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Sample records for terminal flower homolog

  1. Characterization of two TERMINAL FLOWER1 homologs PgTFL1 and PgCENa from pomegranate (Punica granatum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Hemant B; Chaurasia, Akhilesh K; Azeez, Abdul; Krishna, Bal; Subramaniam, V R; Sane, Aniruddha P; Sane, Prafullachandra V

    2017-12-21

    FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) and TERMINAL FLOWER1/CENTRORADIALIS (TFL1/CEN) are the key regulators of flowering time in plants with FT promoting flowering and TFL1 repressing flowering. TFL1 also controls floral meristem identity and its maintenance. In this study we have characterized two pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) TFL1/CEN-like genes designated as PgTFL1 and PgCENa. The expression of PgTFL1 and PgCENa fluctuated through alternate pruning and flowering cycles, being highly expressed during the vegetative phase (immediately after pruning) and decreasing gradually in the months thereafter such that their lowest levels, especially for PgCENa coincided with the flowering phase. Both the genes are able to functionally suppress the Arabidopsis tfl1-14 mutant flowering defect. Their expression in Arabidopsis resulted in delayed flowering time, increased plant height and leaf number, branches and shoot buds as compared with wild type, suggesting that PgTFL1 and PgCENa are bonafide homologs of TFL1. However, both the genes show distinct expression patterns, being expressed differentially in vegetative shoot apex and floral bud samples. While PgTFL1 expression was low in vegetative shoot apex and high in flower bud, PgCENa expression showed the opposite trend. These results suggest that the two TFL1s in pomegranate may be utilized to control distinct developmental processes, namely repression of flowering by PgCENa and development and growth of the reproductive tissues by PgTFL1 via distinct temporal and developmental regulation of their expression. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Pea VEGETATIVE2 Is an FD Homolog That Is Essential for Flowering and Compound Inflorescence Development.

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    Sussmilch, Frances C; Berbel, Ana; Hecht, Valérie; Vander Schoor, Jacqueline K; Ferrándiz, Cristina; Madueño, Francisco; Weller, James L

    2015-04-01

    As knowledge of the gene networks regulating inflorescence development in Arabidopsis thaliana improves, the current challenge is to characterize this system in different groups of crop species with different inflorescence architecture. Pea (Pisum sativum) has served as a model for development of the compound raceme, characteristic of many legume species, and in this study, we characterize the pea VEGETATIVE2 (VEG2) locus, showing that it is critical for regulation of flowering and inflorescence development and identifying it as a homolog of the bZIP transcription factor FD. Through detailed phenotypic characterizations of veg2 mutants, expression analyses, and the use of protein-protein interaction assays, we find that VEG2 has important roles during each stage of development of the pea compound inflorescence. Our results suggest that VEG2 acts in conjunction with multiple FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) proteins to regulate expression of downstream target genes, including TERMINAL FLOWER1, LEAFY, and MADS box homologs, and to facilitate cross-regulation within the FT gene family. These findings further extend our understanding of the mechanisms underlying compound inflorescence development in pea and may have wider implications for future manipulation of inflorescence architecture in related legume crop species. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  3. GmGBP1, a homolog of human ski interacting protein in soybean, regulates flowering and stress tolerance in Arabidopsis

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    Zhang Yanwei

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background SKIP is a transcription cofactor in many eukaryotes. It can regulate plant stress tolerance in rice and Arabidopsis. But the homolog of SKIP protein in soybean has been not reported up to now. Results In this study, the expression patterns of soybean GAMYB binding protein gene (GmGBP1 encoding a homolog of SKIP protein were analyzed in soybean under abiotic stresses and different day lengths. The expression of GmGBP1 was induced by polyethyleneglycol 6000, NaCl, gibberellin, abscisic acid and heat stress. GmGBP1 had transcriptional activity in C-terminal. GmGBP1 could interact with R2R3 domain of GmGAMYB1 in SKIP domain to take part in gibberellin flowering pathway. In long-day (16 h-light condition, transgenic Arabidopsis with the ectopic overexpression of GmGBP1 exhibited earlier flowering and less number of rosette leaves; Suppression of AtSKIP in Arabidopsis resulted in growth arrest, flowering delay and down-regulation of many flowering-related genes (CONSTANS, FLOWERING LOCUS T, LEAFY; Arabidopsis myb33 mutant plants with ectopic overexpression of GmGBP1 showed the same flowering phenotype with wild type. In short-day (8 h-light condition, transgenic Arabidopsis plants with GmGBP1 flowered later and showed a higher level of FLOWERING LOCUS C compared with wild type. When treated with abiotic stresses, transgenic Arabidopsis with the ectopic overexpression of GmGBP1 enhanced the tolerances to heat and drought stresses but reduced the tolerance to high salinity, and affected the expressions of several stress-related genes. Conclusions In Arabidopsis, GmGBP1 might positively regulate the flowering time by affecting CONSTANS, FLOWERING LOCUS T, LEAFY and GAMYB directly or indirectly in photoperiodic and gibberellin pathways in LDs, but GmGBP1 might represse flowering by affecting FLOWERING LOCUS C and SHORT VEGETATIVE PHASE in autonomous pathway in SDs. GmGBP1 might regulate the activity of ROS-eliminating to improve the

  4. Molecular and Functional Characterization of FLOWERING LOCUS T Homologs in Allium cepa

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    Ranjith Kumar Manoharan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Onion bulbing is an important agricultural trait affecting economic value and is regulated by flowering-related genes. FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT-like gene function is crucial for the initiation of flowering in various plant species and also in asexual reproduction in tuber plants. By employing various computational analysis using RNA-Seq data, we identified eight FT-like genes (AcFT encoding PEBP (phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein domains in Allium cepa. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses of FT-like proteins revealed six proteins that were identical to previously reported AcFT1-6 proteins, as well as one (AcFT7 with a highly conserved region shared with AcFT6 and another (comp106231 with low similarity to MFT protein, but containing a PEBP domain. Homology modelling of AcFT7 proteins showed similar structures and conservation of amino acids crucial for function in AtFT (Arabidopsis and Hd3a (rice, with variation in the C-terminal region. Further, we analyzed AcFT expression patterns in different transitional stages, as well as under SD (short-day, LD (long-day, and drought treatment in two contrasting genotypic lines EM (early maturation, 36101 and LM (late maturation, 36122. The FT transcript levels were greatly affected by various environmental factors such as photoperiod, temperature and drought. Our results suggest that AcFT7 is a member of the FT-like genes in Allium cepa and may be involved in regulation of onion bulbing, similar to other FT genes. In addition, AcFT4 and AcFT7 could be involved in establishing the difference in timing of bulb maturity between the two contrasting onion lines.

  5. Isolation and characterization of a FLOWERING LOCUS T homolog from pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merr).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, LingLing; Duan, Jun; Xie, JiangHui; Wei, ChangBin; Liu, YuGe; Liu, ShengHui; Sun, GuangMing

    2012-09-01

    FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT)-like genes are crucial regulators of flowering in angiosperms. A homolog of FT, designated as AcFT (GenBank ID: HQ343233), was isolated from pineapple cultivar Comte de Paris by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The cDNA sequence of AcFT is 915 bp in length and contains an ORF of 534 bp, which encodes a protein of 177 aa. Molecular weight was 19.9 kDa and isoelectric point was 6.96. The deduced protein sequence of AcFT was 84% and 82% identical to homologs encoded by CgFT in Cymbidium goeringii and OgFT in Oncidium Gower Ramsey respectively. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analyses showed that the expression of AcFT was high in flesh and none in leaves. qRT-PCR analyses in different stages indicated that the expression of AcFT reached the highest level on 40 d after flower inducing, when the multiple fruit and floral organs were forming. The 35S::AcFT transgenic Arabidopsis plants flowered earlier and had more inflorescences or branches than wild type plants. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Patterning of inflorescences and flowers by the F-Box protein DOUBLE TOP and the LEAFY homolog ABERRANT LEAF AND FLOWER of petunia.

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    Souer, Erik; Rebocho, Alexandra B; Bliek, Mattijs; Kusters, Elske; de Bruin, Robert A M; Koes, Ronald

    2008-08-01

    Angiosperms display a wide variety of inflorescence architectures differing in the positions where flowers or branches arise. The expression of floral meristem identity (FMI) genes determines when and where flowers are formed. In Arabidopsis thaliana, this is regulated via transcription of LEAFY (LFY), which encodes a transcription factor that promotes FMI. We found that this is regulated in petunia (Petunia hybrida) via transcription of a distinct gene, DOUBLE TOP (DOT), a homolog of UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO) from Arabidopsis. Mutation of DOT or its tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) homolog ANANTHA abolishes FMI. Ubiquitous expression of DOT or UFO in petunia causes very early flowering and transforms the inflorescence into a solitary flower and leaves into petals. Ectopic expression of DOT or UFO together with LFY or its homolog ABERRANT LEAF AND FLOWER (ALF) in petunia seedlings activates genes required for identity or outgrowth of organ primordia. DOT interacts physically with ALF, suggesting that it activates ALF by a posttranslational mechanism. Our findings suggest a wider role than previously thought for DOT and UFO in the patterning of flowers and indicate that the different roles of LFY and UFO homologs in the spatiotemporal control of floral identity in distinct species result from their divergent expression patterns.

  7. A Norway spruce FLOWERING LOCUS T homolog is implicated in control of growth rhythm in conifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyllenstrand, Niclas; Clapham, David; Källman, Thomas; Lagercrantz, Ulf

    2007-05-01

    Growth in perennial plants possesses an annual cycle of active growth and dormancy that is controlled by environmental factors, mainly photoperiod and temperature. In conifers and other nonangiosperm species, the molecular mechanisms behind these responses are currently unknown. In Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.) seedlings, growth cessation and bud set are induced by short days and plants from southern latitudes require at least 7 to 10 h of darkness, whereas plants from northern latitudes need only 2 to 3 h of darkness. Bud burst, on the other hand, is almost exclusively controlled by temperature. To test the possible role of Norway spruce FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT)-like genes in growth rhythm, we have studied expression patterns of four Norway spruce FT family genes in two populations with a divergent bud set response under various photoperiodic conditions. Our data show a significant and tight correlation between growth rhythm (both bud set and bud burst), and expression pattern of one of the four Norway spruce phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein gene family members (PaFT4) over a variety of experimental conditions. This study strongly suggests that one Norway spruce homolog to the FT gene, which controls flowering in angiosperms, is also a key integrator of photoperiodic and thermal signals in the control of growth rhythms in gymnosperms. The data also indicate that the divergent adaptive bud set responses of northern and southern Norway spruce populations, both to photoperiod and light quality, are mediated through PaFT4. These results provide a major advance in our understanding of the molecular control of a major adaptive trait in conifers and a tool for further molecular studies of adaptive variation in plants.

  8. Association of FLOWERING LOCUS T/TERMINAL FLOWER 1-like gene FTL2 expression with growth rhythm in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris).

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    Avia, Komlan; Kärkkäinen, Katri; Lagercrantz, Ulf; Savolainen, Outi

    2014-10-01

    Understanding the genetic basis of the timing of bud set, an important trait in conifers, is relevant for adaptation and forestry practice. In common garden experiments, both Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and Norway spruce (Picea abies) show a latitudinal cline in the trait. We compared the regulation of their bud set biology by examining the expression of PsFTL2, a Pinus sylvestris homolog to PaFTL2, a FLOWERING LOCUS T/TERMINAL FLOWER 1 (FT/TFL1)-like gene, the expression levels of which have been found previously to be associated with the timing of bud set in Norway spruce. In a common garden study, we analyzed the relationship of bud phenology under natural and artificial photoperiods and the expression of PsFTL2 in a set of Scots pine populations from different latitudes. The expression of PsFTL2 increased in the needles preceding bud set and decreased during bud burst. In the northernmost population, even short night periods were efficient to trigger this expression, which also increased earlier under all photoperiodic regimes compared with the southern populations. Despite the different biology, with few limitations, the two conifers that diverged 140 million yr ago probably share an association of FTL2 with bud set, pointing to a common mechanism for the timing of growth cessation in conifers. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  9. Ectopic expression of a WRKY homolog from Glycine soja alters flowering time in Arabidopsis.

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    Xiao Luo

    Full Text Available Flowering is a critical event in the life cycle of plants; the WRKY-type transcription factors are reported to be involved in many developmental processes sunch as trichome development and epicuticular wax loading, but whether they are involved in flowering time regulation is still unknown. Within this study, we provide clear evidence that GsWRKY20, a member of WRKY gene family from wild soybean, is involved in controlling plant flowering time. Expression of GsWRKY20 was abundant in the shoot tips and inflorescence meristems of wild soybean. Phenotypic analysis showed that GsWRKY20 over-expression lines flowered earlier than the wild-type plants under all conditions: long-day and short-day photoperiods, vernalization, or exogenous GA3 application, indicating that GsWRKY20 may mainly be involved in an autonomous flowering pathway. Further analyses by qRT-PCR and microarray suggests that GsWRKY20 accelerating plant flowering might primarily be through the regulation of flowering-related genes (i.e., FLC, FT, SOC1 and CO and floral meristem identity genes (i.e., AP1, SEP3, AP3, PI and AG. Our results provide the evidence demonstrating the effectiveness of manipulating GsWRKY20 for altering plant flowering time.

  10. Ectopic Expression of a WRKY Homolog from Glycine soja Alters Flowering Time in Arabidopsis

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    Liu, Baohui; Zhu, Dan; Bai, Xi; Cai, Hua; Ji, Wei; Cao, Lei; Wu, Jing; Wang, Mingchao; Ding, Xiaodong; Zhu, Yanming

    2013-01-01

    Flowering is a critical event in the life cycle of plants; the WRKY-type transcription factors are reported to be involved in many developmental processes sunch as trichome development and epicuticular wax loading, but whether they are involved in flowering time regulation is still unknown. Within this study, we provide clear evidence that GsWRKY20, a member of WRKY gene family from wild soybean, is involved in controlling plant flowering time. Expression of GsWRKY20 was abundant in the shoot tips and inflorescence meristems of wild soybean. Phenotypic analysis showed that GsWRKY20 over-expression lines flowered earlier than the wild-type plants under all conditions: long-day and short-day photoperiods, vernalization, or exogenous GA3 application, indicating that GsWRKY20 may mainly be involved in an autonomous flowering pathway. Further analyses by qRT-PCR and microarray suggests that GsWRKY20 accelerating plant flowering might primarily be through the regulation of flowering-related genes (i.e., FLC, FT, SOC1 and CO) and floral meristem identity genes (i.e., AP1, SEP3, AP3, PI and AG). Our results provide the evidence demonstrating the effectiveness of manipulating GsWRKY20 for altering plant flowering time. PMID:23991184

  11. The Cloning and Functional Characterization of Peach CONSTANS and FLOWERING LOCUS T Homologous Genes PpCO and PpFT.

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    Xiang Zhang

    Full Text Available Flowering is an essential stage of plant growth and development. The successful transition to flowering not only ensures the completion of plant life cycles, it also serves as the basis for the production of economically important seeds and fruits. CONSTANS (CO and FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT are two genes playing critical roles in flowering time control in Arabidopsis. Through homology-based cloning and rapid-amplifications of cDNA ends (RACE, we obtained full-lengths cDNA sequences of Prunus persica CO (PpCO and Prunus persica FT (PpFT from peach (Prunus persica (L. Batsch and investigated their functions in flowering time regulation. PpCO and PpFT showed high homologies to Arabidopsis CO and FT at DNA, mRNA and protein levels. We showed that PpCO and PpFT were nucleus-localized and both showed transcriptional activation activities in yeast cells, consistent with their potential roles as transcription activators. Moreover, we established that the over-expression of PpCO could restore the late flowering phenotype of the Arabidopsis co-2 mutant, and the late flowering defect of the Arabidopsis ft-1 mutant can be rescued by the over-expression of PpFT, suggesting functional conservations of CO and FT genes in peach and Arabidopsis. Our results suggest that PpCO and PpFT are homologous genes of CO and FT in peach and they may function in regulating plant flowering time.

  12. Structure of the afferent terminals in terminal ganglion of a cricket and persistent homology.

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    Jacob Brown

    Full Text Available We use topological data analysis to investigate the three dimensional spatial structure of the locus of afferent neuron terminals in crickets Acheta domesticus. Each afferent neuron innervates a filiform hair positioned on a cercus: a protruding appendage at the rear of the animal. The hairs transduce air motion to the neuron signal that is used by a cricket to respond to the environment. We stratify the hairs (and the corresponding afferent terminals into classes depending on hair length, along with position. Our analysis uncovers significant structure in the relative position of these terminal classes and suggests the functional relevance of this structure. Our method is very robust to the presence of significant experimental and developmental noise. It can be used to analyze a wide range of other point cloud data sets.

  13. Chemical Shift Assignments of the C-terminal Eps15 Homology Domain-3 EH Domain*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, Steve; Sorgen, Paul L.

    2013-01-01

    The C-terminal Eps15 homology (EH) domain 3 (EHD3) belongs to a eukaryotic family of endocytic regulatory proteins and is involved in the recycling of various receptors from the early endosome to the endocytic recycling compartment or in retrograde transport from the endosomes to the Golgi. EH domains are highly conserved in the EHD family and function as protein-protein interaction units that bind to Asn-Pro-Phe (NPF) motif-containing proteins. The EH domain of EHD1 was the first C-terminal EH domain from the EHD family to be solved by NMR. The differences observed between this domain and proteins with N-terminal EH domains helped describe a mechanism for the differential binding of NPF-containing proteins. Here, structural studies were expanded to include the EHD3 EH domain. While the EHD1 and EHD3 EH domains are highly homologous, they have different protein partners. A comparison of these structures will help determine the selectivity in protein binding between the EHD family members and lead to a better understanding of their unique roles in endocytic regulation. PMID:23754701

  14. Isolation and functional characterization of JcFT, a FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) homologous gene from the biofuel plant Jatropha curcas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chaoqiong; Luo, Li; Fu, Qiantang; Niu, Longjian; Xu, Zeng-Fu

    2014-05-08

    Physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.) is a potential feedstock for biofuel production because Jatropha oil is highly suitable for the production of the biodiesel and bio-jet fuels. However, Jatropha exhibits low seed yield as a result of unreliable and poor flowering. FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) -like genes are important flowering regulators in higher plants. To date, the flowering genes in Jatropha have not yet been identified or characterized. To better understand the genetic control of flowering in Jatropha, an FT homolog was isolated from Jatropha and designated as JcFT. Sequence analysis and phylogenetic relationship of JcFT revealed a high sequence similarity with the FT genes of Litchi chinensis, Populus nigra and other perennial plants. JcFT was expressed in all tissues of adult plants except young leaves, with the highest expression level in female flowers. Overexpression of JcFT in Arabidopsis and Jatropha using the constitutive promoter cauliflower mosaic virus 35S or the phloem-specific promoter Arabidopsis SUCROSE TRANSPORTER 2 promoter resulted in an extremely early flowering phenotype. Furthermore, several flowering genes downstream of JcFT were up-regulated in the JcFT-overexpression transgenic plant lines. JcFT may encode a florigen that acts as a key regulator in flowering pathway. This study is the first to functionally characterize a flowering gene, namely, JcFT, in the biofuel plant Jatropha.

  15. Overexpression of PvPin1, a Bamboo Homolog of PIN1-Type Parvulin 1, Delays Flowering Time in Transgenic Arabidopsis and Rice

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    Zhigang Zheng

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Because of the long and unpredictable flowering period in bamboo, the molecular mechanism of bamboo flowering is unclear. Recent study showed that Arabidopsis PIN1-type parvulin 1 (Pin1At is an important floral activator and regulates floral transition by facilitating the cis/trans isomerization of the phosphorylated Ser/Thr residues preceding proline motifs in suppressor of overexpression of CO 1 (SOC1 and agamous-like 24 (AGL24. Whether bamboo has a Pin1 homolog and whether it works in bamboo flowering are still unknown. In this study, we cloned PvPin1, a homolog of Pin1At, from Phyllostachys violascens (Bambusoideae. Bioinformatics analysis showed that PvPin1 is closely related to Pin1-like proteins in monocots. PvPin1 was widely expressed in all tested bamboo tissues, with the highest expression in young leaf and lowest in floral bud. Moreover, PvPin1 expression was high in leaves before bamboo flowering then declined during flower development. Overexpression of PvPin1 significantly delayed flowering time by downregulating SOC1 and AGL24 expression in Arabidopsis under greenhouse conditions and conferred a significantly late flowering phenotype by upregulating OsMADS56 in rice under field conditions. PvPin1 showed subcellular localization in both the nucleus and cytolemma. The 1500-bp sequence of the PvPin1 promoter was cloned, and cis-acting element prediction showed that ABRE and TGACG-motif elements, which responded to abscisic acid (ABA and methyl jasmonate (MeJA, respectively, were characteristic of P. violascens in comparison with Arabidopsis. On promoter activity analysis, exogenous ABA and MeJA could significantly inhibit PvPin1 expression. These findings suggested that PvPin1 may be a repressor in flowering, and its delay of flowering time could be regulated by ABA and MeJA in bamboo.

  16. Overexpression of PvPin1, a Bamboo Homolog of PIN1-Type Parvulin 1, Delays Flowering Time in Transgenic Arabidopsis and Rice.

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    Zheng, Zhigang; Yang, Xiaoming; Fu, Yaping; Zhu, Longfei; Wei, Hantian; Lin, Xinchun

    2017-01-01

    Because of the long and unpredictable flowering period in bamboo, the molecular mechanism of bamboo flowering is unclear. Recent study showed that Arabidopsis PIN1-type parvulin 1 (Pin1At) is an important floral activator and regulates floral transition by facilitating the cis/trans isomerization of the phosphorylated Ser/Thr residues preceding proline motifs in suppressor of overexpression of CO 1 (SOC1) and agamous-like 24 (AGL24). Whether bamboo has a Pin1 homolog and whether it works in bamboo flowering are still unknown. In this study, we cloned PvPin1 , a homolog of Pin1At , from Phyllostachys violascens (Bambusoideae). Bioinformatics analysis showed that PvPin1 is closely related to Pin1-like proteins in monocots. PvPin1 was widely expressed in all tested bamboo tissues, with the highest expression in young leaf and lowest in floral bud. Moreover, PvPin1 expression was high in leaves before bamboo flowering then declined during flower development. Overexpression of PvPin1 significantly delayed flowering time by downregulating SOC1 and AGL24 expression in Arabidopsis under greenhouse conditions and conferred a significantly late flowering phenotype by upregulating OsMADS56 in rice under field conditions. PvPin1 showed subcellular localization in both the nucleus and cytolemma. The 1500-bp sequence of the PvPin1 promoter was cloned, and cis -acting element prediction showed that ABRE and TGACG-motif elements, which responded to abscisic acid (ABA) and methyl jasmonate (MeJA), respectively, were characteristic of P. violascens in comparison with Arabidopsis . On promoter activity analysis, exogenous ABA and MeJA could significantly inhibit PvPin1 expression. These findings suggested that PvPin1 may be a repressor in flowering, and its delay of flowering time could be regulated by ABA and MeJA in bamboo.

  17. Photoperiodic regulation of flowering in perennial ryegrass involving a CONSTANS-like homolog

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin, J.; Storgaard, M.; Andersen, C.H.

    2004-01-01

    Photoperiod and vernalization are the two key environmental factors of the. oral induction of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). Transition from vegetative to reproductive growth will only occur after an extended vernalization period, followed by an increase in day length and temperature. Here...... we report on the isolation and characterization of a L. perenne gene (LpCO) that is homologous to CONSTANS, and which is tightly coupled to the. oral inductive long day signal. Like other monocot CO-like proteins, the LpCO contains a zinc finger domain with a non-conserved B-Box2. Although the B-Box2...

  18. A Norway Spruce FLOWERING LOCUS T Homolog Is Implicated in Control of Growth Rhythm in Conifers1[OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyllenstrand, Niclas; Clapham, David; Källman, Thomas; Lagercrantz, Ulf

    2007-01-01

    Growth in perennial plants possesses an annual cycle of active growth and dormancy that is controlled by environmental factors, mainly photoperiod and temperature. In conifers and other nonangiosperm species, the molecular mechanisms behind these responses are currently unknown. In Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.) seedlings, growth cessation and bud set are induced by short days and plants from southern latitudes require at least 7 to 10 h of darkness, whereas plants from northern latitudes need only 2 to 3 h of darkness. Bud burst, on the other hand, is almost exclusively controlled by temperature. To test the possible role of Norway spruce FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT)-like genes in growth rhythm, we have studied expression patterns of four Norway spruce FT family genes in two populations with a divergent bud set response under various photoperiodic conditions. Our data show a significant and tight correlation between growth rhythm (both bud set and bud burst), and expression pattern of one of the four Norway spruce phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein gene family members (PaFT4) over a variety of experimental conditions. This study strongly suggests that one Norway spruce homolog to the FT gene, which controls flowering in angiosperms, is also a key integrator of photoperiodic and thermal signals in the control of growth rhythms in gymnosperms. The data also indicate that the divergent adaptive bud set responses of northern and southern Norway spruce populations, both to photoperiod and light quality, are mediated through PaFT4. These results provide a major advance in our understanding of the molecular control of a major adaptive trait in conifers and a tool for further molecular studies of adaptive variation in plants. PMID:17369429

  19. Patterning of Inflorescences and Flowers by the F-Box Protein DOUBLE TOP and the LEAFY Homolog ABERRANT LEAF AND FLOWER of Petunia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Souer, E.J.; Bliek, M.; Koes, R.E.; Kusters, E.; Bruin de, R.A.

    2008-01-01

    Angiosperms display a wide variety of inflorescence architectures differing in the positions where flowers or branches arise. The expression of floral meristem identity (FMI) genes determines when and where flowers are formed. In Arabidopsis thaliana, this is regulated via transcription of LEAFY

  20. Molecular Cloning, Characterization, and Expression of MiSOC1: A Homolog of the Flowering Gene SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS1 from Mango (Mangifera indica L)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Junya; Liu, Debing; Liu, Guoyin; Tang, Jie; Chen, Yeyuan

    2016-01-01

    MADS-box transcription factor plays a crucial role in plant development, especially controlling the formation and development of floral organs. Mango (Mangifera indica L) is an economically important fruit crop, but its molecular control of flowering is largely unknown. To better understand the molecular basis of flowering regulation in mango, we isolated and characterized the MiSOC1, a putative mango orthologs for the Arabidopsis SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS1/AGAMOUS-LIKE 20 (SOC1/AGL20) with homology-based cloning and RACE. The full-length cDNA (GenBank accession No.: KP404094) is 945 bp in length including a 74 bp long 5′ UTR and a 189 bp long 3′ UTR and the open reading frame was 733 bps, encoding 223 amino acids with molecular weight 25.6 kD. Both sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis all indicated that deduced protein contained a conservative MADS-box and semi-conservative K domain and belonged to the SOC1/TM3 subfamily of the MADS-box family. Quantitative real-time PCR was performed to investigate the expression profiles of MiSOC1 gene in different tissues/organs including root, stem, leaves, flower bud, and flower. The result indicated MiSOC1 was widely expressed at different levels in both vegetative and reproductive tissues/organs with the highest expression level in the stems’ leaves and inflorescences, low expression in roots and flowers. The expression of MiSOC1 in different flower developmental stages was different while same tissue –specific pattern among different varieties. In addition, MiSOC1 gene expression was affect by ethephon while high concentration ethephon inhibit the expression of MiSOC1. Overexpression of MiSOC1 resulted in early flowering in Arabidopsis. In conclusion, these results suggest that MiSOC1 may act as induce flower function in mango. PMID:27965680

  1. Molecular Cloning, Characterization, and Expression of MiSOC1: A Homolog of the Flowering Gene SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS1 from Mango (Mangifera indica L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Junya; Liu, Debing; Liu, Guoyin; Tang, Jie; Chen, Yeyuan

    2016-01-01

    MADS-box transcription factor plays a crucial role in plant development, especially controlling the formation and development of floral organs. Mango ( Mangifera indica L) is an economically important fruit crop, but its molecular control of flowering is largely unknown. To better understand the molecular basis of flowering regulation in mango, we isolated and characterized the MiSOC1, a putative mango orthologs for the Arabidopsis SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS1/AGAMOUS-LIKE 20 (SOC1/AGL20) with homology-based cloning and RACE. The full-length cDNA (GenBank accession No.: KP404094) is 945 bp in length including a 74 bp long 5' UTR and a 189 bp long 3' UTR and the open reading frame was 733 bps, encoding 223 amino acids with molecular weight 25.6 kD. Both sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis all indicated that deduced protein contained a conservative MADS-box and semi-conservative K domain and belonged to the SOC1/TM3 subfamily of the MADS-box family. Quantitative real-time PCR was performed to investigate the expression profiles of MiSOC1 gene in different tissues/organs including root, stem, leaves, flower bud, and flower. The result indicated MiSOC1 was widely expressed at different levels in both vegetative and reproductive tissues/organs with the highest expression level in the stems' leaves and inflorescences, low expression in roots and flowers. The expression of MiSOC1 in different flower developmental stages was different while same tissue -specific pattern among different varieties. In addition, MiSOC1 gene expression was affect by ethephon while high concentration ethephon inhibit the expression of MiSOC1. Overexpression of MiSOC1 resulted in early flowering in Arabidopsis . In conclusion, these results suggest that MiSOC1 may act as induce flower function in mango.

  2. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    user

    Flowering Trees. Gliricidia sepium(Jacq.) Kunta ex Walp. (Quickstick) of Fabaceae is a small deciduous tree with. Pinnately compound leaves. Flower are prroduced in large number in early summer on terminal racemes. They are attractive, pinkish-white and typically like bean flowers. Fruit is a few-seeded flat pod.

  3. KIRA1 and ORESARA1 terminate flower receptivity by promoting cell death in the stigma of Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhen; Daneva, Anna; Salanenka, Yuliya; Van Durme, Matthias; Huysmans, Marlies; Lin, Zongcheng; De Winter, Freya; Vanneste, Steffen; Karimi, Mansour; Van de Velde, Jan; Vandepoele, Klaas; Van de Walle, Davy; Dewettinck, Koen; Lambrecht, Bart N; Nowack, Moritz K

    2018-05-28

    Flowers have a species-specific functional life span that determines the time window in which pollination, fertilization and seed set can occur. The stigma tissue plays a key role in flower receptivity by intercepting pollen and initiating pollen tube growth toward the ovary. In this article, we show that a developmentally controlled cell death programme terminates the functional life span of stigma cells in Arabidopsis. We identified the leaf senescence regulator ORESARA1 (also known as ANAC092) and the previously uncharacterized KIRA1 (also known as ANAC074) as partially redundant transcription factors that modulate stigma longevity by controlling the expression of programmed cell death-associated genes. KIRA1 expression is sufficient to induce cell death and terminate floral receptivity, whereas lack of both KIRA1 and ORESARA1 substantially increases stigma life span. Surprisingly, the extension of stigma longevity is accompanied by only a moderate extension of flower receptivity, suggesting that additional processes participate in the control of the flower's receptive life span.

  4. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    narrow towards base. Flowers are large and attrac- tive, but emit unpleasant foetid smell. They appear in small numbers on erect terminal clusters and open at night. Stamens are numerous, pink or white. Style is slender and long, terminating in a small stigma. Fruit is green, ovoid and indistinctly lobed. Flowering Trees.

  5. Kub5-Hera, the human Rtt103 homolog, plays dual functional roles in transcription termination and DNA repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Julio C; Richard, Patricia; Rommel, Amy; Fattah, Farjana J; Motea, Edward A; Patidar, Praveen L; Xiao, Ling; Leskov, Konstantin; Wu, Shwu-Yuan; Hittelman, Walter N; Chiang, Cheng-Ming; Manley, James L; Boothman, David A

    2014-04-01

    Functions of Kub5-Hera (In Greek Mythology Hera controlled Artemis) (K-H), the human homolog of the yeast transcription termination factor Rtt103, remain undefined. Here, we show that K-H has functions in both transcription termination and DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair. K-H forms distinct protein complexes with factors that repair DSBs (e.g. Ku70, Ku86, Artemis) and terminate transcription (e.g. RNA polymerase II). K-H loss resulted in increased basal R-loop levels, DSBs, activated DNA-damage responses and enhanced genomic instability. Significantly lowered Artemis protein levels were detected in K-H knockdown cells, which were restored with specific K-H cDNA re-expression. K-H deficient cells were hypersensitive to cytotoxic agents that induce DSBs, unable to reseal complex DSB ends, and showed significantly delayed γ-H2AX and 53BP1 repair-related foci regression. Artemis re-expression in K-H-deficient cells restored DNA-repair function and resistance to DSB-inducing agents. However, R loops persisted consistent with dual roles of K-H in transcription termination and DSB repair.

  6. On the terminal homologation of physiologically active peptides as a means of increasing stability in human serum--neurotensin, opiorphin, B27-KK10 epitope, NPY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seebach, Dieter; Lukaszuk, Aneta; Patora-Komisarska, Krystyna; Podwysocka, Dominika; Gardiner, James; Ebert, Marc-Olivier; Reubi, Jean Claude; Cescato, Renzo; Waser, Beatrice; Gmeiner, Peter; Hübner, Harald; Rougeot, Catherine

    2011-05-01

    The terminal homologation by CH(2) insertion into the peptides mentioned in the title is described. This involves replacement of the N-terminal amino acid residue by a β(2) - and of the C-terminal amino acid residue by a β(3) -homo-amino acid moiety (β(2) hXaa and β(3) hXaa, resp.; Fig. 1). In this way, the structure of the peptide chain from the N-terminal to the C-terminal stereogenic center is identical, and the modified peptide is protected against cleavage by exopeptidases (Figs. 2 and 3). Neurotensin (NT; 1) and its C-terminal fragment NT(8-13) are ligands of the G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) NT1, NT2, NT3, and NT analogs are promising tools to be used in cancer diagnostics and therapy. The affinities of homologated NT analogs, 2b-2e, for NT1 and NT2 receptors were determined by using cell homogenates and tumor tissues (Table 1); in the latter experiments, the affinities for the NT1 receptor are more or less the same as those of NT (0.5-1.3 vs. 0.6 nM). At the same time, one of the homologated NT analogs, 2c, survives in human plasma for 7 days at 37° (Fig. 6). An NMR analysis of NT(8-13) (Tables 2 and 4, and Fig. 8) reveals that this N-terminal NT fragment folds to a turn in CD(3) OH. - In the case of the human analgesic opiorphin (3a), a pentapeptide, and of the HIV-derived B27-KK10 (4a), a decapeptide, terminal homologation (→3b and 4b, resp.) led to a 7- and 70-fold half-life increase in plasma (Fig. 9). With N-terminally homologated NPY, 5c, we were not able to determine serum stability; the peptide consisting of 36 amino acid residues is subject to cleavage by endopetidases. Three of the homologated compounds, 2b, 2c, and 5c, were shown to be agonists (Fig. 7 and 11). A comparison of terminal homologation with other stability-increasing terminal modifications of peptides is performed (Fig. 5), and possible applications of the neurotensin analogs, described herein, are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Verlag Helvetica Chimica

  7. Arabidopsis KHZ1 and KHZ2, two novel non-tandem CCCH zinc-finger and K-homolog domain proteins, have redundant roles in the regulation of flowering and senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zongyun; Jia, Jianheng; Yan, Xiaoyuan; Shi, Huiying; Han, Yuzhen

    2017-12-01

    The two novel CCCH zinc-finger and K-homolog (KH) proteins, KHZ1 and KHZ2, play important roles in regulating flowering and senescence redundantly in Arabidopsis. The CCCH zinc-finger proteins and K-homolog (KH) proteins play important roles in plant development and stress responses. However, the biological functions of many CCCH zinc-finger proteins and KH proteins remain uncharacterized. In Arabidopsis, KHZ1 and KHZ2 are characterized as two novel CCCH zinc-finger and KH domain proteins which belong to subfamily VII in CCCH family. We obtained khz1, khz2 mutants and khz1 khz2 double mutants, as well as overexpression (OE) lines of KHZ1 and KHZ2. Compared with the wild type (WT), the khz2 mutants displayed no defects in growth and development, and the khz1 mutants were slightly late flowering, whereas the khz1 khz2 double mutants showed a pronounced late flowering phenotype. In contrast, artificially overexpressing KHZ1 and KHZ2 led to the early flowering. Consistent with the late flowering phenotype, the expression of flowering repressor gene FLC was up-regulated, while the expression of flowering integrator and floral meristem identity (FMI) genes were down-regulated significantly in khz1 khz2. In addition, we also observed that the OE plants of KHZ1 and KHZ2 showed early leaf senescence significantly, whereas the khz1 khz2 double mutants showed delayed senescence of leaf and the whole plant. Both KHZ1 and KHZ2 were ubiquitously expressed throughout the tissues of Arabidopsis. KHZ1 and KHZ2 were localized to the nucleus, and possessed both transactivation activities and RNA-binding abilities. Taken together, we conclude that KHZ1 and KHZ2 have redundant roles in the regulation of flowering and senescence in Arabidopsis.

  8. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Aglaia elaeagnoidea (A.Juss.) Benth. of Meliaceae is a small-sized evergreen tree of both moist and dry deciduous forests. The leaves are alternate and pinnately compound, terminating in a single leaflet. Leaflets are more or less elliptic with entire margin. Flowers are small on branched inflorescence. Fruit is a globose ...

  9. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    user

    Flowers are borne on stiff bunches terminally on short shoots. They are 2-3 cm across, white, sweet-scented with light-brown hairy sepals and many stamens. Loquat fruits are round or pear-shaped, 3-5 cm long and are edible. A native of China, Loquat tree is grown in parks as an ornamental and also for its fruits.

  10. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cassia siamia Lamk. (Siamese tree senna) of Caesalpiniaceae is a small or medium size handsome tree. Leaves are alternate, pinnately compound and glandular, upto 18 cm long with 8–12 pairs of leaflets. Inflorescence is axillary or terminal and branched. Flowering lasts for a long period from March to February. Fruit is ...

  11. N-terminal sequence of human leukocyte glycoprotein Mo1: conservation across species and homology to platelet IIb/IIIa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, M W; Remold-O'Donnell, E; Todd, R F; Arnaout, M A

    1986-12-12

    Mo1 and gp160-gp93 are two surface membrane glycoprotein heterodimers present on granulocytes and monocytes derived from humans and guinea pigs, respectively. We purified both antigens and found that their alpha subunits had identical N-termini which were significantly homologous to the alpha subunit of the human adhesion platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa.

  12. Role of teh Rad52 Amino-terminal DNA Binding Activity in DNA Strand Capture in Homologous Recombination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shi, Idina; Hallwyl, Swee Chuang Lim; Seong, Changhyun

    2009-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rad52 protein promotes homologous recombination by nucleating the Rad51 recombinase onto replication protein A-coated single-stranded DNA strands and also by directly annealing such strands. We show that the purified rad52-R70A mutant protein, with a compromised amino-ter...

  13. Analysis of the Arabidopsis superman allelic series and the interactions with other genes demonstrate developmental robustness and joint specification of male-female boundary, flower meristem termination and carpel compartmentalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breuil-Broyer, Stéphanie; Trehin, Christophe; Morel, Patrice; Boltz, Véronique; Sun, Bo; Chambrier, Pierre; Ito, Toshiro; Negrutiu, Ioan

    2016-04-01

    SUPERMAN is a cadastral gene controlling the sexual boundary in the flower. The gene's functions and role in flower development and evolution have remained elusive. The analysis of a contrasting SUP allelic series (for which the names superman, superwoman and supersex have been coined) makes it possible to distinguish early vs. late regulatory processes at the flower meristem centre to which SUP is an important contributor. Their understanding is essential in further addressing evolutionary questions linking bisexuality and flower meristem homeostasis. Inter-allelic comparisons were carried out and SUP interactions with other boundary factors and flower meristem patterning and homeostasis regulators (such as CLV, WUS, PAN, CUC, KNU, AG, AP3/PI, CRC and SPT) have been evaluated at genetic, molecular, morphological and histological levels. Early SUP functions include mechanisms of male-female (sexual) boundary specification, flower mersitem termination and control of stamen number. A SUP-dependent flower meristem termination pathway is identified and analysed. Late SUP functions play a role in organ morphogenesis by controlling intra-whorl organ separation and carpel medial region formation. By integrating early and late SUP functions, and by analyzing in one single experiment a series of SUP genetic interactions, the concept of meristematic 'transference' (cascade) - a regulatory bridging process redundantly and sequentially co-ordinating the triggering and completion of flower meristem termination, and carpel margin meristem and placenta patterning - is proposed. Taken together, the results strongly support the view that SUP(-type) function(s) have been instrumental in resolving male/female gradients into sharp male and female identities (whorls, organs) and in enforcing flower homeostasis during evolution. This has probably been achieved by incorporating the meristem patterning system of the floral axis into the female/carpel programme. © The Author 2016

  14. Differential effects of NAA and 2,4-D in reducing floret abscission in cestrum (Cestrum elegans) cut flowers are associated with their differential activation of Aux/IAA homologous genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abebie, Bekele; Lers, Amnon; Philosoph-Hadas, Sonia; Goren, Raphael; Riov, Joseph; Meir, Shimon

    2008-01-01

    A previous study showed that the relative effectiveness of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) compared with that of 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) in reducing floret bud abscission in cestrum (Cestrum elegans) cut flowers was due to its acropetal transport. The aim of the present study was to examine if the differential effect of these auxins on floret abscission is reflected in the expression of Aux/IAA genes in the floret abscission zone (AZ). cDNAs were isolated by PCR-based cloning from the floret AZ of auxin-treated cut flowers. The expression patterns of the cDNAs in various tissues and the effect of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), applied with or without cycloheximide, on their expression in the floret AZ were examined by northern blot analysis. The regulation of transcript accumulation in the floret AZ in response to NAA or 2,4-D was measured by real-time PCR during auxin pulsing of cut flowers and vase life, concomitantly with floret abscission. Six isolated cDNAs were identified to represent Aux/IAA homologous genes, designated as Cestrum elegans (Ce)-IAA1 to Ce-IAA6. Four Ce-IAA genes were characterized as early auxin-responsive genes (ARGs), and two (Ce-IAA1 and Ce-IAA5) as late ARGs. Only Ce-IAA5 was AZ-specific in floret buds. A temporal regulation of Ce-IAA transcript levels in the floret AZ was found, with 2,4-D inducing higher expression levels than NAA in floret buds. These Ce-IAA expression levels were negatively correlated with floret abscission. The differential transport characteristics of NAA and 2,4-D in cestrum cut flowers were reflected in differential activation of the Ce-IAA genes identified in the floret AZ. Therefore, Aux/IAA genes can be used as molecular markers to measure auxin activity, which reflects free auxin level in the AZ. Two of the identified genes, Ce-IAA1 and Ce-IAA5, may also have a regulatory role in abscission.

  15. C-terminal β9-strand of the cyclic nucleotide-binding homology domain stabilizes activated states of Kv11.1 channels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chai Ann Ng

    Full Text Available Kv11.1 potassium channels are important for regulation of the normal rhythm of the heartbeat. Reduced activity of Kv11.1 channels causes long QT syndrome type 2, a disorder that increases the risk of cardiac arrhythmias and sudden cardiac arrest. Kv11.1 channels are members of the KCNH subfamily of voltage-gated K(+ channels. However, they also share many similarities with the cyclic nucleotide gated ion channel family, including having a cyclic nucleotide-binding homology (cNBH domain. Kv11.1 channels, however, are not directly regulated by cyclic nucleotides. Recently, crystal structures of the cNBH domain from mEAG and zELK channels, both members of the KCNH family of voltage-gated potassium channels, revealed that a C-terminal β9-strand in the cNBH domain occupied the putative cyclic nucleotide-binding site thereby precluding binding of cyclic nucleotides. Here we show that mutations to residues in the β9-strand affect the stability of the open state relative to the closed state of Kv11.1 channels. We also show that disrupting the structure of the β9-strand reduces the stability of the inactivated state relative to the open state. Clinical mutations located in this β9-strand result in reduced trafficking efficiency, which suggests that binding of the C-terminal β9-strand to the putative cyclic nucleotide-binding pocket is also important for assembly and trafficking of Kv11.1 channels.

  16. Capsicum annuum S (CaS) promotes reproductive transition and is required for flower formation in pepper (Capsicum annuum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Oded; Borovsky, Yelena; David-Schwartz, Rakefet; Paran, Ilan

    2014-05-01

    The genetic control of the transition to flowering has mainly been studied in model species, while few data are available in crop species such as pepper (Capsicum spp.). To elucidate the genetic control of the transition to flowering in pepper, mutants that lack flowers were isolated and characterized. Genetic mapping and sequencing allowed the identification of the gene disrupted in the mutants. Double mutants and expression analyses were used to characterize the relationships between the mutated gene and other genes controlling the transition to flowering and flower differentiation. The mutants were characterized by a delay in the initiation of sympodial growth, a delay in the termination of sympodial meristems and complete inhibition of flower formation. Capsicum annuum S (CaS), the pepper (Capsicum annuum) ortholog of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) COMPOUND INFLORESCENCE and petunia (Petunia hybrida) EVERGREEN, was found to govern the mutant phenotype. CaS is required for the activity of the flower meristem identity gene Ca-ANANTHA and does not affect the expression of CaLEAFY. CaS is epistatic over other genes controlling the transition to flowering with respect to flower formation. Comparative homologous mutants in the Solanaceae indicate that CaS has uniquely evolved to have a critical role in flower formation, while its role in meristem maturation is conserved in pepper, tomato and petunia. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  17. The Evolution of the FT/TFL1 Genes in Amaranthaceae and Their Expression Patterns in the Course of Vegetative Growth and Flowering in Chenopodium rubrum

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Drabešová, Jana; Černá, Lucie; Mašterová, Helena; Koloušková, Pavla; Potocký, Martin; Štorchová, Helena

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 10 (2016), s. 3065-3076 ISSN 2160-1836 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP506/12/1359; GA ČR GA13-02290S Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : rna-seq data * locus-t * ft homologs * functional evolution * floral initiation * reference genome * arabidopsis * protein * quantification * activation * transcriptome * flowering locus t * TERMINAL FLOWER1 gene family * evolution * flowering * gene rearrangement * Amaranthaceae * Chenopodium rubrum Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.861, year: 2016

  18. Regulation of abiotic stress signalling by Arabidopsis C-terminal domain phosphatase-like 1 requires interaction with a k-homology domain-containing protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In Sil Jeong

    Full Text Available Arabidopsis thaliana CARBOXYL-TERMINAL DOMAIN (CTD PHOSPHATASE-LIKE 1 (CPL1 regulates plant transcriptional responses to diverse stress signals. Unlike typical CTD phosphatases, CPL1 contains two double-stranded (ds RNA binding motifs (dsRBMs at its C-terminus. Some dsRBMs can bind to dsRNA and/or other proteins, but the function of the CPL1 dsRBMs has remained obscure. Here, we report identification of REGULATOR OF CBF GENE EXPRESSION 3 (RCF3 as a CPL1-interacting protein. RCF3 co-purified with tandem-affinity-tagged CPL1 from cultured Arabidopsis cells and contains multiple K-homology (KH domains, which were predicted to be important for binding to single-stranded DNA/RNA. Yeast two-hybrid, luciferase complementation imaging, and bimolecular fluorescence complementation analyses established that CPL1 and RCF3 strongly associate in vivo, an interaction mediated by the dsRBM1 of CPL1 and the KH3/KH4 domains of RCF3. Mapping of functional regions of CPL1 indicated that CPL1 in vivo function requires the dsRBM1, catalytic activity, and nuclear targeting of CPL1. Gene expression profiles of rcf3 and cpl1 mutants were similar during iron deficiency, but were distinct during the cold response. These results suggest that tethering CPL1 to RCF3 via dsRBM1 is part of the mechanism that confers specificity to CPL1-mediated transcriptional regulation.

  19. Heteronuclear multidimensional NMR and homology modelling studies of the C-terminal nucleotide-binding domain of the human mitochondrial ABC transporter ABCB6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurashima-Ito, Kaori [RIKEN, Cellular and Molecular Biology Laboratory (Japan); Ikeya, Teppei [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), (Japan); Senbongi, Hiroshi [Mitochondrial Diseases Group, MRC Dunn Human NutritionUnit (United Kingdom); Tochio, Hidehito [International Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, Supramolecular Biology, Yokohama City University, Molecular Biophysics Laboratory (Japan); Mikawa, Tsutomu [RIKEN, Cellular and Molecular Biology Laboratory (Japan); Shibata, Takehiko [RIKEN, Shibata Distinguished Senior Scientist Laboratory (Japan); Ito, Yutaka [RIKEN, Cellular and Molecular Biology Laboratory (Japan)], E-mail: ito-yutaka@center.tmu.ac.jp

    2006-05-15

    Human ATP-binding cassette, sub-family B, member 6 (ABCB6) is a mitochondrial ABC transporter, and presumably contributes to iron homeostasis. Aimed at understanding the structural basis for the conformational changes accompanying the substrate-transportation cycle, we have studied the C-terminal nucleotide-binding domain of ABCB6 (ABCB6-C) in both the nucleotide-free and ADP-bound states by heteronuclear multidimensional NMR and homology modelling. A non-linear sampling scheme was utilised for indirectly acquired {sup 13}C and {sup 15}N dimensions of all 3D triple-resonance NMR experiments, in order to overcome the instability and the low solubility of ABCB6-C. The backbone resonances for approximately 25% of non-proline residues, which are mostly distributed around the functionally important loops and in the Helical domain, were not observed for nucleotide-free form of ABCB6-C. From the pH, temperature and magnetic field strength dependencies of the resonance intensities, we concluded that this incompleteness in the assignments is mainly due to the exchange between multiple conformations at an intermediate rate on the NMR timescale. These localised conformational dynamics remained in ADP-bound ABCB6-C except for the loops responsible for adenine base and {alpha}/{beta}-phosphate binding. These results revealed that the localised dynamic cooperativity, which was recently proposed for a prokaryotic ABC MJ1267, also exists in a higher eukaryotic ABC, and is presumably shared by all members of the ABC family. Since the Helical domain is the putative interface to the transmembrane domain, this cooperativity may explain the coupled functions between domains in the substrate-transportation cycle.

  20. Flowering T Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Adansonia digitata L. ( The Baobab Tree) of Bombacaceae is a tree with swollen trunk that attains a dia. of 10m. Leaves are digitately compound with leaflets up to 18cm. long. Flowers are large, solitary, waxy white, and open at dusk. They open in 30 seconds and are bat pollinated. Stamens are many. Fruit is about 30 cm ...

  1. Blob Flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canfield, Elaine

    2003-01-01

    Describes an art project called blob flowers in which fifth-grade students created pictures of flowers using watercolor and markers. Explains that the lesson incorporates ideas from art and science. Discusses in detail how the students created their flowers. (CMK)

  2. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Flowering Trees. Ailanthus excelsa Roxb. (INDIAN TREE OF. HEAVEN) of Simaroubaceae is a lofty tree with large pinnately compound alternate leaves, which are ... inflorescences, unisexual and greenish-yellow. Fruits are winged, wings many-nerved. Wood is used in making match sticks. 1. Male flower; 2. Female flower.

  3. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 8 Issue 8 August 2003 pp 112-112 Flowering Trees. Zizyphus jujuba Lam. of Rhamnaceae · More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 8 Issue 9 September 2003 pp 97-97 Flowering Trees. Moringa oleifera · More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 8 Issue 10 October 2003 pp 100-100 Flowering Trees.

  4. A ¤Terminal Flower-1¤-like gene from perennial ryegrass involved in floral transition and axillary meristem identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, C.S.; Salchert, K.; Nielsen, K.K.

    2001-01-01

    12 weeks to induce flowering. During this period a decrease in LpTFL1 message was detected in the ryegrass apex. However, upon subsequent induction with elevated temperatures and long-day photoperiods, LpTFL1 message levels increased and reached a maximum M:hen the ryegrass apex has formed visible...

  5. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Canthium parviflorum Lam. of Rubiaceae is a large shrub that often grows into a small tree with conspicuous spines. Leaves are simple, in pairs at each node and are shiny. Inflorescence is an axillary few-flowered cymose fascicle. Flowers are small (less than 1 cm across), 4-merous and greenish-white. Fruit is ellipsoid ...

  6. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    mid-sized slow-growing evergreen tree with spreading branches that form a dense crown. The bark is smooth, thick, dark and flakes off in large shreds. Leaves are thick, oblong, leathery and bright red when young. The female flowers are drooping and are larger than male flowers. Fruit is large, red in color and velvety.

  7. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Flowering Trees. Gyrocarpus americanus Jacq. (Helicopter Tree) of Hernandiaceae is a moderate size deciduous tree that grows to about 12 m in height with a smooth, shining, greenish-white bark. The leaves are ovate, rarely irregularly ... flowers which are unpleasant smelling. Fruit is a woody nut with two long thin wings.

  8. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Flowering Trees. Acrocarpus fraxinifolius Wight & Arn. (PINK CEDAR, AUSTRALIAN ASH) of. Caesalpiniaceae is a lofty unarmed deciduous native tree that attains a height of 30–60m with buttresses. Bark is thin and light grey. Leaves are compound and bright red when young. Flowers in dense, erect, axillary racemes.

  9. New acute transforming feline retovirus with fms homology specifies a C-terminally truncated version of the c-fms protein that is different from SM-feline sarcoma virus v-fms protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besmer, P.; Lader, E.; George, P.C.; Bergold, P.J.; Qui, F.; Zuckerman, E.E.; Hardy, W.D.

    1986-01-01

    The HZ5-feline sarcoma virus (FeSV) is a new acute transforming feline retrovirus which was isolated from a multicentric fibrosarcoma of a domestic cat. The HZ5-FeSV transforms fibroblasts in vitro and is replication defective. A biologically active integrated HZ5-FeSV provirus was molecularly cloned from cellular DNA of HZ5-FeSV-infected FRE-3A rat cells. The HZ5-FeSV has oncogene homology with the fms sequences of the SM-FeSV. The genome organization of the 8.6-kilobase HZ5-FeSV provirus is 5' Δgag-fms-Δpol-Δenv 3'. The HZ5- and SM-FeSVs display indistinguishable in vitro transformation characteristics, and the structures of the gag-fms transforming genes in the two viruses are very similar. In the HZ5-FeSV and the SM-FeSV, identical c-fms and feline leukemia virus p10 sequences form the 5' gag-fms junction. With regard to v-fms the two viruses are homologous up to 11 amino acids before the C terminus of the SM-FeSV v-fms protein. In HZ5-FeSV a segment of 362 nucleotides then follows before the 3' recombination site with feline leukemia virus pol. The new 3' v-fms sequence encodes 27 amino acids before reaching a TGA termination signal. The relationship of this sequence with the recently characterized human c-fms sequence has been examined. The 3' HZ5-FeSV v-fms sequence is homologous with 3' c-fms sequences. A frameshift mutation (11-base-pair deletion) was found in the C-terminal fms coding sequence of the HZ5-FeSV. As a result, the HZ5-FeSV v-fms protein is predicted to be a C-terminally truncated version of c-fms. This frameshift mutation may determine the oncogenic properties of v-fms in the HZ5-FeSV

  10. New acute transforming feline retovirus with fms homology specifies a C-terminally truncated version of the c-fms protein that is different from SM-feline sarcoma virus v-fms protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besmer, P.; Lader, E.; George, P.C.; Bergold, P.J.; Qui, F.; Zuckerman, E.E.; Hardy, W.D.

    1986-10-01

    The HZ5-feline sarcoma virus (FeSV) is a new acute transforming feline retrovirus which was isolated from a multicentric fibrosarcoma of a domestic cat. The HZ5-FeSV transforms fibroblasts in vitro and is replication defective. A biologically active integrated HZ5-FeSV provirus was molecularly cloned from cellular DNA of HZ5-FeSV-infected FRE-3A rat cells. The HZ5-FeSV has oncogene homology with the fms sequences of the SM-FeSV. The genome organization of the 8.6-kilobase HZ5-FeSV provirus is 5' ..delta..gag-fms-..delta..pol-..delta..env 3'. The HZ5- and SM-FeSVs display indistinguishable in vitro transformation characteristics, and the structures of the gag-fms transforming genes in the two viruses are very similar. In the HZ5-FeSV and the SM-FeSV, identical c-fms and feline leukemia virus p10 sequences form the 5' gag-fms junction. With regard to v-fms the two viruses are homologous up to 11 amino acids before the C terminus of the SM-FeSV v-fms protein. In HZ5-FeSV a segment of 362 nucleotides then follows before the 3' recombination site with feline leukemia virus pol. The new 3' v-fms sequence encodes 27 amino acids before reaching a TGA termination signal. The relationship of this sequence with the recently characterized human c-fms sequence has been examined. The 3' HZ5-FeSV v-fms sequence is homologous with 3' c-fms sequences. A frameshift mutation (11-base-pair deletion) was found in the C-terminal fms coding sequence of the HZ5-FeSV. As a result, the HZ5-FeSV v-fms protein is predicted to be a C-terminally truncated version of c-fms. This frameshift mutation may determine the oncogenic properties of v-fms in the HZ5-FeSV.

  11. Transcriptomic Analysis Reveals Candidate Genes for Female Sterility in Pomegranate Flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Chen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Pomegranate has two types of flowers on the same plant: functional male flowers (FMF and bisexual flowers (BF. BF are female-fertile flowers that can set fruits. FMF are female-sterile flowers that fail to set fruit and that eventually drop. The putative cause of pomegranate FMF female sterility is abnormal ovule development. However, the key stage at which the FMF pomegranate ovules become abnormal and the mechanism of regulation of pomegranate female sterility remain unknown. Here, we studied ovule development in FMF and BF, using scanning electron microscopy to explore the key stage at which ovule development was terminated and then analyzed genes differentially expressed (differentially expressed genes – DEGs between FMF and BF to investigate the mechanism responsible for pomegranate female sterility. Ovule development in FMF ceased following the formation of the inner integument primordium. The key stage for the termination of FMF ovule development was when the bud vertical diameter was 5.0–13.0 mm. Candidate genes influencing ovule development may be crucial factors in pomegranate female sterility. INNER OUTER (INO/YABBY4 (Gglean016270 and AINTEGUMENTA (ANT homolog genes (Gglean003340 and Gglean011480, which regulate the development of the integument, showed down-regulation in FMF at the key stage of ovule development cessation (ATNSII. Their upstream regulator genes, such as AGAMOUS-like (AG-like (Gglean028014, Gglean026618, and Gglean028632 and SPOROCYTELESS (SPL homolog genes (Gglean005812, also showed differential expression pattern between BF and FMF at this key stage. The differential expression of the ethylene response signal genes, ETR (ethylene-resistant (Gglean022853 and ERF1/2 (ethylene-responsive factor (Gglean022880, between FMF and BF indicated that ethylene signaling may also be an important factor in the development of pomegranate female sterility. The increase in BF observed after spraying with ethephon supported this

  12. 4-alkyl-L-(Dehydro)proline biosynthesis in actinobacteria involves N-terminal nucleophile-hydrolase activity of γ-glutamyltranspeptidase homolog for C-C bond cleavage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Guannan; Zhao, Qunfei; Zhang, Qinglin; Liu, Wen

    2017-07-01

    γ-Glutamyltranspeptidases (γ-GTs), ubiquitous in glutathione metabolism for γ-glutamyl transfer/hydrolysis, are N-terminal nucleophile (Ntn)-hydrolase fold proteins that share an autoproteolytic process for self-activation. γ-GT homologues are widely present in Gram-positive actinobacteria where their Ntn-hydrolase activities, however, are not involved in glutathione metabolism. Herein, we demonstrate that the formation of 4-Alkyl-L-(dehydro)proline (ALDP) residues, the non-proteinogenic α-amino acids that serve as vital components of many bioactive metabolites found in actinobacteria, involves unprecedented Ntn-hydrolase activity of γ-GT homologue for C-C bond cleavage. The related enzymes share a key Thr residue, which acts as an internal nucleophile for protein hydrolysis and then as a newly released N-terminal nucleophile for carboxylate side-chain processing likely through the generation of an oxalyl-Thr enzyme intermediate. These findings provide mechanistic insights into the biosynthesis of various ALDP residues/associated natural products, highlight the versatile functions of Ntn-hydrolase fold proteins, and particularly generate interest in thus far less-appreciated γ-GT homologues in actinobacteria.

  13. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    deciduous tree with irregularly-shaped trunk, greyish-white scaly bark and milky latex. Leaves in opposite pairs are simple, oblong and whitish beneath. Flowers that occur in branched inflorescence are white, 2–. 3cm across and fragrant. Calyx is glandular inside. Petals bear numerous linear white scales, the corollary.

  14. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Flowering Trees. Boswellia serrata Roxb. ex Colebr. (Indian Frankincense tree) of Burseraceae is a large-sized deciduous tree that is native to India. Bark is thin, greenish-ash-coloured that exfoliates into smooth papery flakes. Stem exudes pinkish resin ... Fruit is a three-valved capsule. A green gum-resin exudes from the ...

  15. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Berrya cordifolia (Willd.) Burret (Syn. B. ammonilla Roxb.) – Trincomali Wood of Tiliaceae is a tall evergreen tree with straight trunk, smooth brownish-grey bark and simple broad leaves. Inflorescence is much branched with white flowers. Stamens are many with golden yellow anthers. Fruit is a capsule with six spreading ...

  16. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    sriranga

    Hook.f. ex Brandis (Yellow. Cadamba) of Rubiaceae is a large and handsome deciduous tree. Leaves are simple, large, orbicular, and drawn abruptly at the apex. Flowers are small, yellowish and aggregate into small spherical heads. The corolla is funnel-shaped with five stamens inserted at its mouth. Fruit is a capsule.

  17. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Celtis tetrandra Roxb. of Ulmaceae is a moderately large handsome deciduous tree with green branchlets and grayish-brown bark. Leaves are simple with three to four secondary veins running parallel to the mid vein. Flowers are solitary, male, female and bisexual and inconspicuous. Fruit is berry-like, small and globose ...

  18. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    medium-sized handsome tree with a straight bole that branches at the top. Leaves are once pinnate, with two to three pairs of leaflets. Young parts of the tree are velvety. Inflorescence is a branched raceme borne at the branch ends. Flowers are large, white, attractive, and fragrant. Corolla is funnel-shaped. Fruit is an ...

  19. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Andira inermis (wright) DC. , Dog Almond of Fabaceae is a handsome lofty evergreen tree. Leaves are alternate and pinnately compound with 4–7 pairs of leaflets. Flowers are fragrant and are borne on compact branched inflorescences. Fruit is ellipsoidal one-seeded drupe that is peculiar to members of this family.

  20. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Flowering Trees. Cerbera manghasL. (SEA MANGO) of Apocynaceae is a medium-sized evergreen coastal tree with milky latex. The bark is grey-brown, thick and ... Fruit is large. (5–10 cm long), oval containing two flattened seeds and resembles a mango, hence the name Mangas or. Manghas. Leaves and fruits contain ...

  1. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Muntingia calabura L. (Singapore cherry) of. Elaeocarpaceae is a medium size handsome ever- green tree. Leaves are simple and alternate with sticky hairs. Flowers are bisexual, bear numerous stamens, white in colour and arise in the leaf axils. Fruit is a berry, edible with several small seeds embedded in a fleshy pulp ...

  2. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Srimath

    Grevillea robusta A. Cunn. ex R. Br. (Sil- ver Oak) of Proteaceae is a daintily lacy ornamental tree while young and growing into a mighty tree (45 m). Young shoots are silvery grey and the leaves are fern- like. Flowers are golden-yellow in one- sided racemes (10 cm). Fruit is a boat- shaped, woody follicle.

  3. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    stems and handsome foliage. Leaves are 8–10 cm long, dull green, the two thin leathery halves of the lamina fusing or the cleft between them extending beyond the middle. Flowers are gorgeous, axillary with dark purple stamens. The pod is more or less flat. B. alba is often named as B. variegate var. alba by botanists.

  4. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Guaiacum officinale L. (LIGNUM-VITAE) of Zygophyllaceae is a dense-crowned, squat, knobbly, rough and twisted medium-sized ev- ergreen tree with mottled bark. The wood is very hard and resinous. Leaves are compound. The leaflets are smooth, leathery, ovate-ellipti- cal and appear in two pairs. Flowers (about 1.5.

  5. Identification of a New Interaction Mode between the Src Homology 2 Domain of C-terminal Src Kinase (Csk) and Csk-binding Protein/Phosphoprotein Associated with Glycosphingolipid Microdomains♦

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Hiroaki; Akagi, Ken-ichi; Oneyama, Chitose; Tanaka, Masakazu; Sasaki, Yuichi; Kanou, Takashi; Lee, Young-Ho; Yokogawa, Daisuke; Dobenecker, Marc-Werner; Nakagawa, Atsushi; Okada, Masato; Ikegami, Takahisa

    2013-01-01

    Proteins with Src homology 2 (SH2) domains play major roles in tyrosine kinase signaling. Structures of many SH2 domains have been studied, and the regions involved in their interactions with ligands have been elucidated. However, these analyses have been performed using short peptides consisting of phosphotyrosine followed by a few amino acids, which are described as the canonical recognition sites. Here, we report the solution structure of the SH2 domain of C-terminal Src kinase (Csk) in complex with a longer phosphopeptide from the Csk-binding protein (Cbp). This structure, together with biochemical experiments, revealed the existence of a novel binding region in addition to the canonical phosphotyrosine 314-binding site of Cbp. Mutational analysis of this second region in cells showed that both canonical and novel binding sites are required for tumor suppression through the Cbp-Csk interaction. Furthermore, the data indicate an allosteric connection between Cbp binding and Csk activation that arises from residues in the βB/βC loop of the SH2 domain. PMID:23548896

  6. Identification, Functional Study, and Promoter Analysis of HbMFT1, a Homolog of MFT from Rubber Tree (Hevea brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenghong Bi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A homolog of MOTHER OF FT AND TFL1 (MFT was isolated from Hevea brasiliensis and its biological function was investigated. Protein multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis revealed that HbMFT1 conserved critical amino acid residues to distinguish MFT, FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT and TERMINAL FLOWER1 (TFL1-like proteins and showed a closer genetic relationship to the MFT-like group. The accumulation of HbMFT1 was generally detected in various tissues except pericarps, with the highest expression in embryos and relatively higher expression in roots and stems of seedlings, flowering inflorescences, and male and female flowers. HbMFT1 putative promoter analysis showed that tissue-specific, environmental change responsive and hormone-signaling responsive elements were generally present. HbMFT1 was strongly induced under a short-day condition at 28 °C, with the highest expression after the onset of a day. Overexpression of HbMFT1 inhibited seed germination, seedling growth, and flowering in transgenic Arabidopsis. The qRT-PCR further confirmed that APETALA1 (AP1 and FRUITFULL (FUL were drastically down-regulated in 35S::HbMFT1 plants. A histochemical β-glucuronidase (GUS assay showed that HbMFT1::GUS activity was mainly detected in stamens and mature seeds coinciding with its original expression and notably induced in rosette leaves and seedlings of transgenic Arabidopsis by exogenous abscisic acid (ABA due to the presence of ABA cis-elements in HbMFT1 promoter. These results suggested that HbMFT1 was mainly involved in maintenance of seed maturation and stamen development, but negatively controlled germination, growth and development of seedlings and flowering. In addition, the HbMFT1 promoter can be utilized in controlling transgene expression in stamens and seeds of rubber tree or other plant species.

  7. Stamina pistilloida, the Pea ortholog of Fim and UFO, is required for normal development of flowers, inflorescences, and leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, S; Hofer, J; Murfet, I

    2001-01-01

    Isolation and characterization of two severe alleles at the Stamina pistilloida (Stp) locus reveals that Stp is involved in a wide range of developmental processes in the garden pea. The most severe allele, stp-4, results in flowers consisting almost entirely of sepals and carpels. Production of ectopic secondary flowers in stp-4 plants suggests that Stp is involved in specifying floral meristem identity in pea. The stp mutations also reduce the complexity of the compound pea leaf, and primary inflorescences often terminate prematurely in an aberrant sepaloid flower. In addition, stp mutants were shorter than their wild-type siblings due to a reduction in cell number in their internodes. Fewer cells were also found in the epidermis of the leaf rachis of stp mutants. Examination of the effects of stp-4 in double mutant combinations with af, tl, det, and veg2-2-mutations known to influence leaf, inflorescence, and flower development in pea-suggests that Stp function is independent of these genes. A synergistic interaction between weak mutant alleles at Stp and Uni indicated that these two genes act together, possibly to regulate primordial growth. Molecular analysis revealed that Stp is the pea homolog of the Antirrhinum gene Fimbriata (Fim) and of UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO) from Arabidopsis. Differences between Fim/UFO and Stp mutant phenotypes and expression patterns suggest that expansion of Stp activity into the leaf was an important step during evolution of the compound leaf in the garden pea.

  8. A novel mutation in TFL1 homolog affecting determinacy in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanasekar, P; Reddy, K S

    2015-02-01

    Mutations in the widely conserved Arabidopsis Terminal Flower 1 (TFL1) gene and its homologs have been demonstrated to result in determinacy across genera, the knowledge of which is lacking in cowpea. Understanding the molecular events leading to determinacy of apical meristems could hasten development of cowpea varieties with suitable ideotypes. Isolation and characterization of a novel mutation in cowpea TFL1 homolog (VuTFL1) affecting determinacy is reported here for the first time. Cowpea TFL1 homolog was amplified using primers designed based on conserved sequences in related genera and sequence variation was analysed in three gamma ray-induced determinate mutants, their indeterminate parent "EC394763" and two indeterminate varieties. The analyses of sequence variation exposed a novel SNP distinguishing the determinate mutants from the indeterminate types. The non-synonymous point mutation in exon 4 at position 1,176 resulted from transversion of cytosine (C) to adenine (A) leading to an amino acid change (Pro-136 to His) in determinate mutants. The effect of the mutation on protein function and stability was predicted to be detrimental using different bioinformatics/computational tools. The functionally significant novel substitution mutation is hypothesized to affect determinacy in the cowpea mutants. Development of suitable regeneration protocols in this hitherto recalcitrant crop and subsequent complementation assay in mutants or over-expressing assay in parents could decisively conclude the role of the SNP in regulating determinacy in these cowpea mutants.

  9. Design a Hummingbird Flower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Kim

    2002-01-01

    Presents an activity that engages students in designing and making an artificial flower adapted for pollination by hummingbirds. Students work in teams to design flowers that maximize the benefit from attracting hummingbirds. Examines characteristics of real flowers adapted to pollination by hummingbirds. (DLH)

  10. Cloning and characterisation of two CTR1-like genes in Cucurbita pepo: regulation of their expression during male and female flower development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzano, Susana; Martínez, Cecilia; Gómez, Pedro; Garrido, Dolores; Jamilena, Manuel

    2010-12-01

    Ethylene is an essential regulator of flower development in Cucurbita pepo, controlling the sexual expression, and the differentiation and maturation of floral organs. To study the action mechanism of ethylene during the male and female flower development, we have identified two CTR1 homologues from C. pepo, CpCTR1 and CpCTR2, and analysed their expressions during female and male flower development and in response to external treatments with ethylene. CpCTR1 and CpCTR2 share a high homology with plant CTR1-like kinases, but differ from other related kinases such as the Arabidopsis EDR1 and the tomato LeCTR2. The C-terminal ends of both CpCTR1 and CpCTR2 have all the conserved motifs of Ser/Thr kinase domains, including the ATP-binding signature and the protein kinase active site consensus sequence, which suggests that CpCTR1 and CpCTR2 could have the same function as CTR1 in ethylene signalling. The transcripts of both genes were detected in different organs of the plant, including roots, leaves and shoots, but were mostly accumulated in mature flowers. During the development of male and female flowers, CpCTR1 and CpCTR2 expressions were concomitant with ethylene production, which indicates that both genes could be upregulated by ethylene, at least in flowers. Moreover, external treatments with ethylene, although did not alter the expression of these two genes in seedlings and leaves, were able to upregulate their expression in flowers. In the earlier stages of flower development, when ethylene production is very low, the expression of CpCTR1 and CpCTR2 is higher in male floral organs, which agrees with the role of these genes as negative regulators of ethylene signalling, and explain the lower ethylene sensitivity of male flowers in comparison with female flowers. The function of the upregulation of these two genes in later stages of female flower development, when the production of ethylene is also increased, is discussed.

  11. Pure homology of algebraic varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, Andrzej

    2003-01-01

    We show that for a complete complex algebraic variety the pure component of homology coincides with the image of intersection homology. Therefore pure homology is topologically invariant. To obtain slightly more general results we introduce "image homology" for noncomplete varieties.

  12. Lectures on functor homology

    CERN Document Server

    Touzé, Antoine

    2015-01-01

    This book features a series of lectures that explores three different fields in which functor homology (short for homological algebra in functor categories) has recently played a significant role. For each of these applications, the functor viewpoint provides both essential insights and new methods for tackling difficult mathematical problems. In the lectures by Aurélien Djament, polynomial functors appear as coefficients in the homology of infinite families of classical groups, e.g. general linear groups or symplectic groups, and their stabilization. Djament’s theorem states that this stable homology can be computed using only the homology with trivial coefficients and the manageable functor homology. The series includes an intriguing development of Scorichenko’s unpublished results. The lectures by Wilberd van der Kallen lead to the solution of the general cohomological finite generation problem, extending Hilbert’s fourteenth problem and its solution to the context of cohomology. The focus here is o...

  13. Topological data analysis as a morphometric method: using persistent homology to demarcate a leaf morphospace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Current morphometric methods that comprehensively measure shape cannot compare the disparate leaf shapes found in flowering plants and are sensitive to processing artifacts. Here we describe a persistent homology approach to measuring shape. Persistent homology is a topological method (concerned wit...

  14. De novo transcriptome analysis in Dendrobium and identification of critical genes associated with flowering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yue; Shen, Qi; Lin, Renan; Zhao, Zhuangliu; Shen, Chenjia; Sun, Chongbo

    2017-10-01

    Artificial control of flowering time is pivotal for the ornamental value of orchids including the genus Dendrobium. Although various flowering pathways have been revealed in model plants, little information is available on the genetic regualtion of flowering in Dendrobium. To identify the critical genes associated with flowering, transcriptomes from four organs (leaf, root, stem and flower) of D. officinale were analyzed in our study. In total, 2645 flower-specific transcripts were identified. Functional annotation and classification suggested that several metabolic pathways, including four sugar-related pathways and two fatty acid-related pathways, were enriched. A total of 24 flowering-related transcripts were identified in D. officinale according to the similarities to their homologous genes from Arabidopsis, suggesting that most classical flowering pathways existed in D. officinale. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis suggested that the FLOWERING LOCUS T homologs in orchids are highly conserved during evolution process. In addition, expression changes in nine randomly-selected critical flowering-related transcripts between the vegetative stage and reproductive stage were quantified by qRT-PCR analysis. Our study provided a number of candidate genes and sequence resources for investigating the mechanisms underlying the flowering process of the Dendrobium genus. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  15. Homological stabilizer codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Jonas T., E-mail: jonastyleranderson@gmail.com

    2013-03-15

    In this paper we define homological stabilizer codes on qubits which encompass codes such as Kitaev's toric code and the topological color codes. These codes are defined solely by the graphs they reside on. This feature allows us to use properties of topological graph theory to determine the graphs which are suitable as homological stabilizer codes. We then show that all toric codes are equivalent to homological stabilizer codes on 4-valent graphs. We show that the topological color codes and toric codes correspond to two distinct classes of graphs. We define the notion of label set equivalencies and show that under a small set of constraints the only homological stabilizer codes without local logical operators are equivalent to Kitaev's toric code or to the topological color codes. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We show that Kitaev's toric codes are equivalent to homological stabilizer codes on 4-valent graphs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We show that toric codes and color codes correspond to homological stabilizer codes on distinct graphs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We find and classify all 2D homological stabilizer codes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We find optimal codes among the homological stabilizer codes.

  16. An Apology for Flowers

    OpenAIRE

    Mehdi Aghamohammadi

    2017-01-01

    Prompting critical reflection on the common claim that flowers are always symbolic of female sexuality, the present article intends to explore symbolic roles of flowers in Persian literature and provide examples, mainly from Persian poetry, with the aim of refuting the claim. The writer, in fact, attempts to highlight overshadowed facets of flower symbolism by overshadowing carnal and ignoble readings of it. The reason why Persian literature has come into the focus of this study is that flowe...

  17. Geometric homology revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Ruffino, Fabio Ferrari

    2013-01-01

    Given a cohomology theory, there is a well-known abstract way to define the dual homology theory using the theory of spectra. In [4] the author provides a more geometric construction of the homology theory, using a generalization of the bordism groups. Such a generalization involves in its definition the vector bundle modification, which is a particular case of the Gysin map. In this paper we provide a more natural variant of that construction, which replaces the vector bundle modification wi...

  18. The regulation of seasonal flowering in the Rosaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurokura, Takeshi; Mimida, Naozumi; Battey, Nicholas H; Hytönen, Timo

    2013-11-01

    Molecular mechanisms regulating the flowering process have been extensively studied in model annual plants; in perennials, however, understanding of the molecular mechanisms controlling flowering has just started to emerge. Here we review the current state of flowering research in perennial plants of the rose family (Rosaceae), which is one of the most economically important families of horticultural plants. Strawberry (Fragaria spp.), raspberry (Rubus spp.), rose (Rosa spp.), and apple (Malus spp.) are used to illustrate how photoperiod and temperature control seasonal flowering in rosaceous crops. We highlight recent molecular studies which have revealed homologues of terminal flower1 (TFL1) to be major regulators of both the juvenile to adult, and the vegetative to reproductive transitions in various rosaceous species. Additionally, recent advances in understanding of the regulation of TFL1 are discussed.

  19. Translating BPEL to FLOWer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Kristian Bisgaard

    FLOWer is a case handling tool made by Pallas-Athena for process management in the service industry. BPEL on the other hand is a language for web service orchestration, and has become a de facto standard, because of its popularity, for specifying workflow processes even though that was not its...... original purpose. This paper describe an approach translating BPLE to FLOWer, or more precisely form BPEL to CHIP. where CHIP is the interchange language that FLOWer import from and export to. The aim of the translation scheme that I give is to derive a CHIP specification that is behaviorally equivalent...

  20. An ortholog of LEAFY in Jatropha curcas regulates flowering time and floral organ development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Mingyong; Tao, Yan-Bin; Fu, Qiantang; Song, Yaling; Niu, Longjian; Xu, Zeng-Fu

    2016-11-21

    Jatropha curcas seeds are an excellent biofuel feedstock, but seed yields of Jatropha are limited by its poor flowering and fruiting ability. Thus, identifying genes controlling flowering is critical for genetic improvement of seed yield. We isolated the JcLFY, a Jatropha ortholog of Arabidopsis thaliana LEAFY (LFY), and identified JcLFY function by overexpressing it in Arabidopsis and Jatropha. JcLFY is expressed in Jatropha inflorescence buds, flower buds, and carpels, with highest expression in the early developmental stage of flower buds. JcLFY overexpression induced early flowering, solitary flowers, and terminal flowers in Arabidopsis, and also rescued the delayed flowering phenotype of lfy-15, a LFY loss-of-function Arabidopsis mutant. Microarray and qPCR analysis revealed several flower identity and flower organ development genes were upregulated in JcLFY-overexpressing Arabidopsis. JcLFY overexpression in Jatropha also induced early flowering. Significant changes in inflorescence structure, floral organs, and fruit shape occurred in JcLFY co-suppressed plants in which expression of several flower identity and floral organ development genes were changed. This suggests JcLFY is involved in regulating flower identity, floral organ patterns, and fruit shape, although JcLFY function in Jatropha floral meristem determination is not as strong as that of Arabidopsis.

  1. Fertilization in Flowering Plants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Ecology and the Environ- ment, Bengaluru as ... remaining plants, it is an abiotic agent (abiotic pollination), .... tion was slow until the origin of flowering plants and evolution of ..... Although pollination is generally a mutual interaction in a major-.

  2. Fertilization in Flowering Plants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ecology and the. Environment ... agents (pollinators), the next step before fertilization is to se- .... the embryo sac are referred to as pollen-pistil interaction and play ..... evolutionary success of flowering plants when compared to other groups of ...

  3. Stars and Flowers, Flowers and Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minti, Hari

    2012-12-01

    The author, a graduated from the Bucharest University (1964), actually living and working in Israel, concerns his book to variable stars and flowers, two domains of his interest. The analogies includes double stars, eclipsing double stars, eclipses, Big Bang. The book contains 34 chapters, each of which concerns various relations between astronomy and other sciences and pseudosciences such as Psychology, Religion, Geology, Computers and Astrology (to which the author is not an adherent). A special part of the book is dedicated to archeoastronomy and ethnoastronomy, as well as to history of astronomy. Between the main points of interest of these parts: ancient sanctuaries in Sarmizegetusa (Dacia), Stone Henge(UK) and other. The last chapter of the book is dedicated to flowers. The book is richly illustrated. It is designed for a wide circle of readers.

  4. Conservation and diversification of QTGs involved in photoperiodic flowering between rice and Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuki eMatsubara

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Flowering time in rice (Oryza sativa L. is determined primarily by daylength (photoperiod, and natural variation in flowering time is due to quantitative trait loci involved in photoperiodic flowering. To date, genetic analysis of natural variants in rice flowering time has resulted in the positional cloning of at least 12 quantitative trait genes (QTGs, including our recently cloned QTGs, Hd17 and Hd16. The QTGs have been assigned to specific photoperiodic flowering pathways. Among them, 9 have homologs in the Arabidopsis genome, whereas it was evident that there are differences in the pathways between rice and Arabidopsis, such that the rice Ghd7–Ehd1–Hd3a/RFT1 pathway modulated by Hd16 is not present in Arabidopsis. In this review, we describe QTGs underlying natural variation in rice flowering time. Additionally, we discuss the implications of the variation in adaptive divergence and its importance in rice breeding.

  5. Flowering branches cause injuries to second-year main stems of Artemisia tridentata nutt. subspecies tridentata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lance S. Evans; Angela Citta; Stewart C. Sanderson

    2012-01-01

    Eccentricity of stems of Artemisia tridentata Nutt. (big sagebrush) has been reported previously. Analysis of samples observed over 2 years documented that each stem terminal produces about 8-10 branches each year, and during second-year growth, 3-8 of these develop into short, flowering, determinate branches. Each flowering branch produces hundreds of seeds and then...

  6. Patterns of MADS-box gene expression mark flower-type development in Gerbera hybrida (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teeri Teemu H

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The inflorescence of the cut-flower crop Gerbera hybrida (Asteraceae consists of two principal flower types, ray and disc, which form a tightly packed head, or capitulum. Despite great interest in plant morphological evolution and the tractability of the gerbera system, very little is known regarding genetic mechanisms involved in flower type specification. Here, we provide comparative staging of ray and disc flower development and microarray screening for differentially expressed genes, accomplished via microdissection of hundreds of coordinately developing flower primordia. Results Using a 9K gerbera cDNA microarray we identified a number of genes with putative specificity to individual flower types. Intrestingly, several of these encode homologs of MADS-box transcription factors otherwise known to regulate flower organ development. From these and previously obtained data, we hypothesize the functions and protein-protein interactions of several gerbera MADS-box factors. Conclusion Our RNA expression results suggest that flower-type specific MADS protein complexes may play a central role in differential development of ray and disc flowers across the gerbera capitulum, and that some commonality is shared with known protein functions in floral organ determination. These findings support the intriguing conjecture that the gerbera flowering head is more than a mere floral analog at the level of gene regulation.

  7. Flowering in Xanthium strumarium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Maggy; Kinet, Jean-Marie; Bodson, Monique; Havelange, Andrée; Jacqmard, Annie; Bernier, Georges

    1981-01-01

    Vegetative plants of Xanthium strumarium L. grown in long days were induced to flower by exposure to one or several 16-hour dark periods. The distribution of male and female inflorescences on the flowering shoot was described, and a scoring system was designed to assess the development of the female inflorescences. The time of movement of the floral stimulus out of the induced leaf and the timing of action of high temperature were shown to be similar for both the apical male and lateral female inflorescences. Strong photoperiodic induction of the plants favored female sex expression, while maleness was enhanced by exogenous gibberellic acid. The problem of the control of sex expression in Xanthium is discussed in relation to the distribution pattern of male and female inflorescences on the flowering shoot and to the state of the meristem at the time of the arrival of the floral stimulus. Images PMID:16661844

  8. A genomic approach to elucidating grass flower development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dornelas Marcelo C.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In sugarcane (Saccharum sp as with other species of grass, at a certain moment of its life cycle the vegetative meristem is converted into an inflorescence meristem which has at least two distinct inflorescence branching steps before the spikelet meristem terminates in the production of a flower (floret. In model dicotyledonous species such successive conversions of meristem identities and the concentric arrangement of floral organs in specific whorls have both been shown to be genetically controlled. Using data from the Sugarcane Expressed Sequence Tag (EST Project (SUCEST database, we have identified all sugarcane proteins and genes putatively involved in reproductive meristem and flower development. Sequence comparisons of known flower-related genes have uncovered conserved evolutionary pathways of flower development and flower pattern formation between dicotyledons and monocotyledons, such as some grass species. We have paid special attention to the analysis of the MADS-box multigene family of transcription factors that together with the APETALA2 (AP2 family are the key elements of the transcriptional networks controlling plant reproductive development. Considerations on the evolutionary developmental genetics of grass flowers and their relation to the ABC homeotic gene activity model of flower development are also presented.

  9. Fertilization in Flowering Plants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... for the right pollen,the pistil imposes a tough competition amongst them, comparableto a swayamvara of Indian mythology, to select the bestavailable pollen. Flowering plants have evolved into a matriarchalsociety. The selection of the male partner is totally theprerogative of the mother (pistil); the boy (pollen grain) andthe ...

  10. Some aspects of mineral nutrition and flowering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hinnawy, El E.I.

    1956-01-01

    In mustard N deficiency accelerated flower initiation and particularly flower bud development. Excess N delayed flowering but increased number of flowers. Of other elements Ca influenced flowering most.

    Dill developed its flowers most rapidly with normal or high rates of N. N deficiency retarded

  11. Chemical control of flowering time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ionescu, Irina Alexandra; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Sánchez Pérez, Raquel

    2017-01-01

    Flowering at the right time is of great importance; it secures seed production and therefore species survival and crop yield. In addition to the genetic network controlling flowering time, there are a number of much less studied metabolites and exogenously applied chemicals that may influence...... on the genetic aspects of flowering time regulation in annuals, but less so in perennials. An alternative to plant breeding approaches is to engineer flowering time chemically via the external application of flower-inducing compounds. This review discusses a variety of exogenously applied compounds used in fruit...

  12. Preferences of cut flowers consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Kierczyńska

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of interviews suggest that majority of the cut flowers’ consumers has favourite kind of flower, among which most frequently pointed one was the rose. More than half of the interviewed favour the uniform colour of cut flowers and red colour was the most favourite one. The subtle smell of flowers was the most preferable one but the intensive fragrance was favoured for more consumers than odourless flowers. The data from selected florists’ confirm the information from interviews – in spite of the occasion, roses were the most demanded cut flowers.

  13. Candidate Gene Identification of Flowering Time Genes in Cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrinne E. Grover

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Flowering time control is critically important to all sexually reproducing angiosperms in both natural ecological and agronomic settings. Accordingly, there is much interest in defining the genes involved in the complex flowering-time network and how these respond to natural and artificial selection, the latter often entailing transitions in day-length responses. Here we describe a candidate gene analysis in the cotton genus , which uses homologs from the well-described flowering network to bioinformatically and phylogenetically identify orthologs in the published genome sequence from Ulbr., one of the two model diploid progenitors of the commercially important allopolyploid cottons, L. and L. Presence and patterns of expression were evaluated from 13 aboveground tissues related to flowering for each of the candidate genes using allopolyploid as a model. Furthermore, we use a comparative context to determine copy number variability of each key gene family across 10 published angiosperm genomes. Data suggest a pattern of repeated loss of duplicates following ancient whole-genome doubling events in diverse lineages. The data presented here provide a foundation for understanding both the parallel evolution of day-length neutrality in domesticated cottons and the flowering-time network, in general, in this important crop plant.

  14. Let the flowers grow…

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    The Environmental part of CERN Safety policy is represented by a flower whose petals are the various domains of its application. The Environment Services section within the Occupational Health and Safety and Environmental Protection Unit is in charge of monitoring the impact of the Laboratory on the environment. You are called on to make every effort to reduce this impact as much as reasonably achievable. Read why and how…   A physics Laboratory occupying a territory of the size of a small village, with sites scattered across an even larger area, has a considerable potential impact on the environment. Energy and water consumption, waste management... these are all aspects of the same problem or, in the representation, petals of the same flower. Each one should be carefully studied and dealt with. The nine members of the Environment Services section deal with matters that concern these and other aspects of the CERN's policy for the protection of the environment. “...

  15. Eating flowers? Exploring attitudes and consumers' representation of edible flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, H; Cielo, D P; Goméz-Corona, C; Silveira, A A S; Marchesan, T A; Galmarini, M V; Richards, N S P S

    2017-10-01

    Edible flowers have gained more attention in recent years thanks to their perceived health benefits. Despite this attention, it seems that edible flowers are not popularized for consumption in South America, being considered unfamiliar for some cultures from this continent. In this context, the general goal of the present study was to investigate the three dimensions of social representation theory, the representational field, the information and the attitude of the two conditions of edible flowers: a more general "food made with flowers" and more directional product "yoghurt made with flowers", using Brazilian consumers. To achieve this goal, a free word association task was applied. A total of 549 consumers participated in this study. Participants were divided into two conditions, in which the inductor expressions for the free word association task changed: (a) food products made with flowers and (b) yoghurt made with flowers. Results showed a very positive attitude to both situations, and consumers associated Food products made with flowers to "health care" while the central core of yoghurt made with flowers reflected the innovative condition of this product, supported here by their unpredictable character (information generated). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Epigenetic regulation of photoperiodic flowering

    OpenAIRE

    Takeno, Kiyotoshi

    2010-01-01

    The cytidine analogue 5-azacytidine, which causes DNA demethylation, induced flowering in the non-vernalization-requiring plants Perilla frutescens var. crispa, Silene armeria and Pharbitis nil (synonym Ipomoea nil) under non-inductive photoperiodic conditions, suggesting that the expression of photoperiodic flowering-related genes is regulated epigenetically by DNA methylation. The flowering state induced by DNA demethylation was not heritable. Changes in the genome-wide methylation state we...

  17. Chemical shift homology in proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potts, Barbara C.M.; Chazin, Walter J.

    1998-01-01

    The degree of chemical shift similarity for homologous proteins has been determined from a chemical shift database of over 50 proteins representing a variety of families and folds, and spanning a wide range of sequence homologies. After sequence alignment, the similarity of the secondary chemical shifts of C α protons was examined as a function of amino acid sequence identity for 37 pairs of structurally homologous proteins. A correlation between sequence identity and secondary chemical shift rmsd was observed. Important insights are provided by examining the sequence identity of homologous proteins versus percentage of secondary chemical shifts that fall within 0.1 and 0.3 ppm thresholds. These results begin to establish practical guidelines for the extent of chemical shift similarity to expect among structurally homologous proteins

  18. Molecular Characterization of FT and FD homologs from Eriobotrya deflexa Nakai forma koshunensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling eZhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In angiosperms, regulation of flowering is a vital process for successful reproduction. To date, the molecular mechanism of flowering is well studied in the model plant, Arabidopsis, in which key genes such as FLOWERING LOCUST (FTor FD have been identified to regulate flowering. However, the flowering mechanisms are still largely unknown in fruit trees like loquat. To this end, we first cloned one FT- and two FD-like genes from the loquat (E. deflexa Nakai f. koshunensis and referred to as EdFT, EdFD1 and EdFD2, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis has shown that EdFT, EdFD1 and EdFD2 are conserved during the evolution process. EdFT is mainly expressed in reproductive tissues (e.g. flower buds, flowers and fruits, while EdFD1 and EdFD2 are mainly expressed in apical buds including leaf buds and flower buds. EdFT is localized in the whole cell, while EdFD1 or EdFD2 is localized in the nucleus. Ectopic expression of EdFT, EdFD1 and EdFD2 in Arabidopsis results in early flowering. In addition, we have also revealed that the EdFT interacts with both EdFD1 and EdFD2. Overall, these data suggest that the EdFT, EdFD1 and EdFD2 are the functional homologs of FT and FD, respectively, which might act together to regulate loquat flowering through a similar mechanism found in Arabidopsis.

  19. The effects of different irrigation levels on flowering and flower ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water usage is a vital issue for all agricultural crops as well as for ornamental crops. To obtain high quality flowers, it is essential to supply water when it is required. A problem which is common with cut flower growers are determining when to irrigate and the amount of water to apply. The effect of two irrigation intervals (I1: ...

  20. The effects of different irrigation levels on flowering and flower ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-10-26

    Oct 26, 2011 ... important export production in cut flower is carnation and it consists of 89% of cut flower export. ... irrigation management in arid and semi-arid regions will shift from emphasizing ..... Handbook of Plant and Crop. Stress (Ed: M.

  1. A Floricaula/Leafy gene homolog is preferentially expressed in developing female cones of the tropical pine Pinus caribaea var. caribaea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Carnier Dornelas

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In angiosperms, flower formation is controlled by meristem identity genes, one of which, FLORICAULA (FLO/LEAFY (LFY, plays a central role. It is not known if the formation of reproductive organs of pre-angiosperm species is similarly regulated. Here, we report the cloning of a conifer (Pinus caribaea var. caribaea FLO/LFY homolog, named PcLFY. This gene has a large C-terminal region of high similarity to angiosperm FLO/LFY orthologs and shorter regions of local similarity. In contrast to angiosperms, conifers have two divergent genes resembling LFY. Gymnosperm FLO/LFY proteins constitute a separate clade, that can be divided into two divergent groups. Phylogenetic analysis of deduced protein sequences has shown that PcLFY belongs to the LFY-like clade. Northern hybridization analysis has revealed that PcLFY is preferentially expressed in developing female cones but not in developing male cones. This expression pattern was confirmed by in situ hybridization and is consistent with the hypothesis of PcLFY being involved in the determination of the female cone identity. Additionally, mutant complementation experiments have shown that the expression of the PcLFY coding region, driven by the Arabidopsis LFY promoter, can confer the wild-type phenotype to lfy-26 transgenic mutants, suggesting that both gymnosperm and angiosperm LFY homologs share the same biological role.

  2. Mod two homology and cohomology

    CERN Document Server

    Hausmann, Jean-Claude

    2014-01-01

    Cohomology and homology modulo 2 helps the reader grasp more readily the basics of a major tool in algebraic topology. Compared to a more general approach to (co)homology this refreshing approach has many pedagogical advantages: It leads more quickly to the essentials of the subject, An absence of signs and orientation considerations simplifies the theory, Computations and advanced applications can be presented at an earlier stage, Simple geometrical interpretations of (co)chains. Mod 2 (co)homology was developed in the first quarter of the twentieth century as an alternative to integral homology, before both became particular cases of (co)homology with arbitrary coefficients. The first chapters of this book may serve as a basis for a graduate-level introductory course to (co)homology. Simplicial and singular mod 2 (co)homology are introduced, with their products and Steenrod squares, as well as equivariant cohomology. Classical applications include Brouwer's fixed point theorem, Poincaré duality, Borsuk-Ula...

  3. Compositional Homology and Creative Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Tedesco

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The concept of homology is the most solid theoretical basis elaborated by the morphological thinking during its history. The enucleation of some general criteria for the interpretation of homology is today a fundamental tool for life sciences, and for restoring their own opening to the question of qualitative innovation that arose so powerfully in the original Darwinian project. The aim of this paper is to verify the possible uses of the concept of compositional homology in order to provide of an adequate understanding of the dynamics of creative thinking.

  4. Stop and Paint the Flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Shelley

    2002-01-01

    Describes an art lesson where students used watercolors to paint a flower bouquet arranged in a vase. Explains that the students viewed examples of flower bouquets by artists such as Vincent van Gogh and Odilon Redon. Discusses, in detail, the process of creating the artworks. (CMK)

  5. A natural frameshift mutation in Campanula EIL2 correlates with ethylene insensitivity in flowers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Line; Hegelund, Josefine Nymark; Olsen, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The phytohormone ethylene plays a central role in development and senescence of climacteric flowers. In ornamental plant production, ethylene sensitive plants are usually protected against negative effects of ethylene by application of chemical inhibitors. In Campanula, flowers...... are sensitive to even minute concentrations of ethylene. RESULTS: Monitoring flower longevity in three Campanula species revealed C. portenschlagiana (Cp) as ethylene sensitive, C. formanekiana (Cf) with intermediate sensitivity and C. medium (Cm) as ethylene insensitive. We identified key elements in ethylene...... signal transduction, specifically in Ethylene Response Sensor 2 (ERS2), Constitutive Triple Response 1 (CTR1) and Ethylene Insensitive 3- Like 1 and 2 (EIL1 and EIL2) homologous. Transcripts of ERS2, CTR1 and EIL1 were constitutively expressed in all species both throughout flower development...

  6. Flowering time regulation in crops—what did we learn from Arabidopsis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blümel, Martina; Dally, Nadine; Jung, Christian

    2015-04-01

    The change from vegetative to reproductive growth is a key developmental switch in flowering plants. In agriculture, flowering is a prerequisite for crop production whenever seeds or fruits are harvested. An intricate network with various (epi-) genetic regulators responding to environmental and endogenous triggers controls the timely onset of flowering. Changes in the expression of a single flowering time (FTi) regulator can suffice to drastically alter FTi. FTi regulation is of utmost importance for genetic improvement of crops. We summarize recent discoveries on FTi regulators in crop species emphasizing crop-specific genes lacking homologs in Arabidopsis thaliana. We highlight pleiotropic effects on agronomically important characters, impact on adaptation to new geographical/climate conditions and future perspectives for crop improvement. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The structure of flower visitation webs : how morphology and abundance affect interaction patterns between flowers and flower visitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stang, Martina

    2007-01-01

    Interaction patterns between plants and flower visitors in a Mediterranean flower visitation web can be explained surprisingly well by the combination of two simple mechanisms. Firstly, the size threshold that the nectar tube depth of flowers puts on the tongue length of potential flower visitors;

  8. Say it with flowers: Flowering acceleration by root communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falik, Omer; Hoffmann, Ishay; Novoplansky, Ariel

    2014-01-01

    The timing of reproduction is a critical determinant of fitness, especially in organisms inhabiting seasonal environments. Increasing evidence suggests that inter-plant communication plays important roles in plant functioning. Here, we tested the hypothesis that flowering coordination can involve communication between neighboring plants. We show that soil leachates from Brassica rapa plants growing under long-day conditions accelerated flowering and decreased allocation to vegetative organs in target plants growing under non-inductive short-day conditions. The results suggest that besides endogenous signaling and external abiotic cues, flowering timing may involve inter-plant communication, mediated by root exudates. The study of flowering communication is expected to illuminate neglected aspects of plant reproductive interactions and to provide novel opportunities for controlling the timing of plant reproduction in agricultural settings.

  9. Say it with flowers: Flowering acceleration by root communication

    OpenAIRE

    Falik, Omer; Hoffmann, Ishay; Novoplansky, Ariel

    2014-01-01

    The timing of reproduction is a critical determinant of fitness, especially in organisms inhabiting seasonal environments. Increasing evidence suggests that inter-plant communication plays important roles in plant functioning. Here, we tested the hypothesis that flowering coordination can involve communication between neighboring plants. We show that soil leachates from Brassica rapa plants growing under long-day conditions accelerated flowering and decreased allocation to vegetative organs i...

  10. Persistent homology of complex networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horak, Danijela; Maletić, Slobodan; Rajković, Milan

    2009-01-01

    Long-lived topological features are distinguished from short-lived ones (considered as topological noise) in simplicial complexes constructed from complex networks. A new topological invariant, persistent homology, is determined and presented as a parameterized version of a Betti number. Complex networks with distinct degree distributions exhibit distinct persistent topological features. Persistent topological attributes, shown to be related to the robust quality of networks, also reflect the deficiency in certain connectivity properties of networks. Random networks, networks with exponential connectivity distribution and scale-free networks were considered for homological persistency analysis

  11. Wheat TILLING mutants show that the vernalization gene VRN1 down-regulates the flowering repressor VRN2 in leaves but is not essential for flowering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Chen

    Full Text Available Most of the natural variation in wheat vernalization response is determined by allelic differences in the MADS-box transcription factor VERNALIZATION1 (VRN1. Extended exposures to low temperatures during the winter (vernalization induce VRN1 expression and promote the transition of the apical meristem to the reproductive phase. In contrast to its Arabidopsis homolog (APETALA1, which is mainly expressed in the apical meristem, VRN1 is also expressed at high levels in the leaves, but its function in this tissue is not well understood. Using tetraploid wheat lines with truncation mutations in the two homoeologous copies of VRN1 (henceforth vrn1-null mutants, we demonstrate that a central role of VRN1 in the leaves is to maintain low transcript levels of the VRN2 flowering repressor after vernalization. Transcript levels of VRN2 were gradually down-regulated during vernalization in both mutant and wild-type genotypes, but were up-regulated after vernalization only in the vrn1-null mutants. The up-regulation of VRN2 delayed flowering by repressing the transcription of FT, a flowering-integrator gene that encodes a mobile protein that is transported from the leaves to the apical meristem to induce flowering. The role of VRN2 in the delayed flowering of the vrn1-null mutant was confirmed using double vrn1-vrn2-null mutants, which flowered two months earlier than the vrn1-null mutants. Both mutants produced normal flowers and seeds demonstrating that VRN1 is not essential for wheat flowering, which contradicts current flowering models. This result does not diminish the importance of VRN1 in the seasonal regulation of wheat flowering. The up-regulation of VRN1 during winter is required to maintain low transcript levels of VRN2, accelerate the induction of FT in the leaves, and regulate a timely flowering in the spring. Our results also demonstrate the existence of redundant wheat flowering genes that may provide new targets for engineering wheat

  12. Ectopic expression of Jatropha curcas APETALA1 (JcAP1) caused early flowering in Arabidopsis, but not in Jatropha

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Mingyong; Tao, Yan-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Jatropha curcas is a promising feedstock for biofuel production because Jatropha oil is highly suitable for the production of biodiesel and bio-jet fuels. However, Jatropha exhibits a low seed yield as a result of unreliable and poor flowering. APETALA1 (AP1) is a floral meristem and organ identity gene in higher plants. The flower meristem identity genes of Jatropha have not yet been identified or characterized. To better understand the genetic control of flowering in Jatropha, an AP1 homolog (JcAP1) was isolated from Jatropha. An amino acid sequence analysis of JcAP1 revealed a high similarity to the AP1 proteins of other perennial plants. JcAP1 was expressed in inflorescence buds, flower buds, sepals and petals. The highest expression level was observed during the early developmental stage of the flower buds. The overexpression of JcAP1 using the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter resulted in extremely early flowering and abnormal flowers in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. Several flowering genes downstream of AP1 were up-regulated in the JcAP1-overexpressing transgenic plant lines. Furthermore, JcAP1 overexpression rescued the phenotype caused by the Arabidopsis AP1 loss-of-function mutant ap1-11. Therefore, JcAP1 is an ortholog of AtAP1, which plays a similar role in the regulation of flowering in Arabidopsis. However, the overexpression of JcAP1 in Jatropha using the same promoter resulted in little variation in the flowering time and floral organs, indicating that JcAP1 may be insufficient to regulate flowering by itself in Jatropha. This study helps to elucidate the function of JcAP1 and contributes to the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of flower development in Jatropha. PMID:27168978

  13. QTL-seq for rapid identification of candidate genes for flowering time in broccoli × cabbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Jinshuai; Liu, Yumei; Zhang, Lili; Li, Zhansheng; Fang, Zhiyuan; Yang, Limei; Zhuang, Mu; Zhang, Yangyong; Lv, Honghao

    2018-04-01

    A major QTL controlling early flowering in broccoli × cabbage was identified by marker analysis and next-generation sequencing, corresponding to GRF6 gene conditioning flowering time in Arabidopsis. Flowering is an important agronomic trait for hybrid production in broccoli and cabbage, but the genetic mechanism underlying this process is unknown. In this study, segregation analysis with BC 1 P1, BC 1 P2, F 2 , and F 2:3 populations derived from a cross between two inbred lines "195" (late-flowering) and "93219" (early flowering) suggested that flowering time is a quantitative trait. Next, employing a next-generation sequencing-based whole-genome QTL-seq strategy, we identified a major genomic region harboring a robust flowering time QTL using an F 2 mapping population, designated Ef2.1 on cabbage chromosome 2 for early flowering. Ef2.1 was further validated by indel (insertion or deletion) marker-based classical QTL mapping, explaining 51.5% (LOD = 37.67) and 54.0% (LOD = 40.5) of the phenotypic variation in F 2 and F 2:3 populations, respectively. Combined QTL-seq and classical QTL analysis narrowed down Ef1.1 to a 228-kb genomic region containing 29 genes. A cabbage gene, Bol024659, was identified in this region, which is a homolog of GRF6, a major gene regulating flowering in Arabidopsis, and was designated BolGRF6. qRT-PCR study of the expression level of BolGRF6 revealed significantly higher expression in the early flowering genotypes. Taken together, our results provide support for BolGRF6 as a possible candidate gene for early flowering in the broccoli line 93219. The identified candidate genomic regions and genes may be useful for molecular breeding to improve broccoli and cabbage flowering times.

  14. Ectopic expression of Jatropha curcas APETALA1 (JcAP1 caused early flowering in Arabidopsis, but not in Jatropha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingyong Tang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Jatropha curcas is a promising feedstock for biofuel production because Jatropha oil is highly suitable for the production of biodiesel and bio-jet fuels. However, Jatropha exhibits a low seed yield as a result of unreliable and poor flowering. APETALA1 (AP1 is a floral meristem and organ identity gene in higher plants. The flower meristem identity genes of Jatropha have not yet been identified or characterized. To better understand the genetic control of flowering in Jatropha, an AP1 homolog (JcAP1 was isolated from Jatropha. An amino acid sequence analysis of JcAP1 revealed a high similarity to the AP1 proteins of other perennial plants. JcAP1 was expressed in inflorescence buds, flower buds, sepals and petals. The highest expression level was observed during the early developmental stage of the flower buds. The overexpression of JcAP1 using the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV 35S promoter resulted in extremely early flowering and abnormal flowers in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. Several flowering genes downstream of AP1 were up-regulated in the JcAP1-overexpressing transgenic plant lines. Furthermore, JcAP1 overexpression rescued the phenotype caused by the Arabidopsis AP1 loss-of-function mutant ap1-11. Therefore, JcAP1 is an ortholog of AtAP1, which plays a similar role in the regulation of flowering in Arabidopsis. However, the overexpression of JcAP1 in Jatropha using the same promoter resulted in little variation in the flowering time and floral organs, indicating that JcAP1 may be insufficient to regulate flowering by itself in Jatropha. This study helps to elucidate the function of JcAP1 and contributes to the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of flower development in Jatropha.

  15. Quantifying floral shape variation in 3D using microcomputed tomography: a case study of a hybrid line between actinomorphic and zygomorphic flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chun-Neng; Hsu, Hao-Chun; Wang, Cheng-Chun; Lee, Tzu-Kuei; Kuo, Yan-Fu

    2015-01-01

    The quantification of floral shape variations is difficult because flower structures are both diverse and complex. Traditionally, floral shape variations are quantified using the qualitative and linear measurements of two-dimensional (2D) images. The 2D images cannot adequately describe flower structures, and thus lead to unsatisfactory discrimination of the flower shape. This study aimed to acquire three-dimensional (3D) images by using microcomputed tomography (μCT) and to examine the floral shape variations by using geometric morphometrics (GM). To demonstrate the advantages of the 3D-μCT-GM approach, we applied the approach to a second-generation population of florist's gloxinia (Sinningia speciosa) crossed from parents of zygomorphic and actinomorphic flowers. The flowers in the population considerably vary in size and shape, thereby served as good materials to test the applicability of the proposed phenotyping approach. Procedures were developed to acquire 3D volumetric flower images using a μCT scanner, to segment the flower regions from the background, and to select homologous characteristic points (i.e., landmarks) from the flower images for the subsequent GM analysis. The procedures identified 95 landmarks for each flower and thus improved the capability of describing and illustrating the flower shapes, compared with typically lower number of landmarks in 2D analyses. The GM analysis demonstrated that flower opening and dorsoventral symmetry were the principal shape variations of the flowers. The degrees of flower opening and corolla asymmetry were then subsequently quantified directly from the 3D flower images. The 3D-μCT-GM approach revealed shape variations that could not be identified using typical 2D approaches and accurately quantified the flower traits that presented a challenge in 2D images. The approach opens new avenues to investigate floral shape variations.

  16. Quantifying floral shape variation in 3D using microcomputed tomography: a case study of a hybrid line between actinomorphic and zygomorphic flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Neng eWang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The quantification of floral shape variations is difficult because flower structures are both diverse and complex. Traditionally, floral shape variations are quantified using the qualitative and linear measurements of two-dimensional (2D images. The 2D images cannot adequately describe flower structures, and thus lead to unsatisfactory discrimination of the flower shape. This study aimed to acquire three-dimensional (3D images by using microcomputed tomography (μCT and to examine the floral shape variations by using geometric morphometrics (GM. To demonstrate the advantages of the 3D-µCT-GM approach, we applied the approach to a second-generation population of florist’s gloxinia (Sinningia speciosa crossed from parents of zygomorphic and actinomorphic flowers. The flowers in the population considerably vary in size and shape, thereby served as good materials to test the applicability of the proposed phenotyping approach. Procedures were developed to acquire 3D volumetric flower images using a μCT scanner, to segment the flower regions from the background, and to select homologous characteristic points (i.e., landmarks from the flower images for the subsequent GM analysis. The procedures identified 95 landmarks for each flower and thus improved the capability of describing and illustrating the flower shapes, compared with typically lower number of landmarks in 2D analyses. The GM analysis demonstrated that flower opening and dorsoventral symmetry were the principal shape variations of the flowers. The degrees of flower opening and corolla asymmetry were then subsequently quantified directly from the 3D flower images. The 3D-µCT-GM approach revealed shape variations that could not be identified using typical 2D approaches and accurately quantified the flower traits that presented a challenge in 2D images. The approach opens new avenues to investigate floral shape variations.

  17. Overexpression of fatty acid amide hydrolase induces early flowering in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neal D. Teaster

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available N-Acylethanolamines (NAEs are bioactive lipids derived from the hydrolysis of the membrane phospholipid N-acylphosphatidylethanolamine (NAPE. In animal systems this reaction is part of the endocannabinoid signaling pathway, which regulates a variety of physiological processes. The signaling function of NAE is terminated by fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH, which hydrolyzes NAE to ethanolamine and free fatty acid. Our previous work in Arabidopsis thaliana showed that overexpression of AtFAAH (At5g64440 lowered endogenous levels of NAEs in seeds, consistent with its role in NAE signal termination. Reduced NAE levels were accompanied by an accelerated growth phenotype, increased sensitivity to abscisic acid (ABA, enhanced susceptibility to bacterial pathogens, and early flowering. Here we investigated the nature of the early flowering phenotype of AtFAAH overexpression. AtFAAH overexpressors flowered several days earlier than wild type and AtFAAH knockouts under both non-inductive short day (SD and inductive long day (LD conditions. Microarray analysis revealed that the FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT gene, which plays a major role in regulating flowering time, and one target MADS box transcription factor, SEPATALLA3 (SEP3, were elevated in AtFAAH overexpressors. Furthermore, AtFAAH overexpressors, with the early flowering phenotype had lower endogenous NAE levels in leaves compared to wild type prior to flowering. Exogenous application of NAE 12:0, which was reduced by up to 30% in AtFAAH overexpressors, delayed the onset of flowering in wild type plants. We conclude that the early flowering phenotype of AtFAAH overexpressors is, in part, explained by elevated FT gene expression resulting from the enhanced NAE hydrolase activity of AtFAAH, suggesting that NAE metabolism may participate in floral signaling pathways.

  18. Homological stability of diffeomorphism groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berglund, Alexander; Madsen, Ib Henning

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we prove a stability theorem for block diffeomorphisms of 2d -dimensional manifolds that are connected sums of S d ×S d . Combining this with a recent theorem of S. Galatius and O. Randal-Williams and Morlet’s lemma of disjunction, we determine the homology of the classifying space ...

  19. Terminal Ballistics

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenberg, Zvi

    2012-01-01

    This book covers the important issues of terminal ballistics in a comprehensive way combining experimental data, numerical simulations and analytical modeling. The first chapter reviews the experimental equipment which are used for ballistic tests and the diagnostics for material characterization under impulsive loading conditions. The second chapter covers essential features of the codes which are used for terminal ballistics such as the Euler vs. Lagrange schemes and meshing techniques, as well as the most popular material models. The third chapter, devoted to the penetration mechanics of rigid penetrators, brings the update of modeling in this field. The fourth chapter deals with plate perforation and the fifth chapter deals with the penetration mechanics of shaped charge jets and eroding long rods. The last two chapters discuss several techniques for the disruption and defeating of the main threats in armor design. Throughout the book the authors demonstrate the advantages of numerical simulations in unde...

  20. Terminal structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Frank [Langenhagen, DE; Allais, Arnaud [Hannover, DE; Mirebeau, Pierre [Villebon sur Yvette, FR; Ganhungu, Francois [Vieux-Reng, FR; Lallouet, Nicolas [Saint Martin Boulogne, FR

    2009-10-20

    A terminal structure (2) for a superconducting cable (1) is described. It consists of a conductor (2a) and an insulator (2b) that surrounds the conductor (2a), wherein the superconducting cable (1) has a core with a superconducting conductor (5) and a layer of insulation that surrounds the conductor (5), and wherein the core is arranged in such a way that it can move longitudinally in a cryostat. The conductor (2a) of the terminal structure (2) is electrically connected with the superconducting conductor (5) or with a normal conductor (6) that is connected with the superconducting conductor (5) by means of a tubular part (7) made of an electrically conductive material, wherein the superconducting conductor (5) or the normal conductor (6) can slide in the part (7) in the direction of the superconductor.

  1. Termination unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traeholt, Chresten; Willen, Dag; Roden, Mark; Tolbert, Jerry C.; Lindsay, David; Fisher, Paul W.; Nielsen, Carsten Thidemann

    2016-05-03

    Cable end section comprises end-parts of N electrical phases/neutral, and a thermally-insulation envelope comprising cooling fluid. The end-parts each comprises a conductor and are arranged with phase 1 innermost, N outermost surrounded by the neutral, electrical insulation being between phases and N and neutral. The end-parts comprise contacting surfaces located sequentially along the longitudinal extension of the end-section. A termination unit has an insulating envelope connected to a cryostat, special parts at both ends comprising an adapter piece at the cable interface and a closing end-piece terminating the envelope in the end-section. The special parts houses an inlet and/or outlet for cooling fluid. The space between an inner wall of the envelope and a central opening of the cable is filled with cooling fluid. The special part at the end connecting to the cryostat houses an inlet or outlet, splitting cooling flow into cable annular flow and termination annular flow.

  2. Silencing Nicotiana attenuata LHY and ZTL alters circadian rhythms in flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yon, Felipe; Joo, Youngsung; Cortés Llorca, Lucas; Rothe, Eva; Baldwin, Ian T; Kim, Sang-Gyu

    2016-02-01

    The rhythmic opening/closing and volatile emissions of flowers are known to attract pollinators at specific times. That these rhythms are maintained under constant light or dark conditions suggests a circadian clock involvement. Although a forward and reverse genetic approach has led to the identification of core circadian clock components in Arabidopsis thaliana, the involvement of these clock components in floral rhythms has remained untested, probably because of the weak diurnal rhythms in A. thaliana flowers. Here, we addressed the role of these core clock components in the flowers of the wild tobacco Nicotiana attenuata, whose flowers open at night, emit benzyl acetone (BA) scents and move vertically through a 140° arc. We first measured N. attenuata floral rhythms under constant light conditions. The results suggest that the circadian clock controls flower opening, BA emission and pedicel movement, but not flower closing. We generated transgenic N. attenuata lines silenced in the homologous genes of Arabidopsis LATE ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL (LHY) and ZEITLUPE (ZTL), which are known to be core clock components. Silencing NaLHY and NaZTL strongly altered floral rhythms in different ways, indicating that conserved clock components in N. attenuata coordinate these floral rhythms. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  3. Tolerance of edible flowers to gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koike, Amanda C.R.; Araujo, Michel M.; Costa, Helbert S.F.; Almeida, Mariana C.; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C.H., E-mail: ackoike@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP) Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    People have been eating flowers and using them in culinary creations for hundreds of years. Edible flowers are increasingly being used in meals as an ingredient in salads or garnish, entrees, drinks and desserts. The irradiation process is an alternative method that can be used in disinfestation of food and flowers, using doses that do not damage the product. The sensitivity of flowers to irradiation varies from species to species. In the present research was irradiated with doses up to 1 kGy some edible flowers to examine their physical tolerance to gamma-rays. Furthermore, high doses gamma irradiation causes petal withering, browning process and injury in edible flowers. (author)

  4. Tolerance of edible flowers to gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koike, Amanda C.R.; Araujo, Michel M.; Costa, Helbert S.F.; Almeida, Mariana C.; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C.H.

    2011-01-01

    People have been eating flowers and using them in culinary creations for hundreds of years. Edible flowers are increasingly being used in meals as an ingredient in salads or garnish, entrees, drinks and desserts. The irradiation process is an alternative method that can be used in disinfestation of food and flowers, using doses that do not damage the product. The sensitivity of flowers to irradiation varies from species to species. In the present research was irradiated with doses up to 1 kGy some edible flowers to examine their physical tolerance to gamma-rays. Furthermore, high doses gamma irradiation causes petal withering, browning process and injury in edible flowers. (author)

  5. Homological algebra in -abelian categories

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Deren Luo

    2017-08-16

    Aug 16, 2017 ... Homological algebra in n-abelian categories. 627. We recall the Comparison lemma, together with its dual, plays a central role in the sequel. Lemma 2.1 [13, Comparison lemma 2.1]. Let C be an additive category and X ∈ Ch. ≥0(C) a complex such that for all k ≥ 0the morphism dk+1. X is a weak cokernel ...

  6. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of black cherry for flowering control and insect resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying Wang; Paula M. Pijut

    2014-01-01

    Black cherry is one of the most valuable hardwood species for cabinetry, furniture, and veneer. The goal of this study was to develop transgenic black cherry plants with reproductive sterility and enhanced insect resistance. Black cherry TERMINAL FLOWER 1 (PsTFL1) was overexpressed under the control of the CaMV 35S promoter in black cherry via

  7. Flowers and Landscape by Serendipity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pippin, Sandi

    2003-01-01

    Describes an art lesson in which students sketch drawings of flowers and use watercolor paper and other materials to paint a landscape. Explains that the students also learn about impressionism in this lesson. Discusses how the students prepare the paper and create their artwork. (CMK)

  8. Thrips (Thysanoptera) of coffee flowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    A survey of thrips (Thysanoptera) associated with coffee flowers was conducted in coffee plantations in Chiapas, Mexico. The main objectives were to identify them and to determine whether they were carrying coffee pollen grains. A total of 40 thrips species in 22 genera were identified. The most com...

  9. Pyrethrum flowers and pyrethroid insecticides.

    OpenAIRE

    Casida, J E

    1980-01-01

    The natural pyrethrins from the daisy-like flower, Tanacetum or Chrysanthemum cinerariifolium, are nonpersistent insecticides of low toxicity to mammals. Synthetic analogs or pyrethroids, evolved from the natural compounds by successive isosteric modifications, are more potent and stable and are the newest important class of crop protection chemicals. They retain many of the favorable properties of the pyrethrins.

  10. Notes on collecting flower-visiting insects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemstein, S.C.

    1974-01-01

    Flower-visiting insects may play a role in the pollination of the flowers they visit. An important indication for this is the pollen they carry on their body. The transport of pollen does not prove pollination without observations of the behaviour of the insects on the flowers, but at least it

  11. The K Domain Mediates Homologous and Heterologous Interactions Between FLC and SVP Proteins of Brassica juncea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Guanpeng

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The transcription factors FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC and SHORT VEGETATIVE PHASE (SVP can interact to form homologous and heterologous protein complexes that regulate flowering time in Brassica juncea Coss. (Mustard.Previous studies showed that protein interactions were mediated by the K domain, which contains the subdomains K1, K2 and K3. However, it remains unknown how the subdomains mediate the interactions between FLC and SVP. In the present study, we constructed several mutants of subdomains K1–K3 and investigated the mechanisms involved in the heterologous interaction of BjFLC/BjSVP and in the homologous interaction of BjFLC/BjFLC or BjSVP/BjSVP. Yeast two-hybrid and β-Galactosidase activity assays showed that the 19 amino acids of the K1 subdomain in BjSVP and the 17 amino acids of the K1 subdomain in BjFLC were functional subdomains that interact with each other to mediate hetero-dimerization. The heterologous interaction was enhanced by the K2 subdomain of BjSVP protein, but weakened by its interhelical domain L2. The heterologous interaction was also enhanced by the K2 subdomain of BjFLC protein, but weakened by its K3 subdomain. The homologous interaction of BjSVP was mediated by the full K-domain. However, the homologous interaction of BjFLC was regulated only by its K1 and weakened by its K2 and K3 subdomains. The results provided new insights into the interactions between FLC and SVP, which will be valuable for further studies on the molecular regulation mechanisms of the regulation of flowering time in B. juncea and other Brassicaceae.

  12. Terminal ballistics

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenberg, Zvi

    2016-01-01

    This book comprehensively discusses essential aspects of terminal ballistics, combining experimental data, numerical simulations and analytical modeling. Employing a unique approach to numerical simulations as a measure of sensitivity for the major physical parameters, the new edition also includes the following features: new figures to better illustrate the problems discussed; improved explanations for the equation of state of a solid and for the cavity expansion process; new data concerning the Kolsky bar test; and a discussion of analytical modeling for the hole diameter in a thin metallic plate impacted by a shaped charge jet. The section on thick concrete targets penetrated by rigid projectiles has now been expanded to include the latest findings, and two new sections have been added: one on a novel approach to the perforation of thin concrete slabs, and one on testing the failure of thin metallic plates using a hydrodynamic ram.

  13. Rational Homological Stability for Automorphisms of Manifolds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grey, Matthias

    In this thesis we prove rational homological stability for the classifying spaces of the homotopy automorphisms and block di↵eomorphisms of iterated connected sums of products of spheres of a certain connectivity.The results in particular apply to the manifolds       Npg,q  = (#g(Sp x Sq)) - int...... with coefficients in the homology of the universal covering, which is studied using rational homology theory. The result for the block di↵eomorphisms is deduced from the homological stability for the homotopy automorphisms upon using Surgery theory. Themain theorems of this thesis extend the homological stability...

  14. Kuranishi homology and Kuranishi cohomology

    OpenAIRE

    Joyce, Dominic

    2007-01-01

    A Kuranishi space is a topological space with a Kuranishi structure, defined by Fukaya and Ono. Kuranishi structures occur naturally on moduli spaces of J-holomorphic curves in symplectic geometry. Let Y be an orbifold and R a commutative ring or Q-algebra. We define two kinds of Kuranishi homology KH_*(Y;R). The chain complex KC_*(Y;R) defining KH_*(Y;R) is spanned over R by [X,f,G], for X a compact oriented Kuranishi space with corners, f : X --> Y smooth, and G "gauge-fixing data" which ma...

  15. Manipulation of flowering time and branching by overexpression of the tomato transcription factor SlZFP2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Lin; Bai, Xiaodong; Zhao, Fangfang; Li, Rong; Xiao, Han

    2016-12-01

    Flowering of higher plants is orchestrated by complex regulatory networks through integration of various environmental signals such as photoperiod, temperature, light quality and developmental cues. In Arabidopsis, transcription of the flowering integrator gene FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) that several flowering pathways converge to is directly regulated by more than ten transcription factors. However, very little is known about the transcriptional regulation of the FT homolog SINGLE FLOWER TRUESS (SFT) in the day-neutral plant tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Previously, we showed that the zinc finger transcription factor SlZFP2 plays important roles in regulation of seed germination and fruit ripening in tomato and also found that overexpression of SlZFP2 impacted flowering and branching. Here, we characterized in detail the early flowering and high branching phenotypes by overexpression of this transcription factor. Our data showed that overexpression of SlZFP2 accelerated flowering in an SFT-dependent manner as demonstrated by elevated SFT expression in the leaves and the transcription factor's binding ability to SFT promoter in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, overexpression of the SlZFP2 gene in the sft plants failed to rescue the mutant's late flowering. Through analysis of grafting phenotype, growth response of branches to auxin application and transcriptome profiling by RNA sequencing, we also showed that overexpression of SlZFP2 affected shoot apical dominance through multiple regulatory pathways. Our results suggest that the transcription factor SlZFP2 has potential applications in genetic modification of plant architecture and flowering time for tomato production and other crops as well. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Isolation and characterization of FLOWERING LOCUS T subforms and APETALA1 of the subtropical fruit tree Dimocarpus longan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterhagen, Patrick; Tiyayon, Pimsiri; Samach, Alon; Hegele, Martin; Wünsche, Jens N

    2013-10-01

    Longan (Dimocarpus longan Lour.) is a subtropical evergreen fruit tree, mainly cultivated in Asia. Two putative floral integrator genes, D. longan FLOWERING LOCUS T1 and 2 (DlFT1 and DlFT2) were isolated and both translated sequences revealed a high homology to FT sequences from other plants. Moreover, two APETALA1-like (DlAP1-1 and DlAP1-2) sequences from longan were isolated and characterized. Results indicate that the sequences of these genes are highly conserved, suggesting functions in the longan flowering pathway. Ectopic expression of the longan genes in arabidopsis resulted in different flowering time phenotypes of transgenic plants. Expression experiments reveal a different action of the longan FT genes and indicate that DlFT1 is a flowering promoter, while DlFT2 acts as flowering inhibitor. Overexpression of longan AP1 genes in transgenic arabidopsis results in a range of flowering time phenotypes also including early and late flowering individuals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Flower morphology of Dendrobium Sonia mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakinah Ariffin; Azhar Mohamad; Affrida Abu Hassan; Zaiton Ahmad; Mohd Nazir Basiran

    2010-01-01

    Dendrobium Sonia is a commercial hybrid which is popular as cut flower and potted plant in Malaysia. Variability in flower is important for new variety to generate more demands and choices in selection. Mutation induction is a tool in creating variability for new flower color and shape. In vitro cultures of protocorm-like bodies (PLBs) were exposed to gamma ray at dose 35 Gy. Phenotypic characteristics of the flower were observed at fully bloomed flower with emphasis on shape and color. Approximately 2000 regenerated irradiated plants were observed and after subsequent flowering, 100 plants were finally selected for further evaluation. Most of the color and shape changes are expressed in different combinations of petal, sepal and lip of the flower. In this work, 11 stable mutants were found different at flower phenotype as compared to control. Amongst these, four mutant varieties with commercial potential has been named as Dendrobium 'SoniaKeenaOval', Dendrobium 'SoniaKeenaRadiant', Dendrobium 'SoniaKeenaHiengDing' and Dendrobium 'Sonia KeenaAhmadSobri'. In this paper, variations in flower morphology and flower color were discussed, giving emphasis on variations in flower petal shape. (author)

  18. Termination unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traeholt, Chresten [Frederiksberg, DK; Willen, Dag [Klagshamn, SE; Roden, Mark [Newnan, GA; Tolbert, Jerry C [Carrollton, GA; Lindsay, David [Carrollton, GA; Fisher, Paul W [Heiskell, TN; Nielsen, Carsten Thidemann [Jaegerspris, DK

    2014-01-07

    This invention relates to a termination unit comprising an end-section of a cable. The end section of the cable defines a central longitudinal axis and comprising end-parts of N electrical phases, an end-part of a neutral conductor and a surrounding thermally insulation envelope adapted to comprising a cooling fluid. The end-parts of the N electrical phases and the end-part of the neutral conductor each comprising at least one electrical conductor and being arranged in the cable concentrically around a core former with a phase 1 located relatively innermost, and phase N relatively outermost in the cable, phase N being surrounded by the neutral conductor, electrical insulation being arrange between neighboring electrical phases and between phase N and the neutral conductor, and wherein the end-parts of the neutral conductor and the electrical phases each comprise a contacting surface electrically connected to at least one branch current lead to provide an electrical connection: The contacting surfaces each having a longitudinal extension, and being located sequentially along the longitudinal extension of the end-section of the cable. The branch current leads being individually insulated from said thermally insulation envelope by individual electrical insulators.

  19. Early Flowering as a Drought Escape Mechanism in Plants: How Can It Aid Wheat Production?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Shavrukov

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Drought escape (DE is a classical adaptive mechanism which involves rapid plant development to enable the completion of the full life-cycle prior to a coming drought event. This strategy is widely used in populations of native plants, and is also applicable to cereal crops such as wheat. Early flowering time and a shorter vegetative phase can be very important for wheat production in conditions of terminal drought since this can minimize exposure to dehydration during the sensitive flowering and post-anthesis grain filling periods. A gradual shift toward early flowering has been observed over the last century of wheat breeding in countries with a Mediterranean-type climate and frequent terminal drought. This trend is predicted to continue for wheat production in the coming years in response to global climate warming. The advantage of early flowering wheat is apparent under conditions of impending terminal drought, and modern varieties are significantly more productive due to minimization of the risk associated with drought stress. Under favorable conditions, a short vegetative phase can result in reduced plant biomass due to the reduction in time available for photosynthetic production and seed nutrient accumulation. However, high yield potential has been reported for the development of both shallow and deep roots, representing plasticity in response to drought in combination with the early flowering trait. Wheat productivity can be high both in well-watered and drought-affected field trials, where an efficient strategy of DE was associated with quick growth, yield potential and water use efficiency. Therefore, early flowering provides a promising strategy for the production of advanced drought-adapted wheat cultivars.

  20. [Sequence analysis of LEAFY homologous gene from Dendrobium moniliforme and application for identification of medicinal Dendrobium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Wen-Rui; Hou, Bei-Wei; Guan, Jing-Jiao; Luo, Jing; Ding, Xiao-Yu

    2013-04-01

    The LEAFY (LFY) homologous gene of Dendrobium moniliforme (L.) Sw. was cloned by new primers which were designed based on the conservative region of known sequences of orchid LEAFY gene. Partial LFY homologous gene was cloned by common PCR, then we got the complete LFY homologous gene Den LFY by Tail-PCR. The complete sequence of DenLFY gene was 3 575 bp which contained three exons and two introns. Using BLAST method, comparison analysis among the exon of LFY homologous gene indicted that the DenLFY gene had high identity with orchids LFY homologous, including the related fragment of PhalLFY (84%) in Phalaenopsis hybrid cultivar, LFY homologous gene in Oncidium (90%) and in other orchid (over 80%). Using MP analysis, Dendrobium is found to be the sister to Oncidium and Phalaenopsis. Homologous analysis demonstrated that the C-terminal amino acids were highly conserved. When the exons and introns were separately considered, exons and the sequence of amino acid were good markers for the function research of DenLFY gene. The second intron can be used in authentication research of Dendrobium based on the length polymorphism between Dendrobium moniliforme and Dendrobium officinale.

  1. Effects of flowering phenology and synchrony on the reproductive success of a long-flowering shrub

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Pérez, Javier; Traveset, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Flowering phenology and synchrony with biotic and abiotic resources are crucial traits determining the reproductive success in insect-pollinated plants. In seasonal climates, plants flowering for long periods should assure reproductive success when resources are more predictable. In this work, we evaluated the relationship between flowering phenology and synchrony and reproductive success in Hypericum balearicum, a shrub flowering all year round but mainly during spring and summer. We studied two contrasting localities (differing mostly in rainfall) during 3 years, and at different biological scales spanning from localities to individual flowers and fruits. We first monitored (monthly) flowering phenology and reproductive success (fruit and seed set) of plants, and assessed whether in the locality with higher rainfall plants had longer flowering phenology and synchrony and relatively higher reproductive success within or outside the flowering peak. Secondly, we censused pollinators on H. balearicum individuals and measured reproductive success along the flowering peak of each locality to test for an association between (i) richness and abundance of pollinators and (ii) fruit and seed set, and seed weight. We found that most flowers (∼90 %) and the highest fruit set (∼70 %) were produced during the flowering peak of each locality. Contrary to expectations, plants in the locality with lower rainfall showed more relaxed flowering phenology and synchrony and set more fruits outside the flowering peak. During the flowering peak of each locality, the reproductive success of early-flowering individuals depended on a combination of both pollinator richness and abundance and rainfall; by contrast, reproductive success of late-flowering individuals was most dependent on rainfall. Plant species flowering for long periods in seasonal climates, thus, appear to be ideal organisms to understand how flowering phenology and synchrony match with biotic and abiotic resources, and

  2. Efikasi Chitosan untuk Memperpanjang Flower Longevity Bunga Anggrek Dendrobium Hibrida dalam Pot (Potted Flower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I MADE SUKEWIJAYA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Effication of Chitosan on Lengthening The Flower Longevity of Potted Orchid ofDendrobium Hybrid. The aim of the current research is to investigate general effects of Chitosantreatment on the flowering of Dendrobium orchid and to find out the optimum concentration of Chitosanin lengthening flower longevity of potted orchid of Dendrobium hybrid. Results of the research showedthat Chitosan application significantly affected variables of the number of flower per-plant, the length ofindividual flower, period of time to get full blooming, and the flower longevity. The best results for thoseof variables was achieved with Chitosan concentration of 0.15%.

  3. Persistent homology and string vacua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cirafici, Michele [Center for Mathematical Analysis, Geometry and Dynamical Systems,Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa,Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Institut des Hautes Études Scientifiques,Le Bois-Marie, 35 route de Chartres, F-91440 Bures-sur-Yvette (France)

    2016-03-08

    We use methods from topological data analysis to study the topological features of certain distributions of string vacua. Topological data analysis is a multi-scale approach used to analyze the topological features of a dataset by identifying which homological characteristics persist over a long range of scales. We apply these techniques in several contexts. We analyze N=2 vacua by focusing on certain distributions of Calabi-Yau varieties and Landau-Ginzburg models. We then turn to flux compactifications and discuss how we can use topological data analysis to extract physical information. Finally we apply these techniques to certain phenomenologically realistic heterotic models. We discuss the possibility of characterizing string vacua using the topological properties of their distributions.

  4. Equivariant ordinary homology and cohomology

    CERN Document Server

    Costenoble, Steven R

    2016-01-01

    Filling a gap in the literature, this book takes the reader to the frontiers of equivariant topology, the study of objects with specified symmetries. The discussion is motivated by reference to a list of instructive “toy” examples and calculations in what is a relatively unexplored field. The authors also provide a reading path for the first-time reader less interested in working through sophisticated machinery but still desiring a rigorous understanding of the main concepts. The subject’s classical counterparts, ordinary homology and cohomology, dating back to the work of Henri Poincaré in topology, are calculational and theoretical tools which are important in many parts of mathematics and theoretical physics, particularly in the study of manifolds. Similarly powerful tools have been lacking, however, in the context of equivariant topology. Aimed at advanced graduate students and researchers in algebraic topology and related fields, the book assumes knowledge of basic algebraic topology and group act...

  5. Flowers and Wild Megachilid Bees Share Microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFrederick, Quinn S; Thomas, Jason M; Neff, John L; Vuong, Hoang Q; Russell, Kaleigh A; Hale, Amanda R; Mueller, Ulrich G

    2017-01-01

    Transmission pathways have fundamental influence on microbial symbiont persistence and evolution. For example, the core gut microbiome of honey bees is transmitted socially and via hive surfaces, but some non-core bacteria associated with honey bees are also found on flowers, and these bacteria may therefore be transmitted indirectly between bees via flowers. Here, we test whether multiple flower and wild megachilid bee species share microbes, which would suggest that flowers may act as hubs of microbial transmission. We sampled the microbiomes of flowers (either bagged to exclude bees or open to allow bee visitation), adults, and larvae of seven megachilid bee species and their pollen provisions. We found a Lactobacillus operational taxonomic unit (OTU) in all samples but in the highest relative and absolute abundances in adult and larval bee guts and pollen provisions. The presence of the same bacterial types in open and bagged flowers, pollen provisions, and bees supports the hypothesis that flowers act as hubs of transmission of these bacteria between bees. The presence of bee-associated bacteria in flowers that have not been visited by bees suggests that these bacteria may also be transmitted to flowers via plant surfaces, the air, or minute insect vectors such as thrips. Phylogenetic analyses of nearly full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the Lactobacillus OTU dominating in flower- and megachilid-associated microbiomes is monophyletic, and we propose the name Lactobacillus micheneri sp. nov. for this bacterium.

  6. Homology in Electromagnetic Boundary Value Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pellikka Matti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We discuss how homology computation can be exploited in computational electromagnetism. We represent various cellular mesh reduction techniques, which enable the computation of generators of homology spaces in an acceptable time. Furthermore, we show how the generators can be used for setting up and analysis of an electromagnetic boundary value problem. The aim is to provide a rationale for homology computation in electromagnetic modeling software.

  7. Flower, fruit phenology and flower traits in Cordia boissieri (Boraginaceae from northeastern Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Adrian Martínez-Adriano

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We characterized variations in Cordia boissieri flowers and established if these variations occur between plants or between flowering events. Flowering and fruiting was measured for 256 plants. A GLM test was used to determine the relationship between flowering and fruit set processes and rainfall. We performed measurements of floral traits to detect variations within the population and between flowering events. The position of the anthers with respect to the ovary was determined in 1,500 flowers. Three out of four flowering events of >80% C. boissieri plants occurred after rainfall events. Only one flowering event occurred in a drought. Most plants flowered at least twice a year. The overlapping of flowering and fruiting only occurred after rainfall. Anthesis lasted three-to-five days, and there were two flower morphs. Half of the plants had longistylus and half had brevistylus flowers. Anacahuita flower in our study had 1–4 styles; 2–9 stamens; 6.5–41.5 mm long corolla; sepals from 4.5–29.5 mm in length; a total length from 15.5–59 mm; a corolla diameter from 10.5–77 mm. The nectar guide had a diameter from 5–30.5 mm; 4–9 lobes; and 5 distinguishable nectar guide colors. The highest variation of phenotypic expression was observed between plants.

  8. Flower, fruit phenology and flower traits in Cordia boissieri (Boraginaceae) from northeastern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Adriano, Cristian Adrian; Jurado, Enrique; Flores, Joel; González-Rodríguez, Humberto; Cuéllar-Rodríguez, Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    We characterized variations in Cordia boissieri flowers and established if these variations occur between plants or between flowering events. Flowering and fruiting was measured for 256 plants. A GLM test was used to determine the relationship between flowering and fruit set processes and rainfall. We performed measurements of floral traits to detect variations within the population and between flowering events. The position of the anthers with respect to the ovary was determined in 1,500 flowers. Three out of four flowering events of >80% C. boissieri plants occurred after rainfall events. Only one flowering event occurred in a drought. Most plants flowered at least twice a year. The overlapping of flowering and fruiting only occurred after rainfall. Anthesis lasted three-to-five days, and there were two flower morphs. Half of the plants had longistylus and half had brevistylus flowers. Anacahuita flower in our study had 1-4 styles; 2-9 stamens; 6.5-41.5 mm long corolla; sepals from 4.5-29.5 mm in length; a total length from 15.5-59 mm; a corolla diameter from 10.5-77 mm. The nectar guide had a diameter from 5-30.5 mm; 4-9 lobes; and 5 distinguishable nectar guide colors. The highest variation of phenotypic expression was observed between plants.

  9. Molecular and Functional Characterization of Broccoli EMBRYONIC FLOWER 2 Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Long-Fang O.; Lin, Chun-Hung; Lai, Ying-Mi; Huang, Jia-Yuan; Sung, Zinmay Renee

    2012-01-01

    Polycomb group (PcG) proteins regulate major developmental processes in Arabidopsis. EMBRYONIC FLOWER 2 (EMF2), the VEFS domain-containing PcG gene, regulates diverse genetic pathways and is required for vegetative development and plant survival. Despite widespread EMF2-like sequences in plants, little is known about their function other than in Arabidopsis and rice. To study the role of EMF2 in broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica cv. Elegance) development, we identified two broccoli EMF2 (BoEMF2) genes with sequence homology to and a similar gene expression pattern to that in Arabidopsis (AtEMF2). Reducing their expression in broccoli resulted in aberrant phenotypes and gene expression patterns. BoEMF2 regulates genes involved in diverse developmental and stress programs similar to AtEMF2 in Arabidopsis. However, BoEMF2 differs from AtEMF2 in the regulation of flower organ identity, cell proliferation and elongation, and death-related genes, which may explain the distinct phenotypes. The expression of BoEMF2.1 in the Arabidopsis emf2 mutant (Rescued emf2) partially rescued the mutant phenotype and restored the gene expression pattern to that of the wild type. Many EMF2-mediated molecular and developmental functions are conserved in broccoli and Arabidopsis. Furthermore, the restored gene expression pattern in Rescued emf2 provides insights into the molecular basis of PcG-mediated growth and development. PMID:22537758

  10. MAEWEST expression in flower development of two petunia species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segatto, Ana Lúcia A; Turchetto-Zolet, Andreia Carina; Aizza, Lilian Cristina B; Monte-Bello, Carolina C; Dornelas, Marcelo C; Margis, Rogerio; Freitas, Loreta B

    2013-07-03

    Changes in flower morphology may influence the frequency and specificity of animal visitors. In Petunia (Solanaceae), adaptation to different pollinators is one of the factors leading to species diversification within the genus. This study provides evidence that differential expression patterns of MAWEWEST (MAW) homologs in different Petunia species may be associated with adaptive changes in floral morphology. The Petunia × hybrida MAW gene belongs to the WOX (WUSCHEL-related homeobox) transcription factor family and has been identified as a controller of petal fusion during corolla formation. We analyzed the expression patterns of P. inflata and P. axillaris MAW orthologs (PiMAW and PaMAW, respectively) by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) and in situ hybridization in different tissues and different developmental stages of flowers in both species. The spatial expression patterns of PiMAW and PaMAW were similar in P. inflata and P. axillaris. Nevertheless, PaMAW expression level in P. axillaris was higher during the late bud development stage as compared to PiMAW in P. inflata. This work represents an expansion of petunia developmental research to wild accessions.

  11. MAEWEST Expression in Flower Development of Two Petunia Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia A. Segatto

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Changes in flower morphology may influence the frequency and specificity of animal visitors. In Petunia (Solanaceae, adaptation to different pollinators is one of the factors leading to species diversification within the genus. This study provides evidence that differential expression patterns of MAWEWEST (MAW homologs in different Petunia species may be associated with adaptive changes in floral morphology. The Petunia × hybrida MAW gene belongs to the WOX (WUSCHEL-related homeobox transcription factor family and has been identified as a controller of petal fusion during corolla formation. We analyzed the expression patterns of P. inflata and P. axillaris MAW orthologs (PiMAW and PaMAW, respectively by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, reverse transcription–quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR and in situ hybridization in different tissues and different developmental stages of flowers in both species. The spatial expression patterns of PiMAW and PaMAW were similar in P. inflata and P. axillaris. Nevertheless, PaMAW expression level in P. axillaris was higher during the late bud development stage as compared to PiMAW in P. inflata. This work represents an expansion of petunia developmental research to wild accessions.

  12. Zingiber zerumbet flower stem postharvest characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charleston Gonçalves

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available About the Zingiber zerumbet little is known about its cut flower postharvest and market, despite its high ornamental potential. The inflorescences, which resemble a compact cone, emerge from the base of the plants and start with green color changing to red with the age. This study objective was to characterize floral stem of ornamental ginger in two cultivate conditions and to evaluate the longevity of those submitted to post-harvest treatments. Flower stems were harvest from clumps cultivated under full sun and partial shade area, and were submitted to the postharvest treatments: complete flower immersion in tap water (CFI or only the base stem immersion (BSI. The flower stems harvested from clumps at partial shade presented higher fresh weight, length and diameter of the inflorescences compared to flower stems harvested from clumps at full sun area. The flower stem bracts cultivated in full sun area changed the color from green to red 10.69 and 11.94 days after BSI and CFI postharvest treatments, and the vase life were 22.94 and 28.19 days, respectively. Flower stem harvest in partial shade area change the color only after 18.94 and 18.43 days and the vase life durability was 27.56 and 31.81, respectively. The complete immersion of the flower stem increase the vase life durability in 5.25 and 4.25 days compared to flowers kept with the stem base immersed only, in flower stems harvested from clumps cultivated in full sun area and partial shade area, respectively. Flower stems harvested from clumps cultivated in partial shade area and completely immerse in tap water during 3 hours increase the vase life durability in 8.87 days compared to flowers harvested from clumps cultivated in full sun area and base immersed only.

  13. Homotopic Chain Maps Have Equal s-Homology and d-Homology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Z. Kazemi-Baneh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The homotopy of chain maps on preabelian categories is investigated and the equality of standard homologies and d-homologies of homotopic chain maps is established. As a special case, if X and Y are the same homotopy type, then their nth d-homology R-modules are isomorphic, and if X is a contractible space, then its nth d-homology R-modules for n≠0 are trivial.

  14. Relative K-homology and normal operators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manuilov, Vladimir; Thomsen, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    -term exact sequence which generalizes the excision six-term exact sequence in the first variable of KK-theory. Subsequently we investigate the relative K-homology which arises from the group of relative extensions by specializing to abelian $C^*$-algebras. It turns out that this relative K-homology carries...

  15. Functional characterization of PhGR and PhGRL1 during flower senescence in the petunia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Weiyuan; Liu, Juanxu; Tan, Yinyan; Zhong, Shan; Tang, Na; Chen, Guoju; Yu, Yixun

    2015-09-01

    Petunia PhGRL1 suppression accelerated flower senescence and increased the expression of the genes downstream of ethylene signaling, whereas PhGR suppression did not. Ethylene plays an important role in flowers senescence. Homologous proteins Green-Ripe and Reversion to Ethylene sensitivity1 are positive regulators of ethylene responses in tomato and Arabidopsis, respectively. The petunia flower has served as a model for the study of ethylene response during senescence. In this study, petunia PhGR and PhGRL1 expression was analyzed in different organs, throughout floral senescence, and after exogenous ethylene treatment; and the roles of PhGR and PhGRL1 during petunia flower senescence were investigated. PhGRL1 suppression mediated by virus-induced gene silencing accelerated flower senescence and increased ethylene production; however, the suppression of PhGR did not. Taken together, these data suggest that PhGRL1 is involved in negative regulation of flower senescence, possibly via ethylene production inhibition and consequently reduced ethylene signaling activation.

  16. flowers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-06-08

    Jun 8, 2011 ... the formation and asymmetrical collapse of microcavities in the vicinity of cell walls leading to the generation of microjets rupturing the cells in plant. The aim of this paper was to explore the optimum ultrasonic extraction condition of flavonoids and phenolics and provide some theoretical basis for integrative ...

  17. Lectures on homology with internal symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solovyov, Yu.

    1993-09-01

    Homology with internal symmetries is a natural generalization of cyclic homology introduced, independently, by Connes and Tsygan, which has turned out to be a very useful tool in a number of problems of algebra, geometry topology, analysis and mathematical physics. It suffices to say cycling homology and cohomology are successfully applied in the index theory of elliptic operators on foliations, in the description of the homotopy type of pseudoisotopy spaces, in the theory of characteristic classes in algebraic K-theory. They are also applied in noncommutative differential geometry and in the cohomology of Lie algebras, the branches of mathematics which brought them to life in the first place. Essentially, we consider dihedral homology, which was successfully applied for the description of the homology type of groups of homeomorphisms and diffeomorphisms of simply connected manifolds. (author). 27 refs

  18. Comparative Genomic Analysis of Soybean Flowering Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Chol-Hee; Wong, Chui E.; Singh, Mohan B.; Bhalla, Prem L.

    2012-01-01

    Flowering is an important agronomic trait that determines crop yield. Soybean is a major oilseed legume crop used for human and animal feed. Legumes have unique vegetative and floral complexities. Our understanding of the molecular basis of flower initiation and development in legumes is limited. Here, we address this by using a computational approach to examine flowering regulatory genes in the soybean genome in comparison to the most studied model plant, Arabidopsis. For this comparison, a genome-wide analysis of orthologue groups was performed, followed by an in silico gene expression analysis of the identified soybean flowering genes. Phylogenetic analyses of the gene families highlighted the evolutionary relationships among these candidates. Our study identified key flowering genes in soybean and indicates that the vernalisation and the ambient-temperature pathways seem to be the most variant in soybean. A comparison of the orthologue groups containing flowering genes indicated that, on average, each Arabidopsis flowering gene has 2-3 orthologous copies in soybean. Our analysis highlighted that the CDF3, VRN1, SVP, AP3 and PIF3 genes are paralogue-rich genes in soybean. Furthermore, the genome mapping of the soybean flowering genes showed that these genes are scattered randomly across the genome. A paralogue comparison indicated that the soybean genes comprising the largest orthologue group are clustered in a 1.4 Mb region on chromosome 16 of soybean. Furthermore, a comparison with the undomesticated soybean (Glycine soja) revealed that there are hundreds of SNPs that are associated with putative soybean flowering genes and that there are structural variants that may affect the genes of the light-signalling and ambient-temperature pathways in soybean. Our study provides a framework for the soybean flowering pathway and insights into the relationship and evolution of flowering genes between a short-day soybean and the long-day plant, Arabidopsis. PMID:22679494

  19. Fertilization Mechanisms in Flowering Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresselhaus, Thomas; Sprunck, Stefanie; Wessel, Gary M

    2016-02-08

    Compared with the animal kingdom, fertilization is particularly complex in flowering plants (angiosperms). Sperm cells of angiosperms have lost their motility and require transportation as a passive cargo by the pollen tube cell to the egg apparatus (egg cell and accessory synergid cells). Sperm cell release from the pollen tube occurs after intensive communication between the pollen tube cell and the receptive synergid, culminating in the lysis of both interaction partners. Following release of the two sperm cells, they interact and fuse with two dimorphic female gametes (the egg and the central cell) forming the major seed components embryo and endosperm, respectively. This process is known as double fertilization. Here, we review the current understanding of the processes of sperm cell reception, gamete interaction, their pre-fertilization activation and fusion, as well as the mechanisms plants use to prevent the fusion of egg cells with multiple sperm cells. The role of Ca(2+) is highlighted in these various processes and comparisons are drawn between fertilization mechanisms in flowering plants and other eukaryotes, including mammals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. rainfall and temperature effects on flowering and pollen productions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAINFALL AND TEMPERATURE EFFECTS ON FLOWERING AND POLLEN. PRODUCTIONS IN COCOA ... chocolate or for extracting cocoa butter. Although, all cultivated .... healthy flowers of the selected clones. These flowers were stored in ...

  1. An Environmental Approach to Positive Emotion: Flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeannette Haviland-Jones

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available For more than 5000 years, people have cultivated flowers although there is no known reward for this costly behavior. In three different studies we show that flowers are a powerful positive emotion “inducer”. In Study 1, flowers, upon presentation to women, always elicited the Duchenne or true smile. Women who received flowers reported more positive moods 3 days later. In Study 2, a flower given to men or women in an elevator elicited more positive social behavior than other stimuli. In Study 3, flowers presented to elderly participants (55+ age elicited positive mood reports and improved episodic memory. Flowers have immediate and long-term effects on emotional reactions, mood, social behaviors and even memory for both males and females. There is little existing theory in any discipline that explains these findings. We suggest that cultivated flowers are rewarding because they have evolved to rapidly induce positive emotion in humans, just as other plants have evolved to induce varying behavioral responses in a wide variety of species leading to the dispersal or propagation of the plants.

  2. Flower pigment analysis of Melastoma malabathricum | Janna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study is to analyse the colour pigment, anthocyanin, that can be detected in flower and their stability in extracted form. All the analysed results will be used in the next study for the production of new food colouring material. From the observation, it shows that S3 flower developmental stage contains the ...

  3. A new method for promoting lily flowering

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-08

    Aug 8, 2011 ... FT is thought to be the florigen in plants. In this research, a new method for promoting lily flowering was introduced. The function of FT gene cloned from Arabidopsis on promoting lily flowering was analyzed. pET-30a-FT vector was constructed to indicate the expression of FT:eGFP fuse protein in.

  4. Symbolic Dynamics, Flower Automata and Infinite Traces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foryś, Wit; Oprocha, Piotr; Bakalarski, Slawomir

    Considering a finite alphabet as a set of allowed instructions, we can identify finite words with basic actions or programs. Hence infinite paths on a flower automaton can represent order in which these programs are executed and a flower shift related with it represents list of instructions to be executed at some mid-point of the computation.

  5. Genetic control of flowering time in legumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James L Weller

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The timing of flowering, and in particular the degree to which it is responsive to the environment, is a key factor in the adaptation of a given species to various eco-geographic locations and agricultural practices. Flowering time variation has been documented in many crop legumes, and selection for specific variants has permitted significant expansion and improvement in cultivation, from prehistoric times to the present day. Recent advances in legume genomics have accelerated the process of gene identification and functional analysis, and opened up new prospects for a molecular understanding of flowering time adaptation in this important crop group. Within the legumes, two species have been prominent in flowering time studies; the vernalization-responsive long-day species pea (Pisum sativum and the warm-season short-day plant soybean (Glycine max. Analysis of flowering in these species is now being complemented by reverse genetics capabilities in the model legumes Medicago truncatula and Lotus japonicus, and the emergence of genome-scale resources in a range of other legumes. This review will outline the insights gained from detailed forward genetic analysis of flowering time in pea and soybean, highlighting the importance of light perception, the circadian clock and the FT family of flowering integrators. It discusses the current state of knowledge on genetic mechanisms for photoperiod and vernalization response, and concludes with a broader discussion of flowering time adaptation across legumes generally.

  6. Postharvest: Cut flowers and potted plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the past fifty years, the cut flower market has changed dramatically, from a local market with growers located on city outskirts, to a global one; flowers and cut foliage sourced from throughout the world are sold as bunches or combined into arrangements and bouquets in the major target markets. ...

  7. In vitro flowering ofDendrobium candidum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, G; Xu, Z; Chia, T F; Chua, N H

    1997-02-01

    Dendrobium candidum, a wild orchid species from China, normally requires three to four years of cultivation before it can produce flowers. The effects of plant hormones and polyamines on flower initiation of this species in tissue culture were investigated. The addition of spermidine, or BA, or the combination of NAA and BA to the culture medium can induce protocorms or shoots to flower within three to six months with a frequency of 31.6%-45.8%. The flowering frequency can be further increased to 82.8 % on the average by pre-treatment of protocorms in an ABA-containing medium followed by transfer onto MS medium with BA. The induction of precocious flowering depends on the developmental stage of the experimental materials (protocorms, shoots and plantlets) used, and usually occurs only when mt formation is inhibited.

  8. Pair-flowered cymes in the Lamiales: structure, distribution and origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Anton

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims In the Lamiales, indeterminate thyrses (made up of axillary cymes) represent a significant inflorescence type. However, it has been largely overlooked that there occur two types of cymes: (1) ordinary cymes, and (2) ‘pair-flowered cymes’ (PFCs), with a flower pair (terminal and front flower) topping each cyme unit. PFCs are unique to the Lamiales and their distribution, origin and phylogeny are not well understood. Methods The Lamiales are screened as to the occurrence of PFCs, ordinary cymes and single flowers (constituting racemic inflorescences). Key Results PFCs are shown to exhibit a considerable morphological and developmental diversity and are documented to occur in four neighbouring taxa of Lamiales: Calceolariaceae, Sanango, Gesneriaceae and Plantaginaceae. They are omnipresent in the Calceolariaceae and almost so in the Gesneriaceae. In the Plantaginaceae, PFCs are restricted to the small sister tribes Russelieae and Cheloneae (while the large remainder has single flowers in the leaf/bract axils; ordinary cymes do not occur). Regarding the origin of PFCs, the inflorescences of the genus Peltanthera (unplaced as to family; sister to Calceolariaceae, Sanango and Gesneriaceae in most molecular phylogenies) support the idea that PFCs have originated from paniculate systems, with the front-flowers representing remnant flowers. Conclusions From the exclusive occurrence of PFCs in the Lamiales and the proximity of the respective taxa in molecular phylogenies it may be expected that PFCs have originated once, representing a synapomorphy for this group of taxa and fading out within the Plantaginaceae. However, molecular evidence is ambiguous. Depending on the position of Peltanthera (depending in turn on the kind and number of genes and taxa analysed) a single, a double (the most probable scenario) or a triple origin appears conceivable. PMID:23884395

  9. The Variation of Oncidium Rosy Sunset Flower Volatiles with Daily Rhythm, Flowering Period, and Flower Parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Tien Chiu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Oncidium is an important ornamental crop worldwide, and in recent years, the characteristics of the flower aroma have become a concern for breeders. This study used headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS analysis of the volatile compounds to study the aroma characteristics of Onc. Rosy Sunset. A total of 45 compounds were identified, with the major compound being linalool. Onc. Rosy Sunset had the highest odor concentration from 10:00 to 12:00 and lowest from 20:00 to 24:00. The inflorescence emitted the highest quantities of volatile compounds during stages 3–6, which then decreased with the aging of the flowers. In Onc. Rosy Sunset, the sepals and petals were the major parts for the floral fragrance emission, in which linalool content was the highest, whereas the lip and column had a different composition of major volatile compounds, of which benzaldehyde, β-myrcene, and β-caryophyllene dominated.

  10. Upland cotton gene GhFPF1 confers promotion of flowering time and shade-avoidance responses in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyan Wang

    Full Text Available Extensive studies on floral transition in model species have revealed a network of regulatory interactions between proteins that transduce and integrate developmental and environmental signals to promote or inhibit the transition to flowering. Previous studies indicated FLOWERING PROMOTING FACTOR 1 (FPF1 gene was involved in the promotion of flowering, but the molecular mechanism was still unclear. Here, FPF1 homologous sequences were screened from diploid Gossypium raimondii L. (D-genome, n = 13 and Gossypium arboreum L. genome (A-genome, n = 13 databases. Orthologous genes from the two species were compared, suggesting that distinctions at nucleic acid and amino acid levels were not equivalent because of codon degeneracy. Six FPF1 homologous genes were identified from the cultivated allotetraploid Gossypium hirsutum L. (AD-genome, n = 26. Analysis of relative transcripts of the six genes in different tissues revealed that this gene family displayed strong tissue-specific expression. GhFPF1, encoding a 12.0-kDa protein (Accession No: KC832319 exerted more transcripts in floral apices of short-season cotton, hinting that it could be involved in floral regulation. Significantly activated APETALA 1 and suppressed FLOWERING LOCUS C expression were induced by over-expression of GhFPF1 in the Arabidopsis Columbia-0 ecotype. In addition, transgenic Arabidopsis displayed a constitutive shade-avoiding phenotype that is characterized by long hypocotyls and petioles, reduced chlorophyll content, and early flowering. We propose that GhFPF1 may be involved in flowering time control and shade-avoidance responses.

  11. Preserved irradiated homologous cartilage for orbital reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linberg, J.V.; Anderson, R.L.; Edwards, J.J.; Panje, W.R.; Bardach, J.

    1980-01-01

    Human costal cartilage is an excellent implant material for orbital and periorbital reconstruction because of its light weight, strength, homogeneous consistency and the ease with which it can be carved. Its use has been limited by the necessity of a separate surgical procedure to obtain the material. Preserved irradiated homologous cartilage has been shown to have almost all the autogenous cartilage and is convenient to use. Preserved irradiated homologous cartilage transplants do not elicit rejection reactions, resist infection and rarely undergo absorption

  12. Dualities in persistent (co)homology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Silva, Vin; Morozov, Dmitriy; Vejdemo-Johansson, Mikael

    2011-01-01

    We consider sequences of absolute and relative homology and cohomology groups that arise naturally for a filtered cell complex. We establish algebraic relationships between their persistence modules, and show that they contain equivalent information. We explain how one can use the existing algorithm for persistent homology to process any of the four modules, and relate it to a recently introduced persistent cohomology algorithm. We present experimental evidence for the practical efficiency of the latter algorithm

  13. Differential expression and requirements for Schizosaccharomyces pombe RAD52 homologs in DNA repair and recombination

    OpenAIRE

    van den Bosch, Michael; Zonneveld, José B. M.; Vreeken, Kees; de Vries, Femke A. T.; Lohman, Paul H. M.; Pastink, Albert

    2002-01-01

    In fission yeast two RAD52 homologs have been identified, rad22A+ and rad22B+. Two-hybrid experiments and GST pull-down assays revealed physical interaction between Rad22A and Rad22B, which is dependent on the N-terminal regions. Interaction with Rhp51 is dependent on the C-terminal parts of either protein. Both Rad22A and Rad22B also interact with RPA. The expression of rad22B+ in mitotically dividing cells is very low in comparison with rad22A+ but is strongly enhanced after induction of me...

  14. Flowering schedule in a perennial plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehrlén, Johan; Raabova, Jana; Dahlgren, Johan

    2015-01-01

    Optimal timing of reproduction within a season may be influenced by several abiotic and biotic factors. These factors sometimes affect different components of fitness, making assessments of net selection difficult. We used estimates of offspring fitness to examine how pre-dispersal seed predation...... from early flowers. Reproductive values of early and late flowers balanced at a predation intensity of 63%. Across 15 natural populations, the strength of selection for allocation to late flowers was positively correlated with mean seed predation intensity. Our results suggest that the optimal shape...

  15. Characterization of FLOWERING LOCUS T1 (FT1 gene in Brachypodium and wheat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Lv

    Full Text Available The phase transition from vegetative to reproductive growth is a critical event in the life cycle of flowering plants. FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT plays a central role in the regulation of this transition by integrating signals from multiple flowering pathways in the leaves and transmitting them to the shoot apical meristem. In this study, we characterized FT homologs in the temperate grasses Brachypodium distachyon and polyploid wheat using transgenic and mutant approaches. Downregulation of FT1 by RNAi was associated with a significant downregulation of the FT-like genes FT2 and FT4 in Brachypodium and FT2 and FT5 in wheat. In a transgenic wheat line carrying a highly-expressed FT1 allele, FT2 and FT3 were upregulated under both long and short days. Overexpression of FT1 caused extremely early flowering during shoot regeneration in both Brachypodium and hexaploid wheat, and resulted in insufficient vegetative tissue to support the production of viable seeds. Downregulation of FT1 transcripts by RNA interference (RNAi resulted in non-flowering Brachypodium plants and late flowering plants (2-4 weeks delay in wheat. A similar delay in heading time was observed in tetraploid wheat plants carrying mutations for both FT-A1 and FT-B1. Plants homozygous only for mutations in FT-B1 flowered later than plants homozygous only for mutations in FT-A1, which corresponded with higher transcript levels of FT-B1 relative to FT-A1 in the early stages of development. Taken together, our data indicate that FT1 plays a critical role in the regulation of flowering in Brachypodium and wheat, and that this role is associated with the simultaneous regulation of other FT-like genes. The differential effects of mutations in FT-A1 and FT-B1 on wheat heading time suggest that different allelic combinations of FT1 homoeologs could be used to adjust wheat heading time to improve adaptation to changing environments.

  16. Mouse Hobit is a homolog of the transcriptional repressor Blimp-1 that regulates NKT cell effector differentiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gisbergen, Klaas P. J. M.; Kragten, Natasja A. M.; Hertoghs, Kirsten M. L.; Wensveen, Felix M.; Jonjic, Stipan; Hamann, Jörg; Nolte, Martijn A.; van Lier, Rene A. W.

    2012-01-01

    The transcriptional repressor Blimp-1 mediates the terminal differentiation of many cell types, including T cells. Here we identified Hobit (Znf683) as a previously unrecognized homolog of Blimp-1 that was specifically expressed in mouse natural killer T cells (NKT cells). Through studies of

  17. kosh Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  18. kpdt Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

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    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  19. kewr Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

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    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  20. kiso Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

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    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  1. kpga Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

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    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  2. kbkw Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

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    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  3. ktcl Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  4. pgwt Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

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    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  5. kpsp Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

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    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  6. kbih Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

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    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  7. kdnl Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

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    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  8. kart Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

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    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  9. kilm Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

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    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  10. kpne Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

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    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  11. kabi Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

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    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  12. ptpn Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

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    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  13. kblf Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

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    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  14. panc Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

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    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  15. kpbi Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

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    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  16. kgdv Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

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    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  17. kcmx Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

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    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  18. kdls Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

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    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  19. koaj Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

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  20. krhi Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

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  1. kbpk Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  2. khuf Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  3. kbpi Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  4. ktrk Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

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  5. kwmc Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  6. katy Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

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  7. tjmz Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

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  8. kdet Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  9. kcxp Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  10. kbur Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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  13. kloz Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

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  14. kcec Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  15. kdec Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  16. paor Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  17. kavl Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

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  18. kdrt Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

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  19. kstl Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

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  20. kbfi Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  1. khsv Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

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  2. pafa Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  3. kekn Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

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  4. tncm Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

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  5. kith Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

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  6. kgnv Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

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  7. ktoi Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

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  8. kgso Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

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  9. nstu Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

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  10. kmgm Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

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  11. khib Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

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  12. pavd Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

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  13. kfar Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

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  14. kluk Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

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  15. kwwr Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

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  16. klse Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

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  17. ksts Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  18. koth Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

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  19. kbfl Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

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  20. ksgf Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

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  1. kpkb Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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  3. kbjc Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

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  4. ksea Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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  7. kpuw Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

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  8. kabq Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

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  9. ksny Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

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  10. khio Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

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  11. klaf Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

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  12. kfoe Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

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  13. ksmx Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

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  14. kipt Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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  16. Organizational Relationship Termination Competence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritter, Thomas; Geersbro, Jens

    2011-01-01

    termination are found to significantly affect a firm's relationship termination competence. The findings suggest that managers should regard termination as a legitimate option in customer relationship management. In order to decrease the number of unwanted customers, managers must accept termination......Most firms are involved in a number of customer relationships that drain the firm's resources. However, many firms are hesitant to address this problem. This paper investigates customer relationship termination at the organizational level. We develop and analyze the organizational dimensions...... of organizational termination in order to improve our understanding of the management of termination. The impact of these termination dimensions on the percentage of unwanted customers is developed and tested using PLS on data gathered from a cross-sectional survey of more than 800 sales representatives. We find...

  17. kink Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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  8. kcre Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  9. klws Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  10. kotm Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  11. khqm Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  12. kabr Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  13. klal Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  14. kelp Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  15. kecg Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  16. khbg Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  17. kpbf Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  18. konp Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  19. pkwa Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  20. ktvf Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  1. paga Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  2. khks Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  3. kdsm Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  4. kpsm Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  5. kgrb Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  6. kgmu Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  7. papg Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  8. kbgm Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  9. pamc Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  10. klrd Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  11. ksan Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  12. patk Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  13. kowb Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  14. klru Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  15. kfxe Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  16. kjct Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  17. kcrg Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  18. paaq Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  19. kaex Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  20. klbx Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  1. kmia Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  2. kpit Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  3. kcrw Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  4. paen Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  5. kast Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  6. kuin Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  7. kmht Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  8. kcys Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  9. kflo Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  10. pakn Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  11. pabt Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  12. krdg Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  13. khdn Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  14. kjac Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  15. kphx Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  16. Flowering, nectar production and insects visits in two cultivars of Cucurbita maxima Duch. flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Dmitruk

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted on experimental plots in the conditions of Lublin. In the years 1998-2000 flowering, nectar secretion and insect visitation of male and female flowers of two winter squash (Cucurbita maxima Duch. cultivars: 'Ambar' and 'Amazonka', were studied. The plants flowered from July to October. The flower life span was within the range of 7-10 hours. Female flowers of cv. Ambar were marked by the most abundant nectar secretion (129 mg. The nectar sugar content can be estimated as average (25%-35%. Winter squash nectar contained 84% of sucrose as well as 8-9% of fructose and 7%-8% of glucose. Flowers of the studied taxa were frequently foraged by the honey bee (66%-98% of total insects and bumblebees (1%-30%.

  17. Investigating homology between proteins using energetic profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrabl, James O; Hilser, Vincent J

    2010-03-26

    Accumulated experimental observations demonstrate that protein stability is often preserved upon conservative point mutation. In contrast, less is known about the effects of large sequence or structure changes on the stability of a particular fold. Almost completely unknown is the degree to which stability of different regions of a protein is generally preserved throughout evolution. In this work, these questions are addressed through thermodynamic analysis of a large representative sample of protein fold space based on remote, yet accepted, homology. More than 3,000 proteins were computationally analyzed using the structural-thermodynamic algorithm COREX/BEST. Estimated position-specific stability (i.e., local Gibbs free energy of folding) and its component enthalpy and entropy were quantitatively compared between all proteins in the sample according to all-vs.-all pairwise structural alignment. It was discovered that the local stabilities of homologous pairs were significantly more correlated than those of non-homologous pairs, indicating that local stability was indeed generally conserved throughout evolution. However, the position-specific enthalpy and entropy underlying stability were less correlated, suggesting that the overall regional stability of a protein was more important than the thermodynamic mechanism utilized to achieve that stability. Finally, two different types of statistically exceptional evolutionary structure-thermodynamic relationships were noted. First, many homologous proteins contained regions of similar thermodynamics despite localized structure change, suggesting a thermodynamic mechanism enabling evolutionary fold change. Second, some homologous proteins with extremely similar structures nonetheless exhibited different local stabilities, a phenomenon previously observed experimentally in this laboratory. These two observations, in conjunction with the principal conclusion that homologous proteins generally conserved local stability, may

  18. Investigating homology between proteins using energetic profiles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James O Wrabl

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Accumulated experimental observations demonstrate that protein stability is often preserved upon conservative point mutation. In contrast, less is known about the effects of large sequence or structure changes on the stability of a particular fold. Almost completely unknown is the degree to which stability of different regions of a protein is generally preserved throughout evolution. In this work, these questions are addressed through thermodynamic analysis of a large representative sample of protein fold space based on remote, yet accepted, homology. More than 3,000 proteins were computationally analyzed using the structural-thermodynamic algorithm COREX/BEST. Estimated position-specific stability (i.e., local Gibbs free energy of folding and its component enthalpy and entropy were quantitatively compared between all proteins in the sample according to all-vs.-all pairwise structural alignment. It was discovered that the local stabilities of homologous pairs were significantly more correlated than those of non-homologous pairs, indicating that local stability was indeed generally conserved throughout evolution. However, the position-specific enthalpy and entropy underlying stability were less correlated, suggesting that the overall regional stability of a protein was more important than the thermodynamic mechanism utilized to achieve that stability. Finally, two different types of statistically exceptional evolutionary structure-thermodynamic relationships were noted. First, many homologous proteins contained regions of similar thermodynamics despite localized structure change, suggesting a thermodynamic mechanism enabling evolutionary fold change. Second, some homologous proteins with extremely similar structures nonetheless exhibited different local stabilities, a phenomenon previously observed experimentally in this laboratory. These two observations, in conjunction with the principal conclusion that homologous proteins generally conserved

  19. USING BACH FLOWER IN HOLISTIC PSYCHOTHERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vagner Ferreira do Nascimento

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This is a narrative review from scientific literature that aimed to describe concepts and approaches for indications of the therapeutic use of Bach flower remedies in holistic psychotherapy. The review was developed in February 2016 from books, official documents and articles indexed in Lilacs and Scielo databases. Bach flower remedies is a therapeutic method that aims to restore the balance of human being, restoring its vital energy through holistic care. Because the flower essences act on psychic and emotional dimension of individual, when employed in holistic psychotherapy can provide greater autonomy, self-care and effectiveness compared to other alternative methods. The literature indicated that flower essence therapy is a safe practice and can be used in a complementary to health care, but should be performed by qualified professionals. It has also shown to be a promising and important area for nursing professional, but it still requires greater investment in research in the area to support the practice.

  20. Phylogeny determines flower size-dependent sex allocation at flowering in a hermaphroditic family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixido, A L; Guzmán, B; Staggemeier, V G; Valladares, F

    2017-11-01

    In animal-pollinated hermaphroditic plants, optimal floral allocation determines relative investment into sexes, which is ultimately dependent on flower size. Larger flowers disproportionally increase maleness whereas smaller and less rewarding flowers favour female function. Although floral traits are considered strongly conserved, phylogenetic relationships in the interspecific patterns of resource allocation to floral sex remain overlooked. We investigated these patterns in Cistaceae, a hermaphroditic family. We reconstructed phylogenetic relationships among Cistaceae species and quantified phylogenetic signal for flower size, dry mass and nutrient allocation to floral structures in 23 Mediterranean species using Blomberg's K-statistic. Lastly, phylogenetically-controlled correlational and regression analyses were applied to examine flower size-based allometry in resource allocation to floral structures. Sepals received the highest dry mass allocation, followed by petals, whereas sexual structures increased nutrient allocation. Flower size and resource allocation to floral structures, except for carpels, showed a strong phylogenetic signal. Larger-flowered species allometrically allocated more resources to maleness, by increasing allocation to corollas and stamens. Our results suggest a major role of phylogeny in determining interspecific changes in flower size and subsequent floral sex allocation. This implies that flower size balances the male-female function over the evolutionary history of Cistaceae. While allometric resource investment in maleness is inherited across species diversification, allocation to the female function seems a labile trait that varies among closely related species that have diversified into different ecological niches. © 2017 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  1. Partial amino acid sequence of apolipoprotein(a) shows that it is homologous to plasminogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eaton, D.L.; Fless, G.M.; Kohr, W.J.; McLean, J.W.; Xu, Q.T.; Miller, C.G.; Lawn, R.M.; Scanu, A.M.

    1987-01-01

    Apolipoprotein(a) [apo(a)] is a glycoprotein with M/sub r/ ∼ 280,000 that is disulfide linked to apolipoprotein B in lipoprotein(a) particles. Elevated plasma levels of lipoprotein(a) are correlated with atherosclerosis. Partial amino acid sequence of apo(a) shows that it has striking homology to plasminogen. Plasminogen is a plasma serine protease zymogen that consists of five homologous and tandemly repeated domains called kringles and a trypsin-like protease domain. The amino-terminal sequence obtained for apo(a) is homologous to the beginning of kringle 4 but not the amino terminus of plasminogen. Apo(a) was subjected to limited proteolysis by trypsin or V8 protease, and fragments generated were isolated and sequenced. Sequences obtained from several of these fragments are highly (77-100%) homologous to plasminogen residues 391-421, which reside within kringle 4. Analysis of these internal apo(a) sequences revealed that apo(a) may contain at least two kringle 4-like domains. A sequence obtained from another tryptic fragment also shows homology to the end of kringle 4 and the beginning of kringle 5. Sequence data obtained from the two tryptic fragments shows homology with the protease domain of plasminogen. One of these sequences is homologous to the sequences surrounding the activation site of plasminogen. Plasminogen is activated by the cleavage of a specific arginine residue by urokinase and tissue plasminogen activator; however, the corresponding site in apo(a) is a serine that would not be cleaved by tissue plasminogen activator or urokinase. Using a plasmin-specific assay, no proteolytic activity could be demonstrated for lipoprotein(a) particles. These results suggest that apo(a) contains kringle-like domains and an inactive protease domain

  2. Ehd4 encodes a novel and Oryza-genus-specific regulator of photoperiodic flowering in rice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Gao

    Full Text Available Land plants have evolved increasingly complex regulatory modes of their flowering time (or heading date in crops. Rice (Oryza sativa L. is a short-day plant that flowers more rapidly in short-day but delays under long-day conditions. Previous studies have shown that the CO-FT module initially identified in long-day plants (Arabidopsis is evolutionary conserved in short-day plants (Hd1-Hd3a in rice. However, in rice, there is a unique Ehd1-dependent flowering pathway that is Hd1-independent. Here, we report isolation and characterization of a positive regulator of Ehd1, Early heading date 4 (Ehd4. ehd4 mutants showed a never flowering phenotype under natural long-day conditions. Map-based cloning revealed that Ehd4 encodes a novel CCCH-type zinc finger protein, which is localized to the nucleus and is able to bind to nucleic acids in vitro and transactivate transcription in yeast, suggesting that it likely functions as a transcriptional regulator. Ehd4 expression is most active in young leaves with a diurnal expression pattern similar to that of Ehd1 under both short-day and long-day conditions. We show that Ehd4 up-regulates the expression of the "florigen" genes Hd3a and RFT1 through Ehd1, but it acts independently of other known Ehd1 regulators. Strikingly, Ehd4 is highly conserved in the Oryza genus including wild and cultivated rice, but has no homologs in other species, suggesting that Ehd4 is originated along with the diversification of the Oryza genus from the grass family during evolution. We conclude that Ehd4 is a novel Oryza-genus-specific regulator of Ehd1, and it plays an essential role in photoperiodic control of flowering time in rice.

  3. A chalcone isomerase-like protein enhances flavonoid production and flower pigmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Yasumasa; Takagi, Kyoko; Fukuchi-Mizutani, Masako; Ishiguro, Kanako; Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Nitasaka, Eiji; Nakayama, Masayoshi; Saito, Norio; Kagami, Takashi; Hoshino, Atsushi; Iida, Shigeru

    2014-04-01

    Flavonoids are major pigments in plants, and their biosynthetic pathway is one of the best-studied metabolic pathways. Here we have identified three mutations within a gene that result in pale-colored flowers in the Japanese morning glory (Ipomoea nil). As the mutations lead to a reduction of the colorless flavonoid compound flavonol as well as of anthocyanins in the flower petal, the identified gene was designated enhancer of flavonoid production (EFP). EFP encodes a chalcone isomerase (CHI)-related protein classified as a type IV CHI protein. CHI is the second committed enzyme of the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway, but type IV CHI proteins are thought to lack CHI enzymatic activity, and their functions remain unknown. The spatio-temporal expression of EFP and structural genes encoding enzymes that produce flavonoids is very similar. Expression of both EFP and the structural genes is coordinately promoted by genes encoding R2R3-MYB and WD40 family proteins. The EFP gene is widely distributed in land plants, and RNAi knockdown mutants of the EFP homologs in petunia (Petunia hybrida) and torenia (Torenia hybrida) had pale-colored flowers and low amounts of anthocyanins. The flavonol and flavone contents in the knockdown petunia and torenia flowers, respectively, were also significantly decreased, suggesting that the EFP protein contributes in early step(s) of the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway to ensure production of flavonoid compounds. From these results, we conclude that EFP is an enhancer of flavonoid production and flower pigmentation, and its function is conserved among diverse land plant species. © 2014 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Phytochrome, plant growth and flowering

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, R. W.; Bagnall, D. J.

    1994-01-01

    Attempts to use artificially lit cabinets to grow plants identical to those growing in sunlight have provided compelling evidence of the importance of light quality for plant growth. Changing the balance of red (R) to far-red (FR) radiation, but with a fixed photosynthetic input can shift the phytochrome photoequilibrium in a plant and generate large differences in plant growth. With FR enrichment the plants elongate, and may produce more leaf area and dry matter. Similar morphogenic responses are also obtained when light quality is altered only briefly (15-30 min) at the end-of-the-day. Conversely, for plants grown in natural conditions the response of plant form to selective spectral filtering has again shown that red and far-red wavebands are important as found by Kasperbauer and coworkers. Also, where photosynthetic photon flux densities (PPFD) of sunlight have been held constant, the removal of far-red alone alters plant growth. With FR depletion plants grown in sunlight are small, more branched and darker green. Here we examine the implications for plant growth and flowering when the far-red composition of incident radiation in plant growth chambers is manipulated.

  5. Phytochrome, plant growth and flowering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, R.W.; Bagnall, D.J. [CSIRO, Canberra (Australia)

    1994-12-31

    Attempts to use artificially lit cabinets to grow plants identical to those growing in sunlight have provided compelling evidence of the importance of light quality for plant growth. Changing the balance of red (R) to far-red (FR) radiation, but with a fixed photosynthetic input can shift the phytochrome photoequilibrium in a plant and generate large differences in plant growth. With FR enrichment the plants elongate, and may produce more leaf area and dry matter. Similar morphogenic responses are also obtained when light quality is altered only briefly (15-30 min) at the end-of-the-day. Conversely, for plants grown in natural conditions the response of plant form to selective spectral filtering has again shown that red and far-red wavebands are important as found by Kasperbauer and coworkers. Also, where photosynthetic photon flux densities (PPFD) of sunlight have been held constant, the removal of far-red alone alters plant growth. As shown for chrysanthemum, with FR depletion plants grown in sunlight are small, more branched and darker green. We examine the implications for plant growth and flowering when the far-red composition of incident radiation in plant growth chambers is manipulated.

  6. Biology of flower-infecting fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngugi, Henry K; Scherm, Harald

    2006-01-01

    The ability to infect host flowers offers important ecological benefits to plant-parasitic fungi; not surprisingly, therefore, numerous fungal species from a wide range of taxonomic groups have adopted a life style that involves flower infection. Although flower-infecting fungi are very diverse, they can be classified readily into three major groups: opportunistic, unspecialized pathogens causing necrotic symptoms such as blossom blights (group 1), and specialist flower pathogens which infect inflorescences either through the gynoecium (group 2) or systemically through the apical meristem (group 3). This three-tier system is supported by life history attributes such as host range, mode of spore transmission, degree of host sterilization as a result of infection, and whether or not the fungus undergoes an obligate sexual cycle, produces resting spores in affected inflorescences, and is r- or K-selected. Across the three groups, the flower as an infection court poses important challenges for disease management. Ecologically and evolutionarily, terms and concepts borrowed from the study of venereal (sexually transmitted) diseases of animals do not adequately capture the range of strategies employed by fungi that infect flowers.

  7. Pollination Services of Mango Flower Pollinators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huda, A. Nurul; Salmah, M. R. Che; Hassan, A. Abu; Hamdan, A.; Razak, M. N. Abdul

    2015-01-01

    Measuring wild pollinator services in agricultural production is very important in the context of sustainable management. In this study, we estimated the contribution of native pollinators to mango fruit set production of two mango cultivars Mangifera indica (L). cv. ‘Sala’ and ‘Chok Anan’. Visitation rates of pollinators on mango flowers and number of pollen grains adhering to their bodies determined pollinator efficiency for reproductive success of the crop. Chok Anan failed to produce any fruit set in the absence of pollinators. In natural condition, we found that Sala produced 4.8% fruit set per hermaphrodite flower while Chok Anan produced 3.1% per flower. Hand pollination tremendously increased fruit set of naturally pollinated flower for Sala (>100%), but only 33% for Chok Anan. Pollinator contribution to mango fruit set was estimated at 53% of total fruit set production. Our results highlighted the importance of insect pollinations in mango production. Large size flies Eristalinus spp. and Chrysomya spp. were found to be effective pollen carriers and visited more mango flowers compared with other flower visitors. PMID:26246439

  8. Homological methods, representation theory, and cluster algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Trepode, Sonia

    2018-01-01

    This text presents six mini-courses, all devoted to interactions between representation theory of algebras, homological algebra, and the new ever-expanding theory of cluster algebras. The interplay between the topics discussed in this text will continue to grow and this collection of courses stands as a partial testimony to this new development. The courses are useful for any mathematician who would like to learn more about this rapidly developing field; the primary aim is to engage graduate students and young researchers. Prerequisites include knowledge of some noncommutative algebra or homological algebra. Homological algebra has always been considered as one of the main tools in the study of finite-dimensional algebras. The strong relationship with cluster algebras is more recent and has quickly established itself as one of the important highlights of today’s mathematical landscape. This connection has been fruitful to both areas—representation theory provides a categorification of cluster algebras, wh...

  9. A homology theory for smale spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Putnam, Ian F

    2014-01-01

    The author develops a homology theory for Smale spaces, which include the basics sets for an Axiom A diffeomorphism. It is based on two ingredients. The first is an improved version of Bowen's result that every such system is the image of a shift of finite type under a finite-to-one factor map. The second is Krieger's dimension group invariant for shifts of finite type. He proves a Lefschetz formula which relates the number of periodic points of the system for a given period to trace data from the action of the dynamics on the homology groups. The existence of such a theory was proposed by Bowen in the 1970s.

  10. Mapping of genes for flower-related traits and QTLs for flowering ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mapping of genes for flower-related traits and QTLs for flowering time ... which would greatly enhance the use of G. darwinii-specific desirable genes in ... used to determine all linkage groups, the order of groups on the same ... age groups.

  11. Mapping of genes for flower-related traits and QTLs for flowering ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mapping of genes for flower-related traits and QTLs for flowering time in an interspecific population of Gossypium hirsutum × G. darwinii. Shuwen Zhang, Qianqian Lan, Xiang Gao, Biao Yang, Caiping Cai, Tianzhen Zhang and Baoliang Zhou. J. Genet. 95, 197–201. Table 1. Loci composition and recombination distances of ...

  12. Cytotoxic and bioactive properties of different color tulip flowers and degradation kinetic of tulip flower anthocyanins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagdic, Osman; Ekici, Lutfiye; Ozturk, Ismet; Tekinay, Turgay; Polat, Busra; Tastemur, Bilge; Bayram, Okan; Senturk, Berna

    2013-08-01

    This study was conducted to determine the potential use of anthocyanin-based extracts (ABEs) of wasted tulip flowers as food/drug colorants. For this aim, wasted tulip flowers were samples and analyzed for their bioactive properties and cytotoxicity. Total phenolic contents of the extracts of the claret red (126.55 mg of gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g dry extract) and orange-red (113.76 mg GAE/g dry extract) flowers were the higher than those of the other tulip flowers. Total anthocyanin levels of the violet, orange-red, claret red and pink tulip flower extracts were determined as 265.04, 236.49, 839.08 and 404.45 mg pelargonidin 3-glucoside/kg dry extract, respectively and these levels were higher than those of the other flowers. The extracts were more effective for the inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus and Yersinia enterocolitica compared to other tested bacteria. Additionally, the cytotoxic effects of five different tulip flower extracts on human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) cell line were investigated. The results showed that the orange red, pink and violet extracts had no cytotoxic activity against MCF-7 cell lines while yellow and claret red extracts appeared to be toxic for the cells. Overall, the extracts of tulip flowers with different colors possess remarkable bioactive and cytotoxic properties. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. DOAP1 Promotes Flowering in the Orchid Dendrobium Chao Praya Smile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawettalake, Nunchanoke; Bunnag, Sumontip; Wang, Yanwen; Shen, Lisha; Yu, Hao

    2017-01-01

    APETALA1 ( AP1 ) encodes a key MADS-box transcription factor that specifies the floral meristem identity on the flank of the inflorescence meristem, and determines the identity of perianth floral organs in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana . Orchids are members of the Orchidaceae, one of the largest families of angiosperms. Although the expression patterns of a few AP1 -like genes in orchids have been reported, their actual functions in orchid reproductive development are so far largely unknown. In this study, we isolated and characterized an AP1 ortholog, DOAP1 , from Dendrobium Chao Praya Smile. DOAP1 was highly expressed in reproductive tissues, including inflorescence apices and flowers at various developmental stages. Overexpression of DOAP1 resulted in early flowering in Arabidopsis , and was able to rescue the floral organ defects of Arabidopsis ap1 mutants. Moreover, we successfully created transgenic Dendrobium Chao Praya Smile orchids overexpressing DOAP1 , which displayed earlier flowering and earlier termination of inflorescence meristems into floral meristems than wild-type orchids. Our results demonstrate that DOAP1 plays an evolutionarily conserved role in promoting flowering and floral meristem specification in the Orchidaceae family.

  14. DOAP1 Promotes Flowering in the Orchid Dendrobium Chao Praya Smile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawettalake, Nunchanoke; Bunnag, Sumontip; Wang, Yanwen; Shen, Lisha; Yu, Hao

    2017-01-01

    APETALA1 (AP1) encodes a key MADS-box transcription factor that specifies the floral meristem identity on the flank of the inflorescence meristem, and determines the identity of perianth floral organs in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Orchids are members of the Orchidaceae, one of the largest families of angiosperms. Although the expression patterns of a few AP1-like genes in orchids have been reported, their actual functions in orchid reproductive development are so far largely unknown. In this study, we isolated and characterized an AP1 ortholog, DOAP1, from Dendrobium Chao Praya Smile. DOAP1 was highly expressed in reproductive tissues, including inflorescence apices and flowers at various developmental stages. Overexpression of DOAP1 resulted in early flowering in Arabidopsis, and was able to rescue the floral organ defects of Arabidopsis ap1 mutants. Moreover, we successfully created transgenic Dendrobium Chao Praya Smile orchids overexpressing DOAP1, which displayed earlier flowering and earlier termination of inflorescence meristems into floral meristems than wild-type orchids. Our results demonstrate that DOAP1 plays an evolutionarily conserved role in promoting flowering and floral meristem specification in the Orchidaceae family. PMID:28386268

  15. Flower volatiles, crop varieties and bee responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn K Klatt

    Full Text Available Pollination contributes to an estimated one third of global food production, through both the improvement of the yield and the quality of crops. Volatile compounds emitted by crop flowers mediate plant-pollinator interactions, but differences between crop varieties are still little explored. We investigated whether the visitation of crop flowers is determined by variety-specific flower volatiles using strawberry varieties (Fragaria x ananassa Duchesne and how this affects the pollination services of the wild bee Osmia bicornis L. Flower volatile compounds of three strawberry varieties were measured via headspace collection. Gas chromatography showed that the three strawberry varieties produced the same volatile compounds but with quantitative differences of the total amount of volatiles and between distinct compounds. Electroantennographic recordings showed that inexperienced females of Osmia bicornis had higher antennal responses to all volatile compounds than to controls of air and paraffin oil, however responses differed between compounds. The variety Sonata was found to emit a total higher level of volatiles and also higher levels of most of the compounds that evoked antennal responses compared with the other varieties Honeoye and Darselect. Sonata also received more flower visits from Osmia bicornis females under field conditions, compared with Honeoye. Our results suggest that differences in the emission of flower volatile compounds among strawberry varieties mediate their attractiveness to females of Osmia bicornis. Since quality and quantity of marketable fruits depend on optimal pollination, a better understanding of the role of flower volatiles in crop production is required and should be considered more closely in crop-variety breeding.

  16. Flower power: tree flowering phenology as a settlement cue for migrating birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Laura J; van Riper, Charles; Fontaine, Joseph J

    2009-01-01

    1. Neotropical migrant birds show a clear preference for stopover habitats with ample food supplies; yet, the proximate cues underlying these decisions remain unclear. 2. For insectivorous migrants, cues associated with vegetative phenology (e.g. flowering, leaf flush, and leaf loss) may reliably predict the availability of herbivorous arthropods. Here we examined whether migrants use the phenology of five tree species to choose stopover locations, and whether phenology accurately predicts food availability. 3. Using a combination of experimental and observational evidence, we show migrant populations closely track tree phenology, particularly the flowering phenology of honey mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa), and preferentially forage in trees with more flowers. Furthermore, the flowering phenology of honey mesquite reliably predicts overall arthropod abundance as well as the arthropods preferred by migrants for food. 4. Together, these results suggest that honey mesquite flowering phenology is an important cue used by migrants to assess food availability quickly and reliably, while in transit during spring migration.

  17. Kaempferol glycosides in the flowers of carnation and their contribution to the creamy white flower color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwashina, Tsukasa; Yamaguchi, Masa-atsu; Nakayama, Masayoshi; Onozaki, Takashi; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Kawanobu, Shuji; Onoe, Hiroshi; Okamura, Masachika

    2010-12-01

    Three flavonol glycosides were isolated from the flowers of carnation cultivars 'White Wink' and 'Honey Moon'. They were identified from their UV, MS, 1H and 13C NMR spectra as kaempferol 3-O-neohesperidoside, kaempferol 3-O-sophoroside and kaempferol 3-O-glucosyl-(1 --> 2)-[rhamnosyl-(1 --> 6)-glucoside]. Referring to previous reports, flavonols occurring in carnation flowers are characterized as kaempferol 3-O-glucosides with additional sugars binding at the 2 and/or 6-positions of the glucose. The kaempferol glycoside contents of a nearly pure white flower and some creamy white flower lines were compared. Although the major glycoside was different in each line, the total kaempferol contents of the creamy white lines were from 5.9 to 20.9 times higher than the pure white line. Thus, in carnations, kaempferol glycosides surely contribute to the creamy tone of white flowers.

  18. Homology and cohomology of Rees semigroup algebras

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbæk, Niels; Gourdeau, Frédéric; White, Michael C.

    2011-01-01

    Let S by a Rees semigroup, and let 1¹(S) be its convolution semigroup algebra. Using Morita equivalence we show that bounded Hochschild homology and cohomology of l¹(S) is isomorphic to those of the underlying discrete group algebra....

  19. Induction of homologous recombination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, J R; Moore, P D

    1988-09-01

    We have investigated the effects of UV irradiation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in order to distinguish whether UV-induced recombination results from the induction of enzymes required for homologous recombination, or the production of substrate sites for recombination containing regions of DNA damage. We utilized split-dose experiments to investigate the induction of proteins required for survival, gene conversion, and mutation in a diploid strain of S. cerevisiae. We demonstrate that inducing doses of UV irradiation followed by a 6 h period of incubation render the cells resistant to challenge doses of UV irradiation. The effects of inducing and challenge doses of UV irradiation upon interchromosomal gene conversion and mutation are strictly additive. Using the yeast URA3 gene cloned in non-replicating single- and double-stranded plasmid vectors that integrate into chromosomal genes upon transformation, we show that UV irradiation of haploid yeast cells and homologous plasmid DNA sequences each stimulate homologous recombination approximately two-fold, and that these effects are additive. Non-specific DNA damage has little effect on the stimulation of homologous recombination, as shown by studies in which UV-irradiated heterologous DNA was included in transformation/recombination experiments. We further demonstrate that the effect of competing single- and double-stranded heterologous DNA sequences differs in UV-irradiated and unirradiated cells, suggesting an induction of recombinational machinery in UV-irradiated S. cerevisiae cells.

  20. Threading homology through algebra selected patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Boffi, Giandomenico

    2006-01-01

    Aimed at graduate students and researchers in mathematics, this book takes homological themes, such as Koszul complexes and their generalizations, and shows how these can be used to clarify certain problems in selected parts of algebra, as well as their success in solving a number of them.

  1. Cell biology of homologous recombination in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eckert-Boulet, Nadine Valerie; Rothstein, Rodney; Lisby, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Homologous recombination is an important pathway for error-free repair of DNA lesions, such as single- and double-strand breaks, and for rescue of collapsed replication forks. Here, we describe protocols for live cell imaging of single-lesion recombination events in the yeast Saccharomyces...

  2. CONTAINER TERMINALS IN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart W. WIEGMANS

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to address the linkage between logistics (in particular, the management of marketing channel flows and transport markets, while also the interaction between these two markets and intermodal container terminals is analysed. The marketing channel theory is used to describe all relevant actors and flows that run through marketing channels, starting with customer needs and ending with customer satisfaction. Porter's theory of competitive advantages is used to review competitive forces in both markets. Finally, a competitor analysis is performed for the logistics and transport market. These theories are applied so as to be able to determine the competitive position of intermodal container terminals with a view to the management of marketing channel flows and the physical transport of freight flows. Hence, the central question of this paper is: Which markets are served by intermodal container terminals and with whom are they competing? At present, neither the maritime container terminals nor the continental container terminals appear to have a significant influence in the logistics service market; they concentrate mainly on the physical movement of containers (transshipment. Furthermore, maritime container terminals and continental container terminals are not dominant players in the transport service market. Our conclusion is that continental terminals are predominantly competing with unimodal road transport, with neighbouring continental terminals and with barge transport companies.

  3. Flowering time control in European winter wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Martin Langer

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Flowering time is an important trait in wheat breeding as it affects adaptation and yield potential. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic architecture of flowering time in European winter bread wheat cultivars. To this end a population of 410 winter wheat varieties was evaluated in multi-location field trials and genotyped by a genotyping-by-sequencing approach and candidate gene markers. Our analyses revealed that the photoperiod regulator Ppd-D1 is the major factor affecting flowering time in this germplasm set, explaining 58% of the genotypic variance. Copy number variation at the Ppd-B1 locus was present but explains only 3.2% and thus a comparably small proportion of genotypic variance. By contrast, the plant height loci Rht-B1 and Rht-D1 had no effect on flowering time. The genome-wide scan identified six QTL which each explain only a small proportion of genotypic variance and in addition we identified a number of epistatic QTL, also with small effects. Taken together, our results show that flowering time in European winter bread wheat cultivars is mainly controlled by Ppd-D1 while the fine tuning to local climatic conditions is achieved through Ppd-B1 copy number variation and a larger number of QTL with small effects.

  4. Cloning and sequence of cDNA encoding 1-aminocyclo- propane-1-carboxylate oxidase in Vanda flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pattana Srifah Huehne

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase (ACO gene in the final step of ethylene biosynthesis was isolated from ethylene-sensitive Vanda Miss Joaquim flowers. This consists of 1,242 base pairs (bp encoding for 326 amino acid residues. To investigate the specific divergence in orchid ACO sequences, the deduced Vanda ACO was aligned with five other orchid ACOs. The results reveal that the ACO sequences within Doritaenopsis, Phalaenopsis and Vanda show highly conserved and almost 95% identical homology, while the ACOs isolated from Cymbidium, Dendrobium and Cattleya are 8788% identical to Vanda ACO. In addition, the 2-oxoglutarate- Fe(II_oxygenase (Oxy domain of orchid ACOs consists of a higher degree of amino acid conservation than that of the non-haem dioxygenase (DIOX_N domain. The overall homology regions of Vanda ACO are commonly folded into 12 α-helices and 12 β-sheets similar to the three dimensional template-structure of Petunia ACO. This Vanda ACO cloned gene is highly expressed in flower tissue compared with root and leaf tissues. In particular, there is an abundance of ACO transcript accumulation in the column followed by the lip and the perianth of Vanda Miss Joaquim flowers at the fully-open stage.

  5. Confirming the Revised C-Terminal Domain of the MscL Crystal Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Maurer, Joshua A.; Elmore, Donald E.; Clayton, Daniel; Xiong, Li; Lester, Henry A.; Dougherty, Dennis A.

    2008-01-01

    The structure of the C-terminal domain of the mechanosensitive channel of large conductance (MscL) has generated significant controversy. As a result, several structures have been proposed for this region: the original crystal structure (1MSL) of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis homolog (Tb), a model of the Escherichia coli homolog, and, most recently, a revised crystal structure of Tb-MscL (2OAR). To understand which of these structures represents a physiological conformation, we measured the ...

  6. Tiger cubs and little flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Short vignettes are related to show the conditions for girls and women in Morocco. Descriptions are given for child labor, literacy, the government's education campaign, youth group efforts to enhance family planning (FP) knowledge, the impact of FP outreach in rural areas, and unmarried mothers. In Morocco's cities, young boys can be seen hawking cigarettes and working in market stalls; in the countryside, boys herd goats or do other farm work. In rural areas girls are hidden by having them perform work around the house or on the farm primarily indoors. Women are supervised by women. 54% work as maids and 39% are apprentices in carpet factories. Parents prefer to have their daughters working and consider it protection from mischief as well as needed income. Only 60% of girls are enrolled in primary school vs. 80% of the boys. In rural areas, only 44% of girls are enrolled, and 20% stay to complete their primary education, while 76% of boys enroll and 63% complete primary school. Literacy of women has an effect on the ability to accurately take birth control pills. All ages of women gather at schools in the evening for lessons in reading and writing in a program supported by the King. Women are pleased with their success in just learning how to write their own names. Television advertisements promote sending children to school, as another part of the Ministry of Education's campaign to increase girl's educational status. There are still not enough schools; many schools are double shift, and communities are building their own schools. Youth clubs, which refer to boys as "tiger cubs" and girls as "little flowers," try to familiarize young people with some basic information about contraception. A traditional midwife relates some problems with girl's education: costs for clothing and supplies, worry about male teachers, and poor role models. In some remote areas, farm families do not send their children to school, because of the distance to schools and the need for

  7. ARABIDOPSIS HOMOLOG of TRITHORAX1 (ATX1) is required for cell production, patterning, and morphogenesis in root development

    OpenAIRE

    Napsucialy-Mendivil, Selene; Alvarez-Venegas, Raúl; Shishkova, Svetlana; Dubrovsky, Joseph G.

    2014-01-01

    ARABIDOPSIS HOMOLOG of TRITHORAX1 (ATX1/SDG27), a known regulator of flower development, encodes a H3K4histone methyltransferase that maintains a number of genes in an active state. In this study, the role of ATX1 in root development was evaluated. The loss-of-function mutant atx1-1 was impaired in primary root growth. The data suggest that ATX1 controls root growth by regulating cell cycle duration, cell production, and the transition from cell proliferation in the root apical meristem (RAM)...

  8. Polar representation of centrifugal pump homologous curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veloso, Marcelo Antonio; Mattos, Joao Roberto Loureiro de

    2008-01-01

    Essential for any mathematical model designed to simulate flow transient events caused by pump operations is the pump performance data. The performance of a centrifugal pump is characterized by four basic parameters: the rotational speed, the volumetric flow rate, the dynamic head, and the hydraulic torque. Any one of these quantities can be expressed as a function of any two others. The curves showing the relationships between these four variables are called the pump characteristic curves, also referred to as four-quadrant curves. The characteristic curves are empirically developed by the pump manufacturer and uniquely describe head and torque as functions of volumetric flow rate and rotation speed. Because of comprising a large amount of points, the four-quadrant configuration is not suitable for computational purposes. However, it can be converted to a simpler form by the development of the homologous curves, in which dynamic head and hydraulic torque ratios are expressed as functions of volumetric flow and rotation speed ratios. The numerical use of the complete set of homologous curves requires specification of sixteen partial curves, being eight for the dynamic head and eight for the hydraulic torque. As a consequence, the handling of homologous curves is still somewhat complicated. In solving flow transient problems that require the pump characteristic data for all the operation zones, the polar form appears as the simplest way to represent the homologous curves. In the polar method, the complete characteristics of a pump can be described by only two closed curves, one for the dynamic head and other for the hydraulic torque, both in function of a single angular coordinate defined adequately in terms of the quotient between volumetric flow ratio and rotation speed ratio. The usefulness and advantages of this alternative method are demonstrated through a practical example in which the homologous curves for a pump of the type used in the main coolant loops of a

  9. Parametric representation of centrifugal pump homologous curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veloso, Marcelo A.; Mattos, Joao R.L. de

    2015-01-01

    Essential for any mathematical model designed to simulate flow transient events caused by pump operations is the pump performance data. The performance of a centrifugal pump is characterized by four basic quantities: the rotational speed, the volumetric flow rate, the dynamic head, and the hydraulic torque. The curves showing the relationships between these four variables are called the pump characteristic curves. The characteristic curves are empirically developed by the pump manufacturer and uniquely describe head and torque as functions of volumetric flow rate and rotation speed. Because of comprising a large amount of points, this configuration is not suitable for computational purposes. However, it can be converted to a simpler form by the development of the homologous curves, in which dynamic head and hydraulic torque ratios are expressed as functions of volumetric flow and rotation speed ratios. The numerical use of the complete set of homologous curves requires specification of sixteen partial curves, being eight for the dynamic head and eight for the hydraulic torque. As a consequence, the handling of homologous curves is still somewhat complicated. In solving flow transient problems that require the pump characteristic data for all the operation zones, the parametric form appears as the simplest way to deal with the homologous curves. In this approach, the complete characteristics of a pump can be described by only two closed curves, one for the dynamic head and other for the hydraulic torque, both in function of a single angular coordinate defined adequately in terms of the quotient between volumetric flow ratio and rotation speed ratio. The usefulness and advantages of this alternative method are demonstrated through a practical example in which the homologous curves for a pump of the type used in the main coolant loops of a pressurized water reactor (PWR) are transformed to the parametric form. (author)

  10. Evolutionary origin and divergence of GnIH and its homologous peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi; Osugi, Tomohiro

    2009-03-01

    Probing undiscovered hypothalamic neuropeptides that play important roles in the regulation of pituitary function in vertebrates is essential for the progress of neuroendocrinology. In 2000, we discovered a novel hypothalamic dodecapeptide inhibiting gonadotropin release in quail and termed it gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH). GnIH acts on the pituitary and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons in the hypothalamus via a novel G protein-coupled receptor for GnIH to inhibit gonadal development and maintenance by decreasing gonadotropin release and synthesis. Similar findings were observed in other avian species. Thus, GnIH is a key factor controlling avian reproduction. To give our findings a broader perspective, we also found GnIH homologous peptides in the hypothalamus of other vertebrates, such as mammals, reptiles, amphibians and teleosts. GnIH and its homologs share a common C-terminal LPXRFamide (X=L or Q) motif. A mammalian GnIH homolog also inhibited gonadotropin release in mammals like the GnIH action in birds. In contrast to higher vertebrates, hypophysiotropic activities of GnIH homologs were different in lower vertebrates. To clarify the evolutionary origin of GnIH and its homologs, we further sought to identify novel LPXRFamide peptides from the brain of sea lamprey and hagfish, two extant groups of the oldest lineage of vertebrates, Agnatha. In these agnathans, LPXRFamide peptide and its cDNA were identified only from the brain of hagfish. Based on these findings over the past decade, this paper summarizes the evolutionary origin and divergence of GnIH and its homologous peptides.

  11. Induced mutation altering flower colour in Chrysanthemum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Datta, S K [National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow (India)

    1989-01-01

    Full text: 'Flirt' is a double Korean type, small flowered Chrysanthemum of red colour. Rooted cuttings were treated with 1.5-2.5 krad gamma rays. A chimeral flower colour mutant was detected after 1.5 krad treatment. After purification through repeated cuttings a mutant clone was developed and released as commercial cultivar 'Man Bhawan'. It produces bi-coloured flower-heads: yellow and red at full bloom stage becoming completely yellow later on. By chromatography, 6 pigment spots could be identified in the variety 'Flirt' but only 5 in the mutant, violet (hRf 69.83) being absent. Spectrophotometric analysis of petal extracts showed presence of three peaks in both 'Flirt' and 'Man Bhawan' at full bloom stage but only two in 'Man Bhawan' at fading stage. (author)

  12. Flower development: open questions and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellmer, Frank; Bowman, John L; Davies, Brendan; Ferrándiz, Cristina; Fletcher, Jennifer C; Franks, Robert G; Graciet, Emmanuelle; Gregis, Veronica; Ito, Toshiro; Jack, Thomas P; Jiao, Yuling; Kater, Martin M; Ma, Hong; Meyerowitz, Elliot M; Prunet, Nathanaël; Riechmann, José Luis

    2014-01-01

    Almost three decades of genetic and molecular analyses have resulted in detailed insights into many of the processes that take place during flower development and in the identification of a large number of key regulatory genes that control these processes. Despite this impressive progress, many questions about how flower development is controlled in different angiosperm species remain unanswered. In this chapter, we discuss some of these open questions and the experimental strategies with which they could be addressed. Specifically, we focus on the areas of floral meristem development and patterning, floral organ specification and differentiation, as well as on the molecular mechanisms underlying the evolutionary changes that have led to the astounding variations in flower size and architecture among extant and extinct angiosperms.

  13. Orchid flowers tolerance to gamma-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Olivia Kimiko

    2000-01-01

    Cut flowers are fresh goods that may be treated with fumigants such as methyl bromide to meet the needs of the quarantine requirements of importing countries. Irradiation is a non-chemical alternative to substitute the methyl bromide treatment of fresh products. In this research, different cut orchids were irradiated to examine their tolerance to gamma-rays. A 200 Gy dose did inhibit the Dendrobium palenopsis buds from opening, but did not cause visible damage to opened flowers. Doses of 800 and 1000 Gy were damaging because they provoked the flowers to drop from the stem. Cattleya irradiated with 750 Gy did not show any damage, and were therefore eligible for the radiation treatment. Cymbidium tolerated up to 300 Gy and above this dose dropped prematurely. On the other hand, Oncydium did not tolerate doses above 150 Gy.(author)

  14. Orchid flowers tolerance to gamma-radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, Olivia Kimiko E-mail: okikuchi@net.ipen.br

    2000-03-01

    Cut flowers are fresh goods that may be treated with fumigants such as methyl bromide to meet the needs of the quarantine requirements of importing countries. Irradiation is a non-chemical alternative to substitute the methyl bromide treatment of fresh products. In this research, different cut orchids were irradiated to examine their tolerance to gamma-rays. A 200 Gy dose did inhibit the Dendrobium palenopsis buds from opening, but did not cause visible damage to opened flowers. Doses of 800 and 1000 Gy were damaging because they provoked the flowers to drop from the stem. Cattleya irradiated with 750 Gy did not show any damage, and were therefore eligible for the radiation treatment. Cymbidium tolerated up to 300 Gy and above this dose dropped prematurely. On the other hand, Oncydium did not tolerate doses above 150 Gy.(author)

  15. Flower Constancy, Insect Psychology, and Plant Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chittka, Lars; Thomson, James D.; Waser, Nickolas M.

    Individuals of some species of pollinating insects tend to restrict their visits to only a few of the available plant species, in the process bypassing valuable food sources. The question of why this flower constancy exists is a rich and important one with implications for the organization of natural communities of plants, floral evolution, and our understanding of the learning processes involved in finding food. Some scientists have assumed that flower constancy is adaptive per se. Others argued that constancy occurs because memory capacity for floral features in insects is limited, but attempts to identify the limitations often remained rather simplistic. We elucidate now different sensory and motor memories from natural foraging tasks are stored and retrieved, using concepts from modern learning science and visual search, and conclude that flower constancy is likely to have multiple causes. Possible constraints favoring constancy are interference sensitivity of short-term memory, and temporal limitations on retrieving information from long-term memory as rapidly as from short-term memory, but further empirical evidence is needed to substantiate these possibilities. In addition, retrieving memories may be slower and more prone to errors when there are several options than when an insect copes with only a single task. In addition to memory limitations, we also point out alternative explanations for flower constancy. We then consider the way in which floral parameters, such as interplant distances, nectar rewards, flower morphology, and floral color (as seen through bees' eyes) affect constancy. Finally, we discuss the implications of pollinator constancy for plant evolution. To date there is no evidence that flowers have diverged to favor constancy, although the appropriate tests may not have yet been conducted. However, there is good evidence against the notion that pollinator constancy is involved in speciation or maintenance of plant species integrity.

  16. Flowering of Woody Bamboo in Tissue Culture Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Ling Yuan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Flowering and subsequent seed set are not only normal activities in the life of most plants, but constitute the very reason for their existence. Woody bamboos can take a long time to flower, even over 100 years. This makes it difficult to breed bamboo, since flowering time cannot be predicted and passing through each generation takes too long. Another unique characteristic of woody bamboo is that a bamboo stand will often flower synchronously, both disrupting the supply chain within the bamboo industry and affecting local ecology. Therefore, an understanding of the mechanism that initiates bamboo flowering is important not only for biology research, but also for the bamboo industry. Induction of flowering in vitro is an effective way to both shorten the flowering period and control the flowering time, and has been shown for several species of bamboo. The use of controlled tissue culture systems allows investigation into the mechanism of bamboo flowering and facilitates selective breeding. Here, after a brief introduction of flowering in bamboo, we review the research on in vitro flowering of bamboo, including our current understanding of the effects of plant growth regulators and medium components on flower induction and how in vitro bamboo flowers can be used in research.

  17. Regulation of Floral Stem Cell Termination in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiro eIto

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In Arabidopsis, floral stem cells are maintained only at the initial stages of flower development, and they are terminated at a specific time to ensure proper development of the reproductive organs. Floral stem cell termination is a dynamic and multi-step process involving many transcription factors, chromatin remodeling factors and signaling pathways. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms involved in floral stem cell maintenance and termination, highlighting the interplay between transcriptional regulation and epigenetic machinery in the control of specific floral developmental genes. In addition, we discuss additional factors involved in floral stem cell regulation, with the goal of untangling the complexity of the floral stem cell regulatory network.

  18. Lazy Productivity via Termination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endrullis, J.; Hendriks, R.D.A.

    2011-01-01

    We present a procedure for transforming strongly sequential constructor-based term rewriting systems (TRSs) into context-sensitive TRSs in such a way that productivity of the input system is equivalent to termination of the output system. Thereby automated termination provers become available for

  19. Termination of cycle rewriting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zantema, H.; König, B.; Bruggink, H.J.S.; Dowek, G.

    2014-01-01

    String rewriting can not only be applied on strings, but also on cycles and even on general graphs. In this paper we investigate termination of string rewriting applied on cycles, shortly denoted as cycle rewriting, which is a strictly stronger requirement than termination on strings. Most

  20. Genetic markers for flowering in perennial ryegrass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paina, Cristiana; Byrne, Stephen; Andersen, Jeppe Reitan

    2011-01-01

    Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) is the principal forage grass utilized in Danish agriculture and underpins the beef and dairy sectors. It is characterized as having high digestibility, high nutritional value, and high productivity during vegetative growth. However, at the reproductive growth...... genes will be converted to molecular markers and mapped in an existing mapping population previously characterized for flowering time and vernalization response. References: Amasino, R.M., Michaels S.D. (2010). The Timing of Flowering. Plant Physiology 154: 516–520 Greenup, A., W. Peacock, W.J., Dennis...

  1. Pollination in avocado flowers (Persea Americana Mill.)

    OpenAIRE

    Malerbo-Souza, Darclet Teresinha; Faculdade de Agronomia Dr. Francisco Maeda; Toledo, Vagner de Alencar Arnaut de; UEM; Silva, Simone Rodrigues da; Faculdade de Agronomia Dr. Francisco Maeda; Sousa, Francisco Fábio; Faculdade de Agronomia Dr. Francisco Maeda

    2008-01-01

    The experiment aimed to study the frequency, nectar and/or pollen and hoarding time of bees in avocado flowers and verify the effect of their visits on fruit production. Six inflorescences (three covered and three uncovered) with two replications were marked to evaluate the effect of cross pollination on fruition percentage. The honey bees showed two peaks of hoarding (by 11 to 12 a.m. and 5 p.m.) following the flowers opening of different avocado groups (groups A and B), as much for nectar a...

  2. Refuges, flower strips, biodiversity and agronomic interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Grégory; Wateau, Karine; Legrand, Mickaël; Oste, Sandrine

    2008-01-01

    Several arthropods are natural predators of pests, and they are able to reduce and control their population development. FREDON Nord Pas-de-Calais (Federation Regionate de Defense contre les Organismes Nuisibles = Regional Federation for Pest Control) has begun for a long time to form farmers to the recognition of beneficial arthropods and to show them their usefulness. These beneficial insects or arachnids are present everywhere, in orchards and even in fields which are areas relatively poor in biodiversity. Adults feed in the flower strips instead larvae and some adults feed on preys such as aphids or caterpillars. Most of the time, beneficial insects can regulate pest but sometimes, in agricultural area, they can't make it early enough and efficiently. Their action begin too late and there biodiversity and number are too low. It's possible to enhance their action by manipulating the ecological infrastructures, like sewing flower strips or installing refuges. Flower strips increase the density of natural enemies and make them be present earlier in the field in order to control pests. Refuges permit beneficial's to spend winter on the spot. So they're able to be active and to grow in number earlier. From 2004 to 2007, on the one hand, FREDON Nord Pas-de-Calais has developed a research program. Its purpose was to inventory practices and also tools and means available and to judge the advisability of using such or such beneficial refuge in orchards. On the second hand, it studied the impact in orchard of refuges on population of beneficial's and the difference there were between manufactured refuges and homemade refuges. Interesting prospects were obtained with some of them. Otherwise, since 2003, FREDON has studied flower strips influence on beneficial population and their impact on pest control. In cabbage fields, results of trials have shown that flower strips lead to a reduction of aphid number under acceptable economic level, up to 50 meters from flower strips

  3. Kitimat LNG terminal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmaltz, I.; Boulton, R.

    2007-01-01

    Kitimat Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) terminal is a terminal development company owned by Galveston LNG, a privately owned Canadian energy development company. This presentation provided information on Kitimat LNG with particular reference to its terminal located in Bish Cove on the Douglas Channel in British Columbia. This LNG terminal is reported to be the only fully permitted regasification terminal on the west coast of Canada and the United States. The presentation addressed market fundamentals including several graphs, such as world natural gas proved reserves in 2006; LNG supplements to Canadian gas supplies; global LNG demand for 2005-2020; average annual United States LNG imports; and global LNG liquefaction projects. Other market fundamentals were described, including that Kitimat is the only other approved terminal aside from the Costa Azul terminal in Mexico; Kitimat is the only west coast LNG import terminal that connects to midwest and eastern North American markets through existing gas pipelines; LNG producers are looking for destination diversification; and markets and marketers are looking for supply diversification. The authors noted that by 2010, western Canadian gas demand will exceed Californian demand. Other topics that were discussed in the presentation included Canadian natural gas field receipts; unadjusted bitumen production outlook; oil sands gas demand; forward basis fundamentals; and the commercial drivers of the Kitimat LNG terminal. The presentation also discussed the pacific trail pipelines, a partnership between Galveston LNG and Pacific Northern Gas to develop the natural gas transmission line from Kitimat to Summit. The presentation concluded with a discussion of the benefits of Kitimat LNG terminal such as providing access to the largest natural gas markets in the world via major gas transmission lines with spare capacity. figs

  4. Growth, flowering and fruiting in vitro pineapple (Ananas comosus L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc star

    2013-04-10

    Apr 10, 2013 ... ... under natural conditions is favoured by shortened day-length and cool night temperatures (Van Overbeek and Cruzado, 1948; ..... pineapple plants after acclimatization b) flower of formation c) growth flower d) formation fruit ...

  5. Glyphosate and Dicamba Inhibit Flowering of Native Willamette Valley Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Successful flowering is essential for reproduction of native plants and production of food for herbivores. It is also an important alternative endpoint for assessment of ecological risks from chemical stressors such as herbicides. We evaluated flowering phenology after herbicide...

  6. Simulated Acid Rain-induced Alterations in Flowering, Leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of SAR effects on budding, flowering, leaf abscission and pollen development revealed that ... Keywords: Simulated acid rain, Helianthus annuus, flowering, leaf abscission, pollen germination, sunflower. ... HOW TO USE AJOL.

  7. A specific bioassay for the inhibition of flowering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, J

    1972-06-01

    A bioassay for the inhibition of flowering involving the in vitro culture of excised, partially-induced, apices of Viscaria candida is described. This bioassay has been used to detect flowering inhibition in extracts from Kalanchoe blossfeldiana.

  8. Homologation Reaction of Ketones with Diazo Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candeias, Nuno R; Paterna, Roberta; Gois, Pedro M P

    2016-03-09

    This review covers the addition of diazo compounds to ketones to afford homologated ketones, either in the presence or in the absence of promoters or catalysts. Reactions with diazoalkanes, aryldiazomethanes, trimethylsilyldiazomethane, α-diazo esters, and disubstituted diazo compounds are covered, commenting on the complex regiochemistry of the reaction and the nature of the catalysts and promoters. The recent reports on the enantioselective version of ketone homologation reactions are gathered in one section, followed by reports on the use of cyclic ketones ring expansion in total synthesis. Although the first reports of this reaction appeared in the literature almost one century ago, the recent achievements, in particular, for the asymmetric version, forecast the development of new breakthroughs in the synthetically valuable field of diazo chemistry.

  9. Homological mirror symmetry and tropical geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Catanese, Fabrizio; Kontsevich, Maxim; Pantev, Tony; Soibelman, Yan; Zharkov, Ilia

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between Tropical Geometry and Mirror Symmetry goes back to the work of Kontsevich and Y. Soibelman (2000), who applied methods of non-archimedean geometry (in particular, tropical curves) to Homological Mirror Symmetry. In combination with the subsequent work of Mikhalkin on the “tropical” approach to Gromov-Witten theory, and the work of Gross and Siebert, Tropical Geometry has now become a powerful tool. Homological Mirror Symmetry is the area of mathematics concentrated around several categorical equivalences connecting symplectic and holomorphic (or algebraic) geometry. The central ideas first appeared in the work of Maxim Kontsevich (1993). Roughly speaking, the subject can be approached in two ways: either one uses Lagrangian torus fibrations of Calabi-Yau manifolds (the so-called Strominger-Yau-Zaslow picture, further developed by Kontsevich and Soibelman) or one uses Lefschetz fibrations of symplectic manifolds (suggested by Kontsevich and further developed by Seidel). Tropical Ge...

  10. Homological stability for unordered configuration spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randal-Williams, Oscar

    2013-01-01

    This paper consists of two related parts. In the first part we give a self-contained proof of homological stability for the spaces C_n(M;X) of configurations of n unordered points in a connected open manifold M with labels in a path-connected space X, with the best possible integral stability range...... of the spaces C_n(M) can be considered stable when M is a closed manifold. In this case there are no stabilisation maps, but one may still ask if the dimensions of the homology groups over some field stabilise with n. We prove that this is true when M is odd-dimensional, or when the field is F_2 or Q...

  11. Regulation of homologous recombination in eukaryotes

    OpenAIRE

    Heyer, Wolf-Dietrich; Ehmsen, Kirk T.; Liu, Jie

    2010-01-01

    Homologous recombination is required for accurate chromosome segregation during the first meiotic division and constitutes a key repair and tolerance pathway for complex DNA damage including DNA double-stranded breaks, interstrand crosslinks, and DNA gaps. In addition, recombination and replication are inextricably linked, as recombination recovers stalled and broken replication forks enabling the evolution of larger genomes/replicons. Defects in recombination lead to genomic instability and ...

  12. Khovanov homology of graph-links

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikonov, Igor M [M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Mechanics and Mathematics, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2012-08-31

    Graph-links arise as the intersection graphs of turning chord diagrams of links. Speaking informally, graph-links provide a combinatorial description of links up to mutations. Many link invariants can be reformulated in the language of graph-links. Khovanov homology, a well-known and useful knot invariant, is defined for graph-links in this paper (in the case of the ground field of characteristic two). Bibliography: 14 titles.

  13. cDNA-AFLP analysis of gene expression differences between the flower bud and sprout-shoot apical meristem of Angelica sinensis (Oliv. Diels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Guang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Angelica sinensis (Oliv. Diels (Umbelliferae is a well-known medicinal plant mainly distributed in Gansu Province of China. Its local and global demand is significant because of its food and medicinal applications. However, the early bolting rate of Angelica sinensis (Oliv. Diels reaches 20%-60%, which seriously affects its food and medicinal qualities. Thus, differences in gene expression between the flower bud and sprout-shoot apical meristem underwent analysis, by means of cDNA-amplified restriction fragment length polymorphism, to better understand the flowering mechanism. 64 primer sets, each of which amplified to 60 transcript-derived fragments (TDFs, were used. Among these TDFs, 26 were expressed specifically in the flower bud. After cloning and sequencing, 32 distinct sequences were obtained from these 26 TDFs, and 25 were found with homologous sequences in databases. Confirmation of differential expression of 13 sequences was obtained by semi-quantitative RT-PCR, their showing higher expression levels in flower buds. These homologous sequences encode transposable elements, pentatricopeptide repeat-containing proteins, DNA-binding transcription factors, zinc finger (B-box type family proteins, NADP-dependent sorbitol 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (S6PDH, amongst others.

  14. Quandle and Biquandle Homology Calculation in R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Fenn

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In knot theory several knot invariants have been found over the last decades. This paper concerns itself with invariants of several of those invariants, namely the Homology of racks, quandles, biracks and biquandles. The software described in this paper calculates the rack, quandle and degenerate homology groups of racks and biracks. It works for any rack/quandle with finite elements where there are homology coefficients in 'Z'k. The up and down actions can be given either as a function of the elements of 'Z'k or provided as a matrix. When calculating a rack, the down action should coincide with the identity map. We have provided actions for both the general dihedral quandle and the group quandle over 'S'3. We also provide a second function to test if a set with a given action (or with both actions gives rise to a quandle or biquandle. The program is provided as an R package and can be found at https://github.com/ansgarwenzel/quhomology.   AMS subject classification: 57M27; 57M25

  15. Several aspects of some techniques avoiding homologous blood transfusions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.C.S.M. van Woerkens (Liesbeth)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractThe use of homologous blood products during anesthesia and surgery is not without risks. Complications due to homologous blood transfusions include transfusion reactions, isosensitization, transmission of infections (including HIV, hepatitis, CMV) and immunosuppression (resuiting in

  16. The Early Flowers and Angiosperm Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Else Marie; Crane, P.R.; Pedersen, Kaj Raunsgaard

    of the evolutionary history of flowering plants from their earliest phases in obscurity to their dominance in modern vegetation. The discussion provides comprehensive biological and geological background information, before moving on to summarise the fossil record in detail. Including previously unpublished results...

  17. Nauriaq Aglagvinmi (The Flower in the Classroom).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Mary L.; And Others

    This elementary language text is designed for children in bilingual Inupiat-English programs in the Alaskan villages of Ambler, Kobuk, Kiana, Noorvik, and Shungnak. It contains a story about a flower that begins to grow in a rug in a classroom. Each page of text is illustrated with a black-and-white drawing. The English equivalent is given at the…

  18. Functional optics of glossy buttercup flowers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kooi, Casper J; Elzenga, J Theo M; Dijksterhuis, Jan; Stavenga, Doekele G

    2017-01-01

    Buttercup (Ranunculus spp.) flowers are exceptional because they feature a distinct gloss (mirror-like reflection) in addition to their matte-yellow coloration. We investigated the optical properties of yellow petals of several Ranunculus and related species using (micro)spectrophotometry and

  19. Teaching Art with Art: Flowers in Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Guy

    1998-01-01

    Justifies examining still-life pictures of flowers to provide students with an opportunity to learn how one distinguishes between deeply artistic pictures full of emotion and pictures lacking this quality. Claims that students will develop their own artistic expression. Offers pictures by Diego Rivera, Watanabe Shiko, Consuelo Kanaga, and Rachel…

  20. Internet log service for flower supply chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thors, M.

    2004-01-01

    This summer has seen the completion of a project to develop quality tracking and tracing for cut flowers. Sponsored by the Dutch product board for horticulture, available technology was tested and integrated by researchers at the Agrotechnology and Food Innovations, WUR, into a system to

  1. Divergence of flowering genes in soybean

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-10-15

    Oct 15, 2012 ... and the production of dry matter in crops (Cockram et al. 2007). Thus ..... is repressed by AP1 in emerging flower primordia (Liu et al. 2007). ..... conserved QTLs for disease resistance and seed size (Kim et al. 2009b).

  2. Flower opening and closure: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, van W.G.; Meeteren, van U.

    2003-01-01

    Flower opening and closure are traits of a reproductive syndrome, as it allows pollen removal and/or pollination. Various types of opening can be distinguished such as nocturnal and diurnal and single or repetitive. Opening is generally due to cell expansion. Osmotic solute levels increase by the

  3. Interspecific hybridization of flower bulbs: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuyl, van J.M.

    1997-01-01

    In order to introduce new characters such as resistances, flower shape and colour, from wild species into the cultivar assortment of lily it is necessary to overcome interspecific crossing barriers.. Several techniques have been used for wide interspecific lily crosses with species and cultivars

  4. Shortening the juvenile phase for flowering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Higazy, M.K.M.T.

    1962-01-01

    Higazy tried to determine whether the duration of the juvenile phase for flowering was a fixed character or whether it could be influenced by external growth factors.

    Lunaria biennis was chosen as a cold-requiring biennial, Silene armeria as a long-day plant and Salvia

  5. Tuhar pulse flowers corroding by corrosive pollutants | Singh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These acids in turn develop micro electrochemical cell with flower of Tuhar pulse which destroy flowering of arhar pulse. Other factors are acid rain, global warming and depletion of ozone layer affecting the production of arhar pulse. Key words: Tuhar (Arhar) pulse flowers, pollutants, particulates, micro electrochemical cell, ...

  6. Flowering and sex expression in Acer L. : a biosystematic study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de P.C.

    1976-01-01

    A review and an analysis is given of flowering and sex expression in Acer. The process of sex differentiation was studied in physiological experiments and could be influenced by accelerated flowering and by removal of female.gif flower buds just after bud break. The

  7. Nonleaking battery terminals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snider, W. E.; Nagle, W. J.

    1972-01-01

    Three different terminals were designed for usage in a 40 ampere/hour silver zinc battery which has a 45% KOH by weight electrolyte in a plastic battery case. Life tests, including thermal cycling, electrical charge and discharge for up to three years duration, were conducted on these three different terminal designs. Tests for creep rate and tensile strength were conducted on the polyphenylene oxide plastic battery cases. Some cases were unused and others containing KOH electrolyte were placed on life tests. The design and testing of nonleaking battery terminals for use with a KOH electrolyte in a plastic case are considered.

  8. Computing Homology Group Generators of Images Using Irregular Graph Pyramids

    OpenAIRE

    Peltier , Samuel; Ion , Adrian; Haxhimusa , Yll; Kropatsch , Walter; Damiand , Guillaume

    2007-01-01

    International audience; We introduce a method for computing homology groups and their generators of a 2D image, using a hierarchical structure i.e. irregular graph pyramid. Starting from an image, a hierarchy of the image is built, by two operations that preserve homology of each region. Instead of computing homology generators in the base where the number of entities (cells) is large, we first reduce the number of cells by a graph pyramid. Then homology generators are computed efficiently on...

  9. Flower colour and cytochromes P450.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Brugliera, Filippa

    2013-02-19

    Cytochromes P450 play important roles in biosynthesis of flavonoids and their coloured class of compounds, anthocyanins, both of which are major floral pigments. The number of hydroxyl groups on the B-ring of anthocyanidins (the chromophores and precursors of anthocyanins) impact the anthocyanin colour, the more the bluer. The hydroxylation pattern is determined by two cytochromes P450, flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase (F3'H) and flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase (F3'5'H) and thus they play a crucial role in the determination of flower colour. F3'H and F3'5'H mostly belong to CYP75B and CYP75A, respectively, except for the F3'5'Hs in Compositae that were derived from gene duplication of CYP75B and neofunctionalization. Roses and carnations lack blue/violet flower colours owing to the deficiency of F3'5'H and therefore lack the B-ring-trihydroxylated anthocyanins based upon delphinidin. Successful redirection of the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway to delphinidin was achieved by expressing F3'5'H coding regions resulting in carnations and roses with novel blue hues that have been commercialized. Suppression of F3'5'H and F3'H in delphinidin-producing plants reduced the number of hydroxyl groups on the anthocyanidin B-ring resulting in the production of monohydroxylated anthocyanins based on pelargonidin with a shift in flower colour to orange/red. Pelargonidin biosynthesis is enhanced by additional expression of a dihydroflavonol 4-reductase that can use the monohydroxylated dihydrokaempferol (the pelargonidin precursor). Flavone synthase II (FNSII)-catalysing flavone biosynthesis from flavanones is also a P450 (CYP93B) and contributes to flower colour, because flavones act as co-pigments to anthocyanins and can cause blueing and darkening of colour. However, transgenic plants expression of a FNSII gene yielded paler flowers owing to a reduction of anthocyanins because flavanones are precursors of anthocyanins and flavones.

  10. Cyanogenic Glucosides and Derivatives in Almond and Sweet Cherry Flower Buds from Dormancy to Flowering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Del Cueto

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Almond and sweet cherry are two economically important species of the Prunus genus. They both produce the cyanogenic glucosides prunasin and amygdalin. As part of a two-component defense system, prunasin and amygdalin release toxic hydrogen cyanide upon cell disruption. In this study, we investigated the potential role within prunasin and amygdalin and some of its derivatives in endodormancy release of these two Prunus species. The content of prunasin and of endogenous prunasin turnover products in the course of flower development was examined in five almond cultivars – differing from very early to extra-late in flowering time – and in one sweet early cherry cultivar. In all cultivars, prunasin began to accumulate in the flower buds shortly after dormancy release and the levels dropped again just before flowering time. In almond and sweet cherry, the turnover of prunasin coincided with increased levels of prunasin amide whereas prunasin anitrile pentoside and β-D-glucose-1-benzoate were abundant in almond and cherry flower buds at certain developmental stages. These findings indicate a role for the turnover of cyanogenic glucosides in controlling flower development in Prunus species.

  11. Nontraumatic terminal ileal perforation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wani Rauf A

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is still confusion and controversy over the diagnosis and optimal surgical treatment of non traumatic terminal ileal perforation-a cause of obscure peritonitis. Methods This study was a prospective study aimed at evaluating the clinical profile, etiology and optimal surgical management of patients with nontraumatic terminal ileal perforation. Results There were 79 cases of nontraumatic terminal ileal perforation; the causes for perforation were enteric fever(62%, nonspecific inflammation(26%, obstruction(6%, tuberculosis(4% and radiation enteritis (1%. Simple closure of the perforation (49% and end to side ileotransverse anastomosis(42% were the mainstay of the surgical management. Conclusion Terminal ileal perforation should be suspected in all cases of peritonitis especially in developing countries and surgical treatment should be optimized taking various accounts like etiology, delay in surgery and operative findings into consideration to reduce the incidence of deadly complications like fecal fistula.

  12. Terminated Multifamily Mortgages Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This dataset includes all terminated HUD Multifamily mortgages except those from the Hospital Mortgage Insurance Program. It includes the Holder and Servicer at the...

  13. Coal terminal directory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-06-15

    The directory gives a comprehensive listing of the world's coal terminals, in a total of 50 countries including information on throughput, facilities, storage capacity, and vessel size limitation.

  14. Visual communication and terminal equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Cheol Hui

    1988-06-01

    This book is divided two parts about visual communication and terminal equipment. The first part introduces visual communication, which deals with foundation of visual communication, technique of visual communication, equipment of visual communication, a facsimile and pictorial image system. The second part contains terminal equipment such as telephone, terminal equipment for data transmission on constitution and constituent of terminal equipment for data transmission, input device and output device, terminal device and up-to-date terminal device.

  15. Visual communication and terminal equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Cheol Hui

    1988-06-15

    This book is divided two parts about visual communication and terminal equipment. The first part introduces visual communication, which deals with foundation of visual communication, technique of visual communication, equipment of visual communication, a facsimile and pictorial image system. The second part contains terminal equipment such as telephone, terminal equipment for data transmission on constitution and constituent of terminal equipment for data transmission, input device and output device, terminal device and up-to-date terminal device.

  16. A family of cell-adhering peptides homologous to fibrinogen C-termini

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy-Beladev, Liron; Levdansky, Lilia; Gaberman, Elena; Friedler, Assaf; Gorodetsky, Raphael

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Cell-adhesive sequences homologous to fibrinogen C-termini exist in other proteins. → The extended homologous cell-adhesive C-termini peptides family is termed Haptides. → In membrane-like environment random coiled Haptides adopt a helical conformation. → Replacing positively charged residues with alanine reduces Haptides activity. -- Abstract: A family of cell-adhesive peptides homologous to sequences on different chains of fibrinogen was investigated. These homologous peptides, termed Haptides, include the peptides Cβ, preCγ, and CαE, corresponding to sequences on the C-termini of fibrinogen chains β, γ, and αE, respectively. Haptides do not affect cell survival and rate of proliferation of the normal cell types tested. The use of new sensitive assays of cell adhesion clearly demonstrated the ability of Haptides, bound to inert matrices, to mediate attachment of different matrix-dependent cell types including normal fibroblasts, endothelial, and smooth muscle cells. Here we present new active Haptides bearing homologous sequences derived from the C-termini of other proteins, such as angiopoietin 1 and 2, tenascins C and X, and microfibril-associated glycoprotein-4. The cell adhesion properties of all the Haptides were found to be associated mainly with their 11 N-terminal residues. Mutated preCγ peptides revealed that positively charged residues account for their attachment effect. These results suggest a mechanism of direct electrostatic interaction of Haptides with the cell membrane. The extended Haptides family may be applied in modulating adhesion of cells to scaffolds for tissue regeneration and for enhancement of nanoparticulate transfection into cells.

  17. Transcriptomic Analysis of Flower Bud Differentiation in Magnolia sinostellata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijie Fan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Magnolias are widely cultivated for their beautiful flowers, but despite their popularity, the molecular mechanisms regulating flower bud differentiation have not been elucidated. Here, we used paraffin sections and RNA-seq to study the process of flower bud differentiation in Magnolia sinostellata. Flower bud development occurred between 28 April and 30 May 2017 and was divided into five stages: undifferentiated, early flower bud differentiation, petal primordium differentiation, stamen primordium differentiation, and pistil primordium differentiation. A total of 52,441 expressed genes were identified, of which 11,592 were significantly differentially expressed in the five bud development stages. Of these, 82 genes were involved in the flowering. In addition, MADS-box and AP2 family genes play critical roles in the formation of flower organs and 20 differentially expressed genes associated with flower bud differentiation were identified in M. sinostellata. A qRT-PCR analysis verified that the MADS-box and AP2 family genes were expressed at high levels during flower bud differentiation. Consequently, this study provides a theoretical basis for the genetic regulation of flowering in M. sinostellata, which lays a foundation for further research into flowering genes and may facilitate the development of new cultivars.

  18. Mobile Application to Identify Indonesian Flowers on Android Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tita Karlita

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Although many people love flowers, they do not know their name. Especially, many people do not recognize local flowers. To find the flower image, we can use search engine such as Google, but it does not give much help to find the name of local flower. Sometimes, Google cannotshow the correct name of local flowers. This study proposes an application to identify Indonesian flowers that runs on the Android platform for easy use anywhere. Flower recognition is based on the color features using the Hue-Index, shape feature using Centroid Contour Distance (CCD, and the similarity measurement using Entropy calculations. The outputs of this application are information about inputted flower image including Latinname, local name, description, distribution and ecology. Based on tests performed on 44 types of flowers with 181 images in the database, the best similarity percentage is 97.72%. With this application, people will be expected to know more about Indonesia flowers. Keywords: Indonesian flowers, android, hue-index, CCD, entropy

  19. Explaining the apparent paradox of persistent selection for early flowering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austen, Emily J; Rowe, Locke; Stinchcombe, John R; Forrest, Jessica R K

    2017-08-01

    Decades of observation in natural plant populations have revealed pervasive phenotypic selection for early flowering onset. This consistent pattern seems at odds with life-history theory, which predicts stabilizing selection on age and size at reproduction. Why is selection for later flowering rare? Moreover, extensive evidence demonstrates that flowering time can and does evolve. What maintains ongoing directional selection for early flowering? Several non-mutually exclusive processes can help to reconcile the apparent paradox of selection for early flowering. We outline four: selection through other fitness components may counter observed fecundity selection for early flowering; asymmetry in the flowering-time-fitness function may make selection for later flowering hard to detect; flowering time and fitness may be condition-dependent; and selection on flowering duration is largely unaccounted for. In this Viewpoint, we develop these four mechanisms, and highlight areas where further study will improve our understanding of flowering-time evolution. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  20. When can stress facilitate divergence by altering time to flowering?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Crispin Y; Ally, Dilara; Hodgins, Kathryn A

    2015-12-01

    Stressors and heterogeneity are ubiquitous features of natural environments, and theory suggests that when environmental qualities alter flowering schedules through phenotypic plasticity, assortative mating can result that promotes evolutionary divergence. Therefore, it is important to determine whether common ecological stressors induce similar changes in flowering time. We review previous studies to determine whether two important stressors, water restriction and herbivory, induce consistent flowering time responses among species; for example, how often do water restriction and herbivory both delay flowering? We focus on the direction of change in flowering time, which affects the potential for divergence in heterogeneous environments. We also tested whether these stressors influenced time to flowering and nonphenology traits using Mimulus guttatus. The literature review suggests that water restriction has variable effects on flowering time, whereas herbivory delays flowering with exceptional consistency. In the Mimulus experiment, low water and herbivory advanced and delayed flowering, respectively. Overall, our results temper theoretical predictions for evolutionary divergence due to habitat-induced changes in flowering time; in particular, we discuss how accounting for variation in the direction of change in flowering time can either increase or decrease the potential for divergence. In addition, we caution against adaptive interpretations of stress-induced phenology shifts.

  1. Large and abundant flowers increase indirect costs of corollas: a study of coflowering sympatric Mediterranean species of contrasting flower size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixido, Alberto L; Valladares, Fernando

    2013-09-01

    Large floral displays receive more pollinator visits but involve higher production and maintenance costs. This can result in indirect costs which may negatively affect functions like reproductive output. In this study, we explored the relationship between floral display and indirect costs in two pairs of coflowering sympatric Mediterranean Cistus of contrasting flower size. We hypothesized that: (1) corolla production entails direct costs in dry mass, N and P, (2) corollas entail significant indirect costs in terms of fruit set and seed production, (3) indirect costs increase with floral display, (4) indirect costs are greater in larger-flowered sympatric species, and (5) local climatic conditions influence indirect costs. We compared fruit set and seed production of petal-removed flowers and unmanipulated control flowers and evaluated the influence of mean flower number and mean flower size on relative fruit and seed gain of petal-removed and control flowers. Fruit set and seed production were significantly higher in petal-removed flowers in all the studied species. A positive relationship was found between relative fruit gain and mean individual flower size within species. In one pair of species, fruit gain was higher in the large-flowered species, as was the correlation between fruit gain and mean number of open flowers. In the other pair, the correlation between fruit gain and mean flower size was also higher in the large-flowered species. These results reveal that Mediterranean environments impose significant constraints on floral display, counteracting advantages of large flowers from the pollination point of view with increased indirect costs of such flowers.

  2. A PHF8 homolog in C. elegans promotes DNA repair via homologous recombination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changrim Lee

    Full Text Available PHF8 is a JmjC domain-containing histone demethylase, defects in which are associated with X-linked mental retardation. In this study, we examined the roles of two PHF8 homologs, JMJD-1.1 and JMJD-1.2, in the model organism C. elegans in response to DNA damage. A deletion mutation in either of the genes led to hypersensitivity to interstrand DNA crosslinks (ICLs, while only mutation of jmjd-1.1 resulted in hypersensitivity to double-strand DNA breaks (DSBs. In response to ICLs, JMJD-1.1 did not affect the focus formation of FCD-2, a homolog of FANCD2, a key protein in the Fanconi anemia pathway. However, the dynamic behavior of RPA-1 and RAD-51 was affected by the mutation: the accumulations of both proteins at ICLs appeared normal, but their subsequent disappearance was retarded, suggesting that later steps of homologous recombination were defective. Similar changes in the dynamic behavior of RPA-1 and RAD-51 were seen in response to DSBs, supporting a role of JMJD-1.1 in homologous recombination. Such a role was also supported by our finding that the hypersensitivity of jmjd-1.1 worms to ICLs was rescued by knockdown of lig-4, a homolog of Ligase 4 active in nonhomologous end-joining. The hypersensitivity of jmjd-1.1 worms to ICLs was increased by rad-54 knockdown, suggesting that JMJD-1.1 acts in parallel with RAD-54 in modulating chromatin structure. Indeed, the level of histone H3 Lys9 tri-methylation, a marker of heterochromatin, was higher in jmjd-1.1 cells than in wild-type cells. We conclude that the histone demethylase JMJD-1.1 influences homologous recombination either by relaxing heterochromatin structure or by indirectly regulating the expression of multiple genes affecting DNA repair.

  3. Flowering does not decrease vegetative competitiveness of Lolium perenne

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thiele, Jan; Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke; Hauser, Thure Pavlo

    2009-01-01

    as reduced flowering could free resources and increase productivity. But if so, less-flowering cultivars might be more competitive and invade natural swards. We tested for costs of sexual reproduction on vegetative propagation and competitiveness of the perennial grass Lolium perenne, one of the most...... treatments were successful in producing clones with largely differing degrees of flowering. However, we found no negative correlation between flowering and vegetative propagation and competitiveness. Early and strongly flowering southern provenances showed less clonal growth and higher mortality, but within...... provenances the response of clone diameter to flowering was positive or neutral. We conclude that investment of resources into flowering has no measurable costs on vegetative propagation and competitiveness of L. perenne. The apparent lack of costs of sexual reproduction could be explained by bet...

  4. Hochschild Homology and Cohomology of Klein Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Butin

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Within the framework of deformation quantization, a first step towards the study of star-products is the calculation of Hochschild cohomology. The aim of this article is precisely to determine the Hochschild homology and cohomology in two cases of algebraic varieties. On the one hand, we consider singular curves of the plane; here we recover, in a different way, a result proved by Fronsdal and make it more precise. On the other hand, we are interested in Klein surfaces. The use of a complex suggested by Kontsevich and the help of Groebner bases allow us to solve the problem.

  5. Homology in vertebrates bone mineral structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batdehmbehrehl, G.; Chultehm, D.; Sangaa, D.

    1999-01-01

    Using the neutron diffraction method a domination of low crystal syngonic (sp. gr. P63/m) phase Ca 5 [PO 4 ] 3 (OH, F, Cl) in bull and sheep bones as well as in the fossil dinosaur bone has been established and crystal phases in all the bones have identical structure (homology). The result becomes to be an important contribution to fundamental science such as biological evolution and to be useful in medical practice and solution of radiobiological problems connected with vertebrates and man. (author)

  6. Homological Perturbation Theory for Nonperturbative Integrals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Freyd, Theo

    2015-11-01

    We use the homological perturbation lemma to produce explicit formulas computing the class in the twisted de Rham complex represented by an arbitrary polynomial. This is a non-asymptotic version of the method of Feynman diagrams. In particular, we explain that phenomena usually thought of as particular to asymptotic integrals in fact also occur exactly: integrals of the type appearing in quantum field theory can be reduced in a totally algebraic fashion to integrals over an Euler-Lagrange locus, provided this locus is understood in the scheme-theoretic sense, so that imaginary critical points and multiplicities of degenerate critical points contribute.

  7. Natural variation of the RICE FLOWERING LOCUS T 1 contributes to flowering time divergence in rice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eri Ogiso-Tanaka

    Full Text Available In rice (Oryza sativa L., there is a diversity in flowering time that is strictly genetically regulated. Some indica cultivars show extremely late flowering under long-day conditions, but little is known about the gene(s involved. Here, we demonstrate that functional defects in the florigen gene RFT1 are the main cause of late flowering in an indica cultivar, Nona Bokra. Mapping and complementation studies revealed that sequence polymorphisms in the RFT1 regulatory and coding regions are likely to cause late flowering under long-day conditions. We detected polymorphisms in the promoter region that lead to reduced expression levels of RFT1. We also identified an amino acid substitution (E105K that leads to a functional defect in Nona Bokra RFT1. Sequencing of the RFT1 region in rice accessions from a global collection showed that the E105K mutation is found only in indica, and indicated a strong association between the RFT1 haplotype and extremely late flowering in a functional Hd1 background. Furthermore, SNPs in the regulatory region of RFT1 and the E105K substitution in 1,397 accessions show strong linkage disequilibrium with a flowering time-associated SNP. Although the defective E105K allele of RFT1 (but not of another florigen gene, Hd3a is found in many cultivars, relative rate tests revealed no evidence for differential rate of evolution of these genes. The ratios of nonsynonymous to synonymous substitutions suggest that the E105K mutation resulting in the defect in RFT1 occurred relatively recently. These findings indicate that natural mutations in RFT1 provide flowering time divergence under long-day conditions.

  8. Is Bumblebee Foraging Efficiency Mediated by Morphological Correspondence to Flowers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikumi Dohzono

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Preference for certain types of flowers in bee species may be an adaptation for efficient foraging, and they often prefer flowers whose shape fits their mouthparts. However, it is unclear whether such flowers are truly beneficial for them. We address this issue by experimentally measuring foraging efficiency of bumblebees, the volume of sucrose solution consumed over handling time (μL/second, using long-tongued Bombus diversus Smith and short-tongued B. honshuensis Tkalcu that visit Clematis stans Siebold et Zuccarini. The corolla tube length of C. stans decreases during a flowering period, and male flowers are longer than female flowers. Long- and short-tongued bumblebees frequently visited longer and shorter flowers, respectively. Based on these preferences, we hypothesized that bumblebee foraging efficiency is higher when visiting flowers that show a good morphological fit between the proboscis and the corolla tube. Foraging efficiency of bumblebees was estimated using flowers for which nectar quality and quantity were controlled, in an experimental enclosure. We show that 1 the foraging efficiency of B. diversus was enhanced when visiting younger, longer flowers, and that 2 the foraging efficiency of B. honshuensis was higher when visiting shorter female flowers. This suggests that morphological correspondence between insects and flowers is important for insect foraging efficiency. However, in contradiction to our prediction, 3 short-tongued bumblebees B. honshuensis sucked nectar more efficiently when visiting younger, longer flowers, and 4 there was no significant difference in the foraging efficiency of B. diversus between flower sexes. These results suggest that morphological fit between the proboscis and the corolla tube is not a sole determinant of foraging efficiency. Bumblebees may adjust their sucking behavior in response to available rewards, and competition over rewards between bumblebee species might change visitation patterns

  9. Isolation and characterization of LHY homolog gene expressed in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-05-02

    May 2, 2008 ... responsible in negative feedback loop reaction of central oscillator in plant circadian clock system. The level of gene expression was found to be high four hours after dawn in flowering shoots and flower. This paper reported the isolation and characterization of the gene. Key words: LHY gene, circadian ...

  10. Dormancy release and flowering time in Ziziphus jujuba Mill., a "direct flowering" fruit tree, has a facultative requirement for chilling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meir, Michal; Ransbotyn, Vanessa; Raveh, Eran; Barak, Simon; Tel-Zur, Noemi; Zaccai, Michele

    2016-03-15

    In deciduous fruit trees, the effect of chilling on flowering has mostly been investigated in the "indirect flowering" group, characterized by a period of rest between flower bud formation and blooming. In the present study, we explored the effects of chilling and chilling deprivation on the flowering of Ziziphus jujuba, a temperate deciduous fruit tree belonging to the "direct flowering" group, in which flower bud differentiation, blooming and fruit development occur after dormancy release, during a single growing season. Dormancy release, vegetative growth and flowering time in Z. jujuba cv. Ben-Li were assessed following several treatments of chilling. Chilling treatments quantitatively decreased the timing of vegetative bud dormancy release, thereby accelerating flowering, but had no effect on the time from dormancy release to flowering. Trees grown at a constant temperature of 25°C, without chilling, broke dormancy and flowered, indicating the facultative character of chilling in this species. We measured the expression of Z. jujuba LFY and AP1 homologues (ZjLFY and ZjAP1). Chilling decreased ZjLFY expression in dormant vegetative buds but had no effect on ZjAP1expression, which reached peak expression before dormancy release and at anthesis. In conclusion, chilling is not obligatory for dormancy release of Z. jujuba cv. Ben-Li vegetative buds. However, the exposure to chilling during dormancy does accelerate vegetative bud dormancy release and flowering. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Testing hypotheses for excess flower production and low fruit-to-flower ratios in a pollinating seed-consuming mutualism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, J. Nathaniel; Bronstein, Judith L.; DeAngelis, Donald L.

    2004-01-01

    Pollinator attraction, pollen limitation, resource limitation, pollen donation and selective fruit abortion have all been proposed as processes explaining why hermaphroditic plants commonly produce many more flowers than mature fruit. We conducted a series of experiments in Arizona to investigate low fruit-to-flower ratios in senita cacti, which rely exclusively on pollinating seed-consumers. Selective abortion of fruit based on seed predators is of particular interest in this case because plants relying on pollinating seed-consumers are predicted to have such a mechanism to minimize seed loss. Pollinator attraction and pollen dispersal increased with flower number, but fruit set did not, refuting the hypothesis that excess flowers increase fruit set by attracting more pollinators. Fruit set of natural- and hand-pollinated flowers were not different, supporting the resource, rather than pollen, limitation hypothesis. Senita did abort fruit, but not selectively based on pollen quantity, pollen donors, or seed predators. Collectively, these results are consistent with sex allocation theory in that resource allocation to excess flower production can increase pollen dispersal and the male fitness function of flowers, but consequently results in reduced resources available for fruit set. Inconsistent with sex allocation theory, however, fruit production and the female fitness function of flowers may actually increase with flower production. This is because excess flower production lowers pollinator-to-flower ratios and results in fruit abortion, both of which limit the abundance and hence oviposition rates, of pre-dispersal seed predators.

  12. What flowers do we like? The influence of shape and color on the rating of flower beauty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Hůla

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available There is no doubt that people find flowers beautiful. Surprisingly, we know very little about the actual properties which make flowers so appealing to humans. Although the evolutionary aesthetics provides some theories concerning generally preferred flower traits, empirical evidence is largely missing. In this study, we used an online survey in which residents of the Czech Republic (n = 2006 rated the perceived beauty of 52 flower stimuli of diverse shapes and colors. Colored flowers were preferred over their uncolored versions. When controlling for flower shape, we found an unequal preference for different flower colors, blue being the most and yellow the least preferred. In the overall assessment of beauty, shape was more important than color. Prototypical flowers, i.e., radially symmetrical flowers with low complexity, were rated as the most beautiful. We also found a positive effect of sharp flower contours and blue color on the overall rating of flower beauty. The results may serve as a basis for further studies in some areas of the people-plant interaction research.

  13. What flowers do we like? The influence of shape and color on the rating of flower beauty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flegr, Jaroslav

    2016-01-01

    There is no doubt that people find flowers beautiful. Surprisingly, we know very little about the actual properties which make flowers so appealing to humans. Although the evolutionary aesthetics provides some theories concerning generally preferred flower traits, empirical evidence is largely missing. In this study, we used an online survey in which residents of the Czech Republic (n = 2006) rated the perceived beauty of 52 flower stimuli of diverse shapes and colors. Colored flowers were preferred over their uncolored versions. When controlling for flower shape, we found an unequal preference for different flower colors, blue being the most and yellow the least preferred. In the overall assessment of beauty, shape was more important than color. Prototypical flowers, i.e., radially symmetrical flowers with low complexity, were rated as the most beautiful. We also found a positive effect of sharp flower contours and blue color on the overall rating of flower beauty. The results may serve as a basis for further studies in some areas of the people-plant interaction research. PMID:27330863

  14. Sugars, the clock and transition to flowering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza eBolouri Moghaddam

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Sugars do not only act as source of energy, but they also act as signals in plants. This mini review summarizes the emerging links between sucrose-mediated signaling and the cellular networks involved in flowering time control and defense. Cross-talks with gibberellin (GA and jasmonate (JA signaling pathways are highlighted. The circadian clock fulfills a crucial role at the heart of cellular networks and the bilateral relation between sugar signaling and the clock is discussed. It is proposed that important factors controlling plant growth (DELLAs, PIFs, invertases and trehalose- 6-phosphate or T6P might fulfill central roles in the transition to flowering as well. The emerging concept of ‘sweet immunity’, modulated by the clock, might at least partly rely on a sucrose-specific signaling pathway that needs further exploration.

  15. Deterministic diffusion in flower-shaped billiards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harayama, Takahisa; Klages, Rainer; Gaspard, Pierre

    2002-08-01

    We propose a flower-shaped billiard in order to study the irregular parameter dependence of chaotic normal diffusion. Our model is an open system consisting of periodically distributed obstacles in the shape of a flower, and it is strongly chaotic for almost all parameter values. We compute the parameter dependent diffusion coefficient of this model from computer simulations and analyze its functional form using different schemes, all generalizing the simple random walk approximation of Machta and Zwanzig. The improved methods we use are based either on heuristic higher-order corrections to the simple random walk model, on lattice gas simulation methods, or they start from a suitable Green-Kubo formula for diffusion. We show that dynamical correlations, or memory effects, are of crucial importance in reproducing the precise parameter dependence of the diffusion coefficent.

  16. Flower-petal mode converter for NLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoag, H.A.; Tantawi, S.G.; Callin, R.; Deruyter, H.; Farkas, Z.D.; Ko, K.; Kroll, N.; Lavine, T.L.; Menegat, A.; Vlieks, A.E.

    1993-01-01

    It is important to minimize power loss in the waveguide system connecting klystron, pulse-compressor, and accelerator in an X-Band NLC. However, existing designs of klystron output cavity circuits and accelerator input couplers utilize rectangular waveguide which has relatively high transmission loss. It is therefore necessary to convert to and from the low-loss mode in circulator waveguide at each end of the system. A description is given of development work on high-power, high-vacuum open-quote flower-petal close-quote transducers, which convert the TE 10 mode in rectangular guide to the TE 01 mode in circular guide. A three-port modification of the flower petal device, which can be used as either a power combiner at the klystron or a power divider at the accelerator is also described

  17. Flower-petal mode converter for NLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoag, H.A.; Tantawi, S.G.; Callin, R.

    1993-04-01

    It is important to minimize power loss in the waveguide system connecting klystron, pulse-compressor, and accelerator in an X-Band NLC. However, existing designs of klystron output cavity circuits and accelerator input couplers utilize rectangular waveguide which has relatively high transmission loss. It is therefore necessary to convert to and from the low-loss mode in circular waveguide at each end of the system. A description is given of development work on high-power, high-vacuum 'flower-petal' transducers, which convert the TE 10 mode in rectangular guide to the TE 01 mode in circular guide. A three-port modification of the flower petal device, which can be used as either a power combiner at the klystron or a power divider at the accelerator is also described

  18. Tandem Terminal Ion Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harper, G.C.; Lindner, C.E.; Myers, A.W.; Wechel, T.D. van

    2000-01-01

    OAK-B135 Tandem Terminal Ion Source. The terminal ion source (TIS) was used in several experiments during this reporting period, all for the 7 Be(γ) 8 B experiment. Most of the runs used 1 H + at terminal voltages from 0.3 MV to 1.5 MV. One of the runs used 2 H + at terminal voltage of 1.4 MV. The other run used 4 He + at a terminal voltage of 1.37 MV. The list of experiments run with the TIS to date is given in table 1 below. The tank was opened four times for unscheduled source repairs. On one occasion the tank was opened to replace the einzel lens power supply which had failed. The 10 kV unit was replaced with a 15 kV unit. The second time the tank was opened to repair the extractor supply which was damaged by a tank spark. On the next occasion the tank was opened to replace a source canal which had sputtered away. Finally, the tank was opened to replace the discharge bottle which had been coated with aluminum sputtered from the exit canal

  19. Tandem Terminal Ion Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    None

    2000-01-01

    OAK-B135 Tandem Terminal Ion Source. The terminal ion source (TIS) was used in several experiments during this reporting period, all for the(sup 7)Be((gamma))(sup 8)B experiment. Most of the runs used(sup 1)H(sup+) at terminal voltages from 0.3 MV to 1.5 MV. One of the runs used(sup 2)H(sup+) at terminal voltage of 1.4 MV. The other run used(sup 4)He(sup+) at a terminal voltage of 1.37 MV. The list of experiments run with the TIS to date is given in table 1 below. The tank was opened four times for unscheduled source repairs. On one occasion the tank was opened to replace the einzel lens power supply which had failed. The 10 kV unit was replaced with a 15 kV unit. The second time the tank was opened to repair the extractor supply which was damaged by a tank spark. On the next occasion the tank was opened to replace a source canal which had sputtered away. Finally, the tank was opened to replace the discharge bottle which had been coated with aluminum sputtered from the exit canal

  20. PLANT HOMOLOGOUS TO PARAFIBROMIN is a component of the PAF1 complex and assists in regulating expression of genes within H3K27ME3-enriched chromatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sunchung; Oh, Sookyung; Ek-Ramos, Julissa; van Nocker, Steven

    2010-06-01

    The human Paf1 complex (Paf1C) subunit Parafibromin assists in mediating output from the Wingless/Int signaling pathway, and dysfunction of the encoding gene HRPT2 conditions specific cancer-related disease phenotypes. Here, we characterize the organismal and molecular roles of PLANT HOMOLOGOUS TO PARAFIBROMIN (PHP), the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) homolog of Parafibromin. PHP resides in an approximately 670-kD protein complex in nuclear extracts, and physically interacts with other known Paf1C-related proteins in vivo. In striking contrast to the developmental pleiotropy conferred by mutation in other plant Paf1C component genes in Arabidopsis, loss of PHP specifically conditioned accelerated phase transition from vegetative growth to flowering and resulted in misregulation of a very limited subset of genes that included the flowering repressor FLOWERING LOCUS C. Those genes targeted by PHP were distinguished from the bulk of Arabidopsis genes and other plant Paf1C targets by strong enrichment for trimethylation of lysine-27 on histone H3 (H3K27me3) within chromatin. These findings suggest that PHP is a component of a plant Paf1C protein in Arabidopsis, but has a more specialized role in modulating expression of a subset of Paf1C targets.

  1. New Service Development in Flower Retail

    OpenAIRE

    Abdigali, Alikhan

    2010-01-01

    My research will focus on the practical dimension of new service development in flower retail in Kazakhstan. Our group project, the business plan, investigated the issue from an entrepreneur perspective without going into detail in theoretical part. I will try to come up with a set of recommendations to entrepreneurs who want to develop a customer oriented service, based on theories drawn from service development literature. The product and service mix development is a difficult task, and I h...

  2. Plants and colour: Flowers and pollination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Renee; Owens, Simon J.; Rørslett, Bjørn

    2011-03-01

    While there is a range of colours found in plants the predominant colour is green. Pigments in plants have several roles e.g. photosynthesis and signalling. If colour is to be used as a signal then it must stand out from green. However, one should be aware that there are also coloured compounds where we have not yet fully investigated the role of colour in their functions—they may have roles in, for example, defence or heat exchange. In this paper, we will describe the basic chemistry of the major pigments found in plants and especially floral pigments. We will then discuss their locations in parts of the flower (such as sepals, petals, pollen and nectar), the cells in which they are found and their sub-cellular locations. Floral pigments have a large role to play in pollination of flowers by animals. They can and are modified in many ways during the development of flowers in nature, for example, at emergence and post-pollination. There are a range of biochemical mechanisms of colour change both within flowers and in isolated pigments. Some of the factors influencing colour are temperature, co-pigments, pH, metals, sugars, anthocyanin stacking and cell shape. There is a renewed interest in analysing floral pigments and how they are modified partly because of advances in recombinant DNA technologies, but also because of pollinators and their significance to biodiversity and for evolutionary studies. There is continued strong interest from the horticultural industry for the introduction of new colours e.g. the blue rose and for the exploitation of natural dyes. Funding in this area may impact future research in a potentially beneficial way but it must not deflect us from science-based conservation.

  3. Flower Retail in Kazakhstan: Business Plan

    OpenAIRE

    Talgat, Baidauletov; Alikhan, Abdigali

    2010-01-01

    Executive summary Flower retail industry in Kazakhstan is estimated to be around USD $80-100 million. Current market environment allows for entrance of a new player, focused on highly lucrative part segment of the market. Our business will differentiate itself by offering exceptional level of service while retaining competitive market prices. This business plan describes a way to turn USD $204,000 into a business with a turnover above $ 7 million in four years by capturing premium 10% o...

  4. SANSparallel: interactive homology search against Uniprot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somervuo, Panu; Holm, Liisa

    2015-07-01

    Proteins evolve by mutations and natural selection. The network of sequence similarities is a rich source for mining homologous relationships that inform on protein structure and function. There are many servers available to browse the network of homology relationships but one has to wait up to a minute for results. The SANSparallel webserver provides protein sequence database searches with immediate response and professional alignment visualization by third-party software. The output is a list, pairwise alignment or stacked alignment of sequence-similar proteins from Uniprot, UniRef90/50, Swissprot or Protein Data Bank. The stacked alignments are viewed in Jalview or as sequence logos. The database search uses the suffix array neighborhood search (SANS) method, which has been re-implemented as a client-server, improved and parallelized. The method is extremely fast and as sensitive as BLAST above 50% sequence identity. Benchmarks show that the method is highly competitive compared to previously published fast database search programs: UBLAST, DIAMOND, LAST, LAMBDA, RAPSEARCH2 and BLAT. The web server can be accessed interactively or programmatically at http://ekhidna2.biocenter.helsinki.fi/cgi-bin/sans/sans.cgi. It can be used to make protein functional annotation pipelines more efficient, and it is useful in interactive exploration of the detailed evidence supporting the annotation of particular proteins of interest. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  5. Molecular characterization of DnaJ 5 homologs in silkworm Bombyx mori and its expression during egg diapause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirigineedi, Sasibhushan; Vijayagowri, Esvaran; Murthy, Geetha N; Rao, Guruprasada; Ponnuvel, Kangayam M

    2014-12-01

    A comparison of the cDNA sequences (1 056 bp) of Bombyx mori DnaJ 5 homolog with B. mori genome revealed that unlike in other Hsps, it has an intron of 234 bp. The DnaJ 5 homolog contains 351 amino acids, of which 70 contain the conserved DnaJ domain at the N-terminal end. This homolog of B. mori has all desirable functional domains similar to other insects, and the 13 different DnaJ homologs identified in B. mori genome were distributed on different chromosomes. The expressed sequence tag database analysis of Hsp40 gene expression revealed higher expression in wing disc followed by diapause-induced eggs. Microarray analysis revealed higher expression of DnaJ 5 homolog at 18th h after oviposition in diapause-induced eggs. Further validation of DnaJ 5 expression through qPCR in diapause-induced and nondiapause eggs at different time intervals revealed higher expression in diapause eggs at 18 and 24 h after oviposition, which coincided with the expression of Hsp70 as the Hsp 40 is its co-chaperone. This study thus provides an outline of the genome organization of Hsp40 gene, and its role in egg diapause induction in B. mori. © 2013 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  6. Flowers of Çoruh Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramazan Çakmakçı

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Coruh valley has an important biological diversity in term of plants, flora-fauna, wildlife and ecosystems. These regions contain the landraces, wild and weedy relatives, other wild, herbaceous and flowering trees, herbaceous flowering plants, medicinal and aromatic and flowering and ornamental shrubs plants species which are especially economically important plant for floriculture, eco-tourism, botanical tourism and nature tourism. Many important medicinal and aromatic and ornamental plants species are found in this region and naturally grow. It is considered that Acantholimon, Achillea, Alkanna, Allium, Amygdalus, Angelica, Anemone, Anthemis, Arabis, Arctium, Artemisia, Asparagus, Asperula, Astragalus, Calamintha, Calendula, Calutea, Campanula, Capparis, Cardamine, Centaurea, Cephalanthera, Cephalaria, Chelidonium, Chenopodium, Chysanthemum, Colchicum, Consolida, Coriandrum, Cornus, Coronilla, Cerasus, Cotoneaster, Crataegus, Crocus, Cyclamen, Dactylorhiza, Digitalis, Dianthus, Draba, Echinops, Equisetum, Ferula, Filipendula, Fritillaria, Fumaria, Gagea, Galanthus, Galium, Genista, Gentiana, Geranium, Geum, Gladiolus, Glychirrza, Helichrysum, Hesperis, Hypericum, İnula, İris, Isatis, Juniperus, Lilium, Linaria, Linum, lysimachia, Malus, Malva, Marrubium, Melissa, Mentha, Micromeria, Morina, Muscari, Mysotis, Narcissus, Neotchichatchewia, Nepeta, Onobrychis, Orchis, Ornithogalum, Origanum, Paeonia, Papaver, Pedicularis, Peganum, Phelypaea, Platanthera, Plantago, Pilosella, Pelargonium, Potentilla, Polygonum, Polygala, Primula, Punica, Prunus, Pyrus, Ranunculus, Rhamnus, Rhododendron, Rhus, Rosa, Rubia, Rubus, Rumex, Salvia, Sambucus, Satureja, Scilla, Scorzonera, Scutellaria, Sedum, Sempervivum, Sideritis, Sophora, Sorbus, Stachys, Tanecetum, Teucrium, Thymus, Trigonella, Tulipa, Tussilago, Uechtriitzia, Vaccinium, Verbascum, Verbena, Veronica, Viburnum and Ziziphora species commonly found in the region may be may be evaluated economically.

  7. Is the flower fluorescence relevant in biocommunication?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriel, Analía; Lagorio, María Gabriela

    2010-10-01

    Flower fluorescence has been previously proposed as a potential visual signal to attract pollinators. In this work, this point was addressed by quantitatively measuring the fluorescence quantum yield ( Φ f) for flowers of Bellis perennis (white, yellow, pink, and purple), Ornithogalum thyrsoides (petals and ovaries), Limonium sinuatum (white and yellow), Lampranthus productus (yellow), Petunia nyctaginiflora (white), Bougainvillea spectabilis (white and yellow), Antirrhinum majus (white and yellow), Eustoma grandiflorum (white and blue), Citrus aurantium (petals and stigma), and Portulaca grandiflora (yellow). The highest values were obtained for the ovaries of O. thyrsoides ( Φ f = 0.030) and for Citrus aurantium petals ( Φ f = 0.014) and stigma ( Φ f = 0.013). Emitted photons as fluorescence were compared with reflected photons. It was concluded that the fluorescence emission is negligible compared to the reflected light, even for the most fluorescent samples, and it may not be considered as an optical signal in biocommunication. The work was complemented with the calculation of quantum catches for each studied flower species to describe the visual sensitization of eye photoreceptors.

  8. Carbohydrate Status of Tulip Bulbs during Cold-Induced Flower Stalk Elongation and Flowering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambrechts, H.; Rook, F.; Kolloffel, C.

    1994-01-01

    The effect of a cold treatment on the carbohydrate status of the scales and flower stalk of Tulipa gesneriana L. cv Apeldoorn bulbs during growth after planting was studied and compared with bulbs not given cold treatment. Bulbs were stored dry for 12 weeks at 5[deg]C (precooled) or 17[deg]C (noncooled). Only the 5[deg]C treatment led to rapid flower stalk elongation and flowering following planting at higher temperatures. Precooling enhanced mobilization of starch, fructans, and sucrose in the scales. The cold-stimulated starch breakdown was initially accompanied by increased [alpha]-amylase activity per scale. In noncooled bulbs, [alpha]-amylase activity slightly decreased or remained more or less constant. Cold-induced flower stalk elongation was partially accompanied by a decrease in the sucrose content and an increase in the glucose content and invertase activity per g dry weight. The starch content in internodes initially decreased and subsequently increased; [alpha]-amylase activity per g dry weight of the lowermost internode showed a peak pattern during starch breakdown and increased thereafter. The internodes of noncooled bulbs, on the contrary, accumulated sucrose. Their glucose content and invertase activity per g dry weight remained low. Starch breakdown was not found and [alpha]-amylase activity per g dry weight of the lowermost internode remained at a low level. Precooling of tulip bulbs thus favors reserve mobilization in the scales and flower stalk and glucose accumulation in the elongating internodes. PMID:12232100

  9. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic characterization of a cyclic nucleotide-binding homology domain from the mouse EAG potassium channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques-Carvalho, Maria João; Morais-Cabral, João Henrique

    2012-01-01

    The crystallization conditions and preliminary crystal characterization of the cytoplasmic cyclic nucleotide-binding homology domain from the mouse EAG potassium channel are reported. The members of the family of voltage-gated KCNH potassium channels play important roles in cardiac and neuronal repolarization, tumour proliferation and hormone secretion. These channels have a C-terminal cytoplasmic domain which is homologous to cyclic nucleotide-binding domains (CNB-homology domains), but it has been demonstrated that channel function is not affected by cyclic nucleotides and that the domain does not bind nucleotides in vitro. Here, the crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of a CNB-homology domain from a member of the KCNH family, the mouse EAG channel, is reported. X-ray diffraction data were collected to 2.2 Å resolution and the crystal belonged to the hexagonal space group P3 1 21

  10. Homologous Recombination—Experimental Systems, Analysis and Significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzminov, Andrei

    2014-01-01

    Homologous recombination is the most complex of all recombination events that shape genomes and produce material for evolution. Homologous recombination events are exchanges between DNA molecules in the lengthy regions of shared identity, catalyzed by a group of dedicated enzymes. There is a variety of experimental systems in E. coli and Salmonella to detect homologous recombination events of several different kinds. Genetic analysis of homologous recombination reveals three separate phases of this process: pre-synapsis (the early phase), synapsis (homologous strand exchange) and post-synapsis (the late phase). In E. coli, there are at least two independent pathway of the early phase and at least two independent pathways of the late phase. All this complexity is incongruent with the originally ascribed role of homologous recombination as accelerator of genome evolution: there is simply not enough duplication and repetition in enterobacterial genomes for homologous recombination to have a detectable evolutionary role, and therefore not enough selection to maintain such a complexity. At the same time, the mechanisms of homologous recombination are uniquely suited for repair of complex DNA lesions called chromosomal lesions. In fact, the two major classes of chromosomal lesions are recognized and processed by the two individual pathways at the early phase of homologous recombination. It follows, therefore, that homologous recombination events are occasional reflections of the continual recombinational repair, made possible in cases of natural or artificial genome redundancy. PMID:26442506

  11. Windows Terminal Servers Orchestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowiec, Sebastian; Gaspar, Ricardo; Smith, Tim

    2017-10-01

    Windows Terminal Servers provide application gateways for various parts of the CERN accelerator complex, used by hundreds of CERN users every day. The combination of new tools such as Puppet, HAProxy and Microsoft System Center suite enable automation of provisioning workflows to provide a terminal server infrastructure that can scale up and down in an automated manner. The orchestration does not only reduce the time and effort necessary to deploy new instances, but also facilitates operations such as patching, analysis and recreation of compromised nodes as well as catering for workload peaks.

  12. Seismic characteristics and identification of negative flower structures, positive flower structures, and positive structural inversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harding, T.P.

    1985-04-01

    Negative and positive flower structures and positive inverted structures imply specific modes of formation, and their distinctive characteristics make them important criteria for the identification of certain structural styles. A negative flower structure from the Andaman Sea consists of a shallow synform bounded by upward-spreading strands of a wrench fault that have mostly normal separations. Paralleling monoclines and oblique, en echelon normal faults flank the divergent wrench fault. A positive flower structure from the Ardmore basin, Oklahoma, consists of a shallow antiform displaced by the upward diverging strands of a wrench fault that have mostly reverse separations. En echelon folds are present on either side of this convergent wrench fault. Positive structural inversion at the Rambutan oil field, South Sumatra basin, has formed a shallow anticlinorium and has partly uplifted the underlying graben. Deeper fault segments bounding the graben have retained their normal fault profiles, but at shallow levels some of these faults have reverse separations.

  13. Overexpression of the kiwifruit SVP3 gene affects reproductive development and suppresses anthocyanin biosynthesis in petals, but has no effect on vegetative growth, dormancy, or flowering time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Rongmei; Wang, Tianchi; McGie, Tony; Voogd, Charlotte; Allan, Andrew C; Hellens, Roger P; Varkonyi-Gasic, Erika

    2014-09-01

    SVP-like MADS domain transcription factors have been shown to regulate flowering time and both inflorescence and flower development in annual plants, while having effects on growth cessation and terminal bud formation in perennial species. Previously, four SVP genes were described in woody perennial vine kiwifruit (Actinidia spp.), with possible distinct roles in bud dormancy and flowering. Kiwifruit SVP3 transcript was confined to vegetative tissues and acted as a repressor of flowering as it was able to rescue the Arabidopsis svp41 mutant. To characterize kiwifruit SVP3 further, ectopic expression in kiwifruit species was performed. Ectopic expression of SVP3 in A. deliciosa did not affect general plant growth or the duration of endodormancy. Ectopic expression of SVP3 in A. eriantha also resulted in plants with normal vegetative growth, bud break, and flowering time. However, significantly prolonged and abnormal flower, fruit, and seed development were observed, arising from SVP3 interactions with kiwifruit floral homeotic MADS-domain proteins. Petal pigmentation was reduced as a result of SVP3-mediated interference with transcription of the kiwifruit flower tissue-specific R2R3 MYB regulator, MYB110a, and the gene encoding the key anthocyanin biosynthetic step, F3GT1. Constitutive expression of SVP3 had a similar impact on reproductive development in transgenic tobacco. The flowering time was not affected in day-neutral and photoperiod-responsive Nicotiana tabacum cultivars, but anthesis and seed germination were significantly delayed. The accumulation of anthocyanin in petals was reduced and the same underlying mechanism of R2R3 MYB NtAN2 transcript reduction was demonstrated. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  14. Functional importance of conserved domains in the flowering-time gene CONSTANS demonstrated by analysis of mutant alleles and transgenic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, F; Costa, M M; Hepworth, S R; Vizir, I; Piñeiro, M; Reeves, P H; Putterill, J; Coupland, G

    2001-12-01

    CONSTANS promotes flowering of Arabidopsis in response to long-day conditions. We show that CONSTANS is a member of an Arabidopsis gene family that comprises 16 other members. The CO-Like proteins encoded by these genes contain two segments of homology: a zinc finger containing region near their amino terminus and a CCT (CO, CO-Like, TOC1) domain near their carboxy terminus. Analysis of seven classical co mutant alleles demonstrated that the mutations all occur within either the zinc finger region or the CCT domain, confirming that the two regions of homology are important for CO function. The zinc fingers are most similar to those of B-boxes, which act as protein-protein interaction domains in several transcription factors described in animals. Segments of CO protein containing the CCT domain localize GFP to the nucleus, but one mutation that affects the CCT domain delays flowering without affecting the nuclear localization function, suggesting that this domain has additional functions. All eight co alleles, including one recovered by pollen irradiation in which DNA encoding both B-boxes is deleted, are shown to be semidominant. This dominance appears to be largely due to a reduction in CO dosage in the heterozygous plants. However, some alleles may also actively delay flowering, because overexpression from the CaMV 35S promoter of the co-3 allele, that has a mutation in the second B-box, delayed flowering of wild-type plants. The significance of these observations for the role of CO in the control of flowering time is discussed.

  15. Interaction and dynamics of homologous pairing protein 2 (HOP2) and DNA studied by MD simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moktan, Hem; Pezza, Roberto; Zhou, Donghua

    2015-03-01

    The homologous pairing protein 2 (Hop2) plays an important role in meiosis and DNA repair. Together with protein Mnd1, Hop2 enhances the strand invasion activity of recombinase Dmc1 by over 30 times, facilitating proper synapsis of homologous chromosomes. We recently determined the NMR structure of the N-terminal domain of Hop2 and proposed a model of Protein-DNA complex based on NMR chemical shift perturbations and mutagenesis studies (Moktan, J Biol Chem 2014 10.1074/jbc.M114.548180). However structure and dynamics of the complex have not been studied at the atomic level yet. Here, we used classical MD simulations to study the interactions between the N-terminal HOP2 and DNA. The simulated results indicate that helix3 (H3) interacts with DNA in major groove and wing1 (W1) interacts mostly in minor groove mainly via direct hydrogen bonds. Also it is found that binding leads to reduced fluctuations in both protein and DNA. Several water bridge interactions have been identified. The residue-wise contributions to the interaction energy were evaluated. Also the functional motion of the protein is analyzed using principal component analysis. The results confirmed the importance of H3 and W1 for the stability of the complex, which is consistent with our previous experimental studies.

  16. The PLAC1-homology region of the ZP domain is sufficient for protein polymerisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Litscher Eveline S

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hundreds of extracellular proteins polymerise into filaments and matrices by using zona pellucida (ZP domains. ZP domain proteins perform highly diverse functions, ranging from structural to receptorial, and mutations in their genes are responsible for a number of severe human diseases. Recently, PLAC1, Oosp1-3, Papillote and CG16798 proteins were identified that share sequence homology with the N-terminal half of the ZP domain (ZP-N, but not with its C-terminal half (ZP-C. The functional significance of this partial conservation is unknown. Results By exploiting a highly engineered bacterial strain, we expressed in soluble form the PLAC1-homology region of mammalian sperm receptor ZP3 as a fusion to maltose binding protein. Mass spectrometry showed that the 4 conserved Cys residues within the ZP-N moiety of the fusion protein adopt the same disulfide bond connectivity as in full-length native ZP3, indicating that it is correctly folded, and electron microscopy and biochemical analyses revealed that it assembles into filaments. Conclusion These findings provide a function for PLAC1-like proteins and, by showing that ZP-N is a biologically active folding unit, prompt a re-evaluation of the architecture of the ZP domain and its polymers. Furthermore, they suggest that ZP-C might play a regulatory role in the assembly of ZP domain protein complexes.

  17. Yield in almond is related more to the abundance of flowers than the relative number of flowers that set fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Tombesi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Almond tree yield is a function of the number of flowers on a tree and the percentage of flowers that set fruit. Almonds are borne on spurs (short proleptic shoots that can have both leaves and flowers. Almond tree spur dynamics research has documented that previous year spur leaf area is a predictive parameter for year-to-year spur survival, spur flowering and to a lesser extent spur fruiting, while previous year fruit bearing has a negative impact on subsequent year flowering. However, a question remained about whether yields are more dependent on flower numbers or relative fruit set of the flowers that are present. The aim of the present work was to compare the importance of flower abundance with that of relative fruit set in determining the productivity of a population of tagged spurs in almond trees over a 6-year period. Overall tree yield among years was more sensitive to total number of flowers on a tree rather than relative fruit set. These results emphasize the importance of maintaining large populations of healthy flowering spurs for sustained high production in almond orchards.

  18. The Tiny Terminators

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 5. The Tiny Terminators - Mosquitoes and Diseases. P K Sumodan. General Article Volume 6 Issue 5 May 2001 pp 48-55. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/006/05/0048-0055 ...

  19. Making Wireless Terminals Simpler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Søren Skovgaard; Popovski, Petar; De Carvalho, Elisabeth

    2005-01-01

    equalization in the downlink, which these requirements lead to. We propose to solve the problem by applying pre-processing at the base station, thereby rendering the terminal simple. We establish a general MIMO block transmission model, and derive different transmit/receive filters, based on the Linear Minimum...

  20. Trauma and termination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, F

    1995-02-01

    The author suggests a particular reading of the thesis put forward by Freud in 'Analysis terminable and interminable' that an effective and more definitive conclusion may be expected in analyses of cases with traumatic aetiology. This reading shifts the emphasis from the patient's history to the possibility of its crystallising in focal nuclei emerging within the analytic relationship under the pressure of the termination. The revival of separation anxieties which cannot be worked through, and their crystallisation in precipitating traumatic events, may give rise to decisive psychic work allowing the analysis to be brought to a conclusion. Two case histories are presented to show how the end of the analysis assumes the form of a new trauma, which reactivates in the present, traumatic anxieties from the patient's own infantile history. In the first case a premature birth and in the second a miscarriage, originally experienced as isolated automatic events without time or history, are relived in the terminal phase as vicissitudes of the transference, so that new meaning can be assigned to them and they can be withdrawn from the somatic cycle of repetition. The powerful tendency to act out and the intense countertransference pressure on the analyst are discussed in the light of the specificities of this phase, which is crucial to the success of the analysis. This leads to a re-examination, in the concluding notes, of some theoretical questions inherent in the problem of the termination and, in particular, to a discussion of the ambiguous concept of a natural ending.

  1. Prematurely terminated slug tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karasaki, K.

    1990-07-01

    A solution of the well response to a prematurely terminated slug test (PTST) is presented. The advantages of a PTST over conventional slug tests are discussed. A systematized procedure of a PTST is proposed, where a slug test is terminated in the midpoint of the flow point, and the subsequent shut-in data is recorded and analyzed. This method requires a downhole shut-in device and a pressure transducer, which is no more than the conventional deep-well slug testing. As opposed to slug tests, which are ineffective when a skin is present, more accurate estimate of formation permeability can be made using a PTST. Premature termination also shortens the test duration considerably. Because in most cases no more information is gained by completing a slug test to the end, the author recommends that conventional slug tests be replaced by the premature termination technique. This study is part of an investigation of the feasibility of geologic isolation of nuclear wastes being carried out by the US Department of Energy and the National Cooperative for the Storage of Radioactive Waste of Switzerland

  2. Acetylcholine Receptor: Complex of Homologous Subunits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raftery, Michael A.; Hunkapiller, Michael W.; Strader, Catherine D.; Hood, Leroy E.

    1980-06-01

    The acetylcholine receptor from the electric ray Torpedo californica is composed of five subunits; two are identical and the other three are structurally related to them. Microsequence analysis of the four polypeptides demonstrates amino acid homology among the subunits. Further sequence analysis of both membrane-bound and Triton-solubilized, chromatographically purified receptor gave the stoichiometry of the four subunits (40,000:50,000:60,000:65,000 daltons) as 2:1:1:1, indicating that this protein is a pentameric complex with a molecular weight of 255,000 daltons. Genealogical analysis suggests that divergence from a common ancestral gene occurred early in the evolution of the receptor. This shared ancestry argues that each of the four subunits plays a functional role in the receptor's physiological action.

  3. Regulation of Homologous Recombination by SUMOylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinela da Silva, Sonia Cristina

    factors such as the homologous recombination (HR) machinery. HR constitutes the main DSB repair pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and despite being largely considered an error-free process and essential for genome stability, uncontrolled recombination can lead to loss of heterozygosity, translocations......, deletions, and genome rearrangements that can lead to cell death or cancer in humans. The post-translational modification by SUMO (small ubiquitinlike modifier) has proven to be an important regulator of HR and genome integrity, but the molecular mechanisms responsible for these roles are still unclear....... In this study I present new insights for the role of SUMOylation in regulating HR by dissecting the role of SUMO in the interaction between the central HR-mediator protein Rad52 and its paralogue Rad59 and the outcome of recombination. This data provides evidence for the importance of SUMO in promoting protein...

  4. Homological mirror symmetry. New developments and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapustin, Anton; Kreuzer, Maximilian; Schlesinger, Karl-Georg

    2009-01-01

    Homological Mirror Symmetry, the study of dualities of certain quantum field theories in a mathematically rigorous form, has developed into a flourishing subject on its own over the past years. The present volume bridges a gap in the literature by providing a set of lectures and reviews that both introduce and representatively review the state-of-the art in the field from different perspectives. With contributions by K. Fukaya, M. Herbst, K. Hori, M. Huang, A. Kapustin, L. Katzarkov, A. Klemm, M. Kontsevich, D. Page, S. Quackenbush, E. Sharpe, P. Seidel, I. Smith and Y. Soibelman, this volume will be a reference on the topic for everyone starting to work or actively working on mathematical aspects of quantum field theory. (orig.)

  5. HOMOLOGOUS CYCLONES IN THE QUIET SUN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Xinting; Zhang, Jun; Li, Ting; Zhang, Yuzong; Yang, Shuhong, E-mail: yxt27272@mail.ustc.edu.cn, E-mail: zjun@nao.cas.cn, E-mail: liting@nao.cas.cn, E-mail: yuzong@nao.cas.cn, E-mail: shuhongyang@nao.cas.cn [Key Laboratory of Solar Activity, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China)

    2014-02-20

    Through observations with the Solar Dynamics Observatory Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) and Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager, we tracked one rotating network magnetic field (RNF) near the solar equator. It lasted for more than 100 hr, from 2013 February 23 to 28. During its evolution, three cyclones were found to be rooted in this structure. Each cyclone event lasted for about 8 to 10 hr. While near the polar region, another RNF was investigated. It lasted for a shorter time (∼70 hr), from 2013 July 7 to 9. There were two cyclones rooted in the RNF and each lasted for 8 and 11 hr, respectively. For the two given examples, the cyclones have a similar dynamic evolution, and thus we put forward a new term: homologous cyclones. The detected brightening in AIA 171 Å maps indicates the release of energy, which is potentially available to heat the corona.

  6. Modeling Non-homologous End Joining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongfeng

    2013-01-01

    Non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) is the dominant DNA double strand break (DSB) repair pathway and involves several NHEJ proteins such as Ku, DNA-PKcs, XRCC4, Ligase IV and so on. Once DSBs are generated, Ku is first recruited to the DNA end, followed by other NHEJ proteins for DNA end processing and ligation. Because of the direct ligation of break ends without the need for a homologous template, NHEJ turns out to be an error-prone but efficient repair pathway. Some mechanisms have been proposed of how the efficiency of NHEJ repair is affected. The type of DNA damage is an important factor of NHEJ repair. For instance, the length of DNA fragment may determine the recruitment efficiency of NHEJ protein such as Ku [1], or the complexity of the DNA breaks [2] is accounted for the choice of NHEJ proteins and subpathway of NHEJ repair. On the other hand, the chromatin structure also plays a role of the accessibility of NHEJ protein to the DNA damage site. In this talk, some mathematical models of NHEJ, that consist of series of biochemical reactions complying with the laws of chemical reaction (e.g. mass action, etc.), will be introduced. By mathematical and numerical analysis and parameter estimation, the models are able to capture the qualitative biological features and show good agreement with experimental data. As conclusions, from the viewpoint of modeling, how the NHEJ proteins are recruited will be first discussed for connection between the classical sequential model [4] and recently proposed two-phase model [5]. Then how the NHEJ repair pathway is affected, by the length of DNA fragment [6], the complexity of DNA damage [7] and the chromatin structure [8], will be addressed

  7. More on homological supersymmetric quantum mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behtash, Alireza

    2018-03-01

    In this work, we first solve complex Morse flow equations for the simplest case of a bosonic harmonic oscillator to discuss localization in the context of Picard-Lefschetz theory. We briefly touch on the exact non-BPS solutions of the bosonized supersymmetric quantum mechanics on algebraic geometric grounds and report that their complex phases can be accessed through the cohomology of WKB 1-form of the underlying singular spectral curve subject to necessary cohomological corrections for nonzero genus. Motivated by Picard-Lefschetz theory, we write down a general formula for the index of N =4 quantum mechanics with background R -symmetry gauge fields. We conjecture that certain symmetries of the refined Witten index and singularities of the moduli space may be used to determine the correct intersection coefficients. A few examples, where this conjecture holds, are shown in both linear and closed quivers with rank-one quiver gauge groups. The R -anomaly removal along the "Morsified" relative homology cycles also called "Lefschetz thimbles" is shown to lead to the appearance of Stokes lines. We show that the Fayet-Iliopoulos parameters appear in the intersection coefficients for the relative homology of the quiver quantum mechanics resulting from dimensional reduction of 2 d N =(2 ,2 ) gauge theory on a circle and explicitly calculate integrals along the Lefschetz thimbles in N =4 C Pk -1 model. The Stokes jumping of coefficients and its relation to wall crossing phenomena is briefly discussed. We also find that the notion of "on-the-wall" index is related to the invariant Lefschetz thimbles under Stokes phenomena. An implication of the Lefschetz thimbles in constructing knots from quiver quantum mechanics is indicated.

  8. Clustering evolving proteins into homologous families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Cheong Xin; Mahbob, Maisarah; Ragan, Mark A

    2013-04-08

    Clustering sequences into groups of putative homologs (families) is a critical first step in many areas of comparative biology and bioinformatics. The performance of clustering approaches in delineating biologically meaningful families depends strongly on characteristics of the data, including content bias and degree of divergence. New, highly scalable methods have recently been introduced to cluster the very large datasets being generated by next-generation sequencing technologies. However, there has been little systematic investigation of how characteristics of the data impact the performance of these approaches. Using clusters from a manually curated dataset as reference, we examined the performance of a widely used graph-based Markov clustering algorithm (MCL) and a greedy heuristic approach (UCLUST) in delineating protein families coded by three sets of bacterial genomes of different G+C content. Both MCL and UCLUST generated clusters that are comparable to the reference sets at specific parameter settings, although UCLUST tends to under-cluster compositionally biased sequences (G+C content 33% and 66%). Using simulated data, we sought to assess the individual effects of sequence divergence, rate heterogeneity, and underlying G+C content. Performance decreased with increasing sequence divergence, decreasing among-site rate variation, and increasing G+C bias. Two MCL-based methods recovered the simulated families more accurately than did UCLUST. MCL using local alignment distances is more robust across the investigated range of sequence features than are greedy heuristics using distances based on global alignment. Our results demonstrate that sequence divergence, rate heterogeneity and content bias can individually and in combination affect the accuracy with which MCL and UCLUST can recover homologous protein families. For application to data that are more divergent, and exhibit higher among-site rate variation and/or content bias, MCL may often be the better

  9. Control of the first flowering in forest trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chalupka, W. [Inst. od Dendrology, Kornik (Poland); Cecich, R.A. [U.S.D.A.-Forest Service, Columbia, MO (United States). North Central Forest Experiment Station

    1997-04-01

    Precocious flowering provides opportunities to shorten a breeding cycle. A tree may flower for the first time when sufficient crown development has occurred and there are enough meristems to support both vegetative and reproductive buds. Precocious flowering can be promoted through the use of cultural techniques, such as photoperiod, accelerated growth, gibberellins and water stress. The length of the juvenile phase is dependent on genetic and environmental variables that affect achievement of a minimum size, and is positively correlated with the height of the plants within a family. Selection pressure can be applied successfully to the precocious flowering character, and crossed or inbred lines of precocious flowering progeny can be developed. Various levels and amounts of genetic control have been implicated in the control of precocious flowering. 90 refs, 1 tab

  10. NPOESS Field Terminal Updates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckmann, G.; Route, G.

    2009-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Department of Defense (DoD), and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are jointly acquiring the next-generation weather and environmental satellite system; the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS). NPOESS replaces the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) managed by NOAA and the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) managed by the DoD. The NPOESS satellites carry a suite of sensors that collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological, and solar-geophysical observations of the earth, atmosphere, and space. The ground data processing segment for NPOESS is the Interface Data Processing Segment (IDPS), developed by Raytheon Intelligence and Information Systems. The IDPS processes NPOESS satellite data to provide environmental data products (aka, Environmental Data Records or EDRs) to NOAA and DoD processing centers operated by the United States government. The IDPS will process EDRs beginning with the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) and continuing through the lifetime of the NPOESS system. IDPS also provides the software and requirements for the Field Terminal Segment (FTS). NPOESS provides support to deployed field terminals by providing mission data in the Low Rate and High Rate downlinks (LRD/HRD), mission support data needed to generate EDRs and decryption keys needed to decrypt mission data during Selective data Encryption (SDE). Mission support data consists of globally relevant data, geographically constrained data, and two line element sets. NPOESS provides these mission support data via the Internet accessible Mission Support Data Server and HRD/LRD downlinks. This presentation will illustrate and describe the NPOESS capabilities in support of Field Terminal users. This discussion will include the mission support data available to Field Terminal users, content of the direct broadcast HRD and LRD

  11. K-homology and K-cohomology constructions of relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El-Sattar, A. Dabbour; Bayoumy, F.M.

    1990-08-01

    One of the important homology (cohomology) theories, based on systems of covering of the space, is the homology (cohomology) theory of relations. In the present work, by using the idea of K-homology and K-cohomology groups different varieties of the Dowker's theory are introduced and studied. These constructions are defined on the category of pairs of topological spaces and over a pair of coefficient groups. (author). 14 refs

  12. A local homology theory for linearly compact modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Tu Cuong; Tran Tuan Nam

    2004-11-01

    We introduce a local homology theory for linearly modules which is in some sense dual to the local cohomology theory of A. Grothendieck. Some basic properties of local homology modules are shown such as: the vanishing and non-vanishing, the noetherianness of local homology modules. By using duality, we extend some well-known results in theory of local cohomology of A. Grothendieck. (author)

  13. On (co)homology of Frobenius Poisson algebras

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Can; Van Oystaeyen, Fred; ZHANG, Yinhuo

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we study Poisson (co)homology of a Frobenius Poisson algebra. More precisely, we show that there exists a duality between Poisson homology and Poisson cohomology of Frobenius Poisson algebras, similar to that between Hochschild homology and Hochschild cohomology of Frobenius algebras. Then we use the non-degenerate bilinear form on a unimodular Frobenius Poisson algebra to construct a Batalin-Vilkovisky structure on the Poisson cohomology ring making it into a Batalin-Vilkovisk...

  14. A geometric model for Hochschild homology of Soergel bimodules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Webster, Ben; Williamson, Geordie

    2008-01-01

    An important step in the calculation of the triply graded link homology of Khovanov and Rozansky is the determination of the Hochschild homology of Soergel bimodules for SL(n). We present a geometric model for this Hochschild homology for any simple group G, as B–equivariant intersection cohomology...... on generators whose degree is explicitly determined by the geometry of the orbit closure, and to describe its Hilbert series, proving a conjecture of Jacob Rasmussen....

  15. Heteromorphic Sex Chromosomes: Navigating Meiosis without a Homologous Partner

    OpenAIRE

    Checchi, Paula M.; Engebrecht, JoAnne

    2011-01-01

    Accurate chromosome segregation during meiosis relies on homology between the maternal and paternal chromosomes. Yet by definition, sex chromosomes of the heterogametic sex lack a homologous partner. Recent studies in a number of systems have shed light on the unique meiotic behavior of heteromorphic sex chromosomes, and highlight both the commonalities and differences in divergent species. During meiotic prophase, the homology-dependent processes of pairing, synapsis, and recombination have ...

  16. An APETALA2 Homolog, RcAP2, Regulates the Number of Rose Petals Derived From Stamens and Response to Temperature Fluctuations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Han

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Rosa chinensis, which is a famous traditional flower in China, is a major ornamental plant worldwide. Long-term cultivation and breeding have resulted in considerable changes in the number of rose petals, while most wild Rosaceae plants have only one whorl consisting of five petals. The petals of double flowers reportedly originate from stamens, but the underlying molecular mechanism has not been fully characterized. In this study, we observed that the number of petals of R. chinensis ‘Old Blush’ flowers increased and decreased in response to low- and high-temperature treatments, respectively, similar to previous reports. We characterized these variations in further detail and found that the number of stamens exhibited the opposite trend. We cloned an APETALA2 homolog, RcAP2. A detailed analysis of gene structure and promoter cis-acting elements as well as RcAP2 temporospatial expression patterns and responses to temperature changes suggested that RcAP2 expression may be related to the number of petals from stamen origin. The overexpression of RcAP2 in Arabidopsis thaliana transgenic plants may induce the transformation of stamens to petals, thereby increasing the number of petals. Moreover, silencing RcAP2 in ‘Old Blush’ plants decreased the number of petals. Our results may be useful for clarifying the temperature-responsive mechanism involved in petaloid stamen production, which may be relevant for the breeding of new rose varieties with enhanced flower traits.

  17. Repellency of Lantana camara (Verbenaceae) flowers against Aedes mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dua, V K; Gupta, N C; Pandey, A C; Sharma, V P

    1996-09-01

    The repellent effect of Lantana camara flowers was evaluated against Aedes mosquitoes. Lantana flower extract in coconut oil provided 94.5% protection from Aedes albopictus and Ae. aegypti. The mean protection time was 1.9 h. One application of Lantana flower can provide more than 50% protection up to 4 h against the possible bites of Aedes mosquitoes. No adverse effects of the human volunteers were observed through 3 months after the application.

  18. Analysis on Structure of Flower Market in Beijing

    OpenAIRE

    SUN, Xi; ZHANG, Yingying

    2015-01-01

    With the socio-economic development and people’s living condition improvement, the requirement for environment is higher and higher and the mental demand is also more and more. For this, Beijing Municipal Bureau of Landscape and Forestry listed survey programs of consumption demands of flower market in Beijing in 2014, and provided several recommendations in line with current situations, problems and environment of the flower industry, for future reference of flower decision making of Beiji...

  19. Transcriptomic analysis of flower development in wintersweet (Chimonanthus praecox).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Daofeng; Sui, Shunzhao; Ma, Jing; Li, Zhineng; Guo, Yulong; Luo, Dengpan; Yang, Jianfeng; Li, Mingyang

    2014-01-01

    Wintersweet (Chimonanthus praecox) is familiar as a garden plant and woody ornamental flower. On account of its unique flowering time and strong fragrance, it has a high ornamental and economic value. Despite a long history of human cultivation, our understanding of wintersweet genetics and molecular biology remains scant, reflecting a lack of basic genomic and transcriptomic data. In this study, we assembled three cDNA libraries, from three successive stages in flower development, designated as the flower bud with displayed petal, open flower and senescing flower stages. Using the Illumina RNA-Seq method, we obtained 21,412,928, 26,950,404, 24,912,954 qualified Illumina reads, respectively, for the three successive stages. The pooled reads from all three libraries were then assembled into 106,995 transcripts, 51,793 of which were annotated in the NCBI non-redundant protein database. Of these annotated sequences, 32,649 and 21,893 transcripts were assigned to gene ontology categories and clusters of orthologous groups, respectively. We could map 15,587 transcripts onto 312 pathways using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway database. Based on these transcriptomic data, we obtained a large number of candidate genes that were differentially expressed at the open flower and senescing flower stages. An analysis of differentially expressed genes involved in plant hormone signal transduction pathways indicated that although flower opening and senescence may be independent of the ethylene signaling pathway in wintersweet, salicylic acid may be involved in the regulation of flower senescence. We also succeeded in isolating key genes of floral scent biosynthesis and proposed a biosynthetic pathway for monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes in wintersweet flowers, based on the annotated sequences. This comprehensive transcriptomic analysis presents fundamental information on the genes and pathways which are involved in flower development in wintersweet. And our data

  20. Photosynthetic utilization of radiant energy by CAM Dendrobium flowers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoo, G.H.; Hew, C.S.; He, J.

    1997-01-01

    14 CO 2 fixation was observed in orchid Dendrobium flowers; its rate decreased with the flower development. Chlorophyll (Chl) fluorescence in different developmental stages of flowers was compared to other green plant parts (leaf, inflorescence stalk, and fruit capsule). The photochemical efficiency of photosystem 2 (PS2) (Fv/Fm) of a leaf was 14-21 % higher than that of a mature flower perianth (sepal, petal, and labellum) which had a much lower total Chl content and Chl a/b ratio. A higher quantum yield of PS2 (ΦPS2) than in the mature flowers was observed in all green parts. Flower sepals had higher Chl content, Chl a/b ratio, and Fv/Fm values than the petal and labellum. During flower development the Chl content, Chl a/b ratio, Fv/Fm, and qN decreased while ΦPS2 and qP remained constant. An exposure of developing flowers to irradiances above 50 µmol m -2 s -1 resulted in a very drastic drop of ΦPS2 and qP, and a coherent increase of qN as compared to other green plant organs. A low saturation irradiance (PFD of 100 µmol m -2 s -1 ) and the increase in qN in the flower indicate that irradiation stress may occur since there is no further protection when the flower is exposed to irradiances above 100 µmol m -2 s -1 . A low Chl/carotenoid ratio in mature flower perianth as a consequence of Chl content reduction in the course of flower development suggests a relief of irradiation stress via this mean. (author)