WorldWideScience

Sample records for terminal protection assay

  1. Automatic termination of a protective action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heil, P.H.

    1986-01-01

    Subcommittee 6 of NPEC is responsible for the development of IEEE Standard 603. The adequacy of requirements concerning control and termination of protective actions was raised during the balloting of IEEE Standard 603-1980. In essence, the concern dealt with the requirement for deliberate operator action to return the system to normal. It was questioned if control actions such as automatic termination of system operation were allowed. Changes in the standard were made to clarify that there was a distinction between control (including termination) and return to normal and also state that automatic control may be required. Additionally, an action item was identified in the forward of IEEE Standard 603-1980 to determine if any additional changes were needed. The purpose of the paper is to present the results of this additional work

  2. Radioimmunoassays of parathyroid hormone: Clinical value of the midregion and c-terminal assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hengst, K.; Raidt, H.; Hoegemann, B.; Wagner, H.

    1984-01-01

    PTH was measured by midregion and carboxy-terminal assay in 20 patients suffering from primary hyperparathyroidism, 30 patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism, 10 persons with tertiary hyperparathyroidism, 50 patients who underwent transplantation of the kidney, 10 patients with hypoparathyroidism and 10 patients with other hypocalcemia as well as in 50 normal persons. Diagnosing hyperparathyroidism both assays were successful, when serum kreatinine was within the normal range. Especially midregion fragments became elevated, when serum kreatinine was above 2,0 mg. During renal failure diagnosis of hyperparathyroidism and hypoparathyroidism is more difficult. In normal renal function, however, the midregion assay is more sensitive for diagnosis of hypoparathyroidism compared to the carboxy-terminal assay. After kidney transplantation midregion levels of PTH are elevated, perhaps because of a failure of the transplanted kidney to eliminate the midregion fragment. (orig.) [de

  3. A terminal-labelling microcytotoxity assay with 125I-iododeoxyuridine as a label for target cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stirrat, G.M.

    1976-01-01

    The development of a terminal-labelling microcytotoxicity assay is described in which target cells (fetal fibroblasts) were labelled with 125 I-iododeoxyuridine after effector (lymphoid) cells had been incubated with them for 24 h. The time-course for the development of cell-mediated cytotoxicity was assessed following allogeneic skin grafting. 'Non-specific' cytotoxicity detracts from the sensitivity of all microcytotoxicity assays and the terminal-labelling assay using 125 I is no exception. The non-specific effects can be reduced but not eliminated by the removal of adherent cells. The optimum target cell/effector cell ratio would seem to be between 1:100 and 1:250. Residual lymph node cells did not appear to incorporate enough label to affect the test results. In vivo correlates of in vitro findings are still not easy to determine

  4. Evalution of NDA techniques and instruments for assay of nuclear waste at a waste terminal storage facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blakeman, E.D.; Allen, E.J.; Jenkins, J.D.

    1978-05-01

    The use of Nondestructive Assay (NDA) instrumentation at a nuclear waste terminal storage facility for purposes of Special Nuclear Material (SNM) accountability is evaluated. Background information is given concerning general NDA techniques and the relative advantages and disadvantages of active and passive NDA methods are discussed. The projected characteristics and amounts of nuclear wastes that will be delivered to a waste terminal storage facility are presented. Wastes are divided into four categories: High Level Waste, Cladding Waste, Intermediate Level Waste, and Low Level Waste. Applications of NDA methods to the assay of these waste types is discussed. Several existing active and passive NDA instruments are described and, where applicable, results of assays performed on wastes in large containers (e.g., 55-gal drums) are given. It is concluded that it will be difficult to routinely achieve accuracies better than approximately 10--30% with ''simple'' NDA devices or 5--20% with more sohpisticated NDA instruments for compacted wastes. It is recommended that NDA instruments not be used for safeguards accountability at a waste storage facility. It is concluded that item accountability methods be implemented. These conclusions and recommendations are detailed in a concurrent report entitled ''Recommendations on the Safeguards Requirements Related to the Accountability of Special Nuclear Material at Waste Terminal Storage Facilities'' by J.D. Jenkins, E.J. Allen and E.D. Blakeman

  5. Protection against β-amyloid neurotoxicity by a non-toxic endogenous N-terminal β-amyloid fragment and its active hexapeptide core sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forest, Kelly H; Alfulaij, Naghum; Arora, Komal; Taketa, Ruth; Sherrin, Tessi; Todorovic, Cedomir; Lawrence, James L M; Yoshikawa, Gene T; Ng, Ho-Leung; Hruby, Victor J; Nichols, Robert A

    2018-01-01

    High levels (μM) of beta amyloid (Aβ) oligomers are known to trigger neurotoxic effects, leading to synaptic impairment, behavioral deficits, and apoptotic cell death. The hydrophobic C-terminal domain of Aβ, together with sequences critical for oligomer formation, is essential for this neurotoxicity. However, Aβ at low levels (pM-nM) has been shown to function as a positive neuromodulator and this activity resides in the hydrophilic N-terminal domain of Aβ. An N-terminal Aβ fragment (1-15/16), found in cerebrospinal fluid, was also shown to be a highly active neuromodulator and to reverse Aβ-induced impairments of long-term potentiation. Here, we show the impact of this N-terminal Aβ fragment and a shorter hexapeptide core sequence in the Aβ fragment (Aβcore: 10-15) to protect or reverse Aβ-induced neuronal toxicity, fear memory deficits and apoptotic death. The neuroprotective effects of the N-terminal Aβ fragment and Aβcore on Aβ-induced changes in mitochondrial function, oxidative stress, and apoptotic neuronal death were demonstrated via mitochondrial membrane potential, live reactive oxygen species, DNA fragmentation and cell survival assays using a model neuroblastoma cell line (differentiated NG108-15) and mouse hippocampal neuron cultures. The protective action of the N-terminal Aβ fragment and Aβcore against spatial memory processing deficits in amyloid precursor protein/PSEN1 (5XFAD) mice was demonstrated in contextual fear conditioning. Stabilized derivatives of the N-terminal Aβcore were also shown to be fully protective against Aβ-triggered oxidative stress. Together, these findings indicate an endogenous neuroprotective role for the N-terminal Aβ fragment, while active stabilized N-terminal Aβcore derivatives offer the potential for therapeutic application. © 2017 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  6. Wavelet Based Protection Scheme for Multi Terminal Transmission System with PV and Wind Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manju Sree, Y.; Goli, Ravi kumar; Ramaiah, V.

    2017-08-01

    A hybrid generation is a part of large power system in which number of sources usually attached to a power electronic converter and loads are clustered can operate independent of the main power system. The protection scheme is crucial against faults based on traditional over current protection since there are adequate problems due to fault currents in the mode of operation. This paper adopts a new approach for detection, discrimination of the faults for multi terminal transmission line protection in presence of hybrid generation. Transient current based protection scheme is developed with discrete wavelet transform. Fault indices of all phase currents at all terminals are obtained by analyzing the detail coefficients of current signals using bior 1.5 mother wavelet. This scheme is tested for different types of faults and is found effective for detection and discrimination of fault with various fault inception angle and fault impedance.

  7. The Consumer Protection Bill, 2015: (Lack of) Rights of the Consumer to Terminate Sale Contract

    OpenAIRE

    Pathak, Akhileshwar

    2015-01-01

    Consumer protection law rests on the foundations of contract law and the law of sale of goods. A consumer law has to conceptually express this foundation and the modifications it is bringing about in these laws. Without this, the law would become unclear, conflicting and confusing. The Consumer Protection Bill, 2015 is not secured in its foundation and needs revision. The paper reviews the rights of the consumer to terminate the contract and makes suggestions for revision. The suggestions, wi...

  8. Angle Control-Based Multi-Terminal Out-of-Step Protection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antans Sauhats

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available From time to time a sequence of unexpected and overlapping contingencies may lead to power system angular instability and even blackouts if not addressed adequately by means of an out-of-step (OOS protection system. The motivation of the paper is an attempt to develop a workable prototype of the OOS protection system. The deficiencies of the protection currently used in the Latvian Power System network are highlighted and a new protection structure is proposed. The protection system comprises of several strategically located terminals, exchanging information in real time by means of a communication network. The OOS condition detection method is based on system-wide generation sources, electromotive forces, vectors, and angle control. The network splitting decision is based on generator coherence evaluation. Protection terminals determine online the groups of coherent generators and choose the splitting boundary from a predefined transmission lines (TLs cut sets list. The protection system structure, algorithm of operation, and possible IEC 61850 communication standard-based implementation are described.

  9. Effects of surface modification with hydroxyl terminated polydimethylsiloxane on the corrosion protection of polyurethane coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Jae Hong; Shon, Min Young

    2014-01-01

    Polyurethane coating was designed to give a hydrophobic property on its surface by modifying it with hydroxyl terminated polydimethylsiloxane and then effects of surface hydrophobic tendency, water transport behavior and hence corrosion protectiveness of the modified polyurethane coating were examined using FT-IR/ATR spectroscopy, contact angle measurement and electrochemical impedance test. As results, the surface of polyurethane coating was changed from hydrophilic to hydrophobic property due primarily to a phase separation tendency between polyurethane and modifier by the modification. The phase separation tendency is more appreciable when modified by polydimethylsiloxane with higher content. Water transport behavior of the modified polyurethane coating decreased more in that with higher hydrophobic surface property. The decrease in the impedance modulus ⅠZⅠ at low frequency region in immersion test for polyurethane coatings was associated with the water transport behavior and surface hydrophobic properties of modified polyurethane coatings. The corrosion protectiveness of the modified polyurethane coated carbon steel generally increased with an increase in the modifier content, confirming that corrosion protectiveness of the modified polyurethane coating is well agreed with its water transport behavior

  10. Mapping of gene transcripts by nuclease protection assays and cDNA primer extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calzone, F.J.; Britten, R.J.; Davidson, E.J.

    1987-01-01

    An important problem often faced in the molecular characterization of genes is the precise mapping of those genomic sequences transcribed into RNA. This requires identification of the genomic site initiating gene transcription, the location of genomic sequences removed from the primary gene transcript during RNA processing, and knowledge of sequences terminating the processed gene transcript. The objective of the protocols described here is the generation of transcription maps utilizing relatively uncharacterized gene fragments. The basic approach is hybridization of a single-stranded DNA probe with cellular RNA, followed by treatment with a single-strand-specific nuclease that does not attack DNA-RNA hybrids, in order to destroy any unreacted probe sequences. Thus the probe sequences included in the hybrid duplexes are protected from nuclease digestion. The sizes of the protected probe fragments determined by gel electrophoresis correspond to the lengths of the hybridized sequence elements

  11. Determination of protective properties of Bardejovske Kuple spa curative waters by rotational viscometry and ABTS assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TOPOLSKA Dominika

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Mineral waters from Bardejovske Kupele spa are natural, strongly mineralized, with healing effects. They are classified as hydrocarbonic - containing chloride and sodium - carbonic, cold, hypotonic, with a relatively high boric acid content. Potential anti-oxidative effects of curative waters from Bardejovske Kupele were investigated against the hyaluronan (HA degradation. High-molar-mass HA was exposed to the action of ascorbate and cupric ions, which initiate free-radical chain degradation. Time-dependent changes of dynamic viscosity (h of the HA solutions were monitored by rotational viscometry. The radical scavenging capacity of curative waters was determined by the ABTS assay. Despite a significantly high content of transition metal ions, especially iron, remarkable protective effects of the two curative spa waters were found, namely Alzbeta and Klara. Even though “Alzbeta´s“ iron content was 3.5-fold higher than “Klara´s“, “Alzbeta“ was shown to have better protective properties against the HA degradation compared to “Klara“. Bolus addition of ferric ions to the reaction system instead of the natural iron-containing curative water caused a significant HA degradation. The ABTS decolorization assay revealed that the curative spa waters were proven as poorly effective scavengers of the ABTS·+ cation radical.

  12. A novel method for detection of dioxins. Exonuclease protection mediated PCR assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, S.Q.; Sun, X.; Li, F.; Li, B.S. [Huazhong Univ. of Science and Technology, Wuhan, HB (China). Tongji Medical College

    2004-09-15

    The aromatic hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-actived transcription factor that mediates many of the biologic and toxicologic effects of dioxin-like chemicals (DLCs), such as 2,3,7,8- tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Numerous AhR-based bioassays for identification and detection of DLCs have been developed in vitro. Such as the chemical-activated luciferase gene expression (CALUX), ethoxyresolufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity are sometimes represented as the next best system when compared with whole body or in vivo systems. However, cell systems can be affected by the toxic chemical itself during the assay, thus confusing problems couldn't be avoided in the assay. Incorporation of metabolism in cell systems with uncertain consequences prolongs assay complexity and time. Thus these drawbacks limit the utility of cell systems for screening purposes. Most cell-free bioassays require radioactivity, such as the gel retardation of AhR binding (GRAB) assay, or antibody of AhR or ligand, which are unfeasible for some laboratories. Here a cell-free bioanalysis method, Exonuclease Protection Mediated PCR (EPM-PCR) bioassay, was established for detection of AhR ligands based on the binding of the dioxin:AhR complex to the specific DNA. EPM-PCR can provide indirect detection of ligands by quantification of the specific AhR-binding DNA, no necessary of any DNA labeling and sophisticated equipments. This new bioassay not only has the higher sensitivity and specificity, but it is rapid and easy to perform.

  13. Studies on Aculeines: Synthetic Strategy to the Fully Protected Protoaculeine B, the N-Terminal Amino Acid of Aculeine B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiozaki, Hiroki; Miyahara, Masayoshi; Otsuka, Kazunori; Miyako, Kei; Honda, Akito; Takasaki, Yuichi; Takamizawa, Satoshi; Tukada, Hideyuki; Ishikawa, Yuichi; Sakai, Ryuichi; Oikawa, Masato

    2018-05-23

    A synthetic strategy for accessing protoaculeine B (1), the N-terminal amino acid of the highly modified peptide toxin aculeine, was developed via the synthesis of the fully protected natural homologue of 1 with a 12-mer poly(propanediamine). The synthesis of mono(propanediamine) analog 2, as well as core amino acid 3, was demonstrated by this strategy. New amino acid 3 induced convulsions in mice; however, compound 2 showed no such activity.

  14. Angle Control-Based Multi-Terminal Out-of-Step Protection System

    OpenAIRE

    Antans Sauhats; Andrejs Utans; Dmitrijs Antonovs; Andrejs Svalovs

    2017-01-01

    From time to time a sequence of unexpected and overlapping contingencies may lead to power system angular instability and even blackouts if not addressed adequately by means of an out-of-step (OOS) protection system. The motivation of the paper is an attempt to develop a workable prototype of the OOS protection system. The deficiencies of the protection currently used in the Latvian Power System network are highlighted and a new protection structure is proposed. The protection system comprise...

  15. Are Fish and Standardized FETAX Assays Protective Enough for Amphibians? A Case Study on Xenopus laevis Larvae Assay with Biologically Active Substances Present in Livestock Wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Martini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Biologically active substances could reach the aquatic compartment when livestock wastes are considered for recycling. Recently, the standardized FETAX assay has been questioned, and some researchers have considered that the risk assessment performed on fish could not be protective enough to cover amphibians. In the present study a Xenopus laevis acute assay was developed in order to compare the sensitivity of larvae relative to fish or FETAX assays; veterinary medicines (ivermectin, oxytetracycline, tetracycline, sulfamethoxazole, and trimethoprim and essential metals (zinc, copper, manganese, and selenium that may be found in livestock wastes were used for the larvae exposure. Lethal (LC50 and sublethal effects were estimated. Available data in both, fish and FETAX studies, were in general more protective than values found out in the current study, but not in all cases. Moreover, the presence of nonlethal effects, caused by ivermectin, zinc, and copper, suggested that several physiological mechanisms could be affected. Thus, this kind of effects should be deeply investigated. The results obtained in the present study could expand the information about micropollutants from livestock wastes on amphibians.

  16. [3H]uridine uptake by target monolayers as a terminal label in an in vitro cell-mediated cytotoxicity assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, G.; Nicklin, S.

    1979-01-01

    A terminal labelling method is described for measuring cell-mediated cytotoxicity based on the ability of surviving target cells to incorporate [ 3 H]uridine into their RNA precursor pools. Parameters of the system were examined using whole and damaged embryonic mouse fibroblast monolayers. This assay is less laborious than direct cell counting and gives increased sensitivity at low target to effector cell ratios. The labelling time is short and, unlike similar techniques, it allows target cell monolayers to remain intact after completion of the radioassay and available for histological examination. This is important where heterogeneous target populations are employed since it allows assessment of differential cell killing and eliminates the need for duplicate cultures. The assay was used in conjunction with a well defined mouse popliteal lymph node assay to investigate the appearance of cytotoxic cells during a localised graft versus host response. Results showed a direct correlation between proliferative index and the development of highly specific cell-mediated cytotoxicity. (Auth.)

  17. A new assay based on terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism of homocitrate synthase gene fragments for Candida species identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szemiako, Kasjan; Śledzińska, Anna; Krawczyk, Beata

    2017-08-01

    Candida sp. have been responsible for an increasing number of infections, especially in patients with immunodeficiency. Species-specific differentiation of Candida sp. is difficult in routine diagnosis. This identification can have a highly significant association in therapy and prophylaxis. This work has shown a new application of the terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (t-RFLP) method in the molecular identification of six species of Candida, which are the most common causes of fungal infections. Specific for fungi homocitrate synthase gene was chosen as a molecular target for amplification. The use of three restriction enzymes, DraI, RsaI, and BglII, for amplicon digestion can generate species-specific fluorescence labeled DNA fragment profiles, which can be used to determine the diagnostic algorithm. The designed method can be a cost-efficient high-throughput molecular technique for the identification of six clinically important Candida species.

  18. Protection of Multi-Terminal VSC-HVDC Grids Based on the Response of the First Carrier Frequency Harmonic Current

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashouri, Mani; Khazraj, Hesam; Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da

    This paper investigates the response of first carrier frequency harmonic (FCFH) current for designing a protection algorithm for multi-terminal Voltage source converter-based HVDC (VSC-MTDC) transmission grids. This transient harmonic current has been used before, to discriminate external AC faults...... various kinds of faults with different locations and resistances. This paper will also consider half-bridge MMC instead of two-level VSCs to test the sensitivity of the FCFH based algorithm for lower harmonic values. A modified meshed version of CIGRE DC model has been used in PSCAD and the signal...

  19. MK-801 protection against methamphetamine-induced striatal dopamine terminal injury is associated with attenuated dopamine overflow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weihmuller, F B; O'Dell, S J; Marshall, J F

    1992-06-01

    Repeated administrations of methamphetamine (m-AMPH) produce high extracellular levels of dopamine (DA) and subsequent striatal DA terminal damage. Pharmacological blockade of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors has been shown previously to prevent m-AMPH-induced striatal DA terminal injury, but the mechanism for this protection is unclear. In the present study, in vivo microdialysis was used to determine the effects of blockade of NMDA receptors with the noncompetitive antagonist MK-801 on m-AMPH-induced striatal DA overflow. Four injections of MK-801 (0.5 mg/kg, ip) alone did not significantly change extracellular striatal DA concentrations from pretreatment values. Four treatments with m-AMPH (4.0 mg/kg, sc at 2-hr intervals) increased striatal DA overflow, and the overflow was particularly extensive following the fourth injection. This m-AMPH regimen produced a 40% reduction in striatal DA tissue content 1 week later. Treatment with MK-801 15 min before each of the four m-AMPH injections or prior to only the last two m-AMPH administrations attenuated the m-AMPH-induced increase in striatal DA overflow and protected completely against striatal DA depletions. Other MK-801 treatment regimens less effectively reduced the m-AMPH-induced striatal DA efflux and were ineffective in protecting against striatal DA depletions. Linear regression analysis indicated that cumulative DA overflow was strongly predictive (r = -.68) of striatal DA tissue levels measured one week later. These findings suggest that the extensive DA overflow seen during a neurotoxic regimen of m-AMPH is a crucial component of the subsequent neurotoxicity.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Immunological and protective effects of Bordetella bronchiseptica subunit vaccines based on the recombinant N-terminal domain of dermonecrotic toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chuanwen; Liu, Liping; Zhang, Zhen; Yan, Zhengui; Yu, Cuilian; Shao, Mingxu; Jiang, Xiaodong; Chi, Shanshan; Wei, Kai; Zhu, Ruiliang

    2015-10-01

    Dermonecrotic toxin (DNT) produced by Bordetella bronchiseptica (B. bronchiseptica) can cause clinical turbinate atrophy in swine and induce dermonecrotic lesions in model mice. We know that the N-terminal of DNT molecule contains the receptor-binding domain, which facilitates binding to the target cells. However, we do not know whether this domain has sufficient immunogenicity to resist B. bronchiseptica damage and thereby to develop a subunit vaccine for the swine industry. In this study, we prokaryotically expressed the recombinant N-terminal of DNT from B. bronchiseptica (named DNT-N) and prepared it for the subunit vaccine to evaluate its immunogenicity. Taishan Pinus massoniana pollen polysaccharide (TPPPS), a known immunomodulator, was used as the adjuvant to examine its immune-conditioning effects. At 49 d after inoculation, 10 mice from each group were challenged with B. bronchiseptica, and another 10 mice were intradermally challenged with native DNT, to examine the protection imparted by the vaccines. The immune parameters (T-lymphocyte counts, cytokine secretions, serum antibody titers, and survival rates) and skin lesions were determined. The results showed that pure DNT-N vaccine significantly induced immune responses and had limited ability to resist the B. bronchiseptica and DNT challenge, whereas the mice administered with TPPPS or Freund's incomplete adjuvant vaccine could induce higher levels of the above immune parameters. Remarkably, the DNT-N vaccine combined with TPPPS adjuvant protected the mice effectively to prevent B. bronchiseptica infection. Our findings indicated that DNT-N has potential for development as an effective subunit vaccine to counteract the damage of B. bronchiseptica infection, especially when used conjointly with TPPPS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The cell-based L-glutathione protection assays to study endocytosis and recycling of plasma membrane proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cihil, Kristine M; Swiatecka-Urban, Agnieszka

    2013-12-13

    Membrane trafficking involves transport of proteins from the plasma membrane to the cell interior (i.e. endocytosis) followed by trafficking to lysosomes for degradation or to the plasma membrane for recycling. The cell based L-glutathione protection assays can be used to study endocytosis and recycling of protein receptors, channels, transporters, and adhesion molecules localized at the cell surface. The endocytic assay requires labeling of cell surface proteins with a cell membrane impermeable biotin containing a disulfide bond and the N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) ester at 4 ºC - a temperature at which membrane trafficking does not occur. Endocytosis of biotinylated plasma membrane proteins is induced by incubation at 37 ºC. Next, the temperature is decreased again to 4 ºC to stop endocytic trafficking and the disulfide bond in biotin covalently attached to proteins that have remained at the plasma membrane is reduced with L-glutathione. At this point, only proteins that were endocytosed remain protected from L-glutathione and thus remain biotinylated. After cell lysis, biotinylated proteins are isolated with streptavidin agarose, eluted from agarose, and the biotinylated protein of interest is detected by western blotting. During the recycling assay, after biotinylation cells are incubated at 37 °C to load endocytic vesicles with biotinylated proteins and the disulfide bond in biotin covalently attached to proteins remaining at the plasma membrane is reduced with L-glutathione at 4 ºC as in the endocytic assay. Next, cells are incubated again at 37 °C to allow biotinylated proteins from endocytic vesicles to recycle to the plasma membrane. Cells are then incubated at 4 ºC, and the disulfide bond in biotin attached to proteins that recycled to the plasma membranes is reduced with L-glutathione. The biotinylated proteins protected from L-glutathione are those that did not recycle to the plasma membrane.

  2. Control and protection system for an electron injector installed in a high-voltage terminal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, D.; Radu, A.; Baciu, G.; Grigore, D.

    1979-01-01

    The basic principles of operation of the control and protection system for an electron accelerator gun are described. The electron gun parameters are independently controlled by using four special secondary windings of the high-voltage transformer providing the accelerating voltage. Four groups of thyristor ac regulators employing phase control are connected so as to provide independent adjustment of each parameter of the gun. The power controller of modular construction has a single-phase supply from the 50 Hz 220 V mains. (orig.)

  3. Characterisation of powerful antioxidants and synthetic iron ligands, as protective agents against oxidative damages, using new high throughput screening assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meunier, St.

    2002-12-01

    This work was devoted to the development of pertinent high throughput screening assays in the aim of studying oxidative stress. Three screening assays have been developed for the evaluation of protective agents toward ROS generated by gamma irradiation, UV or by a Fenton-like system. 24 natural extracts and a library of 120 pure compounds, containing among the most powerful antioxidants known to date, have been readily studied using, these new techniques. We found that two pulvinic acid derivatives possess excellent protective properties, and especially a pigment of fungus named norbadione A. Beyond its in vitro activity, this molecule displays remarkable biological properties. In the aim of studying an alternative pathway of protection against oxidation induced by iron, ligands able to modify the redox properties of this metal, have been synthesised. We have developed a parallel synthesis allowing the variation of the architecture, denticity, chelating moieties and hydrophobicity of iron chelates. Using this strategy, 47 potential Fe(III) ligands were obtained. Their protective capacities have been studied using a fourth screening assay, demonstrating the effectiveness of some ligands. Finally, the immunoassay technique called SPI-RAD has been used in order to study a particular consequence of drastic oxidative stress, namely covalent crosslinks between proteins. Our results demonstrate that these linkages occur in the presence of metals (FeII or CuII) and hydrogen peroxide, as well as in the presence of NO . radical. Moreover, it has been demonstrated that tyrosines residues and disulfide bridges play an important role in these phenomena. (author)

  4. Establishment of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay system to detect the amino terminal secretory form of rat Erc/Mesothelin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakaishi, Masayuki; Kajino, Kazunori; Ikesue, Masahiro; Hagiwara, Yoshiaki; Kuwahara, Maki; Mitani, Hiroaki; Horikoshi-Sakuraba, Yuko; Segawa, Tatsuya; Kon, Shigeyuki; Maeda, Masahiro; Wang, Tegexibaiyin; Abe, Masaaki; Yokoyama, Masayoshi; Hino, Okio

    2007-05-01

    By representational difference analysis, we previously identified the rat Erc (Expressed in renal carcinoma) gene that was more abundantly expressed in the renal carcinoma tissues of Eker rats than in the rat normal kidney. In this study, we raised antibodies against the amino-terminal portion of the rat Erc, and demonstrated the existence of a approximately 30-kDa secretory form in the supernatant of cultured cells derived from rat renal carcinoma. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) system using these antibodies detected high concentrations of this form in the sera of Eker rats bearing renal carcinomas, and in the sera of rats transplanted with mesothelioma cells. Mesothelin, a human homolog of the rat Erc, was recently reported to be a serum marker of malignant mesothelioma. The prognosis of mesothelioma is poor and there is no effective treatment at present. There are several rat model systems of mesothelioma that may be promising tools in the development of an antimesothelioma treatment. We hope our ELISA to detect the soluble form of rat Erc/Mesothelin is useful in the rat model system to exploit the antimesothelioma therapy to be used in human cases.

  5. Simple and Sensitive Colorimetric Assay for Pb2+ Based on Glutathione Protected Ag Nanoparticles by Salt Amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhang; Li, Huidong; Chu, Lin; Liu, Chenbin; Luo, Shenglian

    2015-02-01

    A simple and sensitive colorimetric assay for Pb2+ detection has been reported using glutathione protected silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) by salt amplification. The naked AgNPs aggregate under the influence of salt. Glutathione (GSH) can bind to AgNPs via Ag-S bond, helping AgNPs to against salt-induced aggregation. However, GSH binding to AgNPs can be compromised by the interaction between Pb2+ and GSH. As a result, Pb2+-mediated aggregation of AgNPs under the influence of salt is reflected by the UV-Visible spectrum, and the qualitative and quantitative detection for Pb2+ is accomplished, with the detection range 0.5-4 µM and a detection limit of 0.5 µM. At the same time, Pb2+ in real water sample is detected. Furthermore, the high selectivity and low cost of the assay means it is promising for enviromental applications.

  6. A novel mini-DNA barcoding assay to identify processed fins from internationally protected shark species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Andrew T; Abercrombie, Debra L; Eng, Rowena; Feldheim, Kevin; Chapman, Demian D

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing need to identify shark products in trade, in part due to the recent listing of five commercially important species on the Appendices of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES; porbeagle, Lamna nasus, oceanic whitetip, Carcharhinus longimanus scalloped hammerhead, Sphyrna lewini, smooth hammerhead, S. zygaena and great hammerhead S. mokarran) in addition to three species listed in the early part of this century (whale, Rhincodon typus, basking, Cetorhinus maximus, and white, Carcharodon carcharias). Shark fins are traded internationally to supply the Asian dried seafood market, in which they are used to make the luxury dish shark fin soup. Shark fins usually enter international trade with their skin still intact and can be identified using morphological characters or standard DNA-barcoding approaches. Once they reach Asia and are traded in this region the skin is removed and they are treated with chemicals that eliminate many key diagnostic characters and degrade their DNA ("processed fins"). Here, we present a validated mini-barcode assay based on partial sequences of the cytochrome oxidase I gene that can reliably identify the processed fins of seven of the eight CITES listed shark species. We also demonstrate that the assay can even frequently identify the species or genus of origin of shark fin soup (31 out of 50 samples).

  7. A novel mini-DNA barcoding assay to identify processed fins from internationally protected shark species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew T Fields

    Full Text Available There is a growing need to identify shark products in trade, in part due to the recent listing of five commercially important species on the Appendices of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES; porbeagle, Lamna nasus, oceanic whitetip, Carcharhinus longimanus scalloped hammerhead, Sphyrna lewini, smooth hammerhead, S. zygaena and great hammerhead S. mokarran in addition to three species listed in the early part of this century (whale, Rhincodon typus, basking, Cetorhinus maximus, and white, Carcharodon carcharias. Shark fins are traded internationally to supply the Asian dried seafood market, in which they are used to make the luxury dish shark fin soup. Shark fins usually enter international trade with their skin still intact and can be identified using morphological characters or standard DNA-barcoding approaches. Once they reach Asia and are traded in this region the skin is removed and they are treated with chemicals that eliminate many key diagnostic characters and degrade their DNA ("processed fins". Here, we present a validated mini-barcode assay based on partial sequences of the cytochrome oxidase I gene that can reliably identify the processed fins of seven of the eight CITES listed shark species. We also demonstrate that the assay can even frequently identify the species or genus of origin of shark fin soup (31 out of 50 samples.

  8. 1,2,3,4-Tetrahydroisoquinoline protects terminals of dopaminergic neurons in the striatum against the malonate-induced neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenc-Koci, Elzbieta; Gołembiowska, Krystyna; Wardas, Jadwiga

    2005-07-27

    Malonate, a reversible inhibitor of the mitochondrial enzyme succinate dehydrogenase, is frequently used as a model neurotoxin to produce lesion of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system in animals due to particular sensitivity of dopamine neurons to mild energy impairment. This model of neurotoxicity was applied in our study to explore neuroprotective potential of 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline (TIQ), an endo- and exogenous substance whose function in the mammalian brain, despite extensive studies, has not been elucidated so far. Injection of malonate at a dose of 3 mumol unilaterally into the rat left medial forebrain bundle resulted in the 54% decrease in dopamine (DA) concentration in the ipsilateral striatum and, depending on the examined striatum regions, caused 24-44% reduction in [3H]GBR12,935 binding to the dopamine transporter (DAT). TIQ (50 mg/kg i.p.) administered 4 h before malonate infusion and next once daily for successive 7 days prevented both these effects of malonate. Such TIQ treatment restored DA content and DAT binding almost to the control level. The results of the present study indicate that TIQ may act as a neuroprotective agent in the rat brain. An inhibition of the enzymatic activities of monoamine oxidase and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase as well as an increase in the striatal levels of glutathione and nitric oxide found after TIQ administration and reported in our earlier studies are considered to be potential factors that may be involved in the TIQ-mediated protection of dopamine terminals from malonate toxicity.

  9. Investigation of a redox-sensitive predictive model of mouse embryonic stem cells differentiation using quantitative nuclease protection assays and glutathione redox status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Investigation of a redox-sensitive predictive model of mouse embryonic stem cell differentiation via quantitative nuclease protection assays and glutathione redox status Chandler KJ,Hansen JM, Knudsen T,and Hunter ES 1. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangl...

  10. The Protective Effect of Whole Honey and Phenolic Extract on Oxidative DNA Damage in Mice Lymphocytes Using Comet Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ni; Wang, Yuan; Cao, Wei

    2017-12-01

    In this study, the antioxidant activity and the protective effect against hydrogen peroxide-induced DNA damage were assessed for five honeys of different botanical origin. Seven phenolic acids were detected in the honey samples. Ferulic acid was the most abundant phenolic acid detected in longan honey, jujube honey and buckwheat honey. Ellagic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid and protocatechuic acid were the main phenolic acids detected in vitex honey. Of all honey samples tested, the highest total phenolic content and antioxidant activity were found in buckwheat honey, whereas the lowest total phenolic content and antioxidant activity were found in locust honey. Treatment with hydrogen peroxide induced a 62% increase in tail DNA in mice lymphocytes, and all studied honeys significantly inhibited this effect (P Phenolic extracts of honey displayed greater protective effects than whole honey in comet assay. The hydrogen peroxide-generated increase in 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) was effectively inhibited by the honeys studied (P phenolic acids of honey can penetrate into lymphocytes and protect DNA from oxidative damage by scavenging hydrogen peroxide and/or chelating ferrous ions.

  11. Nucleobase-Based Barbiturates: Their Protective Effect against DNA Damage Induced by Bleomycin-Iron, Antioxidant, and Lymphocyte Transformation Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhaveshkumar D. Dhorajiya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of nucleobase-based barbiturates have been synthesized by combination of nucleic acid bases and heterocyclic amines and barbituric acid derivatives through green and efficient multicomponent route and one pot reaction. This approach was accomplished efficiently using aqueous medium to give the corresponding products in high yield. The newly synthesized compounds were characterized by spectral analysis (FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, HMBC, and UV spectroscopy and elemental analysis. Representative of all synthesized compounds was tested and evaluated for antioxidant, bleomycin-dependent DNA damage, and Lymphocyte Transformation studies. Compounds TBC > TBA > TBG showed highest lymphocyte transformation assay, TBC > TBA > BG showed inhibitory antioxidant activity using ABTS methods, and TBC > BPA > BAMT > TBA > 1, 3-TBA manifested the best protective effect against DNA damage induced by bleomycin.

  12. SH2 Binding Site Protection Assay: A Method for Identification of SH2 Domain Interaction Partners by Exploiting SH2 Mediated Phosphosite Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadwin, Joshua A

    2017-01-01

    Over the last two decades there has been a significant effort in the field to characterize the phosphosite binding specificities of SH2 domains with the goal of deciphering the pY signaling code. Although high throughput studies in various formats using most SH2 domains have collectively provided a rich resource of in vitro SH2-pTyr site specificity maps, this data can only be used approximate what is happening in the cell where protein concentrations and localization are not homogenous, as they are for in vitro experiments. Here we describe an in vivo approach, SH2 site protection assay, which can capture the pTyr binding specificity of SH2 domains in the cell. The basis of this approach is SH2-pY site protection, the ability of SH2 domains to prevent the PTP-dependent dephosphorylation of their pY site binding partners. We overexpress a tracer SH2 domain in cells and quantify the change in abundance of tyrosine phosphorylated sites using MS. Since the method is performed in vivo, it has the advantage of identifying SH2-pY interactions as they occur within in the cell.

  13. A quantitative multiplex nuclease protection assay reveals immunotoxicity gene expression profiles in the rabbit model for vaginal drug safety evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fichorova, Raina N., E-mail: rfichorova@rics.bwh.harvard.edu [Laboratory of Genital Tract Biology, Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Mendonca, Kevin; Yamamoto, Hidemi S.; Murray, Ryan [Laboratory of Genital Tract Biology, Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Chandra, Neelima; Doncel, Gustavo F. [CONRAD, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Eastern Virginia Medical School, Norfolk, VA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Any vaginal product that alters the mucosal environment and impairs the immune barrier increases the risk of sexually transmitted infections, especially HIV infection, which thrives on mucosal damage and inflammation. The FDA-recommended rabbit vaginal irritation (RVI) model serves as a first line selection tool for vaginal products; however, for decades it has been limited to histopathology scoring, insufficient to select safe anti-HIV microbicides. In this study we incorporate to the RVI model a novel quantitative nuclease protection assay (qNPA) to quantify mRNA levels of 25 genes representing leukocyte differentiation markers, toll-like receptors (TLR), cytokines, chemokines, epithelial repair, microbicidal and vascular markers, by designing two multiplex arrays. Tissue sections were obtained from 36 rabbits (6 per treatment arm) after 14 daily applications of a placebo gel, saline, 4% nonoxynol-9 (N-9), and three combinations of the anti-HIV microbicides tenofovir (TFV) and UC781 in escalating concentrations (highest: 10% TFV + 2.5%UC781). Results showed that increased expression levels of toll-like receptor (TLR)-4, interleukin (IL)-1β, CXCL8, epithelial membrane protein (EMP)-1 (P < 0.05), and decreased levels of TLR2 (P < 0.05), TLR3 and bactericidal permeability increasing protein (BPI) (P < 0.001) were associated with cervicovaginal mucosal alteration (histopathology). Seven markers showed a significant linear trend predicting epithelial damage (up with CD4, IL-1β, CXCL8, CCL2, CCL21, EMP1 and down with BPI). Despite the low tissue damage RVI scores, the high-dose microbicide combination gel caused activation of HIV host cells (SLC and CD4) while N-9 caused proinflammatory gene upregulation (IL-8 and TLR4) suggesting a potential for increasing risk of HIV via different mechanisms depending on the chemical nature of the test product. - Highlights: • A transcriptome nuclease protection assay assessed microbicides for vaginal safety. • Biomarkers were

  14. A quantitative multiplex nuclease protection assay reveals immunotoxicity gene expression profiles in the rabbit model for vaginal drug safety evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fichorova, Raina N.; Mendonca, Kevin; Yamamoto, Hidemi S.; Murray, Ryan; Chandra, Neelima; Doncel, Gustavo F.

    2015-01-01

    Any vaginal product that alters the mucosal environment and impairs the immune barrier increases the risk of sexually transmitted infections, especially HIV infection, which thrives on mucosal damage and inflammation. The FDA-recommended rabbit vaginal irritation (RVI) model serves as a first line selection tool for vaginal products; however, for decades it has been limited to histopathology scoring, insufficient to select safe anti-HIV microbicides. In this study we incorporate to the RVI model a novel quantitative nuclease protection assay (qNPA) to quantify mRNA levels of 25 genes representing leukocyte differentiation markers, toll-like receptors (TLR), cytokines, chemokines, epithelial repair, microbicidal and vascular markers, by designing two multiplex arrays. Tissue sections were obtained from 36 rabbits (6 per treatment arm) after 14 daily applications of a placebo gel, saline, 4% nonoxynol-9 (N-9), and three combinations of the anti-HIV microbicides tenofovir (TFV) and UC781 in escalating concentrations (highest: 10% TFV + 2.5%UC781). Results showed that increased expression levels of toll-like receptor (TLR)-4, interleukin (IL)-1β, CXCL8, epithelial membrane protein (EMP)-1 (P < 0.05), and decreased levels of TLR2 (P < 0.05), TLR3 and bactericidal permeability increasing protein (BPI) (P < 0.001) were associated with cervicovaginal mucosal alteration (histopathology). Seven markers showed a significant linear trend predicting epithelial damage (up with CD4, IL-1β, CXCL8, CCL2, CCL21, EMP1 and down with BPI). Despite the low tissue damage RVI scores, the high-dose microbicide combination gel caused activation of HIV host cells (SLC and CD4) while N-9 caused proinflammatory gene upregulation (IL-8 and TLR4) suggesting a potential for increasing risk of HIV via different mechanisms depending on the chemical nature of the test product. - Highlights: • A transcriptome nuclease protection assay assessed microbicides for vaginal safety. • Biomarkers were

  15. Cross-protective immunity to Leishmania amazonensis is mediated by CD4+ and CD8+-epitopes of Leishmania donovani Nucleoside Hydrolase terminal domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirlei eNico

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The Nucleoside hydrolase of Leishmania donovani (NH36 is a phylogenetic marker of high homology among Leishmania parasites. In mice and dog vaccination NH36 induces a CD4+ T cell-driven protective response against Leishmania chagasi infection directed against its C-terminal domain (F3. The C-terminal and N-terminal domain vaccines also decreased the footpad lesion caused by Leishmania amazonensis. We studied the basis of the crossed immune response using recombinant generated peptides covering the whole NH36 sequence and saponin for mice prophylaxis against L. amazonensis. The F1 (amino acids 1-103 and F3 peptide (amino acids 199-314 vaccines enhanced the IgG and IgG2a anti-NH36 antibodies to similar levels. The F3 vaccine induced the strongest DTH response, the highest proportions of NH36-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells after challenge and the highest expression of IFN-γ and TNF-α. The F1 vaccine, on the other hand, induced a weaker but significant DTH response and a mild enhancement of IFN-γ and TNF-α levels. The in vivo depletion with anti-CD4 or CD8 monoclonal antibodies disclosed that cross-protection against L. amazonensis infection was mediated by a CD4+ T cell response directed against the C-terminal domain (75% of reduction of the size of footpad lesion followed by a CD8+ T cell response against the N-terminal domain of NH36 (57% of reduction of footpad lesions. Both vaccines were capable of inducing long-term cross-immunity. The amino acid sequence of NH36 showed 93% identity to the sequence of the NH A34480 of L. amazonensis which also showed the presence of completely conserved predicted epitopes for CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in F1 domain, and of CD4+ epitopes differing in a single amino acid, in F1 and F3 domains. The identification of the C-terminal and N-terminal domains as the targets of the immune response to NH36 in the model of L. amazonesis infection represents a basis for the rationale development of a bivalent vaccine

  16. Diagnosis of invasive candidiasis by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using the N-terminal fragment of Candida albicans hyphal wall protein 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pontón José

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The diagnosis of invasive candidiasis is difficult because there are no specific clinical manifestations of the disease and colonization and infection are difficult to distinguish. In the last decade, much effort has been made to develop reliable tests for rapid diagnosis of invasive candidiasis, but none of them have found widespread clinical use. Results Antibodies against a recombinant N-terminal fragment of the Candida albicans germ tube-specific antigen hyphal wall protein 1 (Hwp1 generated in Escherichia coli were detected by both immunoblotting and ELISA tests in a group of 36 hematological or Intensive Care Unit patients with invasive candidiasis and in a group of 45 control patients at high risk for the mycosis who did not have clinical or microbiological data to document invasive candidiasis. Results were compared with an immunofluorescence test to detect antibodies to C. albicans germ tubes (CAGT. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of a diagnostic test based on the detection of antibodies against the N-terminal fragment of Hwp1 by immunoblotting were 27.8 %, 95.6 %, 83.3 % and 62.3 %, respectively. Detection of antibodies to the N-terminal fragment of Hwp1 by ELISA increased the sensitivity (88.9 % and the negative predictive value (90.2 % but slightly decreased the specificity (82.6 % and positive predictive values (80 %. The kinetics of antibody response to the N-terminal fragment of Hwp1 by ELISA was very similar to that observed by detecting antibodies to CAGT. Conclusion An ELISA test to detect antibodies against a recombinant N-terminal fragment of the C. albicans germ tube cell wall antigen Hwp1 allows the diagnosis of invasive candidiasis with similar results to those obtained by detecting antibodies to CAGT but without the need of treating the sera to adsorb the antibodies against the cell wall surface of the blastospore.

  17. Nuclear import of influenza B virus nucleoprotein: Involvement of an N-terminal nuclear localization signal and a cleavage-protection motif

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wanitchang, Asawin; Narkpuk, Jaraspim; Jongkaewwattana, Anan

    2013-01-01

    The nucleoprotein of influenza B virus (BNP) shares several characteristics with its influenza A virus counterpart (ANP), including localization in the host's nucleus. However, while the nuclear localization signal(s) (NLS) of ANP are well characterized, little is known about those of BNP. In this study, we showed that the fusion protein bearing the BNP N-terminus fused with GFP (N70–GFP) is exclusively nuclear, and identified a highly conserved KRXR motif spanning residues 44–47 as a putative NLS. In addition, we demonstrated that residues 3–15 of BNP, though not an NLS, are also crucial for nuclear import. Results from mutational analyses of N70–GFP and the full-length BNP suggest that this region may be required for protection of the N-terminus from proteolytic cleavage. Altogether, we propose that the N-terminal region of BNP contains the NLS and cleavage-protection motif, which together drive its nuclear localization. - Highlights: • The N-terminal region of BNP is required for nuclear accumulation. • The conserved motif at position 44–47 is a putative nuclear localization signal. • The first 15 amino acids of BNP may function as a cleavage-protection motif. • BNP may get access to the nucleus via a mechanism distinct from ANP

  18. Nuclear import of influenza B virus nucleoprotein: Involvement of an N-terminal nuclear localization signal and a cleavage-protection motif

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wanitchang, Asawin; Narkpuk, Jaraspim; Jongkaewwattana, Anan, E-mail: anan.jon@biotec.or.th

    2013-08-15

    The nucleoprotein of influenza B virus (BNP) shares several characteristics with its influenza A virus counterpart (ANP), including localization in the host's nucleus. However, while the nuclear localization signal(s) (NLS) of ANP are well characterized, little is known about those of BNP. In this study, we showed that the fusion protein bearing the BNP N-terminus fused with GFP (N70–GFP) is exclusively nuclear, and identified a highly conserved KRXR motif spanning residues 44–47 as a putative NLS. In addition, we demonstrated that residues 3–15 of BNP, though not an NLS, are also crucial for nuclear import. Results from mutational analyses of N70–GFP and the full-length BNP suggest that this region may be required for protection of the N-terminus from proteolytic cleavage. Altogether, we propose that the N-terminal region of BNP contains the NLS and cleavage-protection motif, which together drive its nuclear localization. - Highlights: • The N-terminal region of BNP is required for nuclear accumulation. • The conserved motif at position 44–47 is a putative nuclear localization signal. • The first 15 amino acids of BNP may function as a cleavage-protection motif. • BNP may get access to the nucleus via a mechanism distinct from ANP.

  19. Identifying Predictors of Interferon-γ Release Assay Results in Pediatric Latent Tuberculosis: A Protective Role of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotgiu, Giovanni; Altet-Gómez, Neus; Tsolia, Maria; Ruga, Ezia; Velizarova, Svetlana; Kampmann, Beate

    2012-01-01

    Rationale: Interferon-γ (IFN-γ) release assays are widely used to diagnose latent infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis in adults, but their performance in children remains incompletely evaluated to date. Objectives: To investigate factors influencing results of IFN-γ release assays in children using a large European data set. Methods: The Pediatric Tuberculosis Network European Trials group pooled and analyzed data from five sites across Europe comprising 1,128 children who were all investigated for latent tuberculosis infection by tuberculin skin test and at least one IFN-γ release assay. Multivariate analyses examined age, bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination status, and sex as predictor variables of results. Subgroup analyses included children who were household contacts. Measurements and Main Results: A total of 1,093 children had a QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube assay and 382 had a T-SPOT.TB IFN-γ release assay. Age was positively correlated with a positive blood result (QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube: odds ratio [OR], 1.08 per year increasing age [P 5 yr). Conclusions: Our data show that BCG vaccination may be effective in protecting children against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. To restrict use of IFN-γ release assays to children with positive skin tests risks underestimating latent infection. PMID:22700862

  20. [Diagnostic values of type III Procollagen N-terminal peptide and combination assay of type III procollagen N-terminal peptide with CEA and CA 19-9 in gastric cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akazawa, S; Harada, A; Futatsuki, K

    1984-07-01

    It is known that interstitial collagens are initially synthesized as precursors (procollagen), which possess extra peptide segments at both ends of the molecules. The authors attempted to detect the aminoterminal peptide of type III procollagen (type III-N-peptide) and also to measure the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and carbohydrate antigen (CA 19-9) together in sera of patients with gastric cancer. The results showed that: (1) mean serum levels and positive ratios of the type III-N-peptide increased as the clinical stage of the patients with gastric cancer advanced; (2) serum levels of the type III-N-peptide were not correlated either with those of CEA or CA 19-9; (3) positive ratios of type III-N-peptide, CEA and CA 19-9 were 51.7%, 44.8% and 48.3%, respectively: (4) positive ratio in combination of the type III-N-peptide with CEA was 69.3% and that in combination of the type III-N-peptide with CEA and CA 19-9 was 72.4%. These results suggest that type III-N-peptide is available for diagnosis of gastric cancer and, that the combination assay of type III-N-peptide with CEA and CA 19-9 is more effective than a single assay for diagnosis.

  1. C-Terminal Tyrosine Residue Modifications Modulate the Protective Phosphorylation of Serine 129 of α-Synuclein in a Yeast Model of Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinknecht, Alexandra; Popova, Blagovesta; Lázaro, Diana F; Pinho, Raquel; Valerius, Oliver; Outeiro, Tiago F; Braus, Gerhard H

    2016-06-01

    Parkinson´s disease (PD) is characterized by the presence of proteinaceous inclusions called Lewy bodies that are mainly composed of α-synuclein (αSyn). Elevated levels of oxidative or nitrative stresses have been implicated in αSyn related toxicity. Phosphorylation of αSyn on serine 129 (S129) modulates autophagic clearance of inclusions and is prominently found in Lewy bodies. The neighboring tyrosine residues Y125, Y133 and Y136 are phosphorylation and nitration sites. Using a yeast model of PD, we found that Y133 is required for protective S129 phosphorylation and for S129-independent proteasome clearance. αSyn can be nitrated and form stable covalent dimers originating from covalent crosslinking of two tyrosine residues. Nitrated tyrosine residues, but not di-tyrosine-crosslinked dimers, contributed to αSyn cytotoxicity and aggregation. Analysis of tyrosine residues involved in nitration and crosslinking revealed that the C-terminus, rather than the N-terminus of αSyn, is modified by nitration and di-tyrosine formation. The nitration level of wild-type αSyn was higher compared to that of A30P mutant that is non-toxic in yeast. A30P formed more dimers than wild-type αSyn, suggesting that dimer formation represents a cellular detoxification pathway in yeast. Deletion of the yeast flavohemoglobin gene YHB1 resulted in an increase of cellular nitrative stress and cytotoxicity leading to enhanced aggregation of A30P αSyn. Yhb1 protected yeast from A30P-induced mitochondrial fragmentation and peroxynitrite-induced nitrative stress. Strikingly, overexpression of neuroglobin, the human homolog of YHB1, protected against αSyn inclusion formation in mammalian cells. In total, our data suggest that C-terminal Y133 plays a major role in αSyn aggregate clearance by supporting the protective S129 phosphorylation for autophagy and by promoting proteasome clearance. C-terminal tyrosine nitration increases pathogenicity and can only be partially detoxified by

  2. Comparative analysis of the intracerebral mouse protection test and serological method for potency assays of pertussis component in DTP vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Cristina Souza Matos

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the PSPT standardized in-house as an alternative to MPT for potency assays of pertussis component. Statistical analyses have showed similar pertussis potency values when PSPT was compared to MPT. Significant correlation between the potency results obtained by in vivo and in vitro assays was also been observed. Results by PSPT have demonstrated reproducibility and accuracy for potency pertussis control and this approach has been considered promising for use at least during the steps of production.

  3. Role of N-terminal His6-Tags in binding and efficient translocation of polypeptides into cells using anthrax protective antigen (PA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Beitzinger

    Full Text Available It is of interest to define bacterial toxin biochemical properties to use them as molecular-syringe devices in order to deliver enzymatic activities into host cells. Binary toxins of the AB(7/8-type are among the most potent and specialized bacterial protein toxins. The B subunits oligomerize to form a pore that binds with high affinity host cell receptors and the enzymatic A subunit. This allows the endocytosis of the complex and subsequent injection of the A subunit into the cytosol of the host cells. Here we report that the addition of an N-terminal His(6-tag to different proteins increased their binding affinity to the protective antigen (PA PA(63-channels, irrespective if they are related (C2I or unrelated (gpJ, EDIN to the AB(7/8-family of toxins. His(6-EDIN exhibited voltage-dependent increase of the stability constant for binding by a factor of about 25 when the trans-side corresponding to the cell interior was set to -70 mV. Surprisingly, the C. botulinum toxin C2II-channel did not share this feature of PA(63. Cell-based experiments demonstrated that addition of an N-terminal His(6-tag promoted also intoxication of endothelial cells by C2I or EDIN via PA(63. Our results revealed that addition of His(6-tags to several factors increase their binding properties to PA(63 and enhance the property to intoxicate cells.

  4. Protective Effects of Testosterone on Presynaptic Terminals against Oligomeric β-Amyloid Peptide in Primary Culture of Hippocampal Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Fai Lau

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing lines of evidence support that testosterone may have neuroprotective effects. While observational studies reported an association between higher bioavailable testosterone or brain testosterone levels and reduced risk of Alzheimer’s disease (AD, there is limited understanding of the underlying neuroprotective mechanisms. Previous studies demonstrated that testosterone could alleviate neurotoxicity induced by β-amyloid (Aβ, but these findings mainly focused on neuronal apoptosis. Since synaptic dysfunction and degeneration are early events during the pathogenesis of AD, we aim to investigate the effects of testosterone on oligomeric Aβ-induced synaptic changes. Our data suggested that exposure of primary cultured hippocampal neurons to oligomeric Aβ could reduce the length of neurites and decrease the expression of presynaptic proteins including synaptophysin, synaptotagmin, and synapsin-1. Aβ also disrupted synaptic vesicle recycling and protein folding machinery. Testosterone preserved the integrity of neurites and the expression of presynaptic proteins. It also attenuated Aβ-induced impairment of synaptic exocytosis. By using letrozole as an aromatase antagonist, we further demonstrated that the effects of testosterone on exocytosis were unlikely to be mediated through the estrogen receptor pathway. Furthermore, we showed that testosterone could attenuate Aβ-induced reduction of HSP70, which suggests a novel mechanism that links testosterone and its protective function on Aβ-induced synaptic damage. Taken together, our data provide further evidence on the beneficial effects of testosterone, which may be useful for future drug development for AD.

  5. Staphylococcus aureus DNA ligase: characterization of its kinetics of catalysis and development of a high-throughput screening compatible chemiluminescent hybridization protection assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gul, Sheraz; Brown, Richard; May, Earl; Mazzulla, Marie; Smyth, Martin G; Berry, Colin; Morby, Andrew; Powell, David J

    2004-11-01

    DNA ligases are key enzymes involved in the repair and replication of DNA. Prokaryotic DNA ligases uniquely use NAD+ as the adenylate donor during catalysis, whereas eukaryotic enzymes use ATP. This difference in substrate specificity makes the bacterial enzymes potential targets for therapeutic intervention. We have developed a homogeneous chemiluminescence-based hybridization protection assay for Staphylococcus aureus DNA ligase that uses novel acridinium ester technology and demonstrate that it is an alternative to the commonly used radiometric assays for ligases. The assay has been used to determine a number of kinetic constants for S. aureus DNA ligase catalysis. These included the K(m) values for NAD+ (2.75+/-0.1 microM) and the acridinium-ester-labelled DNA substrate (2.5+/-0.2 nM). A study of the pH-dependencies of kcat, K(m) and kcat/K(m) has revealed values of kinetically influential ionizations within the enzyme-substrate complexes (kcat) and free enzyme (kcat/K(m)). In each case, the curves were shown to be composed of one kinetically influential ionization, for k(cat), pK(a)=6.6+/-0.1 and kcat/K(m), pK(a)=7.1+/-0.1. Inhibition characteristics of the enzyme against two Escherichia coli DNA ligase inhibitors have also been determined with IC50 values for these being 3.30+/-0.86 microM for doxorubicin and 1.40+/-0.07 microM for chloroquine diphosphate. The assay has also been successfully miniaturized to a sufficiently low volume to allow it to be utilized in a high-throughput screen (384-well format; 20 microl reaction volume), enabling the assay to be used in screening campaigns against libraries of compounds to discover leads for further drug development.

  6. Protective effects of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Portulaca oleracea L. aerial parts on H2O2-induced DNA damage in lymphocytes by comet assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behravan, Javad; Mosafa, Fatemeh; Soudmand, Negar; Taghiabadi, Elahe; Razavi, Bibi Marjan; Karimi, Gholamreza

    2011-09-01

    The comet assay is a standard method for measuring DNA damage. In this study, the protective effects of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Portulaca oleracea L. (P. oleracea) on human lymphocyte DNA lesions were evaluated with the comet assay. Lymphocytes were isolated from blood samples taken from healthy volunteers. Human lymphocytes were incubated in H(2)O(2) (50,100, and 200 μM), aqueous extract (0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1, and 2.5mg/ml), and ethanolic extracts (0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1, and 2.5mg/ml) of P. oleraceae aerial parts alone with a combination of H(2)O(2) (100 μM) with either 1 or 2.5mg/ml of both extracts at 4°C for 30 minutes. The extent of DNA migration was measured using the alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis approach assay, and DNA damage was expressed as percentage tail DNA. We found that the aqueous extract of P. oleracea significantly inhibited DNA damage, while there was no effect of the ethanolic extract. These data suggest that the aqueous extract of P. oleracea can prevent oxidative DNA damage to human lymphocytes, which is likely due to antioxidant constituents in the extract. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Analysis of Apoptosis in Ultraviolet-Induced Sea Cucumber (Stichopus japonicus) Melting Using Terminal Deoxynucleotidyl-Transferase-Mediated dUTP Nick End-Labeling Assay and Cleaved Caspase-3 Immunohistochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing-Feng; Gao, Rong-Chun; Wu, Hai-Tao; Li, Peng-Fei; Hu, Xian-Shu; Zhou, Da-Yong; Zhu, Bei-Wei; Su, Yi-Cheng

    2015-11-04

    The sea cucumber body wall melting phenomenon occurs under certain circumstances, and the mechanism of this phenomenon remains unclear. This study investigated the apoptosis in the ultraviolet (UV)-induced sea cucumber melting phenomenon. Fresh sea cucumbers (Stichopus japonicus) were exposed to UV radiation for half an hour at an intensity of 0.056 mW/cm(2) and then held at room temperature for melting development. The samples were histologically processed into formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues. The apoptosis of samples was analyzed with the terminal deoxynucleotidyl-transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) assay and cleaved caspase-3 immunohistochemistry. The emergence of TUNEL-positive cells speeds up between 0.5 and 2 h after UV irradiation. Cleaved caspase-3 positive cells were obviously detected in sample tissues immediately after the UV irradiation. These results demonstrated that sea cucumber melting induced by UV irradiation was triggered by the activation of caspase-3 followed by DNA fragmentation in sea cucumber tissue, which was attributed to apoptosis but was not a consequence of autolysis activity.

  8. Protective effect of topical Cordia verbenacea in a rat periodontitis model: immune-inflammatory, antibacterial and morphometric assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimentel, Suzana Peres; Barrella, Guilherme Emerson; Casarin, Renato Corrêa Viana; Cirano, Fabiano Ribeiro; Casati, Márcio Zaffalon; Foglio, Mary Ann; Figueira, Glyn Mara; Ribeiro, Fernanda Vieira

    2012-11-21

    This study evaluated the effects of C. verbenacea essential oil topically administered in a rat periodontitis model. Periodontitis was induced on rats in one of the mandibular first molars assigned to receive a ligature. Animals were randomly divided into two groups: a) non-treatment group (NT) (n = 18): animals received 1mL of vehicle; b) C. verbenacea group (C.v.) (n = 18): animals received 5mg/Kg of essential oils isolated from C. verbenacea. The therapies were administered topically 3 times daily for 11 days. Then, the specimens were processed for morphometric analysis of bone loss. The ligatures were used for microbiological assessment of the presence of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Tannerella forsythia and Porphyromonas gingivalis using PCR. The gingival tissue was collected to Elisa assay of interleukin (IL)-1α and IL-10 levels. Bone loss was inhibited by C. verbenacea when compared to the NT group (p < 0.05). A decrease in the levels of IL-1α and increase in the IL-10 amounts was observed in the C.v. group as compared to NT group (p < 0.05). A lower frequency of P. gingivalis was found in C.v. group (p < 0.05). C. verbenacea essential oil topically administered diminished alveolar bone resorption, promoting a positive local imbalance in the pro/anti-inflammatory system and reducing the frequency of detection of P. gingivalis.

  9. A FRET-based high throughput screening assay to identify inhibitors of anthrax protective antigen binding to capillary morphogenesis gene 2 protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S Rogers

    Full Text Available Anti-angiogenic therapies are effective for the treatment of cancer, a variety of ocular diseases, and have potential benefits in cardiovascular disease, arthritis, and psoriasis. We have previously shown that anthrax protective antigen (PA, a non-pathogenic component of anthrax toxin, is an inhibitor of angiogenesis, apparently as a result of interaction with the cell surface receptors capillary morphogenesis gene 2 (CMG2 protein and tumor endothelial marker 8 (TEM8. Hence, molecules that bind the anthrax toxin receptors may be effective to slow or halt pathological vascular growth. Here we describe development and testing of an effective homogeneous steady-state fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET high throughput screening assay designed to identify molecules that inhibit binding of PA to CMG2. Molecules identified in the screen can serve as potential lead compounds for the development of anti-angiogenic and anti-anthrax therapies. The assay to screen for inhibitors of this protein-protein interaction is sensitive and robust, with observed Z' values as high as 0.92. Preliminary screens conducted with a library of known bioactive compounds identified tannic acid and cisplatin as inhibitors of the PA-CMG2 interaction. We have confirmed that tannic acid both binds CMG2 and has anti-endothelial properties. In contrast, cisplatin appears to inhibit PA-CMG2 interaction by binding both PA and CMG2, and observed cisplatin anti-angiogenic effects are not mediated by interaction with CMG2. This work represents the first reported high throughput screening assay targeting CMG2 to identify possible inhibitors of both angiogenesis and anthrax intoxication.

  10. Microbead agglutination based assays

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas

    2013-01-21

    We report a simple and rapid room temperature assay for point-of-care (POC) testing that is based on specific agglutination. Agglutination tests are based on aggregation of microbeads in the presence of a specific analyte thus enabling the macroscopic observation. Such tests are most often used to explore antibody-antigen reactions. Agglutination has been used for protein assays using a biotin/streptavidin system as well as a hybridization based assay. The agglutination systems are prone to selftermination of the linking analyte, prone to active site saturation and loss of agglomeration at high analyte concentrations. We investigated the molecular target/ligand interaction, explaining the common agglutination problems related to analyte self-termination, linkage of the analyte to the same bead instead of different microbeads. We classified the agglutination process into three kinds of assays: a two- component assay, a three-component assay and a stepped three- component assay. Although we compared these three kinds of assays for recognizing DNA and protein molecules, the assay can be used for virtually any molecule, including ions and metabolites. In total, the optimized assay permits detecting analytes with high sensitivity in a short time, 5 min, at room temperature. Such a system is appropriate for POC testing.

  11. The recombinant C-terminal fragment of tetanus toxin protects against cholinotoxicity by intraseptal injection of β-amyloid peptide (25-35) in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricio-Martínez, A; Mendieta, L; Martínez, I; Aguilera, J; Limón, I D

    2016-02-19

    The recombinant C-terminal domain of tetanus toxin (Hc-TeTx) is a new non-toxic peptide of the tetanus toxin that exerts a protective action against glutamate excitotoxicity in motoneurons. Moreover, its efficacy as a neuroprotective agent has been demonstrated in several animal models of neurodegeneration. The eleven amino acids in the β amyloid peptide (Aβ25-35) mimic the toxic effects of the full β amyloid peptide (Aβ1-42), causing the impairment of the cholinergic system in the medial septum (MS) which, in turn, alters the septo-hippocampal pathway and leads to learning and memory impairments. The aim of this study was to examine the neuroprotective effects of the Hc-TeTx fragment against cholinotoxicity. The Hc-TeTx fragment (100 ng) was injected into the rats intercranially, with the Aβ(25-35) (2 μg) then injected into their MS. The animals were tested for spatial learning and memory in the eight-arm radial maze. The brains were removed to assess cholinergic markers, such as choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and to explore neurodegeneration in the MS and hippocampus, using amino-cupric silver and H&E staining. Finally, capase-3, a marker of apoptosis, was examined in the MS. Our results clearly demonstrate that the application of Hc-TeTx prevents the loss of cholinergic markers (ChAT and AChE), the activation of capase-3, and neurodegeneration in the MS and the CA1 and CA3 subfields of the hippocampus. All these improvements were reflected in spatial learning and memory performance, and were significantly higher compared with animals treated with Aβ(25-35). Interestingly, the single administration of Hc-TeTx into the MS modified the ChAT and AChE expression that affect cognitive processes, without inducing neurodegeneration or an increase in capase-3 expression in the MS and hippocampus. In summary, our findings suggest that the recombinant Hc-TeTx fragment offers effective protection for the septo-hippocampal pathway

  12. Protective effects of the exopolysaccharide Lasiodiplodan against DNA damage and inflammation induced by doxorubicin in rats: Cytogenetic and gene expression assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mello, M.B.; Machado, C.S.; Ribeiro, D.L.; Aissa, A.F.; Burim, R.V.; Alves da Cunha, M.A.; Barcelos, G.R.M.

    2017-01-01

    The lasiodiplodan (LS) is a β-(1 → 6)-D-glucan produced by the fungus Lasiodiplodia theobromae and some of the biological activities of LS were reported as hypoglycemic, anticoagulant, anti-proliferative and anticancer action; however, its effects on DNA instability and modulation of gene expression are still unclear. Aims of study were investigate the genotoxic effects of lasiodiplodan, and its protective activity against DNA damage induced by doxorubicin (DXR) and its impact on the expression of genes associated with DNA damage and inflammatory response pathways. Therefore, Wistar rats were treated (15 days) orally with LS (5.0; 10 and 20 mg/kg bw) alone and in combination with DXR (15 mg/kg bw; administrated intraperitoneally on 14th day) as well as their respective controls: distilled water and DXR. Monitoring of DNA damage was assessed by comet and micronucleus (MN) assays and gene expression was evaluated by PCR-Arrays. Treatments with LS alone did not induce disturbances on DNA; when LS was given in combination with DXR, comet and MN formations were reduced to those found in the respective controls. Moreover, LS was able to reduce the disturbances on gene expressions induced by DXR treatment, since the animals that receive LS associated with DXR showed no alteration in the expression of genes related to DNA damage response. Also, DXR induced several up- and down-regulation of several genes associated to inflammatory process, while the animals that received LS + DXR had their gene expression patterns similar to those found in the control group. In conclusion, our results showed that LS did not induce disturbances on DNA stability and significantly reduce the DNA damage and inflammation caused by DXR exposure. In addition, we give further information concerning the molecular mechanisms associated to LS protective effects which seems to be a promising nutraceutical with chemopreventive potential.

  13. Protective effect of dry olive leaf extract in adrenaline induced DNA damage evaluated using in vitro comet assay with human peripheral leukocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabarkapa, Andrea; Zivković, Lada; Zukovec, Dijana; Djelić, Ninoslav; Bajić, Vladan; Dekanski, Dragana; Spremo-Potparević, Biljana

    2014-04-01

    Excessive release of stress hormone adrenaline is accompanied by generation of reactive oxygen species which may cause disruption of DNA integrity leading to cancer and age-related disorders. Phenolic-rich plant product dry olive leaf extract (DOLE) is known to modulate effects of various oxidants in human cells. The aim was to evaluate the effect of commercial DOLE against adrenaline induced DNA damage in human leukocytes by using comet assay. Peripheral blood leukocytes from 6 healthy subjects were treated in vitro with three final concentrations of DOLE (0.125, 0.5, and 1mg/mL) for 30 min at 37°C under two different protocols, pretreatment and post-treatment. Protective effect of DOLE was assessed from its ability to attenuate formation of DNA lesions induced by adrenaline. Compared to cells exposed only to adrenaline, DOLE displayed significant reduction (Padrenaline genotoxicity. Results indicate genoprotective and antioxidant properties in dry olive leaf extract, strongly supporting further explorations of its underlying mechanisms of action. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Taming C-terminal peptides of Staphylococcus aureus leukotoxin M for B-cell response: Implication in improved subclinical bovine mastitis diagnosis and protective efficacy in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmaja, Radhakrishnan Jayasree; Halami, Prakash Motiram

    2016-09-01

    Leukotoxin M/F'-PV (LukM/F'-PV) produced by bovine mastitis causing Staphylococcus aureus structurally comprises three domains, the β-sandwich, rim and stem domain. The rim and stem domains interacting with target cell membrane lipid rafts contributes to the virulent trait of the toxin. In the present study, two facts were hypothesized that neutralization of these domains will ebb LukM/F'-PV leukotoxicity. Secondly, the neutralizing antibodies can improve the leukotoxin detection sensitivity in bovine mastitis milk samples. The in silico mapping of S. aureus LukM C-termini comprising these domains predicted seven linear B-cell antigenic epitopes. The immune response of C-terminal truncated recombinant peptides rCtM19 (19 kDa; near carboxy-terminal) having four epitopes and rCtM15 (15 kDa; C-terminal) with three epitopes were evaluated for their diagnostic and neutralization potential. Anti-rCtM19 and anti-rCtM15 antibodies with enhanced immunogenicity had the most striking outcome in IgG-ELISA for detecting native determinants of leukotoxin. For the obtained ELISA values, ROC curve inferred a cut-off score of >0.102 OD405. The assay sensitivity in the range of 90-96% along with 100% specificity and AUC of 0.93-0.98 categorized subclinical and clinical from healthy bovine milk samples. As observed through in vitro neutralization and LDH assays, C-terminus specific antibodies (1:42 titer) deactivating leukotoxicity abolished LukM from interacting with lipid bilayer and LukF for forming pores on bovine neutrophil membrane. As a proof of concept, it was proved that peptide antibodies can be a more specific serodiagnostic and passive therapeutic molecules. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Radiation protection - Performance criteria for laboratories performing cytogenetic triage for assessment of mass casualties in radiological or nuclear emergencies - General principles and application to dicentric assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The potential for nuclear and radiological emergencies involving mass casualties from accidental or malicious acts or terrorism requires generic procedures for emergency dose assessment to help the development of medical response capabilities. A mass-casualties incident is defined here as an event that exceeds the local medical resources. Biological dosimetry, based on cytogenetic analysis using the dicentric assay, typically applied for accidental dose assessment, has been defined in ISO 19238. Cytogenetic triage is the use of chromosome damage to evaluate and assess approximately and rapidly radiation doses received by individuals in order to supplement the clinical categorization of casualties. This International Standard focuses on the use of the dicentric assay for rapid cytogenetic triage involving mass-casualty incidents. The primary purpose of this International Standard is to provide a guideline to all laboratories in order to perform the dicentric-bioassay - cytogenetic triage for dose assessment using documented and validated procedures. Secondly, it can facilitate the application of cytogenetic biodosimetry networks to permit comparison of results obtained in different laboratories. Finally, it is expected that laboratories newly commissioned to carry out the cytogenetic triage conform to this International Standard in order to perform the triage reproducibly and accurately. This International Standard is written in the form of procedures to adopt for dicentric-bioassay - cytogenetic triage biological dosimetry for overexposures involving mass radiological casualties. The criteria required for such measurements usually depend on the application of the results: medical management when appropriate, radiation-protection management, record keeping and medical/legal requirements. For example, selected cases can be analysed to produce a more accurate evaluation of high partial-body exposure; secondly, doses can be estimated for persons exposed below the

  16. Terminal Ballistics

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenberg, Zvi

    2012-01-01

    This book covers the important issues of terminal ballistics in a comprehensive way combining experimental data, numerical simulations and analytical modeling. The first chapter reviews the experimental equipment which are used for ballistic tests and the diagnostics for material characterization under impulsive loading conditions. The second chapter covers essential features of the codes which are used for terminal ballistics such as the Euler vs. Lagrange schemes and meshing techniques, as well as the most popular material models. The third chapter, devoted to the penetration mechanics of rigid penetrators, brings the update of modeling in this field. The fourth chapter deals with plate perforation and the fifth chapter deals with the penetration mechanics of shaped charge jets and eroding long rods. The last two chapters discuss several techniques for the disruption and defeating of the main threats in armor design. Throughout the book the authors demonstrate the advantages of numerical simulations in unde...

  17. Terminal structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Frank [Langenhagen, DE; Allais, Arnaud [Hannover, DE; Mirebeau, Pierre [Villebon sur Yvette, FR; Ganhungu, Francois [Vieux-Reng, FR; Lallouet, Nicolas [Saint Martin Boulogne, FR

    2009-10-20

    A terminal structure (2) for a superconducting cable (1) is described. It consists of a conductor (2a) and an insulator (2b) that surrounds the conductor (2a), wherein the superconducting cable (1) has a core with a superconducting conductor (5) and a layer of insulation that surrounds the conductor (5), and wherein the core is arranged in such a way that it can move longitudinally in a cryostat. The conductor (2a) of the terminal structure (2) is electrically connected with the superconducting conductor (5) or with a normal conductor (6) that is connected with the superconducting conductor (5) by means of a tubular part (7) made of an electrically conductive material, wherein the superconducting conductor (5) or the normal conductor (6) can slide in the part (7) in the direction of the superconductor.

  18. Termination unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traeholt, Chresten; Willen, Dag; Roden, Mark; Tolbert, Jerry C.; Lindsay, David; Fisher, Paul W.; Nielsen, Carsten Thidemann

    2016-05-03

    Cable end section comprises end-parts of N electrical phases/neutral, and a thermally-insulation envelope comprising cooling fluid. The end-parts each comprises a conductor and are arranged with phase 1 innermost, N outermost surrounded by the neutral, electrical insulation being between phases and N and neutral. The end-parts comprise contacting surfaces located sequentially along the longitudinal extension of the end-section. A termination unit has an insulating envelope connected to a cryostat, special parts at both ends comprising an adapter piece at the cable interface and a closing end-piece terminating the envelope in the end-section. The special parts houses an inlet and/or outlet for cooling fluid. The space between an inner wall of the envelope and a central opening of the cable is filled with cooling fluid. The special part at the end connecting to the cryostat houses an inlet or outlet, splitting cooling flow into cable annular flow and termination annular flow.

  19. Design considerations for pressure surge protection for marine terminals, based on real case; Consideracoes de projeto para sistemas de protecao contra surtos de pressao em terminais maritimos existentes, a partir de caso real

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allevato, Monica; Miranda, Jades Marques de [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Paula, Jair dos Santos de [PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    Upon the increasing of liquid pumping capacity in maritime terminals and with the developing of quick blockage systems in hydrocarbon ship tankers, is also high the concern with the event of a surge pressure that could result in risky situations, with possible financial damages and environmental accidents of large proportions. On this scenario, the design of hydraulic transient anti-surge systems during crude oil and its products loading or offloading in terminal and tankers, is very important and it involves much more than simple numerical simulation or direct application of theory that takes into account only hydraulic aspects of the system, depending on solid design basis, on practical experience for design and operations and on the knowledge of experts in the field. This paper presents a quick historical background of the national installations, and discuss the main steps for designing hydraulic transient safety systems, taking into account an existing system as guideline for the particularities during the field collection data, the simplification for a representative and efficient numerical modeling and definition of design criteria. This paper discuss also, some of the restrictions of available protection equipment, when applied to existing maritime terminals. (author)

  20. Protective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wessam M. Abdel-Wahab

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Many active ingredients extracted from herbal and medicinal plants are extensively studied for their beneficial effects. Antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging properties of thymoquinone (TQ have been reported. The present study evaluated the possible protective effects of TQ against the toxicity and oxidative stress of sodium fluoride (NaF in the liver of rats. Rats were divided into four groups, the first group served as the control group and was administered distilled water whereas the NaF group received NaF orally at a dose of 10 mg/kg for 4 weeks, TQ group was administered TQ orally at a dose of 10 mg/kg for 5 weeks, and the NaF-TQ group was first given TQ for 1 week and was secondly administered 10 mg/kg/day NaF in association with 10 mg/kg TQ for 4 weeks. Rats intoxicated with NaF showed a significant increase in lipid peroxidation whereas the level of reduced glutathione (GSH and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione S-transferase (GST and glutathione peroxidase (GPx were reduced in hepatic tissues. The proper functioning of the liver was also disrupted as indicated by alterations in the measured liver function indices and biochemical parameters. TQ supplementation counteracted the NaF-induced hepatotoxicity probably due to its strong antioxidant activity. In conclusion, the results obtained clearly indicated the role of oxidative stress in the induction of NaF toxicity and suggested hepatoprotective effects of TQ against the toxicity of fluoride compounds.

  1. Quantitation of TGF-beta1 mRNA in porcine mesangial cells by comparative kinetic RT/PCR: comparison with ribonuclease protection assay and in situ hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceol, M; Forino, M; Gambaro, G; Sauer, U; Schleicher, E D; D'Angelo, A; Anglani, F

    2001-01-01

    Gene expression can be examined with different techniques including ribonuclease protection assay (RPA), in situ hybridisation (ISH), and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT/PCR). These methods differ considerably in their sensitivity and precision in detecting and quantifying low abundance mRNA. Although there is evidence that RT/PCR can be performed in a quantitative manner, the quantitative capacity of this method is generally underestimated. To demonstrate that the comparative kinetic RT/PCR strategy-which uses a housekeeping gene as internal standard-is a quantitative method to detect significant differences in mRNA levels between different samples, the inhibitory effect of heparin on phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-induced-TGF-beta1 mRNA expression was evaluated by RT/PCR and RPA, the standard method of mRNA quantification, and the results were compared. The reproducibility of RT/PCR amplification was calculated by comparing the quantity of G3PDH and TGF-beta1 PCR products, generated during the exponential phases, estimated from two different RT/PCR (G3PDH, r = 0.968, P = 0.0000; TGF-beta1, r = 0.966, P = 0.0000). The quantitative capacity of comparative kinetic RT/PCR was demonstrated by comparing the results obtained from RPA and RT/PCR using linear regression analysis. Starting from the same RNA extraction, but using only 1% of the RNA for the RT/PCR compared to RPA, significant correlation was observed (r = 0.984, P = 0.0004). Moreover the morphometric analysis of ISH signal was applied for the semi-quantitative evaluation of the expression and localisation of TGF-beta1 mRNA in the entire cell population. Our results demonstrate the close similarity of the RT/PCR and RPA methods in giving quantitative information on mRNA expression and indicate the possibility to adopt the comparative kinetic RT/PCR as reliable quantitative method of mRNA analysis. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. The terminal portion of leptospiral immunoglobulin-like protein LigA confers protective immunity against lethal infection in the hamster model of leptospirosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Everton F; Medeiros, Marco A; McBride, Alan J A; Matsunaga, Jim; Esteves, Gabriela S; Ramos, João G R; Santos, Cleiton S; Croda, Júlio; Homma, Akira; Dellagostin, Odir A; Haake, David A; Reis, Mitermayer G; Ko, Albert I

    2007-08-14

    Subunit vaccines are a potential intervention strategy against leptospirosis, which is a major public health problem in developing countries and a veterinary disease in livestock and companion animals worldwide. Leptospiral immunoglobulin-like (Lig) proteins are a family of surface-exposed determinants that have Ig-like repeat domains found in virulence factors such as intimin and invasin. We expressed fragments of the repeat domain regions of LigA and LigB from Leptospira interrogans serovar Copenhageni. Immunization of Golden Syrian hamsters with Lig fragments in Freund's adjuvant induced robust antibody responses against recombinant protein and native protein, as detected by ELISA and immunoblot, respectively. A single fragment, LigANI, which corresponds to the six carboxy-terminal Ig-like repeat domains of the LigA molecule, conferred immunoprotection against mortality (67-100%, P<0.05) in hamsters which received a lethal inoculum of L. interrogans serovar Copenhageni. However, immunization with this fragment did not confer sterilizing immunity. These findings indicate that the carboxy-terminal portion of LigA is an immunoprotective domain and may serve as a vaccine candidate for human and veterinary leptospirosis.

  3. Terminal ballistics

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenberg, Zvi

    2016-01-01

    This book comprehensively discusses essential aspects of terminal ballistics, combining experimental data, numerical simulations and analytical modeling. Employing a unique approach to numerical simulations as a measure of sensitivity for the major physical parameters, the new edition also includes the following features: new figures to better illustrate the problems discussed; improved explanations for the equation of state of a solid and for the cavity expansion process; new data concerning the Kolsky bar test; and a discussion of analytical modeling for the hole diameter in a thin metallic plate impacted by a shaped charge jet. The section on thick concrete targets penetrated by rigid projectiles has now been expanded to include the latest findings, and two new sections have been added: one on a novel approach to the perforation of thin concrete slabs, and one on testing the failure of thin metallic plates using a hydrodynamic ram.

  4. 40 CFR 26.1123 - Early termination of research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Early termination of research. 26.1123 Section 26.1123 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PROTECTION OF HUMAN... Exposure of Non-pregnant, Non-nursing Adults § 26.1123 Early termination of research. The Administrator may...

  5. Termination unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traeholt, Chresten [Frederiksberg, DK; Willen, Dag [Klagshamn, SE; Roden, Mark [Newnan, GA; Tolbert, Jerry C [Carrollton, GA; Lindsay, David [Carrollton, GA; Fisher, Paul W [Heiskell, TN; Nielsen, Carsten Thidemann [Jaegerspris, DK

    2014-01-07

    This invention relates to a termination unit comprising an end-section of a cable. The end section of the cable defines a central longitudinal axis and comprising end-parts of N electrical phases, an end-part of a neutral conductor and a surrounding thermally insulation envelope adapted to comprising a cooling fluid. The end-parts of the N electrical phases and the end-part of the neutral conductor each comprising at least one electrical conductor and being arranged in the cable concentrically around a core former with a phase 1 located relatively innermost, and phase N relatively outermost in the cable, phase N being surrounded by the neutral conductor, electrical insulation being arrange between neighboring electrical phases and between phase N and the neutral conductor, and wherein the end-parts of the neutral conductor and the electrical phases each comprise a contacting surface electrically connected to at least one branch current lead to provide an electrical connection: The contacting surfaces each having a longitudinal extension, and being located sequentially along the longitudinal extension of the end-section of the cable. The branch current leads being individually insulated from said thermally insulation envelope by individual electrical insulators.

  6. Protection efficacy of the Brucella abortus ghost vaccine candidate lysed by the N-terminal 24-amino acid fragment (GI24) of the 36-amino acid peptide PMAP-36 (porcine myeloid antimicrobial peptide 36) in murine models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Ae Jeong; Moon, Ja Young; Kim, Won Kyong; Kim, Suk; Hur, Jin

    2016-11-01

    Brucella abortus cells were lysed by the N-terminal 24-amino acid fragment (GI24) of the 36-amino acid peptide PMAP-36 (porcine myeloid antimicrobial peptide 36). Next, the protection efficacy of the lysed fragment as a vaccine candidate was evaluated. Group A mice were immunized with sterile PBS, group B mice were intraperitoneally (ip) immunized with 3 × 10 8 colony-forming units (CFUs) of B. abortus strain RB51, group C mice were immunized ip with 3 × 10 8 cells of the B. abortus vaccine candidate, and group D mice were orally immunized with 3 × 10 9 cells of the B. abortus vaccine candidate. Brucella lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-specific serum IgG titers were considerably higher in groups C and D than in group A. The levels of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) were significantly higher in groups B-D than in group A. After an ip challenge with B. abortus 544, only group C mice showed a significant level of protection as compared to group A. Overall, these results show that ip immunization with a vaccine candidate lysed by GI24 can effectively protect mice from systemic infection with virulent B. abortus.

  7. Protective effect of Crataegus monogyna Jacq. ethanolic extracts in oxidant-induced DNA damage evaluated through comet assay with human peripheral lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joao C. M. Barreira

    2015-06-01

    The results showed significant differences within the assessed botanical parts and also among the assayed concentrations. The performed investigation might be considered as representing a step further in the evaluation of the in vivo bioactive potential of this highly promising species. Furthermore, it has established some practical bases for the evaluation of additional natural matrices with high scoring in bioactivity screening studies.

  8. Essential role of the NH2-terminal WD/EPF motif in the phosphorylation-activated protective function of mammalian Hsp27.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thériault, Jimmy R; Lambert, Herman; Chávez-Zobel, Aura T; Charest, Gabriel; Lavigne, Pierre; Landry, Jacques

    2004-05-28

    Hsp27 is expressed at high levels after mild heat shock and contributes to making cells extremely resistant to subsequent treatments. The activity of the protein is regulated at the transcriptional level, but also by phosphorylation, which occurs rapidly during stress and is responsible for causing the dissociation of large 700-kDa Hsp27 oligomers into dimers. We investigated the mechanism by which phosphorylation and oligomerization modulate the protective activity of Chinese hamster Hsp27. In contrast to oligomer dissociation, which only required Ser90 phosphorylation, activation of Hsp27 thermoprotective activity required the phosphorylation of both Ser90 and Ser15. Replacement of Ser90 by Ala90, which prevented the dissociation of the oligomer upon stress, did cause a severe defect in the protective activity. Dissociation was, however, not a sufficient condition to activate the protein because replacement of Ser15 by Ala15, which caused little effect in the oligomeric organization of the protein, also yielded an inactive protein. Analyzes of mutants with short deletions in the NH2 terminus identified the Hsp27 WD/EPF or PF-rich domain as essential for protection, maintenance of the oligomeric structure, and in vitro chaperone activity of the protein. In light of a three-dimensional model of Hsp27 based on the crystallographic structure of wheat Hsp16.9, we propose that the conserved WD/EPF motif of mammalian Hsp27 mediates important intramolecular interactions with hydrophic surfaces of the alpha-crystallin domain of the protein. These interactions are destabilized by Ser90 phosphorylation, making the motif free to interact with heterologous molecular targets upon the additional phosphorylation of the nearby Ser15.

  9. A Novel Dual NO-donating Oxime and c-Jun N-terminal Kinase Inhibitor Protects Against Cerebral Ischemia–Reperfusion Injury in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atochin, Dmitriy N.; Schepetkin, Igor A.; Khlebnikov, Andrei I.; Seledtsov, Victor I.; Swanson, Helen; Quinn, Mark T.; Huang, Paul L.

    2017-01-01

    The c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) has been shown to be an important regulator of neuronal cell death. Previously, we synthesized the sodium salt of 11H-indeno[1,2-b]quinoxalin-11-one (IQ-1S) and demonstrated that it was a high-affinity inhibitor of the JNK family. In the present work, we found that IQ-1S could release nitric oxide (NO) during its enzymatic metabolism by liver microsomes. Moreover, serum nitrite/nitrate concentration in mice increased after intraperitoneal injection of IQ-1S. Because of these dual actions as JNK inhibitor and NO-donor, the therapeutic potential of IQ-1S was evaluated in an animal stroke model. We subjected wild-type C57BL6 mice to focal ischemia (30 minutes) with subsequent reperfusion (48 hours). Mice were treated with IQ-1S (25 mg/kg) suspended in 10% solutol or with vehicle alone 30 minutes before and 24 hours after middle cerebral artery MCA) occlusion (MCAO). Using laser-Doppler flowmetry, we monitored cerebral blood flow (CBF) above the MCA during 30 minutes of MCAO provoked by a filament and during the first 30 minutes of subsequent reperfusion. In mice treated with IQ-1S, ischemic and reperfusion values of CBF were not different from vehicle-treated mice. However, IQ-1S treated mice demonstrated markedly reduced neurological deficit and infarct volumes as compared with vehicle-treated mice after 48 hours of reperfusion. Our results indicate that the novel JNK inhibitor releases NO during its oxidoreductive bioconversion and improves stroke outcome in a mouse model of cerebral reperfusion. We conclude that IQ-1S is a promising dual functional agent for the treatment of cerebral ischemia and reperfusion injury. PMID:26923672

  10. Anti-Inflammatory Effects and Joint Protection in Collagen-Induced Arthritis after Treatment with IQ-1S, a Selective c-Jun N-Terminal Kinase Inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepetkin, Igor A; Kirpotina, Liliya N; Hammaker, Deepa; Kochetkova, Irina; Khlebnikov, Andrei I; Lyakhov, Sergey A; Firestein, Gary S; Quinn, Mark T

    2015-06-01

    c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) participate in many physiologic and pathologic processes, including inflammatory diseases. We recently synthesized the sodium salt of IQ-1S (11H-indeno[1,2-b]quinoxalin-11-one oxime) and demonstrated that it is a high-affinity JNK inhibitor and inhibits murine delayed-type hypersensitivity. Here we show that IQ-1S is highly specific for JNK and that its neutral form is the most abundant species at physiologic pH. Molecular docking of the IQ-1S syn isomer into the JNK1 binding site gave the best pose, which corresponded to the position of cocrystallized JNK inhibitor SP600125 (1,9-pyrazoloanthrone). Evaluation of the therapeutic potential of IQ-1S showed that it inhibited matrix metalloproteinase 1 and 3 gene expression induced by interleukin-1β in human fibroblast-like synoviocytes and significantly attenuated development of murine collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). Treatment with IQ-1S either before or after induction of CIA resulted in decreased clinical scores, and joint sections from IQ-1S-treated CIA mice exhibited only mild signs of inflammation and minimal cartilage loss compared with those from control mice. Collagen II-specific antibody responses were also reduced by IQ-1S treatment. By contrast, the inactive ketone derivative 11H-indeno[1,2-b]quinoxalin-11-one had no effect on CIA clinical scores or collagen II-specific antibody titers. IQ-1S treatment also suppressed proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine levels in joints and lymph node cells. Finally, treatment with IQ-1S increased the number of Foxp3(+)CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells in lymph nodes. Thus, IQ-1S can reduce inflammation and cartilage loss associated with CIA and can serve as a small-molecule modulator for mechanistic studies of JNK function in rheumatoid arthritis. Copyright © 2015 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  11. A novel dual NO-donating oxime and c-Jun N-terminal kinase inhibitor protects against cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atochin, Dmitriy N; Schepetkin, Igor A; Khlebnikov, Andrei I; Seledtsov, Victor I; Swanson, Helen; Quinn, Mark T; Huang, Paul L

    2016-04-08

    The c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) has been shown to be an important regulator of neuronal cell death. Previously, we synthesized the sodium salt of 11H-indeno[1,2-b]quinoxalin-11-one (IQ-1S) and demonstrated that it was a high-affinity inhibitor of the JNK family. In the present work, we found that IQ-1S could release nitric oxide (NO) during its enzymatic metabolism by liver microsomes. Moreover, serum nitrite/nitrate concentration in mice increased after intraperitoneal injection of IQ-1S. Because of these dual actions as JNK inhibitor and NO-donor, the therapeutic potential of IQ-1S was evaluated in an animal stroke model. We subjected wild-type C57BL6 mice to focal ischemia (30min) with subsequent reperfusion (48h). Mice were treated with IQ-1S (25mg/kg) suspended in 10% solutol or with vehicle alone 30min before and 24h after middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion (MCAO). Using laser-Doppler flowmetry, we monitored cerebral blood flow (CBF) above the MCA during 30min of MCAO provoked by a filament and during the first 30min of subsequent reperfusion. In mice treated with IQ-1S, ischemic and reperfusion values of CBF were not different from vehicle-treated mice. However, IQ-1S treated mice demonstrated markedly reduced neurological deficit and infarct volumes as compared with vehicle-treated mice after 48h of reperfusion. Our results indicate that the novel JNK inhibitor releases NO during its oxidoreductive bioconversion and improves stroke outcome in a mouse model of cerebral reperfusion. We conclude that IQ-1S is a promising dual functional agent for the treatment of cerebral ischemia and reperfusion injury. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Momordica charantia polysaccharides could protect against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury through inhibiting oxidative stress mediated c-Jun N-terminal kinase 3 signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Juanjuan; Sun, Fumou; Li, Yihang; Zhou, Xiaoling; Duan, Zhenzhen; Duan, Fugang; Zhao, Lei; Chen, Hansen; Qi, Suhua; Shen, Jiangang

    2015-04-01

    Momordica charantia (MC) is a medicinal plant for stroke treatment in Traditional Chinese Medicine, but its active compounds and molecular targets are unknown yet. M. charantia polysaccharide (MCP) is one of the important bioactive components in MC. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that MCP has neuroprotective effects against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury through scavenging superoxide (O2(-)), nitric oxide (NO) and peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) and inhibiting c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK3) signaling cascades. We conducted experiments with in vivo global and focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion rat models and in vitro oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD) neural cells. The effects of MCP on apoptotic cell death and infarction volume, the bioactivities of scavenging O2(-), NO and ONOO(-), inhibiting lipid peroxidation and modulating JNK3 signaling pathway were investigated. Major results are summarized as below: (1) MCP dose-dependently attenuated apoptotic cell death in neural cells under OGD condition in vitro and reduced infarction volume in ischemic brains in vivo; (2) MCP had directing scavenging effects on NO, O2(-) and ONOO(-) and inhibited lipid peroxidation; (3) MCP inhibited the activations of JNK3/c-Jun/Fas-L and JNK3/cytochrome C/caspases-3 signaling cascades in ischemic brains in vivo. Taken together, we conclude that MCP could be a promising neuroprotective ingredient of M. charantia and its mechanisms could be at least in part attributed to its antioxidant activities and inhibiting JNK3 signaling cascades during cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. 40 CFR 31.44 - Termination for convenience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Termination for convenience. 31.44 Section 31.44 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL... convenience. Except as provided in § 31.43 awards may be terminated in whole or in part only as follows: (a...

  14. Protective effect of DA-9401 in finasteride-induced apoptosis in rat testis: inositol requiring kinase 1 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soni KK

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Kiran Kumar Soni,1,* Yu Seob Shin,1,* Bo Ram Choi,1 Keshab Kumar Karna,1 Hye Kyung Kim,2 Sung Won Lee,3 Chul Young Kim,4 Jong Kwan Park1 1Department of Urology, Chonbuk National University and Research Institute of Clinical Medicine of Chonbuk National University-Biomedical Research Institute and Clinical Trial Center of Medical Device of Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, 2College of Pharmacy, Kyungsung University, Busan, 3Department of Urology, Samsung Medical Center, Samsung Biomedical Research Institute, Sungkyunkwan University Medical School, Seoul, 4College of Pharmacy, Hangyang University, Ansan, Republic of Korea *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Finasteride is used to treat male pattern baldness and benign prostatic hyperplasia. This study investigated the toxicity of finasteride and recovery by DA-9401 using Sprague Dawley (SD rats. Forty adult male SD rats were assigned to four groups: control (CTR, finasteride 1 mg/kg/day (F, finasteride 1 mg/kg + DA-9401 100 mg/kg/day (F + DA 100 and finasteride 1 mg/kg + DA-9401 200 mg/kg/day (F + DA 200. Treatments were by oral delivery once daily for 90 consecutive days. The gross anatomical parameters assessed included: genital organ weight; vas deferens sperm count and sperm motility; testosterone, dihydrotestosterone (DHT and malondialdehyde levels; and histological and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase enzyme mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL staining of testis for spermatogenic cell density, Johnsen’s score and apoptosis. Testicular tissue was also used for evaluating endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress and apoptotic proteins. Epididymis weight, seminal vesicle weight, prostate weight, penile weight and vas deferens sperm motility showed significant differences between the F group and the CTR, F + DA 100 and F + DA 200 groups. There was no significant change in the testosterone level. DHT level decreased significantly in the F group compared with the CTR

  15. Molecular mechanisms involved in cochlear implantation trauma and the protection of hearing and auditory sensory cells by inhibition of c-Jun-N-terminal kinase signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshraghi, Adrien A; Gupta, Chhavi; Van De Water, Thomas R; Bohorquez, Jorge E; Garnham, Carolyn; Bas, Esperanza; Talamo, Victoria Maria

    2013-03-01

    To investigate the molecular mechanisms involved in electrode insertion trauma (EIT) and to test the otoprotective effect of locally delivered AM-111. An animal model of cochlear implantation. Guinea pigs' hearing thresholds were measured by auditory brainstem response (ABR) before and after cochlear implantation in four groups: EIT; pretreated with hyaluronate gel 30 minutes before EIT (EIT+Gel); pretreated with hyaluronate gel/AM-111 30 minutes before EIT (EIT+AM-111); and unoperated contralateral ears as controls. Neurofilament, synapsin, and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-phalloidin staining for hair cell counts were performed at 90 days post-EIT. Immunostaining for 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE), activated caspase-3, CellROX, and phospho-c-Jun were performed at 24 hours post-EIT. ABR thresholds increased post-EIT in the cochleae of EIT only and EIT+Gel treated animals. There was no significant increase in hearing thresholds in cochleae from either EIT+AM-111 treated or unoperated control ears. AM-111 protection of organ of Corti sensory elements (i.e., hair cells [HCs], supporting cells [SCs], nerve fibers, and synapses) was documented at 3 months post-EIT. Immunostaining of 24-hour post-EIT specimens demonstrated increased levels of HNE in HCs and SCs; increased levels of CellROX and activation of caspase-3 was observed only in SCs, and phosphorylation of c-Jun occurred only in HCs of the EIT-only and EIT+Gel specimens. There was no immunostaining for either HNE, CellROX, caspase-3, or phospho-c-Jun in the organ of Corti specimens from AM-111 treated cochleae. Molecular mechanisms involved in programmed cell death of HCs are different than the ones involved in programmed cell death of SCs. Local delivery of AM-111 provided a significant level of protection against EIT-induced hearing losses, HC losses, and damage to neural elements. Copyright © 2012 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  16. Hormone assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisentraut, A.M.

    1977-01-01

    An improved radioimmunoassay is described for measuring total triiodothyronine or total thyroxine levels in a sample of serum containing free endogenous thyroid hormone and endogenous thyroid hormone bound to thyroid hormone binding protein. The thyroid hormone is released from the protein by adding hydrochloric acid to the serum. The pH of the separated thyroid hormone and thyroid hormone binding protein is raised in the absence of a blocking agent without interference from the endogenous protein. 125 I-labelled thyroid hormone and thyroid hormone antibodies are added to the mixture, allowing the labelled and unlabelled thyroid hormone and the thyroid hormone antibody to bind competitively. This results in free thyroid hormone being separated from antibody bound thyroid hormone and thus the unknown quantity of thyroid hormone may be determined. A thyroid hormone test assay kit is described for this radioimmunoassay. It provides a 'single tube' assay which does not require blocking agents for endogenous protein interference nor an external solid phase sorption step for the separation of bound and free hormone after the competitive binding step; it also requires a minimum number of manipulative steps. Examples of the assay are given to illustrate the reproducibility, linearity and specificity of the assay. (UK)

  17. Assay system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patzke, J.B.; Rosenberg, B.J.

    1984-01-01

    The accuracy of assays for monitoring concentrations of basic drugs in biological fluids containing a 1 -acid glycoproteins, such as blood (serum or plasma), is improved by the addition of certain organic phosphate compounds to minimize the ''protein effect.'' Kits containing the elements of the invention are also disclosed

  18. Termination of Safeguards on ULWBR Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivan R. Thomas; Ernest L. Laible

    2008-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Management, has approved the disposition of 31 metric tons of Unirradiated Light Water Breeder Reactor (ULWBR) material in canisters stored within dry wells of the Underground Fuel Storage Facility at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC). This unirradiated material consists primarily of ceramic pellets of thorium oxide in stainless steel cladding, but it also contains 300 kilograms of uranium that is 98 wt% U-233. The ULWBR material was not processed at the INTEC because it was incompatible with prior chemical separation schemes. Other economical recovery options have not been identified, and expressions of interest for consolidating the material with existing projects at other DOE sites have not been received. The U-233 could be used for producing the medical isotope Actinium-225, but the proof-of-principle demonstration and follow-on pilot program have not been developed to the point of requiring production quantities of U-233. Consequently, the selected disposition of the ULWBR material was burial as Low Level Waste at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), which required terminating safeguards controls for the contained Category II quantity of Attractiveness Level D special nuclear material (SNM). The requested termination followed the twelve point evaluation criteria of the Historical Defense Program Discard Guidance and included a security analysis for evaluating the risks of theft, diversion, and radiological sabotage associated with the material. Continuity of knowledge in the book inventory was assured by documenting that the original shipper's measurements accurately reflected the quantities of materials received and that the ULWBR materials had remained under adequate physical protection and had been subject to periodic physical inventories. The method selected for substantiating the book values as the basis for terminating safeguards was the nondestructive assay used during physical

  19. Anti-human α-synuclein N-terminal peptide antibody protects against dopaminergic cell death and ameliorates behavioral deficits in an AAV-α-synuclein rat model of Parkinson's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Shahaduzzaman

    Full Text Available The protein α-synuclein (α-Syn has a central role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD and immunotherapeutic approaches targeting this molecule have shown promising results. In this study, novel antibodies were generated against specific peptides from full length human α-Syn and evaluated for effectiveness in ameliorating α-Syn-induced cell death and behavioral deficits in an AAV-α-Syn expressing rat model of PD. Fisher 344 rats were injected with rAAV vector into the right substantia nigra (SN, while control rats received an AAV vector expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP. Beginning one week after injection of the AAV-α-Syn vectors, rats were treated intraperitoneally with either control IgG or antibodies against the N-terminal (AB1, or central region (AB2 of α-Syn. An unbiased stereological estimation of TH+, NeuN+, and OX6 (MHC-II immunostaining revealed that the α-Syn peptide antibodies (AB1 and AB2 significantly inhibited α-Syn-induced dopaminergic cell (DA and NeuN+ cell loss (one-way ANOVA (F (3, 30 = 5.8, p = 0.002 and (F (3, 29 = 7.92, p = 0.002 respectively, as well as decreasing the number of activated microglia in the ipsilateral SN (one-way ANOVA F = 14.09; p = 0.0003. Antibody treated animals also had lower levels of α-Syn in the ipsilateral SN (one-way ANOVA F (7, 37 = 9.786; p = 0.0001 and demonstrated a partial intermediate improvement of the behavioral deficits. Our data suggest that, in particular, an α-Syn peptide antibody against the N-terminal region of the protein can protect against DA neuron loss and, to some extent behavioral deficits. As such, these results may be a potential therapeutic strategy for halting the progression of PD.

  20. A case study of chewed Truvada® for PrEP maintaining protective drug levels as measured by a novel urine tenofovir assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalley-Chareczko, Linden; Clark, Devon; Zuppa, Athena F; Moorthy, Ganesh; Conyngham, Caitlin; Mounzer, Karam; Koenig, Helen

    2017-01-01

    Emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (FTC/TDF; Truvada ® ) given as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) successfully blocks HIV when taken once daily prior to potential HIV exposure. A 22-year-old male reported difficulty swallowing FTC/TDF for PrEP and subsequently began chewing the FTC/TDF tablets. Monthly urine samples assessed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) indicated tenofovir levels >1,000 ng/ml, indicative of protection from HIV acquisition, over a 48-week period. Data from observational studies of HIV-positive patients details the successful treatment of HIV using crushed FTC/TDF delivered via feeding and gastronomy tubes while small, randomized trials of healthy volunteers demonstrate bioequivalence between whole and crushed FTC/TDF.

  1. kosh Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

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    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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  13. kilm Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

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  1. kcmx Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

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    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  14. kbur Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

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    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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  3. kstl Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

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  4. kbfi Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

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  5. khsv Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

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  7. kekn Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

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  9. kith Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

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  14. kmgm Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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  20. Organizational Relationship Termination Competence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritter, Thomas; Geersbro, Jens

    2011-01-01

    termination are found to significantly affect a firm's relationship termination competence. The findings suggest that managers should regard termination as a legitimate option in customer relationship management. In order to decrease the number of unwanted customers, managers must accept termination......Most firms are involved in a number of customer relationships that drain the firm's resources. However, many firms are hesitant to address this problem. This paper investigates customer relationship termination at the organizational level. We develop and analyze the organizational dimensions...... of organizational termination in order to improve our understanding of the management of termination. The impact of these termination dimensions on the percentage of unwanted customers is developed and tested using PLS on data gathered from a cross-sectional survey of more than 800 sales representatives. We find...

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  3. kaex Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  4. klbx Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  5. kmia Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  6. kpit Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  7. kcrw Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  8. paen Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  9. kast Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  10. kuin Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  11. kmht Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  12. kcys Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  13. kflo Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  14. pakn Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  15. pabt Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  16. krdg Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  17. khdn Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  18. kjac Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  19. kphx Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  20. 40 CFR 35.6760 - Enforcement and termination for convenience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... convenience. 35.6760 Section 35.6760 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND... Enforcement and termination for convenience. The recipient must comply with all terms and conditions in the... termination for convenience described in 40 CFR 31.43 and 31.44. ...

  1. Immunization with Tc52 or its amino terminal domain adjuvanted with c-di-AMP induces Th17+Th1 specific immune responses and confers protection against Trypanosoma cruzi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina N Matos

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The development of new adjuvants enables fine modulation of the elicited immune responses. Ideally, the use of one or more adjuvants should result in the induction of a protective immune response against the specific pathogen. We have evaluated the immune response and protection against Trypanosoma cruzi infection in mice vaccinated with recombinant Tc52 or its N- and C-terminal domains (NTc52 and CTc52 adjuvanted either with the STING (Stimulator of Interferon Genes agonist cyclic di-AMP (c-di-AMP, a pegylated derivative of α-galactosylceramide (αGC-PEG, or oligodeoxynucleotides containing unmethylated CpG motifs (ODN-CpG. All groups immunized with the recombinant proteins plus adjuvant: Tc52+c-di-AMP, NTc52+c-di-AMP, CTc52+c-di-AMP, NTc52+c-di-AMP+αGC-PEG, NTc52+CpG, developed significantly higher anti-Tc52 IgG titers than controls. Groups immunized with c-di-AMP and Tc52, NTc52 or CTc52 showed the highest Tc52-specific IgA titers in nasal lavages. All groups immunized with the recombinant proteins plus adjuvant developed a strong specific cellular immune response in splenocytes and lymph node cells with significant differences for groups immunized with c-di-AMP and Tc52, NTc52 or CTc52. These groups also showed high levels of Tc52-specific IL-17 and IFN-γ producing cells, while NTc52+CpG group only showed significant difference with control in IFN-γ producing cells. Groups immunized with c-di-AMP and Tc52, NTc52 or CTc52 developed predominantly a Th17 and Th1immune response, whereas for NTc52+CpG it was a dominant Th1 response. It was previously described that αGC-PEG inhibits Th17 differentiation by activating NKT cells. Thus, in this work we have also included a group immunized with both adjuvants (NTc52+c-di-AMP+αGC-PEG with the aim to modulate the Th17 response induced by c-di-AMP. This group showed a significant reduction in the number of Tc52-specific IL-17 producing splenocytes, as compared to the group NTc52+c-di-AMP, which has

  2. Transcription termination in the plasmid/virus hybrid pSSVx from Sulfolobus islandicus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Contursi, Patrizia; Cannio, Raffaele; She, Qunxin

    2010-01-01

    The pSSVx from Sulfolobus islandicus, strain REY15/4, is a hybrid between a plasmid and a fusellovirus. A systematic study previously performed revealed the presence of nine major transcripts, the expression of which was differentially and temporally regulated over the growth cycle of S. islandicus....... In this study, two new transcripts were identified. Then, 3' termini of all the RNAs were mapped using adaptor RT-PCR and RNase protection assays, and termination/arrest positions were identified for each transcript. The majority of the identified ending positions were located in the close vicinity of a T...... and counter-transcripts might be responsible for the transcription termination at these T-track-minus loci in the closely spaced pSSVx genes....

  3. Exercise training protects against atherosclerotic risk factors through vascular NADPH oxidase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinase downregulation in obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touati, Sabeur; Montezano, Augusto C I; Meziri, Fayçal; Riva, Catherine; Touyz, Rhian M; Laurant, Pascal

    2015-02-01

    Exercise training reverses atherosclerotic risk factors associated with metabolic syndrome and obesity. The aim of the present study was to determine the molecular anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative and anti-atherogenic effects in aorta from rats with high-fat diet-induced obesity. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were placed on a high-fat (HFD) or control (CD) diet for 12 weeks. The HFD rats were then divided into four groups: (i) sedentary HFD-fed rats (HFD-S); (ii) exercise trained (motor treadmill 5 days/week, 60 min/day, 12 weeks) HFD-fed rats (HFD-Ex); (iii) modified diet (HFD to CD) sedentary rats (HF/CD-S); and (iv) an exercise-trained modified diet group (HF/CD-Ex). Tissue levels of NADPH oxidase (activity and expression), NADPH oxidase (Nox) 1, Nox2, Nox4, p47(phox) , superoxide dismutase (SOD)-1, angiotensin AT1 and AT2 receptors, phosphorylated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK; extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2, stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK)/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) were determined in the aorta. Plasma cytokines (tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-6) levels were also measured. Obesity was accompanied by increases in NADPH oxidase activity, p47(phox) translocation, Nox4 and VCAM-1 protein expression, MAPK (ERK1/2, SAPK/JNK) phosphorylation and plasma TNF-α and IL-6 levels. Exercise training and switching from the HFD to CD reversed almost all these molecular changes. In addition, training increased aortic SOD-1 protein expression and decreased ERK1/2 phosphorylation. These findings suggest that protective effects of exercise training on atherosclerotic risk factors induced by obesity are associated with downregulation of NADPH oxidase, ERK1/2 and SAPK/JNK activity and increased SOD-1 expression. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  4. CONTAINER TERMINALS IN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart W. WIEGMANS

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to address the linkage between logistics (in particular, the management of marketing channel flows and transport markets, while also the interaction between these two markets and intermodal container terminals is analysed. The marketing channel theory is used to describe all relevant actors and flows that run through marketing channels, starting with customer needs and ending with customer satisfaction. Porter's theory of competitive advantages is used to review competitive forces in both markets. Finally, a competitor analysis is performed for the logistics and transport market. These theories are applied so as to be able to determine the competitive position of intermodal container terminals with a view to the management of marketing channel flows and the physical transport of freight flows. Hence, the central question of this paper is: Which markets are served by intermodal container terminals and with whom are they competing? At present, neither the maritime container terminals nor the continental container terminals appear to have a significant influence in the logistics service market; they concentrate mainly on the physical movement of containers (transshipment. Furthermore, maritime container terminals and continental container terminals are not dominant players in the transport service market. Our conclusion is that continental terminals are predominantly competing with unimodal road transport, with neighbouring continental terminals and with barge transport companies.

  5. Lazy Productivity via Termination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endrullis, J.; Hendriks, R.D.A.

    2011-01-01

    We present a procedure for transforming strongly sequential constructor-based term rewriting systems (TRSs) into context-sensitive TRSs in such a way that productivity of the input system is equivalent to termination of the output system. Thereby automated termination provers become available for

  6. Termination of cycle rewriting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zantema, H.; König, B.; Bruggink, H.J.S.; Dowek, G.

    2014-01-01

    String rewriting can not only be applied on strings, but also on cycles and even on general graphs. In this paper we investigate termination of string rewriting applied on cycles, shortly denoted as cycle rewriting, which is a strictly stronger requirement than termination on strings. Most

  7. Kitimat LNG terminal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmaltz, I.; Boulton, R.

    2007-01-01

    Kitimat Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) terminal is a terminal development company owned by Galveston LNG, a privately owned Canadian energy development company. This presentation provided information on Kitimat LNG with particular reference to its terminal located in Bish Cove on the Douglas Channel in British Columbia. This LNG terminal is reported to be the only fully permitted regasification terminal on the west coast of Canada and the United States. The presentation addressed market fundamentals including several graphs, such as world natural gas proved reserves in 2006; LNG supplements to Canadian gas supplies; global LNG demand for 2005-2020; average annual United States LNG imports; and global LNG liquefaction projects. Other market fundamentals were described, including that Kitimat is the only other approved terminal aside from the Costa Azul terminal in Mexico; Kitimat is the only west coast LNG import terminal that connects to midwest and eastern North American markets through existing gas pipelines; LNG producers are looking for destination diversification; and markets and marketers are looking for supply diversification. The authors noted that by 2010, western Canadian gas demand will exceed Californian demand. Other topics that were discussed in the presentation included Canadian natural gas field receipts; unadjusted bitumen production outlook; oil sands gas demand; forward basis fundamentals; and the commercial drivers of the Kitimat LNG terminal. The presentation also discussed the pacific trail pipelines, a partnership between Galveston LNG and Pacific Northern Gas to develop the natural gas transmission line from Kitimat to Summit. The presentation concluded with a discussion of the benefits of Kitimat LNG terminal such as providing access to the largest natural gas markets in the world via major gas transmission lines with spare capacity. figs

  8. Nonleaking battery terminals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snider, W. E.; Nagle, W. J.

    1972-01-01

    Three different terminals were designed for usage in a 40 ampere/hour silver zinc battery which has a 45% KOH by weight electrolyte in a plastic battery case. Life tests, including thermal cycling, electrical charge and discharge for up to three years duration, were conducted on these three different terminal designs. Tests for creep rate and tensile strength were conducted on the polyphenylene oxide plastic battery cases. Some cases were unused and others containing KOH electrolyte were placed on life tests. The design and testing of nonleaking battery terminals for use with a KOH electrolyte in a plastic case are considered.

  9. Nontraumatic terminal ileal perforation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wani Rauf A

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is still confusion and controversy over the diagnosis and optimal surgical treatment of non traumatic terminal ileal perforation-a cause of obscure peritonitis. Methods This study was a prospective study aimed at evaluating the clinical profile, etiology and optimal surgical management of patients with nontraumatic terminal ileal perforation. Results There were 79 cases of nontraumatic terminal ileal perforation; the causes for perforation were enteric fever(62%, nonspecific inflammation(26%, obstruction(6%, tuberculosis(4% and radiation enteritis (1%. Simple closure of the perforation (49% and end to side ileotransverse anastomosis(42% were the mainstay of the surgical management. Conclusion Terminal ileal perforation should be suspected in all cases of peritonitis especially in developing countries and surgical treatment should be optimized taking various accounts like etiology, delay in surgery and operative findings into consideration to reduce the incidence of deadly complications like fecal fistula.

  10. Terminated Multifamily Mortgages Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This dataset includes all terminated HUD Multifamily mortgages except those from the Hospital Mortgage Insurance Program. It includes the Holder and Servicer at the...

  11. Coal terminal directory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-06-15

    The directory gives a comprehensive listing of the world's coal terminals, in a total of 50 countries including information on throughput, facilities, storage capacity, and vessel size limitation.

  12. Visual communication and terminal equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Cheol Hui

    1988-06-01

    This book is divided two parts about visual communication and terminal equipment. The first part introduces visual communication, which deals with foundation of visual communication, technique of visual communication, equipment of visual communication, a facsimile and pictorial image system. The second part contains terminal equipment such as telephone, terminal equipment for data transmission on constitution and constituent of terminal equipment for data transmission, input device and output device, terminal device and up-to-date terminal device.

  13. Visual communication and terminal equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Cheol Hui

    1988-06-15

    This book is divided two parts about visual communication and terminal equipment. The first part introduces visual communication, which deals with foundation of visual communication, technique of visual communication, equipment of visual communication, a facsimile and pictorial image system. The second part contains terminal equipment such as telephone, terminal equipment for data transmission on constitution and constituent of terminal equipment for data transmission, input device and output device, terminal device and up-to-date terminal device.

  14. 40 CFR 73.73 - Delegation of auctions and sales and termination of auctions and sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Delegation of auctions and sales and termination of auctions and sales. 73.73 Section 73.73 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Independent Power Producers Written Guarantee § 73.73 Delegation of auctions and sales and termination of...

  15. Development of a swine specific 9-plex Luminex cytokine assay and assessment of immunity after porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) vaccination: Elevated serum IL-12 levels are not predictive of protect

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Luminex multiplex swine cytokine assay was developed to measure 9 cytokines simultaneously in pig serum and tested in a porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) vaccine/challenge study. This assay detects innate (IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-8, IFNa, TNFa); regulatory (IL-10), Th1 (IL-12, I...

  16. Protective effects of Brussels sprouts towards B[a]P-induced DNA damage: a model study with the single-cell gel electrophpresis (SCGE)/Hep G2 assay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laky, B.; Knasmuller, S.; Gminski, R.; Mersch-Sundermann, V.; Scharf, G.; Verkerk, R.; Freywald, C.; Uhl, M.; Kassie, F.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the chemoprotective effects of Brussels sprouts juice towards benzo[a]pyrene (B(a)P)-induced DNA damage in the single-cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE)/Hep G2 test system. This assay combines the advantages of the SCGE assay with that of the use of

  17. Tandem Terminal Ion Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harper, G.C.; Lindner, C.E.; Myers, A.W.; Wechel, T.D. van

    2000-01-01

    OAK-B135 Tandem Terminal Ion Source. The terminal ion source (TIS) was used in several experiments during this reporting period, all for the 7 Be(γ) 8 B experiment. Most of the runs used 1 H + at terminal voltages from 0.3 MV to 1.5 MV. One of the runs used 2 H + at terminal voltage of 1.4 MV. The other run used 4 He + at a terminal voltage of 1.37 MV. The list of experiments run with the TIS to date is given in table 1 below. The tank was opened four times for unscheduled source repairs. On one occasion the tank was opened to replace the einzel lens power supply which had failed. The 10 kV unit was replaced with a 15 kV unit. The second time the tank was opened to repair the extractor supply which was damaged by a tank spark. On the next occasion the tank was opened to replace a source canal which had sputtered away. Finally, the tank was opened to replace the discharge bottle which had been coated with aluminum sputtered from the exit canal

  18. Tandem Terminal Ion Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    None

    2000-01-01

    OAK-B135 Tandem Terminal Ion Source. The terminal ion source (TIS) was used in several experiments during this reporting period, all for the(sup 7)Be((gamma))(sup 8)B experiment. Most of the runs used(sup 1)H(sup+) at terminal voltages from 0.3 MV to 1.5 MV. One of the runs used(sup 2)H(sup+) at terminal voltage of 1.4 MV. The other run used(sup 4)He(sup+) at a terminal voltage of 1.37 MV. The list of experiments run with the TIS to date is given in table 1 below. The tank was opened four times for unscheduled source repairs. On one occasion the tank was opened to replace the einzel lens power supply which had failed. The 10 kV unit was replaced with a 15 kV unit. The second time the tank was opened to repair the extractor supply which was damaged by a tank spark. On the next occasion the tank was opened to replace a source canal which had sputtered away. Finally, the tank was opened to replace the discharge bottle which had been coated with aluminum sputtered from the exit canal

  19. Windows Terminal Servers Orchestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowiec, Sebastian; Gaspar, Ricardo; Smith, Tim

    2017-10-01

    Windows Terminal Servers provide application gateways for various parts of the CERN accelerator complex, used by hundreds of CERN users every day. The combination of new tools such as Puppet, HAProxy and Microsoft System Center suite enable automation of provisioning workflows to provide a terminal server infrastructure that can scale up and down in an automated manner. The orchestration does not only reduce the time and effort necessary to deploy new instances, but also facilitates operations such as patching, analysis and recreation of compromised nodes as well as catering for workload peaks.

  20. 40 CFR 79.67 - Glial fibrillary acidic protein assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Glial fibrillary acidic protein assay... Glial fibrillary acidic protein assay. (a) Purpose. Chemical-induced injury of the nervous system, i.e... paragraph (e)(3) in this section). Assays of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), the major intermediate...

  1. The Tiny Terminators

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 5. The Tiny Terminators - Mosquitoes and Diseases. P K Sumodan. General Article Volume 6 Issue 5 May 2001 pp 48-55. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/006/05/0048-0055 ...

  2. Making Wireless Terminals Simpler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Søren Skovgaard; Popovski, Petar; De Carvalho, Elisabeth

    2005-01-01

    equalization in the downlink, which these requirements lead to. We propose to solve the problem by applying pre-processing at the base station, thereby rendering the terminal simple. We establish a general MIMO block transmission model, and derive different transmit/receive filters, based on the Linear Minimum...

  3. Trauma and termination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, F

    1995-02-01

    The author suggests a particular reading of the thesis put forward by Freud in 'Analysis terminable and interminable' that an effective and more definitive conclusion may be expected in analyses of cases with traumatic aetiology. This reading shifts the emphasis from the patient's history to the possibility of its crystallising in focal nuclei emerging within the analytic relationship under the pressure of the termination. The revival of separation anxieties which cannot be worked through, and their crystallisation in precipitating traumatic events, may give rise to decisive psychic work allowing the analysis to be brought to a conclusion. Two case histories are presented to show how the end of the analysis assumes the form of a new trauma, which reactivates in the present, traumatic anxieties from the patient's own infantile history. In the first case a premature birth and in the second a miscarriage, originally experienced as isolated automatic events without time or history, are relived in the terminal phase as vicissitudes of the transference, so that new meaning can be assigned to them and they can be withdrawn from the somatic cycle of repetition. The powerful tendency to act out and the intense countertransference pressure on the analyst are discussed in the light of the specificities of this phase, which is crucial to the success of the analysis. This leads to a re-examination, in the concluding notes, of some theoretical questions inherent in the problem of the termination and, in particular, to a discussion of the ambiguous concept of a natural ending.

  4. Prematurely terminated slug tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karasaki, K.

    1990-07-01

    A solution of the well response to a prematurely terminated slug test (PTST) is presented. The advantages of a PTST over conventional slug tests are discussed. A systematized procedure of a PTST is proposed, where a slug test is terminated in the midpoint of the flow point, and the subsequent shut-in data is recorded and analyzed. This method requires a downhole shut-in device and a pressure transducer, which is no more than the conventional deep-well slug testing. As opposed to slug tests, which are ineffective when a skin is present, more accurate estimate of formation permeability can be made using a PTST. Premature termination also shortens the test duration considerably. Because in most cases no more information is gained by completing a slug test to the end, the author recommends that conventional slug tests be replaced by the premature termination technique. This study is part of an investigation of the feasibility of geologic isolation of nuclear wastes being carried out by the US Department of Energy and the National Cooperative for the Storage of Radioactive Waste of Switzerland

  5. Protection but maintained dysfunction of nigral dopaminergic nerve cell bodies and striatal dopaminergic terminals in MPTP-lesioned mice after acute treatment with the mGluR5 antagonist MPEP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, Jose A; Kehr, Jan; Yoshitake, Takashi; Liu, Fang-Ling; Rivera, Alicia; Fernandez-Espinola, Sergio; Andbjer, Beth; Leo, Giuseppina; Medhurst, Andrew D; Agnati, Luigi F; Fuxe, Kjell

    2005-02-08

    The mGluR5 antagonist MPEP was used to study the role of mGluR5 in MPTP-induced injury of the nigrostriatal DA neurons. The findings indicate that acute blockade of mGluR5 may result in neuroprotective actions against MPTP neurotoxicity on nigral DA cell bodies and striatal DA terminals using stereological analysis of TH immunoreactivity and microdensitometry. Biochemical analysis showed no restoration of DA levels and metabolism indicating a maintained reduction of DA transmission.

  6. Correlates of immune protection: Standardized and automated assays to interrogate correlates of immunity--Phacilitate Vaccine Forum Washington 2011. The Grand Hyatt, Washington, DC January 24–26, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Wade

    2011-06-01

    The utility of functional cell mediated immune assays in the assessment of immune response or immunogenicity is increasing significantly as we search for surrogates to determine vaccine efficacy or therapeutic response. No definitive reports to date have demonstrated that CMI assays in human clinical trials correlate with clinical outcome, although animal and non human primate studies have reported surrogacy in varying degrees. This report discusses the approaches identified, their advantages and disadvantages, and their justification for inclusion in the clinical trial setting.

  7. 40 CFR 60.502 - Standard for Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) emissions from bulk gasoline terminals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (VOC) emissions from bulk gasoline terminals. 60.502 Section 60.502 Protection of Environment... SOURCES Standards of Performance for Bulk Gasoline Terminals § 60.502 Standard for Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) emissions from bulk gasoline terminals. On and after the date on which § 60.8(a) requires a...

  8. NPOESS Field Terminal Updates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckmann, G.; Route, G.

    2009-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Department of Defense (DoD), and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are jointly acquiring the next-generation weather and environmental satellite system; the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS). NPOESS replaces the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) managed by NOAA and the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) managed by the DoD. The NPOESS satellites carry a suite of sensors that collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological, and solar-geophysical observations of the earth, atmosphere, and space. The ground data processing segment for NPOESS is the Interface Data Processing Segment (IDPS), developed by Raytheon Intelligence and Information Systems. The IDPS processes NPOESS satellite data to provide environmental data products (aka, Environmental Data Records or EDRs) to NOAA and DoD processing centers operated by the United States government. The IDPS will process EDRs beginning with the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) and continuing through the lifetime of the NPOESS system. IDPS also provides the software and requirements for the Field Terminal Segment (FTS). NPOESS provides support to deployed field terminals by providing mission data in the Low Rate and High Rate downlinks (LRD/HRD), mission support data needed to generate EDRs and decryption keys needed to decrypt mission data during Selective data Encryption (SDE). Mission support data consists of globally relevant data, geographically constrained data, and two line element sets. NPOESS provides these mission support data via the Internet accessible Mission Support Data Server and HRD/LRD downlinks. This presentation will illustrate and describe the NPOESS capabilities in support of Field Terminal users. This discussion will include the mission support data available to Field Terminal users, content of the direct broadcast HRD and LRD

  9. PTH Assays: Understanding What We Have and Forecasting What We Will Have

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Gilberto H. Vieira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Parathyroid hormone (PTH assays have evolved continuously for the last 50 years. Since the first radioimmunoassay was described in 1963, several assays based on immunological identification have been published (first generation assays. The routine assays used nowadays are immunometric “sandwich-type”. They are based on two different monoclonal antibodies, one amino-terminal and the other carboxyl terminal specific. These second generation assays are widely available and adapted to most of the automation platforms. The specificity of the amino terminal antibody defines if the immunometric assay measures only the bioactive PTH circulating form (including the first amino terminal amino acids or the “intact” PTH, which includes, besides bioactive PTH, other “long” carboxyl-terminal forms, for example, 7–84-PTH. Assays for “intact” PTH are the most commonly available and the potential advantage of the bioactive PTH assays is still debatable. Next generation of assays will be based on different principles, mainly mass spectrometry in samples submitted to a prior purification and fragmentation steps. These assays will provide information about the whole spectra of PTH peptides in circulation, with a significant increase of the information regarding this biologically important peptide hormone.

  10. Antecedents of Customer Relationship Termination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geersbro, Jens; Ritter, Thomas

    To end business relationships, or to more actively terminate relationships, has long been acknowledged as part of customer relationship management. However, compared to other elements such as initiation and maintenance of relationships, little is known about the termination of business...... relationships as a managerial task. This paper contributes by (1) developing a conceptualization of relationship termination competence and (2) analyzing its antecedents. The empirical results identify termination acceptance, definition non-customers, organizational relationship termination routines......, and motivation as significant antecedents. Because of this, managers need to develop their organizations in order to use relationship termination as a vital strategy....

  11. Antioxidants and the Comet assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cemeli, Eduardo; Baumgartner, Adolf; Anderson, Diana

    2009-01-01

    It is widely accepted that antioxidants, either endogenous or from the diet, play a key role in preserving health. They are able to quench radical species generated in situations of oxidative stress, either triggered by pathologies or xenobiotics, and they protect the integrity of DNA from genotoxicants. Nevertheless, there are still many compounds with unclear or unidentified prooxidant/antioxidant activities. This is of concern since there is an increase in the number of compounds synthesized or extracted from vegetables to which humans might be exposed. Despite the well-established protective effects of fruit and vegetables, the antioxidant(s) responsible have not all been clearly identified. There might also be alternative mechanisms contributing to the protective effects for which a comprehensive description is lacking. In the last two decades, the Comet assay has been extensively used for the investigation of the effects of antioxidants and many reports can be found in the literature. The Comet assay, a relatively fast, simple, and sensitive technique for the analysis of DNA damage in all cell types, has been applied for the screening of chemicals, biomonitoring and intervention studies. In the present review, several of the most well-known antioxidants are considered. These include: catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, selenium, iron chelators, melatonin, melanin, vitamins (A, B, C and E), carotenes, flavonoids, isoflavones, tea polyphenols, wine polyphenols and synthetic antioxidants. Investigations showing beneficial as well as non-beneficial properties of the antioxidants selected, either at the in vitro, ex vivo or in vivo level are discussed.

  12. Review paper. Terminal lucidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiriboga-Oleszczak Boris Alejandro

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Terminal lucidity is a term used in the medical literature to determine the improvement of mental functioning shortly before death, even among patients with serious and long-term disorders. In 19th century, cases of mind clarity recovery shortly before death, were often recognized by doctors and interpreted as a sign of an impending death. In 20th century, the interest in this phenomenon decreased and then, virtually disappear. In recent years, on the wave of publications concerning near death experiences and related events such as the end of life experiences, papers about the improvement of mental functioning shortly before death, exponentially grew and got a new name, terminal lucidity. In this paper, an overview of the available literature is presented to outline the historical, phenomenological and clinical picture of this phenomenon and its possible implications for medical care and future studies.

  13. Scandium Terminal Imido Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Erli; Chu, Jiaxiang; Chen, Yaofeng

    2018-02-20

    Research into transition metal complexes bearing multiply bonded main-group ligands has developed into a thriving and fruitful field over the past half century. These complexes, featuring terminal M═E/M≡E (M = transition metal; E = main-group element) multiple bonds, exhibit unique structural properties as well as rich reactivity, which render them attractive targets for inorganic/organometallic chemists as well as indispensable tools for organic/catalytic chemists. This fact has been highlighted by their widespread applications in organic synthesis, for example, as olefin metathesis catalysts. In the ongoing renaissance of transition metal-ligand multiple-bonding chemistry, there have been reports of M═E/M≡E interactions for the majority of the metallic elements of the periodic table, even some actinide metals. In stark contrast, the largest subgroup of the periodic table, rare-earth metals (Ln = Sc, Y, and lanthanides), have been excluded from this upsurge. Indeed, the synthesis of terminal Ln═E/Ln≡E multiple-bonding species lagged behind that of the transition metal and actinide congeners for decades. Although these species had been pursued since the discovery of a rare-earth metal bridging imide in 1991, such a terminal (nonpincer/bridging hapticities) Ln═E/Ln≡E bond species was not obtained until 2010. The scarcity is mainly attributed to the energy mismatch between the frontier orbitals of the metal and the ligand atoms. This renders the putative terminal Ln═E/Ln≡E bonds extremely reactive, thus resulting in the formation of aggregates and/or reaction with the ligand/environment, quenching the multiple-bond character. In 2010, the stalemate was broken by the isolation and structural characterization of the first rare-earth metal terminal imide-a scandium terminal imide-by our group. The double-bond character of the Sc═N bond was unequivocally confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Theoretical investigations revealed the presence

  14. n-Butyrate inhibits Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase activation and cytokine transcription in mast cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diakos, Christos; Prieschl, Eva E.; Saeemann, Marcus D.; Boehmig, Georg A.; Csonga, Robert; Sobanov, Yury; Baumruker, Thomas; Zlabinger, Gerhard J.

    2006-01-01

    Mast cells are well known to contribute to type I allergic conditions but only recently have been brought in association with chronic relapsing/remitting autoimmune diseases such as celiac disease and ulcerative colitis. Since the bacterial metabolite n-butyrate is considered to counteract intestinal inflammation we investigated the effects of this short chain fatty acid on mast cell activation. Using RNAse protection assays and reporter gene technology we show that n-butyrate downregulates TNF-α transcription. This correlates with an impaired activation of the Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) but not other MAP kinases such as ERK and p38 that are largely unaffected by n-butyrate. As a consequence, we observed a decreased nuclear activity of AP-1 and NF-AT transcription factors. These results indicate that n-butyrate inhibits critical inflammatory mediators in mast cells by relatively selectively targeting the JNK signalling

  15. LNG TERMINAL SAFE OPERATION MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Andrzej ADAMKIEWICZ; Włodzimierz KAMIŃSKI

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the significance of LNG terminal safety issues in natural gas sea transport. It shows particular requirements for LNG transmission installations resulting from the specific properties of LNG. Out of the multi‐layer critical safety areas comprising structural elements of the terminal safety system, possibilities to decrease the risk of emergency occurrence on LNG terminals have been selected. Tasks performed by the LNG terminal, together with its own personnel and the out...

  16. Radioreceptor opioid assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.J.; Chang, K.-J.

    1981-01-01

    A radioreceptor assay is described for assaying opioid drugs in biological fluids. The method enables the assay of total opioid activity, being specific for opioids as a class but lacking specificity within the class. A radio-iodinated opioid and the liquid test sample are incubated with an opiate receptor material. The percentage inhibition of the binding of the radio-iodinated compound to the opiate receptor is calculated and the opioid activity of the test liquid determined from a standard curve. Examples of preparing radio-iodinated opioids and assaying opioid activity are given. A test kit for the assay is described. Compared to other methods, this assay is cheap, easy and rapid. (U.K.)

  17. Absolute nuclear material assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Manoj K [Pleasanton, CA; Snyderman, Neal J [Berkeley, CA; Rowland, Mark S [Alamo, CA

    2010-07-13

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  18. Research on information security system of waste terminal disposal process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chao; Wang, Ziying; Guo, Jing; Guo, Yajuan; Huang, Wei

    2017-05-01

    Informatization has penetrated the whole process of production and operation of electric power enterprises. It not only improves the level of lean management and quality service, but also faces severe security risks. The internal network terminal is the outermost layer and the most vulnerable node of the inner network boundary. It has the characteristics of wide distribution, long depth and large quantity. The user and operation and maintenance personnel technical level and security awareness is uneven, which led to the internal network terminal is the weakest link in information security. Through the implementation of security of management, technology and physics, we should establish an internal network terminal security protection system, so as to fully protect the internal network terminal information security.

  19. Siting considerations for LNG import terminals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meratla, Z. [CDS Research Ltd., Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    Site selection criteria for liquefied natural gas (LNG) facilities and terminals were reviewed in this PowerPoint presentation. Onshore and offshore sites were discussed. Typical public opposition issues were examined, including public concerns over safety and the environment. Low key consultation processes with local communities was advised to assess levels of interest and opposition during initial stages. It was suggested that desirable LNG sites should not be visible from local communities. Remoteness from built-up areas was advised, as well as ensuring that sites meet the requirements of future expansion and large LNG carriers. Issues concerning waterway drawbacks and exclusion zones were examined, as well as the relative merits of onshore and offshore terminals. It was noted that onshore terminals are accessible to personnel as well as outside emergency response resources, and are less susceptible to weather related downtime. In addition, onshore spills are generally impounded. Offshore LNG import terminals are visible from shorelines and susceptible to stray marine traffic and abnormal events. Siting considerations for offshore facilities include sensitive areas; shipping channels; foundation issues; shipping lane access; and offshore pipeline lengths. Issues concerning loading arms, remote flare systems, integral ballast and process equipment for offshore facilities were discussed. Membrane type storage systems and tank construction details were presented as well as details of self supporting storage systems. A comparison of gravity-based structures and floating facilities was presented. It was concluded that floating LNG facilities have well developed security procedures, passive protection and automatic intruder detection alarms. tabs., figs.

  20. LNG TERMINAL SAFE OPERATION MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej ADAMKIEWICZ

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the significance of LNG terminal safety issues in natural gas sea transport. It shows particular requirements for LNG transmission installations resulting from the specific properties of LNG. Out of the multi‐layer critical safety areas comprising structural elements of the terminal safety system, possibilities to decrease the risk of emergency occurrence on LNG terminals have been selected. Tasks performed by the LNG terminal, together with its own personnel and the outside one, have been defined. General theses for LNG terminal safety have been formulated.

  1. Terminal weather information management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Alfred T.

    1990-01-01

    Since the mid-1960's, microburst/windshear events have caused at least 30 aircraft accidents and incidents and have killed more than 600 people in the United States alone. This study evaluated alternative means of alerting an airline crew to the presence of microburst/windshear events in the terminal area. Of particular interest was the relative effectiveness of conventional and data link ground-to-air transmissions of ground-based radar and low-level windshear sensing information on microburst/windshear avoidance. The Advanced Concepts Flight Simulator located at Ames Research Center was employed in a line oriented simulation of a scheduled round-trip airline flight from Salt Lake City to Denver Stapleton Airport. Actual weather en route and in the terminal area was simulated using recorded data. The microburst/windshear incident of July 11, 1988 was re-created for the Denver area operations. Six experienced airline crews currently flying scheduled routes were employed as test subjects for each of three groups: (1) A baseline group which received alerts via conventional air traffic control (ATC) tower transmissions; (2) An experimental group which received alerts/events displayed visually and aurally in the cockpit six miles (approx. 2 min.) from the microburst event; and (3) An additional experimental group received displayed alerts/events 23 linear miles (approx. 7 min.) from the microburst event. Analyses of crew communications and decision times showed a marked improvement in both situation awareness and decision-making with visually displayed ground-based radar information. Substantial reductions in the variability of decision times among crews in the visual display groups were also found. These findings suggest that crew performance will be enhanced and individual differences among crews due to differences in training and prior experience are significantly reduced by providing real-time, graphic display of terminal weather hazards.

  2. Endogenous Locus Reporter Assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yaping; Hermes, Jeffrey; Li, Jing; Tudor, Matthew

    2018-01-01

    Reporter gene assays are widely used in high-throughput screening (HTS) to identify compounds that modulate gene expression. Traditionally a reporter gene assay is built by cloning an endogenous promoter sequence or synthetic response elements in the regulatory region of a reporter gene to monitor transcriptional activity of a specific biological process (exogenous reporter assay). In contrast, an endogenous locus reporter has a reporter gene inserted in the endogenous gene locus that allows the reporter gene to be expressed under the control of the same regulatory elements as the endogenous gene, thus more accurately reflecting the changes seen in the regulation of the actual gene. In this chapter, we introduce some of the considerations behind building a reporter gene assay for high-throughput compound screening and describe the methods we have utilized to establish 1536-well format endogenous locus reporter and exogenous reporter assays for the screening of compounds that modulate Myc pathway activity.

  3. 34 CFR 97.123 - Early termination of research support: Evaluation of applications and proposals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Federal Policy for the Protection of Human Subjects (Basic ED Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects) § 97.123 Early termination of research support: Evaluation of... the protection of the rights and welfare of human subjects (whether or not the research was subject to...

  4. The Heliospheric Termination Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokipii, J. R.

    2013-06-01

    The heliospheric termination shock is a vast, spheroidal shock wave marking the transition from the supersonic solar wind to the slower flow in the heliosheath, in response to the pressure of the interstellar medium. It is one of the most-important boundaries in the outer heliosphere. It affects energetic particles strongly and for this reason is a significant factor in the effects of the Sun on Galactic cosmic rays. This paper summarizes the general properties and overall large-scale structure and motions of the termination shock. Observations over the past several years, both in situ and remote, have dramatically revised our understanding of the shock. The consensus now is that the shock is quite blunt, is with the front, blunt side canted at an angle to the flow direction of the local interstellar plasma relative to the Sun, and is dynamical and turbulent. Much of this new understanding has come from remote observations of energetic charged particles interacting with the shock, radio waves and radiation backscattered from interstellar neutral atoms. The observations and the implications are discussed.

  5. Solid phase assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reese, M.G.; Johnson, L.R.; Ransom, D.K.

    1980-01-01

    In a solid phase assay for quantitative determination of biological and other analytes, a sample such as serum is contacted with a receptor for the analyte being assayed, the receptor being supported on a solid support. No tracer for the analyte is added to the sample before contacting with the receptor; instead the tracer is contacted with the receptor after unbound analyte has been removed from the receptor. The assay can be otherwise performed in a conventional manner but can give greater sensitivity. (author)

  6. Resolution and termination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina FOLTIŞ

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The resolution, the termination and the reduction of labour conscription are regulated by articles 1549-1554 in the new Civil Code, which represents the common law in this matter. We appreciate that the new regulation does not conclusively clarify the issue related to whether the existence of liability in order to call upon the resolution is necessary or not, because the existence of this condition has been inferred under the previous regulation from the fact that the absence of liability shifts the inexecution issue on the domain of fortuitous impossibility of execution, situation in which the resolution of the contract is not in question, but that of the risk it implies.

  7. Mobile Termination and Mobile Penetration

    OpenAIRE

    Hurkens, Sjaak; Jeon, Doh-Shin

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we study how access pricing affects network competition when subscription demand is elastic and each network uses non-linear prices and can apply termination-based price discrimination. In the case of a fixed per minute termination charge, we find that a reduction of the termination charge below cost has two oppos- ing effects: it softens competition but helps to internalize network externalities. The former reduces mobile penetration while the latter boosts it. We find that fi...

  8. Mobile termination and mobile penetration

    OpenAIRE

    Hurkens, Sjaak

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we study how access pricing affects network competition when subscription demand is elastic and each network uses non-linear prices and can apply termination-based price discrimination. In the case of a fixed per minute termination charge, we find that a reduction of the termination charge below cost has two opposing effects: it softens competition but helps to internalize network externalities. The former reduces mobile penetration while the latter boosts it. We find that firm...

  9. Factor IX assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003679.htm Factor IX assay To use the sharing features on ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  10. Factor VIII assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003678.htm Factor VIII assay To use the sharing features on ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  11. Factor II assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003674.htm Factor II assay To use the sharing features on ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  12. Factor VII assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003676.htm Factor VII assay To use the sharing features on ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  13. Microbead agglutination based assays

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas; Castro, David; Foulds, Ian G.; Parameswaran, Ash M.; Sumanpreet, K. Chhina

    2013-01-01

    We report a simple and rapid room temperature assay for point-of-care (POC) testing that is based on specific agglutination. Agglutination tests are based on aggregation of microbeads in the presence of a specific analyte thus enabling

  14. Neutron Assay System for Confinement Vessel Disposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frame, Katherine C.; Bourne, Mark M.; Crooks, William J.; Evans, Louise; Mayo, Douglas R.; Miko, David K.; Salazar, William R.; Stange, Sy; Valdez, Jose I.; Vigil, Georgiana M.

    2012-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has a number of spherical confinement vessels (CVs) remaining from tests involving nuclear materials. These vessels have an inner diameter of 6 feet with 1-inch thick steel walls. The goal of the Confinement Vessel Disposition (CVD) project is to remove debris and reduce contamination inside the CVs. The Confinement Vessel Assay System (CVAS) was developed to measure the amount of special nuclear material (SNM) in CVs before and after cleanout. Prior to cleanout, the system will be used to perform a verification measurement of each vessel. After cleanout, the system will be used to perform safeguards-quality assays of (le)100-g 239 Pu equivalent in a vessel for safeguards termination. The CVAS has been tested and calibrated in preparation for verification and safeguards measurements.

  15. Microprocessor Protection of Power Reducing Transformers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. A. Romanuk

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains analysis of advantages and disadvantages of existing differential protection terminals of power reducing transformers. The paper shows that there are good reasons to develop microprocessor protection of power reducing transformer which contains required functions and settings and which is based on Belarusian principles of relay protection system construction. The paper presents functional structure of microprocessor terminal of power reducing transformer which is developed. 

  16. Microprocessor Protection of Power Reducing Transformers

    OpenAIRE

    F. A. Romanuk; S. P. Korolev; M. S. Loman

    2011-01-01

    The paper contains analysis of advantages and disadvantages of existing differential protection terminals of power reducing transformers. The paper shows that there are good reasons to develop microprocessor protection of power reducing transformer which contains required functions and settings and which is based on Belarusian principles of relay protection system construction. The paper presents functional structure of microprocessor terminal of power reducing transformer which is developed. 

  17. Selection of Air Terminal Device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.

    This paper discusses the selection of the air terminal device for the experiments and numerical prediction in the International Energy Agency Annex 20 work: Air Flow Pattern within Buildings,......This paper discusses the selection of the air terminal device for the experiments and numerical prediction in the International Energy Agency Annex 20 work: Air Flow Pattern within Buildings,...

  18. Telemetry component tests in the FN tandem terminal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bicek, J.J.; Billquis, P.J.; Yntema, J.L.

    1977-01-01

    When an electrostatic tandem accelerator is used primarily for heavy ion acceleration, numerous communication channels with the high voltage terminal are desirable. The ANL FN tandem operates at a tank pressure of 100 psi SF 6 at terminal voltages up to 9.5 MeV. A low powered He-Ne laser with 15 percent modulation has been successfully tested in the terminal under normal operating conditions. Such a system allows the transmission of information without the use of light guides. Multistranded light guides did not withstand voltage gradients as low as 0.4 MV/m. Single core light guides with a diameter of 0.5 mm have been successfully operated at voltage gradients in excess of 1.7 MV/m. In addition to the laser a microprocessor has also been tested in the tandem terminal. With suitable protection, an 8080 microprocessor and a programmable ROM operated successfully for several weeks under normal operating conditions

  19. The Risk of Termination Shock From Solar Geoengineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Andy; Irvine, Peter J.

    2018-03-01

    If solar geoengineering were to be deployed so as to mask a high level of global warming, and then stopped suddenly, there would be a rapid and damaging rise in temperatures. This effect is often referred to as termination shock, and it is an influential concept. Based on studies of its potential impacts, commentators often cite termination shock as one of the greatest risks of solar geoengineering. However, there has been little consideration of the likelihood of termination shock, so that conclusions about its risk are premature. This paper explores the physical characteristics of termination shock, then uses simple scenario analysis to plot out the pathways by which different driver events (such as terrorist attacks, natural disasters, or political action) could lead to termination. It then considers where timely policies could intervene to avert termination shock. We conclude that some relatively simple policies could protect a solar geoengineering system against most of the plausible drivers. If backup deployment hardware were maintained and if solar geoengineering were implemented by agreement among just a few powerful countries, then the system should be resilient against all but the most extreme catastrophes. If this analysis is correct, then termination shock should be much less likely, and therefore much less of a risk, than has previously been assumed. Much more sophisticated scenario analysis—going beyond simulations purely of worst-case scenarios—will be needed to allow for more insightful policy conclusions.

  20. Assay method and compositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    Methods are described for measuring catecholamine levels in human and animal body fluids and tissues using the catechol-O-methyl-transferase (COMT) radioassay. The assay involves incubating the biological sample with COMT and the tritiated methyl donor, S-adenosyl-L-methionine( 3 H)-methyl. The O-methylated ( 3 H) epinephrine and/or norepinephrine are extracted and oxidised to vanillin- 3 H which in turn is extracted and its radioactivity counted. When analysing dopamine levels the assay is extended by vanillin- 3 H and raising the pH of the aqueous periodate phase from which O-methylated ( 3 H) dopamine is extracted and counted. The assay may be modified depending on whether measurements of undifferentiated total endogenous catecholamine levels or differential analyses of the catecholamine levels are being performed. The sensitivity of the assay can be as low as 5 picograms for norepinephrine and epinephrine and 12 picograms for dopamine. The assemblance of the essential components of the assay into a kit for use in laboratories is also described. (U.K.)

  1. The practice of terminal discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radha Krishna, Lalit Kumar; Murugam, Vengadasalam; Quah, Daniel Song Chiek

    2017-01-01

    'Terminal discharges' are carried out in Singapore for patients who wish to die at home. However, if due diligence is not exercised, parallels may be drawn with euthanasia. We present a theoretical discussion beginning with the definition of terminal discharges and the reasons why they are carried out in Singapore. By considering the intention behind terminal discharges and utilising a multidisciplinary team to deliberate on the clinical, social and ethical intricacies with a patient- and context-specific approach, euthanasia is avoided. It is hoped that this will provide a platform for professionals in palliative medicine to negotiate challenging issues when arranging a terminal discharge, so as to avoid the pitfall of committing euthanasia in a country such as Singapore where euthanasia is illegal. It is hoped that a set of guidelines for terminal discharges may someday be realised to assist professionals in Singapore and around the world.

  2. Rover waste assay system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akers, D.W.; Stoots, C.M.; Kraft, N.C.; Marts, D.J. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1997-11-01

    The Rover Waste Assay System (RWAS) is a nondestructive assay system designed for the rapid assay of highly-enriched {sup 235}U contaminated piping, tank sections, and debris from the Rover nuclear rocket fuel processing facility at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. A scanning system translates a NaI(Tl) detector/collimator system over the structural components where both relative and calibrated measurements for {sup 137}Cs are made. Uranium-235 concentrations are in operation and is sufficiently automated that most functions are performed by the computer system. These functions include system calibration, problem identification, collimator control, data analysis, and reporting. Calibration of the system was done through a combination of measurements on calibration standards and benchmarked modeling. A description of the system is presented along with the methods and uncertainties associated with the calibration and analysis of the system for components from the Rover facility. 4 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Rover waste assay system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akers, D.W.; Stoots, C.M.; Kraft, N.C.; Marts, D.J.

    1997-01-01

    The Rover Waste Assay System (RWAS) is a nondestructive assay system designed for the rapid assay of highly-enriched 235 U contaminated piping, tank sections, and debris from the Rover nuclear rocket fuel processing facility at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. A scanning system translates a NaI(Tl) detector/collimator system over the structural components where both relative and calibrated measurements for 137 Cs are made. Uranium-235 concentrations are in operation and is sufficiently automated that most functions are performed by the computer system. These functions include system calibration, problem identification, collimator control, data analysis, and reporting. Calibration of the system was done through a combination of measurements on calibration standards and benchmarked modeling. A description of the system is presented along with the methods and uncertainties associated with the calibration and analysis of the system for components from the Rover facility. 4 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs

  4. Radioreceptor assay for insulin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Kazuo [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1975-04-01

    Radioreceptor assay of insulin was discussed from the aspects of the measuring method, its merits and problems to be solved, and its clinical application. Rat liver 10 x g pellet was used as receptor site, and enzymatic degradation of insulin by the system contained in this fraction was inhibited by adding 1 mM p-CMB. /sup 125/I-labelled porcine insulin was made by lactoperoxidase method under overnight incubation at 4/sup 0/C and later purification by Sephadex G-25 column and Whatman CF-11 cellulose powder. Dog pancreatic vein serum insulin during and after the glucose load was determined by radioreceptor assay and radioimmunoassay resulting that both measurements accorded considerably. Radioreceptor assay would clarify the pathology of disorders of glucose metabolism including diabetes.

  5. Detection of radiation-induced apoptosis using the comet assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, Seiichi; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko; Funayama, Tomoo; Yamamoto, Kazuo; Khoa, Tran Van; Natsuhori, Masahiro; Ito, Nobuhiko

    2003-01-01

    The electrophoresis pattern of apoptotic cells detected by the comet assay has a characteristic small head and spread tail. This image has been referred to as an apoptotic comet, but it has not been previously proven to be apoptotic cells by any direct method. In order to identify this image obtained by the comet assay as corresponding to an apoptotic cell, the frequency of appearance of apoptosis was examined using CHO-K1 and L5178Y cells which were exposed to gamma irradiation. As a method for detecting apoptosis, the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay was used. When the frequency of appearance of apoptotic cells following gamma irradiation was observed over a period of time, there was a significant increase in appearance of apoptosis when using the TUNEL assay. However, there was only a slight increase when using the comet assay. In order to verify the low frequency of appearance of apoptosis when using the comet assay, we attempted to use the TUNEL assay to satin the apoptotic comets detected in the comet assay. The apoptotic comets were TUNEL positive and the normal comets were TUNEL negative. This indicates that the apoptotic comets were formed from DNA fragments with 3'-hydroxy ends that are generated as cells undergo apoptosis. Therefore, it was understood that the characteristic pattern of apoptotic comets detected by the comet assay corresponds to cells undergoing apoptosis. (author)

  6. Clonogenic assay: adherent cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafehi, Haloom; Orlowski, Christian; Georgiadis, George T; Ververis, Katherine; El-Osta, Assam; Karagiannis, Tom C

    2011-03-13

    The clonogenic (or colony forming) assay has been established for more than 50 years; the original paper describing the technique was published in 1956. Apart from documenting the method, the initial landmark study generated the first radiation-dose response curve for X-ray irradiated mammalian (HeLa) cells in culture. Basically, the clonogenic assay enables an assessment of the differences in reproductive viability (capacity of cells to produce progeny; i.e. a single cell to form a colony of 50 or more cells) between control untreated cells and cells that have undergone various treatments such as exposure to ionising radiation, various chemical compounds (e.g. cytotoxic agents) or in other cases genetic manipulation. The assay has become the most widely accepted technique in radiation biology and has been widely used for evaluating the radiation sensitivity of different cell lines. Further, the clonogenic assay is commonly used for monitoring the efficacy of radiation modifying compounds and for determining the effects of cytotoxic agents and other anti-cancer therapeutics on colony forming ability, in different cell lines. A typical clonogenic survival experiment using adherent cells lines involves three distinct components, 1) treatment of the cell monolayer in tissue culture flasks, 2) preparation of single cell suspensions and plating an appropriate number of cells in petri dishes and 3) fixing and staining colonies following a relevant incubation period, which could range from 1-3 weeks, depending on the cell line. Here we demonstrate the general procedure for performing the clonogenic assay with adherent cell lines with the use of an immortalized human keratinocyte cell line (FEP-1811). Also, our aims are to describe common features of clonogenic assays including calculation of the plating efficiency and survival fractions after exposure of cells to radiation, and to exemplify modification of radiation-response with the use of a natural antioxidant

  7. Scintillation proximity assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, H.

    1980-01-01

    In a method of immunological assay two different classes of particles which interact at short distances to produce characteristic detectable signals are employed in a modification of the usual latex fixation test. In one embodiment an aqueous suspension of antigen coated tritiated latex particles (LH) and antigen coated polystyrene scintillant particles (L*) is employed to assay antibody in the aqueous medium. The amount of (LH) (L*) dimer formation and higher order aggregation induced and therefore the concentration of antibody (or antigen) present which caused the aggregation can be determined by using standard liquid scintillation counting equipment. (author)

  8. Assays for calcitonin receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teitelbaum, A.P.; Nissenson, R.A.; Arnaud, C.D.

    1985-01-01

    The assays for calcitonin receptors described focus on their use in the study of the well-established target organs for calcitonin, bone and kidney. The radioligand used in virtually all calcitonin binding studies is 125 I-labelled salmon calcitonin. The lack of methionine residues in this peptide permits the use of chloramine-T for the iodination reaction. Binding assays are described for intact bone, skeletal plasma membranes, renal plasma membranes, and primary kidney cell cultures of rats. Studies on calcitonin metabolism in laboratory animals and regulation of calcitonin receptors are reviewed

  9. A hanging drop culture method to study terminal erythroid differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Laura; Lindeboom, Fokke; Ferreira, Rita; Drissen, Roy; Grosveld, Frank; Whyatt, David; Philipsen, Sjaak

    2005-10-01

    To design a culture method allowing the quantitative and qualitative analysis of terminal erythroid differentiation. Primary erythroid progenitors derived either from mouse tissues or from human umbilical cord blood were differentiated using hanging drop cultures and compared to methylcellulose cultures. Cultured cells were analyzed by FACS to assess differentiation. We describe a practical culture method by adapting the previously described hanging drop culture system to conditions allowing terminal differentiation of primary erythroid progenitors. Using minimal volumes of media and small numbers of cells, we obtained quantitative terminal erythroid differentiation within two days of culture in the case of murine cells and 4 days in the case of human cells. The established methods for ex vivo culture of primary erythroid progenitors, such as methylcellulose-based burst-forming unit-erythroid (BFU-E) and colony-forming unit-erythroid (CFU-E) assays, allow the detection of committed erythroid progenitors but are of limited value to study terminal erythroid differentiation. We show that the application of hanging drop cultures is a practical alternative that, in combination with clonogenic assays, enables a comprehensive assessment of the behavior of primary erythroid cells ex vivo in the context of genetic and drug-induced perturbations.

  10. Ports and Terminals : Planning and Functional Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenveld, R.; Velsink, H.

    1993-01-01

    1. Maritime transport, means and commodities 3. Principles of integrated port planning 4. Planning and design of a port's water areas 5. Port terminals - introduction 6. Conventional general cargo terminals 7. Container terminals 8. Oil & liquid gas terminals 9. Dry bulk cargo terminals 10. Fishery

  11. 40 CFR 26.1113 - Suspension or termination of IRB approval of research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suspension or termination of IRB approval of research. 26.1113 Section 26.1113 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Pesticides Involving Intentional Exposure of Non-pregnant, Non-nursing Adults § 26.1113 Suspension or...

  12. Lateral flow assays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Posthuma-Trumpie, G.A.; Amerongen, van A.

    2012-01-01

    A simple version of immunochemical-based methods is the Lateral Flow Assay (LFA). It is a dry chemistry technique (reagents are included); the fluid from the sample runs through a porous membrane (often nitrocellulose) by capillary force. Typically the membrane is cut as a strip of 0.5*5 cm. In most

  13. Microchemiluminescent assay system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiel, J.L.

    1986-04-09

    The patent concerns a microchemiluminescent assay system, which can be used to detect ionizing radiation, heat or specific substances. The method involves the use of a complex formed from serum albumin and a luminescer which, in the presence of ionizing radiation (heat, or a specific analyte), will emit light in an amount proportional to the amount of radiation, etc. (U.K.).

  14. (MTT) dye reduction assay.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to inhibit proliferation of HeLa cells was determined using the 3443- dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) dye reduction assay. Extracts from roots of Agathisanthemum bojeri, Synaptolepis kirkii and Zanha africana and the leaf extract of Physalis peruviana at a concentration of 10 pg/ml inhibited cell ...

  15. Hyaluronic Acid Assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Itenov, Theis S; Kirkby, Nikolai S; Bestle, Morten H

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUD: Hyaluronic acid (HA) is proposed as a marker of functional liver capacity. The aim of the present study was to compare a new turbidimetric assay for measuring HA with the current standard method. METHODS: HA was measured by a particle-enhanced turbidimetric immunoassay (PETIA) and enzyme...

  16. FLUIDICS DEVICE FOR ASSAY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2007-01-01

    The present invention relates to a device for use in performing assays on standard laboratory solid supports whereon chemical entities are attached. The invention furthermore relates to the use of such a device and a kit comprising such a device. The device according to the present invention is a...

  17. Mechanisms of DNA replication termination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewar, James M; Walter, Johannes C

    2017-08-01

    Genome duplication is carried out by pairs of replication forks that assemble at origins of replication and then move in opposite directions. DNA replication ends when converging replication forks meet. During this process, which is known as replication termination, DNA synthesis is completed, the replication machinery is disassembled and daughter molecules are resolved. In this Review, we outline the steps that are likely to be common to replication termination in most organisms, namely, fork convergence, synthesis completion, replisome disassembly and decatenation. We briefly review the mechanism of termination in the bacterium Escherichia coli and in simian virus 40 (SV40) and also focus on recent advances in eukaryotic replication termination. In particular, we discuss the recently discovered E3 ubiquitin ligases that control replisome disassembly in yeast and higher eukaryotes, and how their activity is regulated to avoid genome instability.

  18. JCO criticality accident termination operation

    OpenAIRE

    金盛 正至

    2010-01-01

    In 2001, we summarized the circumstances surrounding termination of the JCO criticality accident based on testimony in the Mito District Court on December 17, 2001. JCO was the company for uranium fuels production in Japan. That document was assembled based on actual testimony in the belief that a description of the work involved in termination of the accident would be useful in some way for preventing nuclear disasters in the future. This year is the tenth year of the JCO criticality acciden...

  19. 29 CFR 1917.92 - Respiratory protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Respiratory protection. 1917.92 Section 1917.92 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) MARINE TERMINALS Personal Protection § 1917.92 Respiratory protection. (See § 1917.1(a)(2)(x...

  20. Radioreceptor assay for oxyphenonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ensing, K.; Zeeuw, R.A. de

    1984-01-01

    The development of a radioreceptor assay for the quaternary anticholinergic drug, oxyphenonium, in plasma is reported. It is based on competition between this drug and 3 H-dexetimide for binding to muscarinic receptors. After ion pair extraction and reextraction, the drug can be determined in plasma at concentrations down to a value of 100 pg/ml. This permits pharmacokinetic studies to be made after inhalation of oxyphenonium. (author)

  1. Dual isotope assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, G.F.W.; Stevens, R.A.J.; Jacoby, B.

    1980-01-01

    Dual isotope assays for thyroid function are performed by carrying out a radio-immunoassay for two of thyroxine (T4), tri-iodothyronine (T3), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), and thyroxine binding globulin (TBG), by a method wherein a version of one of the thyroid components, preferably T4 or T3 is labelled with Selenium-75 and the version of the other thyroid component is labelled with a different radionuclide, preferably Iodine-125. (author)

  2. Cell Culture Assay for Human Noroviruses [response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straub, Tim M.; Honer Zu Bentrup, Kerstin; Orosz Coghlan, Patricia; Dohnalkova, Alice; Mayer, Brooke K.; Bartholomew, Rachel A.; Valdez, Catherine O.; Bruckner-Lea, Cindy J.; Gerba, Charles P.; Abbaszadegan, Morteza A.; Nickerson, Cheryl A.

    2007-07-01

    We appreciate the comments provided by Leung et al., in response to our recently published article “In Vitro Cell Culture Infectivity Assay for Human Noroviruses” by Straub et al. (1). The specific aim of our project was to develop an in vitro cell culture infectivity assay for human noroviruses (hNoV) to enhance risk assessments when they are detected in water supplies. Reverse transcription (RT) qualitative or quantitative PCR are the primary assays for waterborne NoV monitoring. However, these assays cannot distinguish between infectious vs. non-infectious virions. When hNoV is detected in water supplies, information provided by our infectivity assay will significantly improve risk assessment models and protect human health, regardless of whether we are propagating NoV. Indeed, in vitro cell culture infectivity assays for the waterborne pathogen Cryptosporidium parvum that supplement approved fluorescent microscopy assays, do not result in amplification of the environmentally resistant hard-walled oocysts (2). However, identification of life cycle stages in cell culture provides evidence of infectious oocysts in a water supply. Nonetheless, Leung et al.’s assertion regarding the suitability of our method for the in vitro propagation of high titers of NoV is valid for the medical research community. In this case, well-characterized challenge pools of virus would be useful for developing and testing diagnostics, therapeutics, and vaccines. As further validation of our published findings, we have now optimized RT quantitative PCR to assess the level of viral production in cell culture, where we are indeed finding significant increases in viral titer. The magnitude and time course of these increases is dependent on both virus strain and multiplicity of infection. We are currently preparing a manuscript that will discuss these findings in greater detail, and the implications this may have for creating viral challenge pools

  3. Radiorespirometic assay device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, G.V.; Straat, P.A.

    1981-01-01

    A radiorespirometic assay device is described in which the presence of microorganisms in a sample is determined by placing the sample in contact with a metabolisable radioactive labelled substrate, collecting any gas evolved, exposing a photosensitive material to the gas and determining if a spot is produced on the material. A spot indicates the presence of radioactivity showing that the substrate has been metabolized by a microorganism. Bacteria may be detected in body fluids, hospital operating rooms, water, food, cosmetics and drugs. (U.K.)

  4. Radon assay for SNO+

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rumleskie, Janet [Laurentian University, Greater Sudbury, Ontario (Canada)

    2015-12-31

    The SNO+ experiment will study neutrinos while located 6,800 feet below the surface of the earth at SNOLAB. Though shielded from surface backgrounds, emanation of radon radioisotopes from the surrounding rock leads to back-grounds. The characteristic decay of radon and its daughters allows for an alpha detection technique to count the amount of Rn-222 atoms collected. Traps can collect Rn-222 from various positions and materials, including an assay skid that will collect Rn-222 from the organic liquid scintillator used to detect interactions within SNO+.

  5. Terminal Disease: A Biolaw Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Rivas García

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available There are numerous and varied pathologies that can lead to a state of terminal illness, provoking numerous bioethical dilemmas that are inherent and specific to each circumstance. The objective of the present work has been to provide a current and useful analysis that can help to understand the main bioethical problems, from the perspective of biolaw that must be solved in the inevitable path towards the end of life that any terminal illness implies. The methodology used included a study of bibliographic documentation in the main databases of interest in bioethics. It can be concluded that the biolaw is a very useful tool that helps health care professionals and relatives when it comes to the analysis and decision making regarding a terminal illness. Independently of medical practice based on protocols and scientific knowledge, it is necessary to ensure that not everything that can legally be carried out is accepted in the field of biolaw.

  6. Digital autonomous terminal access communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novacki, S.

    1987-01-01

    A significant problem for the Bus Monitor Unit is to identify the source of a given transmission. This problem arises from the fact that the label which identifies the source of the transmission as it is put into the bus is intercepted by the Digital Autonomous Terminal Access Communications (DATAC) terminal and removed from the transmission. Thus, a given subsystem will see only data associated with a label and never the identifying label itself. The Bus Monitor must identify the source of the transmission so as to be able to provide some type of error identification/location in the event that some problem with the data transmission occurs. Steps taken to alleviate this problem by modifications to the DATAC terminal are discussed.

  7. SIRKULASI TERMINAL PENUMPANG KAPAL LAUT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etsa Purnama Sari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wilayah Indonesia yang terdiri dari pulau dan perairan menjadikan angkutan laut menjadi salah satu sarana transportasi yang cukup efektif di negara ini. Daya angkut yang besar dan beragam serta biaya yang lebih murah dengan jarak jangkauan yang luas, membuat sarana ini banyak diminati oleh masyarakat sekaligus juga merupakan pendukung utama perkembangan kehidupan sosial budaya dan roda perekonomian. Untuk mendukung proses transportasi laut ini perlu sarana berupa pelabuhan. Pelabuhan dalam melakukan pelayanan terhadap kapal memiliki beberapa fasilitas pokok dan penunjang yang wajib dimiliki. Salah satunya adalah terminal penumpang kapal laut dengan berbagai kegiatan di dalamnya untuk kedatangan maupun keberangkatan. Masalah ketidaknyamanan dalam berkegiatan, jauhnya akses sirkulasi antara satu kegiatan dengan kegiatan kegiatan embarkasi dan debarkasi yang tidak teratur, pembagian jalur sirkulasi penumpang dan pengantar penumpang yang tidak jelas seringkali muncul akibat sirkulasi yang tidak direncanakan dengan baik pada terminal penumpang kapal laut. Bahkan tidak jarang dapat menimbulkan adanya calo tiket hingga adanya penumpang tanpa tiket yang dapat masuk ke dalam kapal hingga kapal berlayar. Perencanaan sebuah sirkulasi yang tepat pada terminal penumpang kapal laut memerlukan kajian terhadap unsur-unsur sirkulasi seperti pencapaian, pola sirkulasi, jalur sirkulasi, serta bentuk ruang sirkulasi. Kajian unsur-unsur ini selanjutnya diselidiki melalui penelusuran masalah dengan analisis deskriptif melalui penggambaran objek penelitian yang terdapat pada Terminal Penumpang Pelabuhan International Yokohama, Terminal Penumpang Pelabuhan Kobe dan Terminal Penumpang Pelabuhan Osanbashi Hall   As one of the largest archipelago country, sea transportation acts as one of the most effective means of transportation in Indonesia. Large and diverse carrying capacity, lower cost with wide range of distances, are factors which making sea

  8. RAS - Screens & Assays - Drug Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    The RAS Drug Discovery group aims to develop assays that will reveal aspects of RAS biology upon which cancer cells depend. Successful assay formats are made available for high-throughput screening programs to yield potentially effective drug compounds.

  9. CASDAC system: Data Terminal Equipment user's guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Yoichi; Koyama, Kinji

    1993-03-01

    The CASDAC (Containment And Surveillance Data Authenticated Communication) system has been developed by JAERI for nuclear safeguards and physical protection of nuclear material. This system is a remote monitoring system for continual verification of security and safeguards status of nuclear material. The CASDAC system consists of two subsystems, one of them is a Grand Command Center (GCC) subsystem and the other is a facility subsystem. This report describes the outline and usage of the Data Terminal Equipment (DTE), which makes available of message data communication between the GCC and a facility subsystem. This work has been carried out in the framework of Japan Support Programme for Agency Safeguards (JASPAS) as a project, JA-1. (author)

  10. Improving shuffler assay accuracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinard, P.M.

    1995-01-01

    Drums of uranium waste should be disposed of in an economical and environmentally sound manner. The most accurate possible assays of the uranium masses in the drums are required for proper disposal. The accuracies of assays from a shuffler are affected by the type of matrix material in the drums. Non-hydrogenous matrices have little effect on neutron transport and accuracies are very good. If self-shielding is known to be a minor problem, good accuracies are also obtained with hydrogenous matrices when a polyethylene sleeve is placed around the drums. But for those cases where self-shielding may be a problem, matrices are hydrogenous, and uranium distributions are non-uniform throughout the drums, the accuracies are degraded. They can be greatly improved by determining the distributions of the uranium and then applying correction factors based on the distributions. This paper describes a technique for determining uranium distributions by using the neutron count rates in detector banks around the waste drum and solving a set of overdetermined linear equations. Other approaches were studied to determine the distributions and are described briefly. Implementation of this correction is anticipated on an existing shuffler next year

  11. Competitive protein binding assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, Toshio; Oka, Hiroshi

    1975-01-01

    The measurement of cyclic GMP (cGMP) by competitive protein binding assay was described and discussed. The principle of binding assay was represented briefly. Procedures of our method by binding protein consisted of preparation of cGMP binding protein, selection of 3 H-cyclic GMP on market, and measurement procedures. In our method, binding protein was isolated from the chrysalis of silk worm. This method was discussed from the points of incubation medium, specificity of binding protein, the separation of bound cGMP from free cGMP, and treatment of tissue from which cGMP was extracted. cGMP existing in the tissue was only one tenth or one scores of cGMP, and in addition, cGMP competed with cGMP in binding with binding protein. Therefore, Murad's technique was applied to the isolation of cGMP. This method provided the measurement with sufficient accuracy; the contamination by cAMP was within several per cent. (Kanao, N.)

  12. What Determines Joint Venture Termination?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bo Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    Joint venture (JV) research continues to flourish as researchers seek to advance our understanding of why so many JVs fail. Cui and Kumar (this issue) take a contingency approach to explain how and why business relatedness may provide new insights as to what determines JV termination. This commen......Joint venture (JV) research continues to flourish as researchers seek to advance our understanding of why so many JVs fail. Cui and Kumar (this issue) take a contingency approach to explain how and why business relatedness may provide new insights as to what determines JV termination...

  13. Protective effect of the poly(ADP-ribose polymerase inhibitor PJ34 on mitochondrial depolarization-mediated cell death in hepatocellular carcinoma cells involves attenuation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase-2 and protein kinase B/Akt activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radnai Balazs

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background 2,4-Dimethoxyphenyl-E-4-arylidene-3-isochromanone (IK11 was previously described to induce apoptotic death of A431 tumor cells. In this report, we investigated the molecular action of IK11 in the HepG2 human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line to increase our knowledge of the role of poly (ADP-ribose-polymerase (PARP, protein kinase B/Akt and mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK activation in the survival and death of tumor cells and to highlight the possible role of PARP-inhibitors in co-treatments with different cytotoxic agents in cancer therapy. Results We found that sublethal concentrations of IK11 prevented proliferation, migration and entry of the cells into their G2 phase. At higher concentrations, IK11 induced reactive oxygen species (ROS production, mitochondrial membrane depolarization, activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase 2 (JNK2, and substantial loss of HepG2 cells. ROS production appeared marginal in mediating the cytotoxicity of IK11 since N-acetyl cysteine was unable to prevent it. However, the PARP inhibitor PJ34, although not a ROS scavenger, strongly inhibited both IK11-induced ROS production and cell death. JNK2 activation seemed to be a major mediator of the effect of IK11 since inhibition of JNK resulted in a substantial cytoprotection while inhibitors of the other kinases failed to do so. Inhibition of Akt slightly diminished the effect of IK11, while the JNK and Akt inhibitor and ROS scavenger trans-resveratrol completely protected against it. Conclusions These results indicate significant involvement of PARP, a marginal role of ROS and a pro-apoptotic role of Akt in this system, and raise attention to a novel mechanism that should be considered when cancer therapy is augmented with PARP-inhibition, namely the cytoprotection by inhibition of JNK2.

  14. The management of terminal delirium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macleod A

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Delirium is a distressing and disturbing clinical event. Palliation of the symptoms by multi-component interventions can be effective. The goal of interventions is to raise the deliriant threshold by combined symptom relief, environmental, psychological and pharmacological interventions. Haloperidol remains the drug of choice for delirium. For intractable delirious symptoms at the end of life terminal sedation may be indicated.

  15. Implementation method of multi-terminal DC control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Liu; Hao-Ran, Huang; Jun-Wen, Zhou; Hong-Guang, Guo; Yu-Yong, Zhou

    2018-04-01

    Currently the multi-terminal DC system (MTDC) has more stations. Each station needs operators to monitor and control the device. It needs much more operation and maintenance, low efficiency and small reliability; for the most important reason, multi-terminal DC system has complex control mode. If one of the stations has some problem, the control of the whole system should have problems. According to research of the characteristics of multi-terminal DC (VSC-MTDC) systems, this paper presents a strong implementation of the multi-terminal DC Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system. This system is intelligent, can be networking, integration and intelligent. A master control system is added in each station to communication with the other stations to send current and DC voltage value to pole control system for each station. Based on the practical application and information feedback in the China South Power Grid research center VSC-MTDC project, this system is higher efficiency and save the cost on the maintenance of convertor station to improve the intelligent level and comprehensive effect. And because of the master control system, a multi-terminal system hierarchy coordination control strategy is formed, this make the control and protection system more efficiency and reliability.

  16. An acoustic prion assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon Hayward

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available An acoustic prion assay has been demonstrated for sheep brain samples. Only five false positives and no false negatives were observed in a test of 45 positive and 45 negative samples. The acoustic prion sensor was constructed using a thickness shear mode quartz resonator coated with a covalently bound recombinant prion protein. The characteristic indicator of a scrapie infected sheep brain sample was an observed shoulder in the frequency decrease in response to a sample.The response of the sensor aligns with a conformational shift in the surface protein and with the propagation mechanism of the disease. This alignment is evident in the response timing and shape, dependence on concentration, cross species behaviour and impact of blood plasma. This alignment is far from sufficient to prove the mechanism of the sensor but it does offer the possibility of a rapid and inexpensive additional tool to explore prion disease. Keywords: Prions, Thickness shear mode quartz sensor

  17. Assay of oestrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, J.C.

    1981-01-01

    A particular problem with the direct radioimmunoassay of unconjugated oestriol in pregnancy is caused by the increased amount of steroid-binding proteins present in pregnancy serum and plasma. The steroid-binding proteins react with oestriol and 125 I-labelled oestriol during the assay procedure and the steroid-protein bound 125 I-labelled oestriol is precipitated along with the antibody-bound 125 I-labelled oestriol by the ammonium sulphate solution separation system. A novel method is described whereby progesterone (1-20 μg/ml) is used to block the action of steroid-binding proteins in pregnancy serum and plasma samples, thus minimizing interference in a direct radioimmunoassay for unconjugated oestriol using a specific anti-oestriol serum. (U.K.)

  18. Investigation of radiation emissions from video display terminals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuk, W.M.; Stuchly, M.A.; Dvorak, P.; Deslauriers, Y.

    1983-01-01

    This report presents and discusses the results of radiation emission measurements carried out on video display terminals (VDTs) by the Radiation Protection Bureau. While the report is not intended to be an exhaustive review of all of the world literature on the subject, the more important studies performed on VDTs are summarized and reviewed. Attention is drawn to recent information which has not yet become generally available

  19. Specificity of B-type natriuretic peptide assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saenger, Amy K.; Rodriguez-Fraga, Olaia; Ler, Ranka

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: B-type natriuretic peptides (BNPs) are used clinically to diagnose and monitor heart failure and are present in the circulation as multiple proBNP-derived fragments. We investigated the specificity of BNP immunoassays with glycosylated and nonglycosylated BNP, N-terminal proBNP (NT......-proBNP), and proBNP peptides to probe the cross-reactivity of each assay. METHODS: Nine B-type natriuretic peptides were studied, including synthetic and recombinant BNP (Shionogi, Scios, Mayo), human and synthetic glycosylated and nonglycosylated NT-proBNP (HyTest, Roche Diagnostics), and human glycosylated......-Rad, Goetze] were evaluated. Specificity was assessed by calculating the recovery between baseline and peptide-spiked human plasma pools at target concentrations of 100 ng/L BNP, 300 ng/L proBNP, or 450 ng/L NT-proBNP. All assays were performed in duplicate. RESULTS: BNP and NT-proBNP assays demonstrated...

  20. The C-terminal domain of the Bloom syndrome DNA helicase is essential for genomic stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noonan James P

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bloom syndrome is a rare cancer-prone disorder in which the cells of affected persons have a high frequency of somatic mutation and genomic instability. Bloom syndrome cells have a distinctive high frequency of sister chromatid exchange and quadriradial formation. BLM, the protein altered in BS, is a member of the RecQ DNA helicase family, whose members share an average of 40% identity in the helicase domain and have divergent N-terminal and C-terminal flanking regions of variable lengths. The BLM DNA helicase has been shown to localize to the ND10 (nuclear domain 10 or PML (promyelocytic leukemia nuclear bodies, where it associates with TOPIIIα, and to the nucleolus. Results This report demonstrates that the N-terminal domain of BLM is responsible for localization of the protein to the nuclear bodies, while the C-terminal domain directs the protein to the nucleolus. Deletions of the N-terminal domain of BLM have little effect on sister chromatid exchange frequency and chromosome stability as compared to helicase and C-terminal mutations which can increase SCE frequency and chromosome abnormalities. Conclusion The helicase activity and the C-terminal domain of BLM are critical for maintaining genomic stability as measured by the sister chromatid exchange assay. The localization of BLM into the nucleolus by the C-terminal domain appears to be more important to genomic stability than localization in the nuclear bodies.

  1. Terminal nerve: cranial nerve zero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Eduardo Duque Parra

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available It has been stated, in different types of texts, that there are only twelve pairs of cranial nerves. Such texts exclude the existence of another cranial pair, the terminal nerve or even cranial zero. This paper considers the mentioned nerve like a cranial pair, specifying both its connections and its functional role in the migration of liberating neurons of the gonadotropic hormone (Gn RH. In this paper is also stated the hypothesis of the phylogenetic existence of a cerebral sector and a common nerve that integrates the terminal nerve with the olfactory nerves and the vomeronasals nerves which seem to carry out the odors detection function as well as in the food search, pheromone detection and nasal vascular regulation.

  2. Three-terminal superconducting devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallagher, W.J.

    1985-01-01

    The transistor has a number of properties that make it so useful. The authors discuss these and the additional properties a transistor would need to have for high performance applications at temperatures where superconductivity could contribute advantages to system-level performance. These properties then serve as criteria by which to evaluate three-terminal devices that have been proposed for applications at superconducting temperatures. FETs can retain their transistor properties at low temperatures, but their power consumption is too large for high-speed, high-density cryogenic applications. They discuss in detail why demonstrated superconducting devices with three terminals -Josephson effect based devices, injection controlled weak links, and stacked tunnel junction devices such as the superconducting transistor proposed by K. Gray and the quiteron -- each fail to have true transistor-like properties. They conclude that the potentially very rewarding search for a transistor compatible with superconductivity in high performance applications must be in new directions

  3. JCO criticality accident termination operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanamori, Masashi

    2001-12-01

    On September 30 at around 10:35 AM, criticality accident occurred at the JCO's conversion building in Tokai-mura. Since criticality accident had not been anticipated, neither devices for termination of criticality accident nor neutron detectors were available. Immediately after the information of the accident, our emergency staff (Japan Nuclear Cycle development institute staff) went to JCO site, to measure the intensity of neutrons and gammas. There were four main tasks, first one was to measure the radiation intensity, second one was to terminate the criticality accident, third one is to alert the residents surrounding the JCO site, fourth one is to evacuate the employees in the site. These tasks were successfully performed until October 1. This paper describes about how these operations were performed by the relevant staffs. (author)

  4. A novel tandem reporter quantifies RNA polymerase II termination in mammalian cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayan Banerjee

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Making the correct choice between transcription elongation and transcription termination is essential to the function of RNA polymerase II, and fundamental to gene expression. This choice can be influenced by factors modifying the transcription complex, factors modifying chromatin, or signals mediated by the template or transcript. To aid in the study of transcription elongation and termination we have developed a transcription elongation reporter system that consists of tandem luciferase reporters flanking a test sequence of interest. The ratio of expression from the reporters provides a measure of the relative rates of successful elongation through the intervening sequence.Size matched fragments containing the polyadenylation signal of the human beta-actin gene (ACTB and the human beta-globin gene (HBB were evaluated for transcription termination using this new ratiometric tandem reporter assay. Constructs bearing just 200 base pairs on either side of the consensus poly(A addition site terminated 98% and 86% of transcription for ACTB and HBB sequences, respectively. The nearly 10-fold difference in read-through transcription between the two short poly(A regions was eclipsed when additional downstream poly(A sequence was included for each gene. Both poly(A regions proved very effective at termination when 1100 base pairs were included, stopping 99.6% of transcription. To determine if part of the increased termination was simply due to the increased template length, we inserted several kilobases of heterologous coding sequence downstream of each poly(A region test fragment. Unexpectedly, the additional length reduced the effectiveness of termination of HBB sequences 2-fold and of ACTB sequences 3- to 5-fold.The tandem construct provides a sensitive measure of transcription termination in human cells. Decreased Xrn2 or Senataxin levels produced only a modest release from termination. Our data support overlap in allosteric and torpedo mechanisms

  5. Dictionary of nuclear energy termination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1983-04-15

    This book lists termination of nuclear energy such as abbreviation, symbol, unit of nuclear energy, radiological unit, the symbol for element, isotope chart and the periodic table. This book contains about 5500 words involving to nuclear energy with index in Korean and English. It arranges alphabetically. So, with this book, it is easy and fast to find out the glossary, unit and symbol on nuclear energy.

  6. Combining norms to prove termination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Genaim, S.; Codish, M.; Gallagher, John Patrick

    2002-01-01

    Automatic termination analysers typically measure the size of terms applying norms which are mappings from terms to the natural numbers. This paper illustrates howt o enable the use of size functions defined as tuples of these simpler norm functions. This approach enables us to simplify the probl...... of the recursive data-types in the program, is often a suitable choice. We first demonstrate the power of combining norm functions and then the adequacy of combining norms based on regular types....

  7. Dictionary of nuclear energy termination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-04-01

    This book lists termination of nuclear energy such as abbreviation, symbol, unit of nuclear energy, radiological unit, the symbol for element, isotope chart and the periodic table. This book contains about 5500 words involving to nuclear energy with index in Korean and English. It arranges alphabetically. So, with this book, it is easy and fast to find out the glossary, unit and symbol on nuclear energy.

  8. War Termination: A Selected Bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    UA25 .L342 2009) Mandel, Robert . The Meaning of Military Victory. Boulder: Lynne Rienner, 2006. 190pp. (U163 .M266 2006) Marshall, Monty G., and...Ted Robert Gurr. Peace and Conflict 2005: A Global Survey of Armed Conflicts, Self-Determination Movements, and Democracy. College Park: Center for...18pp. (AD-A468-990) http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA468990 Raymer , James H. In Search of Lasting Results: Military War Termination Doctrine. Fort

  9. High Octane Fuel: Terminal Backgrounder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriarty, Kristi [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-02-11

    The Bioenergy Technologies Office of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy sponsored a scoping study to assess the potential of ethanol-based high octane fuel (HOF) to reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. When the HOF blend is made with 25%-40% ethanol by volume, this energy efficiency improvement is potentially sufficient to offset the reduced vehicle range often associated with the decreased volumetric energy density of ethanol. The purpose of this study is to assess the ability of the fuel supply chain to accommodate more ethanol at fuel terminals. Fuel terminals are midstream in the transportation fuel supply chain and serve to store and distribute fuels to end users. While there are no technical issues to storing more ethanol at fuel terminals, there are several factors that could impact the ability to deploy more ethanol. The most significant of these issues include the availability of land to add more infrastructure and accommodate more truck traffic for ethanol deliveries as well as a lengthy permitting process to erect more tanks.

  10. Whistleblower Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Whistleblower Protection Enhancement Act of 2012 (WPA) and the Whistleblower Protection Act of 1989 Enhanced by the Act of 2012 provides protection rights for Federal employees against retaliation for whistleblowing activities.

  11. Functionalization of hydroxyl terminated polybutadiene with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    CBDT), has been covalently attached at the terminal carbon atoms of the hydroxyl terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) backbone. The modification of HTPB backbone by CBDT molecule does not affect the unique physico-chemical properties such ...

  12. Efficiency analysis of container ports and terminals

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Q.

    2010-01-01

    In the past two decades the steady growth of seaborne trade has resulted in the increase of container ships, container ports and their terminals. The structure of the shipping market is, moreover, continuously evolving. On the carrier side, shipping companies form consortia and alliances; on the port side, global terminal operators and dedicated container terminals are emerging. The aim of this research is to evaluate the efficiency of container ports and terminals and to study...

  13. Radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koelzer, W.

    1975-01-01

    Physical and radiological terms, quantities, and units. Basic principles of radiation protection (ICRP, IAEA, EURATOM, FRG). Biological effects of ionizing radiation. Objectives of practical radiation protection. (HP) [de

  14. Characterization, cell-surface expression and ligand-binding properties of different truncated N-terminal extracellular domains of the ionotropic glutamate receptor subunit GluR1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIlhinney, R A; Molnár, E

    1996-04-01

    To identify the location of the first transmembrane segment of the GluR1 glutamate receptor subunit artificial stop codons have been introduced into the N-terminal domain at amino acid positions 442, 510, and 563, namely just before and spanning the proposed first two transmembrane regions. The resultant truncated N-terminal fragments of GluR1, termed NT1, NT2, and NT3 respectively were expressed in Cos-7 cells and their cellular distribution and cell-surface expression analysed using an N-terminal antibody to GluR1. All of the fragments were fully glycosylated and were found to be associated with cell membranes but none was secreted. Differential extraction of the cell membranes indicated that both NT1 and NT2 behave as peripheral membrane proteins. In contrast NT3, like the full subunit, has integral membrane protein properties. Furthermore only NT3 is expressed at the cell surface as determined by immunofluorescence and cell-surface biotinylation. Protease protection assays indicated that only NT3 had a cytoplasmic tail. Binding studies using the selective ligand [(3)H]alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate ([(3)H]AMPA) demonstrated that NT3 does not bind ligand. Together these results indicate that the first transmembrane domain of the GluR1 subunit lies between residues 509 and 562, that the N-terminal domain alone cannot form a functional ligand-binding site and that this domain can be targeted to the cell surface provided that it has a transmembrane-spanning region.

  15. Levels of antibody to conserved parts of Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein 1 in Ghanaian children are not associated with protection from clinical malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dodoo, D; Theander, T G; Kurtzhals, J A

    1999-01-01

    malaria season in April and after the season in November. Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, we measured antibody responses to recombinant gluthathione S-transferase-PfMSP119 fusion proteins corresponding to the Wellcome and MAD20 allelic variants in these samples. Prevalence of antibodies......The 19-kDa conserved C-terminal part of the Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein 1 (PfMSP119) is a malaria vaccine candidate antigen, and human antibody responses to PfMSP119 have been associated with protection against clinical malaria. In this longitudinal study carried out in an area...

  16. Antigenic sites on the HN domain of botulinum neurotoxin A stimulate protective antibody responses against active toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyar, B Vijayalakshmi; Tajhya, Rajeev B; Beeton, Christine; Atassi, M Zouhair

    2015-10-28

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are the most toxic substances known. BoNT intoxicates cells in a highly programmed fashion initiated by binding to the cell surface, internalization and enzymatic cleavage of substrate, thus, inhibiting synaptic exocytosis. Over the past two decades, immunological significance of BoNT/A C-terminal heavy chain (HC) and light chain (LC) domains were investigated extensively leading to important findings. In the current work, we explored the significance of BoNT/A heavy chain N-terminal (HN) region as a vaccine candidate. Mice were immunized with recombinant HN519-845 generating antibodies (Abs) that were found to be protective against lethal dose of BoNT/A. Immuno-dominant regions of HN519-845 were identified and individually investigated for antibody response along with synthetic peptides within those regions, using in vivo protection assays against BoNT/A. Results were confirmed by patch-clamp analysis where anti-HN antibodies were studied for the ability to block toxin-induced channel formation. This data strongly indicated that HN519-593 is an important region in generating protective antibodies and should be valuable in a vaccine design. These results are the first to describe and dissect the protective activity of the BoNT/A HN domain.

  17. Kajian Kinerja Terminal Batu Ampar Kota Balikpapan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randha Alief Chikita

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Batu Ampar Terminal Balikpapan is the only type A passenger terminal in Balikpapan City. The purpose of this study is to determine the operational performance of the terminal at this time and also to determine the level of service in the terminal. The results of this study indicate that for FIFO queue discipline analysis on AKDP and AKAP bus lines, it is known that ρ <1 means that there is currently no queue in the terminal. For the analysis of terminal facilities it is known that there are still some terminal facilities that are not yet available from the main facilities and supporting facilities, therefore the need for additional facilities in order to meet the standard of passenger terminal type A. In the next 15 years analysis for traffic intensity value is approaching 1 which means in the future will cause the queue in the terminal, so it is necessary for the improvement of terminal performance. For the service performance with IPA method there are 35 variables that there are 7 variables that enter in quadrant I. In the next step to do analysis to know the priority of handling by using QFD method. Keywords: Batu Ampar Terminal Balikpapan, IPA, terminal performance, QFD

  18. Strategic technology alliance termination : an empirical investigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sadowski, B.M.; Duysters, G.M.

    2008-01-01

    There is growing consensus that overall alliance termination rates are high. However, despite this track record of termination and despite unsurpassed growth rates of strategic technology alliances, little is known about the reasons for their termination. Typically strategic alliances have been

  19. 49 CFR 374.309 - Terminal facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Terminal facilities. 374.309 Section 374.309... REGULATIONS Adequacy of Intercity Motor Common Carrier Passenger Service § 374.309 Terminal facilities. (a... attendants and be regularly patrolled. (b) Outside facilities. At terminals and stations that are closed when...

  20. 9 CFR 3.40 - Terminal facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Terminal facilities. 3.40 Section 3.40... Pigs and Hamsters Transportation Standards § 3.40 Terminal facilities. No person subject to the Animal... animal holding areas of a terminal facility where shipments of live guinea pigs or hamsters are...

  1. 9 CFR 3.91 - Terminal facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Terminal facilities. 3.91 Section 3.91... Primates 2 Transportation Standards § 3.91 Terminal facilities. (a) Placement. Any persons subject to the... with inanimate cargo or with other animals in animal holding areas of terminal facilities. Nonhuman...

  2. 9 CFR 3.65 - Terminal facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Terminal facilities. 3.65 Section 3.65... Transportation Standards § 3.65 Terminal facilities. No person subject to the Animal Welfare regulations shall commingle shipments of live rabbits with inanimate cargo. All animal holding areas of a terminal facility...

  3. 9 CFR 3.18 - Terminal facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Terminal facilities. 3.18 Section 3.18... Cats 1 Transportation Standards § 3.18 Terminal facilities. (a) Placement. Any person subject to the... inanimate cargo in animal holding areas of terminal facilities. (b) Cleaning, sanitization, and pest control...

  4. 46 CFR 525.2 - Terminal schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... domestic law and international conventions and agreements adopted by the United States; such terminal... their own negligence, or that impose upon others the obligation to indemnify or hold-harmless the terminals from liability for their own negligence. (2) Enforcement of terminal schedules. Any schedule that...

  5. 25 CFR 11.1114 - Termination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Minor-in-Need-of-Care Procedure § 11.1114 Termination. (a) Parental rights to a child may be terminated... rights if, following efforts to prevent or eliminate the need to remove the minor, it finds such efforts... alternatives: (1) If parental rights to a child are terminated, the children's court shall place the minor in a...

  6. Effect of a Terminated Cover Crop and Aldicarb on Cotton Yield and Meloidogyne incognita Population Density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, T A; Leser, J F; Keeling, J W; Mullinix, B

    2008-06-01

    Terminated small grain cover crops are valuable in light textured soils to reduce wind and rain erosion and for protection of young cotton seedlings. A three-year study was conducted to determine the impact of terminated small grain winter cover crops, which are hosts for Meloidogyne incognita, on cotton yield, root galling and nematode midseason population density. The small plot test consisted of the cover treatment as the main plots (winter fallow, oats, rye and wheat) and rate of aldicarb applied in-furrow at-plant (0, 0.59 and 0.84 kg a.i./ha) as subplots in a split-plot design with eight replications, arranged in a randomized complete block design. Roots of 10 cotton plants per plot were examined at approximately 35 days after planting. Root galling was affected by aldicarb rate (9.1, 3.8 and 3.4 galls/root system for 0, 0.59 and 0.84 kg aldicarb/ha), but not by cover crop. Soil samples were collected in mid-July and assayed for nematodes. The winter fallow plots had a lower density of M. incognita second-stage juveniles (J2) (transformed to Log(10) (J2 + 1)/500 cm(3) soil) than any of the cover crops (0.88, 1.58, 1.67 and 1.75 Log(10)(J2 + 1)/500 cm(3) soil for winter fallow, oats, rye and wheat, respectively). There were also fewer M. incognita eggs at midseason in the winter fallow (3,512, 7,953, 8,262 and 11,392 eggs/500 cm(3) soil for winter fallow, oats, rye and wheat, respectively). Yield (kg lint per ha) was increased by application of aldicarb (1,544, 1,710 and 1,697 for 0, 0.59 and 0.84 kg aldicarb/ha), but not by any cover crop treatments. These results were consistent over three years. The soil temperature at 15 cm depth, from when soils reached 18 degrees C to termination of the grass cover crop, averaged 9,588, 7,274 and 1,639 centigrade hours (with a minimum threshold of 10 degrees C), in 2005, 2006 and 2007, respectively. Under these conditions, potential reproduction of M. incognita on the cover crop did not result in a yield penalty.

  7. Antibodies to Both Terminal and Internal B-Cell Epitopes of Francisella tularensis O-Polysaccharide Produced by Patients with Tularemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhaohua; Perkins, Hillary M.

    2014-01-01

    Francisella tularensis, the Gram-negative bacterium that causes tularemia, is considered a potential bioterrorism threat due to its low infectivity dose and the high morbidity and mortality from respiratory disease. We previously characterized two mouse monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific for the O-polysaccharide (O antigen [OAg]) of F. tularensis lipopolysaccharide (LPS): Ab63, which targets a terminal epitope at the nonreducing end of OAg, and Ab52, which targets a repeating internal OAg epitope. These two MAbs were protective in a mouse model of respiratory tularemia. To determine whether these epitope types are also targeted by humans, we tested the ability of each of 18 blood serum samples from 11 tularemia patients to inhibit the binding of Ab63 or Ab52 to F. tularensis LPS in a competition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Although all serum samples had Ab63- and Ab52-inhibitory activities, the ratios of Ab63 to Ab52 inhibitory potencies varied 75-fold. However, the variation was only 2.3-fold for sequential serum samples from the same patient, indicating different distributions of terminal- versus internal-binding antibodies in different individuals. Western blot analysis using class-specific anti-human Ig secondary antibodies showed that both terminal- and internal-binding OAg antibodies were of the IgG, IgM, and IgA isotypes. These results support the use of a mouse model to discover protective B-cell epitopes for tularemia vaccines or prophylactic/therapeutic antibodies, and they present a general strategy for interrogating the antibody responses of patients and vaccinees to microbial carbohydrate epitopes that have been characterized in experimental animals. PMID:24351753

  8. Termination of the Special Metallurgical (SM) Building at Mound Laboratory: a final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, W.R.; Kokenge, B.R.; Marsh, G.C.

    1976-01-01

    The report describes and highlights the more important factors associated with the termination of the Special Metallurgical (SM) Building at Mound Laboratory. As a result, a written record of the more important techniques and procedures is now available for reference by others involved in similar termination efforts. Included in this report is a description of the organizational units that were used in this effort along with a description of their responsibilities. A general description of the SM Building and a discussion of the more relevant procedures and equipment that were used are also presented. In addition, pertinent Health Physics information, such as personnel exposure, final wipe levels in the terminated facility, and assays of the structure, are provided. Based on the experience gained from this project, recommendations were made regarding the design of future radioactive material handling facilities so that when they are ultimately terminated the effort can be accomplished more efficiently

  9. Forkhead Box C1 Regulates Human Primary Keratinocyte Terminal Differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianghua Bin

    Full Text Available The epidermis serves as a critical protective barrier between the internal and external environment of the human body. Its remarkable barrier function is established through the keratinocyte (KC terminal differentiation program. The transcription factors specifically regulating terminal differentiation remain largely unknown. Using a RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq profiling approach, we found that forkhead box c 1 (FOXC1 was significantly up-regulated in human normal primary KC during the course of differentiation. This observation was validated in human normal primary KC from several different donors and human skin biopsies. Silencing FOXC1 in human normal primary KC undergoing differentiation led to significant down-regulation of late terminal differentiation genes markers including epidermal differentiation complex genes, keratinization genes, sphingolipid/ceramide metabolic process genes and epidermal specific cell-cell adhesion genes. We further demonstrated that FOXC1 works down-stream of ZNF750 and KLF4, and upstream of GRHL3. Thus, this study defines FOXC1 as a regulator specific for KC terminal differentiation and establishes its potential position in the genetic regulatory network.

  10. Intrinsic terminators in Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritsch, Tiago Ebert; Siqueira, Franciele Maboni; Schrank, Irene Silveira

    2015-04-08

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, an important pathogen of swine, exhibits a low guanine and cytosine (GC) content genome. M. hyopneumoniae genome is organised in long transcriptional units and promoter sequences have been mapped upstream of all transcription units. These analysis provided insights into the gene organisation and transcription initiation at the genome scale. However, the presence of transcriptional terminator sequences in the M. hyopneumoniae genome is poorly understood. In silico analyses demonstrated the presence of putative terminators in 82% of the 33 monocistronic units (mCs) and in 74% of the 116 polycistronic units (pCs) considering different classes of terminators. The functional activity of 23 intrinsic terminators was confirmed by RT-PCR and qPCR. Analysis of all terminators found by three software algorithms, combined with experimental results, allowed us to propose a pattern of RNA hairpin formation during the termination process and to predict the location of terminators in the M. hyopneumoniae genome sequence. The stem-loop structures of intrinsic terminators of mycoplasma diverge from the pattern of terminators found in other bacteria due the low content of guanine and cytosine. In M. hyopneumoniae, transcription can end after a transcriptional unit and before its terminator sequence and can also continue past the terminator sequence with RNA polymerases gradually releasing the RNA.

  11. Personal exposure between people in a room ventilated by textile terminals - with and without personalized ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, P.V.; Hyldgaard, C.E.; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes an investigation made in a room ventilated by an air distribution system based on a textile terminal. The air distribution in the room is mainly controlled by buoyancy forces from the heat sources, although the flow from the textile terminal can be characterized...... manikin is the source and the other the target. In general it was found that when the air is supplied from the textile terminal alone, the flow in the room is fully mixed with limited protection of the occupants. Selected locations of supply, return, and heat sources can produce a displacement flow...

  12. Physical protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, D.A.

    1989-01-01

    Physical protection is defined and its function in relation to other functions of a State System of Accounting for and Control of Nuclear Materials is described. The need for a uniform minimum international standard for physical protection as well as the need for international cooperation in physical protection is emphasized. The IAEA's INFCIRC/225/Rev. 1 (Annex 1) is reviewed. The Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material (Annex 2) is discussed. Photographs show examples of typical physical protection technology (Annex 3)

  13. Diplomatic Protection

    OpenAIRE

    Režná, Jana

    2006-01-01

    Final thesis Topic: Diplomatic protection Thesis supervisor: JUDr. Vladimír Balaš, CSc. Student: Marek Čermák Thesis on the topic of diplomatic protection deals with the granting of exercise of diplomatic protection by the states and is divided into seven chapters which follow each other. The first chapter describes the diplomatic protection and its historical foundations. The second chapter focuses on the possibility of exercise of diplomatic protection in respect of natural persons and the ...

  14. LDLCHOLESTEROLEXAMINATION (LDL-C USINGHOMOGENEOUS ASSAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Made DwiAmbara Putra

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Homogeneous method describe as a method that does not require separation of free and bound label. This method has the ability tofully automate the determination of LDL-C directly small sample volume sand short examination time. In addition this method use automated pipette and control of time and temperature more accurate. There are 5 methods i.e. Solubilization homogeneous LDL-C assay (SOL from KyowaMedex, Surfactant LDL-C assay (SUR from Daiichi Pure Chemicals, Protecting LDL-assay reagent (PRO from Wako Chemicals, LDL-C assaycatalase (CAT Denka Seiken and Calixarene of LDL-C assay (CAL from International Reagents Corporation. All method is to use a variety of detergents and other chemicals that cause blocking or dissolution of specific lipoprotein classes to achieve specificity for LDL. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  15. Assaying Cellular Viability Using the Neutral Red Uptake Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ates, Gamze; Vanhaecke, Tamara; Rogiers, Vera; Rodrigues, Robim M

    2017-01-01

    The neutral red uptake assay is a cell viability assay that allows in vitro quantification of xenobiotic-induced cytotoxicity. The assay relies on the ability of living cells to incorporate and bind neutral red, a weak cationic dye, in lysosomes. As such, cytotoxicity is expressed as a concentration-dependent reduction of the uptake of neutral red after exposure to the xenobiotic under investigation. The neutral red uptake assay is mainly used for hazard assessment in in vitro toxicology applications. This method has also been introduced in regulatory recommendations as part of 3T3-NRU-phototoxicity-assay, which was regulatory accepted in all EU member states in 2000 and in the OECD member states in 2004 as a test guideline (TG 432). The present protocol describes the neutral red uptake assay using the human hepatoma cell line HepG2, which is often employed as an alternative in vitro model for human hepatocytes. As an example, the cytotoxicity of acetaminophen and acetyl salicylic acid is assessed.

  16. Manual for conducting radiological surveys in support of license termination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, J.D.

    1992-06-01

    This document describes a process for conducting radiological surveys during decommissioning, to demonstrate that residual radioactive material satisfies criteria established by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for termination of a license. The Manual describes procedures for design and conduct of surveys in a manner which will provide a high degree of assurance that NRC guidelines and conditions have been satisfied. The Manual also describes methods for documenting the survey findings in a final report to the NRC. This Manual updates information contained in NUREG/CR-2082, Monitoring for Compliance with Decommissioning Termination Survey Criteria, (ORNL 1981). It incorporates statistical approaches to survey design and data interpretation used by the Environmental Protection Agency for evaluation of hazardous materials sites under Superfund (CERCLA). Quality assurance is emphasized throughout. (author)

  17. The fluorometric microculture cytotoxicity assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindhagen, Elin; Nygren, Peter; Larsson, Rolf

    2008-01-01

    The fluorometric microculture cytotoxicity assay (FMCA) is a nonclonogenic microplate-based cell viability assay used for measurement of the cytotoxic and/or cytostatic effect of different compounds in vitro. The assay is based on hydrolysis of the probe, fluorescein diacetate (FDA) by esterases in cells with intact plasma membranes. The assay is available as both a semiautomated 96-well plate setup and a 384-well plate version fully adaptable to robotics. Experimental plates are prepared with a small amount of drug solution and can be stored frozen. Cells are seeded on the plates and cell viability is evaluated after 72 h. The protocol described here is applicable both for cell lines and freshly prepared tumor cells from patients and is suitable both for screening in drug development and as a basis for a predictive test for individualization of anticancer drug therapy.

  18. Solution assay instrument operations manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, T.K.; Marks, T.; Parker, J.L.

    1983-09-01

    An at-line solution assay instrument (SAI) has been developed and installed in a plutonium purification and americium recovery process area in the Los Alamos Plutonium Processing Facility. The instrument was designed for accurate, timely, and simultaneous nondestructive analysis of plutonium and americium in process solutions that have a wide range of concentrations and americium/plutonium ratios and for routine operation by process technicians who lack instrumentation background. The SAI, based on transmission-corrected, high-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy, has two measurement stations attached to a single multichannel analyzer/computer system. To ensure the quality of assay results, the SAI has an internal measurement control program, which requires daily and weekly check runs and monitors key aspects of all assay runs. For a 25-ml sample, the assay precision is 5 g/l within a 2000-s count time

  19. Radioligand assay in reproductive biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korenman, S.G.; Sherman, B.M.

    1975-01-01

    Radioligand assays have been developed for the principal reproductive steroids and peptide hormones. Specific binding reagents have included antibodies, plasma binders, and intracellular receptors. In each assay, problems of specificity, sensitivity, and nonspecific inhibitors were encountered. Many features of the endocrine physiology in childhood, during puberty, and in adulthood have been characterized. Hormonal evaluations of endocrine disorders of reproduction are characterized on the basis of their characteristic pathophysiologic alterations. (U.S.)

  20. Chemical Synthesis of a 5'-Terminal TMG-Capped Triribonucleotide m(3)(2,2,7)G(5)(')pppAmpUmpA of U1 RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekine, Mitsuo; Kadokura, Michinori; Satoh, Takahiko; Seio, Kohji; Wada, Takeshi; Fischer, Utz; Sumpter, Vicki; Lührmann, Reinhard

    1996-06-26

    The 5'-terminal TMG-capped triribonucleotide, m(3)(2,2,7)G(5)(')pppAmpUmpA, has been synthesized by condensation of an appropriately protected triribonucleotide derivative of ppAmpUmpA with a new TMG-capping reagent. During this total synthesis, it was found that the regioselective 2'-O-methylation of 3',5'-O-(1,1,3,3-tetraisopropyldisiloxane-1,3-diyl)-N-(4-monomethoxytrityl)adenosine was achieved by use of MeI/Ag(2)O without affecting the base moiety. A new route to 2-N,2-N-dimethylguanosine from guanosine via a three-step reaction has also been developed by reductive methylation using paraformaldehyde and sodium cyanoborohydride. These key intermediates were used as starting materials for the construction of a fully protected derivative of pAmpUmpA and a TMG-capping reagent of Im-pm(3)(2,2,7)G. The target TMG-capped tetramer, m(3)(2,2,7)G(5)(')pppAmpUmpA, was synthesized by condensation of a partially protected triribonucleotide 5'-terminal diphosphate species, ppA(MMTr)mpUmpA, with Im-pm(3)(2,2,7)G followed by treatment with 80% acetic acid. The structure of m(3)(2,2,7)G(5)(')pppAmpUmpA was characterized by (1)H and (31)P NMR spectroscopy as well as enzymatic assay using snake venom phosphodiesterase, calf intestinal phosphatase, and nuclease P1.

  1. Environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinda, J.; Lieskovska, Z.

    1998-01-01

    In this chapter environmental protection in the Slovak Republic in 1997 are reviewed. The economics of environmental protection, state budget, Slovak state environmental fund, economic instruments, environmental laws, environmental impact assessment, environmental management systems, and environmental education are presented

  2. JCO criticality accident termination operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanamori, Masashi

    2010-07-01

    In 2001, we summarized the circumstances surrounding termination of the JCO criticality accident based on testimony in the Mito District Court on December 17, 2001. JCO was the company for uranium fuels production in Japan. That document was assembled based on actual testimony in the belief that a description of the work involved in termination of the accident would be useful in some way for preventing nuclear disasters in the future. The description focuses on the witness' own behavior, and what he saw and heard, and thus is written from the perspective of action by one individual. This was done simply because it was easier for the witness to write down his memories as he remembers them. Description of the activities of other organizations and people is provided only as necessary, to ensure that consistency in the descriptive approach is not lost. The essentials of this report were rewritten as a third-person objective description in the summary of the report by the Atomic Energy Society of Japan (AESJ). Since then, comments have been received from sources such as former members of the Nuclear Safety Commission (Dr. Kenji Sumita and Dr. Akira Kanagawa), concerned parties from the former Science and Technology Agency, and reports from the JCO Criticality Accident Investigation Committee of the AESJ, and thus this report was rewritten to correct incorrect information, and add material where that was felt to be necessary. This year is the tenth year of the JCO criticality accident. To mark this occasion we have decided to translate the record of what occurred at the accident site into English so that more people can draw lessons from this accident. This report is an English version of JAEA-Technology 2009-073. (author)

  3. DNA clasping by mycobacterial HU: the C-terminal region of HupB mediates increased specificity of DNA binding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Kumar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: HU a small, basic, histone like protein is a major component of the bacterial nucleoid. E. coli has two subunits of HU coded by hupA and hupB genes whereas Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb has only one subunit of HU coded by ORF Rv2986c (hupB gene. One noticeable feature regarding Mtb HupB, based on sequence alignment of HU orthologs from different bacteria, was that HupB(Mtb bears at its C-terminal end, a highly basic extension and this prompted an examination of its role in Mtb HupB function. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: With this objective two clones of Mtb HupB were generated; one expressing full length HupB protein (HupB(Mtb and another which expresses only the N terminal region (first 95 amino acid of hupB (HupB(MtbN. Gel retardation assays revealed that HupB(MtbN is almost like E. coli HU (heat stable nucleoid protein in terms of its DNA binding, with a binding constant (K(d for linear dsDNA greater than 1000 nM, a value comparable to that obtained for the HUalphaalpha and HUalphabeta forms. However CTR (C-terminal Region of HupB(Mtb imparts greater specificity in DNA binding. HupB(Mtb protein binds more strongly to supercoiled plasmid DNA than to linear DNA, also this binding is very stable as it provides DNase I protection even up to 5 minutes. Similar results were obtained when the abilities of both proteins to mediate protection against DNA strand cleavage by hydroxyl radicals generated by the Fenton's reaction, were compared. It was also observed that both the proteins have DNA binding preference for A:T rich DNA which may occur at the regulatory regions of ORFs and the oriC region of Mtb. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data thus point that HupB(Mtb may participate in chromosome organization in-vivo, it may also play a passive, possibly an architectural role.

  4. Design and application of a fluorogenic assay for monitoring inflammatory caspase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganathan, Raj; Lenti, Gena; Tassone, Nicholas M; Scannell, Brian J; Southern, Cathrine A; Karver, Caitlin E

    2018-02-15

    Various fluorogenic assays exist for monitoring the activity of inflammatory caspases. However, there are no continuous assays that provide C-terminal substrate sequence specificity for inflammatory caspases. As a first step towards this, we have developed a continuous in vitro assay that relies on monitoring emission from tryptophan after cleavage of a quenching coumarin chromophore. The coumarin can be attached as an amino acid side chain or capping the C-terminus of the peptide. When the coumarin is a side chain, it allows for C-terminal and N-terminal sequence specificities to be explored. Using this assay, we obtained Michaelis-Menten kinetic data for four proof-of-principle peptides: WEHD-AMC (K M  = 15 ± 2 μM), WEHD-MCA (K M  = 93 ± 19 μM), WEHDG-MCA (K M  = 21 ± 6 μM) and WEHDA-MCA (K M  = 151 ± 37 μM), where AMC is 7-amino-4-methylcoumarin and MCA is β-(7-methoxy-coumarin-4-yl)-Ala. The results indicate the viability of this new assay approach in the design of effective fluorogenic substrates for inflammatory caspases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Concept Layout Model of Transportation Terminals

    OpenAIRE

    Yao, Li-ya; Sun, Li-shan; Wang, Wu-hong; Xiong, Hui

    2012-01-01

    Transportation terminal is the key node in transport systems. Efficient terminals can improve operation of passenger transportation networks, adjust the layout of public transportation networks, provide a passenger guidance system, and regulate the development of commercial forms, as well as optimize the assembly and distribution of modern logistic modes, among others. This study aims to clarify the relationship between the function and the structure of transportation terminals and establish ...

  6. Detection of prosecretory mitogen lacritin in nonprimate tears primarily as a C-terminal-like fragment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurie, Diane E; Splan, Rebecca K; Green, Kari; Still, Katherine M; McKown, Robert L; Laurie, Gordon W

    2012-09-12

    Lacritin is a human tear glycoprotein that promotes basal tear protein secretion in cultured rat lacrimal acinar cells and proliferation of subconfluent human corneal epithelial cells. When topically added to rabbit eyes, lacritin promotes basal tearing. Despite these activities on several species, lacritin's presence in nonprimate tears or other tissues has not been explored. Here we probed for lacritin in normal horse tears. Sequences were collected from the Ensembl genomic alignment of human LACRT gene with high-quality draft horse genome (EquCab2.0) and analyzed. Normal horse tears were collected and assayed by Western blotting, ELISA, and mass spectrometry. Newly generated rabbit antibodies, respectively, against N- and C-terminal regions of human lacritin were employed. Identity was 75% and 45%, respectively, at nucleotide and protein levels. Structural features were conserved, including a C-terminal amphipathic α-helix. Anti-C-terminal antibodies strongly detected a ∼13 kDa band in horse tears that was validated by mass spectrometry. In human tears, the same antibody detected uncleaved lacritin (∼24 kDa) strongly and C-terminal fragments of ∼13 and ∼11 kDa weakly. Anti-N-terminal antibodies were slightly reactive with a ∼24 kDa horse antigen and showed no reaction with the anti-C-terminal-reactive ∼13 kDa species. Similar respective levels of horse C-terminal versus N-terminal immunoreactivity were apparent by ELISA. Lacritin is present in horse tears, largely as a C-terminal fragment homologous to the mitogenic and bactericidal region in human lacritin, suggesting potential benefit in corneal wound repair.

  7. N-terminal nesprin-2 variants regulate β-catenin signalling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Qiuping; Minaisah, Rose-Marie; Ferraro, Elisa; Li, Chen; Porter, Lauren J.; Zhou, Can; Gao, Fang; Zhang, Junyi; Rajgor, Dipen; Autore, Flavia; Shanahan, Catherine M.; Warren, Derek T., E-mail: derek.warren@kcl.ac.uk

    2016-07-15

    The spatial compartmentalisation of biochemical signalling pathways is essential for cell function. Nesprins are a multi-isomeric family of proteins that have emerged as signalling scaffolds, herein, we investigate the localisation and function of novel nesprin-2 N-terminal variants. We show that these nesprin-2 variants display cell specific distribution and reside in both the cytoplasm and nucleus. Immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that nesprin-2 N-terminal variants colocalised with β-catenin at cell-cell junctions in U2OS cells. Calcium switch assays demonstrated that nesprin-2 and β-catenin are lost from cell-cell junctions in low calcium conditions whereas emerin localisation at the NE remained unaltered, furthermore, an N-terminal fragment of nesprin-2 was sufficient for cell-cell junction localisation and interacted with β-catenin. Disruption of these N-terminal nesprin-2 variants, using siRNA depletion resulted in loss of β-catenin from cell-cell junctions, nuclear accumulation of active β-catenin and augmented β-catenin transcriptional activity. Importantly, we show that U2OS cells lack nesprin-2 giant, suggesting that the N-terminal nesprin-2 variants regulate β-catenin signalling independently of the NE. Together, these data identify N-terminal nesprin-2 variants as novel regulators of β-catenin signalling that tether β-catenin to cell-cell contacts to inhibit β-catenin transcriptional activity. - Highlights: • N-terminal nesprin-2 variants display cell specific expression patterns. • N-terminal spectrin repeats of nesprin-2 interact with β-catenin. • N-terminal nesprin-2 variants scaffold β-catenin at cell-cell junctions.. • Nesprin-2 variants play multiple roles in β-catenin signalling.

  8. Correlation between the genotoxicity endpoints measured by two different genotoxicity assays: comet assay and CBMN assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Ladeira

    2015-06-01

    The results concerning of positive findings by micronuclei and non significant ones by comet assay, are corroborated by Deng et al. (2005 study performed in workers occupationally exposed to methotrexate, also a cytostatic drug. According to Cavallo et al. (2009, the comet assay seems to be more suitable for the prompt evaluation of the genotoxic effects, for instance, of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons mixtures containing volatile substances, whereas the micronucleus test seems more appropriate to evaluate the effects of exposure to antineoplastic agents. However, there are studies that observed an increase in both the comet assay and the micronucleus test in nurses handling antineoplastic drugs, although statistical significance was only seen in the comet assay, quite the opposite of our results (Maluf & Erdtmann, 2000; Laffon et al. 2005.

  9. Performance Evaluation and Modelling of Container Terminals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatasubbaiah, K.; Rao, K. Narayana; Rao, M. Malleswara; Challa, Suresh

    2018-02-01

    The present paper evaluates and analyzes the performance of 28 container terminals of south East Asia through data envelopment analysis (DEA), principal component analysis (PCA) and hybrid method of DEA-PCA. DEA technique is utilized to identify efficient decision making unit (DMU)s and to rank DMUs in a peer appraisal mode. PCA is a multivariate statistical method to evaluate the performance of container terminals. In hybrid method, DEA is integrated with PCA to arrive the ranking of container terminals. Based on the composite ranking, performance modelling and optimization of container terminals is carried out through response surface methodology (RSM).

  10. What is a "good enough" termination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbard, Glen O

    2009-06-01

    In Freud's technique papers, he failed to develop a systematic approach to termination. Much of the existing literature is based on psychoanalytic mythologies about the way patients are expected to end analysis. The models described in the literature are often starkly at odds with what one sees in clinical practice. A wish for idealized versions of termination underlies much of what has been written, and we need to shift to a conceptual model involving "good enough" termination. A number of different endings to psychoanalysis may, in the long run, lead to productive outcomes; these models are examined, as are various approaches to the dilemmas presented at the time of termination.

  11. Optimized UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) activity assay for trout liver S9 fractions

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This publication provides an optimized UGT assay for trout liver S9 fractions which can be used to perform in vitro-in vivo extrapolations of measured UGT activity....

  12. Minimal_Set_of_In_Vitro_ER_Agonist_Assays_Selection_RegToxPharm_Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — A dataset for the manuscript which demonstrates that it is possible to achieve levels of performance equivalent to the full 16 assay ER agonist model against both in...

  13. Protective relay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Mu Ji; Jung, Hae Sang

    1974-10-01

    This book is divided into two chapters, which deals with protective relay. The first chapter deals with the basic knowledge of relay on development of relay, classification of protective relay, rating of protective relay general structure of protective relay, detecting of ground protection, about point of contact, operating relay and trip relaying. The second chapter is about structure and explanation of relay on classification by structure such as motor type and moving-coil type, explanation of other relays over current relay, over voltage relay, short voltage relay, relay for power, relay for direction, test of over voltage relay, test of short voltage relay and test of directional circuit relay.

  14. Protecting knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sofka, Wolfgang; de Faria, Pedro; Shehu, Edlira

    2018-01-01

    Most firms use secrecy to protect their knowledge from potential imitators. However, the theoretical foundations for secrecy have not been well explored. We extend knowledge protection literature and propose theoretical mechanisms explaining how information visibility influences the importance...... of secrecy as a knowledge protection instrument. Building on mechanisms from information economics and signaling theory, we postulate that secrecy is more important for protecting knowledge for firms that have legal requirements to reveal information to shareholders. Furthermore, we argue that this effect...... and a firm's investment in fixed assets. Our findings inform both academics and managers on how firms balance information disclosure requirements with the use of secrecy as a knowledge protection instrument....

  15. International Network for Comparison of HIV Neutralization Assays: The NeutNet Report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fenyö, Eva Maria; Heath, Alan; Dispinseri, Stefania; Holmes, Harvey; Lusso, Paolo; Zolla-Pazner, Susan; Donners, Helen; Heyndrickx, Leo; Alcami, Jose; Bongertz, Vera; Jassoy, Christian; Malnati, Mauro; Montefiori, David; Moog, Christiane; Morris, Lynn; Osmanov, Saladin; Polonis, Victoria; Sattentau, Quentin; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; Sutthent, Ruengpung; Wrin, Terri; Scarlatti, Gabriella

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neutralizing antibody assessments play a central role in human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) vaccine development but it is unclear which assay, or combination of assays, will provide reliable measures of correlates of protection. To address this, an international collaboration

  16. St. James marine terminal facility description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) currently owns and operates a marine terminal on the west bank of the Mississippi River at St. James, Louisiana. The St. James facility was constructed by the Department to provide marine services associated with the fill and drawdown of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) crude oil storage facilities located at Bayou Choctaw and Weeks Island, Louisiana. Although strategic to the mission of the SPR in the event of a national emergency, the St. James terminal is situated such that it has a high potential to also serve the commercial industry`s needs for crude oil terminalling and storage. The St. James terminal is located approximately 45 miles west of New Orleans and 30 miles southeast of Baton Rouge, and approximately 160 miles upstream from the mouth of the Mississippi River. Construction of the St. James terminal was initiated in 1978 and was completed in 1980. Since then, the terminal has received and transferred over 125 million barrels of crude oil to the SPR sites for storage. For crude oil distribution, the St. James terminal was connected to the neighboring LOCAP terminal by a 0.1 mile 36-inch pipeline in 1981 and to the Capline terminal by a 0.5 mile 30-inch pipeline in 1988. The terminal also has a 30-inch pipeline connection to the Koch oil terminal which was used for initial fill purposes; however, this pipeline has been disconnected and is currently inactive. A complete description of the St. James terminal facilities, operational capabilities, operational certifications, and future Government requirements are presented in Sections 2, 3, 4, and 5 respectively.

  17. Termination of Safeguards for Accountable Nuclear Materials at the Idaho National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzemer, Michael; Carvo, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Termination of safeguards ends requirements of Nuclear Material Control and Accountability (MC and A) and thereby removes the safeguards basis for applying physical protection requirements for theft and diversion of nuclear material, providing termination requirements are met as described. Department of Energy (DOE) M 470.4 6 (Nuclear Material Control and Accountability [8/26/05]) stipulates: 1. Section A, Chapter I (1)( q) (1): Safeguards can be terminated on nuclear materials provided the following conditions are met: (a) 'If the material is special nuclear material (SNM) or protected as SNM, it must be attractiveness level E and have a measured value.' (b) 'The material has been determined by DOE line management to be of no programmatic value to DOE.' (c) 'The material is transferred to the control of a waste management organization where the material is accounted for and protected in accordance with waste management regulations. The material must not be collocated with other accountable nuclear materials.' Requirements for safeguards termination depend on the safeguards attractiveness levels of the material. For attractiveness level E, approval has been granted from the DOE Idaho Operations Office (DOE ID) to Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC (BEA) Safeguards and Security (S and S). In some cases, it may be necessary to dispose of nuclear materials of attractiveness level D or higher. Termination of safeguards for such materials must be approved by the Departmental Element (this is the DOE Headquarters Office of Nuclear Energy) after consultation with the Office of Security.

  18. Barcoded microchips for biomolecular assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Sun, Jiashu; Zou, Yu; Chen, Wenwen; Zhang, Wei; Xi, Jianzhong Jeff; Jiang, Xingyu

    2015-01-20

    Multiplexed assay of analytes is of great importance for clinical diagnostics and other analytical applications. Barcode-based bioassays with the ability to encode and decode may realize this goal in a straightforward and consistent manner. We present here a microfluidic barcoded chip containing several sets of microchannels with different widths, imitating the commonly used barcode. A single barcoded microchip can carry out tens of individual protein/nucleic acid assays (encode) and immediately yield all assay results by a portable barcode reader or a smartphone (decode). The applicability of a barcoded microchip is demonstrated by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) immunoassays for simultaneous detection of three targets (anti-gp41 antibody, anti-gp120 antibody, and anti-gp36 antibody) from six human serum samples. We can also determine seven pathogen-specific oligonucleotides by a single chip containing both positive and negative controls.

  19. N-terminal pro-atrial natriuretic peptide measurement in plasma suggests covalent modification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hunter, Ingrid; Alehagen, Urban; Dahlström, Ulf

    2011-01-01

    different proANP assays on clinical outcome. METHODS: We examined 474 elderly patients with symptoms of heart failure presenting in a primary healthcare setting. Samples were analyzed with an automated immunoluminometric midregion proANP (MR-proANP) assay and a new processing-independent assay (PIA.......74 (95% CI, 0.66–0.81); P = 0.32]. The prognostic ability to report cardiovascular mortality during a 10-year follow-up revealed AUC values of 0.66 (95% CI, 0.60–0.71) for the proANP PIA and 0.69 (95% CI, 0.63–0.74) for the MR-proANP assay (P = 0.08, for comparing the 2 assays). CONCLUSIONS: Our data......BACKGROUND: The N-terminal fragment of cardiac-derived pro–B-type natriuretic peptide is a glycosylated polypeptide. It is unknown whether N-terminal pro–atrial natriuretic peptide (proANP) fragments are also covalently modified. We therefore evaluated the clinical performance of 2 distinctly...

  20. 78 FR 5717 - Safety Zone; Military Ocean Terminal Concord Safety Zone, Suisun Bay, Military Ocean Terminal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-28

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Military Ocean Terminal Concord Safety Zone, Suisun Bay, Military Ocean Terminal... Guard is establishing a safety zone in the navigable waters of Suisun Bay near Military Ocean Terminal Concord, CA in support of military onload and offload operations. This safety zone is established to...

  1. Irradiation from video display terminals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Backe, S.; Hannevik, M.

    1987-01-01

    Video display terminals (VDT's) are in common use by computer operators. In the last years this group of workers has expressed growing concern about their work environment and possible hazardious effects in connection with radiation emission from VDT's. Radiation types and levels of emission and possible biological effects have been the subject of research activity in Norway and in other countries. This report summarizes the various radiation types and their levels of emission from VDT's. An overview of recent epidemiological studies and animal experiments, and the conclusions given by the research groups are also presented. The conclusions drawn in this report based on the current knowledge are: Radiation, other than low frequency pulsed magnetic fields, have low and negligible emission levels and will not represent any health hazard to VDT-operator or to the foetus of pregnant operators. The biological effects of low frequency pulsed mangetic fields have been the subject of epidemiological studies and animal experiments. Epidemiological studies carried out in Canada, Finland, Sweden and Norway gave no support for any correlation between pregnancy complications and operation of VDT's. From animal experiments it has so far been impossible to assert an effect on pregnancy outcome from low frequency pulsed magnetic fields

  2. 9 CFR 3.117 - Terminal facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Terminal facilities. 3.117 Section 3... Marine Mammals Transportation Standards § 3.117 Terminal facilities. Carriers and intermediate handlers... facility of any carrier or intermediate handler where marine mammal shipments are maintained must be...

  3. Bargaining in Mergers and Termination Fees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weitzel, U.; Rosenkranz, S.

    We model takeovers as a bargaining process and explain termination fees for, both, the target and the acquirer, subject to parties’ bargaining power and outside options. In equilibrium, termination fees are offered by firms with outside options in exchange for a greater share of merger synergies.

  4. [Terminal phase hydration, pain and delirium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heick, A.

    2009-01-01

    Hydration of the terminal patient may relieve confusion and complaints of "dry mouth". But it may worsen oedema of the brain, lungs, and extremities, worsen terminal rattling and cause a need for frequent changing of diapers. The decision of whether and how to treat a dying patient with fluids...

  5. 48 CFR 32.109 - Termination financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Termination financing. 32... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Non-Commercial Item Purchase Financing 32.109 Termination financing. To encourage contractors to invest their own funds in performance despite the susceptibility of...

  6. Diffractive optical elements for space communication terminals

    OpenAIRE

    Herzig, Hans-Peter; Ehbets, Peter; Teijido, Juan M.; Weible, Kenneth J.; Heimbeck, Hans-Joerg

    2007-01-01

    The potential of diffractive optical elements for advanced laser communication terminals has been investigated. Applications include beam shaping of high- power laser diode arrays, optical filter elements for position detection and hybrid (refractive/diffractive) elements. In addition, we present a design example of a miniaturized terminal including diffractive optics.

  7. Size-change termination and transition invariants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heizmann, Matthias; Jones, Neil; Podelski, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Two directions of recent work on program termination use the concepts of size-change termination resp. transition invariants. The difference in the setting has as consequence the inherent incomparability of the analysis and verification methods that result from this work. Yet, in order...

  8. 28 CFR 2.43 - Early termination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... terminated because there is a likelihood that the parolee will engage in conduct violating any criminal law... shall review the status of the parolee to determine the need for continued supervision. The Commission shall also conduct a status review whenever the supervision officer recommends early termination of the...

  9. 14 CFR 272.12 - Termination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS ESSENTIAL AIR SERVICE TO THE FREELY ASSOCIATED STATES § 272.12 Termination. These provisions shall terminate on October 1, 1998, unless the program of essential air service to the Federated States of...

  10. 43 CFR 29.13 - Termination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Termination. Upon termination of operations of the Pipeline, the full disposition of all claims, and the... shall request that Congress provide for final disposition of the Fund. If Congress at any time establishes a comprehensive oil pollution liability fund which supersedes or repeals the Fund, the Fund assets...

  11. 75 FR 49510 - Credit Watch Termination Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT [Docket No. FR-5411-N-02] Credit Watch Termination Initiative AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Housing--Federal Housing Commissioner, HUD. ACTION... FHA Credit Watch Termination Initiative. This notice includes a list of mortgagees which have had...

  12. 75 FR 17944 - Credit Watch Termination Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT [Docket No. FR-5411-N-01] Credit Watch Termination Initiative AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Housing--Federal Housing Commissioner, HUD. ACTION... FHA Credit Watch Termination Initiative. This notice includes a list of mortgagees which have had...

  13. [Terminal phase hydration, pain and delirium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heick, A.

    2009-01-01

    Hydration of the terminal patient may relieve confusion and complaints of "dry mouth". But it may worsen oedema of the brain, lungs, and extremities, worsen terminal rattling and cause a need for frequent changing of diapers. The decision of whether and how to treat a dying patient with fluids sh...

  14. 7 CFR 983.89 - Termination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Miscellaneous Provisions § 983.89 Termination. (a) The Secretary may at any time..., That such majority has, during such representative period, produced for market more than fifty percent of the volume of such pistachios produced for market, but such termination shall be announced at...

  15. Lower Columbia River Terminal Fisheries Research Project : Final Environmental Assessment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1995-04-01

    This notice announces BPA`S`s decision to fund the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW), the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW), and the Clatsop Economic Development Committee for the Lower Columbia River Terminal Fisheries Research Project (Project). The Project will continue the testing of various species/stocks, rearing regimes, and harvest options for terminal fisheries, as a means to increase lower river sport and commercial harvest of hatchery fish, while providing both greater protection of weaker wild stocks and increasing the return of upriver salmon runs to potential Zone 6 Treaty fisheries. The Project involves relocating hatchery smolts to new, additional pen locations in three bays/sloughs in the lower Columbia River along both the Oregon and Washington sides. The sites are Blind Slough and Tongue Point in Clatsop County, Oregon, and Grays Bay/Deep River, Wahkiakum County, Washington. The smolts will be acclimated for various lengths of time in the net pens and released from these sites. The Project will expand upon an existing terminal fisheries project in Youngs Bay, Oregon. The Project may be expanded to other sites in the future, depending on the results of this initial expansion. BPA`S has determined the project is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required, and BPA`S is issuing this FONSI.

  16. The protective effects of resveratral on acute radiation injury in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Hao; Wang Hui; Zhang Heng

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To study the protective function of resveratrol on radiation-induced small intestine injury and lethal effect in mice. Methods: Mice were randomly divided into three groups: irradiation (IR) control, IR only, and IR+ resveratrol. 15 mice each group were irradiated on abdomen with 7.2 Gy γ-rays for cell lethal assay and 8 mice each group were irradiated with 6.5 Gy for small intestine injury assay. For the IR+ resveratrol group, the mouse was given resveratrol by intragastric administration 24 h before irradiation and then was fed with resveratrol daily for 5 days. The control and IR alone groups were fed with placebo. After 30 days of IR, mouse survival rate was detected. For small intestine injury experiments, 24 h after IR, the mice were terminated and the small intestines were treated with HE and immunohistochemical staining. Results: Compared with the irradiation group, resveratrol increased mouse survival by 33.3%, decreased apoptosis in intestinal crypt cells (t = 17.35, P < 0.05), and increased Ki67 expression (t = 13.62, P < 0.05). Conclusion: Resveratrol could protect small intestine injury from ionizing irradiation. (authors)

  17. Harmful effects of lightning surge discharge on communications terminal equipments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Sisi; Xu, Xiaoying; Tao, Zhigang; Dai, Yanling

    2013-01-01

    The interference problem of lightning surges on electronic and telecommunication products were examined, and a series of experiments were conducted to analyze the failure situations to find out the mechanisms of failures caused by the lightning surge. In addition, the ways in which lightning surges damaged equipment were deduced. It was found that failure positions were scattered and appeared in groups, and most of them were ground discharge. Internet access transformer had high withstand-voltage under the lightning pulse, and the lightning surge seldom passed through the internet access transformer. The lightning current can release to the ground via the computer network adapter of the terminal user. The study will help to improve the performance of lightning surge protection circuit and protection level.

  18. Mechanisms of dealing with DNA damage in terminally differentiated cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortini, P. [Department of Environment and Primary Prevention, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome (Italy); Dogliotti, E., E-mail: eugenia.dogliotti@iss.it [Department of Environment and Primary Prevention, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome (Italy)

    2010-03-01

    To protect genomic integrity living cells that are continuously exposed to DNA-damaging insults are equipped with an efficient defence mechanism termed the DNA damage response. Its function is to eliminate DNA damage through DNA repair and to remove damaged cells by apoptosis. The DNA damage response has been investigated mainly in proliferating cells, in which the cell cycle machinery is integrated with the DNA damage signalling. The current knowledge of the mechanisms of DNA repair, DNA damage signalling and cell death of post-mitotic cells that have undergone irreversible cell cycle withdrawal will be reviewed. Evidence will be provided that the protection of the genome integrity in terminally differentiated cells is achieved by different strategies than in proliferating cells.

  19. Mechanisms of dealing with DNA damage in terminally differentiated cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortini, P.; Dogliotti, E.

    2010-01-01

    To protect genomic integrity living cells that are continuously exposed to DNA-damaging insults are equipped with an efficient defence mechanism termed the DNA damage response. Its function is to eliminate DNA damage through DNA repair and to remove damaged cells by apoptosis. The DNA damage response has been investigated mainly in proliferating cells, in which the cell cycle machinery is integrated with the DNA damage signalling. The current knowledge of the mechanisms of DNA repair, DNA damage signalling and cell death of post-mitotic cells that have undergone irreversible cell cycle withdrawal will be reviewed. Evidence will be provided that the protection of the genome integrity in terminally differentiated cells is achieved by different strategies than in proliferating cells.

  20. Chromosome aberration assays in Allium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant, W.F.

    1982-01-01

    The common onion (Allium cepa) is an excellent plant for the assay of chromosome aberrations after chemical treatment. Other species of Allium (A. cepa var. proliferum, A. carinatum, A. fistulosum and A. sativum) have also been used but to a much lesser extent. Protocols have been given for using root tips from either bulbs or seeds of Allium cepa to study the cytological end-points, such as chromosome breaks and exchanges, which follow the testing of chemicals in somatic cells. It is considered that both mitotic and meiotic end-points should be used to a greater extent in assaying the cytogenetic effects of a chemical. From a literature survey, 148 chemicals are tabulated that have been assayed in 164 Allium tests for their clastogenic effect. Of the 164 assays which have been carried out, 75 are reported as giving a positive reaction, 49 positive and with a dose response, 1 positive and temperature-related, 9 borderline positive, and 30 negative; 76% of the chemicals gave a definite positive response. It is proposed that the Allium test be included among those tests routinely used for assessing chromosomal damage induced by chemicals.

  1. 40 CFR 721.10017 - Amine terminated bisphenol A diglycidyl ether polymer (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... diglycidyl ether polymer (generic). 721.10017 Section 721.10017 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... ether polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as amine terminated bisphenol A diglycidyl ether polymer (PMNs P...

  2. Two-terminal video coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Stanković, Vladimir; Xiong, Zixiang; Zhao, Wei

    2009-03-01

    Following recent works on the rate region of the quadratic Gaussian two-terminal source coding problem and limit-approaching code designs, this paper examines multiterminal source coding of two correlated, i.e., stereo, video sequences to save the sum rate over independent coding of both sequences. Two multiterminal video coding schemes are proposed. In the first scheme, the left sequence of the stereo pair is coded by H.264/AVC and used at the joint decoder to facilitate Wyner-Ziv coding of the right video sequence. The first I-frame of the right sequence is successively coded by H.264/AVC Intracoding and Wyner-Ziv coding. An efficient stereo matching algorithm based on loopy belief propagation is then adopted at the decoder to produce pixel-level disparity maps between the corresponding frames of the two decoded video sequences on the fly. Based on the disparity maps, side information for both motion vectors and motion-compensated residual frames of the right sequence are generated at the decoder before Wyner-Ziv encoding. In the second scheme, source splitting is employed on top of classic and Wyner-Ziv coding for compression of both I-frames to allow flexible rate allocation between the two sequences. Experiments with both schemes on stereo video sequences using H.264/AVC, LDPC codes for Slepian-Wolf coding of the motion vectors, and scalar quantization in conjunction with LDPC codes for Wyner-Ziv coding of the residual coefficients give a slightly lower sum rate than separate H.264/AVC coding of both sequences at the same video quality.

  3. Solution structure and dynamics of C-terminal regulatory domain of Vibrio vulnificus extracellular metalloprotease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Ji-Hye; Kim, Heeyoun [Department of Biochemistry, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jung Eun [Department of Biotechnology, College of Natural Sciences, Chosun University, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jung Sup, E-mail: jsplee@mail.chosun.ac.kr [Department of Biotechnology, College of Natural Sciences, Chosun University, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Weontae, E-mail: wlee@spin.yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Biochemistry, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-01-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We have determined solution structures of vEP C-terminal regulatory domain. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer vEP C-ter100 has a compact {beta}-barrel structure with eight anti-parallel {beta}-strands. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Solution structure of vEP C-ter100 shares its molecular topology with that of the collagen-binding domain of collagenase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Residues in the {beta}3 region of vEP C-ter100 might be important in putative ligand/receptor binding. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer vEP C-ter100 interacts strongly with iron ion. -- Abstract: An extracellular metalloprotease (vEP) secreted by Vibrio vulnificus ATCC29307 is a 45-kDa proteolytic enzyme that has prothrombin activation and fibrinolytic activities during bacterial infection. The action of vEP could result in clotting that could serve to protect the bacteria from the host defense machinery. Very recently, we showed that the C-terminal propeptide (C-ter100), which is unique to vEP, is involved in regulation of vEP activity. To understand the structural basis of this function of vEP C-ter100, we have determined the solution structure and backbone dynamics using multidimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The solution structure shows that vEP C-ter100 is composed of eight anti-parallel {beta}-strands with a unique fold that has a compact {beta}-barrel formation which stabilized by hydrophobic and hydrogen bonding networks. Protein dynamics shows that the overall structure, including loops, is very rigid and stabilized. By structural database analysis, we found that vEP C-ter100 shares its topology with that of the collagen-binding domain of collagenase, despite low sequence homology between the two domains. Fluorescence assay reveals that vEP C-ter100 interacts strongly with iron (Fe{sup 3+}). These findings suggest that vEP protease might recruit substrate molecules, such as collagen, by binding at C-ter100 and that vEP participates

  4. Dark chocolate receptors: epicatechin-induced cardiac protection is dependent on delta-opioid receptor stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panneerselvam, Mathivadhani; Tsutsumi, Yasuo M; Bonds, Jacqueline A; Horikawa, Yousuke T; Saldana, Michelle; Dalton, Nancy D; Head, Brian P; Patel, Piyush M; Roth, David M; Patel, Hemal H

    2010-11-01

    Epicatechin, a flavonoid, is a well-known antioxidant linked to a variety of protective effects in both humans and animals. In particular, its role in protection against cardiovascular disease has been demonstrated by epidemiologic studies. Low-dose epicatechin, which does not have significant antioxidant activity, is also protective; however, the mechanism by which low-dose epicatechin induces this effect is unknown. Our laboratory tested the hypothesis that low-dose epicatechin mediates cardiac protection via opioid receptor activation. C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned to 1 of 10 groups: control, epicatechin, naloxone (nonselective opioid receptor antagonist), epicatechin + naloxone, naltrindole (δ-specific opioid receptor antagonist), epicatechin + naltrindole, norbinaltorphimine (nor-BNI, κ-specific opioid receptor antagonist), epicatechin + nor-BNI, 5-hydroxydecanoic acid [5-HD, ATP-sensitive potassium channel antagonist], and epicatechin + 5-HD. Epicatechin (1 mg/kg) or other inhibitors (5 mg/kg) were administered by oral gavage or intraperitoneal injection, respectively, daily for 10 days. Mice were subjected to 30 min coronary artery occlusion followed by 2 h of reperfusion, and infarct size was determined via planimetry. Whole heart homogenates were assayed for downstream opioid receptor signaling targets. Infarct size was significantly reduced in epicatechin- and epicatechin + nor-BNI-treated mice compared with control mice. This protection was blocked by naloxone, naltrindole, and 5-HD. Epicatechin and epicatechin + nor-BNI increased the phosphorylation of Src, Akt, and IκBα, while simultaneously decreasing the expression of c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase and caspase-activated DNase. All signaling effects are consistent with opioid receptor stimulation and subsequent cardiac protection. Naloxone, naltrindole, and 5-HD attenuated these effects. In conclusion, epicatechin acts via opioid receptors and more specifically through the δ-opioid receptor to

  5. Factor H C-Terminal Domains Are Critical for Regulation of Platelet/Granulocyte Aggregate Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Z. Blatt

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Platelet/granulocyte aggregates (PGAs increase thromboinflammation in the vasculature, and PGA formation is tightly controlled by the complement alternative pathway (AP negative regulator, Factor H (FH. Mutations in FH are associated with the prothrombotic disease atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS, yet it is unknown whether increased PGA formation contributes to the thrombosis seen in patients with aHUS. Here, flow cytometry assays were used to evaluate the effects of aHUS-related mutations on FH regulation of PGA formation and characterize the mechanism. Utilizing recombinant fragments of FH spanning the entire length of the protein, we mapped the regions of FH most critical for limiting AP activity on the surface of isolated human platelets and neutrophils, as well as the regions most critical for regulating PGA formation in human whole blood stimulated with thrombin receptor-activating peptide (TRAP. FH domains 19–20 were the most critical for limiting AP activity on platelets, neutrophils, and at the platelet/granulocyte interface. The role of FH in PGA formation was attributed to its ability to regulate AP-mediated C5a generation. AHUS-related mutations in domains 19–20 caused differential effects on control of PGA formation and AP activity on platelets and neutrophils. Our data indicate FH C-terminal domains are key for regulating PGA formation, thus increased FH protection may have a beneficial impact on diseases characterized by increased PGA formation, such as cardiovascular disease. Additionally, aHUS-related mutations in domains 19–20 have varying effects on control of TRAP-mediated PGA formation, suggesting that some, but not all, aHUS-related mutations may cause increased PGA formation that contributes to excessive thrombosis in patients with aHUS.

  6. Automation of the dicentric chromosome assay and related assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balajee, Adayabalam S.; Dainiak, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Dicentric Chromosome Assay (DCA) is considered to be the 'gold standard' for personalized dose assessment in humans after accidental or incidental radiation exposure. Although this technique is superior to other cytogenetic assays in terms of specificity and sensitivity, its potential application to radiation mass casualty scenarios is highly restricted because DCA is time consuming and labor intensive when performed manually. Therefore, it is imperative to develop high throughput automation techniques to make DCA suitable for radiological triage scenarios. At the Cytogenetic Biodosimetry Laboratory in Oak Ridge, efforts are underway to develop high throughput automation of DCA. Current status on development of various automated cytogenetic techniques in meeting the biodosimetry needs of radiological/nuclear incident(s) will be discussed

  7. Radiation Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loos, M.

    2002-01-01

    Major achievements of SCK-CEN's Radiation Protection Department in 2001 are described. The main areas for R and D of the department are enviromnental remediation, emergency planning, radiation protection research, low-level radioactvity measurements, safeguards and physics measurements, decision strategy research and policy support and social sciences in nuclear research. Main achievements for 2001 in these areas are reported

  8. Sun protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sun exposure. The start of summer is when UV rays can cause the most skin damage. Use sun protection, even on cloudy days. Clouds and haze don't protect you from the sun. Avoid surfaces that reflect light, such as water, sand, concrete, snow, and areas ...

  9. Assay strategies and methods for phospholipases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, L.J.; Washburn, W.N.; Deems, R.A.; Dennis, E.A.

    1991-01-01

    Of the general considerations discussed, the two issues which are most important in choosing an assay are (1) what sensitivity is required to assay a particular enzyme and (2) whether the assay must be continuous. One can narrow the options further by considering substrate availability, enzyme specificity, assay convenience, or the presence of incompatible side reactions. In addition, the specific preference of a particular phospholipase for polar head group, micellar versus vesicular substrates, and anionic versus nonionic detergents may further restrict the options. Of the many assays described in this chapter, several have limited applicability or serious drawbacks and are not commonly employed. The most commonly used phospholipase assays are the radioactive TLC assay and the pH-stat assay. The TLC assay is probably the most accurate, sensitive assay available. These aspects often outweigh the disadvantages of being discontinuous, tedious, and expensive. The radioactive E. coli assay has become popular recently as an alternative to the TLC assay for the purification of the mammalian nonpancreatic phospholipases. The assay is less time consuming and less expensive than the TLC assay, but it is not appropriate when careful kinetics are required. Where less sensitivity is needed, or when a continuous assay is necessary, the pH-stat assay is often employed. With purified enzymes, when free thiol groups are not present, a spectrophotometric thiol assay can be used. This assay is ∼ as sensitive as the pH-stat assay but is more convenient and more reproducible, although the substrate is not available commercially. Despite the many assay choices available, the search continues for a convenient, generally applicable assay that is both sensitive and continuous

  10. Concept Layout Model of Transportation Terminals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-ya Yao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Transportation terminal is the key node in transport systems. Efficient terminals can improve operation of passenger transportation networks, adjust the layout of public transportation networks, provide a passenger guidance system, and regulate the development of commercial forms, as well as optimize the assembly and distribution of modern logistic modes, among others. This study aims to clarify the relationship between the function and the structure of transportation terminals and establish the function layout design. The mapping mechanism of demand, function, and structure was analyzed, and a quantitative relationship between function and structure was obtained from a design perspective. Passenger demand and terminal structure were decomposed into several demand units and structural elements following the principle of reverse engineering. The relationship maps between these two kinds of elements were then analyzed. Function-oriented concept layout model of transportation terminals was established using the previous method. Thus, a technique in planning and design of transportation structures was proposed. Meaningful results were obtained from the optimization of transportation terminal facilities, which guide the design of the functional layout of transportation terminals and improve the development of urban passenger transportation systems.

  11. Compact Termination for Structural Soft-goods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkes, Robert, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Glass fiber is unique in its ability to withstand atomic oxygen and ultraviolet radiation in-space environments. However, glass fiber is also difficult to terminate by traditional methods without decreasing its strength significantly. Glass fiber products are especially sensitive to bend radius, and do not work very well with traditional 'sewn loop on pin' type connections. As with most composites, getting applied loads from a metallic structure into the webbing without stress concentrations is the key to a successful design. A potted end termination has been shown in some preliminary work to out-perform traditional termination methods. It was proposed to conduct a series of tensile tests on structural webbing or cord to determine the optimum potting geometry, and to then be able to estimate a weight and volume savings over traditional sewn-overa- pin connections. During the course of the investigation into potted end terminations for glass fiber webbing, a new and innovative connection was developed that has lower weight, reduced fabrication time, and superior thermal tolerance over the metallic end terminations that were to be optimized in the original proposal. This end termination essentially transitions the flexible glass fiber webbing into a rigid fiberglass termination, which can be bolted/fastened with traditional methods

  12. The Practice of Hospital Intranet Terminal Access Control Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Shi-tao; TANG Li-ming

    2016-01-01

    Along with the increasingly urgent management needs of intranet terminals in hospital, and large scaled deployment of terminal management system, terminal access control has become one of the standard functions of terminal management. This paper mainly aims at some simple research for the system construction of hospital intranet terminal access control.

  13. 42 CFR 489.53 - Termination by CMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Termination by CMS. 489.53 Section 489.53 Public... Reinstatement After Termination § 489.53 Termination by CMS. (a) Basis for termination of agreement with any provider. CMS may terminate the agreement with any provider if CMS finds that any of the following failings...

  14. 7 CFR 1469.25 - Contract violations and termination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... termination without delay. (c) If NRCS terminates a contract due to breach of contract, the participant will... terminates a contract due to breach of contract, or the participant voluntarily terminates the contract... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Contract violations and termination. 1469.25 Section...

  15. Lightening protection, techniques, applied codes and standards. Vol. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud, M.; Shaaban, H.; Lamey, S.

    1996-01-01

    Lightening is the only natural disaster that protection against is highly effective. Therefore for the safety of critical installations specifically nuclear, an effective lightening protection system (LPS) is required. The design and installation of LPS's have been addressed by many international codes and standards. In this paper, the various LPS's are discussed and compared, including radioactive air terminals, ionizing air terminals, and terminals equipped with electrical trigging devices. Also, the so-called dissipation array systems are discussed and compared to other systems technically and economically. Moreover, the available international codes and standards related to the lightening protection are discussed. such standards include those published by the national fire protection association (NFPA), lightening protection institute (LPI), underwriters laboratories (UL), and british standards Finally, the possibility of developing an egyptian national standards is discussed

  16. Evaluation of a Noncontact, Alternative Mosquito Repellent Assay System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisgratog, Rungarun; Kongmee, Monthathip; Sanguanpong, Unchalee; Prabaripai, Atchariya; Bangs, Michael J; Chareonviriyaphap, Theeraphap

    2016-09-01

    A novel noncontact repellency assay system (NCRAS) was designed and evaluated as a possible alternative method for testing compounds that repel or inhibit mosquitoes from blood feeding. Deet and Aedes aegypti were used in a controlled laboratory setting. Using 2 study designs, a highly significant difference were seen between deet-treated and untreated skin placed behind the protective screens, indicating that deet was detected and was acting as a deterrence to mosquito landing and probing behavior. However, a 2nd study showed significant differences between protected (behind a metal screen barrier) and unprotected (exposed) deet-treated forearms, indicating the screen mesh might restrict the detection of deet and thus influences landing/biting response. These findings indicate the prototype NCRAS shows good promise but requires further evaluation and possible modification in design and testing protocol to achieve more desirable operational attributes in comparison with direct skin-contact repellency mosquito assays.

  17. Employment protection and temporary work agencies

    OpenAIRE

    Baumann, Florian; Mechtel, Mario; Stähler, Nikolai

    2008-01-01

    Employers who use temporary agency staff in contrast to regular staff are not affected by employment protection regulations when terminating a job. Therefore, services provided by temporary work agencies may be seen as a substitute for regular employment. In this paper, we analyze the effects of employment protection on the size of the temporary work agency sector in a model of equilibrium unemployment. We find that higher firing costs may even reduce temporary work agency employment if agenc...

  18. Amelioration of oxidative stress by anthraquinones in various in vitro assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Kumar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The use of natural phytoconstituents for food and as nutritional supplements is an easiest way to be healthier. Anthraquinone pigments have been traditionally used for various purposes viz. food colorants, textile staining, color paints and medicines. Rubia cordifolia L. is a perennial, herbaceous climbing plant belonging to family Rubiaceae. This plant contain substantial amounts of anthraquinones, especially in the roots. The present study deals with the bioactivity evaluation of phytoconstituents viz. alizarin and purpurin from Rubia cordifolia. Methods: The DNA protective and antioxidant potential of alizarin and purpurin was evaluated using different in vitro assays viz. DNA protection assay, ABTS assay, DPPH assay, Ferric ion reduction potential and Phosphomolybdenum assay. Results: Alizarin and purpurin exhibited good free radical scavenging activity in various assays. In DNA protection assay, alizarin showed more DNA protection against hydroxyl radicals generated by Fenton ’s reagent in comparison to purpurin. Conclusions: Being potent antioxidants, these natural coloring compounds can be boon to the food industry as nutraceuticals. Further, these phytochemicals can be explored for their anticancer activity and may serve as potent cancer chemopreventive molecules.

  19. Evaluation of the ability of N-terminal fragment of lethal factor of Bacillus anthracis for delivery of Mycobacterium T cell antigen ESAT-6 into cytosol of antigen presenting cells to elicit effective cytotoxic T lymphocyte response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandra, Subhash; Kaur, Manpreet; Midha, Shuchi; Bhatnagar, Rakesh; Banerjee-Bhatnagar, Nirupama

    2006-01-01

    We report the ability of N-terminal fragment of lethal factor of Bacillus anthracis to deliver genetically fused ESAT-6 (early secretory antigen target), a potent T cell antigen of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, into cytosol to elicit Cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response. In vitro Th1 cytokines data and CTL assay proved that efficient delivery of LFn.ESAT-6 occurs in cytosol, in the presence of protective antigen (PA), and leads to generation of effective CTL response. Since CTL response is essential for protection against intracellular pathogens and, it is well known that only single T cell epitope or single antigenic protein is not sufficient to elicit protective CTL response due to variation or polymorphism in MHC-I alleles among the individuals, we suggest that as a fusion protein LFn can be used to deliver multiepitopes of T cells or multiproteins which can generate effective CTLs against intracellular pathogens like M. tuberculosis. It can be used to enhance the protective efficacy of BCG vaccine

  20. Operational Optimization in Port Container Terminals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    As a result of the significant increase in worldwide containerized transportation the development of efficient handling systems in marine terminals has become very important for port competitiveness. In order to optimize the productivity the total handling time for containers in the terminal must...... be minimized. An overview of the different operational problems in port container terminals is presented and an aggregated model and solution approach is shown. Next, there will be focused on the yard storage problem and a mathematical formulation and solution proposals will be presented....

  1. Termination of plastic-clad fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nance, W.R.

    1982-03-01

    Optical waveguides are ideal in a nuclear weapon environment because of their resistance to electromagnetic interference. Of the fibers on today's market, plastic-clad silica (PCS) is the most radiation resistant and therfore the best choice. Because terminating PCS is complex, this paper attemps to address the major problems associated with these terminations including selecting the proper connector and optimizing the terminating procedures. The sources of losses in the connectors are summarized and typical loss values are given for four connectors which were tested

  2. Lung-protective ventilation in neonatology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kaam, Anton

    2011-01-01

    Ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) is considered an important risk factor in the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and is primarily caused by overdistension (volutrauma) and repetitive opening and collapse (atelectrauma) of terminal lung units. Lung-protective ventilation should

  3. International network for comparison of HIV neutralization assays: the NeutNet report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenyö, Eva Maria; Heath, Alan; Dispinseri, Stefania; Holmes, Harvey; Lusso, Paolo; Zolla-Pazner, Susan; Donners, Helen; Heyndrickx, Leo; Alcami, Jose; Bongertz, Vera; Jassoy, Christian; Malnati, Mauro; Montefiori, David; Moog, Christiane; Morris, Lynn; Osmanov, Saladin; Polonis, Victoria; Sattentau, Quentin; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; Sutthent, Ruengpung; Wrin, Terri; Scarlatti, Gabriella

    2009-01-01

    Neutralizing antibody assessments play a central role in human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) vaccine development but it is unclear which assay, or combination of assays, will provide reliable measures of correlates of protection. To address this, an international collaboration (NeutNet) involving 18 independent participants was organized to compare different assays. Each laboratory evaluated four neutralizing reagents (TriMab, 447-52D, 4E10, sCD4) at a given range of concentrations against a panel of 11 viruses representing a wide range of genetic subtypes and phenotypes. A total of 16 different assays were compared. The assays utilized either uncloned virus produced in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) (virus infectivity assays, VI assays), or their Env-pseudotyped (gp160) derivatives produced in 293T cells (PSV assays) from molecular clones or uncloned virus. Target cells included PBMC and genetically-engineered cell lines in either a single- or multiple-cycle infection format. Infection was quantified by using a range of assay read-outs that included extracellular or intracellular p24 antigen detection, RNA quantification and luciferase and beta-galactosidase reporter gene expression. PSV assays were generally more sensitive than VI assays, but there were important differences according to the virus and inhibitor used. For example, for TriMab, the mean IC50 was always lower in PSV than in VI assays. However, with 4E10 or sCD4 some viruses were neutralized with a lower IC50 in VI assays than in the PSV assays. Inter-laboratory concordance was slightly better for PSV than for VI assays with some viruses, but for other viruses agreement between laboratories was limited and depended on both the virus and the neutralizing reagent. The NeutNet project demonstrated clear differences in assay sensitivity that were dependent on both the neutralizing reagent and the virus. No single assay was capable of detecting the entire spectrum of neutralizing

  4. International network for comparison of HIV neutralization assays: the NeutNet report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Maria Fenyö

    Full Text Available Neutralizing antibody assessments play a central role in human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1 vaccine development but it is unclear which assay, or combination of assays, will provide reliable measures of correlates of protection. To address this, an international collaboration (NeutNet involving 18 independent participants was organized to compare different assays.Each laboratory evaluated four neutralizing reagents (TriMab, 447-52D, 4E10, sCD4 at a given range of concentrations against a panel of 11 viruses representing a wide range of genetic subtypes and phenotypes. A total of 16 different assays were compared. The assays utilized either uncloned virus produced in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs (virus infectivity assays, VI assays, or their Env-pseudotyped (gp160 derivatives produced in 293T cells (PSV assays from molecular clones or uncloned virus. Target cells included PBMC and genetically-engineered cell lines in either a single- or multiple-cycle infection format. Infection was quantified by using a range of assay read-outs that included extracellular or intracellular p24 antigen detection, RNA quantification and luciferase and beta-galactosidase reporter gene expression.PSV assays were generally more sensitive than VI assays, but there were important differences according to the virus and inhibitor used. For example, for TriMab, the mean IC50 was always lower in PSV than in VI assays. However, with 4E10 or sCD4 some viruses were neutralized with a lower IC50 in VI assays than in the PSV assays. Inter-laboratory concordance was slightly better for PSV than for VI assays with some viruses, but for other viruses agreement between laboratories was limited and depended on both the virus and the neutralizing reagent.The NeutNet project demonstrated clear differences in assay sensitivity that were dependent on both the neutralizing reagent and the virus. No single assay was capable of detecting the entire spectrum of

  5. Nondestructive assay of sale materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodenburg, W.W.; Fleissner, J.G.

    1981-01-01

    This paper covers three primary areas: (1) reasons for performing nondestructive assay on SALE materials; (2) techniques used; and (3) discussion of investigators' revised results. The study shows that nondestructive calorimetric assay of plutonium offers a viable alternative to traditional wet chemical techniques. For these samples, the precision ranged from 0.4 to 0.6% with biases less than 0.2%. Thus, for those materials where sampling errors are the predominant source of uncertainty, this technique can provide improved accuracy and precision while saving time and money as well as reducing the amount of liquid wastes to be handled. In addition, high resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy measurements of solids can provide isotopic analysis data in a cost effective and timely manner. The timeliness of the method can be especially useful to the plant operator for production control and quality control measurements

  6. Comet Assay in Cancer Chemoprevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Raffaela; Ferraiuolo, Maria; Morgano, Gian Paolo; Muti, Paola; Strano, Sabrina

    2016-01-01

    The comet assay can be useful in monitoring DNA damage in single cells caused by exposure to genotoxic agents, such as those causing air, water, and soil pollution (e.g., pesticides, dioxins, electromagnetic fields) and chemo- and radiotherapy in cancer patients, or in the assessment of genoprotective effects of chemopreventive molecules. Therefore, it has particular importance in the fields of pharmacology and toxicology, and in both environmental and human biomonitoring. It allows the detection of single strand breaks as well as double-strand breaks and can be used in both normal and cancer cells. Here we describe the alkali method for comet assay, which allows to detect both single- and double-strand DNA breaks.

  7. Radioreceptor assay for somatomedin A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takano, K [Tokyo Women' s Medical Coll. (Japan)

    1975-04-01

    Measurement method of somatomedian A by radioreceptor assay using the human placenta membrane was described and discussed. Binding rate of /sup 125/I-somatomedin A to its receptors was studied under various conditions of time and temperature of the incubation, and pH of the system. The influence of somatomedin A, porcine insulin, and porcine calcitonin, on /sup 125/I-somatomedin A bound receptors was studied, and these hormones showed the competitive binding to somatomedin A receptors in some level. The specificity, recovery rate, and clinical applications of somatomedin A were also discussed. Radioreceptor assay for somatomedine A provided easier, faster, and more accurate measurements than conventional bioassay. This technique would be very useful to study somatomedin A receptor and functions of insulin.

  8. Radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    A NRPB leaflet in the 'At-a-Glance' series explains in a simple but scientifically accurate way what radiation is, the biological effects and the relative sensitivity of different parts of the human body. The leaflet then discusses radiation protection principles, radiation protection in the UK and finally the effectiveness of this radiation protection as judged by a breakdown of the total dose received by an average person in the UK, a heavy consumer of Cumbrian seafood, an average nuclear industry worker and an average person in Cornwall. (UK)

  9. Assay of vitamin B12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tovey, K.C.; Carrick, D.T.

    1982-01-01

    A radioassay is described for vitamin B12 which involves denaturing serum protein binding proteins with alkali. In the denaturation step a dithiopolyol and cyanide are used and in the intrinsic factor assay step a vitamin B12 analogue such as cobinamide is used to bind with any remaining serum proteins. The invention also includes a kit in which the dithiopolyol is provided in admixture with the alkali. The dithiopolyol may be dithiothreitol or dithioerythritol. (author)

  10. Terminal location planning in intermodal transportation with Bayesian inference method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    In this project, we consider the planning of terminal locations for intermodal transportation systems. For a given number of potential terminals and coexisted multiple service pairs, we find the set of appropriate terminals and their locations that p...

  11. Assay of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pike, C.; Berry, J.

    1987-01-01

    Assays of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase (rubisco) can be used to illustrate many properties of photosynthetic systems. Many different leaves have been assayed with this standard procedure. The tissue is ground with a mortar and pestle in extraction buffer. The supernatant after centrifugation is used as the source of enzyme. Buffer, RuBP, [ 14 C]-NaHCO 3 , and enzyme are combined in a scintillation vial; the reaction is run for 1 min at 30 0 . The acid-stable products are counted. Reproducibility in student experiments has been excellent. The assay data can be combined with analyses of leaf properties such as fresh and dry weight, chlorophyll and protein content, etc. Students have done projects such as the response of enzyme to temperature and to various inhibitors. They also report on the use of a transition state analog, carboxyarabinitol bisphosphate, to titrate the molar concentration of rubisco molecules (active sites) in an enzyme sample. Thus, using crude extracts the catalytic activity of a sample can be compared to the absolute quantity of enzyme or to the turnover number

  12. Terminal Area Conflict Detection and Resolution Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Savita Arora

    2011-01-01

    This poster will describe analysis of a conflict detection and resolution tool for the terminal area called T-TSAFE. With altitude clearance information, the tool can reduce false alerts to as low as 2 per hour.

  13. Conflict Termination: Every Conflict Must End

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garza, Mario

    1997-01-01

    .... The operational commander and his staff must understand the nature of conflict termination and the post-conflict activities so that they will be able to effectively translate the desired end state...

  14. Keerukas terminal valiti aasta betoonehitiseks / Aivo Vahemets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vahemets, Aivo

    2002-01-01

    Aasta Betoonehitise nimetuse võitis Muuga kuivpuisteainete terminal, projekteerija Randväli&Karema AS. Eriauhind arhitektuurse osa eest - Birgitta klooster Pirital. Eriauhind tellijale - büroohoone Tallinnas Toompuiestee 33. Eriauhind ehitajale - konteinerterminal Muugal, projekteerija AS Merin

  15. Compact Termination for Structural Soft-goods

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Glass fiber is unique in its ability to withstand atomic oxygen and ultraviolet radiation in-space environments. However, glass fiber is also difficult to terminate...

  16. Mandatory Compensation to Commercial Agents upon Termination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kamil Abdu Oumer

    the compensation due to the agent upon the termination of the commercial .... Virginia School of Law Legal Studies Working Papers Series, Working Paper No. ..... grant up to a one year commission if they find the circumstances equitable.67 In.

  17. 48 CFR 12.403 - Termination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... guidance to the extent that part 49 does not conflict with this section and the language of the termination... required to comply with the cost accounting standards or the contract cost principles in part 31. The...

  18. Multiemployer Pension Plan Terminations, Mergers, and Insolvencies

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation — A listing of multiemployer pension plan terminations, mergers, and insolvencies reported to the PBGC for the current fiscal year. This data set will be updated...

  19. 29 CFR 402.5 - Terminal reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... reporting labor organization through merger, consolidation or otherwise, shall file a report containing a... on Form LM-2 in connection with the terminal financial report required by § 403.5 of this chapter and...

  20. Cholesterol: the debate should be terminated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, David G

    2017-07-01

    Here, I offer personal perspectives on cholesterol homeostasis that reflect my belief that certain aspects of the debate have been overstated.-Nathan, D. G. Cholesterol: the debate should be terminated. © FASEB.

  1. Macro scale models for freight railroad terminals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-02

    The project has developed a yard capacity model for macro-level analysis. The study considers the detailed sequence and scheduling in classification yards and their impacts on yard capacities simulate typical freight railroad terminals, and statistic...

  2. 77 FR 21981 - Maher Terminal, LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-12

    ... continues to agree with another marine terminal operator or common carrier to boycott and/or unreasonably... costs and other undue and unreasonable payments, economic considerations, restrictions on transfers and...

  3. Modeling and Design of Container Terminal Operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Roy (Debjit); M.B.M. de Koster (René)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractDesign of container terminal operations is complex because multiple factors affect the operational perfor- mance. These factors include: topological constraints, a large number of design parameters and settings, and stochastic interactions that interplay among the quayside, vehicle

  4. Quantitative CrAssphage PCR Assays for Human Fecal ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental waters are monitored for fecal pollution to protect public health and water resources. Traditionally, general fecal indicator bacteria are used; however, they cannot distinguish human fecal waste from pollution from other animals. Recently, a novel bacteriophage, crAssphage, was discovered by metagenomic data mining and reported to be abundant in and closely associated with human fecal waste. To confirm bioinformatic predictions, 384 primer sets were designed along the length of the crAssphage genome. Based upon initial screening, two novel crAssphage qPCR assays (CPQ_056 and CPQ_064) were designed and evaluated in reference fecal samples and water matrices. The assays exhibited high specificities (98.6%) when tested against a large animal fecal reference library and were highly abundant in raw sewage and sewage impacted water samples. In addition, CPQ_056 and CPQ_064 assay performance was compared to HF183/BacR287 and HumM2 methods in paired experiments. Findings confirm viral crAssphage qPCR assays perform at a similar level to well established bacterial human-associated fecal source identification technologies. These new viral based assays could become important water quality management and research tools. To inform the public.

  5. Expression, purification, and functional analysis of the C-terminal domain of Herbaspirillum seropedicae NifA protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Rose A; Souza, Emanuel M; Geoffrey Yates, M; Steffens, M Berenice R; Pedrosa, Fábio O; Chubatsu, Leda S

    2003-02-01

    The Herbaspirillum seropedicae NifA protein is responsible for nif gene expression. The C-terminal domain of the H. seropedicae NifA protein, fused to a His-Tag sequence (His-Tag-C-terminal), was over-expressed and purified by metal-affinity chromatography to yield a highly purified and active protein. Band-shift assays showed that the NifA His-Tag-C-terminal bound specifically to the H. seropedicae nifB promoter region in vitro. In vivo analysis showed that this protein inhibited the Central + C-terminal domains of NifA protein from activating the nifH promoter of K. pneumoniae in Escherichia coli, indicating that the protein must be bound to the NifA-binding site (UAS site) at the nifH promoter region to activate transcription. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science (USA)

  6. Enzyme-linked electrochemical DNA ligation assay using magnetic beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stejskalová, Eva; Horáková, Petra; Vacek, Jan; Bowater, Richard P; Fojta, Miroslav

    2014-07-01

    DNA ligases are essential enzymes in all cells and have been proposed as targets for novel antibiotics. Efficient DNA ligase activity assays are thus required for applications in biomedical research. Here we present an enzyme-linked electrochemical assay based on two terminally tagged probes forming a nicked junction upon hybridization with a template DNA. Nicked DNA bearing a 5' biotin tag is immobilized on the surface of streptavidin-coated magnetic beads, and ligated product is detected via a 3' digoxigenin tag recognized by monoclonal antibody-alkaline phosphatase conjugate. Enzymatic conversion of napht-1-yl phosphate to napht-1-ol enables sensitive detection of the voltammetric signal on a pyrolytic graphite electrode. The technique was tested under optimal conditions and various situations limiting or precluding the ligation reaction (such as DNA substrates lacking 5'-phosphate or containing a base mismatch at the nick junction, or application of incompatible cofactor), and utilized for the analysis of the nick-joining activity of a range of recombinant Escherichia coli DNA ligase constructs. The novel technique provides a fast, versatile, specific, and sensitive electrochemical assay of DNA ligase activity.

  7. Confinement Vessel Assay System: Calibration and Certification Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frame, Katherine C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bourne, Mark M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Crooks, William J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Evans, Louise [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gomez, Cipriano [Retired CMR-OPS: OPERATIONS; Mayo, Douglas R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Miko, David K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Salazar, William R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stange, Sy [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Vigil, Georgiana M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-17

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has a number of spherical confinement vessels (CVs) remaining from tests involving nuclear materials. These vessels have an inner diameter of 6 feet with 1 to 2 inch thick steel walls. The goal of the Confinement Vessel Disposition (CVD) project is to remove debris and reduce contamination inside the vessels. The Confinement Vessel Assay System (CVAS) was developed to measure the amount of SNM in CVs before and after cleanout. Prior to cleanout, the system will be used to perform a verification measurement of each vessel. After cleanout, the system will be used to perform safeguards-quality assays of {le} 100-g {sup 239}Pu equivalent in a vessel for safeguards termination. The system was calibrated in three different mass regions (low, medium, and high) to cover the entire plutonium mass range that will be assayed. The low mass calibration and medium mass calibration were verified for material positioned in the center of an empty vessel. The systematic uncertainty due to position bias was estimated using an MCNPX model to simulate the response of the system to material localized at various points along the inner surface of the vessel. The background component due to cosmic ray spallation was determined by performing measurements of an empty vessel and comparing to measurements in the same location with no vessel present. The CVAS has been tested and calibrated in preparation for verification and safeguards measurements of CVs before and after cleanout.

  8. Confinement Vessel Assay System: Calibration and Certification Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frame, Katherine C.; Bourne, Mark M.; Crooks, William J.; Evans, Louise; Gomez, Cipriano; Mayo, Douglas R.; Miko, David K.; Salazar, William R.; Stange, Sy; Vigil, Georgiana M.

    2012-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has a number of spherical confinement vessels (CVs) remaining from tests involving nuclear materials. These vessels have an inner diameter of 6 feet with 1 to 2 inch thick steel walls. The goal of the Confinement Vessel Disposition (CVD) project is to remove debris and reduce contamination inside the vessels. The Confinement Vessel Assay System (CVAS) was developed to measure the amount of SNM in CVs before and after cleanout. Prior to cleanout, the system will be used to perform a verification measurement of each vessel. After cleanout, the system will be used to perform safeguards-quality assays of (le) 100-g 239 Pu equivalent in a vessel for safeguards termination. The system was calibrated in three different mass regions (low, medium, and high) to cover the entire plutonium mass range that will be assayed. The low mass calibration and medium mass calibration were verified for material positioned in the center of an empty vessel. The systematic uncertainty due to position bias was estimated using an MCNPX model to simulate the response of the system to material localized at various points along the inner surface of the vessel. The background component due to cosmic ray spallation was determined by performing measurements of an empty vessel and comparing to measurements in the same location with no vessel present. The CVAS has been tested and calibrated in preparation for verification and safeguards measurements of CVs before and after cleanout.

  9. Controlling S2 terminal using FS software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Zhuhe

    New S2FS software for controlling S2 terminal of Sheshan station has been developed. It works under Field System software. All S2 operation commands are incorporated in a station program. The interface of SWT computer and S2 terminal is RS232 interface. S2FS software is designed by using Shell and C language. It has been used in VSOP experiments.

  10. Intermodal terminals simulation for operation management

    OpenAIRE

    Baldassarra, Alessandro; Impastato, Stefano; Ricci, Stefano

    2010-01-01

    A freight terminal is a key node in a transportation network and the transit time of containers through this terminal represents one of the most relevant bottlenecks in logistic chains. The system performance reduction and the corresponding increase of transit time are often due to the increase of the freight flow without a corresponding increase of stacking and handling capacity. For this purpose it was decided to approach the problem by a discrete event simulation model, in order to reprodu...

  11. Minimum Efficient Scale (MES) and preferred scale of container terminals

    OpenAIRE

    Kaselimi, Evangelia N.; Notteboom, Theo E.; Pallis, Athanasios A.; Farrell, Sheila

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: The decision on the scale of a port terminal affects the terminals managerial, operational and competitive position in all the phases of its life. It also affects competition structures in the port in which the terminal is operating, and has a potential impact on other terminals. Port authorities and terminal operators need to know the scale of the terminal when engaging in concession agreements. In economic theory the scale of a plant/firm is typically defined in relation to the Mi...

  12. Protected Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This dataset shows the boundaries of properties in Kansas in public or institutional ownership that contain ecological resources that merit some level of protection....

  13. Protective clothing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malet, J.C.; Regnier, J.

    1979-01-01

    The present operational and intervention suits are described. Research work is currently in progress to improve the performance of the existing suits and to develop more resistant protective clothing. (author)

  14. Radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ures Pantazi, M.

    1994-01-01

    This work define procedures and controls about ionizing radiations. Between some definitions it found the following topics: radiation dose, risk, biological effects, international radioprotection bodies, workers exposure, accidental exposure, emergencies and radiation protection

  15. Terminal Gold-Oxo Complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, R.; Anderson, T.M.; Piccoli, P.M.B.; Schultz, A.J.; Koetzle, T.F.; Geletii, Y.V.; Slonkina, E.; Hedman, B.; Hodgson, K.O.; Hardcastle, K.I.; Fang, X.; Kirk, M.L.; Knottenbelt, S.; Kogerler, P.; Musaev, D.G.; Morokuma, K.; Takahashi, M.; Hill, C.L.; /Emory U. /Argonne /SLAC, SSRL /New Mexico U. /Iowa State U. /Toho U.

    2007-10-19

    In contradiction to current bonding paradigms, two terminal Au-oxo molecular complexes have been synthesized by reaction of AuCl{sub 3} with metal oxide-cluster ligands that model redox-active metal oxide surfaces. Use of K{sub 10}[{alpha}{sub 2}-P{sub 2}W{sub 17}O{sub 61}] x 20H{sub 2}O and K{sub 2}WO{sub 4} (forming the [A-PW{sub 9}O{sub 34}]{sup 9-} ligand in situ) produces K{sub 15}H{sub 2}[Au(O)(OH{sub 2})P{sub 2}W{sub 18}O{sub 68}] x 25H{sub 2}O (1); use of K{sub 10}[P{sub 2}W{sub 20}O{sub 70}(OH{sub 2}){sub 2}] x 22H{sub 2}O (3) produces K{sub 7}H{sub 2}[Au(O)(OH{sub 2})P{sub 2}W{sub 20}O{sub 70}(OH{sub 2}){sub 2}] x 27H{sub 2}O (2). Complex 1 crystallizes in orthorhombic Fddd, with a = 28.594(4) Angstroms, b = 31.866(4) Angstroms, c = 38.241(5) Angstroms, V = 34844(7) Angstroms{sup 3}, Z = 16 (final R = 0.0540), and complex 2 crystallizes in hexagonal P6(3)/mmc, with a = 16.1730(9) Angstroms, b = 16.1730(9) Angstroms, c = 19.7659(15) Angstroms, V = 4477.4(5) Angstroms{sup 3}, Z = 2 (final R = 0.0634). The polyanion unit in 1 is disorder-free. Very short ({approx}1.76 Angstroms) Au-oxo distances are established by both X-ray and 30 K neutron diffraction studies, and the latter confirms oxo and trans aqua (H2O) ligands on Au. Seven findings clarify that Au and not W is present in the Au-oxo position in 1 and 2. Five lines of evidence are consistent with the presence of d8 Au(III) centers that are stabilized by the flanking polytungstate ligands in both 1 and 2: redox titrations, electrochemical measurements, 17 K optical spectra, Au L2 edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and Au-oxo bond distances. Variable-temperature magnetic susceptibility data for crystalline 1 and 2 establish that both solids are diamagnetic, and {sup 31}P and {sup 17}O NMR spectroscopy confirm that both remain diamagnetic in solution. Both complexes have been further characterized by FT-IR, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and other techniques.

  16. Modular approach for satellite communication ground terminals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, G. R.

    1984-01-01

    The trend in satellite communications is toward completely digital, time division multiple access (TDMA) systems with uplink and downlink data rates dictated by the type of service offered. Trunking terminals will operate in the 550 MBPS (megabit per second) region uplink and downlink, whereas customer premise service (CPS) terminals will operate in the 25 to 10 MBPS region uplink and in the 200 MBPS region downlink. Additional criteria for the ground terminals will be to maintain clock sychronization with the system and burst time integrity to within a matter of nanoseconds, to process required order-fire information, to provide adaptive data scrambing, and to compensate for variations in the user input output data rates, and for changes in range in the satellite communications links resulting from satellite perturbations in orbit. To achieve the required adaptability of a ground terminal to the above mentioned variables, programmable building blocks can be developed that will meet all of these requirements. To maintain system synchronization, i.e., all bursted data arriving at the satellite within assigned TDMA windows, ground terminal transmit data rates and burst timing must be maintained within tight tolerances. With a programmable synchronizer as the heart of the terminal timing generation, variable data rates and burst timing tolerances are achievable. In essence, the unit inputs microprocessor generated timing words and outputs discrete timing pulses.

  17. Employment protection

    OpenAIRE

    Stefano Scarpetta

    2014-01-01

    Laws on hiring and firing are intended to protect workers from unfair behavior by employers, to counter imperfections in financial markets that limit workers’ ability to insure themselves against job loss, and to preserve firm-specific human capital. But by imposing costs on firms’ adaptation to changes in demand and technology, employment protection legislation may reduce not only job destruction but also job creation, hindering the efficient allocation of labor and productivity growth....

  18. Environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, A.S.

    1987-01-01

    The question of environment protection related to the use of nuclear energy aiming to power generation, based on the harmonic concept of economic and industrial development, preserving the environment, is discussed. A brief study of environmental impacts for some energy sources, including nuclear energy, to present the systems of a nuclear power plant which aim at environmental protection, is done. (M.C.K.) [pt

  19. Radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koelzer, W.

    1976-01-01

    The lecture is divided into five sections. The introduction deals with the physical and radiological terms, quantities and units. Then the basic principles of radiological protection are discussed. In the third section attention is paid to the biological effects of ionizing radiation. The fourth section deals with the objectives of practical radiological protection. Finally the emergency measures are discussed to be taken in radiation accidents. (HP) [de

  20. Copyright protection

    OpenAIRE

    Plchotová, Gabriela

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to offer a straightforward manual to anyone who authors their own original work or who utilises the original work of other creators. As such, it is necessary to briefly and clearly explain the historical development and essential terms of authorship as a concept and the origin of the need for copyright protection. Furthermore, this thesis includes chapters on copyright protection development specifically in the Czech Republic and the current definition of related law...