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Sample records for termicheskogo pika dlya

  1. Pika Jha

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science. Pika Jha. Articles written in Bulletin of Materials Science. Volume 28 Issue 6 October 2005 pp 571-577 Ceramics and Glasses. (La2/5Ba2/5Ca1/5)(Mn(2/5)–NiTi3/5)O3: Rietveld studies, dielectric and magnetic properties of new perovskite-related oxides · Pika Jha Saroj L ...

  2. Plastic pikas: Behavioural flexibility in low-elevation pikas (Ochotona princeps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varner, Johanna; Horns, Joshua J.; Lambert, Mallory S.; Westberg, Elizabeth; Ruff, James; Wolfenberger, Katelyn; Beever, Erik; Dearing, M. Denise

    2016-01-01

    Behaviour is an important mechanism for accommodating rapid environmental changes. Understanding a species’ capacity for behavioural plasticity is therefore a key, but understudied, aspect of developing tractable conservation and management plans under climate-change scenarios. Here, we quantified behavioural differences between American pikas (Ochotona princeps) living in an atypical, low-elevation habitat versus those living in a more-typical, alpine habitat. With respect to foraging strategy, low-elevation pikas spent more time consuming vegetation and less time caching food for winter, compared to high-elevation pikas. Low-elevation pikas were also far more likely to be detected in forested microhabitats off the talus than their high-elevation counterparts at midday. Finally, pikas living in the atypical habitat had smaller home range sizes compared to those in typical habitat or any previously published home ranges for this species. Our findings indicate that behavioural plasticity likely allows pikas to accommodate atypical conditions in this low-elevation habitat, and that they may rely on critical habitat factors such as suitable microclimate refugia to behaviourally thermoregulate. Together, these results suggest that behavioural adjustments are one important mechanism by which pikas can persist outside of their previously appreciated dietary and thermal niches.

  3. Distance and temperature effects on pika forage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jim F. Fowler; Barbara Smith; Steve Overby

    2014-01-01

    The American pika, Ochotona princeps, has been referred to as a 'canary in the coal mine' when it comes to climate change. This small rabbit relative inhabits cool alpine and subalpine mountain areas and has been shown to be sensitive to higher temperatures from both physiological experiments (Smith 1974) and from past climate transitions in the late...

  4. Ochotona princeps (pika) myoglobin: an appraisal of lagomorph phylogeny.

    OpenAIRE

    Dene, H; Goodman, M; McKenna, M C; Romero-Herrera, A. E.

    1982-01-01

    Myoglobin was purified from skeletal muscle of the pika (Ochotona princeps) and its primary structure was determined. This sequence was added to the set of 64 already known vertebrate myoglobin sequences and used to evaluate the phylogenetic position of the pika among other mammals, using a computerized search procedure based on maximum parsimony criteria. The pika is clearly related to the rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus), with which it is traditionally associated as a member of the order Lago...

  5. Pika gut may select for rare but diverse environmental bacteria

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    Huan Li

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The composition of the mammalian gut bacterial communities can be influenced by the introduction of environmental bacteria in their respective habitats. However, there are no extensive studies examining the interactions between environmental bacteriome and gut bacteriome in wild mammals. Here, we explored the relationship between the gut bacterial communities of pika (Ochotona spp. and the related environmental bacteria across host species and altitudinal sites using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Plateau pikas (O. curzoniae and Daurian pikas (O. daurica were sampled at five different sites, and plant and soil samples were collected at each site as well. Our data indicated that Plateau pikas and Daurian pikas had distinct bacterial communities. The pika, plant and soil bacterial communities were also distinct. Very little overlap occurred in the pika core bacteria and the most abundant environmental bacteria. The shared OTUs between pikas and environments were present in the environment at relatively low abundance, whereas they were affiliated with diverse bacterial taxa. These results suggested that the pika gut may mainly selects for low-abundance but diverse environmental bacteria in a host species-specific manner.

  6. Rodent-Pika Parasite Spillover in Western North America.

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    Foley, Patrick; Roth, Tara; Foley, Janet; Ray, Chris

    2017-09-01

    Competition during the Cenozoic expansion of the Rodentia may have contributed to ecological niche reduction of pikas, which are now increasingly under threat as their habitat degrades under global climate change, while some rodents expand their ranges and overlap with pikas. Range overlap carries the possibility of disease spillover. Contemporary North American pikas are cold-adapted and relegated primarily to alpine environments where they subsist on relatively low-quality herbaceous diet. Yet their evolutionary ancestors were distributed geographically even into the subtropics. Here we examine historical and contemporary records of fleas on pikas (Ochotona princeps) from sites at different elevations in the Sierra Nevada and Rocky Mountains and the Pacific Northwest. We calculated indices of diversity from each site and spillover fraction, i.e., the proportion of fleas on pikas that have a preference for rodents. Across this range there are four pika specialist flea species, with no more than two of these per site, and 18 characteristically rodent flea species. Diversity is greatest in the Pacific Northwest and lowest in Montana. Rodent flea spillover onto pikas declines with elevation in the Rocky Mountains. These data provide evidence that rodents and pikas interact enough to allow considerable parasite spillover, and which could be exacerbated as pikas are increasingly stressed by climate change at lower elevations some rodent species expand up-elevation in the face of increasing global warming. With global climate change, both biotic and abiotic niche shrinkage demand our attention. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Actinomyces gaoshouyii sp. nov., isolated from plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiangli; Wang, Yiting; Lu, Shan; Lai, Xin-He; Jin, Dong; Yang, Jing; Xu, Jianguo

    2017-09-01

    Two strains (pika_113T and pika_114) of a previously undescribed Actinomyces-like bacterium were recovered from the intestinal contents of plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniae) on the Tibet-Qinghai Plateau, China. Results from biochemical characterization indicated that the two strains were phenotypically homogeneous and distinct from other previously described species of the genus Actinomyces. Based on the comparison of 16S rRNA gene sequences and genome analysis, the bacteria were determined to be a hitherto unknown subline within the genus Actinomyces, being most closely related to type strains of Actinomyces denticolens and Actinomyces timonensis with a respective 97.2 and 97.1 % similarity in their 16S rRNA gene sequences. Phylogenetic analyses confirmed that pika_113T was well separated from any other recognized species of the genus Actinomyces and within the cluster with A. denticolens and A. timonensis. The genome of strain pika_113T displayed less than 42 % relatedness in DNA-DNA hybridization with all the available genomes of existing species of the genus Actinomyces in the NCBI database. Collectively, based on the phenotypic characteristics and phylogenetic analyses results, we propose the novel isolates as representatives of Actinomyces gaoshouyii sp. nov. The type strain of Actinomyces gaoshouyii is pika_113T (=CGMCC 4.7372T=DSM 104049T), with a genomic DNA G+C content of 71 mol%.

  8. Behavioral ecology of American Pikas (Ochotona princeps) at Mono Craters, California: living on the edge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew T. Smith; John D. Nagy; Connie Millar

    2016-01-01

    The behavioral ecology of the American pika (Ochotona princeps) was investigated at a relatively hot south-facing, low-elevation site in the Mono Craters, California, a habitat quite different from the upper montane regions more typically inhabited by this species and where most prior investigations have been conducted. Mono Craters pikas exhibited...

  9. New records of marginal locations for American pika (Ochotona princeps) in the Western Great Basin

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    Constance I. Millar; Robert D. Westfall; Diane L. Delany

    2013-01-01

    We describe 46 new site records documenting occupancy by American pika (Ochotona princeps) at 21 locations from 8 mountain regions in the western Great Basin, California, and Nevada. These locations comprise a subset of sites selected from regional surveys to represent marginal, isolated, or otherwise atypical pika locations, and to provide...

  10. Behavioral mechanisms of male sterilization on plateau pika in the Qinghai-Tibet plateau.

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    Liu, Ming; Qu, Jiapeng; Wang, Zengli; Wang, Yan-Ling; Zhang, Yanming; Zhang, Zhibin

    2012-03-01

    Fertility control is an alternative non-lethal method in the management of rodents. Previous modeling suggests that the efficacy of male sterilization depends on mating systems of animals, but behavioral mechanisms of male sterilization have not been investigated. Here we investigated the behavioral mechanism of the sterilant quinestrol in reducing the fertility of plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniae) inhabiting the Qinghai-Tibet plateau. Male pikas treated with quinestrol showed reduced aggression compared to control males, but they showed significantly higher levels of territorial behavior such as long-calls and long-chases. Levels of long-call and long-chase were negatively correlated with the number of newborn pikas in the family. Single-baiting of quinestrol effectively sterilized male pikas and reduced the pregnancy rate of female pikas; this was likely achieved by increased territorial behavior of sterilized pikas which resulted in unsuccessful invasions by fertile adult male pikas. Our study reveals a novel behavioral mechanism, increased territoriality in sterilized males, in the fertility control of plateau pikas. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Facing a changing world: Thermal physiology of American pikas (Ochotona princeps)

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    Otto, Hans W; Wilson, James A; Beever, Erik

    2015-01-01

    American pikas (Ochotona princeps) are of concern with respect to warming montane temperatures; however, little information exists regarding their physiological ability to adapt to warming temperatures. Previous studies have shown that pikas have high metabolism and low thermal conductance, which allow survival during cold winters. It has been hypothesized that these characteristics may be detrimental, given the recent warming trends observed in montane ecosystems. We examined resting metabolic rate, surface activity, and den and ambient temperatures (Ta) of pikas in late summer (August 2011 and 2012) at 2 locations in the Rocky Mountains. Resting metabolic rate was calculated to be 2.02 mL O2 · g-1h-1, with a lower critical temperature (LCT) of 28.1 ± 0.2 °C. No upper critical temperature (UCT) could be determined from our data; therefore, the estimated thermoneutral zone (TNZ) was 28.1 °C to at least 35.0 °C (upper experimental temperature). Pikas in this study showed the same bimodal above-talus activity patterns reported in previous studies. Den temperatures in Colorado were correlated with, but consistently lower than, current ambient temperatures. Wyoming den temperatures showed a weak correlation with Ta 20 min prior to the current den temperature. This study is one of few to present data on the physiological response pikas may have to current warming conditions, and the first to perform metabolic measurements in situ. Our data support conclusions of previous studies, specifically MacArthur and Wang (1973, 1974) and Smith (1974), which indicated American pikas may not have the physiological ability to cope with high Ta. Our results also highlight the importance of shaded regions below the talus rocks for behavioral thermoregulation by pikas.

  12. Genetic diversity and sex-bias dispersal of plateau pika in Tibetan plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liangzhi; Qu, Jiapeng; Li, Kexin; Li, Wenjing; Yang, Min; Zhang, Yanming

    2017-10-01

    Dispersal is an important aspect in organism's life history which could influence the rate and outcome of evolution of organism. Plateau pika is the keystone species in community of grasslands in Tibetan Plateau. In this study, we combine genetic and field data to character the population genetic pattern and dispersal dynamics in plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniae). Totally, 1,352 individual samples were collected, and 10 microsatellite loci were analyzed. Results revealed that plateau pika possessed high genetic diversity and inbreeding coefficient in a fine-scale population. Dispersal distance is short and restricted in about 20 m. An effective sex-biased dispersal strategy is employed by plateau pika: males disperse in breeding period for mating while females do it after reproduction for offspring and resource. Inbreeding avoiding was shown as the common driving force of dispersal, together with the other two factors, environment and resource. In addition, natal dispersal is female biased. More detailed genetic analyzes are needed to confirm the role of inbreeding avoidance and resource competition as ultimate cause of dispersal patterns in plateau pika.

  13. A novel rabies vaccine based-on toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) agonist PIKA adjuvant exhibiting excellent safety and efficacy in animal studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yi [Yisheng Biopharma. Co., Ltd., Beijing (China); Zhang, Shoufeng [Academy of Military Medical Sciences, Changchun (China); Li, Wei [National Center for Safety Evaluation of Drugs, Beijing (China); Hu, Yuchi; Zhao, Jinyan [Beijing Institute for Drug Control, Beijing (China); Liu, Fang; Lin, Haixiang; Liu, Yuan; Wang, Liliang; Xu, Shu [Yisheng Biopharma. Co., Ltd., Beijing (China); Hu, Rongliang, E-mail: ronglianghu@hotmail.com [Academy of Military Medical Sciences, Changchun (China); Shao, Hui, E-mail: hui.shao@yishengbio.com [Yisheng Biopharma. Co., Ltd., Beijing (China); Li, Lietao, E-mail: lietao.li@gmail.com [Yisheng Biopharma. Co., Ltd., Beijing (China)

    2016-02-15

    Vaccination alone is not sufficiently effective to protect human from post-exposure rabies virus infection due to delayed generation of rabies virus neutralizing antibodies and weak cellular immunity. Therefore, it is vital to develop safer and more efficacious vaccine against rabies. PIKA, a stabilized chemical analog of double-stranded RNA that interacts with TLR3, was employed as adjuvant of rabies vaccine. The efficacy and safety of PIKA rabies vaccine were evaluated. The results showed that PIKA rabies vaccine enhanced both humoral and cellular immunity. After viral challenge, PIKA rabies vaccine protected 70–80% of animals, while the survival rate of non-adjuvant vaccine group (control) was 20–30%. According to the results of toxicity tests, PIKA and PIKA rabies vaccine are shown to be well tolerated in mice. Thus, this study indicates that PIKA rabies vaccine is an effective and safe vaccine which has the potential to develop next-generation rabies vaccine and encourage the start of clinical studies. - Highlights: • Vaccination alone is not effective to protect human from rabies virus infection due to delayed generation of rabies virus neutralizing antibodies (RVNA) and weak cellular immunity. • Therefore, it is vital to develop safer and more efficacious vaccine against rabies. PIKA, a stabilized chemical analog of double-stranded RNA that interacts with TLR3, was employed as an adjuvant of rabies vaccine. • The efficacy and safety of PIKA rabies vaccine was evaluated in mice. • The results showed that PIKA rabies vaccine enhanced both humoral and cellular immunity. • After viral challenge, PIKA rabies vaccine protected 70–80% of animals, while the survival rate of non-adjuvant vaccine group was only 20–30%. • According to the results of toxicity tests, PIKA and PIKA rabies vaccine are shown to be well tolerated in mice. • Thus, this study indicates that PIKA rabies vaccine is an effective and safe vaccine which has the potential to

  14. A surprising discovery of American pika sites in the northwest Great Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie R. Jeffress; K. Jane Van Gunst; Constance I. Millar

    2017-01-01

    Although the American pika (Ochotona princeps) continues to receive attention due to documented declines and range retractions, particularly in the Great Basin, thorough range inventories have yet to be completed in many parts of the region. Here we report on recently discovered populations in northwestern Nevada in areas not suspected to support...

  15. Muusika ja kunsti ühenduses sündinud akvarellid Pikas Majas / Tiiu Liivamägi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Liivamägi, Tiiu

    2004-01-01

    Kärdlas Hiiumaa Muuseumi Pikas Majas avatud Austria ooperilaulja, maalikunstniku ja graafiku Hans Sisa akvarellinäitusest. Intervjuu Austria suursaadiku Jakub Forst-Battagliaga kultuurisidemete arendamisest Hiiumaa ja Austria vahel

  16. Predictors of Current and Longer-Term Patterns of Abundance of American Pikas (Ochotona princeps across a Leading-Edge Protected Area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Moyer-Horner

    Full Text Available American pikas (Ochotona princeps have been heralded as indicators of montane-mammal response to contemporary climate change. Pikas no longer occupy the driest and lowest-elevation sites in numerous parts of their geographic range. Conversely, pikas have exhibited higher rates of occupancy and persistence in Rocky Mountain and Sierra Nevada montane 'mainlands'. Research and monitoring efforts on pikas across the western USA have collectively shown the nuance and complexity with which climate will often act on species in diverse topographic and climatic contexts. However, to date no studies have investigated habitat, distribution, and abundance of pikas across hundreds of sites within a remote wilderness area. Additionally, relatively little is known about whether climate acts most strongly on pikas through direct or indirect (e.g., vegetation-mediated mechanisms. During 2007-2009, we collectively hiked >16,000 km throughout the 410,077-ha Glacier National Park, Montana, USA, in an effort to identify topographic, microrefugial, and vegetative characteristics predictive of pika abundance. We identified 411 apparently pika-suitable habitat patches with binoculars (in situ, and surveyed 314 of them for pika signs. Ranking of alternative logistic-regression models based on AICc scores revealed that short-term pika abundances were positively associated with intermediate elevations, greater cover of mosses, and taller forbs, and decreased each year, for a total decline of 68% during the three-year study; whereas longer-term abundances were associated only with static variables (longitude, elevation, gradient and were lower on north-facing slopes. Earlier Julian date and time of day of the survey (i.e., midday vs. not were associated with lower observed pika abundance. We recommend that wildlife monitoring account for this seasonal and diel variation when surveying pikas. Broad-scale information on status and abundance determinants of montane mammals

  17. Relating sub-surface ice features to physiological stress in a climate sensitive mammal, the American pika (Ochotona princeps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L Wilkening

    Full Text Available The American pika (Ochotona princeps is considered a sentinel species for detecting ecological effects of climate change. Pikas are declining within a large portion of their range, and ongoing research suggests loss of sub-surface ice as a mechanism. However, no studies have demonstrated physiological responses of pikas to sub-surface ice features. Here we present the first analysis of physiological stress in pikas living in and adjacent to habitats underlain by ice. Fresh fecal samples were collected non-invasively from two adjacent sites in the Rocky Mountains (one with sub-surface ice and one without and analyzed for glucocorticoid metabolites (GCM. We also measured sub-surface microclimates in each habitat. Results indicate lower GCM concentration in sites with sub-surface ice, suggesting that pikas are less stressed in favorable microclimates resulting from sub-surface ice features. GCM response was well predicted by habitat characteristics associated with sub-surface ice features, such as lower mean summer temperatures. These results suggest that pikas inhabiting areas without sub-surface ice features are experiencing higher levels of physiological stress and may be more susceptible to changing climates. Although post-deposition environmental effects can confound analyses based on fecal GCM, we found no evidence for such effects in this study. Sub-surface ice features are key to water cycling and storage and will likely represent an increasingly important component of water resources in a warming climate. Fecal samples collected from additional watersheds as part of current pika monitoring programs could be used to further characterize relationships between pika stress and sub-surface ice features.

  18. The burying and grazing effects of plateau pika on alpine grassland are small: a pilot study in a semiarid basin on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

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    S. Yi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available There is considerable controversy about the effects of plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniae, hereafter pika on alpine grassland on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP. On the one hand, pika is considered a keystone species. On the other hand, it is being poisoned. Although significant efforts have been made to study the effects of pika at a quadrat scale ( ∼  m2, our knowledge about its distribution and effects at a larger scale is very limited. In this study, we investigated the direct effects, i.e., burying and grazing, of pika by upscaling field sampling at a quadrat scale to a plot scale ( ∼  1000 m2 by aerial photographing. Altogether 168 plots were set on four different types of alpine grassland in a semiarid basin on the QTP. Results showed that (1 the effects of pika pile burying on the reduction of vegetation cover, biomass, soil carbon, and nitrogen were less than 10 %, which was much smaller than the effects of bald patches; and (2 pika consumed 8–21 % of annual net primary production of grassland. We concluded that the direct burying and grazing effects of pika on alpine grassland were minor in this region. The quadcopter is an efficient and economic tool for long-term repeated monitoring over large regions for further understanding the role of pika.

  19. Diet Diversity Is Associated with Beta but not Alpha Diversity of Pika Gut Microbiota

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Huan; Li, Tongtong; Beasley, DeAnna E.; Hed?nec, Petr; Xiao, Zhishu; Zhang, Shiheng; Li, Jiabao; Lin, Qiang; Li, Xiangzhen

    2016-01-01

    Wild mammals often consume different food sources as they become geographical available. This change in diet composition is likely to influence the gut microbial community, yet it remains unclear what the relationship looks like—particularly in small herbivores--under natural conditions. We used DNA sequencing approaches to characterize the diet composition and gut microbial community of wild plateau pikas (Ochotona curzoniae) collected from three altitudes. We tested if diet and gut microbio...

  20. Pika Population Density Is Associated with the Composition and Diversity of Gut Microbiota

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Huan; Qu, Jiapeng; Li, Tongtong; Li, Jiabao; Lin, Qiang; Li, Xiangzhen

    2016-01-01

    Host population density is positively associated with the strength of social interactions or the frequency of physical contacts, and thus potentially influences microbial transmission among individuals. However, the relationship between host density and gut microbiota remains unknown. Here, we characterized the gut microbiota of plateau pikas (Ochotona curzoniae) in wild experimental fields with different host population densities. The abundance of some gut microbes significantly correlated w...

  1. Pika population density is associated with composition and diversity of gut microbiota

    OpenAIRE

    Huan eLi; Jiapeng eQu; Tongtong eLi; Jiabao eLi; Qiang eLin; Xiangzhen eLi

    2016-01-01

    Host population density is positively associated with the strength of social interactions or the frequency of physical contacts, and thus potentially influences microbial transmission among individuals. However, the relationship between host density and gut microbiota remains unknown. Here, we characterized the gut microbiota of plateau pikas (Ochotona curzoniae) in wild experimental fields with different host population densities. The abundance of some gut microbes significantly correlated w...

  2. Forage selection by Royle's pika (Ochotona roylei) in the western Himalaya, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Sabuj; Adhikari, Bhupendra S; Rawat, Gopal S

    2013-10-01

    Forage selection decisions of herbivores are often complex and dynamic; they are modulated by multiple cues, such as quality, accessibility and abundance of forage plants. To advance the understanding of plant-herbivore interactions, we explored foraging behavior of the alpine lagomorph Royle's pika (Ochotona roylei) in Kedarnath Wildlife Sanctuary, India. Pika bite counts on food plants were recorded through focal sampling in three permanently marked plots. Food plant abundance was recorded by traditional quadrat procedures; forage selection was estimated with Jacob's selection index. Multiple food-choice experiments were conducted to determine whether forage selection criteria would change with variation in food plant composition. We also analyzed leaf morphology and nutrient content in both major food plants and abundantly available non-food plants. Linear regression models were used to test competing hypotheses in order to identify factors governing forage selection. Royle's pika fed primarily on 17 plant species and each forage selection decision was positively modulated by leaf area and negatively modulated by contents of avoided substances (neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, acid detergent lignin and tannin) in food plants. Furthermore, significance of the interaction term "leaf size × avoided substance" indicates that plants with large leaves were selected only when they had low avoided substance content. The forage selection criteria did not differ between field and laboratory experiments. The parameter estimates of best fit models indicate that the influence of leaf size or amount of avoided substance on pika forage selection was modulated by the magnitude of predation risk. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Effectiveness of 10 polymorphic microsatellite markers for parentage and pedigree analysis in plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Yanming

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniae is an underground-dwelling mammal, native to the Tibetan plateau of China. A set of 10 polymorphic microsatellite loci has been developed earlier. Its reliability for parentage assignment has been tested in a plateau pika population. Two family groups with a known pedigree were used to validate the power of this set of markers. Results The error in parentage assignment using a combination of these 10 loci was very low as indicated by their power of discrimination (0.803 - 0.932, power of exclusion (0.351 - 0.887, and an effectiveness of the combined probability of exclusion in parentage assignment of 99.999%. Conclusion All the offspring of a family could be assigned to their biological mother; and their father or relatives could also be identified. This set of markers therefore provides a powerful and efficient tool for parentage assignment and other population analyses in the plateau pika.

  4. Novel genomic resources for a climate change sensitive mammal: characterization of the American pika transcriptome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemay, Matthew A; Henry, Philippe; Lamb, Clayton T; Robson, Kelsey M; Russello, Michael A

    2013-05-10

    When faced with climate change, species must either shift their home range or adapt in situ in order to maintain optimal physiological balance with their environment. The American pika (Ochotona princeps) is a small alpine mammal with limited dispersal capacity and low tolerance for thermal stress. As a result, pikas have become an important system for examining biotic responses to changing climatic conditions. Previous research using amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) has revealed evidence for environmental-mediated selection in O. princeps populations distributed along elevation gradients, yet the anonymity of AFLP loci and lack of available genomic resources precluded the identification of associated gene regions. Here, we harnessed next-generation sequencing technology in order to characterize the American pika transcriptome and identify a large suite of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), which can be used to elucidate elevation- and site-specific patterns of sequence variation. We constructed pooled cDNA libraries of O. princeps from high (1400 m) and low (300 m) elevation sites along a previously established transect in British Columbia. Transcriptome sequencing using the Roche 454 GS FLX titanium platform generated 780 million base pairs of data, which were assembled into 7,325 high coverage contigs. These contigs were used to identify 24,261 novel SNP loci. Using high resolution melt analysis, we developed 17 of these SNPs into genotyping assays, which were validated with independent DNA samples from British Columbia Canada and Oregon State USA. In addition, we detected haplotypes in the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5 of the mitochondrial genome that were fixed and different among elevations, suggesting that this may be an informative target gene for studying the role of cellular respiration in local adaptation. We also identified contigs that were unique to each elevation, including a high elevation-specific contig that was a positive match

  5. Mechanistic variables can enhance predictive models of endotherm distributions: The American pika under current, past, and future climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathewson, Paul; Moyer-Horner, Lucas; Beever, Erik; Briscoe, Natalie; Kearney, Michael T.; Yahn, Jeremiah; Porter, Warren P.

    2017-01-01

    How climate constrains species’ distributions through time and space is an important question in the context of conservation planning for climate change. Despite increasing awareness of the need to incorporate mechanism into species distribution models (SDMs), mechanistic modeling of endotherm distributions remains limited in this literature. Using the American pika (Ochotona princeps) as an example, we present a framework whereby mechanism can be incorporated into endotherm SDMs. Pika distribution has repeatedly been found to be constrained by warm temperatures, so we used Niche Mapper, a mechanistic heat-balance model, to convert macroclimate data to pika-specific surface activity time in summer across the western United States. We then explored the difference between using a macroclimate predictor (summer temperature) and using a mechanistic predictor (predicted surface activity time) in SDMs. Both approaches accurately predicted pika presences in current and past climate regimes. However, the activity models predicted 8–19% less habitat loss in response to annual temperature increases of ~3–5 °C predicted in the region by 2070, suggesting that pikas may be able to buffer some climate change effects through behavioral thermoregulation that can be captured by mechanistic modeling. Incorporating mechanism added value to the modeling by providing increased confidence in areas where different modeling approaches agreed and providing a range of outcomes in areas of disagreement. It also provided a more proximate variable relating animal distribution to climate, allowing investigations into how unique habitat characteristics and intraspecific phenotypic variation may allow pikas to exist in areas outside those predicted by generic SDMs. Only a small number of easily obtainable data are required to parameterize this mechanistic model for any endotherm, and its use can improve SDM predictions by explicitly modeling a widely applicable direct physiological effect

  6. A novel rabies vaccine based-on toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) agonist PIKA adjuvant exhibiting excellent safety and efficacy in animal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Shoufeng; Li, Wei; Hu, Yuchi; Zhao, Jinyan; Liu, Fang; Lin, Haixiang; Liu, Yuan; Wang, Liliang; Xu, Shu; Hu, Rongliang; Shao, Hui; Li, Lietao

    2016-02-01

    Vaccination alone is not sufficiently effective to protect human from post-exposure rabies virus infection due to delayed generation of rabies virus neutralizing antibodies and weak cellular immunity. Therefore, it is vital to develop safer and more efficacious vaccine against rabies. PIKA, a stabilized chemical analog of double-stranded RNA that interacts with TLR3, was employed as adjuvant of rabies vaccine. The efficacy and safety of PIKA rabies vaccine were evaluated. The results showed that PIKA rabies vaccine enhanced both humoral and cellular immunity. After viral challenge, PIKA rabies vaccine protected 70-80% of animals, while the survival rate of non-adjuvant vaccine group (control) was 20-30%. According to the results of toxicity tests, PIKA and PIKA rabies vaccine are shown to be well tolerated in mice. Thus, this study indicates that PIKA rabies vaccine is an effective and safe vaccine which has the potential to develop next-generation rabies vaccine and encourage the start of clinical studies. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. The expression of Ldh-c in the skeletal muscle of plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniae) enhances adaptation to a hypoxic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Zhi F; Wei, Deng B; Wei, Lian; Wang, Yang; Wei, Lin N

    2017-09-15

    The plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniae) is a species of sprint-running alpine animals in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, which is a harsh highland hypoxic environment. Ldh-c is expressed in the testis, sperm and somatic tissues of plateau pika. To reveal the role and physiological mechanisms of sperm-specific lactate dehydrogenase (LDH-C4), in plateau pika to adapt to hypoxic environment, an adenoviral line of pMultiRNAi-Ldhc was constructed and injected into the bilateral biceps femoris of the hind legs. The swimming times of the pikas, and the Ldh-c expression levels, total LDH activities and ATP levels in skeletal muscle, were measured after the pikas were raised in the trapped site for 5 days. Our results showed that after Ldh-c was silenced, the sprint-running ability (swimming time) of the plateau pikas was significant decreased, and the total LDH activities and ATP levels were reduced by 28.21% and 27.88%, respectively. Our results indicated that expression of Ldh-c in the skeletal muscle of plateau pika increased anaerobic glycolysis and enhanced adaptation to highland hypoxic environments. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  8. The expression of Ldh-c in the skeletal muscle of plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniae enhances adaptation to a hypoxic environment

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    Zhi F. An

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniae is a species of sprint-running alpine animals in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, which is a harsh highland hypoxic environment. Ldh-c is expressed in the testis, sperm and somatic tissues of plateau pika. To reveal the role and physiological mechanisms of sperm-specific lactate dehydrogenase (LDH-C4, in plateau pika to adapt to hypoxic environment, an adenoviral line of pMultiRNAi-Ldhc was constructed and injected into the bilateral biceps femoris of the hind legs. The swimming times of the pikas, and the Ldh-c expression levels, total LDH activities and ATP levels in skeletal muscle, were measured after the pikas were raised in the trapped site for 5 days. Our results showed that after Ldh-c was silenced, the sprint-running ability (swimming time of the plateau pikas was significant decreased, and the total LDH activities and ATP levels were reduced by 28.21% and 27.88%, respectively. Our results indicated that expression of Ldh-c in the skeletal muscle of plateau pika increased anaerobic glycolysis and enhanced adaptation to highland hypoxic environments.

  9. The chromosomes of Tsing-Ling pika, Ochotona huangensis Matschie, 1908 (Lagomorpha, Ochotonidae

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    Alexey Vakurin

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The karyotype of the Tsing-Ling (Huanghe pika, Ochotona huangensis Matschie, 1908 from the forest habitats of the Qinling Mountains (Shaanxi Province, China was described for the first time. The chromosome set contains 42 chromosomes (NFa=80. The autosomes are 15 meta-submetacentric pairs and 5 subtelocentric pairs. The X chromosome is a medium sized submetacentric; the Y chromosome is a small sized acrocentric. C-banding revealed a localization of heterochromatin in the pericentromeric regions of all autosomes.

  10. Enzymatic Kinetic Properties of the Lactate Dehydrogenase Isoenzyme C4 of the Plateau Pika (Ochotona curzoniae

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    Yang Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Testis-specific lactate dehydrogenase (LDH-C4 is one of the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH isozymes that catalyze the terminal reaction of pyruvate to lactate in the glycolytic pathway. LDH-C4 in mammals was previously thought to be expressed only in spermatozoa and testis and not in other tissues. Plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniae belongs to the genus Ochotona of the Ochotonidea family. It is a hypoxia-tolerant species living in remote mountain areas at altitudes of 3000–5000 m above sea level on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Surprisingly, Ldh-c is expressed not only in its testis and sperm, but also in somatic tissues of plateau pika. To shed light on the function of LDH-C4 in somatic cells, Ldh-a, Ldh-b, and Ldh-c of plateau pika were subcloned into bacterial expression vectors. The pure enzymes of Lactate Dehydrogenase A4 (LDH-A4, Lactate Dehydrogenase B4 (LDH-B4, and LDH-C4 were prepared by a series of expression and purification processes, and the three enzymes were identified by the method of sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE and native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE. The enzymatic kinetics properties of these enzymes were studied by Lineweaver-Burk double-reciprocal plots. The results showed the Michaelis constant (Km of LDH-C4 for pyruvate and lactate was 0.052 and 4.934 mmol/L, respectively, with an approximate 90 times higher affinity of LDH-C4 for pyruvate than for lactate. At relatively high concentrations of lactate, the inhibition constant (Ki of the LDH isoenzymes varied: LDH-A4 (Ki = 26.900 mmol/L, LDH-B4 (Ki = 23.800 mmol/L, and LDH-C4 (Ki = 65.500 mmol/L. These data suggest that inhibition of lactate by LDH-A4 and LDH-B4 were stronger than LDH-C4. In light of the enzymatic kinetics properties, we suggest that the plateau pika can reduce reliance on oxygen supply and enhance its adaptation to the hypoxic environments due to increased anaerobic glycolysis by LDH-C4.

  11. Replicated landscape genetic and network analyses reveal wide variation in functional connectivity for American pikas.

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    Castillo, Jessica A; Epps, Clinton W; Jeffress, Mackenzie R; Ray, Chris; Rodhouse, Thomas J; Schwalm, Donelle

    2016-09-01

    Landscape connectivity is essential for maintaining viable populations, particularly for species restricted to fragmented habitats or naturally arrayed in metapopulations and facing rapid climate change. The importance of assessing both structural connectivity (physical distribution of favorable habitat patches) and functional connectivity (how species move among habitat patches) for managing such species is well understood. However, the degree to which functional connectivity for a species varies among landscapes, and the resulting implications for conservation, have rarely been assessed. We used a landscape genetics approach to evaluate resistance to gene flow and, thus, to determine how landscape and climate-related variables influence gene flow for American pikas (Ochotona princeps) in eight federally managed sites in the western United States. We used empirically derived, individual-based landscape resistance models in conjunction with predictive occupancy models to generate patch-based network models describing functional landscape connectivity. Metareplication across landscapes enabled identification of limiting factors for dispersal that would not otherwise have been apparent. Despite the cool microclimates characteristic of pika habitat, south-facing aspects consistently represented higher resistance to movement, supporting the previous hypothesis that exposure to relatively high temperatures may limit dispersal in American pikas. We found that other barriers to dispersal included areas with a high degree of topographic relief, such as cliffs and ravines, as well as streams and distances greater than 1-4 km depending on the site. Using the empirically derived network models of habitat patch connectivity, we identified habitat patches that were likely disproportionately important for maintaining functional connectivity, areas in which habitat appeared fragmented, and locations that could be targeted for management actions to improve functional connectivity

  12. Diet diversity is associated with beta but not alpha diversity of pika gut microbiota

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    Huan Li

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Wild mammals often consume different food sources as they become geographical available. This change in diet composition is likely to influence the gut microbial community, yet it remains unclear what the relationship looks like—particularly in small herbivores--under natural conditions. We used DNA sequencing approaches to characterize the diet composition and gut microbial community of wild plateau pikas (Ochotona curzoniae collected from three altitudes. We tested if diet and gut microbiota composition changes across altitudes, and the relationship between diet diversity and gut microbiota diversity. Our results showed that altitude significantly influences the composition of diet and gut microbial communities. Notably, the alpha diversity (Shannon diversity and observed OTUs of individual diet was not significantly correlated with that of gut microbiota, whereas the beta diversity (Jaccard and Bray-Curtis dissimilarity of diet was positively correlated with that of gut microbiota. Our study is the first time to highlight the relationship between diet and gut microbiota composition in wild pikas on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. It suggests that the species richness within individual gut microbiota does not linearly increase with diet diversity, whereas those individuals that are more similar in diet composition harbor more similar gut microbiota.

  13. Pika population density is associated with composition and diversity of gut microbiota

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    Huan eLi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Host population density is positively associated with the strength of social interactions or the frequency of physical contacts, and thus potentially influences microbial transmission among individuals. However, the relationship between host density and gut microbiota remains unknown. Here, we characterized the gut microbiota of plateau pikas (Ochotona curzoniae in wild experimental fields with different host population densities. The abundance of some gut microbes significantly correlated with host density, such as Ruminococcaceae, Lachnospiraceae and Staphylococcaceae. Intriguingly, host density was positively correlated with alpha diversity (Shannon diversity and observed species of gut microbial communities. The inter-individual gut microbiota within high-density groups were more similar to each other than those of low-density groups. Host density significantly explained the variations in the gut microbiota, even after controlling sex, weight, diet and geographical locations. Based on the PICRUSt metagenome prediction, positive correlations were observed between host density and the relative abundances of 12 gene functions involved in cellular processes, environmental information processing and metabolism. These results indicate the importance of host density as a factor in shaping gut microbial composition and diversity in plateau pikas, and may further help us understand the social transmission of gut microbiota.

  14. Pika Population Density Is Associated with the Composition and Diversity of Gut Microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huan; Qu, Jiapeng; Li, Tongtong; Li, Jiabao; Lin, Qiang; Li, Xiangzhen

    2016-01-01

    Host population density is positively associated with the strength of social interactions or the frequency of physical contacts, and thus potentially influences microbial transmission among individuals. However, the relationship between host density and gut microbiota remains unknown. Here, we characterized the gut microbiota of plateau pikas (Ochotona curzoniae) in wild experimental fields with different host population densities. The abundance of some gut microbes significantly correlated with host density, such as Ruminococcaceae, Lachnospiraceae, and Staphylococcaceae. Intriguingly, host density was positively correlated with alpha diversity (Shannon diversity and observed species) of gut microbial communities. The inter-individual gut microbiota within high-density groups were more similar to each other than those of low-density groups. Host density significantly explained the variations in the gut microbiota, even after controlling sex, weight, diet and geographical locations. Based on the PICRUSt metagenome prediction, positive correlations were observed between host density and the relative abundances of 12 gene functions involved in cellular processes, environmental information processing and metabolism. These results indicate the importance of host density as a factor in shaping gut microbial composition and diversity in plateau pikas, and may further help us understand the social transmission of gut microbiota.

  15. Diet Diversity Is Associated with Beta but not Alpha Diversity of Pika Gut Microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huan; Li, Tongtong; Beasley, DeAnna E; Heděnec, Petr; Xiao, Zhishu; Zhang, Shiheng; Li, Jiabao; Lin, Qiang; Li, Xiangzhen

    2016-01-01

    Wild mammals often consume different food sources as they become geographical available. This change in diet composition is likely to influence the gut microbial community, yet it remains unclear what the relationship looks like-particularly in small herbivores-under natural conditions. We used DNA sequencing approaches to characterize the diet composition and gut microbial community of wild plateau pikas (Ochotona curzoniae) collected from three altitudes. We tested if diet and gut microbiota composition changes across altitudes, and the relationship between diet diversity and gut microbiota diversity. Our results showed that altitude significantly influences the composition of diet and gut microbial communities. Notably, the alpha diversity (Shannon diversity and observed OTUs) of individual diet was not significantly correlated with that of gut microbiota, whereas the beta diversity (Jaccard and Bray-Curtis dissimilarity) of diet was positively correlated with that of gut microbiota. Our study is the first time to highlight the relationship between diet and gut microbiota composition in wild pikas on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. It suggests that the species richness within individual gut microbiota does not linearly increase with diet diversity, whereas those individuals that are more similar in diet composition harbor more similar gut microbiota.

  16. Sex differences in the ontogeny of social behavior in pikas: possible relationships to dispersal and territoriality

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    A laboratory study on the ontogeny of social behavior in pikas (Ochotona princeps), an alpine lagomorph, was conducted to determine the role of early relationships between adult females and young and among siblings in the development of territorial and dispersal behaviors. Sex differences during development were examined because field studies have reported greater dispersal distances in young females than young males. At birth, females were significantly heavier than males. There were no sex differences in nursing frequency until after the 2nd week of age, when males initiated more nursing attempts than females. By the end of the weaning period (weeks 5 and 6), adult females became non-interactive with young, but aggression of young toward littermates and the mother increased until the eighth week. At this time, young males outweighed their sibling females. Young were dominant over their mothers by the age of 5 weeks, and young males were dominant over their sibling females. Sex differences were observed in aggression, scent-marking, exploratory activity, and submissive vocalizations, with higher rates in young males, except for submissive vocalizations, which were higher in females (Table 2). Vocalizations and scent-marking behavior increased over time, and were positively correlated with interaction rates. These data support the hypothesis that female young disperse farther than male young largely as the result of unsuccessful competition with male siblings for available territories close to the birthplace. A dispersal strategy for pikas is proposed.

  17. Variation in subsurface thermal characteristics of microrefuges used by range core and peripheral populations of the American pika (Ochotona princeps).

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    Rodhouse, Thomas J; Hovland, Matthew; Jeffress, Mackenzie R

    2017-03-01

    Microrefuges provide microclimates decoupled from inhospitable regional climate regimes that enable range-peripheral populations to persist and are important to cold-adapted species in an era of accelerated climate change. However, identifying and describing the thermal characteristics of microrefuge habitats is challenging, particularly for mobile organisms in cryptic, patchy habitats. We examined variation in subsurface thermal conditions of microrefuge habitats among different rock substrate types used by the American pika (Ochotona princeps), a climate-sensitive, rock-dwelling Lagomorph. We compared subsurface temperatures in talus and lava substrates in pika survey sites in two US national park units; one park study area on the range periphery and the other in the range core. We deployed paired sensors to examine within-site temperature variation. We hypothesized that subsurface temperatures within occupied sites and structurally complex substrates would be cooler in summer and warmer in winter than unoccupied and less complex sites. Although within-site variability was high, with correlations between paired sensors as low as 47%, we found compelling evidence that pikas occupy microrefuge habitats where subsurface conditions provide more thermal stability than in unoccupied microhabitats. The percentage of days in which microhabitat temperatures were between -2.5 and 25.5°C was significantly higher in occupied sites. Interestingly, thermal conditions were substantially more stable (p < .05) in the lava substrate type identified to be preferentially used by pikas (pahoehoe vs. a'a) in a previous study. Our study and others suggest that thermal stability appears to be the defining characteristic of subsurface microrefuges used by American pikas and is a likely explanation for enigmatic population persistence at the range periphery. Our study exemplifies an integrated approach for studying complex microhabitat conditions, paired with site use surveys and

  18. Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli in Plateau Pika (Ochotona curzoniae on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, China

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    Xiangning eBAI

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC are an emerging group of zoonotic pathogens. Ruminants are the natural reservoir of STEC. In this study we determined the prevalence and characteristics of the STEC in plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniae on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, China. A total of 1116 pika samples, including 294 intestinal contents samples, 317 fecal samples, and 505 intestinal contents samples, were collected from May to August in the years 2012, 2013 and 2015, respectively. Twenty-one samples (1.88% yielded at least one STEC isolate; in total, 22 STEC isolates were recovered. Thirteen different O serogroups and 14 serotypes were identified. One stx1 subtype (stx1a and three stx2 subtypes (stx2a, stx2b and stx2d were present in the STEC isolates. Fifteen, fourteen and three STEC isolates harbored the virulence genes ehxA, subA, and astA, respectively. Adherence-associated genes iha and saa were respectively present in 72.73% and 68.18% of the STEC isolates. Twenty antibiotics were active against all the STEC isolates; all strains were resistant to penicillin G, and some to cephalothin or streptomycin. The 22 STEC isolates were divided into 16 PFGE patterns and 12 sequence types. Plateau pikas may play a role in the ongoing circulation of STEC in the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau. This study provides the first report on STEC in plateau pikas and new information about STEC reservoirs in wildlife. Based on the serotypes, virulence gene profiles and MLST analysis, the majority of these pika STECs may pose a low public health risk.

  19. An accelerated rabies vaccine schedule based on toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) agonist PIKA adjuvant augments rabies virus specific antibody and T cell response in healthy adult volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijaya, Limin; Tham, Christine Y L; Chan, Yvonne F Z; Wong, Abigail W L; Li, L T; Wang, Lin-Fa; Bertoletti, Antonio; Low, Jenny G

    2017-02-22

    Rabies is a fatal disease where post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) is crucial in preventing infection. However, deaths even after appropriate PEP, have been reported. The PIKA Rabies vaccine adjuvant is a TLR3 agonist that activates B and T cells leading to a robust immune response. We conducted a phase I, open label, randomized study in healthy adults to assess the safety and immunogenicity of the PIKA Rabies vaccine and an accelerated vaccine regimen. Thirty-seven subjects were randomized into 3 groups: control vaccine classic regimen, PIKA vaccine classic regimen and PIKA vaccine accelerated regimen. Subjects were followed up for safety, rabies virus neutralizing antibodies (RVNA) and T cell responses. Both the control and PIKA Rabies vaccine were well tolerated. All adverse events (AEs) were mild and self-limiting. Seventy-five percent of subjects in the PIKA accelerated regimen achieved a RVNA titer ⩾0.5IU/mL on day 7, compared to 53.9% in the PIKA classic regimen (p=0.411) and 16.7% in control vaccine classic regimen (p=0.012). The PIKA rabies vaccine elicited multi-specific rabies CD4 mediated T cell response already detectable ex vivo at day 7 after vaccination and that was maintained at day 42. The investigational PIKA rabies vaccine was well tolerated and more immunogenic than the commercially available vaccine in healthy adults. Clinical trial registry: The study was registered with clinicaltrials.gov NCT02657161. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Abundance of Royle’s pika (Ochotona roylei along an altitudinal gradient in Uttarakhand, Western Himalaya

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    Sabuj Bhattacharyya

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The relative abundance of Royle’s pika (Ochotona roylei was studied in a part of the Kedarnath Wildlife Sanctuary, Uttarakhand, West Himalaya along an altitudinal gradient from 2900 to 3650 m a.s.l. Pikas’ detection probability and relative abundance per month and habitat were recorded by monthly surveys consisting of three sampling sessions of four hours each. Food plant species were identified by visual observation and quantified by a standard quadrat method. The highest relative abundance was observed at man-made walls and surroundings in the alpine zone and on broken slopes in the sub-alpine one, whereas alpine meadows showed the lowest abundance. A total of 26 plant species were found to be consumed by pikas. The proportion of forage plants was the highest (77.4% on the rocky slopes of the timberline zone The results of multiple regressions suggest that rock cover is the main factor affecting the relative abundance of Royle’s pika. Rocky areas probably offer both nest-sites and temporary refuges to escape from predators.
    Riassunto Abbondanza relativa del pica di Royle (Ochotona roylei lungo un gradiente altitudinale in Uttarakhand, Himalaya occidentale. In un’area del Kedarnath Wildlife Sanctuary (Uttarakhand, Himalaya occidentale, é stata stimata l’abbondanza relativa del pika di Royle (Ochotona roylei lungo un gradiente altitudinale compreso tra 2900 e 3650 m. Sono stati identificate tre fasce altitudinali e 10 habitat complessivi. La probabilità di osservazione e l’abbondanza relativa dei pika per ciascun mese e habitat sono state stimate tramite censimenti mensili consistenti in tre periodi di 4 ore ciascuno. Le specie vegetali consumate sono state identificate tramite osservazione diretta; la disponibilità è stata quantificata tramite rilievo fitosociologico standard. L’abbondanza relativa maggiore è stata riscontrata nella

  1. Dynamical Analysis of a Plateau Pika with Cross-Diffusion under Contraception Control

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    Xiaoyan Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A plateau pika model with spatial cross-diffusion is investigated. By analyzing the corresponding characteristic equations, the local stability of an coexistence steady state is discussed when d21 is small enough. However, when d21 is large enough, the model shows Turing bifurcation if B2 -4AC > 0. Furthermore, it is proved that if, R > R0, βK > d and cross-diffusion rates are zero, the positive coexistence steady state is globally asymptotically stable. A nonconstant positive solution bifurcates from the coexistent steady state by the Leray-Schauder degree theory. Numerical simulations are carried out to illustrate the main results.

  2. Herbivory and Competition of Tibetan Steppe Vegetation in Winter Pasture: Effects of Livestock Exclosure and Plateau Pika Reduction.

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    Richard B Harris

    Full Text Available Rangeland degradation has been identified as a serious concern in alpine regions of western China on the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau (QTP. Numerous government-sponsored programs have been initiated, including many that feature long-term grazing prohibitions and some that call for eliminating pastoralism altogether. As well, government programs have long favored eliminating plateau pikas (Ochotona curzoniae, assumed to contribute to degraded conditions. However, vegetation on the QTP evolved in the presence of herbivory, suggesting that deleterious effects from grazing are, to some extent, compensated for by reduced plant-plant competition. We examined the dynamics of common steppe ecosystem species as well as physical indicators of rangeland stress by excluding livestock and reducing pika abundance on experimental plots, and following responses for 4 years. We established 12 fenced livestock exclosures within pastures grazed during winter by local pastoralists, and removed pikas on half of these. We established paired, permanent vegetation plots within and outside exclosures and measured indices of erosion and biomass of common plant species. We observed modest restoration of physical site conditions (reduced bare soil, erosion, greater vegetation cover with both livestock exclusion and pika reduction. As expected in areas protected from grazing, we observed a reduction in annual productivity of plant species avoided by livestock and assumed to compete poorly when protected from grazing. Contrary to expectation, we observed similar reductions in annual productivity among palatable, perennial graminoids under livestock exclusion. The dominant grass, Stipa purpurea, displayed evidence of density-dependent growth, suggesting that intra-specific competition exerted a regulatory effect on annual production in the absence of grazing. Complete grazing bans on winter pastures in steppe habitats on the QTP may assist in the recovery of highly eroded pastures

  3. Genetic evidence for restricted dispersal along continuous altitudinal gradients in a climate change-sensitive mammal: the American Pika.

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    Philippe Henry

    Full Text Available When faced with rapidly changing environments, wildlife species are left to adapt, disperse or disappear. Consequently, there is value in investigating the connectivity of populations of species inhabiting different environments in order to evaluate dispersal as a potential strategy for persistence in the face of climate change. Here, we begin to investigate the processes that shape genetic variation within American pika populations from the northern periphery of their range, the central Coast Mountains of British Columbia, Canada. At these latitudes, pikas inhabit sharp elevation gradients ranging from sea level to 1500 m, providing an excellent system for studying the effects of local environmental conditions on pika population genetic structure and gene flow. We found low levels of neutral genetic variation compared to previous studies from more southerly latitudes, consistent with the relatively recent post-glacial colonization of the study location. Moreover, significant levels of inbreeding and marked genetic structure were detected within and among sites. Although low levels of recent gene flow were revealed among elevations within a transect, potentially admixed individuals and first generation migrants were identified using discriminant analysis of principal components between populations separated by less than five kilometers at the same elevations. There was no evidence for historical population decline, yet there was signal for recent demographic contractions, possibly resulting from environmental stochasticity. Correlative analyses revealed an association between patterns of genetic variation and annual heat-to-moisture ratio, mean annual precipitation, precipitation as snow and mean maximum summer temperature. Changes in climatic regimes forecasted for the region may thus potentially increase the rate of population extirpation by further reducing dispersal between sites. Consequently, American pika may have to rely on local

  4. Herbivory and Competition of Tibetan Steppe Vegetation in Winter Pasture: Effects of Livestock Exclosure and Plateau Pika Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Richard B.; Wenying, Wang; Badinqiuying; Smith, Andrew T.

    2015-01-01

    Rangeland degradation has been identified as a serious concern in alpine regions of western China on the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau (QTP). Numerous government-sponsored programs have been initiated, including many that feature long-term grazing prohibitions and some that call for eliminating pastoralism altogether. As well, government programs have long favored eliminating plateau pikas (Ochotona curzoniae), assumed to contribute to degraded conditions. However, vegetation on the QTP evolved in the presence of herbivory, suggesting that deleterious effects from grazing are, to some extent, compensated for by reduced plant-plant competition. We examined the dynamics of common steppe ecosystem species as well as physical indicators of rangeland stress by excluding livestock and reducing pika abundance on experimental plots, and following responses for 4 years. We established 12 fenced livestock exclosures within pastures grazed during winter by local pastoralists, and removed pikas on half of these. We established paired, permanent vegetation plots within and outside exclosures and measured indices of erosion and biomass of common plant species. We observed modest restoration of physical site conditions (reduced bare soil, erosion, greater vegetation cover) with both livestock exclusion and pika reduction. As expected in areas protected from grazing, we observed a reduction in annual productivity of plant species avoided by livestock and assumed to compete poorly when protected from grazing. Contrary to expectation, we observed similar reductions in annual productivity among palatable, perennial graminoids under livestock exclusion. The dominant grass, Stipa purpurea, displayed evidence of density-dependent growth, suggesting that intra-specific competition exerted a regulatory effect on annual production in the absence of grazing. Complete grazing bans on winter pastures in steppe habitats on the QTP may assist in the recovery of highly eroded pastures, but may not

  5. The earliest occurrence of the steppe pika ( Ochotona pusilla) in Europe near the Pliocene/Pleistocene boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fostowicz-Frelik, Łucja; Frelik, Grzegorz J.

    2010-03-01

    The steppe pika ( Ochotona pusilla), a representative of the lagomorph family Ochotonidae, is restricted today to Kazakhstan and Russia. This subspecies-rich form belongs to a morphologically distinct, monospecific group of relatively small pikas, inhabiting steppe-like habitat. In the fossil record, it serves as a bioindicator of dry, grassland environment. The steppe pika was abundant and widespread in Europe during the Last Glaciation, and its unquestionable presence has been reported there since the middle Pleistocene. A new discovery of O. pusilla, from the Kielniki 3B locality (Poland), dated to the latest Pliocene, moves back the species appearance in Europe about one million years, almost coeval with its first record from the late Pliocene of Kazakhstan. Presence of such a typical steppe inhabitant as O. pusilla indicates significant climate change towards more arid, continental conditions, which started influencing Europe at 2.6 Ma. We present the first reliable record of the earliest O. pusilla entry deep into Europe in the latest Pliocene.

  6. Apparent climate-mediated loss and fragmentation of core habitat of the American pika in the Northern Sierra Nevada, California, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Joseph A E; Wright, David H; Heckman, Katherine A

    2017-01-01

    Contemporary climate change has been widely documented as the apparent cause of range contraction at the edge of many species distributions but documentation of climate change as a cause of extirpation and fragmentation of the interior of a species' core habitat has been lacking. Here, we report the extirpation of the American pika (Ochotona princeps), a temperature-sensitive small mammal, from a 165-km2 area located within its core habitat in California's Sierra Nevada mountains. While sites surrounding the area still maintain pikas, radiocarbon analyses of pika fecal pellets recovered within this area indicate that former patch occupancy ranges from before 1955, the beginning of the atmospheric spike in radiocarbon associated with above ground atomic bomb testing, to c. 1991. Despite an abundance of suitable rocky habitat climate warming appears to have precipitated their demise. Weather station data reveal a 1.9°C rise in local temperature and a significant decline in snowpack over the period of record, 1910-2015, pushing pika habitat into increasingly tenuous climate conditions during the period of extirpation. This is among the first accounts of an apparently climate-mediated, modern extirpation of a species from an interior portion of its geographic distribution, resulting in habitat fragmentation, and is the largest area yet reported for a modern-era pika extirpation. Our finding provides empirical support to model projections, indicating that even core areas of species habitat are vulnerable to climate change within a timeframe of decades.

  7. Climate Tolerances and Habitat Requirements Jointly Shape the Elevational Distribution of the American Pika (Ochotona princeps, with Implications for Climate Change Effects.

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    Leah H Yandow

    Full Text Available Some of the most compelling examples of ecological responses to climate change are elevational range shifts of individual species, which have been observed throughout the world. A growing body of evidence, however, suggests substantial mediation of simple range shifts due to climate change by other limiting factors. Understanding limiting factors for a species within different contexts, therefore, is critical for predicting responses to climate change. The American pika (Ochotona princeps is an ideal species for investigating distributions in relation to climate because of their unusual and well-understood natural history as well as observed shifts to higher elevation in parts of their range. We tested three hypotheses for the climatic or habitat characteristics that may limit pika presence and abundance: summer heat, winter snowpack, and forage availability. We performed these tests using an index of pika abundance gathered in a region where environmental influences on pika distribution have not been well-characterized. We estimated relative pika abundance via scat surveys and quantified climatic and habitat characteristics across two North-Central Rocky Mountain Ranges, the Wind River and Bighorn ranges in Wyoming, USA. Pika scat density was highest at mid-elevations and increased linearly with forage availability in both ranges. Scat density also increased with temperatures conducive to forage plant growth, and showed a unimodal relationship with the number of days below -5°C, which is modulated by insulating snowpack. Our results provide support for both the forage availability and winter snowpack hypotheses. Especially in montane systems, considering the context-dependent nature of climate effects across regions and elevations as well as interactions between climatic and other critical habitat characteristics, will be essential for predicting future species distributions.

  8. Climate Tolerances and Habitat Requirements Jointly Shape the Elevational Distribution of the American Pika (Ochotona princeps), with Implications for Climate Change Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yandow, Leah H; Chalfoun, Anna D; Doak, Daniel F

    2015-01-01

    Some of the most compelling examples of ecological responses to climate change are elevational range shifts of individual species, which have been observed throughout the world. A growing body of evidence, however, suggests substantial mediation of simple range shifts due to climate change by other limiting factors. Understanding limiting factors for a species within different contexts, therefore, is critical for predicting responses to climate change. The American pika (Ochotona princeps) is an ideal species for investigating distributions in relation to climate because of their unusual and well-understood natural history as well as observed shifts to higher elevation in parts of their range. We tested three hypotheses for the climatic or habitat characteristics that may limit pika presence and abundance: summer heat, winter snowpack, and forage availability. We performed these tests using an index of pika abundance gathered in a region where environmental influences on pika distribution have not been well-characterized. We estimated relative pika abundance via scat surveys and quantified climatic and habitat characteristics across two North-Central Rocky Mountain Ranges, the Wind River and Bighorn ranges in Wyoming, USA. Pika scat density was highest at mid-elevations and increased linearly with forage availability in both ranges. Scat density also increased with temperatures conducive to forage plant growth, and showed a unimodal relationship with the number of days below -5°C, which is modulated by insulating snowpack. Our results provide support for both the forage availability and winter snowpack hypotheses. Especially in montane systems, considering the context-dependent nature of climate effects across regions and elevations as well as interactions between climatic and other critical habitat characteristics, will be essential for predicting future species distributions.

  9. Apparent climate-mediated loss and fragmentation of core habitat of the American pika in the Northern Sierra Nevada, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph A. E. Stewart; David H. Wright; Katherine A. Heckman; Robert Guralnick

    2017-01-01

    Contemporary climate change has been widely documented as the apparent cause of range contraction at the edge of many species distributions but documentation of climate change as a cause of extirpation and fragmentation of the interior of a species' core habitat has been lacking. Here, we report the extirpation of the American pika (Ochotona princeps...

  10. Influence of domestic livestock grazing on American Pika (Ochotona princeps) forage and haypiling behavior in the Great Basin. Western North American Naturalist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constance I. Millar

    2011-01-01

    In a pilot study, I observed a relationship between domestic livestock grazing and location of American pika (Ochotona princeps) haypiles in the eastern Sierra Nevada and several Great Basin mountain ranges. Where vegetation communities adjacent to talus bases (forefields) were grazed, mean distance from the talus borders to the closest fresh...

  11. Inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase expression and nitric oxide production in plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniae) at high altitude on Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Ling; Zhang, Xuze; Qi, Delin; Guo, Xinyi; Pang, Bo; Du, Yurong; Zou, Xiaoyan; Guo, Songchang; Zhao, Xinquan

    2014-04-30

    Nitric oxide (NO), a potent vasodilator, plays an important role in preventing hypoxia induced pulmonary hypertension. Endogenous NO is synthesized by nitric oxide synthases (NOSs) from l-arginine. In mammals, three different NOSs have been identified, including neuronal NOS (nNOS), endothelial NOS (eNOS) and inducible NOS (iNOS). Plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniae) is a typical hypoxia tolerant mammal that lives at 3000-5000 m above sea level on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. The aim of this study was to investigate whether NOS expression and NO production are regulated by chronic hypoxia in plateau pika. Quantitative real-time PCR and western blot analyses were conducted to quantify relative abundances of iNOS and eNOS transcripts and proteins in the lung tissues of plateau pikas at different altitudes (4550, 3950 and 3200 m). Plasma NO metabolites, nitrite/nitrate (NO(x)⁻) levels were also examined by Ion chromatography to determine the correlation between NO production and altitude level. The results revealed that iNOS transcript levels were significantly lower in animals at high altitudes (decreased by 53% and 57% at altitude of 3950 and 4550 m compared with that at 3200 m). Similar trends in iNOS protein abundances were observed (26% and 41% at 3950 and 4550 m comparing with at 3200 m). There were no significant differences in eNOS mRNA and protein levels in the pika lungs among different altitudes. The plasma NO(x)⁻ levels of the plateau pikas at high altitudes significantly decreased (1.65±0.19 μg/mL at 3200 m to 0.44±0.03 μg/mL at 3950 m and 0.24±0.01 μg/mL at 4550 m). This is the first evidence describing the effects of chronic hypoxia on NOS expression and NO levels in the plateau pika in high altitude adaptation. We conclude that iNOS expression and NO production are suppressed at high altitudes, and the lower NO concentration at high altitudes may serve crucial roles for helping the plateau pika to survive at hypoxic environment. Copyright © 2014

  12. How Far into Europe Did Pikas (Lagomorpha: Ochotonidae Go during the Pleistocene? New Evidence from Central Iberia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Laplana

    Full Text Available This paper reports the first find of pika remains in the Iberian Peninsula, at a site in central Spain. A fragmented mandible of Ochotona cf. pusilla was unearthed from Layer 3 (deposited some 63.4±5.5 ka ago as determined by thermoluminescence of the Buena Pinta Cave. This record establishes new limits for the genus geographic distribution during the Pleistocene, shifting the previous edge of its known range southwest by some 500 km. It also supports the idea that, even though Europe's alpine mountain ranges represented a barrier that prevented the dispersal into the south to this and other taxa of small mammals from central and eastern Europe, they were crossed or circumvented at the coldest time intervals of the end of the Middle Pleistocene and of the Late Pleistocene. During those periods both the reduction of the forest cover and the emersion of large areas of the continental shelf due to the drop of the sea level probably provided these species a way to surpass this barrier. The pika mandible was found accompanying the remains of other small mammals adapted to cold climates, indicating the presence of steppe environments in central Iberia during the Late Pleistocene.

  13. How Far into Europe Did Pikas (Lagomorpha: Ochotonidae) Go during the Pleistocene? New Evidence from Central Iberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laplana, César; Sevilla, Paloma; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Arriaza, Mari Carmen; Baquedano, Enrique; Pérez-González, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the first find of pika remains in the Iberian Peninsula, at a site in central Spain. A fragmented mandible of Ochotona cf. pusilla was unearthed from Layer 3 (deposited some 63.4±5.5 ka ago as determined by thermoluminescence) of the Buena Pinta Cave. This record establishes new limits for the genus geographic distribution during the Pleistocene, shifting the previous edge of its known range southwest by some 500 km. It also supports the idea that, even though Europe’s alpine mountain ranges represented a barrier that prevented the dispersal into the south to this and other taxa of small mammals from central and eastern Europe, they were crossed or circumvented at the coldest time intervals of the end of the Middle Pleistocene and of the Late Pleistocene. During those periods both the reduction of the forest cover and the emersion of large areas of the continental shelf due to the drop of the sea level probably provided these species a way to surpass this barrier. The pika mandible was found accompanying the remains of other small mammals adapted to cold climates, indicating the presence of steppe environments in central Iberia during the Late Pleistocene. PMID:26535576

  14. Pika (Ochotona princeps) losses from two isolated regions reflect temperature and water balance, but reflect habitat area in a mainland region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beever, Erik A.; Perrine, John D.; Rickman, Tom; Flores, Mary; Clark, John P.; Waters, Cassie; Weber, Shana S.; Yardley, Braden; Thoma, David P.; Chesley-Preston, Tara; Goehring, Kenneth E.; Magnuson, Michael; Nordensten, Nancy; Nelson, Melissa; Collins, Gail H.

    2016-01-01

    Although biotic responses to contemporary climate change are spatially pervasive and often reflect synergies between climate and other ecological disturbances, the relative importance of climatic factors versus habitat extent for species persistence remains poorly understood. To address this shortcoming, we performed surveys for American pikas (Ochotona princeps) at > 910 locations in 3 geographic regions of western North America during 2014 and 2015, complementing earlier modern (1994–2013) and historical (1898–1990) surveys. We sought to compare extirpation rates and the relative importance of climatic factors versus habitat area for pikas in a mainland-versus-islands framework. In each region, we found widespread evidence of distributional loss—local extirpations, upslope retractions, and encounter of only old sign. Locally comprehensive surveys suggest extirpation of O. princeps from 5 of 9 new sites from the hydrographic Great Basin and from 11 of 29 sites in northeastern California. Although American pikas were recorded as recently as 2011 in Zion National Park and in 2012 from Cedar Breaks National Monument in Utah, O. princeps now appears extirpated from all reported localities in both park units. Multiple logistic regressions for each region suggested that both temperature-related and water-balance-related variables estimated from DAYMET strongly explained pika persistence at sites in the Great Basin and in Utah but not in the Sierra-Cascade “mainland” portion of northeastern California. Conversely, talus-habitat area did not predict American pika persistence in the Great Basin or Utah but strongly predicted persistence in the Sierra-Cascade mainland. These results not only add new areas to our understanding of long-term trend of the American pika’s distribution, but also can inform decisions regarding allocation of conservation effort and management actions. Burgeoning research on species such as O. princeps has collectively demonstrated the

  15. Planning and implementing the first stage of an oral health program for the Pika Wiya Health Service Incorporated Aboriginal community in Port Augusta, South Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Eleanor J; Misan, Gary; Richards, Lindsay C; Russell, Angela

    2005-01-01

    The oral health of the Indigenous community in South Australia's mid-north has been a concern for some years. There has been a history of under-utilisation of available dental services by the local community. This is in part due to the services not meeting their cultural and holistic health care needs. The Indigenous community resolved to establish a culturally sensitive dental service within the Aboriginal Health Service already operating in Port Augusta in South Australia's mid-north. To achieve this, a partnership between Pika Wiya Health Service Incorporated, the South Australian Dental Service, the University of Adelaide Dental School and the South Australian Centre for Rural and Remote Health was formed. The aim of the project partners was to establish a culturally sensitive, quality dental service that caters to the needs of the Indigenous community serviced by Pika Wiya Health Service Inc. This article describes the process of planning and implementing the first stage of this project.

  16. An intriguing shift occurs in the novel protein phosphatase 1 binding partner, TCTEX1D4: evidence of positive selection in a pika model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Korrodi-Gregório

    Full Text Available T-complex testis expressed protein 1 domain containing 4 (TCTEX1D4 contains the canonical phosphoprotein phosphatase 1 (PPP1 binding motif, composed by the amino acid sequence RVSF. We identified and validated the binding of TCTEX1D4 to PPP1 and demonstrated that indeed this protein is a novel PPP1 interacting protein. Analyses of twenty-one mammalian species available in public databases and seven Lagomorpha sequences obtained in this work showed that the PPP1 binding motif 90RVSF93 is present in all of them and is flanked by a palindromic sequence, PLGS, except in three species of pikas (Ochotona princeps, O. dauurica and O. pusilla. Furthermore, for the Ochotona species an extra glycosylation site, motif 96NLS98, and the loss of the palindromic sequence were observed. Comparison with other lagomorphs suggests that this event happened before the Ochotona radiation. The dN/dS for the sequence region comprising the PPP1 binding motif and the flanking palindrome highly supports the hypothesis that for Ochotona species this region has been evolving under positive selection. In addition, mutational screening shows that the ability of pikas TCTEX1D4 to bind to PPP1 is maintained, although the PPP1 binding motif is disrupted, and the N- and C-terminal surrounding residues are also abrogated. These observations suggest pika as an ideal model to study novel PPP1 complexes regulatory mechanisms.

  17. Genetic structure of Afghan Pika (Ochotona rufescens populations based on D-loop region of the mitochondrial genome in Northern Khorasan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olyagholi Khalilipour

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out for genetic diversity of Afghan Pika (Ochotona rufescens among four different populations in Northern Khorasan Province using D-Loop region of mitochondrial gene. The sixteen specimens were trapped from four different sanctuaries (Ghorkhod, Golol-Sarani, Salouk and Sarigol and transferred to Laboratory. The intra and inter population genetic factors (haplotype and nucleotide diversity, haplotype differentiation among populations, Fst, Nm, gamma distribution parameter, mismatch distribution, Tajima'D neutrality test and Isolation by distance were estimated and the results were compared among the populations. Finally, data set with 483 bp was used for each individual. The results showed 25 polymorphic, 457 conserved sites and 10 different haplotypes. The low value of Fst (Fst=0.21, P0.5 and Tajima 'D test (0.37, P>0.1 showed no population expansion and relatively stable population sizes.

  18. DEVICE FOR THE CALCULATION AND MODELING OF NEURONS (NERVE CELLS) (USTROISTVO DLYA RASCHETA I MODELIROVANIYA NEIRONOV),

    Science.gov (United States)

    NERVE CELLS , MATHEMATICAL MODELS), LOGIC CIRCUITS, SIMULATION, COMPUTER PROGRAMMING, PUNCHED TAPE, READING MACHINES, DIGITAL SYSTEMS, CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, CELLS(BIOLOGY), NETWORKS, DECISION MAKING, NEUROLOGY

  19. Kõusaare film teenis Cannes'is pika aplausi / Annika Koppel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koppel, Annika

    2007-01-01

    60-ndast Cannes'i filmifestivalil esilinastus 18. mail Kadri Kõusaare mängufilm "Magnus" võistlusprogrammis "Vaatenurk". Filmist ja selle vastuvõtust Cannes'is. Ka Michael Moore'ist ja tema dokumentaalfilmist "Sicko"

  20. On Jackson's theorem for the modulus of smoothness determined by a nonsymmetric generalised shift operator

    OpenAIRE

    Potapov, Mikhail K.; Berisha, Faton M.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper a class of asymmetrical operators of generalised translation is introduced, for each of them generalised moduli of smoothness are introduced, and Jackson's and its converse theorems are proved for those moduli. ----- V eto\\v{i} rabote rassmatrivaetsya klass sesimmetrichnykh operatorov obobshchenogo sdviga, dlya kazhdogo iz nikh vvoditsya obobshchennye moduli gladkosti i dlya nikh dokazybaetsya teorma Dzheksona i teorema, obratnaya e\\v{i}.

  1. Evelin Ilvest oodanud koolilapsed jäid pika ninaga / Kertu Kalmus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kalmus, Kertu

    2011-01-01

    Proua Evelin Ilvest oodati tema Saaremaa külastuse ajal asjatult külla ka Muhu ja Valjala põhikooli. Presidendi kantselei selgitab vääriti mõistmist. Vt. ka juhtkiri lk. 5: Kust algab riigi usalduskrediit?

  2. Ülimalt lahe elamus Pika tänava galeriist / Eda Post

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Post, Eda, 1983-

    2005-01-01

    Virumaa kunstnike kevadnäitusest "13.15 - lind oksa peal" Rakvere galeriis. Lähemalt Ivo Ridalaane, Riho Hüti, Jüri Mildebergi, Urmas Uustali, Toomas Kaskmanni, Jüri Jürna, Renate Leppiku töödest

  3. Rootslased jätsid Narva Vee pika ninaga / Artur Tooman

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tooman, Artur, 1971-

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka:: Delovõje Vedomosti 28. nov lk. 3. Kreenholm võlgneb Narva Veele 20 miljonit krooni ning kaks päeva enne kohtu otsust, millega pidi arestitama kogu Kreenholmi kinnisvara, müüsid rootslased kogu vara Boras Wäfveri omanike firmale Narva Gate OÜ

  4. Castro loobumine toob Kuubale üle pika ajal valimispõnevuse / Evelyn Kaldoja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaldoja, Evelyn, 1980-

    2008-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke 20. veebr. 2008, lk. 5. Kuuba riigipea Fidel Castro teatas pensionileminekust, Kuuba rahvusassamblee määrab uue presidendi. Vt. samas: Fidel Castro poolsajand Vabaduse Saarel

  5. Landscape effects on gene flow for a climate-sensitive montane species, the American pika

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessica A. Castillo; Clinton W. Epps; Anne R. Davis; Samuel A. Cushman

    2014-01-01

    Climate change is arguably the greatest challenge to conservation of our time. Most vulnerability assessments rely on past and current species distributions to predict future persistence but ignore species’ abilities to disperse through landscapes, which may be particularly important in fragmented habitats and crucial for long-term persistence in changing...

  6. Dunker jäi Lätis pika ninaga / Piret Reiljan

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Reiljan, Piret, 1983-

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 15. aug. lk. 9. Dunkri Kaubanduse AS pidi loobuma Läti importalkoholi hulgimüüja Lion ostmisest, kuna pooled ei jõudnud tehingu maksumuses kokkuleppele. Kommenteerib Alexander Bondarev. Tabel: Dunkri käive kasvas mullu üle 40%. Lisa: Lion. Vt. samas: Tehingu katkemine pidurdab laienemist

  7. APLIKASI SISTEM PENDUKUNG KEPUTUSAN PENENTUAN LOKASI PENDIRIAN WARNET DENGAN METODE ANALYTICAL HIERARCHY PROCESS (AHP (Studi Kasus : PT. Pika Media Komunika

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Winiarti

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Adanya kesulitan bagi perusahaan memiliki kesulitan dalam menentukan lokasi yang tepat untuk pendirian warnet yang sesuai dengan keinginan perusahaan agar dapat bertahan ditengah persaingan antar warnet yang begitu pesat. Penentuan lokasi pendirian warnet yang selama ini dilakukan hanya dengan cara konvensional atau kira- kira saja tanpa adanya suatu metode dan penghitungan matematis yang pasti dan belum terkomputerisasi. Akibatnya tidak sedikit Warnetyang mengalami gulung tikar. Untuk mempermudah penentuan lokasi pendirian warnet dibutuhkan suatu program aplikasi Sistem Pendukung Keputusan (SPK yang dapat membantu dalam mengambil keputusan secara cepat, tepat dan akurat. Penelitian yang dilakukan menghasilkan program aplikasi sistem pendukung keputusan dengan menggunakan metode Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP. Kata kunci : SPK, metode AHP, penentuan lokasi. 

  8. APLIKASI SISTEM PENDUKUNG KEPUTUSAN PENENTUAN LOKASI PENDIRIAN WARNET DENGAN METODE ANALYTICAL HIERARCHY PROCESS (AHP (Studi Kasus : PT. Pika Media Komunika

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Winiarti

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Adanya kesulitan bagi perusahaan memiliki kesulitan dalam menentukan lokasi yang tepat untuk pendirian warnet yang sesuai dengan keinginan perusahaan agar dapat bertahan ditengah persaingan antar warnet yang begitu pesat. Penentuan lokasi pendirian warnet yang selama ini dilakukan hanya dengan cara konvensional atau kira-kira saja tanpa adanya suatu metode dan penghitungan matematis yang pasti dan belum terkomputerisasi. Akibatnya tidak sedikit Warnetyang mengalami gulung tikar. Untuk mempermudah penentuan lokasi pendirian warnet dibutuhkan suatu program aplikasi Sistem Pendukung Keputusan (SPK yang dapat membantu dalam mengambil keputusan secara cepat, tepat dan akurat. Penelitian yang dilakukan menghasilkan program aplikasi sistem pendukung keputusan dengan menggunakan metode Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP.

  9. Pow, Punch, Pika, and Chu : The Structure of Sound Effects in Genres of American Comics and Japanese Manga

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pratha, Nimish K.; Avunjian, Natalie; Cohn, Neil

    2016-01-01

    As multimodal works, comics are characterized as much by their use of language as by the style of their images. Sound effects in particular are exemplary of comics’ language-use, and we explored this facet of comics by analyzing a corpus of books from genres in the United States (mainstream and

  10. Tšaad karistas prantslastest lapseröövijaid pika sunnitööga / Hendrik Vosman

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vosman, Hendrik

    2007-01-01

    Tšaadi kohus mõistis süüdi Prantsuse heategevusorganisatsiooni LþArche de Zoe kuus töötajat 103 lapse röövimise katses ja otsustas nad kaheksaks aastaks sunnitööle saata. Lisa: LþArche de Zoe

  11. Comparison of calculated curves of profiling for induction probes 4I1, 4F0. 75 and 6F1 versus bed blocks without consideration for the skin-effect. Resheniye pryamoy zadachi induktsionnogo karotazha dlya pachki plastov s proniknoveniyem rastvora bez ucheta skin-effekta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaskman, K.G.; Afonina, N.M.; Plyusnin, M.I.

    1981-01-01

    An examination is made of the solution to the direct task of induction logging according to the Dollya theory and asymptotic formulas are derived for computing the geometric bed factors which make it possible to improve the rate and accuracy of the calculations. A program is described for determining the apparent resistances of any IR probe in the section which contains any number of beds in the penetration zone.

  12. Perseverance of pikas in the Miocene : Interplay of climate and competition in the evolution of Spanish Ochotonidae (Lagomorpha, Mammalia). Geologica Ultraiectina (333)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hordijk, K.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304835633

    2010-01-01

    The sedimentary succession near the village of Villafeliche in the Calatayud-Montalbán Basin (Spain) is well known for its very rich, densely sampled and well dated fossil mammal record of Miocene age and roughly spans the time interval between 17 and 10 million years ago. The exceptional quality of

  13. Tulumaksukohustuse edasilükkamisest väärtpaberite võõrandamisel ehk Kuidas metsamehed Riigikohtus maksuhaldurile pika puuga ära tegid / Gaily Kuusik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kuusik, Gaily

    2009-01-01

    Sylvesteri kohtuasjas tehtud Riigikohtu lahendist 3-3-1-23-09: Maksu- ja Tolliameti Lõuna maksu- ja tollikeskuse kassatsioonkaebus Tartu Ringkonnakohtu 19. jaanuari 2009. a otsuse peale haldusasjas nr 3-07-1205. Lisa: Kastekann trepil ja teeninduslik retoorika : noppeid Sylvesteri maksuvaidluse kohtutoimikust. Maksu- ja Tolliameti ja AS Sylvesteri vaheline maksuvaidlus on lõppenud : MTA pressiteade 06. 06. 2009. Õige mees õigel ajal õiges kohas

  14. An eco-evolutionary IBM improves predictions of future geneticconnectivity for American Pikas (Ochotona princeps) in Crater Lake National Park, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the face of rapid, contemporary climate change, conservationbiologists are relying heavily on species distribution models (SDMs)to predict shifting occupancy and distribution patterns in responseto future conditions. These models are critical tools for assessingvulnerability t...

  15. Natural selection and adaptive evolution of leptin in the ochotona family driven by the cold environmental stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Environmental stress can accelerate the evolutionary rate of specific stress-response proteins and create new functions specialized for different environments, enhancing an organism's fitness to stressful environments. Pikas (order Lagomorpha, endemic, non-hibernating mammals in the modern Holarctic Region, live in cold regions at either high altitudes or high latitudes and have a maximum distribution of species diversification confined to the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Variations in energy metabolism are remarkable for them living in cold environments. Leptin, an adipocyte-derived hormone, plays important roles in energy homeostasis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To examine the extent of leptin variations within the Ochotona family, we cloned the entire coding sequence of pika leptin from 6 species in two regions (Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and Inner Mongolia steppe in China and the leptin sequences of plateau pikas (O. curzonia from different altitudes on Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. We carried out both DNA and amino acid sequence analyses in molecular evolution and compared modeled spatial structures. Our results show that positive selection (PS acts on pika leptin, while nine PS sites located within the functionally significant segment 85-119 of leptin and one unique motif appeared only in pika lineages-the ATP synthase alpha and beta subunit signature site. To reveal the environmental factors affecting sequence evolution of pika leptin, relative rate test was performed in pikas from different altitudes. Stepwise multiple regression shows that temperature is significantly and negatively correlated with the rates of non-synonymous substitution (Ka and amino acid substitution (Aa, whereas altitude does not significantly affect synonymous substitution (Ks, Ka and Aa. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings support the viewpoint that adaptive evolution may occur in pika leptin, which may play important roles in pikas' ecological adaptation to

  16. Functional evolution of leptin of Ochotona curzoniae in adaptive thermogenesis driven by cold environmental stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Environmental stress can accelerate the directional selection and evolutionary rate of specific stress-response proteins to bring about new or altered functions, enhancing an organism's fitness to challenging environments. Plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniae, an endemic and keystone species on Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, is a high hypoxia and low temperature tolerant mammal with high resting metabolic rate and non-shivering thermogenesis to cope in this harsh plateau environment. Leptin is a key hormone related to how these animals regulate energy homeostasis. Previous molecular evolutionary analysis helped to generate the hypothesis that adaptive evolution of plateau pika leptin may be driven by cold stress. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To test the hypothesis, recombinant pika leptin was first purified. The thermogenic characteristics of C57BL/6J mice injected with pika leptin under warm (23±1°C and cold (5±1°C acclimation is investigated. Expression levels of genes regulating adaptive thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue and the hypothalamus are compared between pika leptin and human leptin treatment, suggesting that pika leptin has adaptively and functionally evolved. Our results show that pika leptin regulates energy homeostasis via reduced food intake and increased energy expenditure under both warm and cold conditions. Compared with human leptin, pika leptin demonstrates a superior induced capacity for adaptive thermogenesis, which is reflected in a more enhanced β-oxidation, mitochondrial biogenesis and heat production. Moreover, leptin treatment combined with cold stimulation has a significant synergistic effect on adaptive thermogenesis, more so than is observed with a single cold exposure or single leptin treatment. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings support the hypothesis that cold stress has driven the functional evolution of plateau pika leptin as an ecological adaptation to the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.

  17. Effects of photoperiod on energy metabolism and thermogenesis in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2010-12-27

    1999). Effects of temperature and photoperiod on thermogenesis in plateau pikas (Ochotona curzoniae) and root voles (Microtus oeconomus). J. Comp. Physiol. 169: 77-83. Wang DH, Sun RY, Wang ZW, Liu JS, Chen Z (1996).

  18. Applying theory of constraints in tactical and strategic management / Kalev Kaarna, Mait Miljan

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaarna, Kalev

    2002-01-01

    Bibliogr. lk. 86-87. - Kokkuvõte eesti keeles lk. 87. Piirangute teooria kasutamise vajadusest ja võimalustest. Piirangute juhtimisest pikas perspektiivis ning sellel põhinevast strateegilisest juhtimisest. Tabelid

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... nonfood items, such as ice, dirt, paint, or starch. This craving is called pica (PI-ka or ... and apricots Spinach and other dark green leafy vegetables Prune juice The Nutrition Facts labels on packaged ...

  20. Strategy formation in changing environment / Sven Heil

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Heil, Sven

    2005-01-01

    Uuringu telekommunikatsiooni operaatori juhtimise kohta Eestis aastatel 1993-2003 tulemustest selgus, et ettevõtte üleminekul konkurentsiga turule muutus firma strateegia pika-ajalisest ette planeeritavast lühiajaliselt kujundatavaks

  1. [Food habits and hunting patterns of Tibetan brown bear during warm seasons in Kekexili region on Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ai-Chun; Jiang, Zhi-Gang; Li, Chun-Wang; Cai, Ping

    2010-12-01

    Tibetan brown bear (Ursus arctos pruinosus) is an endemic subspecies of brown bear on the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau. We once reported a preliminary study on the summer food habit of Tibetan brown bear from July to August, 2005 in the Kekexili (Hoh Xil).. However, the hunting modes of the Tibetan brawn bear have not been reported. From July to August, 2009, we collected additional data on food habits and hunting patterns of Tibetan brown bear in the Kekexili region. We found Tibetan brown bears are more raptatorial than vegetarian, and their basal food was plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniae), relative frequency occurrence of pika in the fecal residual of brawn bear was 37.3%, dry weight of pika residuals was 44.7%, respectively, followed by wild yak (Bos grunniens) , 18.7% and 30.2%, and Tibetan antelope (Pantholops hodgsoni) 15.0% and 16.2%. Both prey actively mode and scavenge mode were used by Tibetan brown bears in Kekexili. Tibetan brawn bears actively dug and hunted for pika and scavenged bodies of wild yak, Tibetan antelope and Tibetan gazelle. We observed that Tibetan brawn bears spent about 10% of their time to dig and to hunt for pika but we had never seen Tibetan brawn bears actively hunted large mammals such as wild yak, Tibetan antelope and Tibetan gazelle. The total amount of Tibetan antelope, Tibetan gazelle and wild yak ingested by Tibetan brown bear through scavenge was about the same amount of Plateau pika and Himalayan marmot (Marmota himalayana) eaten by the bear.

  2. Testis-Specific Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH-C4 in Skeletal Muscle Enhances Apika’s Sprint-Running Capacity in Hypoxic Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Wang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available LDH-C4 is a lactate dehydrogenase that catalyzes the conversion of pyruvate to lactate. In mammals, ldh-c was originally thought to be expressed only in testis and spermatozoa. Plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniae, which belongs to the genus Ochotona of the Ochotonidea family, is a hypoxia tolerant mammal living 3000–5000 m above sea level on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, an environment which is strongly hypoxic. Ldh-c is expressed not only in testis and sperm but also in somatic tissues of plateau pika. In this study, the effects of N-propyl oxamate and N-isopropyl oxamate on LDH isozyme kinetics were compared to screens for a selective inhibitor of LDH-C4. To reveal the role and physiological mechanism of LDH-C4 in skeletal muscle of plateau pika, we investigated the effect of N-isopropyl oxamate on the pika exercise tolerance as well as the physiological mechanism. Our results show that Ki of N-propyl oxamate and N-isopropyl oxamate for LDH-A4, LDH-B4, and LDH-C4 were 0.094 mmol/L and 0.462 mmol/L, 0.119 mmol/L and 0.248 mmol/L, and 0.015 mmol/L and 0.013 mmol/L, respectively. N-isopropyl oxamate is a powerful selective inhibitor of plateau pika LDH-C4. In our exercise tolerance experiment, groups treated with inhibitors had significantly lower swimming times than the uninhibited control group. The inhibition rates of LDH, LD, and ATP were 37.12%, 66.27%, and 32.42%, respectively. Our results suggested that ldh-c is expressed in the skeletal muscle of plateau pika, and at least 32.42% of ATP in the skeletal muscle is catalyzed by LDH-C4 by anaerobic glycolysis. This suggests that pika has reduced dependence on oxygen and enhanced adaptation to hypoxic environment due to increased anaerobic glycolysis by LDH-C4 in skeletal muscle. LDH-C4 in plateau pika plays the crucial role in anaerobic glycolysis and generates ATP rapidly since this is the role of LDH-A4 in most species on plain land, which provide evidence that the native humans and animals in

  3. Stalkerid jagatud

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Eesti ulmeauhinna Stalker võitjad 2010. a. Parim tõlkeromaan: Charles Stross "Accelerando" (tõlkija Iris Jeletski), parim antoloogia või kogumik: "Munk maailma äärel. Vene ulmeantoloogia" (koostaja Arvi Nikkarev), parim tõlkejutt: Charles Stross "Poiss ja tema jumal" (antoloogiast "Täheaeg. Pika talve algus", tõlkija Sash Uusjärv), parim eesti romaan: Leo Kunnas "Gort Ashryn. II osa : Sõda", parin eesti autori jutt: Indrek Hargla "Doanizarre udulaam" (antoloogia "Täheaeg. Pika talve algus")

  4. Oral health comparisons between children attending an Aboriginal health service and a Government school dental service in a regional location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Eleanor J; Jamieson, Lisa M

    2007-01-01

    Indigenous children in Australia have higher dental caries levels than their non-Indigenous counterparts. Indigenous communities in South Australia's mid-north region have identified dental health as one of their top health priorities. In response to this, an oral health program based at the Pika Wiya Health Service in Port Augusta was established, with a dentist providing care for adults, and a dental therapist providing care for children, 2 days per week each. The purpose of this article is to compare the socio-demographic and oral health characteristics of children attending for care at the Pika Wiya Health Service Dental Clinic with those of their counterparts attending the general Port Augusta School Dental Service (SDS). Both Indigenous and non-Indigenous children were included. Data were obtained from the South Australian Dental Service (SADS), which routinely collects socio-demographic and dental information from patients seen through their system. Examinations were conducted by SADS-employed dental professionals. A full enumeration of children attending for care at Pika Wiya and the Port Augusta SDS from March 2001 to March 2006 was included. Surface level tooth data was captured using the EXACT treatment charting and management information system. The Socio-Economic Indices For Areas (SEIFA) were used to determine socio-economic status, and the dmft (sum of decayed, missing and filled teeth in the deciduous dentition) and DMFT (sum of decayed, missing and filled teeth in the permanent dentition) indices were used to assess oral health outcomes. Both measures were used for children aged 6-10 years because in such age groups children have a mixed dentition (both primary and permanent teeth are present). Caries prevalence (dmft/DMFT>0) and severity (mean dmft/DMFT) were calculated, as well as the Significant Caries Index (SiC) and Significant Caries Index 10 (SiC 10). The SiC is the mean dmft/DMFT of the one-third of the sample with the highest caries score

  5. Discovery of new Ohbayashinema spp. (nematoda: heligomosomoidea) in Ochotona princeps and O. cansus (lagomorpha: ochotonidae) from western North America and central Asia, with considerations of historical biogeography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three new species of Ohbayashinema (Nematoda, Heligmosomoidea) are described from localities in western North America and central Asia. Two of these species, Ohbayashinema nearctica n. sp and O. aspeira n. sp. are parasitic in American pika, Ochotona princeps. Ohbayashinema nearctica is differentiat...

  6. Roman s kamnem / Galina Balashova

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Balashova, Galina

    2005-01-01

    A-galerii uutest ruumidest Tallinnas Pika ja Hobusepea tänava nurgal ja seal eksponeeritud töödest: Kaie Partsi ehted, Andrei Balashovi ja Harvi Varkki metallplastika. Ehteseifis avatud Tiina Käeseli kureeritud näitus "Granaat". Granaadiga seotud legende, kasutamisest ehetes

  7. Rabbits, refuges and resources : how foraging of herbivores is affected by living in burrows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, J.J.A.

    2007-01-01

    Small herbivores such as rabbits, pika and marmots create spatial patterns in vegetation around their burrows by grazing. This PhD thesis focuses on these refuge-living herbivores.By performing experiments with rabbits, he showed that looking for predators causes the spatial

  8. First report of Echinococcus shiquicus in dogs from eastern Qinghai-Tibet plateau region, China.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boufana, B.; Qui, J.; Chen, X.; Budke, C.; Campos Ponce, M.; Craig, P.S.

    2013-01-01

    Echinococcus shiquicus was discovered in foxes and pika wildlife hosts in Sichuan Province, China in 2005. Faecal samples from dogs collected in a previous echinococcosis purgation survey from Shiqu County, Ganzi Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture (Sichuan) were screened by coproPCR to investigate the

  9. Zum Stand und den Perspektiven der allgemeinsprachlichen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mev. R.B. Ruthven

    pika ugs fig močno pretepsti koga sich ~ grün und blau ärgern ugs fig pomodreti od jeze. A.H. (ERSTES) INTEGRAT/MIS. Abb. 16: Nicht vollständig ausgeführter einfach kommentierter Strukturgraph (1.Teil) zur abstrakten (und isomorphen konkreten) hierarchischen rechten Kernstruktur, die der semantische Kommentar von ...

  10. Die pikareske tematiek in André P. Brink se Inteendeel

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tienie

    Inteendeel (1993) maak die duidelikste aanspraak as pika- reske roman deurdat die sterk pikarofiguur, die hoofkarakter Estienne. Barbier, voorop gestel word in 'n getroue (selfs doelbewuste) navolging van die pikareske tradisie. Van Coller & Odendaal (1999: 766) identifiseer die roman as 'n belangrike toevoeging tot die ...

  11. Browse Author Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    M'boh, M · M'pika, J · Maazou, Rahila 3901 - 3950 of 6931 Items >>. ISSN: 1997-342X. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact AJOL · News.

  12. Kawe Plaza. Pärnu mnt. 15/Tatari 2, Tallinn / Piret Lindpere

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lindpere, Piret, 1963-

    1998-01-01

    Kawe Plaza arhitektist Henno Sillastest. Sisekujundus: H. Sillaste, Kristiina Voolaid, ARS Interjöörprojekt. Peatöövõtt: AS EMV. Projekt 1993-1997, valmis 1998. Lainja klaasfasaadiga pika ja kitsa ärihoone lahenduse tingis krundi kolmnurkne kuju. Maja on sobitatud teiste väljakut moodustavate hoonetega. Tagafassaad on graniidist.

  13. Koolilaps sai oma toa / Tertit Linturi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Linturi, Tertit

    2003-01-01

    Endine kahe lapse magamistuba kujundati ümber koolimineva tütre omaette toaks, kus on koolilaud, kummut ja voodi, mille all on väljatõmmatavad sahtelkastid. Pika- ja kitsavõitu toa otsasein sai uue värvi. 4 ill

  14. Liigne optimism Venemaa suhtes on põhjendamatu / Tõnis Oja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Oja, Tõnis, 1957-

    2008-01-01

    Paljud analüütikud ja investorid näevad Vene börsil häid hindu ja teenimisvõimalusi, kuid pikas perspektiivis on liigne optimism Venemaa aktsiaturgude suhtes põhjendamatu. Diagrammid: Venemaa börsiindeks RTS; Hansa Venemaa aktsiafond kaotanud viiendiku investoritest

  15. Seans bõstroi big-magii s posledujushtshim razoblatshenijem / Anastassia Belitshko-Popovitsh

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Belitshko-Popovitsh, Anastassia

    2008-01-01

    Üldise toiduainete hinnatõusu kõrval on Big Mac'i hind jäänud pika aja jooksul samale tasemele. Hesburgeri regioonijuht Toomas Veersalu prognoosib praeguse inflatsioonitempo juures vältimatut hamburgerihinna tõusu, kui lepingud toiduainete tarnijatega lõpevad. Majanduse ja juhtimise instituudi rektor Hanon Barabaner inflatsiooni põhjustest ja plaanimajandusest. Tabelid, graafikud

  16. Kihnu Jõnnud Jaani silme läbi / Anne Mishina

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mishina, Anne

    2003-01-01

    Jaan Oadi (1899-1984) maalide (reprod) näitus "Kihnu Jõnnud Jaani silme läbi 19. sajandi keskpaigast I ilmasõjani" Hiiumaa Muuseumi Pikas Majas. Maalid on allkirjastanud kunstniku poeg August Oad. Näituse kujundas Rene Valner

  17. The impact of isolation: evolutionary processes in Hoplitomeryx

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Geer, A.A.E.

    2014-01-01

    The Late Miocene palaeo-island of Gargano, today part of mainland southern Italy, was home to a strongly endemic, strongly disharmonic and depauperate fauna consisting entirely of deer-like ruminants, rodents, pikas, an otter and insectivores, besides reptiles, amphibians and a peculiar avifauna.

  18. Soil Food Web Changes during Spontaneous Succession at Post Mining Sites: A Possible Ecosystem Engineering Effect on Food Web Organization?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frouz, J.; Thébault, E.; Pizl, V.; Adl, S.; Cajthaml, T.; Baldrián, P.; Hánel, L.; Starý, J.; Tajovský, K.; Materna, J.; Nováková, A.; Ruiter, de P.C.

    2013-01-01

    Lagomorphs (a group that consists of pikas, hares, rabbits and allies) are notable for their conservative morphology retained for most of their over 50 million years evolutionary history. On the other hand, their remarkable morphological uniformity partly stems from a considerable number of

  19. Small mammalian herbivores as mediators of plant community dynamics in the high-altitude arid rangelands of Trans-Himalaya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bagchi, S.; Namgail, T.; Ritchie, M.E.

    2006-01-01

    The high-altitude rangelands of the Trans-Himalaya represent a grazing ecosystem which has supported an indigenous pastoral community for millennia alongside a diverse assemblage of wild herbivores including burrowing mammals (pikas and voles). Pastoralists consider the small mammals to cause

  20. Lõpetame raiskamise, mitte kulutamise / Peeter Kreitzberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kreitzberg, Peeter, 1948-2011

    2008-01-01

    Keerulisest majandusolukorrast välja tulemiseks tuleb lõpetada raiskamine, kuid mitte kulutamine. Autori sõnul põhjustab raiskamist alus- ja põhiharidusse piisavate kulutuste tegemata jätmine pika aja jooksul; raiskamist tähendab pisikestel omavalitsustel põhinev haldusstruktuur. Eesti vajab Riigikogu tulevikukomisjoni

  1. Viiv enne kojuminekut / Leo Kunnas ; interv. Helen Arak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kunnas, Leo, 1967-

    2006-01-01

    Kaitsejõudude Peastaabi operatiivosakonna ülem kolonelleitnant Leo Kunnas oma perekonnast, lapsepõlvekodust Põlvamaal ja praegusest elamisest Tallinnas, missioonil viibivate sõjaväelaste probleemidest ning eluolust Iraagis. Lisa: Katkend Leo Kunnase raamatust "Viiv pikas sõjas"

  2. 95 päeva sõjatandril, päevik tagataskus / Leo Kunnas ; interv. Erkki Bahovski

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kunnas, Leo, 1967-

    2006-01-01

    Kolonelleitnant Leo Kunnas räägib Iraagi sissisõjast ja oma raamatust "Viiv pikas sõjas. Märkmeid Iraagi sõjast", mis põhineb tema Iraagi-kogemustel. Vt. samas: Sõda, kus eestlane on sisside vastu

  3. My Video Collections / Marco Casagrande

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Casagrande, Marco, 1971-

    2006-01-01

    Soome arhitekt ja kunstnik annab pika loendi oma videofilmide kollektsioonist, esitab subjektiivse filmide top 10-ne, mille esinumber on Andrei Tarkovski "Stalker". Teeb järelduse, et Tarkovski on talle kõige inspireerivam arhitekt, tema esitatud küsimused kõige suuremad

  4. [Heinz von zur Mühlen. Auf den Spuren einiger revlaer Firmen und Familien] / Paul Kaegbein

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaegbein, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Arvustus: Heinz von zur Mühlen. Auf den Spuren einiger revlaer Firmen und Familien. In : Buch und Bildung im Baltikum. Münster : LIT, 2005, lk. 527-541. Pika tänava majade omanikest alates 17. sajandist - perekonnad Koch, Meyer, Kluge, Ströhm, Wassermann, Glehn, Eggers, Koppelson, Weiss. Nii loob autor pildi Tallinna "firmade ajaloost"

  5. Taavet võidab Koljati targalt tegutsedes / Costas Markides ; interv. Endrik Randoja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Markides, Costas

    2007-01-01

    London Business Schooli professor Costas Markides vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad tema raamatus "Fast Second" esitatud väidet, mille kohaselt esimesena uuele turule tulnud ettevõttest saab harva pikas perspektiivis turuliider, kuid samas on edukad just teisena turule sisenevad ettevõtted

  6. Maarotist sai kirglik surfar / Anneli Ammas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ammas, Anneli, 1962-

    2016-01-01

    Eesti-Ukraina verd Boris Ljubtšenkost, kes läheb 20. augustil oma 25. sünnipäeva hommikul Toompeale Pika Hermanni torni lippu heiskama. Boris Ljubtšenko kuulub ka Kaitseliitu ja õpetab Kaitseliidu lastelaagris surfamist

  7. Elektrijaam kütab kirgi ja ujutab Anija valla maid üle / Anneli Ammas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ammas, Anneli, 1962-

    2004-01-01

    Uus Vetla hüdroelektrijaam ujutab üle ümbruskonna maid. Jõujaama omaniku Urmas Põllu sõnul ei oleks tammi veetaset allapoole lastes seal võimalik elektrit toota. Lisad: Hüdrojaama kasulikkus vaid sümboolne; Pika tasuvusega projekt

  8. Bõvshii prezident Gruzii Eduard Shevardnadze : "V Gruzii oppozitsija slabaja." / Eduard Shevardnadze

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Shevardnadze, Eduard

    2006-01-01

    Gruusia endine president vastab küsimustele, mida ta võiks nimetada oma peamiseks veaks pika poliitilise elu jooksul, mida peaks tegema Gruusia, et saada Abhaasia ja Lõuna-Osseetia tagasi rahulikul teel, millised on Gruusia ja Venemaa halbade suhete põhjused, kas Gruusia peaks minema Venemaa või lääne suunas

  9. Pikachurin Protein Required for Increase of Cone Electroretinogram B-Wave during Light Adaptation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masatoshi Nagaya

    Full Text Available In normal eyes, the amplitude of the b-wave of the photopic ERGs increases during light adaptation, but the mechanism causing this increase has not been fully determined. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the contribution of receptoral and post-receptoral components of the retina to this phenomenon. To accomplish this, we examined the ERGs during light adaptation in Pikachurin null-mutant (Pika -/- mice, which have a misalignment of the bipolar cell dendritic tips to the photoreceptor ribbon synapses. After dark-adaptation, photopic ERGs were recorded from Pika -/- and wild type (WT mice during the first 9 minutes of light adaptation. In some of the mice, post-receptoral components were blocked pharmacologically. The photopic b-waves of WT mice increased by 50% during the 9 min of light adaptation as previously reported. On the other hand, the b-waves of the Pika -/- mice decreased by 20% during the same time period. After blocking post-receptoral components, the b-waves were abolished from the WT mice, and the ERGs resembled those of the Pika -/- mice. The extracted post-receptoral component increased during light adaptation in the WT mice, but decreased for the first 3 minutes to a plateau in Pika -/- mice. We conclude that the normal synaptic connection between photoreceptor and retinal ON bipolar cells, which is controlled by pikachurin, is required for the ERGs to increase during light-adaptation. The contributions of post-receptoral components are essential for the photopic b-wave increase during the light adaptation.

  10. Habitat availability and gene flow influence diverging local population trajectories under scenarios of climate change: a place-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwalm, Donelle; Epps, Clinton W; Rodhouse, Thomas J; Monahan, William B; Castillo, Jessica A; Ray, Chris; Jeffress, Mackenzie R

    2016-04-01

    Ecological niche theory holds that species distributions are shaped by a large and complex suite of interacting factors. Species distribution models (SDMs) are increasingly used to describe species' niches and predict the effects of future environmental change, including climate change. Currently, SDMs often fail to capture the complexity of species' niches, resulting in predictions that are generally limited to climate-occupancy interactions. Here, we explore the potential impact of climate change on the American pika using a replicated place-based approach that incorporates climate, gene flow, habitat configuration, and microhabitat complexity into SDMs. Using contemporary presence-absence data from occupancy surveys, genetic data to infer connectivity between habitat patches, and 21 environmental niche variables, we built separate SDMs for pika populations inhabiting eight US National Park Service units representing the habitat and climatic breadth of the species across the western United States. We then predicted occurrence probability under current (1981-2010) and three future time periods (out to 2100). Occurrence probabilities and the relative importance of predictor variables varied widely among study areas, revealing important local-scale differences in the realized niche of the American pika. This variation resulted in diverse and - in some cases - highly divergent future potential occupancy patterns for pikas, ranging from complete extirpation in some study areas to stable occupancy patterns in others. Habitat composition and connectivity, which are rarely incorporated in SDM projections, were influential in predicting pika occupancy in all study areas and frequently outranked climate variables. Our findings illustrate the importance of a place-based approach to species distribution modeling that includes fine-scale factors when assessing current and future climate impacts on species' distributions, especially when predictions are intended to manage and

  11. The prevalence and course of osteoporosis in patients with cardiovascular diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A L Vertkin

    2008-01-01

    Rezul'taty issledovaniya. Atravmaticheskiy perelom sheyki bedra u muzhchin otmechalsya v srednem na 7,1 goda ran'she, chem u zhenshchin. Gospital'naya letal'nost' pri perelome sheyki bedra - 6,8%; eshche okolo 25% bol'nykh umirayut v techenie goda. U bol'shinstva patsientov imelas' kardi-ovaskulyarnaya patologiya, po povodu kotoroy oni nablyudalis' u terapevta, pri etom OP ili faktory ego riska do pereloma ni v odnom sluchae ne byli diagnostirovany. Faktory riska OP pri kardiovaskulyarnoy patologii vstrechalis' v 86,6% sluchaev, u patsientov bez takovoy - v 81,4%. Nizkaya MPK vyyavlena u 65,2% bol'nykh s serdechno-sosudistymi zabolevaniyami i sostavlyala pri IBS -1,9 SD, pri AG-1,6 SD, a u patsientov bez kardiovaskulyarnoy patologii etot pokazatel' dostigal -0,9 SD. Pri nekontroliruemoy AG, gipertrofii levogo zheludochka s narusheniem ego sokratimosti poterya MPK bolee vyrazhennaya. Otmecheny prirost MPK i znachitel'noe klinicheskoe uluchshenie sostoyaniya u patsientov s kardiovaskulyarnoy patologiey i OP na fone terapii kal'tsitoninom lososya i preparatami kal'tsiya v sochetanii s vitaminom Ds. Zaklyuchenie. Privedennye dannye rasshiryayut nashi predstavleniya o svyazi kardiovaskulyarnoy patologii so snizheniem MPK. Vysokaya obrashchaemost' patsientov s sosudistoy patologiey k kardiologam, terapevtam, nevrologam trebuet sozdaniya usloviy dlya uluchsheniya diagnostiki OP.

  12. Il personaggio scontornato in Škola dlja Durakov. Dal romanzo di Saša Sokolov agli adattamenti teatrali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Marchesini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Sokolov’s Shkola dlya Durakov (A School for Fools, 1976 is an extremely complex novel, which “depicts [the] world”, as D. Barton Johnson (1986:640[1] poignantly observes, “through the eyes, and pure, if eccentric, language, of a schizophrenic youth”. How is it possible to translate such linguistic features and the effects they create into another medium? This question lies at the core of my proposal, which aims to approach the problem of intermedial translation from prose to theatre through the presentation of an individual case-study. In fact, A School for Fools has been staged by the director Andrey Moguchy (Formalny Theatre, Saint Petersburg, Russia. With the intention of reproducing Sokolov’s aesthetic construction of illusion, Moguchy introduces a new genre in the theatrical context, the so-called “vizualnaya associaciya” (“visual association”. As the director explained in a recent interview, this original genre recalls the Impressionists’ position in observing and representing nature, in order to obtain the same effect generated by the reading of the novel. To comprehend this process better, special attention is devoted to the construction of unusual, hybrid characters, highlighting their constitutive features both in the novel and in the theatrical adaptation. Moreover, this research seeks to enrich discussion of the work of Sokolov and Moguchy. [1] Johnson, D. Barton (1986 “Sasha Sokolov's Twilight Cosmos: Themes and Motifs”, in: Slavic Review, 45, 4 (Winter 1986, pp. 639-649.

  13. Bulletin of Materials Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science. Samuel E Lofland. Articles written in Bulletin of Materials Science. Volume 28 Issue 6 October 2005 pp 571-577 Ceramics and Glasses. (La2/5Ba2/5Ca1/5)(Mn(2/5)–NiTi3/5)O3: Rietveld studies, dielectric and magnetic properties of new perovskite-related oxides · Pika Jha ...

  14. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    B N'goran, K Allou, NA Yao, JL Konan, J M'pika, TT Lekadou, AE Issali, S Ake. Vol 10, No 3 (2016), Activité analgésique de quatre plantes utilisées dans la prise en charge traditionnelle du paludisme au Mali et au Togo, Abstract PDF. Adama Denou, Koffi Koudouvo, Mahamane Haidara, Adiaratou Togola, Rokia Sanogo, ...

  15. Nõmme maja "Kergus" : Kerese tn., Tallinn / Ülar Mark, Kalle Komissarov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mark, Ülar

    1999-01-01

    Kahekorruselise, tänavapoolse pika umbse seinaga eramu projekteeris Arhitektuuribüroo Mark & Tamm, arhitekt Ülar Mark, kaasautor Kalle Komissarov. Konstruktiivne osa: Randväli & Karema Inseneribüroo. Projekt 1997, hoone valmis 1999. Eramu tähenduse ümbermõtestamisest. 13 illustratsiooni: korruste plaanid, välisvaated, sisevaade.Mark & Tamm (arhitektibüroo)

  16. Kahetsükliline kõrgharidus ehk 3+2 süsteem / Annika Tina

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tina, Annika

    Bologna protsessi üheks esmaseks tegevuseks oli pika õppetsükli lahutamine bakalaureuse- ja magistriõppeks ehk 3+2 süsteemiks. 2007. aastal oli 82% Euroopa kõrgkoolidest valinud Bologna protsessi eesmaärkidele vastava õppekavade süsteemi, Eesti läks üle 3+2 süsteemile 2002/2003 õppeaastal, tänaseks õpib Eestis uutel õppekavadel 90% kõrgkoolidest

  17. Palmse supelmaja taas kasutusel / Anneliis Aunapuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Aunapuu, Anneliis

    1998-01-01

    Lahemaa Rahvuspark rentis poolelioleva supelmaja perekond Ong'ile, kes ehituse lõpetas, hoone sisustas ja avas kohvik-restorani 'Freifrau Isabella'. Sisekujundus autor Leila Pärtelpoeg nimetab sisekujundust palladiaanlikuks. Tänu AEL ja Tartu Kunstikooliga sõlmitud lepingule sai supelmaja kõrgetasemelise maalritöö. Maalingud eesruumis ئ Eve Erman. Sepisvalgustid ئ Ülo Sepp. Pika-laua-saalis oleva von Pahlenite vapi valmistas Andres Sapar. Inkrusteeritud puhvetkapi taastas Urmas Ong.

  18. Üksi immatrikuleerimine : [essee] / Toomas Haug

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Haug, Toomas, 1956-

    2002-01-01

    Sini-must-valge trikoloori esmaheiskamisest Pika Hermanni torni 25. veebruaril 1918. a. Ka Toompea lossi tolleaegse komandandi Johannes Üksi mälestustest. Ilmunud ka kogumikus: Haug, Toomas. Troojamäe tõotus. Tallinn : Eesti Keele Sihtasutus, 2004, lk. 426-431, pealk.: Üksi immatrikuleerimine : ette võetud Jaan Krossi 82. sünnipäeva puhul

  19. Rüütli-Luukase leppe konkreetseteks võitjateks saavad haridus ja noored / Mirko Ojakivi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ojakivi, Mirko

    2003-01-01

    Ühiskondlikust leppest. Tartu Ülikooli rektori Jaak Aaviksoo, Keskerakonna juhatuse liikme Evelyn Sepp'a, Reformierakonna aseesimees Meelis Atoneni, Isamaliidu esimees Tunne Kelami ja Res Publica volikogu esimees Urmas Reinsalu kommentaarid. Samas: Kes võidavad leppest? ; Aadu Luukas: tänane on alles pika tee algus ; Keskerakond ütles lõplikult "ei" ; Ühiskondliku kokkuleppe teksti viimane versioon

  20. Leo Kunnas, sõdurjumala teener / Leo Kunnas ; interv. Eve Jaakson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kunnas, Leo, 1967-

    2006-01-01

    Kaitsejõudude peastaabi operatiivosakonna ülem kolonelleitnant Leo Kunnas räägib Iraagi sõja kogemustest ja oma raamatust "Viiv pikas sõjas. Märkmeid Iraagi sõjast", riigikaitsest, kaitseväeteenistusest, kaitseminister Jürgen Ligist, kaitsepoliitikast, NATO-st, sõjalisest koostööst, perekonnast. Kommenteerivad Sten Reimann ja Venno Loosaar

  1. iPhone'i peab saama lukust lahti teha / Dannar Leitmaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Leitmaa, Dannar, 1982-

    2008-01-01

    Kuigi Euroopa Liidu direktiivi kohaselt peab mobiiltelefoni omanikul olema võimalus telefoni lukustusest avada, näeb iPhone'i tootva Apple'i ärimudel ette iPhone'i ostmist ühelt operaatorilt. iPhone 3G telefonide ametlik maaletooja Eestis on EMT, kes pakub neid müügiks kahes erinevas hinnapaketis. Lisa: Juba öösel seisti pikas järjekorras

  2. "Olen viimane Napoleoni sõdur..." : [luuletused] / Charles Simic ; inglise keelest tõlkinud Andres Ehin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Simic, Charles

    2007-01-01

    Sisu: "Olen viimane Napoleoni sõdur..." ; "Luuletus koosviibimisest jahedal sügisõhtul..." ; "Kas vene inimsööjad on hullemad kui inglise omad?..." ; "Vana tunkedes talumees on enda laudalae aampalgi külge üles poonud..." ; "Ta oli segi ajanud tegelaskujud selles pikas romaanis..." / luulekogust "Hirmuäratavad mänguasjad" ; Mu hääletu kaaskond ; Õlenukk ; Tapamaja kärbsed ; Amelia pärast

  3. When can we measure stress noninvasively? Postdeposition effects on a fecal stress metric confound a multiregional assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkening, Jennifer L; Ray, Chris; Varner, Johanna

    2016-01-01

    Measurement of stress hormone metabolites in fecal samples has become a common method to assess physiological stress in wildlife populations. Glucocorticoid metabolite (GCM) measurements can be collected noninvasively, and studies relating this stress metric to anthropogenic disturbance are increasing. However, environmental characteristics (e.g., temperature) can alter measured GCM concentration when fecal samples cannot be collected immediately after defecation. This effect can confound efforts to separate environmental factors causing predeposition physiological stress in an individual from those acting on a fecal sample postdeposition. We used fecal samples from American pikas (Ochotona princeps) to examine the influence of environmental conditions on GCM concentration by (1) comparing GCM concentration measured in freshly collected control samples to those placed in natural habitats for timed exposure, and (2) relating GCM concentration in samples collected noninvasively throughout the western United States to local environmental characteristics measured before and after deposition. Our timed-exposure trials clarified the spatial scale at which exposure to environmental factors postdeposition influences GCM concentration in pika feces. Also, fecal samples collected from occupied pika habitats throughout the species' range revealed significant relationships between GCM and metrics of climate during the postdeposition period (maximum temperature, minimum temperature, and precipitation during the month of sample collection). Conversely, we found no such relationships between GCM and metrics of climate during the predeposition period (prior to the month of sample collection). Together, these results indicate that noninvasive measurement of physiological stress in pikas across the western US may be confounded by climatic conditions in the postdeposition environment when samples cannot be collected immediately after defecation. Our results reiterate the importance

  4. Ineffectiveness of rabies vaccination alone for post-exposure protection against rabies infection in animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Shoufeng; Li, Lietao; Hu, Rongliang; Lin, Haixiang; Liu, Hua; Liu, Fang; Shao, Hui; Liu, Yuan

    2016-11-01

    Most reported vaccination failures among rabies-exposed patients were due to fail to timely co-administer rabies immunoglobulin (RIG). Considering that such protection failure might be caused by low antigen titers in the vaccine, scientists improved antigen titers to 4.0 IU or even higher, yet the failure remained. Therefore, it becomes vital to develop more efficacious vaccine against rabies. In our evaluation of a novel PIKA rabies vaccine, we used multiple animal models (beagles, golden hamsters and Kunming mice) to mimic post-exposure scenarios. All animals were challenged with wild-type rabies virus, followed by vaccination with either rabies vaccines commercially available or PIKA rabies vaccines. As 100% of animals survived after administration of traditional rabies vaccines and rabies immunoglobulin, 80% of animals survived with rabies immunoglobulin alone. Strikingly, animals receiving traditional rabies vaccines alone showed extremely low survival rates, indicating insignificant benefit for exposed animals (p > 0.05, compared to unvaccinated control groups). To the contrary, 40-80% of animals receiving the experimental PIKA rabies vaccines were protected (p rabies, but only receiving rabies vaccination, could be meaningless. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Sovremennye podkhody k ispol'zovaniyu glyukokortikoidnykh i tsitotoksicheskikh preparatov pri bolezni Shegrena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V I Vasil'ev

    2008-01-01

    Materialy i metody. V issledovanie vklyucheno 412 patsientov (406 zhenshchin i 6 muzhchin s BSh, nablyudavshikhsya v Institute revmatologii v 1975 - 2007 gg. Mediana nablyudeniya - 9 (5-15 let. Sredniy vozrast bol'nykh na nachalo nablyudeniya - 44,8 goda. Mediana dlitel'nosti BSh do pervogo postupleniya - 9 let, mediana vozrasta debyuta BSh - 33 goda. Effektivnost' dlitel'noy terapii malymi dozami GKu 151 bol'nogo (mediana - 10 let, malymi dozami ATsu 147 bol'nykh (mediana - 5 let otsenena v sravnenii s rezul'tatami lecheniya 94 bol'nykh, poluchavshikh tol'ko «oftal'mologicheskie» i «stomatologicheskie» metody terapii. Rezul'taty issledovaniya. Pokazano, chto terapiya malymi dozami GK i ATs polozhitel'no vliyala na nekotorye zhelezistye i vnezhelezistye proyavleniya zabolevaniya, odnako k snizheniyu veroyatnosti razvitiya limfoproliferativnykh zabolevaniy (r=0,036 i povysheniyu vyzhivaemosti bol'nykh s BSh privodila tol'ko terapiya ATs (r=0,037. Razrabotany i predstavleny metodiki lokal'nogo ispol'zovaniya GK pri tyazhelykh oftal'mologicheskikh i stomatologicheskikh proyavleniyakh BSh. U 150 bol'nykh s BSh s tyazhelymi sistemnymi proyavleniyami predstavleny pokazaniya i protivopokazaniya dlya provedeniya pul's-terapii (PT, kombinirovannoy PT, plazmafereza, krioafereza i dvoynoy fil'tratsii plazmy v sochetanii s kombinirovannoy PT. Pokazano, chto naznachenie malykh doz GK i PT u zhenshchin s BSh s sokhranennym menstrual'nym tsiklom privodit k bolee rannemu nastupleniyu menopauzy i sposobstvuet razvitiyu glyukokortikoidnogo i postmenopauzal'nogo osteoporoza v otdalennye sroki. Otseneny naibolee znachimye pobochnye proyavleniya terapii GK i ATs pri razlichnykh variantakh terapii BSh.

  6. Sovremennye podkhody k ispol'zovaniyu glyukokortikoidnykh i tsitotoksicheskikh preparatov pri bolezni Shegrena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V I Vasil'ev

    2008-04-01

    Materialy i metody. V issledovanie vklyucheno 412 patsientov (406 zhenshchin i 6 muzhchin s BSh, nablyudavshikhsya v Institute revmatologii v 1975 - 2007 gg. Mediana nablyudeniya - 9 (5-15 let. Sredniy vozrast bol'nykh na nachalo nablyudeniya - 44,8 goda. Mediana dlitel'nosti BSh do pervogo postupleniya - 9 let, mediana vozrasta debyuta BSh - 33 goda. Effektivnost' dlitel'noy terapii malymi dozami GKu 151 bol'nogo (mediana - 10 let, malymi dozami ATsu 147 bol'nykh (mediana - 5 let otsenena v sravnenii s rezul'tatami lecheniya 94 bol'nykh, poluchavshikh tol'ko «oftal'mologicheskie» i «stomatologicheskie» metody terapii. Rezul'taty issledovaniya. Pokazano, chto terapiya malymi dozami GK i ATs polozhitel'no vliyala na nekotorye zhelezistye i vnezhelezistye proyavleniya zabolevaniya, odnako k snizheniyu veroyatnosti razvitiya limfoproliferativnykh zabolevaniy (r=0,036 i povysheniyu vyzhivaemosti bol'nykh s BSh privodila tol'ko terapiya ATs (r=0,037. Razrabotany i predstavleny metodiki lokal'nogo ispol'zovaniya GK pri tyazhelykh oftal'mologicheskikh i stomatologicheskikh proyavleniyakh BSh. U 150 bol'nykh s BSh s tyazhelymi sistemnymi proyavleniyami predstavleny pokazaniya i protivopokazaniya dlya provedeniya pul's-terapii (PT, kombinirovannoy PT, plazmafereza, krioafereza i dvoynoy fil'tratsii plazmy v sochetanii s kombinirovannoy PT. Pokazano, chto naznachenie malykh doz GK i PT u zhenshchin s BSh s sokhranennym menstrual'nym tsiklom privodit k bolee rannemu nastupleniyu menopauzy i sposobstvuet razvitiyu glyukokortikoidnogo i postmenopauzal'nogo osteoporoza v otdalennye sroki. Otseneny naibolee znachimye pobochnye proyavleniya terapii GK i ATs pri razlichnykh variantakh terapii BSh.

  7. Browse Author Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 498 ... A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z All. M. M'batchi, B · M'baye, BK · M'boh, M · M'pika, J · Maazou, Rahila · Maba, D · Mabicka Iwangou, Saint Bickolard · MacCarthy, C · Machunda, R · Macoumba, D · Macoumba Diouf, PR · Madjidou, M · Madong, BA · Madong, BA · Madong, BA · Madong ...

  8. Evolutionary Insights into IL17A in Lagomorphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Neves

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In leporids, IL17A had been implicated in the host defense against extracellular pathogens, such as Francisella tularensis that infects hares and rabbits and causes the zoonotic disease tularemia. Here, we studied IL17A from five lagomorphs, European rabbit, pygmy rabbit, brush rabbit, European brown hare, and American pika. We observed that this protein is highly conserved between these species, with a similarity of 97–99% in leporids and ~88% between leporids and American pika. The exon/intron structure, N-glycosylation sites, and cysteine residues are conserved between lagomorphs. However, at codon 88, one of the interaction sites between IL17A and its receptor IL17RA, there is an Arg>Pro mutation that only occurs in European rabbit and European brown hare. This could induce critical alterations in the IL17A structure and conformation and consequently modify its function. The differences observed between leporids and humans or rodents might also represent important alterations in protein structure and function. In addition, as for other interleukins, IL17A sequences of human and European rabbit are more closely related than the sequences of human and mouse or European rabbit and mouse. This study gives further support to the hypothesis that European rabbit might be a more suitable animal model for studies on human IL17.

  9. Organizing the pantry: cache management improves quality of overwinter food stores in a montane mammal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakopak, Rhiannon P.; Hall, L. Embere; Chalfoun, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Many mammals create food stores to enhance overwinter survival in seasonal environments. Strategic arrangement of food within caches may facilitate the physical integrity of the cache or improve access to high-quality food to ensure that cached resources meet future nutritional demands. We used the American pika (Ochotona princeps), a food-caching lagomorph, to evaluate variation in haypile (cache) structure (i.e., horizontal layering by plant functional group) in Wyoming, United States. Fifty-five percent of 62 haypiles contained at least 2 discrete layers of vegetation. Adults and juveniles layered haypiles in similar proportions. The probability of layering increased with haypile volume, but not haypile number per individual or nearby forage diversity. Vegetation cached in layered haypiles was also higher in nitrogen compared to vegetation in unlayered piles. We found that American pikas frequently structured their food caches, structured caches were larger, and the cached vegetation in structured piles was of higher nutritional quality. Improving access to stable, high-quality vegetation in haypiles, a critical overwinter food resource, may allow individuals to better persist amidst harsh conditions.

  10. Differential responsiveness in VEGF receptor subtypes to hypoxic stress in various tissues of plateau animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Hui-Chun; Li, Jin-Gang; He, Jian-Ping

    2017-05-04

    With hypoxic stress, hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) are elevated and their responses are altered in skeletal muscles of plateau animals [China Qinghai-Tibetan plateau pikas (Ochotona curzoniae)] as compared with control animals [normal lowland Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats]. The results indicate that HIF-1alpha and VEGF are engaged in physiological functions under hypoxic environment. The purpose of the current study was to examine the protein levels of VEGF receptor subtypes (VEGFRs: VEGFR-1, VEGFR-2 and VEGFR-3) in the end organs, namely skeletal muscle, heart and lung in response to hypoxic stress. ELISA and Western blot analysis were employed to determine HIF-1alpha and the protein expression of VEGFRs in control animals and plateau pikas. We further blocked HIF-1alpha signal to determine if HIF-1alpha regulates alternations in VEGFRs in those tissues. We hypothesized that responsiveness of VEGFRs in the major end organs of plateau animals is differential with insult of hypoxic stress and is modulated by low oxygen sensitive HIF-1alpha. Our results show that hypoxic stress induced by exposure of lower O(2) for 6 h significantly increased the levels of VEGFR-2 in skeletal muscle, heart and lung and the increases were amplified in plateau pikas. Our results also demonstrate that hypoxic stress enhanced VEGFR-3 in lungs of plateau animals. Nonetheless, no significant alternations in VEGFR-1 were observed in those tissues with hypoxic stress. Moreover, we observed decreases of VEGFR-2 in skeletal muscle, heart and lung; and decreases of VEGFR-3 in lung following HIF-1alpha inhibition. Overall, our findings suggest that in plateau animals 1) responsiveness of VEGFRs is different under hypoxic environment; 2) amplified VEGFR-2 response appears in skeletal muscle, heart and lung, and enhanced VEGFR-3 response is mainly observed in lung; 3) HIF-1alpha plays a regulatory role in the levels of VEGFRs. Our results

  11. [A NATURAL PLAGUE FOCUS. IN GORNYI ALTAI: FORMATION, DEVELOPMENT, AND FUNCTIONING].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzun, V M; Balakhoiov, S V; Chpanin, E V; Denisov, A V; Mikhailov, E P; Mischenko, A J; Yarygina, M B; Rozhdestvensky, E N; Fomina, L A

    2016-01-01

    The paper gives the results of analyzing the data of long-term studies of the natural focal pattern of plague in the Gornyi Altai natural focus. It describes a wide range of biological processes occurring in the focus and shows the most important patterns of its functioning as a complex multilevel ecological system. The key features of the formation of the focus have been revealed. The plague focus in South-Western Altai has formed relatively, recently, about half a century ago, then it has intensively developed and its enzootic area and the activity of epizootic manifestations have considerably increased. This process is due to the space-time transformations of the basic ecological and population characteristics of Pallas' pika (Ochotoma pallasi), the principal vector of the pathogen of plague and fleas parasitizing the mammal, which is in turn related to the aridization of mountain steppes in South-Western Altai.

  12. Expertly validated models and phylogenetically-controlled analysis suggests responses to climate change are related to species traits in the order lagomorpha.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie Leach

    Full Text Available Climate change during the past five decades has impacted significantly on natural ecosystems, and the rate of current climate change is of great concern among conservation biologists. Species Distribution Models (SDMs have been used widely to project changes in species' bioclimatic envelopes under future climate scenarios. Here, we aimed to advance this technique by assessing future changes in the bioclimatic envelopes of an entire mammalian order, the Lagomorpha, using a novel framework for model validation based jointly on subjective expert evaluation and objective model evaluation statistics. SDMs were built using climatic, topographical, and habitat variables for all 87 lagomorph species under past and current climate scenarios. Expert evaluation and Kappa values were used to validate past and current models and only those deemed 'modellable' within our framework were projected under future climate scenarios (58 species. Phylogenetically-controlled regressions were used to test whether species traits correlated with predicted responses to climate change. Climate change is likely to impact more than two-thirds of lagomorph species, with leporids (rabbits, hares, and jackrabbits likely to undertake poleward shifts with little overall change in range extent, whilst pikas are likely to show extreme shifts to higher altitudes associated with marked range declines, including the likely extinction of Kozlov's Pika (Ochotona koslowi. Smaller-bodied species were more likely to exhibit range contractions and elevational increases, but showing little poleward movement, and fecund species were more likely to shift latitudinally and elevationally. Our results suggest that species traits may be important indicators of future climate change and we believe multi-species approaches, as demonstrated here, are likely to lead to more effective mitigation measures and conservation management. We strongly advocate studies minimising data gaps in our knowledge of

  13. The plateau zokors' learning and memory ability is related to the high expression levels of foxP2 in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ben-Yuan; Wei, Lian; Sun, Sheng-Zhen; Wang, Duo-Wei; Wei, Deng-Bang

    2014-04-25

    Plateau zokor (Myospalax baileyi) is a subterranean mammal. Plateau zokor has high learning and memory ability, and can determine the location of blocking obstacles in their tunnels. Forkhead box p2 (FOXP2) is a transcription factor implicated in the neural control of orofacial coordination and sensory-motor integration, particularly with respect to learning, memory and vocalization. To explore the association of foxP2 with the high learning and memory ability of plateau zokor, the cDNA of foxP2 of plateau zokor was sequenced; by using plateau pika as control, the expression levels of foxP2 mRNA and FOXP2 protein in brain of plateau zokor were determined by real-time PCR and Western blot, respectively; and the location of FOXP2 protein in the brain of plateau zokor was determined by immunohistochemistry. The result showed that the cDNA sequence of plateau zokor foxP2 was similar to that of other mammals and the amino acid sequences showed a relatively high degree of conservation, with the exception of two particular amino acid substitutions [a Gln (Q)-to-His (H) change at position 231 and a Ser (S)-to-Ile (I) change at position 235]. Higher expression levels of foxP2 mRNA (3-fold higher) and FOXP2 protein (>2-fold higher) were detected in plateau zokor brain relative to plateau pika brain. In plateau zokor brain, FOXP2 protein was highly expressed in the cerebral cortex, thalamus and the striatum (a basal ganglia brain region). The results suggest that the high learning and memory ability of plateau zokor is related to the high expression levels of foxP2 in the brain.

  14. Seasonal dynamics of the tick Haemaphysalis tibetensis in the Tibetan Plateau, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, M; Li, T; Yu, Z J; Qiu, Z X; Yan, P; Li, Y; Liu, J

    2017-12-01

    The tick Haemaphysalis tibetensis (Acari: Ixodidae) Hoogstraal is an important arthropod vector widespread in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, and knowledge of its seasonal dynamics is still poor. The current study investigated the seasonal dynamics of the parasitic and non-parasitic H. tibetensis over a 2-year period from March 2014 to February 2016 in the Tibetan Plateau, China. During this timeframe, non-parasitic ticks were collected weekly by flag-dragging in grassland and shrubland areas, and parasitic ticks were removed weekly from selected sheep. Plateau pikas were captured using traps and examined for immature ticks between May to September 2014. Results suggest that non-parasitic H. tibetensis were mainly distributed in the grassland, and the parasitic adults and nymphs were found mostly on sheep. Larvae were usually found on Plateau pikas and the prevalence of infestation and mean parasitic intensity were 72.1 and 1.81%, respectively. Adults were observed from March to July with the major peak occurring in mid-April. Nymphs were found from March to August and reached a peak in late June. Larvae were collected from April to September, and their numbers peaked in late May. In the parasitic and non-parasitic period, the overall sex ratio of males to females was 1.62 and 1.30, respectively. Results show that H. tibetensis can complete one generation per year, with a population overlap between stages over the spring-summer months. These findings provide additional information on the biology and ecology of H. tibetensis as well as insights on its control in the environment and on sheep. © 2017 The Royal Entomological Society.

  15. Molecular and Phylogenetic Characterization of Non-O157 Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Strains in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Xiangning; Hu, Bin; Xu, Yanmei; Sun, Hui; Zhao, Ailan; Ba, Pengbin; Fu, Shanshan; Fan, Ruyue; Jin, Yujuan; Wang, Hong; Guo, Qiusheng; Xu, Xuebin; Lu, Shan; Xiong, Yanwen

    2016-01-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) causes diarrhea and hemorrhagic colitis with life-threatening complications, such as hemolytic uremic syndrome. The aim of this study was to assess the molecular epidemiologic features of non-O157 STEC strains from different resources in China and illustrate the role of animal reservoirs or animal-derived foodstuffs in human STEC infections. A collection of 301 non-O157 STEC isolates from domestic and wild animals (i.e., cattle, goat, pig, yak, pika, and antelope), raw meats (i.e., beef, pork, mutton, chicken, and duck), diarrheal patients, and healthy carriers in different regions of China were selected in this study. Of the 301 analyzed STEC isolates, 67 serogroups, and 118 serotypes were identified; this included some predominant serogroups associated with human disease, such as O26, O45, O103, O111, and O121. Eighteen different combinations of stx subtypes were found. Eleven isolates carried the intimin gene eae, 93 isolates contained ehxA, and 73 isolates carried astA. The prevalence of other putative adhesion genes saa, paa, efa1, and toxB was 28.90% (87), 6.98% (21), 2.31% (7), and 1% (3), respectively. The phylogenetic distribution of isolates was analyzed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Ninety-four sequence types were assigned across the 301 isolates. A subset of isolates recovered from yak and pika residing in the similar wild environments, Qinghai-Tibetan plateau, showed similar genetic profiles and more tendencies to cluster together. Isolates from goat and mutton exhibited close genetic relatedness with those from human-derived isolates, providing evidence that transmission may have occurred locally within intraspecies or interspecies, and importantly, from animal reservoirs, or raw meats to humans. Comparing isolates in this study with highly virulent strains by MLST, along with serotyping and virulence profiles, it is conceivable that some of isolates from goat, yak, or raw meats may have potential

  16. Molecular and Phylogenetic Characterization of Non-O157 Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Strains in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangning Bai

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC causes diarrhea and hemorrhagic colitis with life-threatening complications, such as hemolytic uremic syndrome. The aim of this study was to assess the molecular epidemiologic features of non-O157 STEC strains from different resources in China and illustrate the role of animal reservoirs or animal-derived foodstuffs in human STEC infections. A collection of 301 non-O157 STEC isolates from domestic and wild animals (i.e., cattle, goat, pig, yak, pika, and antelope, raw meats (i.e., beef, pork, mutton, chicken, and duck, diarrheal patients, and healthy carriers in different regions of China were selected in this study. Of the 301 analyzed STEC isolates, 67 serogroups and 118 serotypes were identified; this included some predominant serogroups associated with human disease, such as O26, O45, O103, O111 and O121. Eighteen different combinations of stx subtypes were found. Eleven isolates carried the intimin gene eae, 93 isolates contained ehxA, and 73 isolates carried astA. The prevalence of other putative adhesion genes saa, paa, efa1 and toxB was 28.90% (87, 6.98% (21, 2.31% (7, and 1% (3, respectively. The phylogenetic distribution of isolates was analyzed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST. Ninety-four sequence types were assigned across the 301 isolates. A subset of isolates recovered from yak and pika residing in the similar wild environments, Qinghai-Tibetan plateau, showed similar genetic profiles and more tendencies to cluster together. Isolates from goat and mutton exhibited close genetic relatedness with those from human-derived isolates, providing evidence that transmission may have occurred locally within intraspecies or interspecies, and importantly, from animal reservoirs or raw meats to humans. Comparing isolates in this study with highly virulent strains by MLST, along with serotyping and virulence profiles, it is conceivable that some of isolates from goat, yak, or raw meats may have

  17. Staging the Nation: the Case of Lithuanian Fin de Siècle Theatre Productions in Foreign Industrial Centers. Lavastades rahvust: Leedu fin de siècle’i lavastused välismaistes tööstuskeskustes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgaras Klivis

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Suur hulk omavahel seotud teatrisündmusi (tuntud „Leedu õhtutena”, mis leidsid aset 19. sajandi lõpul Leedus ja Leedu emigrantide kogukondades välismaal, moodustasid olulise jõu moodsa rahvusluse kui uue kultuurilise identiteedi levitamisel, uute suhtlemisviiside ja uue (rahvusliku kogukonnatunde loomisel. Niisiis käsitletakse teatriajaloos neid „Leedu õhtuid” ei millegi vähemana kui leedu rahvusliku teatri algallikana, Herderi Ursprung’ina. Perioodi, mil toimusid „Leedu õhtud”, vastastikuse abistamise ühingute esimesed etendused ja mil teater oli osa mitmesugustest teistest piduõhtutest, on vaadeldud (ja seda tehakse mitmel moel siiani kaasaegse professionaalse rahvusliku kultuuri pika arengutee esimese, embrüonaalse astmena. Tuginedes kahele leedu teatriloo varasemat perioodi käsitlevale olulisemale uurimusele – Balys Sruoga teosele „Leedu teater St. Peterburgis” (1930 ja Vytautas Maknysi maailmateatri ajaloole (1972 –, uuritakse artiklis rahvuslike representatsioonide kujundeid ja retoorikat leedu teatri ajaloos, mis tuginevad autohtonismi (algupärasuse, metafüüsilise päritolu ja rahvusliku kultuuri eneseküllasuse ideedele. Pakutakse välja alternatiivne ajalooline stsenaarium – tegelikult avaldas leedu rahvusliku teatri varastele vormidele otsustavat mõju mitte mingi „algupärase“ eelajaloolise identiteedi transtsendentaalne kohalolu, vaid pigem tööstusliku ühiskonna võõrandatus, kontrastirohkus ja heterogeensus, nagu seda tajusid Leedu emigrandid välismaistes tööstuskeskustes

  18. Scientific Culture Measures: Challenges and New Perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Cerezo, J.L.; Muñoz van den Eynde, A

    2016-07-01

    Since mid-twentieth century, efforts to promote scientific and technological development and engage the public in R&D process are increasing. Among those efforts, since the 1970s first in United States and then in United Kingdom and Europe, governments have funded surveys aimed at understanding the public attitudes toward science, scientists, and science policy. The Science and Engineering Indicators series of the National Science Foundation, or the European Community through its Special Eurobarometer on Europeans, science and technology, have shaped the research, measures and indicators of public understanding of science surveys. Examples are, at international level, surveys like Scientific Culture in IberoAmerican Countries (2009, FECYT-OEI-RICYT), or the International Study on Scientific Culture (2012, BBVA Foundation); and at national level, surveys like Social Perception of Science and Technology (2002-2014) series, or the recent Perception, Interest, Knowledge, and Actions (PIKA) Survey (2014), both funded by Spanish Government through its Spanish Foundation for Science and Technology (FECYT). (Author)

  19. Small mammals of the Mongolian mountain steppe region near Erdensant: insights from live-trapping and bird pellet remains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne L. Isaac

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Relatively little is known of the distribution, abundance and ecology of small mammals in Mongolia and as a result there is scant knowledge of the effects of environmental and anthropogenic factors on small mammal populations. The aim of this study was to assess the occurrence of small mammals in mountain steppe habitat from live-trapping and analysis of mammal remains from raptor pellets and below nests. During live-trapping, root voles ( Microtus oeconemus were the most commonly caught species accounting for 47.5 % of captures, striped hamsters ( Cricetulus barabensis and pika ( Ochotona hyperborea accounted for 30 % and 22.5 % of captures respectively. Temperature influenced trapping success, with small mammals appearing to avoid being active at temperatures over 20 ̊C. The three species caught on the trapping grid appeared to avoid competition for resources through both temporal and spatial differences in the use of available habitat. Mammals identified from raptor pellets and other remains included the grey hamster ( Cricatulus migratorius , Siberian marmot ( Marmota sibirica , red fox ( Vulpes vulpes , long-tailed souslik ( Citellus undulatus and the Daurian mole ( Myospalax aspalax. Results are discussed in terms of their relevance to the conservation of mammals in Mongolia and their co-existence with livestock and humans.

  20. Contrasting shrub species respond to early summer temperatures leading to correspondence of shrub growth patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weijers, Stef; Pape, Roland; Löffler, Jörg; Myers-Smith, Isla H.

    2018-03-01

    The Arctic-alpine biome is warming rapidly, resulting in a gradual replacement of low statured species by taller woody species in many tundra ecosystems. In northwest North America, the remotely sensed normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), suggests an increase in productivity of the Arctic and alpine tundra and a decrease in productivity of boreal forests. However, the responses of contrasting shrub species growing at the same sites to climate drivers remain largely unexplored. Here, we test growth, climate, and NDVI relationships of two contrasting species: the expanding tall deciduous shrub Salix pulchra and the circumarctic evergreen dwarf shrub Cassiope tetragona from an alpine tundra site in the Pika valley in the Kluane Region, southwest Yukon Territories, Canada. We found that annual growth variability of both species at this site is strongly driven by early summer temperatures, despite their contrasting traits and habitats. Shrub growth chronologies for both species were correlated with the regional climate signal and showed spatial correspondence with interannual variation in NDVI in surrounding alpine and Arctic regions. Our results suggest that early summer warming represents a common driver of vegetation change for contrasting shrub species growing in different habitats in the same alpine environments.

  1. Bayesian Analysis for Dynamic Generalized Linear Latent Model with Application to Tree Survival Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-sheng Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Logistic regression model is the most popular regression technique, available for modeling categorical data especially for dichotomous variables. Classic logistic regression model is typically used to interpret relationship between response variables and explanatory variables. However, in real applications, most data sets are collected in follow-up, which leads to the temporal correlation among the data. In order to characterize the different variables correlations, a new method about the latent variables is introduced in this study. At the same time, the latent variables about AR (1 model are used to depict time dependence. In the framework of Bayesian analysis, parameters estimates and statistical inferences are carried out via Gibbs sampler with Metropolis-Hastings (MH algorithm. Model comparison, based on the Bayes factor, and forecasting/smoothing of the survival rate of the tree are established. A simulation study is conducted to assess the performance of the proposed method and a pika data set is analyzed to illustrate the real application. Since Bayes factor approaches vary significantly, efficiency tests have been performed in order to decide which solution provides a better tool for the analysis of real relational data sets.

  2. The Late Quaternary biogeographic histories of some Great Basin mammals (western USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grayson, Donald K.

    2006-11-01

    The Great Basin of arid western North America provides one of the most detailed late Pleistocene and Holocene mammal records available for any part of the world, though the record is by far strongest for small mammals. Of the 35 genera of now-extinct North American Pleistocene mammals, 19 are known to have occurred in the Great Basin, a list that is likely to be complete or nearly so. Of these 19, seven can be shown to have survived beyond 12,000 radiocarbon years ago, a proportion similar to that for North America as a whole. Horses, camels, mammoth, and helmeted musk-oxen appear to have been the most abundant of these genera. Pygmy rabbits ( Brachylagus idahoensis), yellow-bellied marmots ( Marmota flaviventris), and bushy-tailed woodrats ( Neotoma cinerea) declined in abundance at the end of the Pleistocene, at about the same time as populations south of their current arid western distributional boundary were extirpated. Subsequent declines occurred during the hot/dry middle Holocene. Pygmy rabbits also declined as modern pinyon-juniper woodlands developed across the Great Basin. The Snake Range of eastern Nevada has seen the late Pleistocene or Holocene extinction of both northern pocket gophers ( Thomomys talpoides) and pikas ( Ochotona princeps). Coupled with the rarity of yellow-bellied marmots here, these histories make the Snake Range a biogeographic oddity. These and other Great Basin mammal histories provide significant insights into the possible responses of Great Basin small mammals to global warming.

  3. Grazing Impact on Plant Seed Production in Southern Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Bläß

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Nomadic livestock husbandry practices have a long history in Mongolia and still represent the main form of land use. Because of increasing livestock numbers, the danger of overgrazing and steppe degradation is on the rise. Nevertheless, studies on the in fl uence of herbivores are rather rare in southern Mongolia and existing studies focus mainly on biomass production rather than on the consequences to reproduction of key steppe plants. We tested the effect of grazing by livestock and small mammals on the production and related seed abundance of three of the most dominant steppe plant species of the Mongolian desert steppes: Agropyron cristatum , Stipa krylovii and Artemisia frigida . The fi eldwork took place in summer 2006 in the Gobi Gurvan Saykhan National Park, during which we estimated the extent of granivory and compared the abundance of in fl orescences on grazed/ungrazed sites and the harvesting preferences of small mammals. Herbivory has a tremendous impact on fl ower and, subsequently, seed production of the three studied species. Flowers and fruits are browsed at levels of up to 100%. However, grazing pressure is plant-speci fi c; both livestock and small mammals have feeding preferences, and pikas ( Ochotona pallasi prefer taxa such as Stipa spp. Granivory, in contrast does not seem to play any role for the three studied species growing in the southern Mongolian steppes.

  4. Radiometric and Geometric Analysis of Hyperspectral Imagery Acquired from an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

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    Nancy F. Glenn

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In the summer of 2010, an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV hyperspectral calibration and characterization experiment of the Resonon PIKA II imaging spectrometer was conducted at the US Department of Energy’s Idaho National Laboratory (INL UAV Research Park. The purpose of the experiment was to validate the radiometric calibration of the spectrometer and determine the georegistration accuracy achievable from the on-board global positioning system (GPS and inertial navigation sensors (INS under operational conditions. In order for low-cost hyperspectral systems to compete with larger systems flown on manned aircraft, they must be able to collect data suitable for quantitative scientific analysis. The results of the in-flight calibration experiment indicate an absolute average agreement of 96.3%, 93.7% and 85.7% for calibration tarps of 56%, 24%, and 2.5% reflectivity, respectively. The achieved planimetric accuracy was 4.6 m (based on RMSE with a flying height of 344 m above ground level (AGL.

  5. Mu süda on mägedes : [luuletused] / Robert Burns ; tlk. Ralf Parve, Ants Oras, Urmas Tõnisson, Kullo Vende, Mart Mäger, Georg Eduard Luiga, Friedrich Reinhold Kreutzwald, Karl August Hermann, Johannes Vau, Lydia Koidula, Ado Grenzstein

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Burns, Robert, 1759-1796

    2006-01-01

    Sisu: Mu süda on mägedes ; Hing mägises Shotis ; Mu isa oli farmer ; Künnipoiss ; Noor neiu vanal mehel ; Vana Rob Morris ; Meg veskilt ; Veski-Meg ; Willie pruulis õlut ; John Odratera ; Hägisele ; Shotlased, nüüd seiske kindlad! ; Invernessi neid ; Kuradi tants aktsiisiametnikuga ; Macphersoni hüvastijätt / tlk. Ralf Parve ; Macphersoni hüvastijätt / / tlk. Ants Oras ; Nii ja naa ; Hiirele ; Eleegia Peg Nicholsoni surma puhul ; Vaga Willie palve ; Epitaaf vagale Willièle ; Värsid poeet Fergussoni portree alla ; Lõikuskuu laul ; On kaldal kõrkjad reas ; Mu arm on nagu ruske roos ; Mu arm... ; Oo, mu arm on verev, verev roos ; Esimene suudlus lahkudes ; Mõte karmist saatusest ; Oh näeksin tühja nõmme peal ; Kui näeksin ; "Kui üksi olles näeksid, neid..." ; Käies pikas rohus ; Värsiread ; Mind naine tihti taob ; Rõõmus lesk ; Willie Wastleì naine ; Mul on naine ; John Anderson / tlk. Urmas Tõnisson ; Jaan Anderson / tlk. Karl August Hermann ; Sügiselaul ; Kündja ja lill ; Kodu ; Ometi ; Kõige kiuste ; Kui õis, mis õitseb heinamaal ; Põlev armastus ; Hans ja Krõõt : [luuletused]. Epigramme: Raamatukoi ; Impromptu ; Puudus. Ammustele aegadele : [luuletus]. Autori kohta eluloolisi andmeid lk. 179

  6. Radioecology of natural systems. Final report, May 1, 1962-October 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whicker, F.W.

    1979-10-31

    This is the final report to the US Department of Energy and its predecessors on Contract EY-76-S-02-1156 with Colorado State University. During the first five years of the program, investigations were focused on the accumulation of fallout radionuclides in a well-studied mule deer population in north-central Colorado. In 1967, the scope of the program was enlarged to include studies on radionuclide behavior in mountain lake ecosystems, radiation effects on a shortgrass plains ecosystem, and the combined effects of radiation and intraspecific competition on the pika (Ochotona princeps). In 1971, studies on the geochemistry of lead in an alpine lake and the foraging impact of grasshoppers were added to the diverse program. The summer of 1972 marked the beginning of the research program which was to dominate the effort for the duration of the contract, namely the behavior of plutonium in the terrestrial environs of the Rocky Flats plutonium facility near Denver, Colorado. This report is a general, qualitative summary of activities and major findings over the entire tenure of the program.

  7. From promise to practice: pairing non-invasive sampling with genomics in conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Russello

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Conservation genomics has become an increasingly popular term, yet it remains unclear whether the non-invasive sampling that is essential for many conservation-related studies is compatible with the minimum requirements for harnessing next-generation sequencing technologies. Here, we evaluated the feasibility of using genotyping-by-sequencing of non-invasively collected hair samples to simultaneously identify and genotype single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in a climate-sensitive mammal, the American pika (Ochotona princeps. We identified and genotyped 3,803 high-confidence SNPs across eight sites distributed along two elevational transects using starting DNA amounts as low as 1 ng. Fifty-five outlier loci were detected as candidate gene regions under divergent selection, constituting potential targets for future validation. Genome-wide estimates of gene diversity significantly and positively correlated with elevation across both transects, with all low elevation sites exhibiting significant heterozygote deficit likely due to inbreeding. More broadly, our results highlight a range of issues that must be considered when pairing genomic data collection with non-invasive sampling, particularly related to field sampling protocols for minimizing exogenous DNA, data collection strategies and quality control steps for enhancing target organism yield, and analytical approaches for maximizing cost-effectiveness and information content of recovered genomic data.

  8. Degradation of the potential rodent contraceptive quinestrol and elimination of its estrogenic activity in soil and water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Quan; Wang, Cui; Liu, Wanpeng; Qu, Jiapeng; Liu, Ming; Zhang, Yanming; Zhao, Meirong

    2014-01-01

    Quinestrol has shown potential for use in the fertility control of the plateau pika population of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. However, the environmental safety and fate of this compound are still obscure. Our study investigated degradation of quinestrol in a local soil and aquatic system for the first time. The results indicate that the degradation of quinestrol follows first-order kinetics in both soil and water, with a dissipation half-life of approximately 16.0 days in local soil. Microbial activity heavily influenced the degradation of quinestrol, with 41.2% removal in non-sterile soil comparing to 4.8% removal in sterile soil after incubation of 10 days. The half-lives in neutral water (pH 7.4) were 0.75 h when exposed to UV light (λ = 365 nm) whereas they became 2.63 h when exposed to visible light (λ > 400 nm). Acidic conditions facilitated quinestrol degradation in water with shorter half-lives of 1.04 and 1.47 h in pH 4.0 and pH 5.0 solutions, respectively. Moreover, both the soil and water treatment systems efficiently eliminated the estrogenic activity of quinestrol. Results presented herein clarify the complete degradation of quinestrol in a relatively short time. The ecological and environmental safety of this compound needs further investigation.

  9. The importance of biologically relevant microclimates in habitat suitability assessments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Varner

    Full Text Available Predicting habitat suitability under climate change is vital to conserving biodiversity. However, current species distribution models rely on coarse scale climate data, whereas fine scale microclimate data may be necessary to assess habitat suitability and generate predictive models. Here, we evaluate disparities between temperature data at the coarse scale from weather stations versus fine-scale data measured in microhabitats required for a climate-sensitive mammal, the American pika (Ochotona princeps. We collected two years of temperature data in occupied talus habitats predicted to be suitable (high elevation and unsuitable (low elevation by the bioclimatic envelope approach. At low elevations, talus surface and interstitial microclimates drastically differed from ambient temperatures measured on-site and at a nearby weather station. Interstitial talus temperatures were frequently decoupled from high ambient temperatures, resulting in instantaneous disparities of over 30 °C between these two measurements. Microhabitat temperatures were also highly heterogeneous, such that temperature measurements within the same patch of talus were not more correlated than measurements at distant patches. An experimental manipulation revealed that vegetation cover may cool the talus surface by up to 10 °C during the summer, which may contribute to this spatial heterogeneity. Finally, low elevation microclimates were milder and less variable than typical alpine habitat, suggesting that, counter to species distribution model predictions, these seemingly unsuitable habitats may actually be better refugia for this species under climate change. These results highlight the importance of fine-scale microhabitat data in habitat assessments and underscore the notion that some critical refugia may be counterintuitive.

  10. PENANAMAN JIWA ENTREPRENEURSHIP MELALUI PEMBELAJARAN PRAKTIK MANUFAKTUR FURNITUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurnia Yuniani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this study are to analyze the form of activities of entrepreneural spirit implementation in the productive manufacturing practice learning activities at SMK PIKA Semarang. The type of the study was a descriptive qualitative. The informants were the Head of Workshop Education, the productive teachers, and the students. Data collection techniques were observation, interview, and documentation. To validate the data, the study used source triangulation. The data analysis technique was done with the stages of data collection, data reduction, data presentation, and conclusion. The results of the data show that the implementation of entrepreneurial spirit performed well on all six stages of work, although not all of the characters were implemented well in every each stage.At the stage of tools introduction, there are implemention of confidence character, task and result activities oriented, dare to take risk character , and future oriented character. At the stage of work planning, there are implementation of confidence character, task and result activities oriented, dare to take risk character, leadership, future oriented character, and originality character. At the stage of work unit sharping there are implementation of confidence character, task and result activities oriented, dare to take risk character, and leadership character.At the stage of construction there are implementation of confidence character, task and result activities oriented, dare to take risk character, and originality character. At the assembly stage, there are implementation of task and result activities oriented, leadership character, and originality character. And, at the finishing stage there are implementation of task and result activities oriented, dare to take risk character, and leadership character.

  11. Evolutionary history of lagomorphs in response to global environmental change.

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    Deyan Ge

    Full Text Available Although species within Lagomorpha are derived from a common ancestor, the distribution range and body size of its two extant groups, ochotonids and leporids, are quite differentiated. It is unclear what has driven their disparate evolutionary history. In this study, we compile and update all fossil records of Lagomorpha for the first time, to trace the evolutionary processes and infer their evolutionary history using mitochondrial genes, body length and distribution of extant species. We also compare the forage selection of extant species, which offers an insight into their future prospects. The earliest lagomorphs originated in Asia and later diversified in different continents. Within ochotonids, more than 20 genera occupied the period from the early Miocene to middle Miocene, whereas most of them became extinct during the transition from the Miocene to Pliocene. The peak diversity of the leporids occurred during the Miocene to Pliocene transition, while their diversity dramatically decreased in the late Quaternary. Mantel tests identified a positive correlation between body length and phylogenetic distance of lagomorphs. The body length of extant ochotonids shows a normal distribution, while the body length of extant leporids displays a non-normal pattern. We also find that the forage selection of extant pikas features a strong preference for C(3 plants, while for the diet of leporids, more than 16% of plant species are identified as C(4 (31% species are from Poaceae. The ability of several leporid species to consume C(4 plants is likely to result in their size increase and range expansion, most notably in Lepus. Expansion of C(4 plants in the late Miocene, the so-called 'nature's green revolution', induced by global environmental change, is suggested to be one of the major 'ecological opportunities', which probably drove large-scale extinction and range contraction of ochotonids, but inversely promoted diversification and range expansion of

  12. Adapting to climate change at Glacier National Park, Montana, USA (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagre, D. B.

    2009-12-01

    The impact of climate change on mountain watersheds has been studied at Glacier National Park, Montana since 1991. Despite a 14% increase in annual precipitation, glaciers have receded, snow packs have diminished, and late season stream discharge has declined. Snow melts one month earlier in the spring, leading to earlier hydrologic peaks and tree invasions of subalpine meadows. This has been largely driven by annual temperature increases that are 2-3 times greater than the global average for the past century. How do scientists and park managers adapt? Although stopping the glaciers from disappearing is not a management option, park staff have embarked on an aggressive education and interpretation effort to use melting glaciers as the segue into dialog about climate change. Media such as podcasts, handouts, posters, visitor center displays and roadside signage complement interpretive ranger-led talks about climate change and incorporate the latest glacial data from ongoing research. With few historic data on most animal populations, Glacier Park staff and other scientists are unable to assess the impacts of climate change to resources that the public cares about. They have recently initiated alpine wildlife monitoring programs to track populations of potentially climate-sensitive organisms such as the American pika (Ochotona princeps). Recognizing that climate change increases the frequency and severity of extreme weather events, design specifications for reconstruction of an alpine highway were adjusted to include larger culverts and hardened rock walls. Species that are dependent on cold water will be at risk as glaciers and snowfields disappear but managers cannot control these processes. However, they are proactively reducing other stressors to sensitive native fish species by removing exotic, introduced species that are competitors. In addition to these adaptation measures, Glacier Park has implemented shuttles, fleet conversions and enhanced building

  13. Molecular characterization of adipose tissue in the African elephant (Loxodonta africana.

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    Emeli M Nilsson

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue (AT is a dynamic and flexible organ with regulatory roles in physiological functions including metabolism, reproduction and inflammation; secreted adipokines, including leptin, and fatty acids facilitate many of these roles. The African elephant (Loxodonta africana is experiencing serious challenges to optimal reproduction in captivity. The physiological and molecular basis of this impaired fertility remains unknown. AT production of leptin is a crucial molecular link between nutritional status, adiposity and fertility in many species. We propose that leptin has a similar function in the African elephant. African elephant visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue (AT was obtained from both sexes and a range of ages including females with known pregnancy status. RNA was extracted and histological sections created and analyzed by microarray, PCR and immunohistochemistry respectively. Gas-chromatography was used to determine the fatty acid composition of AT. Microarray expression profiling was used to compare gene expression profiles of AT from pre-pubertal versus reproductively competent adult African elephants. This study demonstrates, for the first time, leptin mRNA and protein expression in African elephant AT. The derived protein sequence of the elephant leptin protein was exploited to determine its relationship within the class I helical cytokine superfamily, which indicates that elephant leptin is most closely related to the leptin orthologs of Oryctolagus cuniculus (European rabbit, Lepus oiostolus (woolly hare, and members of the Ochotonidae (Pika. Immunohistological analysis identified considerable leptin staining within the cytoplasm of adipocytes. Significant differences in fatty acid profiles between pregnant and non-pregnant animals were revealed, most notably a reduction in both linoleic and α linoleic acid in pregnant animals. This report forms the basis for future studies to address the effect of nutrient composition

  14. Landscape composition and spatial prediction of alveolar echinococcosis in southern Ningxia, China.

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    David R J Pleydell

    Full Text Available Alveolar echinococcosis (AE presents a serious public health challenge within China. Mass screening ultrasound surveys can detect pre-symptomatic AE, but targeting areas identified from hospital records is inefficient regarding AE. Prediction of undetected or emerging hotspots would increase detection rates. Voles and lemmings of the subfamily Arvicolinae are important intermediate hosts in sylvatic transmission systems. Their populations reach high densities in productive grasslands where food and cover are abundant. Habitat availability is thought to affect arvicoline population dynamic patterns and definitive host-intermediate host interactions. Arvicoline habitat correlates with AE prevalence in Western Europe and southern Gansu Province, China.Xiji County, Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, borders southern Gansu. The aims of this study were to map AE prevalence across Xiji and test arvicoline habitat as a predictor. Land cover was mapped using remotely sensed (Landsat imagery. Infection status of 3,205 individuals screened in 2002-2003 was related, using generalised additive mixed models, to covariates: gender; farming; ethnicity; dog ownership; water source; and areal cover of mountain pasture and lowland pasture. A Markov random field modelled additional spatial variation and uncertainty. Mountain pasture and lowland pasture were associated with below and above average AE prevalence, respectively.Low values of the normalised difference vegetation index indicated sub-optimality of lowland pasture for grassland arvicolines. Unlike other known endemic areas, grassland arvicolines probably did not provide the principal reservoir for Echinococcus multilocularis in Xiji. This result is consistent with recent small mammal surveys reporting low arvicoline densities and high densities of hamsters, pikas and jerboas, all suitable intermediate hosts for E. multilocularis, in reforested lowland pasture. The risk of re-emergence is discussed. We

  15. Biodiversity and biogeography of hydrothermal vent species in the western Pacific: a biological perspective of TAIGA project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, M.; Watanabe, H.; Nakamura, M.; Sasaki, T.; Ogura, T.; Yahagi, T.; Takahashi, Y.; Ishibashi, J.; Kojima, S.

    2012-12-01

    Deep-sea hydrothermal vents are scientifically interesting environments where strong interactions of geology, chemistry, and biology can be observed. The hydrothermal vents are geologically controlled in association with magmatic activities while diversity of chemicals (such as hydrogen sulfide) contained in hydrothermal fluid is controlled by geochemical interaction between heated seawater and surrounding rocks. In addition to those geological and chemical characters of hydrothermal vents, high biomasses of chemosynthetic community have been known around many vents since the first discovery in the 1970s. To understand the unique system and diversity of biological communities associated with vents is highly valuable in geological, chemical, and biological sciences. As an activity of the research project "TAIGA (Trans-crustal Advection & In-situ bio-geochemical processes of Global sub-seafloor Aquifer)" (Representative: Tetsuro Urabe, Department of Earth & Planetary Science, the University of Tokyo), we analyzed population structures and connectivity as well as larval ecology of various hydrothermal vent species in the Okinawa Trough and the Mariana Trough in an attempt to estimate faunal transitional history associated with hydrothermal activities. The specimens analyzed in the present study were collected by R/V Yokosuka with manned submersible Shinkai6500 and R/V Natsushima with ROV Hyper-Dolphin during YK10-11 and NT11-20 cruises, respectively. In the Mariana Trough (YK10-11), benthic and planktonic faunas were investigated by multiple sampling and use of plankton samplers in three hydrothermal vents (Snail, Archaean, and Urashima-Pika fields). Faunal compositions were then compared as well as size compositions and genetic diversities of major vent species among local populations. In the Okinawa Trough (NT11-20), multiple quantitative sampling was made with simultaneous environmental measurements at more than two sites in five hydrothermal vents (Minami

  16. Environmental change and cultural adaptation in the southern Caucasus: latest results from Aghitu-3 Cave, Armenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandel, Andrew; Gasparyan, Boris; Bruch, Angela; Nahapetyan, Samvel; Weissbrod, Lior

    2014-05-01

    consisting of fine silt horizons with alternating layers of frost shattered basalt slabs. Pollen shows a change to boreal forest, and the increased presence of pika among the micromammals suggests colder and more barren conditions than today. The wide spectrum of micromammals further points to their likely accumulation by a non-selective raptor such as eagle owl. Fish remains of brown trout confirm the presence of a significant fluvial corridor, likely the nearby Vorotan River. This agrees with the charcoal remains identified thus far, which have the signature of a riparian woodland. The sedimentary sequence ends here, truncated at about 24,000 cal BP by late Holocene deposits of anthropogenic origin.

  17. GEOSS AIP-2 Climate Change and Biodiversity Use Scenarios: Interoperability Infrastructures (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nativi, S.; Santoro, M.

    2009-12-01

    Transaction server: this component publishes the model outputs. The framework was successfully tested in two use scenarios of the GEOSS AIP-2 Climate Change and Biodiversity WG aiming to predict species distribution changes due to Climate Change factors, with the scientific patronage of the University of Colorado and the University of Alaska. The first scenario dealt with the Pikas specie regional distribution in the Great Basin area (North America). While, the second one concerned the modeling of the Arctic Food Chain species in the North Pole area -the relationships between different environmental parameters and Polar Bears distribution was analyzed. Results are published in the GEOSS AIP-2 web site: http://www.ogcnetwork.net/AIP2develop .

  18. GEOSS AIP-2 Climate Change and Biodiversity Use Scenarios: Interoperability Infrastructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nativi, Stefano; Santoro, Mattia

    2010-05-01

    publish climate, environmental and biodiversity datasets; e)Ecological Niche Model Server: this component is able to run one or more Ecological Niche Models (ENM) on selected biodiversity and climate datasets; f)Data Access Transaction server: this component publishes the model outputs. This framework was assessed in two use scenarios of GEOSS AIP-2 Climate Change and Biodiversity WG. Both scenarios concern the prediction of species distributions driven by climatological change forecasts. The first scenario dealt with the Pikas specie regional distribution in the Great Basin area (North America). While, the second one concerned the modeling of the Arctic Food Chain species in the North Pole area -the relationships between different environmental parameters and Polar Bears distribution was analyzed. The scientific patronage was provided by the University of Colorado and the University of Alaska, respectively. Results are published in the GEOSS AIP-2 web site: http://www.ogcnetwork.net/AIP2develop.

  19. Palve : [luuletused] / Ernst Enno ; [Impressioonid]: Viiu Härm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Enno, Ernst, 1875-1934

    2004-01-01

    Sisu: Palve ; Ma kuulan ; Imeline helin ; Nad langesid tasa, tasa ; Nii tasa mängisid lained ; Mu õnn ; iks ruttad, väsinud rändaja? ; Valge öö ; Kui ärkab ; Kui virmalised vehklevad ; Vii ära ; Väike paju ; Kui sõuaks igavikku ; Ei me suutnud ; Sügisel ; Su silmis ; Ja jälle sõuab ; Jõulurõõm ; Igatseja kodu ; Hääd ööd! ; Õhtu Pühajärvel ; Peipsi kaldal ; Õhtu ; Kodune ilu! ; Rannal ; Ma tulen hilja ; Märgitud ; Nõmmeallik, Õhtule! ; Kurbus ; Vesiroos ; Kojuigatsus ; Õhtu kodutalus ; Kevade õhtul ; Mu tuba on väike ; Kodukask ; Kallimeelsed ; Jutluse ajal ; Kauge kõlin ; Suvel ; Hall laul ; Igatsus ; Põud ; Ta tuli ; Suvi ; Hõõgamine ; Rändaja õhtulaul ; Tuul alulis ; Võiks otsast alata ; Kolm eite ; Nõmme pääl ; Nõmmeigatsus ; Vanaisa surm ; Karjamaal, Kas sa iial ei küsi ; Imelikku rada pikka! ; Üks lilleke ; Sütti, sütti! ; Noore suve muinasjutt ; Su omasem silmapilk ; Igatsus; Kullerkupp ; Öö valge on õnn ; Tartu valgel ööl ; Vari ; Hääd jällenägemist ; Ühele sõbrale ; Nii läbisegi jooned ; Hõbemeelne luul ; Kui suri lill ; Sind jumalaga jätsin sääl ; Ja eluvalgus, see on nende and ; Ja saadus hing ; Sügise ; Kodu imelisem töö ; Ja pisarad sul kipuvad silma ; Nad läevad pikas reas ; Nad ei vaata tagasi! ; Kadunud kodu! ; Sa oled inime ; Meil kõigil ühine on pulmapidu ees ; Ja jahtund süda jäta ilmale ; Siis vaikivad kõik mõtted ; Nii vaikseks kõik on jäänud ; Siin-sääl kui katkend viisid ; Nii, nii see küll ikka oli ; Ei ole tühi jutt ; Oli viisiks koju tulla ; Tuba, väike tuba ; Sa ära küsi ; Kuulmata kuskil kumiseb kodu ; Mere ääres tuba vaikne ; Ei ükski neist armasta mind ; Igatsus ; Lumesõda ; Tuul käib tühjal rannal ringi ; Üks rohutirts läks kõndima ; Hilissuvi ; Tähte väli vaatas vette ; Valge unustus

  20. A technology framework to analyse the Climate Change impact on biodiversity species distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nativi, S.; Khalsa, S. J.; Geller, G. N.; O'Tuama, E.; Thomas, D.; Mazzetti, P.; Santoro, M.

    2009-04-01

    successfully experimented in the GEOSS Interoperability Process Pilot Project (IP3) and demonstrated at the IV Ministerial summit in Cape Town -November 2007. Presently, the framework is used for the GEOSS Architecture Implementation Pilot project -phase 2. The usage case of the impact of climate change on the distribution of Pikas in North America is presented and discussed. This usage case is based on research being done at the University of Colorado. The used presence datasets were collected by the Scientist and from the GBIF (Global Biodiversity Information Facility) Data Portal. Climate datasets were discovered and collected by the WMO publications and distribution system.