - Technical Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    In the Port and Tanker Safety Act of 1978 the U.S. Conress directed the Department of Transportation to performa a study on the desirability and feasibility of a shore-station system for monitoring vessels (including fishing vessels)offshore within t...

  20. The Psychoanalytic Study of the Child. Volume XXIII.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eissler, Ruth S., Ed.; And Others

    Twenty-seven papers treat aspects of the psychoanalytic study of the child. Problems of psychopathology and therapy considered are the fantasy of the phallic woman, the use of child analysis, the background of perversions, variables in the production of neurotic disturbances, treatment of narcissistic personality disorders, and problems of the…

  1. Effects and safety of mechanical bathing as a complementary therapy for terminal stage cancer patients from the physiological and psychological perspective: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Sawako; Iwawaki, Yoko; Takishita, Yukie; Yamamoto, Yoko; Murota, Masako; Yoshioka, Saori; Hayano, Azusa; Hosokawa, Toyoshi; Yamanaka, Ryuya

    2017-11-01

    In palliative care hospitals in Japan, mechanical bathing is conducted to maintain cleanliness. However, the physiological and psychological influence of mechanical bathing on patients has not been sufficiently studied. The objective of this study was to assess, using physiological and psychological indices, the effects of mechanical bathing care for patients in the terminal stage of cancer. Mechanical bathing was performed using a Marine Court SB7000 in a supine or semi-seated position. The heart rate variability analysis method was used to measure autonomic nervous system function. The patients' state of anxiety was assessed using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), a psychological index, and patients' verbal responses were also collected after mechanical bathing. Twenty-four patients were enrolled in this study. Their sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous activity did not differ before and after bathing. A significant difference was found between pre- and post-bathing anxiety, as evaluated by STAI (P mechanical bathing according to STAI evaluation and their verbal responses. The findings suggest that the method of bathing used in this study is safe and pain-relieving for terminal stage cancer patients. It is thus possible to provide safe and comfortable care for terminal stage cancer patients using mechanical baths. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  2. Spacelab experiment computer study. Volume 1: Executive summary (presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, J. L.; Hodges, B. C.; Christy, J. O.

    1976-01-01

    A quantitative cost for various Spacelab flight hardware configurations is provided along with varied software development options. A cost analysis of Spacelab computer hardware and software is presented. The cost study is discussed based on utilization of a central experiment computer with optional auxillary equipment. Groundrules and assumptions used in deriving the costing methods for all options in the Spacelab experiment study are presented. The groundrules and assumptions, are analysed and the options along with their cost considerations, are discussed. It is concluded that Spacelab program cost for software development and maintenance is independent of experimental hardware and software options, that distributed standard computer concept simplifies software integration without a significant increase in cost, and that decisions on flight computer hardware configurations should not be made until payload selection for a given mission and a detailed analysis of the mission requirements are completed.

  3. Study of V/STOL aircraft implementation. Volume 1: Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portenier, W. J.; Webb, H. M.

    1973-01-01

    A high density short haul air market which by 1980 is large enough to support the introduction of an independent short haul air transportation system is discussed. This system will complement the existing air transportation system and will provide relief of noise and congestion problems at conventional airports. The study has found that new aircraft, exploiting V/STOL and quiet engine technology, can be available for implementing these new services, and they can operate from existing reliever and general aviation airports. The study has also found that the major funding requirements for implementing new short haul services could be borne by private capital, and that the government funding requirement would be minimal and/or recovered through the airline ticket tax. In addition, a suitable new short haul aircraft would have a market potential for $3.5 billion in foreign sales. The long lead times needed for aircraft and engine technology development will require timely actions by federal agencies.

  4. Nuclear Power Options Viability Study. Volume 1. Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trauger, D.B.; White, J.D.; Booth, R.S.

    1986-09-01

    Innovative reactor concepts are described and evaluated in accordance with criteria established in the study. The reactors to be studied were selected on the basis of three ground rules: (1) the potential for commercialization between 2000 to 2010, (2) economic competitiveness with coal, and (3) the degree of passive safety in the design. The concepts, classified by coolants, were light water reactors, liquid metal reactors, and high-temperature reactors, and most were of modular design. Although the information available is not adequate for a definitive evaluation of economic competitiveness, all of the concepts appear to be potentially viable in the time frame selected. Public and institutional acceptance of nuclear power was found to be affected primarily by four issues: (1) operational safety, (2) waste handling and disposal, (3) construction and operating costs, and (4) the adequacy of management and regulatory controls

  5. Nuclear Power Options Viability Study. Volume 4. Bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trauger, D B; White, J D; Sims, J W [eds.

    1986-09-01

    Documents in the Nuclear Power Options Viability Study (NPOVS) bibliography are classified under one of four headings or categories as follows: nuclear options; light water reactors; liquid metal reactors; and high temperature reactors. The collection and selection of these documents, beginning early in 1984 and continuing through March of 1986, was carried out in support of the study's objective: to explore the viabilities of several nuclear electric power generation options for commercial deployment in the United States between 2000 and 2010. There are approximately 550 articles, papers, reports, and books in the bibliography that have been selected from some 2000 surveyed. The citations have been made computer accessible to facilitate rapid on-line retrieval by keyword, author, corporate author, title, journal name, or document number.

  6. Nuclear Power Options Viability Study. Volume 4. Bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trauger, D.B.; White, J.D.; Sims, J.W.

    1986-09-01

    Documents in the Nuclear Power Options Viability Study (NPOVS) bibliography are classified under one of four headings or categories as follows: nuclear options; light water reactors; liquid metal reactors; and high temperature reactors. The collection and selection of these documents, beginning early in 1984 and continuing through March of 1986, was carried out in support of the study's objective: to explore the viabilities of several nuclear electric power generation options for commercial deployment in the United States between 2000 and 2010. There are approximately 550 articles, papers, reports, and books in the bibliography that have been selected from some 2000 surveyed. The citations have been made computer accessible to facilitate rapid on-line retrieval by keyword, author, corporate author, title, journal name, or document number

  7. Mortality and preoperative cardiac function in vascular amputees: an N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Riemersma, Marcel; Dijkstra, Pieter U.; van Veldhuisen, Dirk Jan; Muskiet, Frits A. J.; van den Dungen, Jan A. M. M.; Geertzen, Jan H. B.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To determine preoperative ventricular function in vascular amputees by measuring N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and to analyse the relationship between NT-proBNP levels and 30-day postoperative mortality. Design: Prospective pilot study. Subjects and methods: In 19 patients planned for a lower limb amputation for nonreconstructable peripheral arterial disease NT-proBNP was measured the day before amputation. Results: Four amputees died within 30 days after the...

  8. Strategic Studies Quarterly. Volume 8, Number 3, Fall 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Human knowledge and human power meet in one; for where the cause is not known the effect cannot be produced. —Sir Francis Bacon In a 2011 study, the...for Resourcing Readiness Nearly 400 years ago, Sir Frances Bacon challenged other scholars to apply a more rigorous approach to developing theories for...com- plex systems, such as nature. As Jim Manzi notes in his book, Uncon- trolled, Bacon recognized that nature is “extraordinarily complicated as

  9. Strategic Studies Quarterly. Volume 9, Number 1. Spring 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Spring 2015 Applying Cost Imposition Strategies against China The focus on monetary and other costs has a decidedly miUtary bias . Broadly...Institute of War and Peace Studies at Colum- bia University for the fall 2014 semester. He has pubHshed in International Security, International Rela...because the brain subconsciously associates any risky policy to the initia- tor. Indeed, experiencing the fear of imminent nuclear war will cause

  10. Theoretical studies of fusion physics. Volume I. Summary. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    Theoretical studies were performed on each of the following topics: (1) absorption of waves near the cyclotron frequency by relativistic electrons in EBT, (2) power balance in a stable, adiabatic hot electron annulus, (3) whistler instability in a relativistic electron annulus, (4) adiabatic limits on electron temperature in the EBT annulus, and (5) summary of a model of the EBT ring heating/loss process

  11. Strategic Studies Quarterly, Volume 4, Number 3, Fall 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Prepress Production Manager Betty R. Littlejohn, Editorial Assistant Sherry C. Terrell , Editorial Assistant Daniel M. Armstrong, Illustrator Editorial...persuade an opponent to cease ag- gression without requiring the actual use of violence. Anne Sartori best describes diplomacy by deterrence as "the...incidents 1920-2007 bv Ann E. Robertson, Terrorism and Global Security (New STRATEGII STUDIES QUARTERLY • FALL 2010 [79] Christopher C. Harmon York

  12. Studies in the History of Tax Law, Volume 6

    OpenAIRE

    Tiley, John

    2013-01-01

    These are the papers from the 2012 Cambridge Tax Law History Conference revised and reviewed for publication. The papers include new studies of: income tax law rewrite projects 1914–1956; law and administration in capital allowances 1878– 1950; the 'full amount' in income tax legislation; Sir Josiah Stamp and double income tax; early German income tax treaties and laws concerned with double tax avoidance (1869–1908); the policy of the medicine stamp duty; 'Danegeld' – from Danish tribute to E...

  13. Nuclear electric propulsion mission engineering study. Volume 2: Final report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    Results of a mission engineering analysis of nuclear-thermionic electric propulsion spacecraft for unmanned interplanetary and geocentric missions are summarized. Critical technologies associated with the development of nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) are assessed, along with the impact of its availability on future space programs. Outer planet and comet rendezvous mission analysis, NEP stage design for geocentric and interplanetary missions, NEP system development cost and unit costs, and technology requirements for NEP stage development are studied.

  14. Studies in Intelligence. Volume 52, Number 3, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    September 2008) Center for the Study of Intelligence In Memory of Thomas Francis Troy, CIA Teacher, Historian, 1919–2008 Amnesia to Anamnesis ...CIA Teacher, Historian, 1919–2008 1 By Hayden Peake and Nicholas Dujmovic Amnesia to Anamnesis Commemoration of the Dead at CIA 3 Nicholas Dujmovic...Intelligence Vol. 52, No. 3 Amnesia to Anamnesis Commemoration of the Dead at CIA Nicholas Dujmovic “History—as it is learned and remembered— ” shapes

  15. Strategic Studies Quarterly. Volume 7, Number 2, Summer 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    study of Malaysia shows that in a major departure from former Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad’s anti-American rhetoric and policies, Malaysian...Malaysia’s prime minister Mahathir declared that "it is high time for us to stop seeing China through the lenses of threat and to fully view China as...Order government and subsequent democratization in the late 1990s. Echoing Malaysian prime minister Mahathir , Indonesian president Abdurrahman

  16. Importance of the test volume on the lag phase in biodegradation studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingerslev, F.; Torang, Lars; Nyholm, Niels

    2000-01-01

    , degradation failed randomly. Our findings are partly explained by the hypotheses that a sufficient total amount as well as a sufficient concentration of specifically degrading microorganisms or consortia of bacteria must be present initially for biodegradation to get started, from which follows that with too......Increasing the total volume of test medium resulted in decreased lag times (TL) in biodegradability shake flask batch tests conducted with either surface water or with synthetic mineral medium inoculated with supernatant from settled activated sludge. Experiments were performed with test volumes...... small inoculations or with too small test volumes, biodegradation may fail randomly. A straightforward practical implication of the findings is that the test volume in biodegradability tests can significantly influence the lag time and thus sometimes be decisive for the outcome in biodegradation studies....

  17. LNG cascading damage study. Volume I, fracture testing report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petti, Jason P.; Kalan, Robert J.

    2011-12-01

    As part of the liquefied natural gas (LNG) Cascading Damage Study, a series of structural tests were conducted to investigate the thermal induced fracture of steel plate structures. The thermal stresses were achieved by applying liquid nitrogen (LN{sub 2}) onto sections of each steel plate. In addition to inducing large thermal stresses, the lowering of the steel temperature simultaneously reduced the fracture toughness. Liquid nitrogen was used as a surrogate for LNG due to safety concerns and since the temperature of LN{sub 2} is similar (-190 C) to LNG (-161 C). The use of LN{sub 2} ensured that the tests could achieve cryogenic temperatures in the range an actual vessel would encounter during a LNG spill. There were four phases to this test series. Phase I was the initial exploratory stage, which was used to develop the testing process. In the Phase II series of tests, larger plates were used and tested until fracture. The plate sizes ranged from 4 ft square pieces to 6 ft square sections with thicknesses from 1/4 inches to 3/4 inches. This phase investigated the cooling rates on larger plates and the effect of different notch geometries (stress concentrations used to initiate brittle fracture). Phase II was divided into two sections, Phase II-A and Phase II-B. Phase II-A used standard A36 steel, while Phase II-B used marine grade steels. In Phase III, the test structures were significantly larger, in the range of 12 ft by 12 ft by 3 ft high. These structures were designed with more complex geometries to include features similar to those on LNG vessels. The final test phase, Phase IV, investigated differences in the heat transfer (cooling rates) between LNG and LN{sub 2}. All of the tests conducted in this study are used in subsequent parts of the LNG Cascading Damage Study, specifically the computational analyses.

  18. Youth Attitude Tracking Study. Volume 1. Spring 1977.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-08-01

    such factors as pc.nmotional materials, re- cruiting practices, and advertising strategy . MARKET FACTS Page 4 Study Design The survey involved 16-21 year...cr a Oa: C; C;1 <.- £ K M C, Ui. 00 U- Cd 0 M US MARKET FACTS Page 118 4.6 Advertising Content Recall In past waves respondents1 ability to i-dentify... Advertising Not At All Meaningful Source: Q u. 7e L MARKET FACTS Page 1Z2 Advertising by all services was rated on the average between "Somewhat

  19. The astronomy spacelab payloads study: executive volume. Interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-07-01

    The progress of the Astronomy Spacelab Payloads Project at the Goddard Space Flight Center is reported. Astronomical research in space, using the Spacelab in conjunction with the Space Shuttle, is described. The various fields of solar astronomy or solar physics, ultraviolet and optical astronomy, and high energy astrophysics are among the topics discussed. These fields include scientific studies of the Sun and its dynamical processes, of the stars in wavelength regions not accessible to ground based observations, and the exciting new fields of X-ray, gamma ray, and particle astronomy

  20. Nuclear electric propulsion mission engineering study. Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    Results of a mission engineering analysis of nuclear-thermionic electric propulsion spacecraft for unmanned interplanetary and geocentric missions are summarized. Critical technologies associated with the development of nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) are assessed. Outer planet and comet rendezvous mission analysis, NEP stage design for geocentric and interplanetary missions, NEP system development cost and unit costs, and technology requirements for NEP stage development are studied. The NEP stage design provides both inherent reliability and high payload mass capability. The NEP stage and payload integration was found to be compatible with the space shuttle.

  1. Retail LNG handbook. Retail LNG and The Role of LNG Import Terminals. Report by the GIIGNL Technical Study Group on the possible role of LNG import terminals within the emerging Retail LNG Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    The natural gas and liquefied natural gas (LNG) industries are changing. The influx of supply, low prices, and environmental benefits of natural gas are driving consumers to convert from other fossil fuels. Natural gas consumers on pipeline systems have the ability to benefit, but for those not connected, LNG may be the only opportunity to convert to natural gas. As this market evolves, a unique opportunity may emerge for some existing participants in the LNG market and could lead to a shift in business focus, potentially adding to or even transforming the traditional role of LNG Import Terminals. As surmised by the GIIGNL's Technical Study Group (TSG) at the outset of their endeavor, virtually every member company had historical experience with, was in the midst of expanding its services to include, or was actively engaged in the study of, Retail LNG. The market drivers, value propositions, trends and future prospects for Retail LNG that have widely been publicized were generally confirmed although in an overall more conservative outlook. As a representative body of experienced, long term LNG Import Terminal operators, GIIGNL was uniquely qualified to stress in its Handbook the importance of managing the inherent risk associated with LNG, the application of suitable codes and standards and the use of proper equipment. The study of the aspects of LNG supply and use including safety, security, staffing, equipment siting, and operations is hoped to provide an illustrative framework form which the industry can jointly move towards best practices. While Retail LNG is considered by many to be 'new' there is substantial historical experience with all aspects of the market. LNG Import Terminals, including the experience and competence of their staffing, can play a key role in not only the incubation and growth of the Retail market, but the molding and shaping of regulatory framework, applicable codes and standards and operational best practices. GIIGNL

  2. Feasibility study report for Operable Unit 4: Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    This report documents the Feasibility Study (FS) phase of the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) Operable Unit 4 Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) Program. The FEMP, formerly known as the Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC), is a US Department of Energy (DOE) facility that operated from 1952 to 1989. The facility's primarily function was to provide high purity uranium metal products to support United States defense programs. Production operations were suspended in 1989 to focus on environmental restoration and waste management activities at the facility. The RI/FS is being conducted pursuant to the terms of a Consent Agreement between DOE and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under Sections 120 and 106(a) of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended. The Ohio Environmental Protection Agency (OEPA) is also participating in the RI/FS process at the FEMP through direct involvement in program review meetings and technical review of project documentation. The objective of the RI/FS process is to gather information to support an informed risk management decision regarding which remedy appears to be the most appropriate action for addressing the environmental concerns identified at the FEMP

  3. Cogeneration technology alternatives study. Volume 1: Summary report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Data and information in the area of advanced energy conversion systems for industrial congeneration applications in the 1985-2000 time period was studied. Six current and thirty-one advanced energy conversion systems were defined and combined with appropriate balance-of-plant equipment. Twenty-six industrial processes were selected from among the high energy consuming industries to serve as a framework for the study. Each conversion system was analyzed as a cogenerator with each industrial plant. Fuel consumption, costs, and environmental intrusion were evaluated and compared to corresponding traditional values. Various cogeneration strategies were analyzed and both topping and bottoming (using industrial by-product heat) applications were included. The advanced energy conversion technologies indicated reduced fuel consumption, costs, and emissions. Typically fuel energy savings of 10 to 25 percent were predicted compared to traditional on-site furnaces and utility electricity. With the variety of industrial requirements, each advanced technology had attractive applications. Overall, fuel cells indicated the greatest fuel energy savings and emission reductions. Gas turbines and combined cycles indicated high overall annual cost savings. Steam turbines and gas turbines produced high estimated returns. In some applications, diesels were most efficient. The advanced technologies used coal-derived fuels, or coal with advanced fluid bed combustion or on-site gasification systems.

  4. Integrated thermal treatment system study: Phase 1 results. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feizollahi, F.; Quapp, W.J.; Hempill, H.G.; Groffie, F.J.

    1994-07-01

    An integrated systems engineering approach is used for uniform comparison of widely varying thermal treatment technologies proposed for management of contact-handled mixed low-level waste (MLLW) currently stored in the US Department of Energy complex. Ten different systems encompassing several incineration design options are studied. All subsystems, including facilities, equipment, and methods needed for integration of each of the ten systems are identified. Typical subsystems needed for complete treatment of MLLW are incoming waste receiving and preparation (characterization, sorting, sizing, and separation), thermal treatment, air pollution control, primary and secondary stabilization, metal decontamination, metal melting, mercury recovery, lead recovery, and special waste and aqueous waste treatment. The evaluation is performed by developing a preconceptual design package and planning life-cycle cost (PLCC) estimates for each system. As part of the preconceptual design process, functional and operational requirements, flow sheets and mass balances, and conceptual equipment layouts are developed for each system. The PLCC components estimated are technology development, production facility construction, pre-operation, operation and maintenance, and decontamination and decommissioning. Preconceptual design data and other technology information gathered during the study are examined and areas requiring further development, testing, and evaluation are identified and recommended. Using a qualitative method, each of the ten systems are ranked

  5. USAF Logistics Process Optimization Study for the Aircraft Asset Sustainment Process. Volume 3. Future to be Asset Sustainment Process Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adamson, Anthony

    1998-01-01

    .... It is published as three separate volumes. Volume I, USAF Logistics Process Optimization Study for the Aircraft Asset Sustainment Process -- Phase II Report, discusses the result and cost/benefit analysis of testing three initiatives...

  6. Impacts of Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) development on recreation and tourism. Volume 2. Final report and case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-04-01

    The final report for the project is comprised of five volumes. The volume presents the study conclusions, summarizes the methodology used (more detail is found in Volume 3), discusses four case study applications of the model, and contains profiles of coastal communities in an Appendix.

  7. Spider phobia is associated with decreased left amygdala volume: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Evidence from animal and human studies imply the amygdala as the most critical structure involved in processing of fear-relevant stimuli. In phobias, the amygdala seems to play a crucial role in the pathogenesis and maintenance of the disorder. However, the neuropathology of specific phobias remains poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated whether patients with spider phobia show altered amygdala volumes as compared to healthy control subjects. Methods Twenty female patients with spider phobia and twenty age-matched healthy female controls underwent magnetic resonance imaging to investigate amygdala volumes. The amygdalae were segmented using an automatic, model-based segmentation tool (FSL FIRST). Differences in amygdala volume were investigated by multivariate analysis of covariance with group as between-subject factor and left and right amygdala as dependent factors. The relation between amygdala volume and clinical features such as symptom severity, disgust sensitivity, trait anxiety and duration of illness was investigated by Spearman correlation analysis. Results Spider phobic patients showed significantly smaller left amygdala volume than healthy controls. No significant difference in right amygdala volume was detected. Furthermore, the diminished amygdala size in patients was related to higher symptom severity, but not to higher disgust sensitivity or trait anxiety and was independent of age. Conclusions In summary, the results reveal a relation between higher symptom severity and smaller left amygdala volume in patients with spider phobia. This relation was independent of other potential confounders such as the disgust sensitivity or trait anxiety. The findings suggest that greater spider phobic fear is associated with smaller left amygdala. However, the smaller left amygdala volume may either stand for a higher vulnerability to develop a phobic disorder or emerge as a consequence of the disorder. PMID:23442196

  8. Feasibility study on application of volume acid fracturing technology to tight gas carbonate reservoir development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nianyin Li

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available How to effectively develop tight-gas carbonate reservoir and achieve high recovery is always a problem for the oil and gas industry. To solve this problem, domestic petroleum engineers use the combination of the successful experiences of North American shale gas pools development by stimulated reservoir volume (SRV fracturing with the research achievements of Chinese tight gas development by acid fracturing to propose volume acid fracturing technology for fractured tight-gas carbonate reservoir, which has achieved a good stimulation effect in the pilot tests. To determine what reservoir conditions are suitable to carry out volume acid fracturing, this paper firstly introduces volume acid fracturing technology by giving the stimulation mechanism and technical ideas, and initially analyzes the feasibility by the comparison of reservoir characteristics of shale gas with tight-gas carbonate. Then, this paper analyzes the validity and limitation of the volume acid fracturing technology via the analyses of control conditions for volume acid fracturing in reservoir fracturing performance, natural fracture, horizontal principal stress difference, orientation of in-situ stress and natural fracture, and gives the solution for the limitation. The study results show that the volume acid fracturing process can be used to greatly improve the flow environment of tight-gas carbonate reservoir and increase production; the incremental or stimulation response is closely related with reservoir fracturing performance, the degree of development of natural fracture, the small intersection angle between hydraulic fracture and natural fracture, the large horizontal principal stress difference is easy to form a narrow fracture zone, and it is disadvantageous to create fracture network, but the degradable fiber diversion technology may largely weaken the disadvantage. The practices indicate that the application of volume acid fracturing process to the tight-gas carbonate

  9. Effect of malaria on placental volume measured using three-dimensional ultrasound: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rijken Marcus J

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The presence of malaria parasites and histopathological changes in the placenta are associated with a reduction in birth weight, principally due to intrauterine growth restriction. The aim of this study was to examine the feasibility of studying early pregnancy placental volumes using three-dimensional (3D ultrasound in a malaria endemic area, as a small volume in the second trimester may be an indicator of intra-uterine growth restriction and placental insufficiency. Methods Placenta volumes were acquired using a portable ultrasound machine and a 3D ultrasound transducer and estimated using the Virtual Organ Computer-aided AnaLysis (VOCAL image analysis software package. Intra-observer reliability and limits of agreement of the placenta volume measurements were calculated. Polynomial regression models for the mean and standard deviation as a function of gestational age for the placental volumes of uninfected women were created and tested. Based on these equations each measurement was converted into a z -score. The z-scores of the placental volumes of malaria infected and uninfected women were then compared. Results Eighty-four women (uninfected = 65; infected = 19 with a posterior placenta delivered congenitally normal, live born, single babies. The mean placental volumes in the uninfected women were modeled to fit 5th, 10th, 50th, 90th and 95th centiles for 14-24 weeks' gestation. Most placenta volumes in the infected women were below the 50th centile for gestational age; most of those with Plasmodium falciparum were below the 10th centile. The 95% intra-observer limits of agreement for first and second measurements were ± 37.0 mL and ± 25.4 mL at 30 degrees and 15 degrees rotation respectively. Conclusion The new technique of 3D ultrasound volumetry of the placenta may be useful to improve our understanding of the pathophysiological constraints on foetal growth caused by malaria infection in early pregnancy.

  10. Blanket comparison and selection study. Final report. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-09-01

    The study focused on: (1) Development of reference design guidelines, evaluation criteria, and a methodology for evaluating and ranking candidate blanket concepts. (2) Compilation of the required data base and development of a uniform systems analysis for comparison. (3) Development of conceptual designs for the comparative evaluation. (4) Evaluation of leading concepts for engineering feasibility, economic performance, and safety. (5) Identification and prioritization of R and D requirements for the leading blanket concepts. Sixteen concepts (nine TMR and seven tokamak) which were identified as leading candidates in the early phases of the study, were evaluated in detail. The overall evaluation concluded that the following concepts should provide the focus for the blanket R and D program: (Breeder/Coolant/Structure), Lithium/Lithium/Vanadium Alloy, Li/sub 2/O/Helium/Ferritic Steel, LiPb Alloy/LiPb Alloy/Vanadium Alloy, and Lithium/Helium/Ferritic Steel. The primary R and D issues for the Li/Li/V concept are the development of an advanced structural alloy, resolution of MHD and corrosion problems, provision for an inert atmosphere (e.g., N/sub 2/) in the reactor building, and the development of non-water cooled near-plasma components, particularly for the tokamak. The main issues for the LiPb/LiPb/V concepts are similar to the Li/Li/V blanket with the addition of resolving the tritium recovery issue. The R and D issues for Li/sub 2/O/He/FS concept include resolution of the tritium recovery/containment issue, achieving adequate tritium breeding and resolving other solid breeder issues such as swelling and fabrication concerns. Major concerns for the Li/He/FS concept are related to its rather poor economic performance. Improvement of its economic performance will be somewhat concept-dependent and will be more of a systems engineering issue.

  11. Blanket comparison and selection study. Final report. Volume 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-09-01

    The study focused on: (1) Development of reference design guidelines, evaluation criteria, and a methodology for evaluating and ranking candidate blanket concepts. (2) Compilation of the required data base and development of a uniform systems analysis for comparison. (3) Development of conceptual designs for the comparative evaluation. (4) Evaluation of leading concepts for engineering feasibility, economic performance, and safety. (5) Identification and prioritization of R and D requirements for the leading blanket concepts. Sixteen concepts (nine TMR and seven tokamak) which were identified as leading candidates in the early phases of the study, were evaluated in detail. The overall evaluation concluded that the following concepts should provide the focus for the blanket R and D program: (Breeder/Coolant/Structure), Lithium/Lithium/Vanadium Alloy, Li 2 O/Helium/Ferritic Steel, LiPb Alloy/LiPb Alloy/Vanadium Alloy, and Lithium/Helium/Ferritic Steel. The primary R and D issues for the Li/Li/V concept are the development of an advanced structural alloy, resolution of MHD and corrosion problems, provision for an inert atmosphere (e.g., N 2 ) in the reactor building, and the development of non-water cooled near-plasma components, particularly for the tokamak. The main issues for the LiPb/LiPb/V concept are similar to the Li/Li/V blanket with the addition of resolving the tritium recovery issue. The R and D issues for Li 2 O/He/FS concept include resolution of the tritium recovery/containment issue, achieving adequate tritium breeding and resolving other solid breeder issues such as swelling and fabrication concerns. Major concerns for the Li/He/FS concepts are related to its rather poor economic performance. Improvement of its economic performance will be somewhat concept-dependent and will be more of a systems engineering issue

  12. Blanket comparison and selection study. Final report. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-09-01

    The study focused on: (1) Development of reference design guidelines, evaluation criteria, and a methodology for evaluating and ranking candidate blanket concepts. (2) Compilation of the required data base and development of a uniform systems analysis for comparison. (3) Development of conceptual designs for the comparative evaluation. (4) Evaluation of leading concepts for engineering feasibility, economic performance, and safety. (5) Identification and prioritization of R and D requirements for the leading blanket concepts. Sixteen concepts (nine TMR and seven tokamak) which were identified as leading candidates in the early phases of the study, were evaluated in detail. The overall evaluation concluded that the following concepts should provide the focus for the blanket R and D program: (Breeder/Coolant/Structure), Lithium/Lithium/Vanadium Alloy, Li 2 O/Helium/Ferritic Steel, LiPb Alloy/LiPb Alloy/Vanadium Alloy, and Lithium/Helium/Ferritic Steel. The primary R and D issues for the Li/Li/V concept are the development of an advanced structural alloy, resolution of MHD and corrosion problems, provision for an inert atmosphere (e.g., N 2 ) in the reactor building, and the development of non-water cooled near-plasma components, particularly for the tokamak. The main issues for the LiPb/LiPb/V concept are similar to the Li/Li/V blanket with the addition of resolving the tritium recovery issue. The R and D issues for Li 2 O/He/FS concept include resolution of the tritium recovery/containment issue, achieving adequate tritium breeding and resolving other solid breeder issues such as swelling and fabrication concerns. Major concerns for the Li/He/FS concept are related to its rather poor economic performance. Improvement of its economic performance will be somewhat concept-dependent and will be more of a systems engineering issue

  13. Blanket comparison and selection study. Final report. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-09-01

    The study focused on: (1) Development of reference design guidelines, evaluation criteria, and a methodology for evaluating and ranking candidate blanket concepts. (2) Compilation of the required data base and development of a uniform systems analysis for comparison. (3) Development of conceptual designs for the comparative evaluation. (4) Evaluation of leading concepts for engineering feasibility, economic performance, and safety. (5) Identification and prioritization of R and D requirements for the leading blanket concepts. Sixteen concepts (nine TMR and seven tokamak) which were identified as leading candidates in the early phases of the study, were evaluated in detail. The overall evaluation concluded that the following concepts should provide the focus for the blanket R and D program: (Breeder/Coolant/Structure), Lithium/Lithium/Vanadium Alloy, Li 2 O/Helium/Ferritic Steel, LiPb Alloy/LiPb Alloy/Vanadium Alloy, and Lithium/Helium/Ferritic Steel. The primary R and D issues for the Li/Li/V concept are the development of an advanced structural alloy, resolution of MHD and corrosion problems, provision for an inert atmosphere (e.g., N 2 ) in the reactor building, and the development of non-water cooled near-plasma components, particularly for the tokamak. The main issues for the LiPb/LiPb/V concepts are similar to the Li/Li/V blanket with the addition of resolving the tritium recovery issue. The R and D issues for Li 2 O/He/FS concept include resolution of the tritium recovery/containment issue, achieving adequate tritium breeding and resolving other solid breeder issues such as swelling and fabrication concerns. Major concerns for the Li/He/FS concept are related to its rather poor economic performance. Improvement of its economic performance will be somewhat concept-dependent and will be more of a systems engineering issue

  14. Newly Generated Liquid Waste Processing Alternatives Study, Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landman, William Henry; Bates, Steven Odum; Bonnema, Bruce Edward; Palmer, Stanley Leland; Podgorney, Anna Kristine; Walsh, Stephanie

    2002-09-01

    This report identifies and evaluates three options for treating newly generated liquid waste at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The three options are: (a) treat the waste using processing facilities designed for treating sodium-bearing waste, (b) treat the waste using subcontractor-supplied mobile systems, or (c) treat the waste using a special facility designed and constructed for that purpose. In studying these options, engineers concluded that the best approach is to store the newly generated liquid waste until a sodium-bearing waste treatment facility is available and then to co-process the stored inventory of the newly generated waste with the sodium-bearing waste. After the sodium-bearing waste facility completes its mission, two paths are available. The newly generated liquid waste could be treated using the subcontractor-supplied system or the sodium-bearing waste facility or a portion of it. The final decision depends on the design of the sodium-bearing waste treatment facility, which will be completed in coming years.

  15. Meditation and yoga practice are associated with smaller right amygdala volume: the Rotterdam study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.A. Gotink (Rinske); M.W. Vernooij (Meike); M.K. Ikram (Kamran); W.J. Niessen (Wiro); Krestin, G.P. (Gabriel P.); A. Hofman (Albert); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning); M.G.M. Hunink (Myriam)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractTo determine the association between meditation and yoga practice, experienced stress, and amygdala and hippocampal volume in a large population-based study. This study was embedded within the population-based Rotterdam Study and included 3742 participants for cross-sectional

  16. A study of the anticipated impacts on Canada from the development of liquefied natural gas terminals on Passamaquoddy Bay : final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-10-15

    This study provided a qualitative assessment of the potential impacts and risks associated with the development of liquefied natural gas (LNG) terminals on the United States side of Pasamaquoddy Bay. The report included an assessment of environmental impacts, marine and navigational safety impacts, and socio-economic impacts as a result of the terminal. The report also investigated the potential impacts on coastal ecosystems and wetlands, as well as potential impacts on land-based flora and fauna. Impacts from marine traffic through Canadian waters were considered. Three worst-case risk scenarios were used as the basis for determining potential environmental and socio-economic impacts. Potential effects and policy considerations associated with the construction of LNG terminals in the region were discussed. The study considered 3 project areas: the Quoddy Bay LNG project; the Downeast LNG project; and the Calais LNG project. The consequences of vapour clouds and pool fires were considered, as well as the overall hazards associated with a large LNG spill. Evaluation scenarios were considered for leaks and minor releases. Transportation and navigational issues included ship specifications, traffic movements and route analyses. Issues related to whales and hatcheries were considered. Emergency preparedness and response plans were included. An assessment of cumulative risks in the region was also provided. 182 refs., 65 tabs., 23 figs.

  17. A study of nasal cavity volume in patients with cleft lip and palate by magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Kenichi

    1996-01-01

    Nasal cavity volume was studied in 11 patients with cleft lip and palate by magnetic resonance imaging. The areas of horizontal sections of the nasal cavity on the cleft and non-cleft sides were measured with the help of a personal computer and image analyzing software. Nasal cavity volume was determined by integrated volume calculation. The volume of each side was measured before and after cleft lip repair. Before cleft lip repair nasal cavity volume on the non-cleft side was larger than on the cleft side. However there was no significant difference in the volume of the cleft and non-cleft sides after cleft lip repair. (author)

  18. A study of nasal cavity volume in patients with cleft lip and palate by magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakano, Kenichi [Showa Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    1996-02-01

    Nasal cavity volume was studied in 11 patients with cleft lip and palate by magnetic resonance imaging. The areas of horizontal sections of the nasal cavity on the cleft and non-cleft sides were measured with the help of a personal computer and image analyzing software. Nasal cavity volume was determined by integrated volume calculation. The volume of each side was measured before and after cleft lip repair. Before cleft lip repair nasal cavity volume on the non-cleft side was larger than on the cleft side. However there was no significant difference in the volume of the cleft and non-cleft sides after cleft lip repair. (author)

  19. Crystal structure studies of NADP{sup +} dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase from Thermus thermophilus exhibiting a novel terminal domain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, S.M. [Department of Studies in Physics, University of Mysore, Mysore 570 006 (India); Pampa, K.J. [Department of Studies in Microbiology, University of Mysore, Mysore 570 006 (India); Manjula, M. [Department of Studies in Physics, University of Mysore, Mysore 570 006 (India); Abdoh, M.M.M. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, An-Najah National University, Nablus, West Bank, Palestine (Country Unknown); Kunishima, Naoki [Advanced Protein Crystallography Research Group, RIKEN SPring-8 Center, Harima Institute, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Lokanath, N.K., E-mail: lokanath@physics.uni-mysore.ac.in [Department of Studies in Physics, University of Mysore, Mysore 570 006 (India)

    2014-06-20

    Highlights: • We determined the structure of isocitrate dehydrogenase with citrate and cofactor. • The structure reveals a unique novel terminal domain involved in dimerization. • Clasp domain shows significant difference, and catalytic residues are conserved. • Oligomerization of the enzyme is quantized with subunit-subunit interactions. • Novel domain of this enzyme is classified as subfamily of the type IV. - Abstract: NADP{sup +} dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) is an enzyme catalyzing oxidative decarboxylation of isocitrate into oxalosuccinate (intermediate) and finally the product α-ketoglutarate. The crystal structure of Thermus thermophilus isocitrate dehydrogenase (TtIDH) ternary complex with citrate and cofactor NADP{sup +} was determined using X-ray diffraction method to a resolution of 1.80 Å. The overall fold of this protein was resolved into large domain, small domain and a clasp domain. The monomeric structure reveals a novel terminal domain involved in dimerization, very unique and novel domain when compared to other IDH’s. And, small domain and clasp domain showing significant differences when compared to other IDH’s of the same sub-family. The structure of TtIDH reveals the absence of helix at the clasp domain, which is mainly involved in oligomerization in other IDH’s. Also, helices/beta sheets are absent in the small domain, when compared to other IDH’s of the same sub family. The overall TtIDH structure exhibits closed conformation with catalytic triad residues, Tyr144-Asp248-Lys191 are conserved. Oligomerization of the protein is quantized using interface area and subunit–subunit interactions between protomers. Overall, the TtIDH structure with novel terminal domain may be categorized as a first structure of subfamily of type IV.

  20. 7 CFR 915.64 - Termination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... engaged in the production for market of avocados in the production area: Provided, That termination of... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AVOCADOS GROWN IN SOUTH FLORIDA Order... Secretary, produced more than 50 percent of the volume of the avocados produced within the production area...