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Sample records for term tumour control

  1. Long-term quality of life and tumour control following gamma knife radiosurgery for vestibular schwannoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wangerid, Theresa; Bartek, Jiri; Svensson, Mikael

    2014-01-01

    Gamma knife radiosurgery (GKRS) has for the last decades been an established treatment option for patients with small- or medium-sized vestibular schwannomas (VS), although little data is reported on long-term outcome regarding quality of life (QOL) and tumour control in this patient category...

  2. Long-term quality of life and tumour control following gamma knife radiosurgery for vestibular schwannoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangerid, Theresa; Bartek, Jiri; Svensson, Mikael; Förander, Petter

    2014-02-01

    Gamma knife radiosurgery (GKRS) has for the last decades been an established treatment option for patients with small- or medium-sized vestibular schwannomas (VS), although little data is reported on long-term outcome regarding quality of life (QOL) and tumour control in this patient category. The objective of this study was to investigate long-term QOL and tumour control in GKRS-treated VS patients at our institution. Data was reviewed from a consecutive cohort of 128 patients, 62 men and 66 women, diagnosed with VS and treated with GKRS at Karolinska University Hospital between 1997 and 2003. Patients previously treated for VS, patients from abroad, and patients with neurofibromatosis were excluded from the study. Median age at the time of treatment was 66 years (range 23-89), with a median follow-up time of 104 months (range 11-165) and radiological median follow-up of 86 months (range 5-170). Five patients were lost to follow-up. Data on QOL (EQ-5D score) was obtained in 90 % (98/109) of all cases at the end of follow-up, showing low morbidity and a high QOL with median index of 0.91 (max. score 1.0) in these patients. Tumour control was achieved in 92 % (118/128) of patients after a single GKRS treatment. Ten patients had loss of tumour control, either radiologically seen as growth progression, or due to the need for salvage treatment. Neither pre-treatment growth of the vestibular schwannoma, or a large tumour size (Koos grade 3 & 4) was correlated with a higher degree of treatment failure (p = 0.695 and p = 0.647, respectively). There was no difference in tumour control in young (growth.

  3. Golimumab in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis who have previous experience with tumour necrosis factor inhibitors: results of a long-term extension of the randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled GO-AFTER study through week 160

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smolen, Josef S.; Kay, Jonathan; Landewé, Robert B. M.; Matteson, Eric L.; Gaylis, Norman; Wollenhaupt, Jurgen; Murphy, Frederick T.; Zhou, Yiying; Hsia, Elizabeth C.; Doyle, Mittie K.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess long-term golimumab therapy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who discontinued previous tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) inhibitor(s) for any reason. Results through week 24 of this multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of

  4. Long-term lowering of tumour interstitial fluid pressure reduces Ki-67 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Matthias; Schultz, Maike; Bernd, August; Bereiter-Hahn, Jürgen; Kaufmann, Roland; Kippenberger, Stefan

    2007-01-01

    High tumour interstitial fluid pressure (TIFP) is a characteristic of most solid tumours. Recent data give first evidence that mechanical stretch induced by TIFP triggers proliferation in solid tumours. In the present study we compared two protocols of TIFP reduction on the expression of the tumour proliferation marker Ki-67: (a) short-term lowering of TIFP by a singular puncture and (b) long-term lowering of TIFP by catheterization. Utilizing two experimental tumours (A431, A549) it was found that the TIFP broke down rapidly after a singular puncture but recovered within 6h. In case of permanent catheterization no TIFP recovery was observed. After 24h tumours were excised and stained against the proliferation marker Ki-67. While a singular puncture had no effect catheterized tumours showed a significant decrease in Ki-67 expression. Our data suggest that long-term lowering of TIFP is required to reduce tumour proliferation.

  5. Radiobiological hypoxia, histological parameters of tumour microenvironment and local tumour control after fractionated irradiation.

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    Yaromina, Ala; Thames, Howard; Zhou, Xuanjing; Hering, Sandra; Eicheler, Wolfgang; Dörfler, Annegret; Leichtner, Thomas; Zips, Daniel; Baumann, Michael

    2010-07-01

    To investigate the relationships between radiobiological hypoxic fraction (rHF), pimonidazole hypoxic fraction (pHF) as well as other histological parameters of the tumour microenvironment, and local tumour control after fractionated irradiation in human squamous cell carcinomas (hSCCs). Ten different hSCC cell lines were transplanted into nude mice and rHF was calculated from local tumour control rates after single dose irradiation under normal or clamped blood flow conditions. In parallel, tumours were irradiated with 30 fractions within 6 weeks. Radiation response was quantified as dose required to cure 50% of tumours (TCD(50)). Unirradiated tumours were excised for histological evaluation including relative hypoxic area (pHF), relative vascular area (RVA), and fraction of perfused vessels (PF). A weak but significant positive correlation between rHF (R(2)=0.6, p=0.014) and TCD(50) after fractionated irradiation was found. The pHF did not correlate with rHF but was significantly associated with the TCD(50) after single dose clamp (R(2)=0.8, p=0.003) and showed a trend for an association with TCD(50) after fractionated irradiation (R(2)=0.4, p=0.067). Relative vascular area and fraction of perfused vessels did not show an association with rHF or TCD(50) after fractionated irradiation. Our data suggest that radiobiological hypoxia contributes to the response after fractionated irradiation but that also other radiobiological mechanisms are involved. In the present study, pimonidazole labelling does not reflect rHF and has a limited value to predict local tumour control after fractionated irradiation. The association between pHF and TCD(50) after single dose clamp warrants further investigation. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and incidence of brain tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jeanette Therming; Johansen, Martin Søes; Ravnskjær, Line

    2016-01-01

    is sparse, with no data on exposure to particles. In this study we aim to examine associations between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and risk for development of brain tumours. METHODS: We used the Danish Nurse Cohort with 28,731 female nurses (age≥44years) recruited in 1993 or 1999 when self...... dioxide (NO2) at the residence since 1990 using an atmospheric integrated chemistry-transport models system, and examined the association between the 3-year running mean of pollutants and brain tumour incidence using time-varying Cox regression, separately for total brain tumours, and for tumour subtypes...

  7. Tumour control probability in cancer stem cells hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhawan, Andrew; Kohandel, Mohammad; Hill, Richard; Sivaloganathan, Sivabal

    2014-01-01

    The tumour control probability (TCP) is a formalism derived to compare various treatment regimens of radiation therapy, defined as the probability that given a prescribed dose of radiation, a tumour has been eradicated or controlled. In the traditional view of cancer, all cells share the ability to divide without limit and thus have the potential to generate a malignant tumour. However, an emerging notion is that only a sub-population of cells, the so-called cancer stem cells (CSCs), are responsible for the initiation and maintenance of the tumour. A key implication of the CSC hypothesis is that these cells must be eradicated to achieve cures, thus we define TCPS as the probability of eradicating CSCs for a given dose of radiation. A cell surface protein expression profile, such as CD44high/CD24low for breast cancer or CD133 for glioma, is often used as a biomarker to monitor CSCs enrichment. However, it is increasingly recognized that not all cells bearing this expression profile are necessarily CSCs, and in particular early generations of progenitor cells may share the same phenotype. Thus, due to the lack of a perfect biomarker for CSCs, we also define a novel measurable TCPCD+, that is the probability of eliminating or controlling biomarker positive cells. Based on these definitions, we use stochastic methods and numerical simulations parameterized for the case of gliomas, to compare the theoretical TCPS and the measurable TCPCD+. We also use the measurable TCP to compare the effect of various radiation protocols.

  8. Tumour control probability in cancer stem cells hypothesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Dhawan

    Full Text Available The tumour control probability (TCP is a formalism derived to compare various treatment regimens of radiation therapy, defined as the probability that given a prescribed dose of radiation, a tumour has been eradicated or controlled. In the traditional view of cancer, all cells share the ability to divide without limit and thus have the potential to generate a malignant tumour. However, an emerging notion is that only a sub-population of cells, the so-called cancer stem cells (CSCs, are responsible for the initiation and maintenance of the tumour. A key implication of the CSC hypothesis is that these cells must be eradicated to achieve cures, thus we define TCPS as the probability of eradicating CSCs for a given dose of radiation. A cell surface protein expression profile, such as CD44high/CD24low for breast cancer or CD133 for glioma, is often used as a biomarker to monitor CSCs enrichment. However, it is increasingly recognized that not all cells bearing this expression profile are necessarily CSCs, and in particular early generations of progenitor cells may share the same phenotype. Thus, due to the lack of a perfect biomarker for CSCs, we also define a novel measurable TCPCD+, that is the probability of eliminating or controlling biomarker positive cells. Based on these definitions, we use stochastic methods and numerical simulations parameterized for the case of gliomas, to compare the theoretical TCPS and the measurable TCPCD+. We also use the measurable TCP to compare the effect of various radiation protocols.

  9. Factors influencing malignant evolution and long-term survival in solitary fibrous tumours of the pleura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Gonzalez, Marta; Novoa, Nuria M; Gomez, Maria T; Garcia, J L; Ludeña, Dolores

    2014-11-01

    Solitary pleuro-pulmonary fibrous tumours are relatively uncommon neoplasms that are difficult to manage therapeutically and which, cytogenetically, have been poorly studied. The aim of the present work was to analyse the characteristics of a series of consecutive operated solitary pleural fibrous tumours in an attempt to discover a malignant pattern of evolution. This was a retrospective observational study of 19 cases. Samples were studied for clinical, histological, immunohistochemical and cytogenetic characteristics (aCGH, FISH). Descriptive statistics were used: the Kapplan-Meyer log-rank test and the Cox-regression model for survival analysis. Analysis of malignant evolution was achieved using 2x2 tables; significant factors were included in a binary logistic regression model. Parietal pleural implantation of the primary tumour, high mib1 expression, and low p53 expression were seen to be statistically significant factors for survival. We recommend a close follow-up for patients with a malignant primary tumour and low p53 expression and a regular long-term follow-up for benign primary tumours with a high mib1 index, high positive p53, and deletions. These findings need confirmation in more extensive series.

  10. Modelling the tumour microenvironment in long-term microencapsulated 3D co-cultures recapitulates phenotypic features of disease progression.

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    Estrada, Marta F; Rebelo, Sofia P; Davies, Emma J; Pinto, Marta T; Pereira, Hugo; Santo, Vítor E; Smalley, Matthew J; Barry, Simon T; Gualda, Emilio J; Alves, Paula M; Anderson, Elizabeth; Brito, Catarina

    2016-02-01

    3D cell tumour models are generated mainly in non-scalable culture systems, using bioactive scaffolds. Many of these models fail to reflect the complex tumour microenvironment and do not allow long-term monitoring of tumour progression. To overcome these limitations, we have combined alginate microencapsulation with agitation-based culture systems, to recapitulate and monitor key aspects of the tumour microenvironment and disease progression. Aggregates of MCF-7 breast cancer cells were microencapsulated in alginate, either alone or in combination with human fibroblasts, then cultured for 15 days. In co-cultures, the fibroblasts arranged themselves around the tumour aggregates creating distinct epithelial and stromal compartments. The presence of fibroblasts resulted in secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and deposition of collagen in the stromal compartment. Tumour cells established cell-cell contacts and polarised around small lumina in the interior of the aggregates. Over the culture period, there was a reduction in oestrogen receptor and membranous E-cadherin alongside loss of cell polarity, increased collective cell migration and enhanced angiogenic potential in co-cultures. These phenotypic alterations, typical of advanced stages of cancer, were not observed in the mono-cultures of MCF-7 cells. The proposed model system constitutes a new tool to study tumour-stroma crosstalk, disease progression and drug resistance mechanisms. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Intra-operative microwave ablation of liver malignancies with tumour permittivity feedback control: a prospective ablate and resect study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratanaprasatporn, Linda; Charpentier, Kevin P; Resnick, Murray; Lu, Shaolei; Dupuy, Damian

    2013-12-01

    Tumour permittivity feedback control is a novel method for microwave ablation (MWA) that theoretically allows for larger, more predictable ablations. This prospective case series evaluates the feasibility and efficacy of MWA of liver malignancies using a device with tumour permittivity feedback control. Ten consecutive patients initially determined to be candidates for surgical resection of a liver malignancy underwent intra-operative MWA with tumour permittivity feedback control followed by a surgical resection. A 14-gauge Medwaves microwave antenna was used to deliver a single treatment according to the manufacturer's recommendations. Tumours were assessed grossly as well as by haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and tetrazolium chloride staining. The primary end point was per cent tumour necrosis. The median maximum ablation diameter measured was 4.1 cm (range 3.0-6.8). The median ablation volume was 8.7 cm(3) (range 4.84-17.55). Six of the 10 tumours demonstrated a pathological complete response (CR). Six of seven tumours ≤ 3 cm demonstrated a pathological CR. Zero of the three tumours ≥ 3 cm had a pathological CR, but all had ≥ 50% tumour necrosis. All patients survived and there were no ablation-related morbidities. MWA of liver tumours with tumour permittivity feedback control is feasible and appears effective for the treatment of small (< 3 cm) liver tumours. © 2013 International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association.

  12. Platelet-activating factor receptor (PAF-R)-dependent pathways control tumour growth and tumour response to chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Soraya I; Andrade, Luciana N S; Onuchic, Ana C; Nonogaki, Sueli; Fernandes, Patrícia D; Pinheiro, Mônica C; Rohde, Ciro B S; Chammas, Roger; Jancar, Sonia

    2010-05-13

    Phagocytosis of apoptotic cells by macrophages induces a suppressor phenotype. Previous data from our group suggested that this occurs via Platelet-activating factor receptor (PAF-R)-mediated pathways. In the present study, we investigated the impact of apoptotic cell inoculation or induction by a chemotherapeutic agent (dacarbazine, DTIC) on tumour growth, microenvironmental parameters and survival, and the effect of treatment with a PAF-R antagonist (WEB2170). These studies were performed in murine tumours: Ehrlich Ascitis Tumour (EAT) and B16F10 melanoma. Tumour growth was assessed by direct counting of EAT cells in the ascitis or by measuring the volume of the solid tumour. Parameters of the tumour microenvironment, such as the frequency of cells expressing cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2), caspase-3 and galectin-3, and microvascular density, were determined by immunohistochemistry. Levels of vascular endothelium growth factor (VEGF) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were determined by ELISA, and levels of nitric oxide (NO) by Griess reaction. PAF-R expression was analysed by immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry. Inoculation of apoptotic cells before EAT implantation stimulated tumour growth. This effect was reversed by in vivo pre-treatment with WEB2170. This treatment also reduced tumour growth and modified the microenvironment by reducing PGE2, VEGF and NO production. In B16F10 melanoma, WEB2170 alone or in association with DTIC significantly reduced tumour volume. Survival of the tumour-bearing mice was not affected by WEB2170 treatment but was significantly improved by the combination of DTIC with WEB2170. Tumour microenvironment elements were among the targets of the combination therapy since the relative frequency of COX-2 and galectin-3 positive cells and the microvascular density within the tumour mass were significantly reduced by treatment with WEB2170 or DTIC alone or in combination. Antibodies to PAF-R stained the cells from inside the tumour, but not the

  13. Platelet-activating factor receptor (PAF-R-dependent pathways control tumour growth and tumour response to chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohde Ciro BS

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phagocytosis of apoptotic cells by macrophages induces a suppressor phenotype. Previous data from our group suggested that this occurs via Platelet-activating factor receptor (PAF-R-mediated pathways. In the present study, we investigated the impact of apoptotic cell inoculation or induction by a chemotherapeutic agent (dacarbazine, DTIC on tumour growth, microenvironmental parameters and survival, and the effect of treatment with a PAF-R antagonist (WEB2170. These studies were performed in murine tumours: Ehrlich Ascitis Tumour (EAT and B16F10 melanoma. Methods Tumour growth was assessed by direct counting of EAT cells in the ascitis or by measuring the volume of the solid tumour. Parameters of the tumour microenvironment, such as the frequency of cells expressing cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2, caspase-3 and galectin-3, and microvascular density, were determined by immunohistochemistry. Levels of vascular endothelium growth factor (VEGF and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 were determined by ELISA, and levels of nitric oxide (NO by Griess reaction. PAF-R expression was analysed by immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry. Results Inoculation of apoptotic cells before EAT implantation stimulated tumour growth. This effect was reversed by in vivo pre-treatment with WEB2170. This treatment also reduced tumour growth and modified the microenvironment by reducing PGE2, VEGF and NO production. In B16F10 melanoma, WEB2170 alone or in association with DTIC significantly reduced tumour volume. Survival of the tumour-bearing mice was not affected by WEB2170 treatment but was significantly improved by the combination of DTIC with WEB2170. Tumour microenvironment elements were among the targets of the combination therapy since the relative frequency of COX-2 and galectin-3 positive cells and the microvascular density within the tumour mass were significantly reduced by treatment with WEB2170 or DTIC alone or in combination. Antibodies to PAF-R stained

  14. Monte Carlo based protocol for cell survival and tumour control probability in BNCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, S J

    1999-02-01

    A mathematical model to calculate the theoretical cell survival probability (nominally, the cell survival fraction) is developed to evaluate preclinical treatment conditions for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). A treatment condition is characterized by the neutron beam spectra, single or bilateral exposure, and the choice of boron carrier drug (boronophenylalanine (BPA) or boron sulfhydryl hydride (BSH)). The cell survival probability defined from Poisson statistics is expressed with the cell-killing yield, the 10B(n,alpha)7Li reaction density, and the tolerable neutron fluence. The radiation transport calculation from the neutron source to tumours is carried out using Monte Carlo methods: (i) reactor-based BNCT facility modelling to yield the neutron beam library at an irradiation port; (ii) dosimetry to limit the neutron fluence below a tolerance dose (10.5 Gy-Eq); (iii) calculation of the 10B(n,alpha)7Li reaction density in tumours. A shallow surface tumour could be effectively treated by single exposure producing an average cell survival probability of 10(-3)-10(-5) for probable ranges of the cell-killing yield for the two drugs, while a deep tumour will require bilateral exposure to achieve comparable cell kills at depth. With very pure epithermal beams eliminating thermal, low epithermal and fast neutrons, the cell survival can be decreased by factors of 2-10 compared with the unmodified neutron spectrum. A dominant effect of cell-killing yield on tumour cell survival demonstrates the importance of choice of boron carrier drug. However, these calculations do not indicate an unambiguous preference for one drug, due to the large overlap of tumour cell survival in the probable ranges of the cell-killing yield for the two drugs. The cell survival value averaged over a bulky tumour volume is used to predict the overall BNCT therapeutic efficacy, using a simple model of tumour control probability (TCP).

  15. Report on short-term side effects of treatments with {sup 177}Lu-octreotate in combination with capecitabine in seven patients with gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Essen, Martijn van; Kam, Boen L.; Kwekkeboom, Dik J. [Erasmus MC, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Krenning, Eric P. [Erasmus MC, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Erasmus MC, Department of Internal Medicine, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Herder, Wouter W. de; Aken, Maarten O. van [Erasmus MC, Department of Internal Medicine, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2008-04-15

    Treatment with the radiolabelled somatostatin analogue {sup 177}Lu-octreotate results in tumour remission in 47% of patients with gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumours. Adding capecitabine to {sup 177}Lu-octreotate, as a radio-sensitiser, may enhance these anti-tumour effects. We now present the short-term toxicity profile of this novel combination. Seven patients were treated with 7.4 GBq {sup 177}Lu-octreotate and capecitabine (1650 mg/m{sup 2} per day) for 2 weeks with an intended number of four cycles. Toxicity, and especially haematological and renal parameters, were monitored on a weekly basis for the first two cycles and 4 and 6 weeks after subsequent cycles. None of the patients had hand-foot syndrome. One patient had grade 1 stomatitis occurring after one of four cycles. Grade 3 or 4 leukopenia or neutropenia did not occur. One patient had grade 3 anaemia, but none had grade 4 anaemia. One patient had grade 2 thrombocytopenia after the fourth cycle, and one had grade 3 thrombocytopenia. Grade 4 thrombocytopenia did not occur. No significant changes in serum creatinine levels were observed. None of the patients had symptoms of cardiac ischaemia. Treatment with the combination of {sup 177}Lu-octreotate and capecitabine was feasible and safe considering acute and subacute side effects. We therefore started a randomised, controlled clinical trial to compare this combination with {sup 177}Lu-octreotate as single agent with regard to anti-tumour effects and side effects. (orig.)

  16. Multiple model predictive control for optimal drug administration of mixed immunotherapy and chemotherapy of tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi, N; Ozgoli, S; Ramezani, A

    2017-06-01

    Mixed immunotherapy and chemotherapy of tumours is one of the most efficient ways to improve cancer treatment strategies. However, it is important to 'design' an effective treatment programme which can optimize the ways of combining immunotherapy and chemotherapy to diminish their imminent side effects. Control engineering techniques could be used for this. The method of multiple model predictive controller (MMPC) is applied to the modified Stepanova model to induce the best combination of drugs scheduling under a better health criteria profile. The proposed MMPC is a feedback scheme that can perform global optimization for both tumour volume and immune competent cell density by performing multiple constraints. Although current studies usually assume that immunotherapy has no side effect, this paper presents a new method of mixed drug administration by employing MMPC, which implements several constraints for chemotherapy and immunotherapy by considering both drug toxicity and autoimmune. With designed controller we need maximum 57% and 28% of full dosage of drugs for chemotherapy and immunotherapy in some instances, respectively. Therefore, through the proposed controller less dosage of drugs are needed, which contribute to suitable results with a perceptible reduction in medicine side effects. It is observed that in the presence of MMPC, the amount of required drugs is minimized, while the tumour volume is reduced. The efficiency of the presented method has been illustrated through simulations, as the system from an initial condition in the malignant region of the state space (macroscopic tumour volume) transfers into the benign region (microscopic tumour volume) in which the immune system can control tumour growth. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Exercise training improves physical function and fitness in long-term paediatric brain tumour survivors treated with cranial irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piscione, P J; Bouffet, E; Timmons, B; Courneya, K S; Tetzlaff, D; Schneiderman, J E; de Medeiros, C B; Bartels, U; Mabbott, D J

    2017-07-01

    We examined the efficacy of exercise training for improving physical functioning and cardiopulmonary fitness in survivors of paediatric brain tumours (BTs) treated with cranial irradiation. We conducted a controlled clinical trial with crossover of exercise training versus no training in the community in either a group or combined group/home setting. A volunteer sample of 28 children treated with cranial irradiation for brain tumours completed training (mean age = 11.53 years; mean time since diagnosis = 5.25 years). end-points were physical functioning assessed by four subtests from the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of motor performance (BOT-2) and pro-rated work rate from a cycle ergometer. Linear mixed modelling was used to evaluate time, training, training setting, and carryover effects. Adherence to training was 84%. Performance on the BOT-2 was below average for all assessments. However, training resulted in improvement in bilateral coordination (F (1, 30) = 6.59, p = 0.02), irrespective of training setting and improved performance was maintained even approximately 12°weeks after training had ended (F (1, 24) = 9.60, p = 0.005). Training resulted in increased pro-rated work rate for participants in the group training setting only (F (1, 25) = 4.57, p = 0.04) and these participants maintained their improved work rate approximately 12°weeks after training had ended (F (1, 20) = 8.38, p = 0.01). Exercise training improves physical functioning and fitness in paediatric BT survivors. Exercise interventions that ameliorate adverse physical effects and promote health in long-term survivors are highly recommended in this vulnerable population. (ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01944761). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Use of wireless phones and the risk of salivary gland tumours: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderqvist, Fredrik; Carlberg, Michael; Hardell, Lennart

    2012-11-01

    The last decades of increasing use of wireless phones, including mobile as well as cordless desktop phones, have led to concerns about the potential carcinogenic effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields. Among the most exposed areas of the body when the phone is used for talking are the salivary glands, mainly the parotid gland, located in front of the ear. The objective of this case-control study was to assess whether the use of wireless phones is associated with an increased risk of tumour at this site. Sixty-nine patients with salivary gland tumours (63 with a parotid gland tumour) and 262 randomly recruited controls were included. Unconditional logistic regression - adjusted for age at diagnosis, sex, year of diagnosis and socioeconomic index - was used to produce odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. The use of wireless phones was not associated with an overall increased risk of salivary gland tumours, odds ratio 0.8, 95% confidence interval 0.4-1.5. Neither was there an increased risk for the different phone types when calculated separately nor was there an increased risk for different latencies or when cumulative use was divided into three groups (1-1000, 1001-2000 and >2000 h). The overall results were similar for the risk of parotid gland tumours. In conclusion, our data add to the evidence against there being an increased risk for parotid gland tumours associated with light-to-moderate use of wireless phones and for less than 10 years of use but offers little information on risk related to more prolonged and/or heavy use.

  19. Childhood brain tumours and use of mobile phones: comparison of a case–control study with incidence data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aydin Denis

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The first case–control study on mobile phone use and brain tumour risk among children and adolescents (CEFALO study has recently been published. In a commentary published in Environmental Health, Söderqvist and colleagues argued that CEFALO suggests an increased brain tumour risk in relation to wireless phone use. In this article, we respond and show why consistency checks of case–control study results with observed time trends of incidence rates are essential, given the well described limitations of case–control studies and the steep increase of mobile phone use among children and adolescents during the last decade. There is no plausible explanation of how a notably increased risk from use of wireless phones would correspond to the relatively stable incidence time trends for brain tumours among children and adolescents observed in the Nordic countries. Nevertheless, an increased risk restricted to heavy mobile phone use, to very early life exposure, or to rare subtypes of brain tumours may be compatible with stable incidence trends at this time and thus further monitoring of childhood brain tumour incidence rate time trends is warranted.

  20. UK case control study of brain tumours in children, teenagers and young adults: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feltbower, Richard G; Fleming, Sarah J; Picton, Susan V; Alston, Robert D; Morgan, Diana; Achilles, Janice; McKinney, Patricia A; Birch, Jillian M

    2014-01-08

    Tumours of the central nervous system are the second most common group of childhood cancers in 0-14 year olds (24% of total cancers) and represent a major diagnostic group in 15-24 year olds. The pilot case-control study aimed to establish methodologies for a future comprehensive aetiological investigation among children and young adults. Eligible cases were newly diagnosed with an intracranial tumour of neuroepithelial tissue aged 0-24 years. The pilot recruited patients through Leeds and Manchester Principal Treatment Centres. Controls were drawn from general practice lists. Controls were frequency matched by age and gender. We interviewed 49 cases and 78 controls comprising 85% of the target sample size. Response rates were 52% for cases and 32% for controls. Completion of the questionnaire was successful, with a very small proportion of missing data being reported (5-10%). The age distribution of cases and controls was similar with around three-quarters of interviewed subjects aged 0-14. Half of cases and almost two-thirds of controls reported using a mobile phone with the majority starting between 10-14 years of age. Prevalence of breastfeeding was lower in cases than controls (Odds Ratio 0.4; 95% CI 0.2-1.2), whilst cases were more likely to be delivered by caesarean section (OR 1.6; 95% CI 0.6-4.4). Cases were significantly more likely to have a birthweight > 3.5 kg compared to controls. Cases were also more likely to come from a family with 3 or more siblings than controls (OR 3.0; 95% CI 0.7-13.6). The majority of participants (>80%) were in favour of taking either blood or saliva to aid molecular epidemiological research. Successful methods were established for identifying and recruiting a high proportion of case subjects, exploiting strong links with the clinical teams at the treatment centres. Control procedures proved more difficult to implement. However, working closely with national clinical and professional research networks will enable improved

  1. Short- and long-term outcomes for patients with splenic flexure tumours treated by left versus extended right colectomy are comparable: a retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odermatt, Manfred; Siddiqi, Najaf; Johns, Rose; Miskovic, Danilo; Khan, Omar; Khan, Jim; Parvaiz, Amjad

    2014-11-01

    To compare the outcomes of colonic splenic flexure tumours treated by extended right colectomy versus left colectomy. Stage I-III splenic flexure tumours, treated either by extended right colectomy or left colectomy between 1996 and 2011, were identified in a prospective database, and the short- and long-term outcomes compared. The survival analyses were performed using the Kaplan-Meier method and adjusted using a Cox-proportional hazard model. A total of 30 (44 %) splenic flexure tumours were resected by left colectomy and 38 (56 %) by right colectomy. Emergency operations were more common (74 versus 20 %, p analysis, the 5-year overall survival (55 % for right colectomy versus 60 % for left colectomy, p = 0.197) and 5-year recurrence-free survival (41 versus 54 %, p = 0.180, respectively) showed a trend towards a non-significant survival benefit for left colectomy. However, when adjusted for age, gender, ASA classification, tumour stage, urgency and year of surgery, this trend disappeared. Patients undergoing extended right or left colectomy for splenic flexure tumours seemed to have comparable short- and long-term outcomes.

  2. An optimized small animal tumour model for experimentation with low energy protons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyreuther, Elke; Brüchner, Kerstin; Krause, Mechthild; Schmidt, Margret; Szabo, Rita; Pawelke, Jörg

    2017-01-01

    The long-term aim of developing laser based particle acceleration towards clinical application requires not only substantial technological progress, but also the radiobiological characterization of the resulting ultra-short and ultra-intensive particle beam pulses. After comprehensive cell studies a mouse ear tumour model was established allowing for the penetration of low energy protons (~20 MeV) currently available at laser driven accelerators. The model was successfully applied for a first tumour growth delay study with laser driven electrons, whereby the need of improvements crop out. To optimise the mouse ear tumour model with respect to a stable, high take rate and a lower number of secondary tumours, Matrigel was introduced for tumour cell injection. Different concentrations of two human tumour cell lines (FaDu, LN229) and Matrigel were evaluated for stable tumour growth and fulfilling the allocation criteria for irradiation experiments. The originally applied cell injection with PBS was performed for comparison and to assess the long-term stability of the model. Finally, the optimum suspension of cells and Matrigel was applied to determine applicable dose ranges for tumour growth delay studies by 200 kV X-ray irradiation. Both human tumour models showed a high take rate and exponential tumour growth starting at a volume of ~10 mm3. As disclosed by immunofluorescence analysis these small tumours already interact with the surrounding tissue and activate endothelial cells to form vessels. The formation of delimited, solid tumours at irradiation size was shown by standard H&E staining and a realistic dose range for inducing tumour growth delay without permanent tumour control was obtained for both tumour entities. The already established mouse ear tumour model was successfully upgraded now providing stable tumour growth with high take rate for two tumour entities (HNSCC, glioblastoma) that are of interest for future irradiation experiments at experimental

  3. Long-term safety and anti-tumour activity of olaparib monotherapy after combination with carboplatin and paclitaxel in patients with advanced breast, ovarian or fallopian tube cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Der Noll, Ruud; Marchetti, Serena; Steeghs, Neeltje; Beijnen, Jos H.; Mergui-Roelvink, Marja W J; Harms, Emmy; Rehorst, Harriet; Sonke, Gabe S.; Schellens, Jan H M

    2015-01-01

    Background: Olaparib (AZD2281), a PARP-1/2 inhibitor, has been extensively investigated in clinical trials. However, limited clinical data are available about its long-term safety and anti-tumour activity.Methods: Patients had first participated in a phase I study of olaparib combined with

  4. Minimally invasive surgery in management of renal tumours in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, Kathrine Olaussen; Johal, Navroop Singh; Mushtaq, Imran

    2016-10-01

    Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) in the management of malignant and benign renal tumours in children is gradually becoming more common. Experience is limited and restricted to case reports, retrospective chart reviews and a few cohort studies. There are currently no randomized controlled trials or controlled clinical trials comparing the laparoscopic and open surgical approach for the management of renal tumours in children. MIS may offer the same oncologic outcome in malignant renal tumours whilst providing the advantages associated with MIS in correctly selected cases. The technique for tumour resection has been shown to be feasible in regards to the recommended oncologic principles, although lymph node sampling can be inadequate in some cases. Preliminary reports do not show an increased risk of tumour rupture or inferior oncologic outcomes after MIS. However, the sample size remains small and duration of follow-up inadequate to draw any firm conclusions. Implementation of MIS is lacking in the protocols of the major study groups, and standardized recommendations for the indications and contra-indications remain undefined. The objective of this article is to present a review of the literature on the role of MIS in the management of renal tumours in children, with the main focus on Wilms' tumour (WT). Further studies on MIS in renal tumours are required to evaluate the incidence of oncological complications such as complete tumour resection and intra-operative tumour spillage. A long-term follow-up of patients managed by MIS is essential to compare recurrence rates and overall survival rates.

  5. A tumour control probability model for radiotherapy of prostate cancer using magnetic resonance imaging-based apparent diffusion coefficient maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casares-Magaz, Oscar; van der Heide, Uulke A; Rørvik, Jarle; Steenbergen, Peter; Muren, Ludvig Paul

    2016-04-01

    Standard tumour control probability (TCP) models assume uniform tumour cell density across the tumour. The aim of this study was to develop an individualised TCP model by including index-tumour regions extracted form multi-parametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps-based cell density distributions. ADC maps in a series of 20 prostate cancer patients were applied to estimate the initial number of cells within each voxel, using three different approaches for the relation between ADC values and cell density: a linear, a binary and a sigmoid relation. All TCP models were based on linear-quadratic cell survival curves assuming α/β=1.93Gy (consistent with a recent meta-analysis) and α set to obtain a 70% of TCP when 77Gy was delivered to the entire prostate in 35 fractions (α=0.18Gy(-1)). Overall, TCP curves based on ADC maps showed larger differences between individuals than those assuming uniform cell densities. The range of the dose required to reach 50% TCP across the patient cohort was 20.1Gy, 18.7Gy and 13.2Gy using an MRI-based voxel density (linear, binary and sigmoid approach, respectively), compared to 4.1Gy using a constant density. Inclusion of tumour-index information together with ADC maps-based cell density increases inter-patient tumour response differentiation for use in prostate cancer RT, resulting in TCP curves with a larger range in D50% across the cohort compared with those based on uniform cell densities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The value of artificial pleural effusion for percutaneous microwave ablation of liver tumour in the hepatic dome: a retrospective case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dezhi; Liang, Ping; Yu, Xiaoling; Cheng, Zhigang; Han, Zhiyu; Yu, Jie; Liu, Fangyi

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility, safety, and efficiency of percutaneous microwave ablation (MWA) with artificial pleural effusion for liver tumours located in the hepatic dome. A total of 112 sessions of artificial pleural effusion performed on 102 liver tumour patients were summarised and analysed at our hospital. Among them, 31 hepatocellular carcinoma patients treated by percutaneous MWA were selected as the artificial pleural effusion group. The control group without artificial pleural effusion was matched with tumour size, tumour location and the histological grades of differentiation. The primary technique effectiveness rate, local tumour progression rate and tumour-free survival rate were compared. Artificial pleural effusion was achieved successfully in 110 of 112 sessions (98.2%), which helped to improve the visibility in 98.8% (82/83) and acquire safe puncture path in 96.3% (26/27). There were no statistical differences between the artificial pleural effusion group and the control group in the primary technique effectiveness rate (p = 1.000), the 1-, 2-, and 3-year local tumour progression rates (p = 0.669), and the 1-, 2-, and 3-year tumour-free survival rates (p = 0.979). Percutaneous MWA with artificial pleural effusion could be a feasible, safe, and effective technique for liver tumours located in the hepatic dome.

  7. New horizons in MR-controlled and monitored radiofrequency ablation of liver tumours

    OpenAIRE

    Cernicanu, Alexandru; Lepetit-Coiff?, Matthieu; Viallon, Magalie; Terraz, Sylvain; Becker, Christoph D.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract There is a sustained interest in using magnetic resonance (MR) thermometry to monitor the radiofrequency ablation of liver tumours as a means of visualizing the progress of the thermal coagulation and deciding the optimal end-point. Despite numerous technical challenges, important progress has been made and demonstrated in animal studies. In addition to MR thermometry, MR can now be used for the guidance of the tumour targeting with ?fluoroscopic? rapid image acquisition, and it can ...

  8. Derivation of the Tumour Control Probability (TCP from a Cell Cycle Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dawson

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a model for the radiation treatment of cancer which includes the effects of the cell cycle is derived from first principles. A malignant cell population is divided into two compartments based on radiation sensitivities. The active compartment includes the four phases of the cell cycle, while the quiescent compartment consists of the G0 state. Analysis of this active-quiescent radiation model confirms the classical interpretation of the linear quadratic (LQ model, which is that a larger α/β ratio corresponds to a fast cell cycle, while a smaller ratio corresponds to a slow cell cycle. Additionally, we find that a large α/β ratio indicates the existence of a significant quiescent phase. The active-quiescent model is extended as a nonlinear birth–death process in order to derive an explicit time dependent expression for the tumour control probability (TCP. This work extends the TCP formula from Zaider and Minerbo and it enables the TCP to be calculated for general time dependent treatment schedules.

  9. Anti-tumour necrosis factor therapy in patients with refractory Takayasu arteritis: long-term follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molloy, E S; Langford, C A; Clark, T M; Gota, C E; Hoffman, G S

    2008-11-01

    To assess the efficacy of anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF) therapy to induce remission in patients with Takayasu arteritis (TAK) refractory to other immunosuppressive therapies. Retrospective single-centre study of 25 patients with refractory TAK. Patients were treated with infliximab (IFX) or etanercept (ETA) for up to 7 years; 21 with IFX (median 28 months (range 2-84)) and 9 with ETA (median 28 months (range 4-82)); 5 patients initially treated with ETA subsequently switched to IFX. Following anti-TNF therapy, remission was achieved and prednisone was discontinued in 15 patients (60%) and successfully tapered below 10 mg/day in an additional 7 patients (28%). Of 18 patients treated with other immunosuppressive agents concurrent with anti-TNF therapy, 9 (50%) could taper or discontinue the additional agent. Major relapses occurred in four patients that initially achieved stable remission. Four patients suffered adverse events, including one with opportunistic infections and one with breast cancer. In this group of patients with refractory TAK, anti-TNF therapy was associated with remission in a majority of patients, facilitating dose reduction or discontinuation of prednisone and other immunosuppressive therapy. These findings strengthen the rationale for the conducting of a randomised controlled trial of anti-TNF therapy in TAK.

  10. HPV16 E6 Controls the Gap Junction Protein Cx43 in Cervical Tumour Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Sun

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16 causes a range of cancers including cervical and head and neck cancers. HPV E6 oncoprotein binds the cell polarity regulator hDlg (human homologue of Drosophila Discs Large. Previously we showed in vitro, and now in vivo, that hDlg also binds Connexin 43 (Cx43, a major component of gap junctions that mediate intercellular transfer of small molecules. In HPV16-positive non-tumour cervical epithelial cells (W12G Cx43 localised to the plasma membrane, while in W12T tumour cells derived from these, it relocated with hDlg into the cytoplasm. We now provide evidence that E6 regulates this cytoplasmic pool of Cx43. E6 siRNA depletion in W12T cells resulted in restoration of Cx43 and hDlg trafficking to the cell membrane. In C33a HPV-negative cervical tumour cells expressing HPV16 or 18 E6, Cx43 was located primarily in the cytoplasm, but mutation of the 18E6 C-terminal hDlg binding motif resulted in redistribution of Cx43 to the membrane. The data indicate for the first time that increased cytoplasmic E6 levels associated with malignant progression alter Cx43 trafficking and recycling to the membrane and the E6/hDlg interaction may be involved. This suggests a novel E6-associated mechanism for changes in Cx43 trafficking in cervical tumour cells.

  11. Control of leucocyte differentiation from embryonic stem cells upon vasculogenesis and confrontation with tumour tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannig, Madeleine; Figulla, Hans-Reiner; Sauer, Heinrich; Wartenberg, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells spontaneously differentiate capillary-like structures as well as leucocytes such as monocytes/macrophages, neutrophils, natural killer (NK) cells and cytototoxic T lymphocytes. The interplay between vasculogenesis and leucocyte differentiation as well as the population of tumour tissues with ES cell-derived leucocytes and endothelial cells is, however, not sufficiently specified. In the present study, gene expression of the cell surface markers CD68 and CD14 (expressed on monocytes and macrophages), Mac-1 (CD11b) (expressed on granulocytes, monocytes and NK cells) and CD16 (expressed on neutrophils) was investigated in murine CGR8 ES cells in relation to the endothelial cell markers CD31 and vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin. Expression of leucocyte markers increased from day 7-8 of cell culture on. Furthermore, addition of macrophage colony-stimulating factor to the cell culture medium resulted in a threefold increase in the number of CD68(+) monocytes/macrophages. Treatment of embryoid bodies with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) up-regulated CD14 thus suggesting functionality of the CD14 LPS receptor. Differentiation of vascular structures positive for CD31 and VE-cadherin preceded leucocyte differentiation by 2 days (i.e. from day 5-6 on) suggesting that vasculogenesis may be a determinant of leucocyte differentiation. Consequently the Flk-1 antagonist SU5416 which inhibits vasculogenesis of ES cells significantly blunted leucocyte differentiation. Confrontation culture of embryoid bodies with multicellular breast tumour spheroids initiated significant increase of leucocyte cell numbers and invasion of leucocytes into the tumour tissue. In summary our data demonstrate that during ES cell differentiation vasculogenesis precedes leucocyte differentiation, and point towards the direction that leucocyte cell invasion into tumour tissue may initiate the pro-inflammatory microenvironment necessary for tumour vascularization.

  12. Secondary meningioma in a long-term survivor of atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumour with a germline INI1 mutation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ammerlaan, A.C.; Houben, M.P.; Tijssen, C.C.; Wesseling, P.; Hulsebos, T.J.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We report on a patient who developed a meningioma more than two decades after removal at a young age of an atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumour (AT/RT), which was due to a germline INI1 mutation, and radio- and chemotherapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We present genetic evidence that the

  13. Long-term tolerability of PRRT in 807 patients with neuroendocrine tumours: the value and limitations of clinical factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodei, Lisa; Grana, Chiara M. [European Institute of Oncology, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Milan (Italy); Kidd, Mark; Drozdov, Ignat; Lepensky, Christopher; Modlin, Irvin M. [Yale School of Medicine, Department of Surgery, New Haven, CT (United States); Paganelli, Giovanni [Istituto Scientifico Romagnolo per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori (IRST) IRCCS, Nuclear Medicine and Radiometabolic Units, Meldola (Italy); Cremonesi, Marta [European Institute of Oncology, Division of Medical Physics, Milan (Italy); Kwekkeboom, Dik J.; Krenning, Eric P. [Erasmus Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Baum, Richard P. [Zentralklinik Bad Berka, Theranostics Center for Molecular Radiotheraphy and Molecular Imaging, Bad Berka (Germany)

    2015-01-15

    Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) with {sup 90}Y and {sup 177}Lu provides objective responses in neuroendocrine tumours, and is well tolerated with moderate toxicity. We aimed to identify clinical parameters predictive of long-term renal and haematological toxicity (myelodysplastic syndrome and acute leukaemia). Of 807 patients studied at IEO-Milan (1997-2013), 793 (98 %) received {sup 177}Lu (278, 34.4 %), {sup 90}Y (358, 44.4 %) or {sup 177}Lu and {sup 90}Y combined (157. 19.5 %), and 14 (2 %) received combinations of PRRT and other agents. Follow-up was 30 months (1-180 months). The parameters evaluated included renal risk factors, bone marrow toxicity and PRRT features. Data analysis included multiple regression, random forest feature selection, and recursive partitioning and regression trees. Treatment with {sup 90}Y and {sup 90}Y + {sup 177}Lu was more likely to result in nephrotoxicity than treatment with {sup 177}Lu alone (33.6 %, 25.5 % and 13.4 % of patients, respectively; p < 0.0001). Nephrotoxicity (any grade), transient and persistent, occurred in 279 patients (34.6 %) and was severe (grade 3 + 4) in 12 (1.5 %). In only 20-27 % of any nephrotoxicity was the disease modelled by risk factors and codependent associations (p < 0.0001). Hypertension and haemoglobin toxicity were the most relevant factors. Persistent toxicity occurred in 197 patients (24.3 %). In only 22-34 % of affected patients was the disease modelled by the clinical data (p < 0.0001). Hypertension (regression coefficient 0.14, p < 0.0001) and haemoglobin toxicity (regression coefficient 0.21, p < 0.0001) were pertinent factors. Persistent toxicity was associated with shorter PRRT duration from the first to the last cycle (mean 387 vs. 658 days, p < 0.004). Myelodysplastic syndrome occurred in 2.35 % of patients (modelled by the clinical data in 30 %, p < 0.0001). Platelet toxicity grade (2.05 ± 1.2 vs. 0.58 ± 0.8, p < 0.0001) and longer PRRT duration (22.6 ± 24 vs. 15.5

  14. Controlled clinical trial of adjuvant immunotherapy with BCG and neuraminidase-treated autologous tumour cells in large bowel cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, B N; Walker, C; Andrewartha, L; Freeman, S; Bennett, R C

    1989-01-01

    A controlled, randomised clinical trial of immunotherapy was performed in 301 patients with stage B or C colorectal cancer. The immunotherapy treatment consisted of 18 vaccinations over a 2 year period following surgery with a combination of BCG given by scarification plus subcutaneous injection of Vibrio cholera neuraminidase (VCN)-modified autologous tumour cells. Five year follow-up has now been completed in all patients. The immunotherapy did not alter either the disease-free interval or the overall survival of patients in comparison with a control group of patients not receiving immunotherapy.

  15. Case-control study of the association between malignant brain tumours diagnosed between 2007 and 2009 and mobile and cordless phone use

    Science.gov (United States)

    HARDELL, LENNART; CARLBERG, MICHAEL; SÖDERQVIST, FREDRIK; MILD, KJELL HANSSON

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have shown a consistent association between long-term use of mobile and cordless phones and glioma and acoustic neuroma, but not for meningioma. When used these phones emit radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs) and the brain is the main target organ for the hand-held phone. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified in May, 2011 RF-EMF as a group 2B, i.e. a ‘possible’ human carcinogen. The aim of this study was to further explore the relationship between especially long-term (>10 years) use of wireless phones and the development of malignant brain tumours. We conducted a new case-control study of brain tumour cases of both genders aged 18–75 years and diagnosed during 2007–2009. One population-based control matched on gender and age (within 5 years) was used to each case. Here, we report on malignant cases including all available controls. Exposures on e.g. use of mobile phones and cordless phones were assessed by a self-administered questionnaire. Unconditional logistic regression analysis was performed, adjusting for age, gender, year of diagnosis and socio-economic index using the whole control sample. Of the cases with a malignant brain tumour, 87% (n=593) participated, and 85% (n=1,368) of controls in the whole study answered the questionnaire. The odds ratio (OR) for mobile phone use of the analogue type was 1.8, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.04–3.3, increasing with >25 years of latency (time since first exposure) to an OR=3.3, 95% CI=1.6–6.9. Digital 2G mobile phone use rendered an OR=1.6, 95% CI=0.996–2.7, increasing with latency >15–20 years to an OR=2.1, 95% CI=1.2–3.6. The results for cordless phone use were OR=1.7, 95% CI=1.1–2.9, and, for latency of 15–20 years, the OR=2.1, 95% CI=1.2–3.8. Few participants had used a cordless phone for >20–25 years. Digital type of wireless phones (2G and 3G mobile phones, cordless phones) gave increased risk with latency >1–5 years, then a

  16. The epigenetic modifier EZH2 controls melanoma growth and metastasis through silencing of distinct tumour suppressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zingg, Daniel; Debbache, Julien; Schaefer, Simon M; Tuncer, Eylul; Frommel, Sandra C; Cheng, Phil; Arenas-Ramirez, Natalia; Haeusel, Jessica; Zhang, Yudong; Bonalli, Mario; McCabe, Michael T; Creasy, Caretha L; Levesque, Mitchell P; Boyman, Onur; Santoro, Raffaella; Shakhova, Olga; Dummer, Reinhard; Sommer, Lukas

    2015-01-22

    Increased activity of the epigenetic modifier EZH2 has been associated with different cancers. However, evidence for a functional role of EZH2 in tumorigenesis in vivo remains poor, in particular in metastasizing solid cancers. Here we reveal central roles of EZH2 in promoting growth and metastasis of cutaneous melanoma. In a melanoma mouse model, conditional Ezh2 ablation as much as treatment with the preclinical EZH2 inhibitor GSK503 stabilizes the disease through inhibition of growth and virtually abolishes metastases formation without affecting normal melanocyte biology. Comparably, in human melanoma cells, EZH2 inactivation impairs proliferation and invasiveness, accompanied by re-expression of tumour suppressors connected to increased patient survival. These EZH2 target genes suppress either melanoma growth or metastasis in vivo, revealing the dual function of EZH2 in promoting tumour progression. Thus, EZH2-mediated epigenetic repression is highly relevant especially during advanced melanoma progression, which makes EZH2 a promising target for novel melanoma therapies.

  17. CANCER Escape from senescence boosts tumour growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Medema, Jan Paul

    2018-01-01

    Some chemotherapies block cancer growth by driving tumour cells into a state of cell-division arrest termed senescence. It emerges that such cells have a boosted capacity to drive tumour growth if they exit senescence

  18. Spatiotemporally restricted arenavirus replication induces immune surveillance and type I interferon-dependent tumour regression

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Halime Kalkavan; Piyush Sharma; Stefan Kasper; Iris Helfrich; Aleksandra A Pandyra; Asmae Gassa; Isabel Virchow; Lukas Flatz; Tim Brandenburg; Sukumar Namineni; Mathias Heikenwalder; Bastian Höchst; Percy A Knolle; Guido Wollmann; Dorothee Von Laer; Ingo Drexler; Jessica Rathbun; Paula M Cannon; Stefanie Scheu; Jens Bauer; Jagat Chauhan; Dieter Häussinger; Gerald Willimsky; Max Löhning; Dirk Schadendorf; Sven Brandau; Martin Schuler; Philipp A Lang; Karl S Lang

    2017-01-01

    ...) preferentially replicate in tumour cells in a variety of murine and human cancer models. Viral replication leads to prolonged local immune activation, rapid regression of localized and metastatic cancers, and long-term disease control...

  19. Delivery of size-controlled long-circulating polymersomes in solid tumours, visualized by quantum dots and optical imaging in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakalova, Rumiana; Lazarova, Desislava; Nikolova, Biliana; Atanasova, Severina; Zlateva, Genoveva; Zhelev, Zhivko; Aoki, Ichio

    2015-01-02

    The present study was designed to investigate whether poly-ion complex hollow vesicles (polymersomes), based on chemically modified chitosan, are appropriate for passive tumour targeting in the context of their application as drug carriers. The experiments were performed on colon cancer-grafted mice. The mice were subjected to anaesthesia and injected intravenously with water-soluble nanoparticles: (1) QD(705)-labelled polymersomes (average size ∼120 nm; size distribution ∼10%) or (2) native QD(705). The optical imaging was carried out on Maestro EX 2.10 In Vivo Imaging System (excitation filter 435-480 nm; emission filter 700 nm, longpass). In the case of QD(705), the fluorescence appeared in the tumour area within 1 min after injection and disappeared completely within 60 min. A strong fluorescent signal was detected in the liver on the 30th minute. The visualization of tumour using QD(705) was based only on angiogenesis. In the case of QD(705)-labelled polymersomes, the fluorescence appeared in the tumour area immediately after injection with excellent visualization of blood vessels in the whole body. A strong fluorescent signal was detected in the tumour area within 16 hours. This indicated that QD(705)-labelled polymersomes were delivered predominantly into the tumour due to their long circulation in the bloodstream and enhanced permeability and retention effect. A very weak fluorescent signal was found in the liver area. The data suggest that size-controlled long-circulating polymersomes are very promising carriers for drug delivery in solid tumours, including delivery of small nanoparticles and contrast substances.

  20. Blood vessel hyperpermeability and pathophysiology in human tumour xenograft models of breast cancer: a comparison of ectopic and orthotopic tumours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Karyn S

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human tumour xenografts in immune compromised mice are widely used as cancer models because they are easy to reproduce and simple to use in a variety of pre-clinical assessments. Developments in nanomedicine have led to the use of tumour xenografts in testing nanoscale delivery devices, such as nanoparticles and polymer-drug conjugates, for targeting and efficacy via the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR effect. For these results to be meaningful, the hyperpermeable vasculature and reduced lymphatic drainage associated with tumour pathophysiology must be replicated in the model. In pre-clinical breast cancer xenograft models, cells are commonly introduced via injection either orthotopically (mammary fat pad, MFP or ectopically (subcutaneous, SC, and the organ environment experienced by the tumour cells has been shown to influence their behaviour. Methods To evaluate xenograft models of breast cancer in the context of EPR, both orthotopic MFP and ectopic SC injections of MDA-MB-231-H2N cells were given to NOD scid gamma (NSG mice. Animals with matched tumours in two size categories were tested by injection of a high molecular weight dextran as a model nanocarrier. Tumours were collected and sectioned to assess dextran accumulation compared to liver tissue as a positive control. To understand the cellular basis of these observations, tumour sections were also immunostained for endothelial cells, basement membranes, pericytes, and lymphatic vessels. Results SC tumours required longer development times to become size matched to MFP tumours, and also presented wide size variability and ulcerated skin lesions 6 weeks after cell injection. The 3 week MFP tumour model demonstrated greater dextran accumulation than the size matched 5 week SC tumour model (for P  Conclusions Dextran accumulation and immunostaining results suggest that small MFP tumours best replicate the vascular permeability required to observe the EPR effect

  1. Long-term outcomes of {sup 131}Iodine mIBG therapy in metastatic gastrointestinal pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours: single administration predicts non-responders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulholland, Nicola; Chakravartty, Riddhika; Devlin, Lindsey; Kalogianni, Eleni; Corcoran, Ben; Vivian, Gillian [King' s College Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, London (United Kingdom)

    2015-12-15

    {sup 131}Iodine (I131)-metaiodobenzylguanidine (mIBG) is a radionuclide-based treatment option for metastatic gastrointestinal-pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (GEP NET). This study aimed at identifying prognostic indicators of long-term outcome based on initial evaluation following a first mIBG treatment (7400 MBq) in a patient cohort with such tumours, with a secondary aim of evaluating progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) following mIBG therapy. Retrospective review of the hospital records was performed to identify a cohort of 38 adult patients who underwent {sup 131}Iodine-mIBG therapy over a 9-year period for metastatic GEP NETs and neuroendocrine tumours with an unknown primary. Treatment response was evaluated based on radiological criteria (RECIST1.1), biochemical markers [serum Chromogranin A (CgA)/urinary 5HIAA] and symptomatic response at clinical follow-up, all evaluated at 3-6 months from first mIBG treatment. Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) from the first mIBG treatment were recorded. At 3-6 months following a single mIBG therapy, 75 %, 67 %, and 63 % of patients showed either a partial response (PR) or stable disease (SD) on radiological, biochemical, and symptomatic criteria, respectively. Complete response (CR) was not seen in any patient. OS from the date of diagnosis and from the first therapy was 8 years +/-1.1 (95 % CI 5.7 to 10.2 years) and 4 years+/-0.69 (95 % CI 2.6-5.3 years), respectively. Twenty-nine percent of patients were alive at 10 years. Significant survival advantage was seen in patients with SD/PR as compared to those who had progressive disease (PD) for each of these three criteria. Biochemical, radiological (RECIST 1.1) and symptomatic assessment of disease status at 3 to 6 months after first I131-mIBG therapy stratifies patients with a poor prognosis. This can be used to identify patients who may benefit from alternative strategies of treatment. (orig.)

  2. Tumours of the fetal body: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avni, Fred E.; Massez, Anne; Cassart, Marie [University Clinics of Brussels - Erasme Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging, Brussels (Belgium)

    2009-11-15

    Tumours of the fetal body are rare, but lesions have been reported in all spaces, especially in the mediastinum, the pericardial space, the adrenals, the kidney, and the liver. Lymphangioma and teratoma are the commonest histological types encountered, followed by cardiac rhabdomyoma. Adrenal neuroblastoma is the commonest malignant tumour. Imaging plays an essential role in the detection and work-up of these tumours. In addition to assisting clinicians it also helps in counselling parents. Most tumours are detected by antenatal US, but fetal MRI is increasingly used as it brings significant additional information in terms of tumour extent, composition and complications. (orig.)

  3. Imaging biomarkers in primary brain tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopci, Egesta; Chiti, Arturo [Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Nuclear Medicine Department, Rozzano, MI (Italy); Franzese, Ciro; Navarria, Pierina; Scorsetti, Marta [Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Radiosurgery and Radiotherapy, Rozzano, MI (Italy); Grimaldi, Marco [Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Radiology, Rozzano, MI (Italy); Zucali, Paolo Andrea; Simonelli, Matteo [Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Medical Oncology, Rozzano, MI (Italy); Bello, Lorenzo [Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Neurosurgery, Rozzano, MI (Italy)

    2015-04-01

    We are getting used to referring to instrumentally detectable biological features in medical language as ''imaging biomarkers''. These two terms combined reflect the evolution of medical imaging during recent decades, and conceptually comprise the principle of noninvasive detection of internal processes that can become targets for supplementary therapeutic strategies. These targets in oncology include those biological pathways that are associated with several tumour features including independence from growth and growth-inhibitory signals, avoidance of apoptosis and immune system control, unlimited potential for replication, self-sufficiency in vascular supply and neoangiogenesis, acquired tissue invasiveness and metastatic diffusion. Concerning brain tumours, there have been major improvements in neurosurgical techniques and radiotherapy planning, and developments of novel target drugs, thus increasing the need for reproducible, noninvasive, quantitative imaging biomarkers. However, in this context, conventional radiological criteria may be inappropriate to determine the best therapeutic option and subsequently to assess response to therapy. Integration of molecular imaging for the evaluation of brain tumours has for this reason become necessary, and an important role in this setting is played by imaging biomarkers in PET and MRI. In the current review, we describe most relevant techniques and biomarkers used for imaging primary brain tumours in clinical practice, and discuss potential future developments from the experimental context. (orig.)

  4. No negative impact of radiotherapy on the incidence of second tumours and mortality in pituitary adenoma patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sattler, M.G.; van Beek, A.P.; van den Berg, Gerrit; Sluiter, W.J.; Langendijk, J.; Wolffenbuttel, B.H.; van den Bergh, A.C.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Postoperative radiotherapy (PORT) results in excellent local tumour control and improvement of excessive hormonal secretion in pituitary adenoma patients where (repeated) surgery was unsuccessful. Despite this benefit, concerns related to possible long term side effects are often quoted to

  5. Gastric Calcifying Fibrous Tumour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Attila

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Intramucosal gastric tumours are most commonly found to be gastrointestinal stromal tumours or leiomyomas (smooth muscle tumours; however, a variety of other uncommon mesenchymal tumours can occur in the stomach wall. A rare benign calcifying fibrous tumour is reported and the endoscopic appearance, ultrasound findings and morphology are documented. A review of the literature found only two similar cases.

  6. UK case control study of brain tumours in children, teenagers and young adults: a pilot study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Feltbower, Richard G; Fleming, Sarah J; Picton, Susan V; Alston, Robert D; Morgan, Diana; Achilles, Janice; McKinney, Patricia A; Birch, Jillian M

    2014-01-01

    ...) and represent a major diagnostic group in 15-24 year olds. The pilot case-control study aimed to establish methodologies for a future comprehensive aetiological investigation among children and young adults...

  7. Characterization of Translationally Controlled Tumour Protein from the Sea Anemone Anemonia viridis and Transcriptome Wide Identification of Cnidarian Homologues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Nicosia

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Gene family encoding translationally controlled tumour protein (TCTP is defined as highly conserved among organisms; however, there is limited knowledge of non-bilateria. In this study, the first TCTP homologue from anthozoan was characterised in the Mediterranean Sea anemone, Anemonia viridis. The release of the genome sequence of Acropora digitifera, Exaiptasia pallida, Nematostella vectensis and Hydra vulgaris enabled a comprehensive study of the molecular evolution of TCTP family among cnidarians. A comparison among TCTP members from Cnidaria and Bilateria showed conserved intron exon organization, evolutionary conserved TCTP signatures and 3D protein structure. The pattern of mRNA expression profile was also defined in A. viridis. These analyses revealed a constitutive mRNA expression especially in tissues with active proliferation. Additionally, the transcriptional profile of A. viridis TCTP (AvTCTP after challenges with different abiotic/biotic stresses showed induction by extreme temperatures, heavy metals exposure and immune stimulation. These results suggest the involvement of AvTCTP in the sea anemone defensome taking part in environmental stress and immune responses.

  8. The association between socioeconomic status and tumour stage at diagnosis of ovarian cancer: A pooled analysis of 18 case-control studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Præstegaard, Camilla; Kjaer, Susanne K; Nielsen, Thor S S; Jensen, Signe M; Webb, Penelope M; Nagle, Christina M; Høgdall, Estrid; Risch, Harvey A; Rossing, Mary Anne; Doherty, Jennifer A; Wicklund, Kristine G; Goodman, Marc T; Modugno, Francesmary; Moysich, Kirsten; Ness, Roberta B; Edwards, Robert P; Goode, Ellen L; Winham, Stacey J; Fridley, Brooke L; Cramer, Daniel W; Terry, Kathryn L; Schildkraut, Joellen M; Berchuck, Andrew; Bandera, Elisa V; Paddock, Lisa; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Massuger, Leon F; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Pharoah, Paul; Song, Honglin; Whittemore, Alice S; McGuire, Valerie; Sieh, Weiva; Rothstein, Joseph; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Ziogas, Argyrios; Menon, Usha; Gayther, Simon A; Ramus, Susan J; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Wu, Anna H; Pearce, Celeste L; Pike, Malcolm C; Lee, Alice W; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Jensen, Allan

    2016-04-01

    Socioeconomic status (SES) is a known predictor of survival for several cancers and it has been suggested that SES differences affecting tumour stage at diagnosis may be the most important explanatory factor for this. However, only a limited number of studies have investigated SES differences in tumour stage at diagnosis of ovarian cancer. In a pooled analysis, we investigated whether SES as represented by level of education is predictive for advanced tumour stage at diagnosis of ovarian cancer, overall and by histotype. The effect of cigarette smoking and body mass index (BMI) on the association was also evaluated. From 18 case-control studies, we obtained information on 10,601 women diagnosed with epithelial ovarian cancer. Study specific odds ratios (ORs) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were obtained from logistic regression models and combined into a pooled odds ratio (pOR) using a random effects model. Overall, women who completed ≤high school had an increased risk of advanced tumour stage at diagnosis compared with women who completed >high school (pOR 1.15; 95% CI 1.03-1.28). The risk estimates for the different histotypes of ovarian cancer resembled that observed for ovarian cancers combined but did not reach statistical significance. Our results were unchanged when we included BMI and cigarette smoking. Lower level of education was associated with an increased risk of advanced tumour stage at diagnosis of ovarian cancer. The observed socioeconomic difference in stage at diagnosis of ovarian cancer calls for further studies on how to reduce this diagnostic delay. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Two-dimensional imaging of tumour control probabilities and normal tissue complication probabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szlag, Marta; Slosarek, Krzysztof

    2010-01-01

    To create a presentation method of TCP and NTCP distributions calculated based on dose distribution for a selected CT slice. Three 24-bit colour maps - of dose distribution, delineated structures and CT information - were converted into m-by-n-by-3 data arrays, containing intensities of red, green, and blue colour components for each pixel. All calculations were performed with Matlab v.6.5. The transformation function, which consists of five linear functions, was prepared to translate the colour map into a one-dimensional data array of dose values. A menu-driven application based on the transformation function and mathematical models of complication risk (NTCP) and treatment control probability (TCP) was designed to allow pixel-by-pixel translation of colour maps into one-dimensional arrays of TCP and NTCP values. The result of this work is an application created to visualize the TCP and NTCP distribution for a single CT scan based on the spatial dose distribution calculated in the treatment planning system. The application allows 10 targets (PTV) and 10 organs at risks (OaR) to be defined. The interface allows alpha/beta values to be inserted for each delineated structure. The application computes TCP and NTCP matrices, which are presented as colour maps superimposed on the corresponding CT slice. There is a set of parameters used for TCP/NTCP calculations which can be defined by the user. Our application is a prototype of an evaluation tool. Although limited to a single plane of the treatment plan, it is believed to be a starting point for further development.

  10. Neurofeedback ineffective in paediatric brain tumour survivors: Results of a double-blind randomised placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ruiter, Marieke Anna; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Schouten-van Meeteren, Antoinette Yvonne Narda; Maurice-Stam, Heleen; van Vuurden, Dannis Gilbert; Gidding, Corrie; Beek, Laura Rachel; Granzen, Bernd; Caron, Huib N; Grootenhuis, Martha Alexandra

    2016-09-01

    Many paediatric brain tumour survivors (PBTS) suffer from neurocognitive impairments. Promising effects of neurofeedback (NF) on neurocognitive functioning have been reported, however research into NF for PBTS has not been conducted. We investigated the effects of NF on neurocognitive functioning in PBTS using a double-blind randomised placebo-controlled trial with a parallel-group design (Pediatric Research on Improving Speed, Memory, and Attention; the PRISMA study). Eligible for inclusion were PBTS with neurocognitive complaints, aged 8-18 years, >2 years post-treatment. They were recruited from five medical centres in the Netherlands. A randomisation table assigned participants to 30 sessions (two per week) of either NF or placebo feedback (PF) (ratio 1:1). Participants, parents, trainers, and researchers handling the data were blinded to group assignment. Participants were assessed pre-, post- and 6 months post-training to determine whether NF training would lead to improved functioning as compared with PF training. Primary outcome measures were attention, processing speed, memory, executive functioning, visuomotor integration, and intelligence. Linear mixed models analyses were used to test differences between NF and PF training over time. A total of 82 children were enrolled (mean age 13.9 years, standard deviation = 3.2, 49% males); 80 participants were randomised (NF: n = 40, PF n = 40); 71 participants completed the training (NF: n = 34, PF: n = 37); 68 participants completed training and 6 months post-training assessment (NF: n = 33, PF: n = 35). Similar improvements were found over time for the two treatment groups on the primary outcomes (all p's > 0.15). Results indicated no specific treatment-effects of NF on neurocognitive functioning of PBTS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of the tumour necrosis factor-alpha inhibitors pentoxifylline and thalidomide in short-term experimental oral mucositis in hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, V; Brito, G A C; Cunha, F Q; Rebouças, C G; Falcão, B A A; Augusto, R F; Souza, M L P; Leitão, B T; Ribeiro, R A

    2005-06-01

    Oral mucositis is a frequent side-effect of cancer therapy. A definitive method of prophylaxis or treatment is not yet available. As pentoxifylline (PTX) and thalidomide (TLD) have been shown to inhibit cytokine synthesis, we studied the effects of these cytokine inhibitors in an experimental oral mucositis model. Oral mucositis was induced in Golden hamsters by the administration of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) followed by mechanical trauma of the cheek pouch. On days 4, 5, 10, 12, 14 and 16, lesions induced by 5-FU were examined macroscopically and microscopically, and the presence and intensity of hyperemia, erythema, edema, inflammatory cell infiltration, hemorrhagic areas, ulcers and abscesses were recorded. Saline (control), PTX (5, 15, 45 mg kg(-1)) or TLD (10, 30, 90 mg kg(-1)) were administered daily and animals were killed on day 10 for macroscopic and histological analysis and assay of myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. Animals were weighed daily, and total and differential leukocyte counts were performed on peripheral blood. PTX and TLD were found to reduce the macroscopic and histological parameters of oral mucositis and MPO activity. PTX and TLD also reversed peripheral neutrophilia, but only PTX prevented weight loss. The results indicate a protective effect of PTX and TLD, suggesting an important role for tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) in the pathophysiology of 5-FU induced-oral mucositis in hamsters. (c) Eur J Oral Sci, 2005

  12. Wormwood (Artemisia absinthium) suppresses tumour necrosis factor alpha and accelerates healing in patients with Crohn's disease - A controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, Simone; Omer, Talib N; Omer, Bilal

    2010-04-01

    Suppression of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and other interleukins by wormwood (Artemisia absinthium) extracts were reported recently in in vitro studies. The aim of the present study was to find out if this effect can be also be observed in Crohn's Disease (CD) patients where TNF-alpha appears to play an important role. In a controlled trial, 10 randomly selected patients suffering from CD were given in addition to their basic CD therapy 3x750mg dried powdered wormwood for 6 weeks. Ten patients, also randomly selected who met the inclusion criteria served as control group. Minimum score of 200 on Crohn's Disease Activity Index (CDAI) was required at baseline for inclusion in each group. Patients who received infliximab or similar were excluded from the trial. TNF-alpha level in serum were measured at baseline, and after three and six weeks. During this period all concomitant CD medications was maintained at the baseline dose levels. Average serum TNF-alpha level fell from 24.5+/-3.5pg/ml at baseline to 8.0+/-2.5pg/ml after six weeks. The corresponding levels in the control group were 25.7+/-4.6 (week 0), and 21.1+/-3.2 (week 6). On the clinical side, CDAI scores fell from 275+/-15 to below 175+/-12 in wormwood group with remission of symptoms in eight patients (CDAI score below 170 or reduction by 70 points), compared to only two in the placebo group (CDAI of placebo group 282+/-11 at baseline and 230+/-14 on week 6). IBDQ also reflected accelerated clinical response with wormwood. Of clinical significance were the findings that wormwood also improved mood of the CD patients, as reflected in Hamilton's Depression Scale. These findings provide a base to test wormwood in clinical conditions thought to be mediated by increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-alpha. Copyright 2009. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  13. Role of Cerebellum in Fine Speech Control in Childhood: Persistent Dysarthria after Surgical Treatment for Posterior Fossa Tumour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, A. T.; Liegeois, F.; Liederkerke, C.; Vogel, A. P.; Hayward, R.; Harkness, W.; Chong, K.; Vargha-Khadem, F.

    2011-01-01

    Dysarthria following surgical resection of childhood posterior fossa tumour (PFT) is most commonly documented in a select group of participants with mutism in the acute recovery phase, thus limiting knowledge of post-operative prognosis for this population of children as a whole. Here we report on the speech characteristics of 13 cases seen…

  14. Wilms tumour: prognostic factors, staging, therapy and late effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaste, Sue C. [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Department of Radiological Sciences, Memphis, TN (United States); Dome, Jeffrey S. [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Department of Oncology, Memphis, TN (United States); Babyn, Paul S. [Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Radiology, Toronto (Canada); Graf, Norbert M. [University Hospital of the Saarland, Clinic for Pediatric Oncology and Hematology, Homburg (Germany); Grundy, Paul [University of Alberta, Division of Pediatric Hematology, Oncology and Palliative Care, and Northern Alberta Children' s Cancer Program, Edmonton (Canada); Godzinski, Jan [Mother and Child Institute, Department of Oncological Surgery for Children and Adolescents, Warsaw (Poland); Levitt, Gill A. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Sick Children NHS Trust, Paediatric Oncology, London (United Kingdom); Jenkinson, Helen [Birmingham Children' s Hospital NHS Trust, Oncology Department, Birmingham (United Kingdom)

    2008-01-15

    Wilms tumour is the most common malignant renal tumour in children. Dramatic improvements in survival have occurred as the result of advances in anaesthetic and surgical management, irradiation and chemotherapy. Current therapies are based on trials and studies primarily conducted by large multi-institutional cooperatives including the Societe Internationale d'Oncologie Pediatrique (SIOP) and the Children's Oncology Group (COG). The primary goals are to treat patients according to well-defined risk groups in order to achieve the highest cure rates, to decrease the frequency and intensity of acute and late toxicity and to minimize the cost of therapy. The SIOP trials and studies largely focus on the issue of preoperative therapy, whereas the COG trials and studies start with primary surgery. This paper reviews prognostic factors and staging systems for Wilms tumour and its current treatment with surgery and chemotherapy. Surgery remains a crucial part of treatment for nephroblastoma, providing local primary tumour control and adequate staging and possibly controlling the metastatic spread and central vascular extension of the disease. Partial nephrectomy, when technically feasible, seems reasonable not only in those with bilateral disease but also in those with unilateral disease where the patient has urological disorders or syndromes predisposing to malignancy. Partial nephrectomy, however, is frequently not sufficient for an anaplastic variant of tumour. The late effects for Wilms tumour and its treatment are also reviewed. The treatment of Wilms tumour has been a success story, and currently in excess of 80% of children diagnosed with Wilms tumour can look forward to long-term survival, with less than 20% experiencing serious morbidity at 20 years from diagnosis. The late complications are a consequence of the type and intensity of treatment required, which in turn reflects the nature and extent of the original tumour. Continual international trial

  15. Tumours and tumourous diseases; Tumoren, tumoraehnliche Erkrankungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkelmann, W. (ed.)

    2005-07-01

    This book on tumours and tumourous diseases comprises two parts: 1. Bone tumours and tumourous lesions. 2. Soft tissue tumours and tumourous lesions. Details are presented on pathology, diagnosis, conservative and perioperative therapy, surgical therapy, complications after resection, indicators for amputation, recommendations for follow-up treatment, radiotherapy, radionuclide therapy, alternative therapies, therapy concepts in case of metastases, tissue engineering and plastic surgery. (uke) [German] Der vorliegende Band der Reihe Orthopaedie und orthopaedische Chirurgie behandelt das Thema Tumoren und tumoraehnliche Erkrankungen. Der Band teilt sich in zwei Kapitel: 1. Knochentumoren und tumorartige Laesionen und 2. Weichteiltumoren und tumorartige Laesionen. Dargestellt werden Pathologie, Diagnostik, konservative und perioperative Therapie, chirurgische Therapie, Komplikationen nach Resektion, Indikatoren zur Amputation, Nachsorgeempfehlung, Strahlentherapie, Radionuklidtherapie, alternative Therapieverfahren, Therapiekonzepte bei Metastasen, Tissue Engineering und plastisch-chirurgische Massnahmen. (uke)

  16. tumours and cancers in graeco-roman times 1. introduction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    benign (in modern terms), whilst oidêmata were soft, painless tumours and even includ- .... Oidêma.6 A soft, usually non-tender tumour, sometimes pitting on ..... Tumours and cancers in Graeco-Roman times. 1923. Prognostic. Regimen in acute diseases. The sacred disease. The art. Breaths. Law. Decorum. Physician.

  17. Central precocious puberty following the diagnosis and treatment of paediatric cancer and central nervous system tumours: presentation and long-term outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemaitilly, Wassim; Merchant, Thomas E; Li, Zhenghong; Barnes, Nicole; Armstrong, Gregory T; Ness, Kirsten K; Pui, Ching-Hon; Kun, Larry E; Robison, Leslie L; Hudson, Melissa M; Sklar, Charles A; Gajjar, Amar

    2016-03-01

    To estimate the prevalence of central precocious puberty (CPP) after treatment for tumours and malignancies involving the central nervous system (CNS) and examine repercussions on growth and pubertal outcomes. Retrospective study of patients with tumours near and/or exposed to radiotherapy to the hypothalamus/pituitary axis (HPA). Patients with CPP were evaluated at puberty onset, completion of GnRH agonist treatment (GnRHa) and last follow-up. Multivariable analysis was used to test associations between tumour location, sex, age at CPP, GnRHa duration and a diagnosis of CPP with final height obesity, respectively. Eighty patients (47 females) had CPP and were followed for 11·4 ± 5·0 years (mean ± SD). The prevalence of CPP was 15·2% overall, 29·2% following HPA tumours and 6·6% after radiotherapy for non-HPA tumours. Height puberty onset (21·4% vs 2·4%, P = 0·005). Obesity was more prevalent at the last follow-up than at the completion of GnRHa or the puberty onset (37·7%, 22·6% and 20·8%, respectively, P = 0·03). Longer duration of GnRHa was associated with increased odds of final height obesity (OR = 1·3, 95% CI 1·1-1·6). LH/FSHD was diagnosed in 32·6%. There was no independent association between CPP and final height obesity in the subset of patients with HPA low-grade gliomas. Patients with organic CPP experience an incomplete recovery of growth and a high prevalence of LH/FSHD and obesity. Early diagnosis and treatment of CPP may limit further deterioration of final height prospects. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Controversies in Odontogenic Tumours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siwach, Pooja; Joy, Tabita; Tupkari, Jagdish; Thakur, Arush

    2017-01-01

    Odontogenic tumours are lesions that occur solely within the oral cavity and are so named because of their origin from the odontogenic (i.e. tooth-forming) apparatus. Odontogenic tumours comprise a variety of lesions ranging from non-neoplastic tissue proliferations to benign or malignant neoplasms. However, controversies exist regarding the pathogenesis, categorisation and clinical and histological variations of these tumours. The recent 2017 World Health Organization classification of odontogenic tumours included new entities such as primordial odontogenic tumours, sclerosing odontogenic carcinomas and odontogenic carcinosarcomas, while eliminating several previously included entities like keratocystic odontogenic tumours and calcifying cystic odonogenic tumours. The aim of the present review article was to discuss controversies and recent concepts regarding odontogenic tumours so as to increase understanding of these lesions. PMID:29062548

  19. Multiscale biomechanics of brain tumours favours cancer invasion by cell softening and tissue stiffening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kas, Josef; Fritsch, Anatol; Grosser, Steffen; Friebe, Sabrina; Reiss-Zimmermann, Martin; Müller, Wolf; Hoffmann, Karl-Titus; Sack, Ingolf

    Cancer progression needs two contradictory mechanical prerequisites. For metastasis individual cancer cells or small clusters have to flow through the microenvironment by overcoming the yield stress exerted by the surrounding. On the other hand a tumour has to behave as a solid to permit cell proliferation and spreading of the tumour mass against its surrounding. We determine that the high mechanical adaptability of cancer cells and the scale controlled viscoelastic properties of tissues reconcile both conflicting properties, fluid and solid, simultaneously in brain tumours. We resolve why different techniques that assess cell and tissue mechanics have produced apparently conflicting results by our finding that tumours generate different viscoelastic behaviours on different length scales, which are in concert optimal for tumour spreading and metastasis. Single cancer cells become very soft in their elastic behavior which promotes cell unjamming. On the level of direct cell-to-cell interactions cells feel their micro-environment as rigid elastic substrate that stimulates cancer on the molecular level. All over a tumour has predominately a stiff elastic character in terms of viscoelastic behaviour caused by a solid backbone. Simultaneously, the tumour mass is characterized by a large local variability in the storage and loss modulus that is caused by areas of a more fluid nature.

  20. Whole brain irradiation with hippocampal sparing and dose escalation on multiple brain metastases. Local tumour control and survival

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oehlke, Oliver; Wucherpfennig, David; Prokic, Vesna [University Medical Center Freiburg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Freiburg (Germany); Fels, Franziska [University Medical Center Freiburg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Freiburg (Germany); St. Josefs Hospital, Department of Radiation Oncology, Offenburg (Germany); Frings, Lars [University Medical Center Freiburg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Freiburg (Germany); University Hospital Freiburg, Department of Geriatrics and Gerontology, Freiburg (Germany); University Medical Center Freiburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Freiburg (Germany); Egger, Karl [University Medical Center Freiburg, Department of Neuroradiology, Freiburg (Germany); Weyerbrock, Astrid [University Medical Center Freiburg, Department of Neurosurgery, Freiburg (Germany); Nieder, Carsten [Nordland Hospital, Department of Oncology and Palliative Medicine, Bodoe (Norway); University of Tromsoe, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Tromsoe (Norway); Grosu, Anca-Ligia [University Medical Center Freiburg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Freiburg (Germany); German Cancer Consortium (DKTK), Freiburg (Germany); German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg (Germany)

    2015-01-16

    Hippocampal-avoidance whole brain radiotherapy (HA-WBRT) for multiple brain metastases may prevent treatment-related cognitive decline, compared to standard WBRT. Additionally, simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) on individual metastases may further improve the outcome. Here, we present initial data concerning local tumour control (LTC), intracranial progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), toxicity and safety for this new irradiation technique. Twenty patients, enrolled between 2011 and 2013, were treated with HA-WBRT (30 Gy in 12 fractions, D{sub 98} {sub %} to hippocampus ≤ 9 Gy) and a SIB (51 Gy) on multiple (2-13) metastases using a volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) approach based on 2-4 arcs. Metastases were evaluated bidimensionally along the two largest diameters in contrast-enhanced three-dimensional T1-weighed MRI. Median follow-up was 40 weeks. The median time to progression of boosted metastases has not been reached yet, corresponding to a LTC rate of 73 %. Median intracranial PFS was 40 weeks, corresponding to a 1-year PFS of 45.3 %. Median OS was 71.5 weeks, corresponding to a 1-year OS of 60 %. No obvious acute or late toxicities grade > 2 (NCI CTCAE v4.03) were observed. D{sub mean} to the bilateral hippocampi was 6.585 Gy ± 0.847 (α/β = 2 Gy). Two patients developed a new metastasis in the area of hippocampal avoidance. HA-WBRT (simultaneous integrated protection, SIP) with SIB to metastases is a safe and tolerable regime that shows favorable LTC for patients with multiple brain metastases, while it has the potential to minimize the side-effect of cognitive deterioration. (orig.) [German] Die Hippocampus-schonende Ganzhirnbestrahlung (HS-GHB) kann im Vergleich zur Standard-GHB die Verschlechterung der neurokognitiven Funktion verhindern. Zusaetzlich vermag ein simultan integrierter Boost (SIB) auf die Metastasen die Prognose der betroffenen Patienten weiter zu verbessern. In dieser Studie praesentieren wir erste Ergebnisse

  1. A multinational case-control study on childhood brain tumours, anthropogenic factors, birth characteristics and prenatal exposures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vienneau, Danielle; Infanger, Denis; Feychting, Maria

    2016-01-01

    complemented with data from birth registries and validated by assessing agreement (Cohen's Kappa). We used conditional logistic regression models matched on age, sex and geographical region (adjusted for maternal age and parental education) to explore associations between birth factors and childhood brain...... during pregnancy was indicative of a protective effect (OR 0.75, 95%-CI: 0.56-1.01). No association was seen for maternal smoking during pregnancy or working during pregnancy. We found little evidence that the considered birth factors were related to brain tumour risk among children and adolescents....

  2. Deafferentation affects short-term but not long-term control of food intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Wall, EHEM; Pomp, ER; Strubbe, JH; Scheurink, AJW; Koolhaas, JM

    2005-01-01

    Deafferentation affects short-term but not long-term control of food intake (PHYSIOL BEHAV XX(X) 000-000, 2005). Rats were treated neonatally with capsaicin (CAP) to investigate the involvement of vagal afferents in food intake control and body weight regulation. In the first set of experiments,

  3. Occurrence studies of intracranial tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larjavaara, S.

    2011-07-01

    approximately two-thirds (64%; 95% CI, 50 - 78). The underreporting was more pronounced among the elderly and in those with no histological confirmation of the meningioma diagnosis. An increasing trend of VS incidence was observed, but with considerable differences between countries. The overall annual increase of VS incidence was 2.8% per year (95% CI, 2.3 - 3.2) in 1987 - 2007, when all the four countries and both sexes were combined. However, no statistically significant increase was seen in the rates of VS incidence in Finnish men or Swedish women, and the incidence even showed some decrease in Finnish women (-0.4%, 95% CI, -1.8 to +1.1) during the study period. The overall increase in rates stabilized in the late 1990s, with relatively constant incidence rates and even some decline after 2000. Gliomas were distributed unevenly in the brain, with substantial variation between the cerebral lobes showing an excess of gliomas in the frontal and temporal lobes (over four-fold relative to occipital lobe, even after accounting for tissue volume). In the detailed spatial 3D-analysis, statistically significant heterogeneity was found with most gliomas in the anterior subcortical part of the brain. There was no excess of gliomas in the parts of the brain nearest to the typical location where mobile phones are held. Gliomas among never-regular mobile phone users and contralateral users (phone held on the opposite side of the head than the side of tumour) were closer to the source of electromagnetic field (EMF) than among regular and ipsilateral (exposure at the same side as the tumour location) users. In the case-specular analysis, the distance from the glioma cases to the mobile phone was shorter than for the speculars (hypothetical controls assigned for each glioma case). However, no such association was found in analyses by amount of phone use. In both models, glioma cases were closer to the source of exposure in long-term users (over ten years of use), but the differences

  4. Omission of doxorubicin from the treatment of stage II-III, intermediate-risk Wilms' tumour (SIOP WT 2001): an open-label, non-inferiority, randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pritchard-Jones, Kathy; Bergeron, Christophe; de Camargo, Beatriz; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry M.; Acha, Tomas; Godzinski, Jan; Oldenburger, Foppe; Boccon-Gibod, Liliane; Leuschner, Ivo; Vujanic, Gordan; Sandstedt, Bengt; de Kraker, Jan; van Tinteren, Harm; Graf, Norbert; Zubizarreta, Pedro; Suppiah, Ram; Irving, Helen; Kager, Leo; Moser, Reinhard; Henkel, Martin; Jauk, Barbara; Urban, Christian; Meister, Bernhard; Ebetsberger, Georg; Jones, Neil; Ausserer, Bernd; Hoyoux, Claire; Renard, Marleen; Brichard, B.; Devalck, Christine; Francotte, Nadine; Michiels, N. N.; van de Cruys, Els; Cypriano, Monica; Ferman, Sima; Crocetti, Rosemary; da Costa, Cecilia M. L.; Mendonça, Nubia; Boldrini, Erica; Guimaraes, Eny; Morais, Vera; Teixeira, Roberto Augusto Plaza; Brunetto, Algemir Lunardi; Gregianin, Lauro José; de Olveira, Claudia Teresa; Arancibia, Alejandro Mauricio; Guimarães, Eny; Werneck, Fernando de Almeida; Watanabe, Flora Mitie; Pianosvski, Mara Albonei Dudeque; Souza, Marcelo dos Santos; Silva, Marcelo Milone; Cusatto, Maria Pizza; Lankszner, Monica Godinho; Dorea, Maria Dolores Fonseca; Melaragno, Renato; de Souza, Reynaldo José Sant'Anna Pereira; Aguiar, Simone dos Santos; Araujo, Suely Santos; Costa, Tatiana El-Jaick Bonifácio; Pereia, Waldir Veiga; Cóser, Virgínia Maria; Culic, Srdjana; Sterba, Jaroslav; Malis, Josef; Rechnitzer, C.; Schomerus, E.; Helgestad, J.; Schsøder, H.; Coze, Docteur Carole; Deville, Anne; Soler, Christine; Chastagner, Pascal; Vannier, Jean Pierre; Rubie, Hervé; Patte, Catherine; Defachelles, Anne-Sophie; Lemoine, Philippe; Devoldere, N. N.; Gandemer, Virginie; Taque, Sophie; Grosjean, Gorde; Michon, Jean; Leverger, Guy; Plantaz, Dominique; Plouvier, Emmanuel; Lutz, Patrick; Millot, Frédéric; Thebaud, Estelle; Oudot, Caroline; Piguet, Christophe; Margueritte, Geneviève; Boutard, Patrick; Pellier, Isabelle; Lejars, Odile; Perel, Yves; Notz-Carrere, Anne; Couillault, Gérard; Berger, Claire; Kanold, Justyna; Mertens, Rolf; Gnekow, Astrid; Glöckel, Ulrich; Rupprecht, Thomas; Henze, G.; Schweigerer, Lothar; Otte, Johannes; Dillo, Dagmar; Eberl, Wolfgang; Pekrun, Arnulf; Hofmann, Andre; Dahlem, Peter; Erler, Th; Andler, Werner; Brune, Thomas; Schneider, Dominik; Suttorp, Meinolf; Borkhardt, Arndt; Feldkamp, Axel; Sauerbrey, Axel; Holter, W.; Eggert, Angelika; Klingebiel, T.; Niemeyer, Charlotte; Reiter, Alfred; Lakomek, Max; Lode, Holger; Körholz, Dieter; Schneppenheim, N. N.; Klein, C.; Kulozik, A.; Full, Hermann; Längler, Alfred; Gruhn, Bern; Leipold, A.; Tegtmeyer, Friedrich-Karl; Schrappe, Martin; Ferrari, Rudolf; Berthold, Frank; Prokop, Aram; Niehues, Tim; Christiansen, Holger; Hiort, Olaf; Vorwerk, Peter; Gutjahr, Peter; Dürken, Matthias; Schütz, Barbara; Erdlenbruch, Bernhard; Kölfen, Wolfgang; Schmid, Irene; Burdach, N. N.; Jürgens, H.; Scheurlen, Wolfram; Müller, Hermann; Rodeck, Burkhard; Corbacioglu, Selim; Classen, Carl Friedrich; Burghardt, Rainer; Reinhard, Harald; Clemens, Peter; Bielack, Stefan; Rauh, Wolfgang; Scheel-Walter, N. N.; Debatin, M.; Langelittig, G.; Schlegel, Gerhardt; Sinha, Kumar A.; Kosmidis, Helen; Polychronopoulou, Sophia; O'Meara, Anne; Pears, Jane; Carli, M.; Bisogno, G.; Donfrancesco, Alberto; Jenkner, Alessandro; Castello, Manuel A.; Corbett, Robin; Wojcik, Dorota; Stokland, Tore; Moe, Erling; Glomstein, Anders; Widing, Eva; Panasiuk, Anna; Peszyńska-Białczyk, Katarzyna; Karpińska-Derda, Irena; Stefanowicz, Joanna; Walczak, Ewa; Korolczyk, Grażyna; Wieczorek, Aleksandra; Zubowska, Małgorzata; Nurzyńska-Flak, Joanna; Marciniak-Stępak, Patrycja; Peregud-Pogorzelski, Jarosław; Romiszewski, Michał; Pietras, Wojciech; Godziński, Jan; Bąkowska, Agnieszka; Rurańska, Iwona; Farinha, Nuno; Redzic, Danka; Djokic, Dragomir; Terezia, Stancokova; Branko, Takac; Oravkinová, Irina; Deak, L.; Husakova, K.; Dolnicar, Majda Benedik; Llort, A.; López-Ibor, B.; Rubio, P.; García-Ariza, M.; Hernandez, C.; Galarón, P.; Couselo, J.; Almazan, F.; Adán, R.; Acha, T.; Llinares, E.; Fernández-Teijeiro, A.; Molina, J.; Ramirez, G.; Esquembre, C.; Balaguer, J.; Velasco, R.; Lillo, M.; Melo, M.; Peña, Ma J.; Guibelalde, M.; Calvo, C.; Pelaez, I.; Ortega, M. J.; López Almaraz, R.; Antuña, Ma J.; Pintor, I.; Vazquez Lopez, M.; Pal, Niklas; Ljungman, Gustaf; Bergkvist, Margareta; Øra, Ingrid; Behrendtz, Mikael; Hjalmars, Ulf; Greiner, Jeanette; Niggli, Felix; Angst, Regula; Rischewski, Johannes; Kuehne, Thomas; Buetti, Luisa Nobile; Brazzola, Pierluigi; Beck-Popovic, Maja; Ozsahin, Hulya; Ansari, Marc; Tytgat, L.; Kaspers, Gj; Mavinkurve-Groothuis, A.; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, M. M.; Peek, A.; Donska, S.; King, Derek; Kingston, Judith; Stoneham, Sara; Levitt, Gill; Chowdhury, Tanzina; McCarthy, Anthony; Kearns, Pam; Rees, Helen; Nicholson, James; Jenney, Meriel; Wallace, Hamish; Ronghe, Milind; Picton, Sue; Heney, David; Howell, Lisa; Brennan, Bernadette; Hale, Juliet; Walker, David; Mitchell, Chris; Vaidya, Sucheta; Gerrard, Mary; Yeomanson, Daniel; Kohler, Jan; Nicolin, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Before this study started, the standard postoperative chemotherapy regimen for stage II-III Wilms' tumour pretreated with chemotherapy was to include doxorubicin. However, avoidance of doxorubicin-related cardiotoxicity effects is important to improve long-term outcomes for childhood cancers that

  5. Term Based Comparison Metrics for Controlled and Uncontrolled Indexing Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, B. M.; Tennis, J. T.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: We define a collection of metrics for describing and comparing sets of terms in controlled and uncontrolled indexing languages and then show how these metrics can be used to characterize a set of languages spanning folksonomies, ontologies and thesauri. Method: Metrics for term set characterization and comparison were identified and…

  6. Imaging of sacral tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, S.; Ollivier, L.; Brisse, H.; Neuenschwander, S. [Institut Curie, Department of Radiology, Paris (France); Leclere, J. [Institut Gustave Roussy, Department of Radiology, Villejuif (France); Vanel, D. [The Rizzoli Institute, Department of Radiology, Bologna (Italy); Missenard, G. [Institut Gustave Roussy, Comite de pathologie tumorale de l' appareil locomoteur, Villejuif (France); Pinieux, G. de [CHRU de Tours, Department of Pathology, Hopital Trousseau, Tours (France)

    2008-04-15

    All components of the sacrum (bone, cartilage, bone marrow, meninges, nerves, notochord remnants, etc.) can give rise to benign or malignant tumours. Bone metastases and intraosseous sites of haematological malignancies, lymphoma and multiple myeloma are the most frequent aetiologies, while primary bone tumours and meningeal or nerve tumours are less common. Some histological types have a predilection for the sacrum, especially chordoma and giant cell tumour. Clinical signs are usually minor, and sacral tumours are often discovered in the context of nerve root or pelvic organ compression. The roles of conventional radiology, CT and MRI are described and compared with the histological features of the main tumours. The impact of imaging on treatment decisions and follow-up is also reviewed. (orig.)

  7. Parapharyngeal space primary tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilli, Gianluigi; Suarez, Vanessa; Muñoz, María Gabriela; Costales, María; Llorente, José Luis

    The aim of this study is to present our experience with the diagnostic and therapeutic approaches for parapharyngeal space tumours. This study is a retrospective review of 90 patients diagnosed with tumours of the parapharyngeal space and treated surgically between 1984 and 2015. Patients whose tumours were not primary but invaded the parapharyngeal space expanding from another region, tumours originating in the deep lobe of the parotid gland and head and neck metastasis were excluded from this study. 74% percent of the parapharyngeal space neoplasms were benign and 26% were malignant. Pleomorphic adenoma was the most common neoplasm (27%), followed by paragangliomas (25%), miscellaneous malignant tumours (16%), neurogenic tumours (12%), miscellaneous benign tumours (10%), and malignant salivary gland tumours (10%). The transcervical approach was used in 56 cases, cervical-transparotid approach in 15 cases, type A infratemporal fossa approach in 13 cases, transmandibular approach in 4 cases and transoral approach in 2 cases. The most common complications were those deriving from nervous injuries. Most parapharyngeal space tumours can be removed surgically with a low rate of complications and recurrence. The transcervical approach is the most frequently used. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Cirugía de Cabeza y Cuello. All rights reserved.

  8. Correlation of Ultrasound Shear Wave Elastography with Pathological Analysis in a Xenografic Tumour Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elyas, Eli; Papaevangelou, Efthymia; Alles, Erwin J

    2017-01-01

    as control. Ten tumours were imaged 48 hours post-treatment and five tumours were imaged for up to five times after treatment. All tumours were harvested for histological analysis and comparison with elasticity measurements. Elastic (Young's) modulus prior to treatment was correlated with tumour volume (r...

  9. Warthin's tumour and smoking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ru, JA; Majoor, MHJM; van Benthem, PPG; Slootweg, PJ; Peeters, PHM; Hordijk, GJ

    2005-01-01

    Warthin's tumour and smoking. Objective: In an evaluation of our patients with parotid gland neoplasms, we noticed that patients with a Warthin's tumour were heavy smokers. The aim of this study was to confirm earlier findings in the literature concerning a possible association between smoking and

  10. of brain tumours

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Also, tumours in the frontal and temporal lobes are more likely to cause psychiatric symptoms than those in parietal or occipital lobes. Left-sided, frontal tumours also seem to be associated with higher rates of depression, while those in the frontal lobe of the right hemisphere may be associated with features that may be.

  11. Wilms' tumour (nephroblastoma)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cancer cells throughout the body and affects fast-dividing cells. With radiation therapy high-energy X-rays reach cancer cells in a specific area of the body. In. Wilms' tumour, radiation is directed at the site of the tumour in the abdomen, and sometimes also at the lungs or the liver. Surgery. Total nephrectomy is the key step in.

  12. Role of tumour-free margin distance for loco-regional control in vulvar cancer-a subset analysis of the Arbeitsgemeinschaft Gynakologische Onkologie CaRE-1 multicenter study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woelber, Linn; Griebel, Lis-Femke; Eulenburg, Christine; Sehouli, Jalid; Jueckstock, Julia; Hilpert, Felix; de Gregorio, Nikolaus; Hasenburg, Annette; Ignatov, Atanas; Hillemanns, Peter; Fuerst, Sophie; Strauss, Hans-Georg; Baumann, Klaus H.; Thiel, Falk C.; Mustea, Alexander; Meier, Werner; Harter, Philipp; Wimberger, Pauline; Hanker, Lars Christian; Schmalfeldt, Barbara; Canzler, Ulrich; Fehm, Tanja; Luyten, Alexander; Hellriegel, Martin; Kosse, Jens; Heiss, Christoph; Hantschmann, Peer; Mallmann, Peter; Tanner, Berno; Pfisterer, Jacobus; Richter, Barbara; Neuser, Petra; Mahner, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Aim of the study: A tumour-free pathological resection margin of >= 8 mm is considered state-of-the-art. Available evidence is based on heterogeneous cohorts. This study was designed to clarify the relevance of the resection margin for loco-regional control in vulvar cancer. Methods: AGO-CaRE-1 is a

  13. Tumour and surgery effects on cognitive functioning in high-grade glioma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habets, Esther J J; Kloet, Alfred; Walchenbach, Rob; Vecht, Charles J; Klein, Martin; Taphoorn, Martin J B

    2014-08-01

    Many high-grade glioma (HGG) patients have cognitive impairments, which impact daily functioning. Cognitive impairments can be caused by tumour-, treatment-, and patient-related factors. The effect of the tumour and of surgical resection on cognition is, however, not well known. We investigated tumour and surgical effects on cognitive functioning in patients with HGG. At baseline, preceding surgery, 62 patients with HGG underwent neuropsychological testing concerning seven cognitive domains: verbal and working memory, attention, executive functioning, psychomotor function, information processing speed, and visuoconstructive abilities. Thirty-nine patients were included in follow-up testing after surgery, but before subsequent treatment. Tumour size and site, use of anti-epileptic drugs and corticosteroids, and extent of resection were recorded. Compared to healthy controls, cognitive functioning of patients was significantly impaired in all domains. Prior to surgery 79 % (49 of 62) of patients had cognitive impairment in at least one domain. At median follow-up of 5 weeks after surgery, 59 % (23 of 39) of patients were cognitively impaired in at least one domain. At follow-up, 49 % showed improvement, while 23 % declined. Left hemisphere tumour localization was associated with worse verbal memory (P=0.004), and larger tumours in this hemisphere with poorer executive functioning (P < 0.001). Changes in cognitive performance at follow-up relative to baseline were not related to tumour characteristics or extent of resection. Tumour-related cognitive deficits are present in a majority of HGG patients preceding surgery. Surgery does not result in cognitive deterioration in the short term in most patients.

  14. MicroRNA Regulation of Brain Tumour Initiating Cells in Central Nervous System Tumours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Garg

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available CNS tumours occur in both pediatric and adult patients and many of these tumours are associated with poor clinical outcome. Due to a paradigm shift in thinking for the last several years, these tumours are now considered to originate from a small population of stem-like cells within the bulk tumour tissue. These cells, termed as brain tumour initiating cells (BTICs, are perceived to be regulated by microRNAs at the posttranscriptional/translational levels. Proliferation, stemness, differentiation, invasion, angiogenesis, metastasis, apoptosis, and cell cycle constitute some of the significant processes modulated by microRNAs in cancer initiation and progression. Characterization and functional studies on oncogenic or tumour suppressive microRNAs are made possible because of developments in sequencing and microarray techniques. In the current review, we bring recent knowledge of the role of microRNAs in BTIC formation and therapy. Special attention is paid to two highly aggressive and well-characterized brain tumours: gliomas and medulloblastoma. As microRNA seems to be altered in the pathogenesis of many human diseases, “microRNA therapy” may now have potential to improve outcomes for brain tumour patients. In this rapidly evolving field, further understanding of miRNA biology and its contribution towards cancer can be mined for new therapeutic tools.

  15. Transungual surgical excision of subungual glomus tumour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chander Grover

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Glomus tumours are rare vascular tumours arising subungually in fingernails. Surgical excision provides histopathologic diagnosis and rapid resolution of symptoms. Objective: Present study was aimed at delineating common presentations and long-term treatment outcome of this rare subungual tumour. Patients and Methods: The clinical features and imaging results for 10 patients with subungual glomus tumours were recorded. All were treated with transungual excision. Per-operative findings and, treatment outcomes were recorded and analysed. Results: Females outnumbered males with average age being 33.3 ± 7.55 years. Presenting symptoms were severe pain (100%; nail-plate discoloration and onycholysis. X-ray was normal in 70%, though a magnetic resonance imaging done for five, helped visualise the lesion in three patients. The tumour involved nail bed in five cases and matrix in five, with an average size being 6.1 ± 2.13 mm (range 3-11 mm. An average follow-up of 16.8 months (range 8-24 months was largely uneventful with longitudinal ridging in two cases and recurrence in two (both attributed to a sister lesion. Conclusion: Subungual glomus tumours have characteristic clinical presentation. Imaging is helpful pre-operatively but has a low success rate. Transungual surgical excision is safe and effective, allowing better visualisation, easy exploration and minimal long-term complications.

  16. Transungual surgical excision of subungual glomus tumour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Chander; Khurana, Ananta; Jain, Rajat; Rathi, Vinita

    2013-10-01

    Glomus tumours are rare vascular tumours arising subungually in fingernails. Surgical excision provides histopathologic diagnosis and rapid resolution of symptoms. Present study was aimed at delineating common presentations and long-term treatment outcome of this rare subungual tumour. The clinical features and imaging results for 10 patients with subungual glomus tumours were recorded. All were treated with transungual excision. Per-operative findings and, treatment outcomes were recorded and analysed. Females outnumbered males with average age being 33.3 ± 7.55 years. Presenting symptoms were severe pain (100%); nail-plate discoloration and onycholysis. X-ray was normal in 70%, though a magnetic resonance imaging done for five, helped visualise the lesion in three patients. The tumour involved nail bed in five cases and matrix in five, with an average size being 6.1 ± 2.13 mm (range 3-11 mm). An average follow-up of 16.8 months (range 8-24 months) was largely uneventful with longitudinal ridging in two cases and recurrence in two (both attributed to a sister lesion). Subungual glomus tumours have characteristic clinical presentation. Imaging is helpful pre-operatively but has a low success rate. Transungual surgical excision is safe and effective, allowing better visualisation, easy exploration and minimal long-term complications.

  17. Netazepide, a gastrin receptor antagonist, normalises tumour biomarkers and causes regression of type 1 gastric neuroendocrine tumours in a nonrandomised trial of patients with chronic atrophic gastritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew R Moore

    Full Text Available Autoimmune chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG causes hypochlorhydria and hypergastrinaemia, which can lead to enterochromaffin-like (ECL cell hyperplasia and gastric neuroendocrine tumours (type 1 gastric NETs. Most behave indolently, but some larger tumours metastasise. Antrectomy, which removes the source of the hypergastrinaemia, usually causes tumour regression. Non-clinical and healthy-subject studies have shown that netazepide (YF476 is a potent, highly selective and orally-active gastrin/CCK-2 receptor antagonist. Also, it is effective in animal models of ECL-cell tumours induced by hypergastrinaemia.To assess the effect of netazepide on tumour biomarkers, number and size in patients with type I gastric NETs.We studied 8 patients with multiple tumours and raised circulating gastrin and chromogranin A (CgA concentrations in an open trial of oral netazepide for 12 weeks, with follow-up 12 weeks later. At 0, 6, 12 and 24 weeks, we carried out gastroscopy, counted and measured tumours, and took biopsies to assess abundances of several ECL-cell constituents. At 0, 3, 6, 9, 12 and 24 weeks, we measured circulating gastrin and CgA and assessed safety and tolerability.Netazepide was safe and well tolerated. Abundances of CgA (p<0.05, histidine decarboxylase (p<0.05 and matrix metalloproteinase-7(p<0.10 were reduced at 6 and 12 weeks, but were raised again at follow-up. Likewise, plasma CgA was reduced at 3 weeks (p<0.01, remained so until 12 weeks, but was raised again at follow-up. Tumours were fewer and the size of the largest one was smaller (p<0.05 at 12 weeks, and remained so at follow-up. Serum gastrin was unaffected.The reduction in abundances, plasma CgA, and tumour number and size by netazepide show that type 1 NETs are gastrin-dependent tumours. Failure of netazepide to increase serum gastrin further is consistent with achlorhydria. Netazepide is a potential new treatment for type 1 NETs. Longer, controlled trials are justified

  18. Short-Term Memory, Executive Control, and Children's Route Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purser, Harry R. M.; Farran, Emily K.; Courbois, Yannick; Lemahieu, Axelle; Mellier, Daniel; Sockeel, Pascal; Blades, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate route-learning ability in 67 children aged 5 to 11 years and to relate route-learning performance to the components of Baddeley's model of working memory. Children carried out tasks that included measures of verbal and visuospatial short-term memory and executive control and also measures of verbal and…

  19. Primary thyroid cancer after a first tumour in childhood (the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study): a nested case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sigurdson, Alice J.; Ronckers, Cécile M.; Mertens, Ann C.; Stovall, Marilyn; Smith, Susan A.; Liu, Yan; Berkow, Roger L.; Hammond, Sue; Neglia, Joseph P.; Meadows, Anna T.; Sklar, Charles A.; Robison, Leslie L.; Inskip, Peter D.

    2005-01-01

    Survivors of malignant disease in childhood who have had radiotherapy to the head, neck, or upper thorax have an increased risk of subsequent primary thyroid cancer, but the magnitude of risk over the therapeutic dose range has not been well established. We aimed to quantify the long-term risk of

  20. The value of PET, CT and in-line PET/CT in patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumours: long-term outcome of treatment with imatinib mesylate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goerres, G.W.; Hany, T.F.; Schulthess, G.K. von [University Hospital Zurich, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland); Stupp, R.; Luthi, F.; Leyvraz, S. [University of Lausanne Medical Centre, Multidisciplinary Oncology Centre, Lausanne (Switzerland); Barghouth, G.; Schnyder, P. [University of Lausanne Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, Lausanne (Switzerland); Pestalozzi, B. [University Hospital Zurich, Department of Oncology, Zurich (Switzerland); Dizendorf, E. [University Hospital Zurich, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland); International Tomography Center, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2005-02-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST) are mesenchymal neoplasms of the gastrointestinal tract that are unresponsive to standard sarcoma chemotherapy. Imaging of GIST patients is done with structural and functional methods such as contrast-enhanced helical computed tomography (ceCT) and positron emission tomography (PET) with {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). The aim of this study was to compare the prognostic power of PET and ceCT and to evaluate the clinical role of PET/CT imaging. All patients with GIST undergoing PET or PET/CT examinations were prospectively included in this study, and the median overall survival, time to progression and treatment duration were documented. The prognostic significance of PET and ceCT criteria of treatment response was assessed and PET/CT was compared with PET and ceCT imaging. Data for 34 patients (19 male, 15 female, 21-76 years) undergoing PET or PET/CT for staging or restaging were analysed. In 28 patients, PET/CT and ceCT were available after introduction of treatment with the tyrosine kinase inhibitor imatinib mesylate (Gleevec; Novartis, Basel, Switzerland). Patients without FDG uptake after the start of treatment had a better prognosis than patients with residual activity. In contrast, ceCT criteria provided insufficient prognostic power. However, more lesions were found on ceCT images than on PET images, and FDG uptake was sometimes very variable. PET/CT delineated active lesions better than did the combination of PET and ceCT imaging. Both PET and PET/CT provide important prognostic information and have an impact on clinical decision-making in GIST patients. PET/CT precisely delineates lesions and thus allows for the correct planning of surgical interventions. (orig.)

  1. Long-term oncological outcome after post-chemotherapy retroperitoneal lymph node dissection in men with metastatic nonseminomatous germ cell tumour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fléchon, Aude; Tavernier, Emmanuelle; Boyle, Helen; Meeus, Pierre; Rivoire, Michel; Droz, Jean-Pierre

    2010-09-01

    To determine whether conformity to standard recommendations of retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND) after chemotherapy for testicular and primary retroperitoneal nonseminomatous germ cell tumours (NSGCT) and completeness of surgical excision have an effect on oncological outcome. This was a retrospective study of patients with testicular and primary retroperitoneal NSGCT, with initial involvement of RPLNs, treated between June 1992 and December 2002 in one institution. We reviewed the clinical, surgical and histological charts of 151 such patients who had a RPLND after first-line platinum-based chemotherapy. The recommendations used to define conformity to RPLND standards were: the indication based on initial and residual lymph node size, shrinkage, extension of dissection and completeness of resection. RPLND conformed to standard recommendations in 70 of the 151 (46%) patients. Conformity was complete for the surgeon who operated on 48 patients and was 26% of the others. Fifteen patients (10%) relapsed in the retroperitoneum, 14 of whom had initial lymph nodes of > or =5 cm. Two patients (3%) relapsed in the group of 70 patients with conformed and complete RPLND, vs 13 (16%) in the 81 with conformed but incomplete resection or with non-conformed and complete or incomplete RPLND. After a median (range) follow-up of 77 (1.3-186.5) months 132 patients were alive with no evidence of disease, 18 died and one was alive with progressive disease. The limitations of this study were the relatively few patients and that it was retrospective. There was conformity of RLNPD to the recommendations, and completeness of resection, in half of the patients operated; this might have an effect on oncological outcome. Our data suggest that patients should be treated in tertiary centres.

  2. Parents' perspectives of life challenges experienced by long-term paediatric brain tumour survivors: work and finances, daily and social functioning, and legal difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, A Fuchsia; Hasan, Haroon; Bobinski, Mary Anne; Nurcombe, Wendy; Olson, Robert; Parkinson, Maureen; Goddard, Karen

    2014-09-01

    Paediatric brain tumour survivors (PBTS) are at high risk for medical, neurocognitive and psychological sequelea during adulthood. Details illustrating the types and breadth of these chronic sequelae are essential to fully comprehend their impact on daily living. This study describes Canadian parents of PBTS perspectives of life challenges experienced by their now adult son or daughter related to work and finances, daily and social functioning, and legal difficulties. Parents of PBTS completed an anonymous online exploratory survey. Forty-six of 60 invited parents completed the survey. Parents reported that PBTS experienced difficulty gaining or sustaining employment (65 %) because of their health and/or a disability and employers reticence to hire and adequately support PBTS. Independent living was considered unaffordable for PBTS who received a disability allowance (82 %) and those who were employed (50 %). Thirty percent indicated their family experienced hardship because of PBTS medical expenses, which were usually paid for out of pocket (76 %). Although the majority of PBTS were independent with daily tasks and social functioning, a subgroup required continuous support. Forty percent of employed PBTS received limited assistance to accommodate their special needs. Parents indicated their son or daughter had been the victim of theft, fraud or assault (37 %), and commonly considered them vulnerable, in need of protection and feared for their future safety. Research that further illuminates the hardships facing PBTS and informs the development of support and resources to address PBTS vulnerabilities is warranted. PBTS are at risk for unemployment, financial challenges and legal difficulties, which appear to be poorly addressed by health and social programs.

  3. [Long-term pediatric opioid based pain control. Case reports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zernikow, B; Schiessl, C; Wamsler, C; Griessinger, N; Sittl, R

    2005-10-01

    Based on 4 case reports we focus on the peculiarities of long-term pediatric opioid based pain control. Case report #1, emphasizing the importance of adequate opioid dosing with reference to body weight, illustrates that with adequate management oral sustained-release opioid therapy is safe even in infants less than one year old. Case report #2 is the first report on the usage of buccal fentanyl citrate for pediatric break-through pain control. Case report #3 focuses on the adverse effects of opioid pain control in an infant with neurological impairment. Case report #4 reports on the successful tumor pain control using transdermal buprenorphine. We conclude that proven therapeutic strategies for opioid pain control as applied in adults may be adopted for the usage on children in pediatrics. However, it is mandatory to take into account both the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic peculiarities of childhood.

  4. Tumour size, tumour complexity, and surgical approach are associated with nephrectomy type in small renal cortical tumours treated electively.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broughton, Gregory J; Clark, Peter E; Barocas, Daniel A; Cookson, Michael S; Smith, Joseph A; Herrell, S Duke; Chang, Sam S

    2012-06-01

    Study Type - Therapy (case series) Level of Evidence 4 What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Although the benefits of nephron-sparing renal cortical tumour treatments are now widely accepted and have robust data supporting their oncological efficacy, safety, and positive effect on medium- and long-term renal function, the decision to perform partial nephrectomy (PN) remains a complex interaction between several competing factors. Various patient factors, e.g. comorbid conditions, age, body habitus, patient preference, etc. may effect this decision. Then there are the preferences of the surgeon him- or herself, including faculty with different operative techniques and surgical approaches, which may lead to one treatment decision over another. Finally, the anatomy of the tumour itself, i.e. the complexity of the tumour within the kidney and anatomical relationships within the organ, is intuitively critical to a surgeon's assessment of resectability. There is very little published data indicating which of the multitude of clinical variables have the greatest impact on the decision to perform PN. Most previous investigations into the subject have focused on either imperative or relative indications for PN (i.e. solitary kidney, bilateral renal masses, and multifocal tumours) or have used maximal tumour diameter (i.e. tumour size) alone in their assessment of the clinical variables associated with PN use. To identify preoperative variables associated with choice of partial nephrectomy (PN) vs radical nephrectomy (RN). Between January 2004 and June 2008, 203 patients were treated for clinical T1a renal cortical tumours. Of these, 154 (75.8%) had all data available and form the analytic cohort. Patients were categorized into two groups, PN and RN, based on preoperative treatment plan. Patient-, procedure-, and tumour-related variables, together with tumour complexity (based on the R.E.N.A.L Nephrometry Score [RENAL-NS]) were evaluated for their

  5. Assessment of predictors of response and long-term survival of patients with neuroendocrine tumour treated with peptide receptor chemoradionuclide therapy (PRCRT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, G.; Thompson, M.; Johnston, V.; Eu, P. [Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Centre for Cancer Imaging, East Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Collins, M.; Herschtal, A. [Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Department of Biostatistics and Clinical Trials, Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Hofman, M.S.; Hicks, Rodney J. [Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Centre for Cancer Imaging, East Melbourne, VIC (Australia); The University of Melbourne, Department of Medicine, Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Michael, M. [The University of Melbourne, Department of Medicine, Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Division of Cancer Medicine, Neuroendocrine Tumour Unit, Melbourne, VIC (Australia)

    2014-10-15

    To review the response and outcomes of {sup 177}Lu-DOTA-octreotate chemoradionuclide therapy (LuTate PRCRT) in patients with neuroendocrine tumour (NET) expressing high levels of somatostatin receptors with uncontrolled symptoms or disease progression. A total of 68 patients (39 men; 17 - 76 years of age) who had completed an induction course of at least three cycles of LuTate PRCRT between January 2006 and June 2010 were reviewed. Ten patients were treated for uncontrolled symptoms and 58 had disease progression despite conventional treatment. The majority had four induction LuTate cycles (median treatment duration 5 months and cumulative activity 31 GBq), and 63 patients had concomitant 5-FU radiosensitizing infusional chemotherapy. Factors predicting overall survival were assessed using the log-rank test and Cox proportional hazards regression. Of those treated for uncontrolled symptoms, 70 % received benefit maintained for at least 6 months after treatment. Among patients with progressive disease 68 % showed stabilization or regression on CT, 67 % on molecular imaging and 56 % biochemically up to 12 months after treatment; 32 patients died. Overall survival rates at 2 and 5 year were 72.1 % and 52.1 %, respectively. Median overall survival was not estimable at a median follow-up of 60 months (range 5 - 86 months). Nonpancreatic primary sites, dominant liver metastases, lesion size <5 cm and the use of 5-FU chemotherapy were statistically significantly associated with objective response. A disseminated pattern and a high disease burden (whole-body retention index) were associated with an increased risk of death. Objective biochemical, molecular imaging and CT responses were all associated with longer overall survival. A high proportion of patients with progressive NET or uncontrolled symptoms received therapeutic benefit from LuTate with concomitant 5-FU chemotherapy. The achievement of objective biochemical, molecular or CT responses within 12 months was

  6. tumours and cancers in graeco-roman times 1. introduction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    either gradually absorbed, discharged as septic residue (abscess), or remained indefinitely as a tumour which could .... tumours (possibly renal cysts or abscesses) associated with kidney stones in Nature of Man c.14. ... fleshy protuberances), and gingival gumboils as parulides, while the term. 19 Airs, waters and places 7; ...

  7. A short history of neuroendocrine tumours and their peptide hormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Herder, Wouter W; Rehfeld, Jens F; Kidd, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of neuroendocrine tumours of the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas started in 1870, when Rudolf Heidenhain discovered the neuroendocrine cells, which can lead to the development of these tumours. Siegfried Oberndorfer was the first to introduce the term carcinoid in 1907. The panc...

  8. Multimodal optical imaging database from tumour brain human tissue: endogenous fluorescence from glioma, metastasis and control tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulon, Fanny; Ibrahim, Ali; Zanello, Marc; Pallud, Johan; Varlet, Pascale; Malouki, Fatima; Abi Lahoud, Georges; Devaux, Bertrand; Abi Haidar, Darine

    2017-02-01

    Eliminating time-consuming process of conventional biopsy is a practical improvement, as well as increasing the accuracy of tissue diagnoses and patient comfort. We addressed these needs by developing a multimodal nonlinear endomicroscope that allows real-time optical biopsies during surgical procedure. It will provide immediate information for diagnostic use without removal of tissue and will assist the choice of the optimal surgical strategy. This instrument will combine several means of contrast: non-linear fluorescence, second harmonic generation signal, reflectance, fluorescence lifetime and spectral analysis. Multimodality is crucial for reliable and comprehensive analysis of tissue. Parallel to the instrumental development, we currently improve our understanding of the endogeneous fluorescence signal with the different modalities that will be implemented in the stated. This endeavor will allow to create a database on the optical signature of the diseased and control brain tissues. This proceeding will present the preliminary results of this database on three types of tissues: cortex, metastasis and glioblastoma.

  9. Controlled Terms or Free Terms? A JavaScript Library to Utilize Subject Headings and Thesauri on the Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shun Nagaya

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available There are two types of keywords used as metadata: controlled terms and free terms. Free terms have the advantage that metadata creators can freely select keywords, but there also exists a disadvantage that the information retrieval recall ratio might be reduced. The recall ratio can be improved by using controlled terms. But creating and maintaining controlled vocabularies has an enormous cost. In addition, many existing controlled vocabularies are published in formats less suitable for programming. We introduce a JavaScript library called “covo.js” that enables us to make use of controlled vocabularies as metadata for the organization of web pages.

  10. Insulin resistance in vascular endothelial cells promotes intestinal tumour formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, X; Häring, M-F; Rathjen, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    did not change intestinal tumour number or size distribution on either a low or high-fat diet. We therefore asked whether cells in the tumour stroma might explain the association between tumour formation and insulin resistance. To this end, we generated Apc(Min/+) mice with loss of insulin receptors......The risk of several cancers, including colorectal cancer, is increased in patients with obesity and type 2 diabetes, conditions characterised by hyperinsulinaemia and insulin resistance. Because hyperinsulinaemia itself is an independent risk factor for cancer development, we examined tissue...... in vascular endothelial cells. Strikingly, these mice had 42% more intestinal tumours than controls, no change in tumour angiogenesis, but increased expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in primary culture of tumour endothelial cells. Insulin decreased VCAM-1 expression and leukocyte...

  11. Controversies in Odontogenic Tumours: Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siwach, Pooja; Joy, Tabita; Tupkari, Jagdish; Thakur, Arush

    2017-08-01

    Odontogenic tumours are lesions that occur solely within the oral cavity and are so named because of their origin from the odontogenic (i.e. tooth-forming) apparatus. Odontogenic tumours comprise a variety of lesions ranging from non-neoplastic tissue proliferations to benign or malignant neoplasms. However, controversies exist regarding the pathogenesis, categorisation and clinical and histological variations of these tumours. The recent 2017 World Health Organization classification of odontogenic tumours included new entities such as primordial odontogenic tumours, sclerosing odontogenic carcinomas and odontogenic carcinosarcomas, while eliminating several previously included entities like keratocystic odontogenic tumours and calcifying cystic odonogenic tumours. The aim of the present review article was to discuss controversies and recent concepts regarding odontogenic tumours so as to increase understanding of these lesions.

  12. Warthin's tumour and smoking.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ru, J.A. de; Plantinga, R.F.; Majoor, M.H.; Benthem, P.P. van; Slootweg, P.J.; Peeters, P.H.; Hordijk, G.J.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In an evaluation of our patients with parotid gland neoplasms, we noticed that patients with a Warthin's tumour were heavy smokers. The aim of this study was to confirm earlier findings in the literature concerning a possible association between smoking and the development of a Warthin's

  13. Extracranial glomus faciale tumour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, S E J; Gleeson, M J; Odell, E

    2008-09-01

    To describe a unique presentation of a predominantly extracranial glomus faciale tumour. To discuss the role of imaging in the differential diagnosis and evaluation of a hypervascular parotid mass. To review the previous literature concerning the glomus faciale tumour. A 54-year-old woman presented with a six-month history of facial weakness, pain and a parotid mass. Ultrasound revealed a hypervascular parotid mass and pre-operative core biopsy suggested a paraganglioma. Computed tomography defined its deep extent and demonstrated involvement of the petrous temporal bone along the descending portion of the facial nerve canal with a pattern of permeative lucency. A tumour was surgically removed which arose from the facial nerve from the second genu to the proximal divisions within the parotid gland and histology confirmed a paraganglioma. A facial nerve glomus faciale tumour should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a hypervascular parotid mass and may present in a predominantly extracranial location. Computed tomography will prove helpful in such a case in order to limit the differential diagnosis and to define the extent of skull base involvement.

  14. Intestinal inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since its first description in 1937,1 the understanding of inflamma- tory myofibroblastic tumour (IMFT) has evolved from a reactive inflammatory process to a neoplasm of intermediate biological potential.2-9 Associated with nosologic, histogenetic and aetiopatho- genetic controversy, IMFTs occur in all age groups and in ...

  15. The association between socioeconomic status and tumour stage at diagnosis of ovarian cancer: A pooled analysis of 18 case-control studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Praestegaard, C.; Kjaer, S.K.; Nielsen, T.S.; Jensen, S.M.; Webb, P.M.; Nagle, C.M.; Hogdall, E.; Risch, H.A.; Rossing, M.A.; Doherty, J.A.; Wicklund, K.G.; Goodman, M.T.; Modugno, F.; Moysich, K.; Ness, R.B.; Edwards, R.P.; Goode, E.L.; Winham, S.J.; Fridley, B.L.; Cramer, D.W; Terry, K.L.; Schildkraut, J.M.; Berchuck, A.; Bandera, E.V.; Paddock, L.; Kiemeney, L.A.; Massuger, L.F.; Wentzensen, N.; Pharoah, P.; Song, H.; Whittemore, A.S.; McGuire, V.; Sieh, W.; Rothstein, J.; Anton-Culver, H.; Ziogas, A.; Menon, U.; Gayther, S.A.; Ramus, S.J.; Gentry-Maharaj, A.; Wu, A.H.; Pearce, C.L.; Pike, M.C.; Lee, A.W.; Chang-Claude, J.; Jensen, A.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Socioeconomic status (SES) is a known predictor of survival for several cancers and it has been suggested that SES differences affecting tumour stage at diagnosis may be the most important explanatory factor for this. However, only a limited number of studies have investigated SES

  16. Are cranial germ cell tumours really tumours of germ cells?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotting, P J

    2006-12-01

    Germ cell tumours of the brain and those that occur in the gonads are believed to share a common origin from germ cell progenitors. This 'germ cell theory' rests upon similar histopathology between these tumours in different locations and the belief that endogenous somatic cells of the brain could not give rise to the range of cell types seen in germ cell tumours. An alternative 'embryonic cell theory' has been proposed for some classes of cranial germ cell tumours, but this still relies on the misplacement of cells in the brain (in this case the earliest embryonic stem cells) during early embryonic development. Recent evidence has demonstrated that neural stem cells of the brain can also give rise to many of the cell types seen in germ cell tumours. These data suggest that endogenous progenitor cells of the brain are a plausible alternative origin for these tumours. This idea is of central importance for studies aiming to elucidate the mechanisms of tumour development. The application of modern molecular analyses to reveal how tumour cells have altered with respect to their cell of origin relies on the certain identification of the cell from which the particular tumour arose. If the identity of this cell is mistaken, then studies to elucidate the mechanisms by which the progenitor cell has been subverted from its normal behaviour will not yield useful information. In addition, it will prove impossible to generate an appropriate animal model in which to study the underlying causes of those tumours. This article makes the case that current assumptions of the origins of cranial germ cell tumours are unreliable. It reviews the evidence in favour of the 'germ cell theory' and argues in favour of a 'brain cell theory' in which endogenous neural progenitor cells of the brain are the likely origin for these tumours. Thus, the case is made that cranial germ cell tumours, like other brain tumours, arise by the transformation of progenitor cells normally resident in the

  17. Residential Radon and Brain Tumour Incidence in a Danish Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner, Elvira V.; Andersen, Zorana J.; Andersen, Claus Erik

    2013-01-01

    of exposure to residential radon on the risk of primary brain tumour in a prospective Danish cohort. Methods: During 1993–1997 we recruited 57,053 persons. We followed each cohort member for cancer occurrence from enrolment until 31 December 2009, identifying 121 primary brain tumour cases. We traced......Background: Increased brain tumour incidence over recent decades may reflect improved diagnostic methods and clinical practice, but remain unexplained. Although estimated doses are low a relationship between radon and brain tumours may exist. Objective: To investigate the long-term effect...... (CI) for the risk of primary brain tumours associated with residential radon exposure with adjustment for age, sex, occupation, fruit and vegetable consumption and traffic-related air pollution. Effect modification by air pollution was assessed. Results: Median estimated radon was 40.5 Bq/m3...

  18. File list: InP.Oth.10.AllAg.Tumour_tissues [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Oth.10.AllAg.Tumour_tissues hg19 Input control Others Tumour tissues SRX371456,...1,SRX371450,SRX371458,SRX371461,SRX371455,SRX371462 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/InP.Oth.10.AllAg.Tumour_tissues.bed ...

  19. File list: InP.Oth.20.AllAg.Tumour_tissues [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Oth.20.AllAg.Tumour_tissues hg19 Input control Others Tumour tissues SRX371456,...0,SRX371458,SRX371461,SRX371455,SRX371451,SRX371462 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/InP.Oth.20.AllAg.Tumour_tissues.bed ...

  20. File list: InP.Oth.50.AllAg.Tumour_tissues [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Oth.50.AllAg.Tumour_tissues hg19 Input control Others Tumour tissues SRX371456,...0,SRX371458,SRX371461,SRX371455,SRX371451,SRX371462 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/InP.Oth.50.AllAg.Tumour_tissues.bed ...

  1. Diagnosing Musculoskeletal Tumours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Grimer

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1993 we became aware of a worrying increase in apparent errors in the histopathological diagnosis of musculoskeletal tumours in our Unit. As a result all cases seen over the past 8 years were reviewed by an independent panel. Of the 1996 cases reviewed there was an error in 87. In 54 cases (2.7% this had led to some significant change in the active management of the patient. The main areas where errors arose were in those very cases where clinical and radiological features were not helpful in confirming or refuting the diagnosis. The incidence of errors rose with the passage of time, possibly related to a deterioration in the pathologist’s health. The error rate in diagnosing bone tumours in previously published series ranges from 9 to 40%. To ensure as accurate a rate of diagnosis as possible multidisciplinary working and regular audit are essential.

  2. Treatment with a vascular disrupting agent does not increase recruitment of indium labelled human endothelial outgrowth cells in an experimental tumour model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertelsen, Lotte B; Bohn, Anja B; Shen, Yuan Yuan; Falborg, Lise; Stødkilde-Jørgensen, Hans; Horsman, Michael R

    2014-12-02

    The effect of vascular disrupting agents in tumour therapy depends on both the immediate vascular shutdown, and on the following re-vascularization of the tumour. The aim of this study was to use a tumour model to investigate whether endothelial outgrowth cells (EOCs) influenced the short term treatment efficiency of combretastatin A-4 disodium phosphate (CA4P) and 5,6-dimethylxanthenone-4-acetic acid (DMXAA) by increasing EOC tumour recruitment. In order to visualize the recruitment of EOCs to the tumours, umbilical cord blood derived human EOCs were labelled with 111Indium-tropolone in a dose of 0.37 MBq pr 3×106 cells and were injected intravenously into mice carrying a C3H mammary carcinoma on their right rear foot. DMXAA and CA4P in different concentrations and at different exposure times were used to create a hypoxic environment in the C3H mammary carcinoma in the mice. Three different mice strains with various degrees of functional immune system were used to study the homing capability of EOCs. Our data showed that approximately 4% of the total injected radioactive dose per gram of tissue was found in the tumour after treatment with CA4P and DMXAA. Regardless of the concentration and the treatment duration, CA4P did not increase EOC recruitment to the tumour in comparison to EOC recruitment in control tumours in any of the 3 mice strains studied. Our data showed that regardless of the grade of the immune system, ranging from a fully working to a fully compromised immune system, treatment with CA4P did not increase recruitment of xenotransplanted EOCs to tumour tissue.

  3. Delivery of size-controlled long-circulating polymersomes in solid tumours, visualized by quantum dots and optical imaging in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Bakalova, Rumiana; Lazarova, Desislava; Nikolova, Biliana; Atanasova, Severina; Zlateva, Genoveva; Zhelev, Zhivko; Aoki, Ichio

    2014-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate whether poly-ion complex hollow vesicles (polymersomes), based on chemically modified chitosan, are appropriate for passive tumour targeting in the context of their application as drug carriers. The experiments were performed on colon cancer-grafted mice. The mice were subjected to anaesthesia and injected intravenously with water-soluble nanoparticles: (1) QD705-labelled polymersomes (average size ?120?nm; size distribution ?10%) or (2) native QD...

  4. Nonsurgical giant cell tumour of the tendon sheath or of the diffuse type: Are MRI or {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT able to provide an accurate prediction of long-term outcome?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dercle, Laurent [IUCT-Oncopole/Institut Claudius Regaud, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Toulouse (France); Institut Gustave Roussy, Department of Radiology, Villejuif (France); Institut Gustave Roussy, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Villejuif (France); Chisin, Roland [Hebrew University Hadassah Medical Center, Department of Medical Biophysics and Nuclear Medicine, Jerusalem (Israel); Ammari, Samy [Institut Gustave Roussy, Department of Radiology, Villejuif (France); Gillebert, Quentin [Hopital tenon, Hopitaux Universitaires Est Parisien, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Paris (France); Ouali, Monia [Institut Claudius Regaud, Department of Biostatistics, Toulouse (France); Jaudet, Cyril; Dierickx, Lawrence; Zerdoud, Slimane; Courbon, Frederic [IUCT-Oncopole/Institut Claudius Regaud, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Toulouse (France); Delord, Jean-Pierre [Institut Claudius Regaud, Department of Clinical Research, Toulouse (France); Schlumberger, Martin [Institut Gustave Roussy, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Villejuif (France)

    2014-11-01

    To investigate whether MRI (RECIST 1.1, WHO criteria and the volumetric approach) or {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT (PERCIST 1.0) are able to predict long-term outcome in nonsurgical patients with giant cell tumour of the tendon sheath or of the diffuse type (GCT-TS/DT). Fifteen ''nonsurgical'' patients with a histological diagnosis of GCT-TS/DT were divided into two groups: symptomatic patients receiving targeted therapy and asymptomatic untreated patients. All 15 patients were evaluated by MRI of whom 10 were treated, and a subgroup of 7 patients were evaluated by PET/CT of whom 4 were treated. Early evolution was assessed according to MRI and PET/CT scans at baseline and during follow-up. Cohen's kappa coefficient was used to evaluate the degree of agreement between PERCIST 1.0, RECIST 1.1, WHO criteria, volumetric approaches and the reference standard (long-term outcome, delay 505 ± 457 days). The response rate in symptomatic patients with GCT-TS/DT receiving targeted therapy was also assessed in a larger population that included additional patients obtained from a review of the literature. The kappa coefficients for agreement between RECIST/WHO/volumetric criteria and outcome (15 patients) were respectively: 0.35 (p = 0.06), 0.26 (p = 0.17) and 0.26 (p = 0.17). In the PET/CT subgroup (7 patients), PERCIST was in perfect agreement with the late symptomatic evolution (kappa = 1, p < 0.05). In the treated symptomatic group including the additional patients from the literature the response rates to targeted therapies according to late symptomatic assessment, and PERCIST and RECIST criteria were: 65 % (22/34), 77 % (10/13) and 26 % (10/39). {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT with PERCIST is a promising approach to the prediction of the long-term outcome in GCT-TS/DT and may avoid unnecessary treatments, toxicity and costs. On MRI, WHO and volumetric approaches are not more effective than RECIST using the current thresholds. (orig.)

  5. Long-term litter decomposition controlled by manganese redox cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiluweit, Marco; Nico, Peter; Harmon, Mark E; Mao, Jingdong; Pett-Ridge, Jennifer; Kleber, Markus

    2015-09-22

    Litter decomposition is a keystone ecosystem process impacting nutrient cycling and productivity, soil properties, and the terrestrial carbon (C) balance, but the factors regulating decomposition rate are still poorly understood. Traditional models assume that the rate is controlled by litter quality, relying on parameters such as lignin content as predictors. However, a strong correlation has been observed between the manganese (Mn) content of litter and decomposition rates across a variety of forest ecosystems. Here, we show that long-term litter decomposition in forest ecosystems is tightly coupled to Mn redox cycling. Over 7 years of litter decomposition, microbial transformation of litter was paralleled by variations in Mn oxidation state and concentration. A detailed chemical imaging analysis of the litter revealed that fungi recruit and redistribute unreactive Mn(2+) provided by fresh plant litter to produce oxidative Mn(3+) species at sites of active decay, with Mn eventually accumulating as insoluble Mn(3+/4+) oxides. Formation of reactive Mn(3+) species coincided with the generation of aromatic oxidation products, providing direct proof of the previously posited role of Mn(3+)-based oxidizers in the breakdown of litter. Our results suggest that the litter-decomposing machinery at our coniferous forest site depends on the ability of plants and microbes to supply, accumulate, and regenerate short-lived Mn(3+) species in the litter layer. This observation indicates that biogeochemical constraints on bioavailability, mobility, and reactivity of Mn in the plant-soil system may have a profound impact on litter decomposition rates.

  6. Primary brain tumours, meningiomas and brain metastases in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verheecke, Magali; Halaska, Michael J; Lok, Christianne A

    2014-01-01

    to obtain better insight into outcome and possibilities of treatment in pregnancy. METHODS: We collected all intracranial tumours (primary brain tumour, cerebral metastasis, or meningioma) diagnosed during pregnancy, registered prospectively and retrospectively by international collaboration since 1973....... Patients diagnosed postpartum were excluded. We summarised the demographic features, treatment decisions, obstetrical and neonatal outcomes. RESULTS: The mean age of the 27 eligible patients was 31years (range 23-41years), of which 13 and 12 patients were diagnosed in the second and third trimesters...... were reassuring. CONCLUSION: Adherence to standard protocol for the treatment of brain tumours during pregnancy appears to allow a term delivery and a higher probability of a vaginal delivery....

  7. Influence of honey bee products on transplantable murine tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsolić, N; Knezević, A; Sver, L; Terzić, S; Hackenberger, B K; Basić, I

    2003-12-01

    The effect of propolis [it is a water-soluble derivative (WSDP)] and related polyphenolic compounds of propolis (caffeic acid, caffeic acid phenethyl ester and quercetin), honey, royal jelly and bee venom on tumour growth, metastasizing ability and induction of apoptosis and necrosis in murine tumour models (mammary carcinoma and colon carcinoma) was investigated. WSDP and related polyphenolic compounds showed significant anti-metastatic effect (P Honey also exerted pronounced anti-metastatic effect (P bee venom injection, the number of tumour nodules in the lung was significantly lower (P bee venom subcutaneously. Local presence of bee venom in the tissue caused significant delay in subcutaneous tumour formation. These findings clearly demonstrate that anti-tumour and anti-metastatic effects of bee venom are highly dependent on the route of injection and on close contact between components of the bee venom and tumour cells. These data show that honey bee products given orally or systemically may have an important role in the control of tumour growth and tumour metastasizing ability.

  8. Metabolic scaling in solid tumours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milotti, E.; Vyshemirsky, V.; Sega, M.; Stella, S.; Chignola, R.

    2013-06-01

    Tumour metabolism is an outstanding topic of cancer research, as it determines the growth rate and the global activity of tumours. Recently, by combining the diffusion of oxygen, nutrients, and metabolites in the extracellular environment, and the internal motions that mix live and dead cells, we derived a growth law of solid tumours which is linked to parameters at the cellular level. Here we use this growth law to obtain a metabolic scaling law for solid tumours, which is obeyed by tumours of different histotypes both in vitro and in vivo, and we display its relation with the fractal dimension of the distribution of live cells in the tumour mass. The scaling behaviour is related to measurable parameters, with potential applications in the clinical practice.

  9. Vaginal haemangioendothelioma: an unusual tumour.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mohan, H

    2012-02-01

    Vaginal tumours are uncommon and this is a particularly rare case of a vaginal haemangioendothelioma in a 38-year-old woman. Initial presentation consisted of symptoms similar to uterovaginal prolapse with "something coming down". Examination under anaesthesia demonstrated a necrotic anterior vaginal wall tumour. Histology of the lesion revealed a haemangioendothelioma which had some features of haemangiopericytoma. While the natural history of vaginal haemangioendothelioma is uncertain, as a group, they have a propensity for local recurrence. To our knowledge this is the third reported case of a vaginal haemangioendothelioma. Management of this tumour is challenging given the paucity of literature on this tumour. There is a need to add rare tumours to our "knowledge bank" to guide management of these unusual tumours.

  10. Tumour necrosis factor inhibition versus rituximab for patients with rheumatoid arthritis who require biological treatment (ORBIT): an open-label, randomised controlled, non-inferiority, trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Duncan; van Melckebeke, Jurgen; Dale, James; Messow, C Martina; McConnachie, Alexander; Walker, Andrew; Munro, Robin; McLaren, John; McRorie, Euan; Packham, Jon; Buckley, Christopher D; Harvie, John; Taylor, Peter; Choy, Ernest; Pitzalis, Costantino; McInnes, Iain B

    2016-07-16

    Tumour necrosis factor (TNF) inhibition and B-cell depletion are highly effective treatments for active rheumatoid arthritis, but so far no randomised controlled trials have directly compared their safety, efficacy, and cost-effectiveness. This study was done to test the hypothesis that using rituximab would be clinically non-inferior and cheaper compared with TNF inhibitor treatment in biological-treatment naive patients with rheumatoid arthritis. This open-label, randomised controlled, non-inferiority trial enrolled patients with active, seropositive rheumatoid arthritis and an inadequate response to synthetic disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) from 35 rheumatology departments in the UK. Patients were randomly assigned 1:1 to the rituximab or TNF inhibitor groups with minimisation to account for methotrexate intolerance using a web-based randomisation system. Patients were given intravenous rituximab 1 g on days 1 and 15, and after 26 weeks if they responded to treatment but had persistent disease activity (28 joint count disease activity score [DAS28-ESR] >3.2; rituximab group) or a TNF inhibitor-adalimumab (40 mg subcutaneously every other week) or etanercept (50 mg per week subcutaneously) according to the patient's and rheumatologist's choice (TNF inhibitor group). Patients could switch treatment in the case of drug-related toxic effects or absence or loss of response. The primary outcome measure was the change in DAS28-ESR between 0 and 12 months in the per-protocol population of patients who were assigned to treatment and remained in follow-up to 1 year. We assessed safety in all patients who received at least one dose of study drug. We also assessed the cost-effectiveness of each strategy. The non-inferiority margin was specified as 0.6 DAS28-ESR units. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01021735. Between April 6, 2009, and Nov 11, 2013, 295 patients were randomly assigned and given either rituximab (n=144) or TNF

  11. The natural history of disappearing bone tumours and tumour-like conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanagawa, Takashi; Watanabe, Hideomi; Shinozaki, Tetsuya; Ahmed, Adel Refaat; Shirakura, Kenji; Takagishi, Kenji

    2001-11-01

    We describe 27 cases of bone tumours or tumour-like lesions where there was spontaneous regression. The follow-up period was 2.8-16.7 years (average, 7.0 years). Fourteen of these cases were no longer visible on plain radiographs. Histological diagnosis included exostosis, eosinophilic granuloma, fibrous dysplasia, fibrous cortical defect, non-ossifying fibroma, osteoid osteoma and bone island. Most cases began to reduce in adolescence or earlier, although sclerotic type lesions showed their regression in older patients. All lesions thought to be eosinophilic granuloma began to regress after periods of less than 3 months, while the duration of the other lesions showed wide variation (1-74 months). As resolution of the lesions took between 2 and 79 months (mean, 25.0 {+-} 20.3 months) we consider that the most likely mechanism was recovery of normal skeletal growth control. In exostosis with fracture, alteration of vascular supply may contribute to growth arrest, but not to subsequent remodelling stage. In inflammatory-related lesions such as eosinophilic granuloma, cessation of inflammation may be the mechanism of growth arrest, whilst temporary inflammation may stimulate osteogenic cells engaged in remodeling. In the sclerotic type, growth arrest is a less probable mechanism. Necrosis within the tumour and/or local changes in hormonal control, plus remodelling of the sclerotic area takes longer. Knowledge of the potential for spontaneous resolution may help in management of these tumour and tumour-like lesions of bone. Yanagawa, T. et al. (2001)

  12. Preoperative radiotherapy and extracellular matrix remodeling in rectal mucosa and tumour matrix metalloproteinases and plasminogen components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angenete, Eva; Oeresland, Tom; Falk, Peter; Breimer, Michael; Ivarsson, Marie-Louise (Dept. of Surgery, Inst. of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy at Univ. of Goeteborg, Goeteborg (Sweden)); Hultborn, Ragnar (Dept. of Oncology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Univ. Hospital/Sahlgrenska, Goeteborg (Sweden))

    2009-11-15

    Background. Preoperative radiotherapy reduces recurrence but increases postoperative morbidity. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of radiotherapy in rectal mucosa and rectal tumour extracellular matrix (ECM) by studying enzymes and growth factors involved in ECM remodeling. Materials and methods. Twenty patients with short-term preoperative radiotherapy and 12 control patients without radiotherapy were studied. Biopsies from rectal mucosa and tumour were collected prior to radiotherapy and at surgery. Tissue MMP-1, -2, -9, TIMP-1, uPA, PAI-1, TGF-beta1 and calprotectin were determined by ELISA. Biopsies from irradiated and non-irradiated peritoneal areas were also analysed. Results. Radiotherapy increased the tissue levels of MMP-2 and PAI-1 in both the rectal mucosa and tumours while calprotectin and uPA showed an increase only in the mucosa after irradiation. The increase of calprotectin was due to an influx of inflammatory cells as revealed by immunohistochemistry. Prior to irradiation, the tumour tissues had increased levels of MMP-1, -2, -9, total TGF-beta1, uPA, PAI-1 and calprotectin compared to mucosa, while TIMP-1 and the active TGF-beta1 fraction showed no statistical difference. Conclusions. This study indicates a radiation-induced effect on selected ECM remodeling proteases. This reaction may be responsible for early and late morbidity. Interference of this response might reduce these consequences.

  13. Survival in Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumours: A Comparison between Sporadic and Neurofibromatosis Type 1-Associated Tumours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. E. Porter

    2009-01-01

    As the survival rate in the NF group was dependant on tumour volume, routine screening of these patients with FDG PET and/or MRI may be warranted, thereby staging and controlling them at the earliest possible opportunity.

  14. Intraperitoneal (188)Re-Liposome delivery switches ovarian cancer metabolism from glycolysis to oxidative phosphorylation and effectively controls ovarian tumour growth in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yao An; Lan, Keng Li; Chang, Chih Hsien; Lin, Liang Ting; He, Chun Lin; Chen, Po Hung; Lee, Te Wei; Lee, Yi Jang; Chuang, Chi Mu

    2016-05-01

    Cancer stem cells exhibit distinctive cellular metabolism compared with the more differentiated counterparts or normal cells. We aimed to investigate the impact of a novel radionuclide anti-cancer agent (188)Re-Liposome on stemness markers' expression and cellular metabolism in an ovarian cancer model. A 2×2 factorial experiment was designed in which factor 1 represented the drug treatment comparing (188)Re-BMEDA, a free form of (188)Re, with (188)Re-Liposome, a nanoparticle-encapsulated form of (188)Re. Factor 2 represented the delivery route, comparing intravenous with intraperitoneal delivery. Intraperitoneal delivery of (188)Re-Liposome predominantly killed the CSCs-like cells in tumours and switched metabolism from glycolysis to oxidative phosphorylation. Further, intraperitoneal delivery of (188)Re-Liposome treatment was able to block epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and reactivate p53 function. Collectively, these molecular changes led to a striking tumour-killing effect. Radionuclides encapsulated in liposomes may represent a novel treatment for ovarian cancer when delivered intraperitoneally (a type of loco-regional delivery). In the future, this concept may be further extended for the treatment of several relevant cancers that have been proved to be suitable for loco-regional delivery of therapeutic agents, such as colon cancer, gastric cancer, and pancreatic cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Long-term behaviour of timber structures in torrent control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickli, Christian; Graf, Frank

    2014-05-01

    Timber is widely used for protection measures in torrent control. However, life span of woody constructions such as timber check dams is limited due to fungal decay. However, only sparse scientific information is available on the long-term behaviour of timber structures and the colonisation with decay fungi. Related to this, in practice a controversial discussion has been going on if either Norway Spruce (Picea abies) or Silver Fir (Abies alba) is more enduring and if bark removal increases resistance against fungal decay. In order to going into this matter a series of 15 timber check dams built in 1996 has been monitored. The constructions were alternatively realised with Norway Spruce and Silver Fir, half of them each with remaining and removed bark, respectively. The scientific investigations included the documentation of colonisation with rot fungi and the identification of decayed zones with a simple practical approach as well as based on drilling resistance. Colonisation by decay fungi started three years after construction (e.g. Gloeophyllum sepiarium), detecting two years later first parts with reduced wood resistance. Sixteen years after construction decay was found on all check dams but two. Wood quality was markedly better in watered sections compared to the occasionally dry lateral abutment sections. Taking the whole check dams into consideration, slightly more decay was detected in Norway Spruce compared to logs in Silver Fir and both the practical approach and the drilling resistance measurement yielded in more defects on logs without bark. However, due to limited number of replications and fungal data, it was not possible to statistically verify these results. Statistical analysis was restricted to the drilling resistance data and fruit-bodies of decay fungi of the uppermost log of each check dam. Based on this limited analysis significant differences in the effect on the drilling resistance were found for watered sections and lateral abutments

  16. A 22-year Northern Irish experience of carotid body tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Stephen; O'Donnell, Mark; Harkin, Denis; Loughrey, Maurice; Lee, Bernard; Blair, Paul

    2011-09-01

    Carotid body tumours (CBTs) are rare vascular neoplasms originating in paraganglionic cells of the carotid bifurcation. The aim of this study was to review all patients diagnosed with CBTs in Northern Ireland. A retrospective review was performed of all patients who had CBTs treated at our institutions between 1987 and 2009. Patient demographics, clinical symptomatology, investigative modality, therapeutic intervention, pathological analysis and long-term outcomes were assessed. Twenty-nine patients were identified with 33 CBTs and three glomus intravagale tumours (GITs). Six patients had bilateral CBTs (21%), one of whom had a synchronous GIT. Twenty-six patients underwent a total of 30 operative procedures for the resection of 28 CBTs and 3 GITs. Conventional operative treatment included subadventitial tumour excision. A vascular shunt facilitated arterial reconstruction following the removal of seven (23%) tumours and on six of these occasions (19%) continuity was restored with an interposition vein graft. For access the external carotid artery was ligated during the removal of four tumours (13%). Two tumours were considered malignant. No peri-operative mortalities were recorded. Immediate complications included peri-operative stroke secondary to an occluded vein graft (n=1), requirement of tracheostomy (n=2), emergency haematoma drainage (n=2) and transient cranial nerve damage (n=8). Late complications included pseudoaneurysm of vein graft with subsequent stoke (n=1), permanent cranial nerve damage (n=9), Horner's syndrome (n=1) and an asymptomatic vein graft occlusion (n=1). One patient had tumour recurrence two years post-operatively and died due to pulmonary metastases. Two other patients died of unrelated causes. All other patients remain well with no evidence of tumour recurrence at mean followup of 1801 days (range 159-9208 days). Our long-term experience is comparable with other reported case series where surgical intervention conferred a long-term

  17. Are tumours angiogenesis-dependent?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheul, H. M. W.; Voest, E. E.; Schlingemann, R. O.

    2004-01-01

    The final proof of principle that cancer patients can be effectively treated with angiogenesis inhibitors is eagerly awaited. Various preclinical in vivo experiments have proven that most tumours need new vessel formation in order to grow and to form metastases. First of all, tumours do not grow in

  18. Tumours in the Small Bowel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kurniawan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Small bowel tumours are rare and originate from a wide variety of benign and malignant entities. Adenocarcinomas are the most frequent primary malignant small bowel tumours. Submucosal tumours like gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST or neuroendocrine tumours (NET may show a central umbilication, pathologic vessels, bridging folds or an ulceration of the overlying mucosa. These signs help to differentiate them from harmless bulges caused by impression from outside, e.g. from other intestinal loops. Sarcomas of the small bowel are rare neoplasias with mesenchymal origin, sometimes presenting as protruding masses. Benign tumours like lipoma, fibrolipoma, fibroma, myoma, and heterotopias typically present as submucosal masses. They cannot be differentiated endoscopically from those with malignant potential as GIST or NET. Neuroendocrine carcinomas may present with diffuse infiltration, which may resemble other malignant tumours. The endoscopic appearance of small bowel lymphomas has a great variation from mass lesions to diffuse infiltrative changes. Melanoma metastases are the most frequent metastases to the small bowel. They may be hard to distinguish from other tumours when originating from an amelanotic melanoma.

  19. Facility control keys to long-term strategic planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1998-07-01

    Mount Saint Vincent University in Halifax, Nova Scotia has improved the energy efficiency of its campus by upgrading the control and monitoring of its physical plant. The first energy efficiency project on campus was in 1993 when the existing electronic and pneumatic HVAC controls was replaced with Direct Digital Control technology which was used in the replacement of fume hood controllers and temperature pressurization controls in seven laboratories. Several other projects followed, all using the System 600 building automation system (BAS) by Landis and Staefa Ltd. Today, the BAS controls and monitors over 1000 physical and virtual points, comprises 13 modular building controllers and a series of unitary and fume hood controllers, two Insight workstations, a steam plant terminal and the Visaplex paging system. These improvements have helped the university to balance its operating budget. 2 figs.

  20. Clonal nature of odontogenic tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Carolina Cavaliéri; Oliveira, Carla da Silveira; Castro, Wagner Henriques; de Lacerda, Júlio César Tanos; Gomez, Ricardo Santiago

    2009-04-01

    Although clonal origin is an essential step in the comprehension of neoplasias, there have been no studies to examine whether odontogenic tumours are derived from a single somatic progenitor cell. The purpose of this study was to investigate the clonal origin of odontogenic tumours. Fresh samples of seven ameloblastomas, two odontogenic mixomas, two adenomatoid odontogenic tumour, one calcifying odontogenic cyst, one calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumour (CEOT) and six odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) of female patients were included in this study. After DNA extraction, the HUMARA gene polymorphism assay was performed. Most of the informative odontogenic lesions studied (12 out of 16) showed a monoclonal pattern. Among the polyclonal cases, two were OKC, one CEOT and one odontogenic mixoma. Our results suggest that most odontogenic tumours are monoclonal.

  1. Multiphase modelling of vascular tumour growth in two spatial dimensions

    KAUST Repository

    Hubbard, M.E.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present a continuum mathematical model of vascular tumour growth which is based on a multiphase framework in which the tissue is decomposed into four distinct phases and the principles of conservation of mass and momentum are applied to the normal/healthy cells, tumour cells, blood vessels and extracellular material. The inclusion of a diffusible nutrient, supplied by the blood vessels, allows the vasculature to have a nonlocal influence on the other phases. Two-dimensional computational simulations are carried out on unstructured, triangular meshes to allow a natural treatment of irregular geometries, and the tumour boundary is captured as a diffuse interface on this mesh, thereby obviating the need to explicitly track the (potentially highly irregular and ill-defined) tumour boundary. A hybrid finite volume/finite element algorithm is used to discretise the continuum model: the application of a conservative, upwind, finite volume scheme to the hyperbolic mass balance equations and a finite element scheme with a stable element pair to the generalised Stokes equations derived from momentum balance, leads to a robust algorithm which does not use any form of artificial stabilisation. The use of a matrix-free Newton iteration with a finite element scheme for the nutrient reaction-diffusion equations allows full nonlinearity in the source terms of the mathematical model.Numerical simulations reveal that this four-phase model reproduces the characteristic pattern of tumour growth in which a necrotic core forms behind an expanding rim of well-vascularised proliferating tumour cells. The simulations consistently predict linear tumour growth rates. The dependence of both the speed with which the tumour grows and the irregularity of the invading tumour front on the model parameters is investigated. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Impurity control in near-term tokamak reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stacey, W.M. Jr.; Smith, D.L.; Brooks, J.N.

    1976-10-01

    Several methods for reducing impurity contamination in near-term tokamak reactors by modifying the first-wall surface with a low-Z or low-sputter material are examined. A review of the sputtering data and an assessment of the technological feasibility of various wall modification schemes are presented. The power performance of a near-term tokamak reactor is simulated for various first-wall surface materials, with and without a divertor, in order to evaluate the likely effect of plasma contamination associated with these surface materials.

  3. Controls on short-term variations in Greenland glacier dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sundal, A.V.; Shepherd, A.; van den Broeke, M.R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073765643; van Angelen, J.H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/325922470; Gourmelen, N.; Park, J.

    2013-01-01

    Short-term ice-dynamical processes at Greenland’s Jakobshavn and Kangerdlugssuaq glaciers were studied using a 3 day time series of synthetic aperture radar data acquired during the 2011 European Remote-sensing Satellite-2 (ERS-2) 3 day repeat campaign together with modelled meteorological

  4. Childhood brain tumour risk and its association with wireless phones: a commentary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Söderqvist Fredrik

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Case-control studies on adults point to an increased risk of brain tumours (glioma and acoustic neuroma associated with the long-term use of mobile phones. Recently, the first study on mobile phone use and the risk of brain tumours in children and adolescents, CEFALO, was published. It has been claimed that this relatively small study yielded reassuring results of no increased risk. We do not agree. We consider that the data contain several indications of increased risk, despite low exposure, short latency period, and limitations in the study design, analyses and interpretation. The information certainly cannot be used as reassuring evidence against an association, for reasons that we discuss in this commentary.

  5. Consistent control of psoriasis by continuous long-term therapy: the promise of biological treatments.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkhof, P.C.M. van de

    2006-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic, incurable disease that frequently requires long-term treatment. Although many patients benefit from effective traditional systemic therapies, namely methotrexate, cyclosporin, retinoids and fumaric acid esters, and some patients achieve long-term disease control, unrestricted

  6. Narrative skills of children treated for brain tumours: The impact of tumour and treatment related variables on microstructure and macrostructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docking, Kimberley; Munro, Natalie; Marshall, Tara; Togher, Leanne

    2016-01-01

    The narrative skills of children with brain tumours were examined. Influence of tumour location, radiotherapy, time post-treatment and presence of hydrocephalus was also investigated, as well as associations between narrative and language abilities. Seventeen children (aged 5;6-14;11) treated for brain tumour and their matched controls completed a narrative assessment and comprehensive language testing. Audio recorded narratives were analysed for microstructure and macrostructure elements. Between-group comparisons were conducted. Narrative elements were explored in association with tumour and treatment-related variables. Correlation analysis examined relationships between narrative scores and language test performance. While significant differences were not found between two groups of children across narrative elements, sub-group comparisons revealed marginal differences in macrostructure related to tumour location and hydrocephalus. Children treated with methods other than radiotherapy showed a significant increase in number of mazes in their narratives compared to children who received radiotherapy. Strong positive correlations also existed between narrative elements and language performance. Preliminary findings highlight the importance of investigating narrative abilities as part of a comprehensive language assessment. Macrostructure should be routinely examined where children are diagnosed with either posterior fossa tumour or hydrocephalus or have undergone surgery and/or chemotherapy for brain tumour.

  7. [Historic malignant tumour: 27 observations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparsa, A; Doffoel-Hantz, V; Durox, H; Gaston, J; Delage-Core, M; Bédane, C; Labrousse, F; Sannajust, J P; Bonnetblanc, J-M

    2012-03-01

    When used in the French medical literature to describe a pathological state, the word "historic" normally refers to tumours of startling appearance because of their size. It is difficult to understand how a patient can allow such tumours to continue to grow. We attempt to define this concept. Two dermatologists carried out a retrospective, independent and comparative selection of photographs taken between 1978 and 2008 of malignant cutaneous tumours of unusual size given the histological diagnosis. Socio-professional, demographic, clinical, histological psychological data, and details of treatment history and progress were collected. Twenty-seven patients (11 M, 16 F) of mean age 74 years (34-99 years) presented a "historic" tumour. Twelve patients lived in rural regions. Five patients were company executives. The average duration of development of the "historic" tumours was 4.5 years (6-420 months). The tumours were classed histologically as epidermoid carcinomas (nine) and melanomas (seven). The mean size was 13 cm (6-30 cm). Psychiatric problems, membership of sects or dementia were noted for 13 patients. Treatment consisted of chemotherapy, radiotherapy or, less frequently, surgery. Eighteen patients died on average 13 months after diagnosis. "Historic" malignant tumour (also described in the literature as "giant" tumour) is a real-life fact. No studies have been made of a series of such patients. Despite histological diagnosis, the size was associated with slow tumoral progress and/or late treatment, chiefly accounted for by psychiatric disorders. Socio-professional data indicate that "historic" tumours are equally common in urban and rural areas. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. The development of tumours under a ketogenic diet in association with the novel tumour marker TKTL1: A case series in general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Natalie; Walach, Harald

    2016-01-01

    Since the initial observations by Warburg in 1924, it has become clear in recent years that tumour cells require a high level of glucose to proliferate. Therefore, a ketogenic diet that provides the body with energy mainly through fat and proteins, but contains a reduced amount of carbohydrates, has become a dietary option for supporting tumour treatment and has exhibited promising results. In the present study, the first case series of such a treatment in general practice is presented, in which 78 patients with tumours were treated within a time window of 10 months. The patients were monitored regarding their levels of transketolase-like-1 (TKTL1), a novel tumour marker associated with aerobic glycolysis of tumour cells, and the patients' degree of adherence to a ketogenic diet. Tumour progression was documented according to oncologists' reports. Tumour status was correlated with TKTL1 expression (Kruskal-Wallis test, Pketogenic diet, with one patient experiencing a stagnation in tumour progression and others an improvement in their condition. The adoption of a ketogenic diet was also observed to affect the levels of TKTL1 in those patients. In conclusion, the results from the present case series in general practice suggest that it may be beneficial to advise tumour patients to adopt a ketogenic diet, and that those who adhere to it may have positive results from this type of diet. Thus, the use of a ketogenic diet as a complementary treatment to tumour therapy must be further studied in rigorously controlled trials.

  9. Long-term control medication use and asthma control status among children and adults with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahran, Hatice S; Bailey, Cathy M; Qin, Xiaoting; Johnson, Carol

    2017-12-01

    Uncontrolled asthma decreases quality of life and increases health care use. Most people with asthma need daily use of long-term control (LTC) medications for asthma symptoms and to prevent asthma attacks. Ongoing assessment of a person's level of asthma control and medication use is important in determining the effectiveness of current treatment to decrease the frequency and intensity of symptoms and functional limitations. To assess the use of LTC medication among children and adults with current asthma and identify contributing factors for LTC medication use. We used the 2006-2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) child and adult Asthma Call-back Survey (ACBS) data to assess the level of asthma control and LTC medication use. Asthma control was classified as well controlled and uncontrolled using guideline-based measures. We used multivariable logistic regression models to identify contributing factors for LTC medication use and having uncontrolled asthma. Among persons with current asthma, 46.0% of children and 41.5% of adults were taking LTC medications and 38.4% of children and 50.0% of adults had uncontrolled asthma. Among children who had uncontrolled asthma (38.4%), 24.1% were taking LTC medications and 14.3% were not taking LTC medications. Among adults who had uncontrolled asthma (50.0%), 26.7% were taking LTC medications and 23.3% were not taking LTC medications. Using BRFSS ACBS data to assess the level of asthma control and LTC medication use can identify subpopulations of persons with asthma who receive suboptimal treatment, for which better asthma-related medical treatment and management are needed.

  10. CT appearances of pleural tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salahudeen, H.M. [Department of Radiology, Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust (United Kingdom)], E-mail: hmdsal@gmail.com; Hoey, E.T.D. [Department of Radiology, Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust (United Kingdom); Department of Radiology, Papworth Hospital, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Robertson, R.J.; Darby, M.J. [Department of Radiology, Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust (United Kingdom)

    2009-09-15

    Computed tomography (CT) is the imaging technique of choice for characterizing pleural masses with respect to their location, composition, and extent. CT also provides important information regarding invasion of the chest wall and surrounding structures. A spectrum of tumours can affect the pleura of which metastatic adenocarcinoma is the commonest cause of malignant pleural disease, while malignant mesothelioma is the most common primary pleural tumour. Certain CT features help differentiate benign from malignant processes. This pictorial review highlights the salient CT appearances of a range of tumours that may affect the pleura.

  11. Interstitial ablative techniques for hepatic tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erce, C; Parks, R W

    2003-03-01

    Most patients with liver tumours are not suitable for surgery but interstitial ablative techniques may control disease progression and improve survival rates. A review was undertaken using Medline of all reported studies of cryoablation, radiofrequency ablation, microwave ablation, interstitial laser photocoagulation, high-intensity focused ultrasound and ethanol ablation of primary liver tumours and hepatic metastases. Although there are no randomized clinical trials, cryoablation, thermal ablation and ethanol ablation have all been shown to be associated with improved palliation in patients with primary and secondary liver cancer. The techniques can be undertaken safely with minimal morbidity and mortality. Although surgical resection remains the first line of treatment for selected patients with primary and secondary liver malignancies, interstitial ablative techniques are promising therapies for patients not suitable for hepatic resection or as an adjunct to liver surgery. Copyright 2003 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Mitigating the Long term Operating Extreme Load through Active Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koukoura, Christina; Natarajan, Anand

    2014-01-01

    blade azimuth location are shown to affect the extreme blade load magnitude during operation in normal turbulence wind input. The simultaneously controlled operation of generator torque variation and pitch variation at low blade pitch angles is detected to be responsible for very high loads acting...... on the blades. Through gain scheduling of the controller (modifications of the proportional Kp and the integral Ki gains) the extreme loads are mitigated, ensuring minimum instantaneous variations in the power production for operation above rated wind speed. The response of the blade load is examined...

  13. Motivation, self-determination, and long-term weight control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the topics of motivation and self-regulation in the context of weight management and related behaviors. We focus on the role of a qualitative approach to address motivation - not only considering the level but also type of motivation - in weight control and related behaviors. We critically discuss the operationalization of motivation in current weight control programs, present a complementary approach to understanding motivation based on self-determination theory, and review empirical findings from weight control studies that have used self-determination theory measures and assessed their association with weight outcomes. Weight loss studies which used Motivational Interviewing (MI) are also reviewed, considering MI's focus on enhancing internal motivation. We hypothesize that current weight control interventions may have been less successful with weight maintenance in part due to their relative disregard of qualitative dimensions of motivation, such as level of perceived autonomy, often resulting in a motivational disconnect between weight loss and weight-related behaviors. We suggest that if individuals fully endorse weight loss-related behavioral goals and feel not just competent but also autonomous about reaching them, as suggested by self-determination theory, their efforts are more likely to result in long-lasting behavior change. PMID:22385818

  14. Motivation, self-determination, and long-term weight control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teixeira Pedro J

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article explores the topics of motivation and self-regulation in the context of weight management and related behaviors. We focus on the role of a qualitative approach to address motivation - not only considering the level but also type of motivation - in weight control and related behaviors. We critically discuss the operationalization of motivation in current weight control programs, present a complementary approach to understanding motivation based on self-determination theory, and review empirical findings from weight control studies that have used self-determination theory measures and assessed their association with weight outcomes. Weight loss studies which used Motivational Interviewing (MI are also reviewed, considering MI's focus on enhancing internal motivation. We hypothesize that current weight control interventions may have been less successful with weight maintenance in part due to their relative disregard of qualitative dimensions of motivation, such as level of perceived autonomy, often resulting in a motivational disconnect between weight loss and weight-related behaviors. We suggest that if individuals fully endorse weight loss-related behavioral goals and feel not just competent but also autonomous about reaching them, as suggested by self-determination theory, their efforts are more likely to result in long-lasting behavior change.

  15. The Heidelberg classification of renal cell tumours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kovacs, G; Akhtar, M; Beckwith, BJ; Bugert, P; Cooper, CS; Delahunt, B; Eble, JN; Fleming, S; Ljungberg, B; Medeiros, LJ; Moch, H; Reuter, VE; Ritz, E; Roos, G; Schmidt, D; Srigley, [No Value; Storkel, S; VandenBerg, E; Zbar, B

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents the conclusions of a workshop entitled 'Impact of Molecular Genetics on the Classification of Renal Cell Tumours', which was held in Heidelberg in October 1996, The focus on 'renal cell tumours' excludes any discussion of Wilms' tumour and its variants, or of tumours metastatic

  16. Misoprostol versus oxytocin for labor induction in term and post-term pregnancy: randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Aquino, Márcia Maria Auxiliadora de; Cecatti, José Guilherme

    2003-01-01

    CONTEXT: Misoprostol, a synthetic E1 methyl analog prostaglandin, is at present receiving attention as a cervical modifier and labor induction agent. However, there is still a need for better determination of its safety and effectiveness. OBJECTIVE: To compare intravaginal misoprostol versus intravenous oxytocin for cervical ripening and labor induction in pregnant women with unripe cervices. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial. SETTING: The study was performed at the Leonor Mendes de Barros ...

  17. Paediatric laryngeal granular cell tumour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dauda Ayuba

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Granular cell tumour (GCT affecting the larynx is not common, especially in children. Most cases are apt to be confused with respiratory papilloma and may even be mistaken for a malignant neoplasia. We present a case of laryngeal GCT in a 12-year-old child to emphasize that the tumour should be regarded in the differential of growths affecting the larynx in children.

  18. MRI characteristics of midbrain tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, B. [Chinese Academy of Medical Science, Beijing (China). Neurosurgical Inst.]|[Department of Neuroradiology, Beijing Tiantan Hospital (China); Wang, C.C.; Wang, J. [Chinese Academy of Medical Science, Beijing (China). Neurosurgical Inst.

    1999-03-01

    We diagnosed 60 cases of midbrain tumours by MRI between 1993 to 1997. There were 39 males and 21 females, aged 2-64 years, mean 25.6 years. We found 38 patients with true intramedullary midbrain tumours, 11 predominantly in the tectum, 20 in the tegmentum and 7 with a downward extension to the pons; there were 7 within the cerebral aqueduct. There were 22 patients with infiltrating midbrain tumours extending from adjacent structures, 11 cases each from the thalamus and pineal region. All patients received surgical treatment. Gross total resection was achieved in 42 cases, subtotal (> 75 %) resection in 18. Pathological diagnoses included 16 low-grade and 15 high-grade astrocytomas; 5 oligodendroastrocytomas; 2 ependymomas; 11 glioblastomas; and 11 pineal parenchymal or germ-cell tumours. Midbrain tumours are a heterogeneous group of neoplasms, with wide variation in clinical and MRI features, related to the site and type of tumour. MRI not only allows precise analysis of their growth pattern, but also can lead to a correct preoperative diagnosis in the majority of cases. (orig.) (orig.) With 3 figs., 3 tabs., 19 refs.

  19. Primary thoracic wall tumours of mesenchymal origin in dogs: a retrospective study of 46 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baines, S J; Lewis, S; White, R A S

    2002-03-16

    Forty-three of the chest wall tumours in 46 dogs were malignant; five had metastases apparent at the time of presentation, five more had metastases discovered intraoperatively. Surgical resection of the tumours was associated with a significantly better outcome than conservative management. The median survival times after surgery for dogs with osteosarcoma was 17 weeks, for dogs with fibrosarcoma it was 26 weeks and for dogs with chondrosarcoma it was 250 weeks. En bloc excision of primary tumours affecting the chest wall was associated with minimal morbidity, but long-term survival was limited by distant metastases, primarily to the lungs. The tumours recurred in only three dogs. Early, radical surgical excision is recommended in the management of tumours of the chest wall. The prognosis depends on the histologic type of tumour and a histological diagnosis is mandatory before excision.

  20. [A tumour-mimic pig liver model for guiding focused ultrasound thermal ablation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melodelima, D; N'djin, Wa; Parmentier, H; Chesnais, S; Rivoire, M; Chapelon, J-Y

    2007-11-01

    There is no established liver tumour model in pigs to study the efficacy of ablative treatment options available for the treatment of liver tumours by physical agents. A tumour-mimic model visible with high contrast on sonograms and on gross pathology has been studied at mid-term on 20 pigs. The aim was to determine if these tumour-mimics are well tolerated and can be used to validate the use of thermal therapies at a preclinical stage. The dimensions of the tumour-mimics measured on sonograms were reproducible (diameter: 9.6 +/- 1.9 mm) and correlated with those performed in gross pathology (R(2)=0.73). The accuracy of focused ultrasound thermal therapy can be evaluated preclinically using these tumour-mimics.

  1. Role of tumour-free margin distance for loco-regional control in vulvar cancer-a subset analysis of the Arbeitsgemeinschaft Gynäkologische Onkologie CaRE-1 multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woelber, Linn; Griebel, Lis-Femke; Eulenburg, Christine; Sehouli, Jalid; Jueckstock, Julia; Hilpert, Felix; de Gregorio, Nikolaus; Hasenburg, Annette; Ignatov, Atanas; Hillemanns, Peter; Fuerst, Sophie; Strauss, Hans-Georg; Baumann, Klaus H; Thiel, Falk C; Mustea, Alexander; Meier, Werner; Harter, Philipp; Wimberger, Pauline; Hanker, Lars Christian; Schmalfeldt, Barbara; Canzler, Ulrich; Fehm, Tanja; Luyten, Alexander; Hellriegel, Martin; Kosse, Jens; Heiss, Christoph; Hantschmann, Peer; Mallmann, Peter; Tanner, Berno; Pfisterer, Jacobus; Richter, Barbara; Neuser, Petra; Mahner, Sven

    2016-12-01

    A tumour-free pathological resection margin of ≥8 mm is considered state-of-the-art. Available evidence is based on heterogeneous cohorts. This study was designed to clarify the relevance of the resection margin for loco-regional control in vulvar cancer. AGO-CaRE-1 is a large retrospective study. Patients (n = 1618) with vulvar cancer ≥ FIGO stage IB treated at 29 German gynecologic-cancer-centres 1998-2008 were included. This subgroup analysis focuses on solely surgically treated node-negative patients with complete tumour resection (n = 289). Of the 289 analysed patients, 141 (48.8%) had pT1b, 140 (48.4%) pT2 and 8 (2.8%) pT3 tumours. One hundred twenty-five (43.3%) underwent complete vulvectomy, 127 (43.9%) partial vulvectomy and 37 (12.8%) radical local excision. The median minimal resection margin was 5 mm (1 mm-33 mm); all patients received groin staging, in 86.5% with full dissection. Median follow-up was 35.1 months. 46 (15.9%) patients developed recurrence, thereof 34 (11.8%) at the vulva, after a median of 18.3 months. Vulvar recurrence rates were 12.6% in patients with a margin <8 mm and 10.2% in patients with a margin ≥8 mm. When analysed as a continuous variable, the margin distance had no statistically significant impact on local recurrence (HR per mm increase: 0.930, 95% CI: 0.849-1.020; p = 0.125). Multivariate analyses did also not reveal a significant association between the margin and local recurrence neither when analysed as continuous variable nor categorically based on the 8 mm cutoff. Results were consistent when looking at disease-free-survival and time-to-recurrence at any site (HR per mm increase: 0.949, 95% CI: 0.864-1.041; p = 0.267). The need for a minimal margin of 8 mm could not be confirmed in the large and homogeneous node-negative cohort of the AGO-CaRE database. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. CASE REPORT PET/CT-positive brown tumour – a potentially ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) in brown tumours as the potential cause of false-positive results in the evaluation of a patient for malignant primary tumour or metastases. Case report. A 49-year-old man came to the hospital with a long-term history of painful right lower leg after trauma.

  3. 'Ubiquitous' Tumour Elsewhere, But Uncommon in the Colon! Can We Ignore this Lesion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Gabriel

    2016-06-01

    Lipoma, a benign tumour of mature fat cells, can occur anywhere in the body and hence termed 'ubiquitous tumour'. But it rarely occurs in the colon and can present with complications and mimic malignancy. We present a case of descending colonic lipoma which led to a diagnostic dilemma.

  4. A numerical study on optimising the cryosurgical process for effective tumour necrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramajayam, K. K.; Kumar, A.; Sarangi, S. K.; Thirugnanam, A.

    2017-05-01

    This study presents the concept of improving the efficacy of cryosurgery using a low thermal conductivity liquid around the interface of a tumour. In the same context, perfluorohexane, a low thermal conductivity liquid has been used for the insulation of tumour. In the presence of a perfluorohexane layer, results demonstrate that the lethal front and the freezing front do not cross the tumour boundary. The results of numerical modelling indicate that there is an optimal thickness of the perfluorohexane layer which enables a perfect insulation to the tumour. Further, the contour plot presents that the optimal thickness of the perfluorohexane layer is 1 mm. The results also suggest that the lethal front reaches the tumour boundary at 100 s when perfluorohexane is used as an insulation at the tumour boundary. It is seen that a change in the thermal conductivity of the insulation at the tumour interface affects the lethal front propagation drastically. Among perfluorohexane, octafluoropropane and water, this study reveals perfluorohexane as the best substitute for the formation of the insulating layer at the tumour interface. The lower thermal conductivity of perfluorohexane provides a good barrier to the healthy tissue surrounding the tumour (as seen from the comparison of gap, i.e. the distance between the lethal front and the tumour interface). Furthermore, the calculation of gap indicates the most optimal configuration for cooling the tumour (termed as the optimal offset). In conclusion, the results presented in the study help in optimising the layer thickness at the tumour interface, the identification of an appropriate substance for making the layer and the use of gap to evaluate the most optimal configuration for freezing the tumours effectively.

  5. Misoprostol versus oxytocin for labor induction in term and post-term pregnancy: randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Maria Auxiliadora de Aquino

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Misoprostol, a synthetic E1 methyl analog prostaglandin, is at present receiving attention as a cervical modifier and labor induction agent. However, there is still a need for better determination of its safety and effectiveness. OBJECTIVE: To compare intravaginal misoprostol versus intravenous oxytocin for cervical ripening and labor induction in pregnant women with unripe cervices. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial. SETTING: The study was performed at the Leonor Mendes de Barros Maternity Hospital between November 1998 and December 2000. PARTICIPANTS: 210 pregnant women with intact membranes and indication for labor induction were selected. PROCEDURES: The women randomly received 25 µg of vaginal misoprostol every 4 hours, not exceeding 8 doses (105 women, or oxytocin in a continuous infusion (105 women. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: The main parameters measured were: latent period, time from induction to vaginal delivery, delivery route, occurrence of vaginal delivery with time, occurrence of uterine tonus alterations, hypoxia and neonatal morbidity. To verify the statistical significance of the differences between the groups, the chi-squared, Student t and log-rank tests were used. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between the groups concerning conditions for labor induction, age, parity, race, marital status, family income, initial Bishop Index and number of prenatal visits. The cesarean section rate, latent period and period from induction to vaginal delivery were significantly lower for the misoprostol group. With regard to uterine tonus alterations, tachysystole was significantly more common in the misoprostol group. However, there was no difference in hypoxia and neonatal morbidity between the groups. CONCLUSION: 25 µg of misoprostol used vaginally every 4 hours is safer and more efficient for cervical ripening and labor induction than oxytocin.

  6. Modelling breast cancer tumour growth for a stable disease population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isheden, Gabriel; Humphreys, Keith

    2017-01-01

    Statistical models of breast cancer tumour progression have been used to further our knowledge of the natural history of breast cancer, to evaluate mammography screening in terms of mortality, to estimate overdiagnosis, and to estimate the impact of lead-time bias when comparing survival times between screen detected cancers and cancers found outside of screening programs. Multi-state Markov models have been widely used, but several research groups have proposed other modelling frameworks based on specifying an underlying biological continuous tumour growth process. These continuous models offer some advantages over multi-state models and have been used, for example, to quantify screening sensitivity in terms of mammographic density, and to quantify the effect of body size covariates on tumour growth and time to symptomatic detection. As of yet, however, the continuous tumour growth models are not sufficiently developed and require extensive computing to obtain parameter estimates. In this article, we provide a detailed description of the underlying assumptions of the continuous tumour growth model, derive new theoretical results for the model, and show how these results may help the development of this modelling framework. In illustrating the approach, we develop a model for mammography screening sensitivity, using a sample of 1901 post-menopausal women diagnosed with invasive breast cancer.

  7. Semi-autonomous image-guided brain tumour resection using an integrated robotic system: A bench-top study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Danying; Gong, Yuanzheng; Seibel, Eric J; Sekhar, Laligam N; Hannaford, Blake

    2018-02-01

    Complete brain tumour resection is an extremely critical factor for patients' survival rate and long-term quality of life. This paper introduces a prototype medical robotic system that aims to automatically detect and clean up brain tumour residues after the removal of tumour bulk through conventional surgery. We focus on the development of an integrated surgical robotic system for image-guided robotic brain surgery. The Behavior Tree framework is explored to coordinate cross-platform medical subtasks. The integrated system was tested on a simulated laboratory platform. Results and performance indicate the feasibility of supervised semi-automation for residual brain tumour ablation in a simulated surgical cavity with sub-millimetre accuracy. The modularity in the control architecture allows straightforward integration of further medical devices. This work presents a semi-automated laboratory setup, simulating an intraoperative robotic neurosurgical procedure with real-time endoscopic image guidance and provides a foundation for the future transition from engineering approaches to clinical application. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. PTEN hamartoma tumour syndrome: early tumour development in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smpokou, Patroula; Fox, Victor L; Tan, Wen-Hann

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to report the earliest age of diagnosis of common clinical findings in children with PTEN hamartoma tumour syndrome (PHTS). Medical records of children with PHTS were reviewed; data included growth measurements, presence or absence of specific clinical manifestations and tumours, and documented ages of diagnosis. Children with PHTS evaluated at Boston Children's Hospital from 1996 to 2011. The cohort included 34 children diagnosed with PHTS via genetic testing, under the age of 21 years. Of these, 23 were male and 11 female. The mean age at their last documented clinical evaluation was 13.6 years. The mean follow-up time was 7.5 years. Macrocephaly and developmental/intellectual disability were consistent findings. Pigmented penile macules were noted in all males examined for this finding. Thyroid nodules, found in half the children screened with ultrasound, were diagnosed as early as at 5 years of age. Thyroid carcinoma, identified in 12% of the children in this cohort, was diagnosed as early as at 7 years of age. Other tumours included renal cell carcinoma diagnosed at 11 years of age and granulosa cell tumour of the ovary and colonic ganglioneuroma, each diagnosed at 16 years of age. Specific clinical findings and tumours are characteristic in children with PHTS. Tumour development occurs in young children with this condition, which necessitates early surveillance, especially of the thyroid. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  9. Ultrasound-based neuronavigation and spinal cord tumour surgery - marriage of convenience or notified incompatibility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamov, Todor; Eftimov, Tihomir; Kaprelyan, Ara; Enchev, Yavor

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed to examine the position of three-dimensional (3D) neurosonography and the advantages and disadvantages of ultrasound-based neuronavigation in spinal cord tumour surgery. During the period July, 2007- February 2011, 28 patients with spinal cord tumours were operated in our neurosurgical clinic. All patients underwent intraoperative 3D neurosonography by means of SonoWandTM and SonoWand InviteTM ultrasound-based neuronavigation systems. Intraoperative 3D neurosonography was used for 6 intramedullary tumours (5 ependymomas and 1 astrocytoma) and 22 extramedullary tumours (8 neurinomas, 10 meningiomas and 4 filum terminale ependymomas). During the performed spinal tumour surgery, snapshots of the 3D images of the surgical situation were obtained. Post-operative results, based on the control MRI findings and the patients' score on Karnofsky Performance Scale, were evaluated during the third month after the surgery. Ultrasound-based neuronavigation is a promising tool in extramedullary tumour surgery, especially of meningiomas and neurinomas, ensuring better control on the extent of tumour excision. In patients with intramedullary tumours, however, the use of 3D neurosonography for more precise control on the extent of radical tumour excision is not possible. In general, ultrasound-based neuronavigation has not added much to the surgical management of spinal cord tumors.

  10. Switching between manual control and brain-computer interface using long term and short term quality measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex eKreilinger

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Assistive devices for persons with limited motor control translateor amplify remaining functions to allow otherwise impossible actions.These assistive devices usually rely on just one type of input signalwhich can be derived from residual muscle functions or any other kindof biosignal. When only one signal is used, the functionality of theassistive device can be reduced as soon as the quality of the providedsignal is impaired. The quality can decrease in case of fatigue, lack ofconcentration, high noise, spasms, tremors, depending on the type ofsignal. To overcome this dependency on one input signal, a combination of more inputs should be feasible. This work presents a hybridBrain-Computer Interface (hBCI approach where two different inputsignals (joystick and BCI were monitored and only one of them waschosen as a control signal at a time. Users could move a car in agame-like feedback application to collect coins and avoid obstacles viaeither joystick or BCI control. Both control types were constantlymonitored with four different long term quality measures to evaluate the current state of the signals. As soon as the quality droppedbelow a certain threshold, a monitoring system would switch to theother control mode and vice versa. Additionally, short term qualitymeasures were applied to check for strong artifacts that could rendervoluntary control impossible. These measures were used to prohibitactions carried out during times when highly uncertain signals wererecorded. The switching possibility allowed more functionality for theusers. Moving the car was still possible even after one control modewas not working any more. The proposed system serves as a basisthat shows how BCI can be used as an assistive device, especially incombination with other assistive technology.

  11. Pitfalls in colour photography of choroidal tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalenbourg, A; Zografos, L

    2013-02-01

    Colour imaging of fundus tumours has been transformed by the development of digital and confocal scanning laser photography. These advances provide numerous benefits, such as panoramic images, increased contrast, non-contact wide-angle imaging, non-mydriatic photography, and simultaneous angiography. False tumour colour representation can, however, cause serious diagnostic errors. Large choroidal tumours can be totally invisible on angiography. Pseudogrowth can occur because of artefacts caused by different methods of fundus illumination, movement of reference blood vessels, and flattening of Bruch's membrane and sclera when tumour regression occurs. Awareness of these pitfalls should prevent the clinician from misdiagnosing tumours and wrongfully concluding that a tumour has grown.

  12. Pitfalls in colour photography of choroidal tumours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalenbourg, A; Zografos, L

    2013-01-01

    Colour imaging of fundus tumours has been transformed by the development of digital and confocal scanning laser photography. These advances provide numerous benefits, such as panoramic images, increased contrast, non-contact wide-angle imaging, non-mydriatic photography, and simultaneous angiography. False tumour colour representation can, however, cause serious diagnostic errors. Large choroidal tumours can be totally invisible on angiography. Pseudogrowth can occur because of artefacts caused by different methods of fundus illumination, movement of reference blood vessels, and flattening of Bruch's membrane and sclera when tumour regression occurs. Awareness of these pitfalls should prevent the clinician from misdiagnosing tumours and wrongfully concluding that a tumour has grown. PMID:23238442

  13. Sleep disorders in children after treatment for a CNS tumour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verberne, Lisa M.; Maurice-Stam, Heleen; Grootenhuis, Martha A.; van Santen, Hanneke M.; Schouten-van Meeteren, Antoinette Y. N.

    2012-01-01

    The long-term survival of children with a central nervous system (CNS) tumour is improving. However, they experience late effects, including altered habits and patterns of sleep. We evaluated the presence and type of sleep disorders and daytime sleepiness in these children, and its associations with

  14. Skeletal and metabolic complications of testicular germ cell tumours.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemse, Peter-Paul Michiel

    2014-01-01

    The studies described in this thesis were performed to investigate the short and long-term effects of chemotherapy on bone metabolism, fat metabolism and cardiovascular risk in testicular germ cell tumour (GCT) patients. We report a twofold increased prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) in GCT

  15. Designing a Microfluidic Device with Integrated Ratiometric Oxygen Sensors for the Long-Term Control and Monitoring of Chronic and Cyclic Hypoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha M. Grist

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Control of oxygen over cell cultures in vitro is a topic of considerable interest, as chronic and cyclic hypoxia can alter cell behaviour. Both static and transient hypoxic levels have been found to affect tumour cell behaviour; it is potentially valuable to include these effects in early, in vitro stages of drug screening. A barrier to their inclusion is that rates of transient hypoxia can be a few cycles/hour, which is difficult to reproduce in traditional in vitro cell culture environments due to long diffusion distances from control gases to the cells. We use a gas-permeable three-layer microfluidic device to achieve spatial and temporal oxygen control with biologically-relevant switching times. We measure the oxygen profiles with integrated, ratiometric optical oxygen sensors, demonstrate sensor and system stability over multi-day experiments, and characterize a pre-bleaching process to improve sensor stability. We show, with both finite-element modelling and experimental data, excellent control over the oxygen levels by the device, independent of fluid flow rate and oxygenation for the operating flow regime. We measure equilibration times of approximately 10 min, generate complex, time-varying oxygen profiles, and study the effects of oxygenated media flow rates on the measured oxygen levels. This device could form a useful tool for future long-term studies of cell behaviour under hypoxia.

  16. Level of threshold weed density does not affect the long-term frequency of weed control.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wallinga, J.; Oijen, van M.

    1997-01-01

    Weed control thresholds are often presented as a means to reduce unnecessary control measures, thereby increasing the effectiveness of weed management. While the threshold is a useful tool for cost-effective application of control on a single-year base, its role over the longer term is more

  17. The portrayal of bone tumours in the press.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Nammari, Shafic Said; Danesh, Arash; Mussa, Mohamed; Al-Hadithy, Nawfal

    2013-04-01

    The media are pivotal in educating and informing the general public. The stories they cover and how they cover them has a powerful influence on public perceptions. There have been no previous reports of the portrayal of bone tumours in the press. LexisNexis™ Professional search engine used to retrieve articles from all United Kingdom National Newspapers over one year containing terms "bone tumour/bone tumour" and 46 other named bone and joint tumours from May 2009 to May 2010. A total of 253 relevant articles were found. Seven per cent solely bone tumour related, 41% main theme and 52% mentioned in passing. 52% mentioned tumour type. These were 51% multiple myeloma, 15% Ewing's sarcoma, 9% sarcoma unspecified, 6% clear cell sarcoma, 4.5% epithelial sarcoma, 4% synovial sarcoma, 3% osteosarcoma, 3% bony metastasis and 1.5% chondrosarcoma. Benign bone tumours not mentioned. Article focus: chemotherapy 17%, surgeon/doctor 7% and new surgical technique 2%. The overall attitudinal tone of the articles were 52% negative, 32% neutral and 16% positive. Only 13% quoted an oncologist, and 1% an orthopaedic surgeon. Quality of medical information provided was limited with 90% providing no meaningful medical information and this medical information being correct only 68% of the time. Articles with quotes from a doctor were significantly more likely to contain meaningful medical information than those without-33 versus 4%, respectively (p < 0.001 Chi-squared test)-and there was a trend for them to be more factually correct overall-68 versus 50% (p = 0.192 Fisher's exact Test).

  18. Second primary tumours in head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herranz González-Botas, Jesús; Varela Vázquez, Patricia; Vázquez Barro, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Head and neck cancer patients have a higher risk of second primary tumours than the general population. The most frequent locations are head and neck, lung and oesophagus, decreasing long-term survival. The aim of this work was to analyse the incidence, location according to index tumour and stage, chronology, patient age, and survival after diagnosis. Retrospective study on 579 patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, treated with curative intent, with a minimum 24-month follow-up. Early stages (I/II) were 42.4%, and 57.6% were stages III and IV. Second primary tumour incidence was 15% (87/579), with 9.2% (8/97) developing a third tumour. The most frequent locations of the second tumours were head and neck, 37.9% (33/87); lung, 36.8% (32/87); oesophagus, 5.7% (5/87); and colon, 5.7% (5/87). Five- and 10-year survival in patients without a second tumour was 65.1% and 52.7% respectively, versus 58.7% and 40.2% in those who developed one. The incidence of second primary tumours increased in the last decade, having a negative effect on survival. Since no specific early diagnosis tool is available, alcohol and tobacco avoidance along with scheduled follow-up are suggested procedures to reduce its incidence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Cirugía de Cabeza y Cuello. All rights reserved.

  19. Rapid and non-enzymatic in vitro retrieval of tumour cells from surgical specimens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitte Mack

    Full Text Available The study of tumourigenesis commonly involves the use of established cell lines or single cell suspensions of primary tumours. Standard methods for the generation of short-term tumour cell cultures include the disintegration of tissue based on enzymatic and mechanical stress. Here, we describe a simple and rapid method for the preparation of single cells from primary carcinomas, which is independent of enzymatic treatment and feeder cells. Tumour biopsies are processed to 1 mm(3 cubes termed explants, which are cultured 1-3 days on agarose-coated well plates in specified medium. Through incisions generated in the explants, single cells are retrieved and collected from the culture supernatant and can be used for further analysis including in vitro and in vivo studies. Collected cells retain tumour-forming capacity in xenotransplantation assays, mimic the phenotype of the primary tumour, and facilitate the generation of cell lines.

  20. The 2016 WHO Classification of Tumours of the Urinary System and Male Genital Organs-Part A: Renal, Penile, and Testicular Tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moch, Holger; Cubilla, Antonio L; Humphrey, Peter A; Reuter, Victor E; Ulbright, Thomas M

    2016-07-01

    The fourth edition of the World Health Organization (WHO) classification of urogenital tumours (WHO "blue book"), published in 2016, contains significant revisions. These revisions were performed after consideration by a large international group of pathologists with special expertise in this area. A subgroup of these persons met at the WHO Consensus Conference in Zurich, Switzerland, in 2015 to finalize the revisions. This review summarizes the most significant differences between the newly published classification and the prior version for renal, penile, and testicular tumours. Newly recognized epithelial renal tumours are hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell carcinoma (RCC) syndrome-associated RCC, succinate dehydrogenase-deficient RCC, tubulocystic RCC, acquired cystic disease-associated RCC, and clear cell papillary RCC. The WHO/International Society of Urological Pathology renal tumour grading system was recommended, and the definition of renal papillary adenoma was modified. The new WHO classification of penile squamous cell carcinomas is based on the presence of human papillomavirus and defines histologic subtypes accordingly. Germ cell neoplasia in situ (GCNIS) of the testis is the WHO-recommended term for precursor lesions of invasive germ cell tumours, and testicular germ cell tumours are now separated into two fundamentally different groups: those derived from GCNIS and those unrelated to GCNIS. Spermatocytic seminoma has been designated as a spermatocytic tumour and placed within the group of non-GCNIS-related tumours in the 2016 WHO classification. The 2016 World Health Organization (WHO) classification contains new renal tumour entities. The classification of penile squamous cell carcinomas is based on the presence of human papillomavirus. Germ cell neoplasia in situ of the testis is the WHO-recommended term for precursor lesions of invasive germ cell tumours. Copyright © 2016 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All

  1. Predictive factors of long-term colorectal cancer survival after ultrasound-controlled ablation of hepatic metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Socorro, Carmen Rosa; Saavedra, Pedro; Ramírez Felipe, José; Bohn Sarmiento, Uriel; Ruiz-Santana, Sergio

    2017-04-21

    The risk factors associated to long-term survival were assessed in patients with liver metastases of colorectal carcinoma undergoing ablative therapies. Single-centre cohort study, retrospectively analysed and prospectively collected consecutive patients with unresectable metastatic liver disease of colorectal carcinoma treated with ablative therapies between 1996 and 2013. Factors associated with survival time were identified using Cox's proportional hazard model with time-dependent covariates. A forward variable selection based on Akaike information criterion was performed. Relative risk and 95% confidence intervals for each factor were calculated. Statistical significance was set as P<.05. Seventy-five patients with liver metastases of colorectal cancer, with a mean age of 65.6 (10.3) underwent 106 treatments. Variables selected were good quality of life (RR 0.308, 95% CI 0.150-0.632) and tumour extension (RR 3.070, 95% CI 1.776-5.308). The median overall survival was 18.5 months (95% CI 17.4-24.4). The survival prognosis in median was 13.5 vs. 23.4 months for patients with and without tumour extension, and 23.0 vs. 12.8 months for patients with good and fair or poor quality of life, respectively. Good quality of life and tumour extension were the only statistically significant predictors of long-term survival in patients of colorectal carcinoma with liver metastatic disease undergoing ablative treatment with ultrasound. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Tumour heterogeneity and the evolution of polyclonal drug resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrell, Rebecca A; Swanton, Charles

    2014-09-12

    Cancer drug resistance is a major problem, with the majority of patients with metastatic disease ultimately developing multidrug resistance and succumbing to their disease. Our understanding of molecular events underpinning treatment failure has been enhanced by new genomic technologies and pre-clinical studies. Intratumour genetic heterogeneity (ITH) is a prominent contributor to therapeutic failure, and it is becoming increasingly apparent that individual tumours may achieve resistance via multiple routes simultaneously - termed polyclonal resistance. Efforts to target single resistance mechanisms to overcome therapeutic failure may therefore yield only limited success. Clinical studies with sequential analysis of tumour material are needed to enhance our understanding of inter-clonal functional relationships and tumour evolution during therapy, and to improve drug development strategies in cancer medicine. Copyright © 2014 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Molecular mimics of the tumour antigen MUC1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tharappel C James

    Full Text Available A key requirement for the development of cancer immunotherapy is the identification of tumour-associated antigens that are differentially or exclusively expressed on the tumour and recognized by the host immune system. However, immune responses to such antigens are often muted or lacking due to the antigens being recognized as "self", and further complicated by the tumour environment and regulation of immune cells within. In an effort to circumvent the lack of immune responses to tumour antigens, we have devised a strategy to develop potential synthetic immunogens. The strategy, termed mirror image phage display, is based on the concept of molecular mimicry as demonstrated by the idiotype/anti-idiotype paradigm in the immune system. Here as 'proof of principle' we have selected molecular mimics of the well-characterised tumour associated antigen, the human mucin1 protein (MUC1 from two different peptide phage display libraries. The putative mimics were compared in structure and function to that of the native antigen. Our results demonstrate that several of the mimic peptides display T-cell stimulation activity in vitro when presented by matured dendritic cells. The mimic peptides and the native MUC1 antigenic epitopes can cross-stimulate T-cells. The data also indicate that sequence homology and/or chemical properties to the original epitope are not the sole determining factors for the observed immunostimulatory activity of the mimic peptides.

  4. Predictors of long-term benzodiazepine abstinence in participants of a randomized controlled benzodiazepine withdrawal program.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Voshaar, R.C.; Gorgels, W.J.M.J.; Mol, A.J.J.; Balkom, A.J.L.M. van; Mulder, J.; Lisdonk, E.H. van de; Breteler, M.H.M.; Zitman, F.G.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify predictors of resumed benzodiazepine use after participation in a benzodiazepine discontinuation trial. METHOD: We performed multiple Cox regression analyses to predict the long-term outcome of a 3-condition, randomized, controlled benzodiazepine discontinuation trial in

  5. Follicular infundibulum tumour presenting as cutaneous horn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayaraman M

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumour of follicular infundibulum is an organoid tumour with a plate like growth attached to the epidermis with connection from the follicular epithelium. We are reporting such a case unusually presenting as cutaneous horn.

  6. Scintigraphy in benign bone tumours

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1989-08-05

    Aug 5, 1989 ... Ackerman LV, Spjut AJ. Tumors of Bone and Carrilage. Washington, DC: US Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, 1962: 84-89. 4. Evans RW. HislOlogical Appearances of Tumours. Edinburgh: E & S Living- stone, 1966: 187-191. 5. Lichtenstein L. Bane Tumors. 5th ed. St Louis, Mo.: CV Mosby, 1977: 30-39.

  7. Neuropathological diagnosis of brain tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollo, Bianca

    2011-11-01

    With recent progress in radiological, pathological, immunohistochemical, molecular and genetic diagnoses, the characterisation of brain tumours has improved. The last World Health Organization (WHO) Classification of Tumours of the Central Nervous System was done in 2007, based on morphological features, growth pattern and molecular profile of neoplastic cells, defined malignancy grade. The neuropathological diagnosis and the grading of each histotype are based on identification of histopathological criteria and immunohistochemical data. Molecular and genetic profiles may identify different tumour subtypes varying in biological and clinical behaviour, indicating prognostic and predictive factors. In order to investigate new therapeutic approaches, it is important to study the molecular pathways responsible for proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis, and anaplastic transformation. Different prognostic and predictive factors for glioma patients were identified by genetic studies, such as the loss of heterozygosis on chromosome 1p and 19q for oligodendrogliomas, proangiogenic factors such as Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor for glioblastomas and the methylation status of gene promoter of MethylGuanine-MethylTransferase. In conclusion, the prognostic evaluation and the therapeutic strategies for patients depend on the synthesis of histological diagnosis, malignancy grade, gene-molecular profile, radiological images, surgical resection and clinical findings (age, tumour location, and "performance status").

  8. Nuclear hBD-1 accumulation in malignant salivary gland tumours.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wenghoefer, M.H.; Pantelis, A.; Dommisch, H.; Gotz, W.; Reich, R.; Berge, S.; Martini, M.; Allam, J.P.; Jepsen, S.; Merkelbach-Bruse, S.; Fischer, H.P.; Novak, N.; Winter, J.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Whereas the antimicrobial peptides hBD-2 and -3 are related to inflammation, the constitutively expressed hBD-1 might function as 8p tumour suppressor gene and thus play a key role in control of transcription and induction of apoptosis in malignant epithelial tumours. Therefore this

  9. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of propofol : Changes in patients with frontal brain tumours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sahinovic, M. M.; Eleveld, D. J.; Miyabe-Nishiwaki, T.; Struys, M. M. R. F.; Absalom, A. R.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Models of propofol pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics developed in patients without brain pathology are widely used for target-controlled infusion (TCI) during brain tumour excision operations. The goal of this study was to determine if the presence of a frontal brain tumour

  10. Melanotic neuroectodermal tumour of the pineal region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorhan, C.; Soto-Ares, G.; Pruvo, J.P. [Dept. of Neuroradiology, Hopital Roger Salengro, CHRU Lille, Lille (France); Ruchoux, M.M. [Dept. of Neuropathology, Hopital Roger Salengro, CHRU Lille (France); Blond, S. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Hopital Roger Salengro, CHRU Lille (France)

    2001-11-01

    We describe CT and MR findings in a 23-month-old infant with a melanotic neuroectodermal tumour of the pineal gland. The tumour has been stereotactically biopsied and surgically resected. The pathological diagnosis was made on the resected piece. Embryology of the pineal gland and the histology of melanotic neuroectodermal tumour of infancy are discussed. (orig.)

  11. Radiofrequency for the treatment of liver tumours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruers, TJM; de Jong, KP; Ijzermans, JNM

    2005-01-01

    Resection should still be considered the gold standard for many liver tumours. There is, however, growing interest in the use of radiofrequency (RFA) for the treatment of liver tumours. By RFA, tumour tissue can be destructed selectively without significant damage to vascular structures in the

  12. Radiofrequency for the treatment of liver tumours.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruers, T.J.M.; Jong, K.P. de; Ijzermans, J.N.M.

    2005-01-01

    Resection should still be considered the gold standard for many liver tumours. There is, however, growing interest in the use of radiofrequency (RFA) for the treatment of liver tumours. By RFA, tumour tissue can be destructed selectively without significant damage to vascular structures in the

  13. Mohs micrographic surgery of rare cutaneous tumours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flohil, S.C.; Lee, C.B. van; Beisenherz, J.; Mureau, M.A.M.; Overbeek, L.I.H.; Nijsten, T.; Bos, R.R.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recurrence rates after Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS) for rare cutaneous tumours are poorly defined. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the recurrence rate after MMS for rare cutaneous tumours at a university centre. METHODS & MATERIALS: Retrospective review of all rare cutaneous tumours treated

  14. REPORT OF SEVEN CASES OF METASTATIC TUMOURS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Major Adebayo

    Abstract. Background: Metastatic tumours make up approximately one per cent of all oral malignancies. Such tumours may present in the jawbones and oral soft tissues. The commonest oral site is the mandible. Nigerian reports of metastatic tumours to the jaws are very rare. Method: This is a retrospective study of six cases ...

  15. Short-term glycemic control is effective in reducing surgical site infection in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroin, Jeffrey S; Buvanendran, Asokumar; Li, Jinyuan; Moric, Mario; Im, Hee-Jeong; Tuman, Kenneth J; Shafikhani, Sasha H

    2015-06-01

    Patients and animals with diabetes exhibit enhanced vulnerability to bacterial surgical infections. Despite multiple retrospective studies demonstrating the benefits associated with glycemic control in reducing bacterial infection after cardiac surgery, there are fewer guidelines on the use of glycemic control for noncardiac surgeries. In the current study, we investigated whether long-term (begun 2 weeks before surgery) or immediate (just before surgery) glycemic controls, continued postoperatively, can reduce surgical site infection in type 1 diabetic-induced rats. Rats were injected with streptozotocin to induce type 1 diabetes. Four groups of animals underwent surgery and thigh muscle Staphylococcus aureus bacteria challenge (1 × 10 colony forming units) at the time of surgery. Group 1 diabetic rats received insulin treatment just before surgery and continued until the end of study (short-term glycemic control group). Group 2 diabetic rats received insulin treatment 2 weeks before surgery and continued until the end of study (long-term glycemic control). Group 3 diabetic rats received no insulin treatment (no glycemic control group). Group 4 nondiabetic rats served as a healthy control group. Rats were euthanized at 3 or 6 days after surgery. Blood glucose and muscle bacterial burden were measured at 3 or 6 days after surgery. Glycemic control was achieved in both long- and short-term insulin-treated diabetic rats. Compared with untreated diabetic rats, the bacterial burden in muscle was significantly lower in both groups of glycemic controlled diabetic rats at 3 (all P control regimen, initiated just before surgery and bacterial exposure, was as effective in reducing surgical site infection as a long-term glycemic control in type 1 diabetic rats. These data suggest that immediately implementing glycemic control in type 1 diabetic surgical patients before undergoing noncardiac surgery may decrease the risk of infection.

  16. Imaging of salivary gland tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y.Y.P.; Wong, K.T.; King, A.D. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Organ Imaging, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin NT, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Ahuja, A.T. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Organ Imaging, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin NT, Hong Kong (Hong Kong)], E-mail: aniltahuja@cuhk.edu.hk

    2008-06-15

    Salivary gland neoplasms account for <3% of all tumors. Most of them are benign and parotid gland is the commonest site. As a general rule, the smaller the involved salivary gland, the higher is the possibility of the tumor being malignant. The role of imaging in assessment of salivary gland tumour is to define intra-glandular vs. extra-glandular location, detect malignant features, assess local extension and invasion, detect nodal metastases and systemic involvement. Image guided fine needle aspiration cytology provides a safe means to obtain cytological confirmation. For lesions in the superficial parotid and submandibular gland, ultrasound is an ideal tool for initial assessment. These are superficial structures accessible by high resolution ultrasound and FNAC which provides excellent resolution and tissue characterization without a radiation hazard. Nodal involvement can also be assessed. If deep tissue extension is suspected or malignancy confirmed on cytology, an MRI or CT is mandatory to evaluate tumour extent, local invasion and perineural spread. For all tumours in the sublingual gland, MRI should be performed as the risk of malignancy is high. For lesions of the deep lobe of parotid gland and the minor salivary glands, MRI and CT are the modalities of choice. Ultrasound has limited visualization of the deep lobe of parotid gland which is obscured by the mandible. Minor salivary gland lesions in the mucosa of oral cavity, pharynx and tracheo-bronchial tree, are also not accessible by conventional ultrasound. Recent study suggests that MR spectroscopy may differentiate malignant and benign salivary gland tumours as well as distinguishing Warthin's tumor from pleomorphic adenoma. However, its role in clinical practice is not well established. Similarly, the role of nuclear medicine and PET scan, in imaging of parotid masses is limited. Sialography is used to delineate the salivary ductal system and has limited role in assessment of tumour extent.

  17. Full-length cloning and phylogenetic analyses of translationally controlled tumour protein and ferritin genes from the Indian white prawn, Fenneropenaeus indicus (H. Milne Edwards)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nayak, S.; Ramaiah, N.; Meena, R.M.; Sreepada, R.A.

    Elucidation, through molecular analyses, of bacterial afflictions in commercially important aquaculture- reared shrimps is pivotal for the prevention and/or control of disease outbreaks. In this study, we examined the phylogenetic relatedness...

  18. High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) for pancreatic carcinoma: evaluation of feasibility, reduction of tumour volume and pain intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinova, Milka; Rauch, Maximilian; Mücke, Martin; Rolke, Roman; Gonzalez-Carmona, Maria A; Henseler, Jana; Cuhls, Henning; Radbruch, Lukas; Strassburg, Christian P; Zhang, Lian; Schild, Hans H; Strunk, Holger M

    2016-11-01

    Prognosis of patients with locally advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma is extremely poor. They often suffer from cancer-related pain reducing their quality of life. This prospective observational study aimed to evaluate feasibility, local tumour response, and changes in quality of life and symptoms in Caucasian patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer treated by ultrasound-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU). Thirteen patients underwent HIFU, five with stage III, eight with stage IV UICC disease. Ten patients received simultaneous palliative chemotherapy. Postinterventional clinical assessment included evaluation of quality of life and symptom changes using standardized questionnaires. CT and MRI follow-up evaluated the local tumour response. HIFU was successfully performed in all patients. Average tumour reduction was 34.2 % at 6 weeks and 63.9 % at 3 months. Complete or partial relief of cancer-related pain was achieved in 10 patients (77 %), five of whom required less analgesics for pain control. Quality of life was improved revealing increased global health status and alleviated symptoms. HIFU treatment was well tolerated. Eight patients experienced transient abdominal pain directly after HIFU. HIFU ablation of pancreatic carcinoma is a feasible, safe and effective treatment with a crucial benefit in terms of reduction of tumour volume and pain intensity. • US-guided HIFU is feasible and safe for patients with unresectable pancreatic cancer. • HIFU can considerably reduce tumour volume and cancer-related pain. • Patients treated with HIFU experienced significant and lasting reduction of pain intensity. • HIFU has a crucial clinical benefit for patients with pancreatic cancer.

  19. Sodium hyaluronate enhances colorectal tumour cell metastatic potential in vitro and in vivo.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tan, B

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Sodium hyaluronate has been used intraperitoneally to prevent postoperative adhesions. However, the effect of sodium hyaluronate on tumour growth and metastasis in vitro and in vivo is still unknown. METHODS: Human colorectal tumour cell lines SW480, SW620 and SW707 were treated with sodium hyaluronate (10-500 microg\\/ml) and carboxymethylcellulose (0.125-1 per cent), and tumour cell proliferation and motility were determined in vitro. For the in vivo experiments male BD IX rats were randomized to a sodium hyaluronate group (n = 11; intraperitoneal administration of 0.5 x 10(6) DHD\\/K12 tumour cells and 5 ml 0.4 per cent sodium hyaluronate) or a phosphate-buffered saline group (n = 11; 0.5 x 10(6) DHD\\/K12 tumour cells and 5 ml phosphate-buffered saline intraperitoneally). Four weeks later the intraperitoneal tumour load was visualized directly. RESULTS: In vitro sodium hyaluronate increased tumour cell proliferation and motility significantly. Sodium hyaluronate-induced tumour cell motility appeared to be CD44 receptor dependent, whereas sodium hyaluronate-induced tumour cell proliferation was CD44 receptor independent. In vivo there was a significantly higher total tumour nodule count in the peritoneal cavity of the sodium hyaluronate-treated group compared with the control (P = 0.016). CONCLUSION: Sodium hyaluronate enhances tumour metastatic potential in vitro and in vivo, which suggests that use of sodium hyaluronate to prevent adhesions in colorectal cancer surgery may also potentiate intraperitoneal tumour growth. Presented to the Patey Prize Session of the Surgical Research Society and the annual scientific meeting of the Association of Surgeons of Great Britain and Ireland, Brighton, UK, 4-7 May 1999

  20. Placebo-Controlled Discontinuation of Long-Term Acid-Suppressant Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zwisler, Jon Eik; Jarbøl, Dorte Ejg; Lassen, Annmarie Touborg

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To investigate whether patients on long-term antisecretory medication need to continue treatment to control symptoms. Methods. A double-blinded randomised placebo-controlled trial in general practices in Denmark. Patients aged 18-90 who were treated with antisecretory drugs on a long-t...

  1. Lessons from long-term predator control: a case study with the red fox

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirkwood, R.J.; Sutherland, D.R.; Murphy, S.; Dann, P.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Predator-control aims to reduce an impact on prey species, but efficacy of long-term control is rarely assessed and the reductions achieved are rarely quantified. Aims: We evaluated the changing efficacy of a 58-year-long campaign against red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) on Phillip Island, a

  2. Genetic and Epigenetic Intra-tumour Heterogeneity in Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Huw Geraint; Jenkins, Gareth; Williams, Namor; Griffiths, Paul; Chambers, Phil; Beynon, John; Harris, Dean

    2017-05-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a highly heterogeneous disease, with pathologically similar cancers having completely different responses to treatment and patient survival. Intra-tumour heterogeneity (defined as distinct morphological and phenotypic differences) has recently been demonstrated to be an important factor in the development and behaviour of cancer cells and can be used to determine response to anticancer therapy. Patients with resected CRC had DNA extracted from eight defined tumour areas which were analysed for two genetic mutations (BRAF and KRAS) and one epigenetic trait (CpG island methylator phenotype/CIMP). Normal adjacent tissue was studied as control. Twelve patients with CRC were included. Intra-tumoural heterogeneity for KRAS mutation was seen in 2 patients (17%). There was no statistical evidence of CIMP status heterogeneity (p = 0.85), but 6 of the 12 patients (50%) demonstrated at least one heterogeneous area within the tumour. Intra-tumoural heterogeneity for both genetic and epigenetic factors in CRC is more prevalent than previously thought in Stage II and Stage III CRC. This study provides new insight into epigenetic heterogeneity of CRC and supports the development of a more targeted biopsy strategy to support expansion of personalised treatment.

  3. Total {sup 18}F-dopa PET tumour uptake reflects metabolic endocrine tumour activity in patients with a carcinoid tumour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiebrich, Helle-Brit; Walenkamp, Annemiek M.; Vries, Elisabeth G.E. de [University Medical Centre Groningen, Department of Medical Oncology, Groningen (Netherlands); Jong, Johan R. de; Koopmans, Klaas Pieter; Dierckx, Rudi A.J.O.; Brouwers, Adrienne H. [University Medical Centre Groningen, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Groningen (Netherlands); Kema, Ido P. [University Medical Centre Groningen, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Groningen (Netherlands); Sluiter, Wim; Links, Thera P. [University Medical Centre Groningen, Department of Endocrinology, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2011-10-15

    Positron emission tomography (PET) using 6-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-L-dihydroxyphenylalanine ({sup 18}F-dopa) has an excellent sensitivity to detect carcinoid tumour lesions. {sup 18}F-dopa tumour uptake and the levels of biochemical tumour markers are mediated by tumour endocrine metabolic activity. We evaluated whether total {sup 18}F-dopa tumour uptake on PET, defined as whole-body metabolic tumour burden (WBMTB), reflects tumour load per patient, as measured with tumour markers. Seventy-seven consecutive carcinoid patients who underwent an {sup 18}F-dopa PET scan in two previously published studies were analysed. For all tumour lesions mean standardised uptake values (SUVs) at 40% of the maximal SUV and tumour volume on {sup 18}F-dopa PET were determined and multiplied to calculate a metabolic burden per lesion. WBMTB was the sum of the metabolic burden of all individual lesions per patient. The 24-h urinary serotonin, urine and plasma 5-hydroxindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), catecholamines (nor)epinephrine, dopamine and their metabolites, measured in urine and plasma, and serum chromogranin A served as tumour markers. All but 1 were evaluable for WBMTB; 74 patients had metastatic disease. {sup 18}F-dopa PET detected 979 lesions. SUV{sub max} on {sup 18}F-dopa PET varied up to 29-fold between individual lesions within the same patients. WBMTB correlated with urinary serotonin (r = 0.51) and urinary and plasma 5-HIAA (r = 0.78 and 0.66). WBMTB also correlated with urinary norepinephrine, epinephrine, dopamine and plasma dopamine, but not with serum chromogranin A. Tumour load per patient measured with {sup 18}F-dopa PET correlates with tumour markers of the serotonin and catecholamine pathway in urine and plasma in carcinoid patients, reflecting metabolic tumour activity. (orig.)

  4. Bilateral disease and new trends in Wilms tumour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owens, Catherine M.; Olsen, Oeystein E. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Trust, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom); Brisse, Herve J. [Institut Curie, Service de Radiodiagnostic, Paris (France); Begent, Joanna [University College Hospital, Paediatric Oncology, London (United Kingdom); Smets, Anne M. [Academic Medical Center Amsterdam, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2008-01-15

    abdominal tumours, and our own preliminary data suggest that tissue cellularity is an important determinant of ADC value, which might help in terms of early prediction of therapy response. (orig.)

  5. Numerical resolution of a model of tumour growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Ana I

    2016-03-01

    We consider and solve numerically a mathematical model of tumour growth based on cancer stem cells (CSC) hypothesis with the aim of gaining some insight into the relation of different processes leading to exponential growth in solid tumours and into the evolution of different subpopulations of cells. The model consists of four hyperbolic equations of first order to describe the evolution of four subpopulations of cells. A fifth equation is introduced to model the evolution of the moving boundary. The coefficients of the model represent the rates at which reactions occur. In order to integrate numerically the four hyperbolic equations, a formulation in terms of the total derivatives is posed. A finite element discretization is applied to integrate the model equations in space. Our numerical results suggest the existence of a pseudo-equilibrium state reached at the early stage of the tumour, for which the fraction of CSC remains small. We include the study of the behaviour of the solutions for longer times and we obtain that the solutions to the system of partial differential equations stabilize to homogeneous steady states whose values depend only on the values of the parameters. We show that CSC may comprise different proportions of the tumour, becoming, in some cases, the predominant type of cells within the tumour. We also obtain that possible effective measure to detain tumour progression should combine the targeting of CSC with the targeting of progenitor cells. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute of Mathematics and its Applications. All rights reserved.

  6. Mobile phone use and risk of brain tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahkola, A.

    2010-05-15

    Mobile phone use has increased rapidly worldwide since the 1990's. As mobile telephones are used close to the head, the exposure to the radiofrequency radiation emitted by mobile phones has been suggested as a possible risk factor for brain tumours. The effect of mobile phone use on risk of brain tumours, particularly gliomas and meningiomas as well as acoustic neuromas, was evaluated using both a case-control approach and a meta-analysis. In addition, one of the most important sources of error in a case-control study, selection bias due to differential participation, was assessed in a subset of the case-control data. The risk of glioma and meningioma in relation to mobile phone use was investigated in population-based case-control studies conducted in five North European countries. All these countries used a common protocol and were included in a multinational study on mobile phone use and brain tumours, the INTERPHONE study, coordinated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Cases (1,521 gliomas and 1,209 meningiomas) were identified mostly from hospitals and controls (3,299) from national population registers or general practitioners' patient lists. Detailed history of mobile phone use was obtained in personal interviews. Mobile phone use was assessed using several exposure indicators, such as regular use (phone use at least once a week for at least six months), duration of use as well as cumulative number of hours and calls. To comprehensively evaluate the effect of mobile phone use on risk of brain tumours, the existing evidence from the epidemiological studies published on the issue was combined using meta-analysis. In the analysis, a pooled estimate was calculated for all brain tumours combined, and also separately for the three most common tumour types, glioma, meningioma and acoustic neuroma using inverse variance-weighted method. Pooled estimate was also obtained for different telephone types (NMT and GSM) and by the location

  7. Tumour targeting with systemically administered bacteria.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Morrissey, David

    2012-01-31

    Challenges for oncology practitioners and researchers include specific treatment and detection of tumours. The ideal anti-cancer therapy would selectively eradicate tumour cells, whilst minimising side effects to normal tissue. Bacteria have emerged as biological gene vectors with natural tumour specificity, capable of homing to tumours and replicating locally to high levels when systemically administered. This property enables targeting of both the primary tumour and secondary metastases. In the case of invasive pathogenic species, this targeting strategy can be used to deliver genes intracellularly for tumour cell expression, while non-invasive species transformed with plasmids suitable for bacterial expression of heterologous genes can secrete therapeutic proteins locally within the tumour environment (cell therapy approach). Many bacterial genera have been demonstrated to localise to and replicate to high levels within tumour tissue when intravenously (IV) administered in rodent models and reporter gene tagging of bacteria has permitted real-time visualisation of this phenomenon. Live imaging of tumour colonising bacteria also presents diagnostic potential for this approach. The nature of tumour selective bacterial colonisation appears to be tumour origin- and bacterial species- independent. While originally a correlation was drawn between anaerobic bacterial colonisation and the hypoxic nature of solid tumours, it is recently becoming apparent that other elements of the unique microenvironment within solid tumours, including aberrant neovasculature and local immune suppression, may be responsible. Here, we consider the pre-clinical data supporting the use of bacteria as a tumour-targeting tool, recent advances in the area, and future work required to develop it into a beneficial clinical tool.

  8. Investigation on nanoparticle distribution for thermal ablation of a tumour subjected to nanoparticle assisted thermal therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Sanjeev; Tyagi, Himanshu; Taylor, Robert A; Kumar, Amod

    2014-07-01

    This study investigates the effect of the distribution of nanoparticles delivered to a skin tumour for the thermal ablation conditions attained during thermal therapy. Ultimate aim is to define a distribution of nanoparticles as well as a combination of other therapeutic parameters to attain thermal ablation temperatures (50-60 °C) within whole of the tumour region. Three different cases of nanoparticle distributions are analysed under controlled conditions for all other parameters viz. irradiation intensity and duration, and volume fraction of nanoparticles. Results show that distribution of nanoparticles into only the periphery of tumour resulted in desired thermal ablation temperature in whole of tumour. For the tumour size considered in this study, an irradiation intensity of 1.25 W/cm(2) for duration of 300 s and a nanoparticle volume fraction of 0.001% was optimal to attain a temperature of ≥53 °C within the whole tumour region. It is concluded that distribution of nanoparticles in peripheral region of tumour, along with a controlled combination of other parameters, seems favourable and provides a promising pathway for thermal ablation of a tumour subjected to nanoparticle assisted thermal therapy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Results of the proximal humerus endoprosthetic reconstruction after tumour resection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Mikailov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to evaluate the results of surgical reconstructions of the proximal humerus after transarticular tumour resection, compare the functional results with the results of shoulder arthroplasty in patients with extensive damage of the proximal humerus of non-neoplastic origin. Material and methods. Between 2001 and 2013 38 proximal humeral reconstructions were performed in our clinic: using monopolar endoprostheses - 26 (68% and modular systems with reversible head -12 (32%. The control group included 46 patients with extensive lesions of the proximal humerus of non-neoplastic origin, operated in our clinic in the period from 2006 to 2012. Term follow-up of patients ranged from 7 months to 9 years. Assessment of functional results was carried out in a period from six months to one year. Results. The seven-year survival according the Kaplan - Meier method for patients with primary malignant tumors of the proximal humerus (25 patients was 77%. In the study group the average value of functional outcome MSTS score was 77.7%. Unipolar prosthesis showed a bad result, both in the control (61,3% MSTS, 60,7 Neer and in the main (67,7% MSTS, 61,1 Neer study groups. Conclusion. Currently the method of choice which doesn’t impair the oncologic component of treatment patients with shoulder neoplastic lesions is its replacement with modular reversible systems in combination with additional soft tissue fixation.

  10. Preterm Infants Exhibit Greater Variability in Cerebrovascular Control than Term Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyfe, Karinna L.; Odoi, Alexsandria; Yiallourou, Stephanie R.; Wong, Flora Y.; Walker, Adrian M.; Horne, Rosemary S.C.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) remains an important cause of infant death, particularly among infants born preterm. Prone sleeping is the major risk factor for SIDS and this has recently been shown to alter cerebrovascular control in term infants. As preterm infants are at greater risk for SIDS than those born at term, we hypothesized that their cerebrovascular control in the prone position would be reduced compared to term infants. Patients or Participants: There were 35 preterm (mean gestation 31.2 ± 0.4 w) and 17 term (mean gestation 40.1 ± 0.3 w) infants. Design: Infants underwent daytime polysomnography at 2–4 w, 2–3 mo, and 5–6 mo postterm age. Infants slept both prone and supine and were presented with cardiovascular challenges in the form of 15° head-up tilts (HUT). Measurements and Results: Cerebral tissue oxygenation index (TOI) was recorded using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRO-200 spectrophotometer, Hamamatsu Photonics KK, Japan) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) was recorded using a Finometer cuff (Finapres Medical Systems, Amsterdam, The Netherlands). In the prone position TOI increased following the HUT (P < 0.05), whereas no change was seen in the supine position. The overall pattern of response was similar in both groups, but more variable in preterm than term infants (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Cerebrovascular control differs between the prone and supine positions in preterm infants. Although overall the responses to head-up tilts were similar between term and preterm infants, greater variability of responses in preterm infants suggests persisting immaturity of their cerebrovascular control in the first year of life, which may contribute to their increased risk of sudden infant death syndrome. Citation: Fyfe KL, Odoi A, Yiallourou SR, Wong FY, Walker AM, Horne RS. Preterm infants exhibit greater variability in cerebrovascular control than term infants. SLEEP 2015;38(9):1411–1421. PMID:25669192

  11. Ionospheric F1 layer long-term trends and the geomagnetic control concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Mikhailov

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A previous approach to the ionospheric long-term trend analysis has been applied to the foF1 observations from Slough and Rome in order to investigate a possible relationship between the foF1 and the long-term variation of geomagnetic activity. A 40-year period, starting in 1962, has been used for the analysis. According to the results obtained earlier for F2 and E-region trends, geomagnetic control of the long-term variation has also been revealed for the foF1. Thus, it is now possible to speak about the geomagnetic control of the ionospheric trends in the whole ionosphere. This is not surprising as the Earth's ionosphere is a single entity that is strongly controlled, either directly or indirectly, by the magnetic field. As with the F2-region, this geomagnetic control is provided via neutral composition and temperature changes. A very long-term (centennial increase in geomagnetic activity in the 20th century is seen in the long-term foF1 variations as well. After its removal, the residual foF1 trends are very small and insignificant. In principal, this means that the observed foF1 long-term variations have a natural origin and can be attributed to solar and geomagnetic activity long-term variations. However, the situation in the thermosphere has been changing since 1997 and available foF2 observations at the two stations reveal information about the "break down" of the geomagnetic control in the F2-region. Possible reasons of these changes are discussed.

  12. Tumour viruses and innate immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopcraft, Sharon E; Damania, Blossom

    2017-10-19

    Host cells sense viral infection through pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which detect pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and stimulate an innate immune response. PRRs are localized to several different cellular compartments and are stimulated by viral proteins and nucleic acids. PRR activation initiates signal transduction events that ultimately result in an inflammatory response. Human tumour viruses, which include Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus, Epstein-Barr virus, human papillomavirus, hepatitis C virus, hepatitis B virus, human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 and Merkel cell polyomavirus, are detected by several different PRRs. These viruses engage in a variety of mechanisms to evade the innate immune response, including downregulating PRRs, inhibiting PRR signalling, and disrupting the activation of transcription factors critical for mediating the inflammatory response, among others. This review will describe tumour virus PAMPs and the PRRs responsible for detecting viral infection, PRR signalling pathways, and the mechanisms by which tumour viruses evade the host innate immune system.This article is part of the themed issue 'Human oncogenic viruses'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  13. Predicting parenting stress in caregivers of children with brain tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Emily; English, Martin William; Rennoldson, Michael; Starza-Smith, Arleta

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify factors that contribute to parenting stress in caregivers of children diagnosed with brain tumours. The study was cross-sectional and recruited 37 participants from a clinical database at a specialist children's hospital. Parents were sent questionnaires, which were used to measure factors related to stress in caregivers of children diagnosed with a brain tumour. Stress levels were measured using the Parenting Stress Index-Short Form (PSI/SF). Correlation analysis and multiple linear regression were used to examine the associations between parenting stress and coping styles, locus of control, parent-perceived child disability and time since diagnosis. Results revealed that 51% of parents were experiencing clinically significant levels of stress. The mean stress level of parents in the study was significantly higher than the PSI/SF norms (t = 4.7, p coping by accepting responsibility accounted for 67% of the variance in parenting stress. Other styles of coping, child behaviour problems and the amount of time since diagnosis were not found to be predictive of levels of parenting stress. There was a high prevalence of parenting stress in caregivers of children with a brain tumour. An external locus of control and coping by accepting responsibility increased the likelihood of elevated levels of stress. Results emphasised the importance of ongoing support for parents of children with brain tumours. Intervention might helpfully be centred on strategies to increase parents' internal locus of control. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Assessment of long-term leaching from waste incineration air-pollution-control residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Thomas; Mosbæk, Hans; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2006-01-01

    Assessment of long-term leaching from MSWI air-pollution-control (APC) residues is discussed with respect to use in environmental impact assessment, such as life-cycle assessment (LCA). A method was proposed for estimating leaching as a function of the liquid-to-solid (L/S) ratio in a long-term p...... that uncritical use of batch leaching data for assessing the potential leaching is highly problematic, and evaluations of residue disposal should include scenario specific quantification of the long-term leaching....

  15. Methods for short-term control of Imperata grass in Peruvian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbynek Polesny

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The traditional control of Imperata brasiliensis grasslands used by farmers in the Peruvian Amazon is to burn the grass. The objective of this study was to compare different methods of short-term control. Biological, mechanical, chemical and traditional methods of control were compared. Herbicide spraying and manual weeding have shown to be very effective in reducing above- and below-ground biomass growth in the first 45 days after slashing the grass, with effects persisting in the longer term, but both are expensive methods. Shading seems to be less effective in the short-term, whereas it influences the Imperata growth in the longer term. After one year shading, glyphosate application and weeding significantly reduced aboveground biomass by 94, 67 and 53%; and belowground biomass by 76, 65 and 58%, respectively, compared to control. We also found a significant decrease of Imperata rhizomes in soil during time under shading. Burning has proved to have no significant effect on Imperata growth. The use of shade trees in a kind of agroforestry system could be a suitable method for small farmers to control Imperata grasslands.

  16. Identification of genes involved in the biology of atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumours using Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeibmann, Astrid; Eikmeier, Kristin; Linge, Anna; Kool, Marcel; Koos, Björn; Schulz, Jacqueline; Albrecht, Stefanie; Bartelheim, Kerstin; Frühwald, Michael C.; Pfister, Stefan M.; Paulus, Werner; Hasselblatt, Martin

    2014-06-01

    Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumours (AT/RT) are malignant brain tumours. Unlike most other human brain tumours, AT/RT are characterized by inactivation of one single gene, SMARCB1. SMARCB1 is a member of the evolutionarily conserved SWI/SNF chromatin remodelling complex, which has an important role in the control of cell differentiation and proliferation. Little is known, however, about the pathways involved in the oncogenic effects of SMARCB1 inactivation, which might also represent targets for treatment. Here we report a comprehensive genetic screen in the fruit fly that revealed several genes not yet associated with loss of snr1, the Drosophila homologue of SMARCB1. We confirm the functional role of identified genes (including merlin, kibra and expanded, known to regulate hippo signalling pathway activity) in human rhabdoid tumour cell lines and AT/RT tumour samples. These results demonstrate that fly models can be employed for the identification of clinically relevant pathways in human cancer.

  17. Oral health in young adults with long-term, controlled asthma

    OpenAIRE

    ?stensson, Malin; Wendt, Lill-Kari; Koch, Göran; Oldaeus, Göran; Ramberg, Per; Birkhed, Dowen

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To study oral health in young adults with long-term, controlled asthma. Material and methods. Twenty 18- to 24-year-olds with a mean duration of asthma of 13.5 [standard deviation (SD) 5.4] years and 20 matched healthy controls were included. A clinical examination was performed and the prevalences of caries, erosions, gingival inflammation, cervicular fluid and periodontal pockets and the plaque formation rate were registered. The salivary flow rate and the numbers of mutans St...

  18. Incidence of primary cancers and intracranial tumour recurrences in GH-treated and untreated adult hypopituitary patients: analyses from the Hypopituitary Control and Complications Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child, Christopher J; Conroy, Daniel; Zimmermann, Alan G; Woodmansee, Whitney W; Erfurth, Eva Marie; Robison, Leslie L

    2015-06-01

    Speculation remains that GH treatment is associated with increased neoplasia risk. Studies in GH-treated childhood cancer survivors suggested higher rates of second neoplasms, while cancer risk data for GH-treated and untreated hypopituitary adults have been variable. We present primary cancer risk data from the Hypopituitary Control and Complications Study (HypoCCS) with a focus on specific cancers, and assessment of recurrence rates for pituitary adenomas (PA) and craniopharyngiomas (CP). Incident neoplasms during HypoCCS were evaluated in 8418 GH-treated vs 1268 untreated patients for primary malignancies, 3668 GH-treated vs 720 untreated patients with PA history, and 956 GH-treated vs 102 untreated patients with CP history. Using population cancer rates, standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated for all primary cancers, breast, prostate, and colorectal cancers. Neoplasm rates in GH-treated vs untreated patients were analysed after propensity score adjustment of baseline treatment group imbalances. During mean follow-up of 4.8 years, 225 primary cancers were identified in GH-treated patients, with SIR of 0.82 (95% CI 0.71-0.93). SIRs (95% CI) for GH-treated patients were 0.59 (0.36-0.90) for breast, 0.80 (0.57-1.10) for prostate, and 0.62 (0.38-0.96) for colorectal cancers. Cancer risk was not statistically different between GH-treated and untreated patients (relative risk (RR)=1.00 (95% CI 0.70-1.41), P=0.98). Adjusted RR for recurrence was 0.91 (0.68-1.22), P=0.53 for PA and 1.32 (0.53-3.31), P=0.55 for CP. There was no increased risk for all-site cancers: breast, prostate or colorectal primary cancers in GH-treated patients during HypoCCS. GH treatment did not increase the risk of PA and CP recurrences. © 2015 European Society of Endocrinology.

  19. Emulsion technologies for multicellular tumour spheroid radiation assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Kay S; McCluskey, Anthony G; Sorensen, Annette; Boyd, Marie; Zagnoni, Michele

    2016-01-07

    A major limitation with current in vitro technologies for testing anti-cancer therapies at the pre-clinical level is the use of 2D cell culture models which provide a poor reflection of the tumour physiology in vivo. Three dimensional cell culture models, such as the multicellular spheroid, provide instead a more accurate representation. However, existing spheroid-based assessment methods are generally labour-intensive and low-throughput. Emulsion based technologies offer enhanced mechanical stability during multicellular tumour spheroid formation and culture and are scalable to enable higher-throughput assays. The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics of emulsion-based techniques for the formation and long term culture of multicellular UVW glioma cancer spheroids and apply these findings to assess the cytotoxic effect of radiation on spheroids. Our results showed that spheroids formed within emulsions had similar morphological and growth characteristics to those formed using traditional methods. Furthermore, we have identified the effects produced on the proliferative state of the spheroids due to the compartmentalised nature of the emulsions and applied this for mimicking tumour growth and tumour quiescence. Finally, proof of concept results are shown to demonstrate the scalability potential of the technology for developing high-throughput screening assays.

  20. Association of tumour stiffness on sonoelastography with axillary nodal status in T1 breast carcinoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Ann; Moon, Woo Kyung; Cho, Nariya; Chang, Jung Min; Bae, Min Sun; Kim, Seung Ja; Han, Wonshik; Park, In-Ae

    2013-11-01

    To evaluate whether tumour stiffness on sonoelastography is associated with axillary nodal metastasis in T1 breast carcinoma patients. Between May 2006 and December 2010, 200 consecutive women (mean age, 51.6; range, 27 - 81 years) who underwent B-mode ultrasound (US), sonoelastography, and curative surgery with axillary nodal evaluation for clinically node negative T1 breast carcinomas (mean invasive tumour size, 12.4; range, 3 - 20 mm at pathology) were identified. The association between the elasticity score of the tumour and histopathological axillary nodal status was evaluated using a logistic regression model after controlling for imaging and clinicopathological variables of the tumour. The overall incidence of axillary nodal metastasis was 15.5 % (31 of 200). Axillary nodal metastasis was significantly more frequent in tumours with elasticity scores ≥4 than in tumours with elasticity scores elasticity score ≥4 [odds ratio (OR), 6.95; P = 0.004], US size >10 mm (OR, 5.98; P = 0.022), and lymphovascular invasion (OR, 10.68; P breast carcinoma patients. • Prediction of axillary nodal status using imaging techniques is valuable. • High ultrasound elasticity scores of T1 tumours were associated with axillary metastasis • Node-positive T1 tumours frequently had elasticity scores 4 or 5. • Sonoelastography might render axillary surgery unnecessary in T1 breast carcinoma patients.

  1. A combination of cisplatin-eluting gelatin microspheres and flavopiridol enhances anti-tumour effects in a rabbit VX2 liver tumour model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitta, N; Sonoda, A; Seko, A; Ohta, S; Nagatani, Y; Tsuchiya, K; Otani, H; Tanaka, T; Kanasaki, S; Takahashi, M; Murata, K

    2010-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the combination of cisplatin-eluting gelatin microspheres (GMSs) and flavopiridol enhances anti-tumour effects in a rabbit VX2 liver tumour model. Tumour-bearing rabbits (n = 21) were divided into five groups and infused from the proper hepatic artery. Group 1 (n = 5) received cisplatin-eluting GMSs (1 mg kg(-1)) and flavopiridol (3 mg kg(-1)), group 2 (n = 5) cisplatin-eluting GMSs alone (1 mg kg(-1)), Group 3 (n = 5) flavopiridol (3 mg kg(-1)), Group 4 (n = 3) GMSs alone (1 mg kg(-1)), and Group 5 (n = 3) was the control group receiving physiological saline (1 ml kg(-1)). On days 0 and 7 after procedures the liver tumour volume was measured using a horizontal open MRI system and the relative tumour volume growth rates for 7 days after treatment were calculated. On T(1) weighted images, the tumours were visualised as circular, low-intensity areas just below the liver surface. After treatment, the signals remained similar. The relative tumour volume growth rate for 7 days after treatment was 54.2+/-22.4% in Group 1, 134.1+/-40.1% in Group 2,166.7+/-48.1% in Group 3, 341.8+/-8.6% in Group 4 and 583.1+/-46.9% in Group 5; the growth rate was significantly lower in Group 1 than the other groups (pflavopiridol was effective.

  2. A control volume based finite difference method for solving the equilibrium equations in terms of displacements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hattel, Jesper; Hansen, Preben

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents a novel control volume based FD method for solving the equilibrium equations in terms of displacements, i.e. the generalized Navier equations. The method is based on the widely used cv-FDM solution of heat conduction and fluid flow problems involving a staggered grid formulation...

  3. Fertility sparing treatment in borderline ovarian tumours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Rosa Maria; Vazquez-Vicente, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Borderline ovarian tumours are low malignant potential tumours. They represent 10–15% of all epithelial ovarian malignancies. Patients with this type of tumour are younger at the time of diagnosis than patients with invasive ovarian cancer. Most of them are diagnosed in the early stages and have an excellent prognosis. It has been quite clearly established that the majority of borderline ovarian tumours should be managed with surgery alone. Because a high proportion of women with this malignancy are young and the prognosis is excellent, the preservation of fertility is an important issue in the management of these tumours. In this systemic review of the literature, we have evaluated in-depth oncological safety and reproductive outcomes in women with borderline ovarian tumours treated with fertility-sparing surgery, reviewing the indications, benefits, and disadvantages of each type of conservative surgery, as well as new alternative options to surgery to preserve fertility. PMID:25729420

  4. Tumour expression of bladder cancer-associated urinary proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindén, Mårten; Segersten, Ulrika; Runeson, Marcus; Wester, Kenneth; Busch, Christer; Pettersson, Ulf; Lind, Sara Bergström; Malmström, Per-Uno

    2013-08-01

    WHAT'S KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT? AND WHAT DOES THE STUDY ADD?: The current basis for diagnosis and prognosis in urinary bladder cancer is based on the pathologists' assessment of a biopsy of the tumour. Urinary biomarkers are preferable as they can be non-invasively sampled. Urinary cytology is the only test with widespread use but is hampered by poor reproducibility and low sensitivity. By studying the protein expression in bladder tumour tissue samples of proteins previously found in elevated levels in the urine of patients with bladder cancer, we have been able to show that these proteins originate from the tumour. The immunoreactivity of three of the investigated proteins increased with higher stage. Also a serine peptidase inhibitor was found to be predictive of progression from non-muscle-invasive to muscle-invasive tumours. To analyse the expression of five bladder cancer-associated urinary proteins and investigate if expression is related to the malignant phenotype of the tumour. To explore the possible prognostic value of these proteins. Urine samples, 16 from patients with bladder cancer and 26 from controls, were used in Western Blotting experiments. Tissue microarrays with bladder tissue from 344 patients diagnosed with bladder cancer between 1984 and 2005 was used in immunohistochemistry experiments. The proteins apolipoprotein E (APOE), fibrinogen β chain precursor (FGB), leucine-rich α2-glycoprotein (LRG1), polymerase (RNA) I polypeptide E (POLR1E), α1-antitrypsin (SERPINA1) and topoisomerase 2A (TOP2A) were probed with antibodies validated by the Human Protein Atlas. Increased expressions of APOE, FGB and POLR1E were correlated with increased tumour stage (P SERPINA1 in Ta and T1 tumours was found to increase the risk of tumour progression (hazard ratio 2.57, 95% confidence interval 1.13-5.87; P = 0.025) CONCLUSIONS: All proteins previously detected in urine from patients with bladder cancer were also expressed in bladder cancer tissue. The

  5. Nonlinear modelling of cancer: bridging the gap between cells and tumours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowengrub, J. S.; Frieboes, H. B.; Jin, F.; Chuang, Y.-L.; Li, X.; Macklin, P.; Wise, S. M.; Cristini, V.

    2010-01-01

    Despite major scientific, medical and technological advances over the last few decades, a cure for cancer remains elusive. The disease initiation is complex, and including initiation and avascular growth, onset of hypoxia and acidosis due to accumulation of cells beyond normal physiological conditions, inducement of angiogenesis from the surrounding vasculature, tumour vascularization and further growth, and invasion of surrounding tissue and metastasis. Although the focus historically has been to study these events through experimental and clinical observations, mathematical modelling and simulation that enable analysis at multiple time and spatial scales have also complemented these efforts. Here, we provide an overview of this multiscale modelling focusing on the growth phase of tumours and bypassing the initial stage of tumourigenesis. While we briefly review discrete modelling, our focus is on the continuum approach. We limit the scope further by considering models of tumour progression that do not distinguish tumour cells by their age. We also do not consider immune system interactions nor do we describe models of therapy. We do discuss hybrid-modelling frameworks, where the tumour tissue is modelled using both discrete (cell-scale) and continuum (tumour-scale) elements, thus connecting the micrometre to the centimetre tumour scale. We review recent examples that incorporate experimental data into model parameters. We show that recent mathematical modelling predicts that transport limitations of cell nutrients, oxygen and growth factors may result in cell death that leads to morphological instability, providing a mechanism for invasion via tumour fingering and fragmentation. These conditions induce selection pressure for cell survivability, and may lead to additional genetic mutations. Mathematical modelling further shows that parameters that control the tumour mass shape also control its ability to invade. Thus, tumour morphology may serve as a predictor of

  6. Ionospheric long-term trends: can the geomagnetic control and the greenhouse hypotheses be reconciled?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Mikhailov

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The ionospheric F2-layer parameter long-term trends are considered from the geomagnetic control concept and the greenhouse hypothesis points of view. It is stressed that long-term geomagnetic activity variations are crucial for ionosphere long-term trends, as they determine the basic natural pattern of foF2 and hmF2 long-term variations. The geomagnetic activity effects should be removed from the analyzed data to obtain real trends in ionospheric parameters, but this is not usually done. Only a thermosphere cooling, which is accepted as an explanation for the neutral density decrease, cannot be reconciled with negative foF2 trends revealed for the same period. A more pronounced decrease of the O/N2 ratio is required which is not provided by empirical thermospheric models. Thermospheric cooling practically cannot be seen in foF2 trends, due to a weak NmF2 dependence on neutral temperature; therefore, foF2 trends are mainly controlled by geomagnetic activity long-term variations. Long-term hmF2 variations are also controlled by geomagnetic activity variations, as both parameters, NmF2 and hmF2 are related by the F2-layer formation mechanism. But hmF2 is very sensitive to neutral temperature changes, so strongly damped hmF2 long-term variations observed at Slough after 1972 may be considered as a direct manifestation of the thermosphere cooling. Earlier revealed negative hmF2 trends in western Europe, where magnetic declination D<0 and positive trends at the eastern stations (D>0, can be related to westward thermospheric wind whose role has been enhanced due to a competition between the thermosphere cooling (CO2 increase and its heating under increasing geomagnetic activity after the end of the 1960s.

  7. The Klein–Gordon equation in mixture models of tumour growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caviglia, G. [DIMA, University of Genoa, Via Dodecaneso 35, 16146 Genoa (Italy); Morro, A. [DIBRIS, University of Genoa, Via Opera Pia 13, 16145 Genoa (Italy); Pinamonti, N., E-mail: pinamont@dima.unige.it [DIMA, University of Genoa, Via Dodecaneso 35, 16146 Genoa (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genoa (Italy)

    2014-11-14

    A mixture model of tumour microenvironment is considered, which consists of a solid phase for the tumour cells, a liquid phase for the interstitial fluid, and a nutrient phase. The balance equations for the three phases take into account exchange of mass between tumour and nutrients, and exchange of drag forces between the constituents. Under rather natural assumptions, the determination of the nutrient density is reduced to the solution of a Klein–Gordon equation, with source term depending on mass injection from outside. A chain of decoupled equations for the remaining unknowns is then determined in terms of the nutrient density. Finally, the growth of tumour volume is investigated under the assumption of spherical symmetry.

  8. An unusual presentation of a glomus tumour.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Nugent, N

    2011-02-01

    Glomus tumours are benign, soft tissue tumours, usually of fingertips. Classically they present with severe pain, temperature sensitivity and localised tenderness. The diagnosis is often delayed due to sometimes non-specific symptoms and rarity of the disorder. While usually a clinical diagnosis, imaging may be necessary for diagnosis and localisation. We present a case of glomus tumour of the fingertip with an unusual history.

  9. Targeted radiotherapy with {sup 177} Lu-DOTA-TATE in athymic mice with induced pancreatic malignant tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, M. A de; Pedraza L, M. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Medicas y Nutricion Salvador Zubiran, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Rodriguez C, J. [Faculty of Medicine, UAEM, Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Ferro F, G. [ININ, 52045 Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Murphy S, E. [Hospital Santelena, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2006-07-01

    Malignant pancreas tumours induced in athymic mice are a good model for targeted radiotherapy. The objective of this research was to estimate pancreatic tumour absorbed radiation doses and to evaluate {sup 177}Lu-DOTA-TATE as a therapeutic radiopharmaceutical that could be used in humans. AR42J murine pancreas cancer cells, which over-express somatostatin receptors, were injected in athymic mice and 20 days later the mean tumour size was 3.08 square cm (n=3). A mean of 86.3 MBq {sup 177}Lu-DOTA-TATE, was injected in a tail vein and 19 days after therapy the size of the tumours was 0.81 square cm. There was a partial relapse and after 16 days, when sacrificed, the mean tumour size was 8.28 cubic cm. An epithelial and sarcoma mixed tumour in the kidney of one treated mouse was found. The tumour of the control mouse was 8.61 cubic cm when sacrificed 14 days after tumour induction. Radiotherapy estimates to the tumours was 35.9-39.7 Gy and the tumours might have been completely reduced with a second therapy dose. These preliminary studies justify further therapeutic and dosimetry estimations to ensure that Lu-{sup 177}-DOTA-TATE will act as expected in man, considering kidney radiation. (Author)

  10. Intralymphatic mRNA vaccine induces CD8 T-cell responses that inhibit the growth of mucosally located tumours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialkowski, Lukasz; van Weijnen, Alexia; Van der Jeught, Kevin; Renmans, Dries; Daszkiewicz, Lidia; Heirman, Carlo; Stangé, Geert; Breckpot, Karine; Aerts, Joeri L.; Thielemans, Kris

    2016-01-01

    The lack of appropriate mouse models is likely one of the reasons of a limited translational success rate of therapeutic vaccines against cervical cancer, as rapidly growing ectopic tumours are commonly used for preclinical studies. In this work, we demonstrate that the tumour microenvironment of TC-1 tumours differs significantly depending on the anatomical location of tumour lesions (i.e. subcutaneously, in the lungs and in the genital tract). Our data demonstrate that E7-TriMix mRNA vaccine-induced CD8+ T lymphocytes migrate into the tumour nest and control tumour growth, although they do not express mucosa-associated markers such as CD103 or CD49a. We additionally show that despite the presence of the antigen-specific T cells in the tumour lesions, the therapeutic outcomes in the genital tract model remain limited. Here, we report that such a hostile tumour microenvironment can be reversed by cisplatin treatment, leading to a complete regression of clinically relevant tumours when combined with mRNA immunization. We thereby demonstrate the necessity of utilizing clinically relevant models for preclinical evaluation of anticancer therapies and the importance of a simultaneous combination of anticancer immune response induction with targeting of tumour environment. PMID:26931556

  11. Intralymphatic mRNA vaccine induces CD8 T-cell responses that inhibit the growth of mucosally located tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialkowski, Lukasz; van Weijnen, Alexia; Van der Jeught, Kevin; Renmans, Dries; Daszkiewicz, Lidia; Heirman, Carlo; Stangé, Geert; Breckpot, Karine; Aerts, Joeri L; Thielemans, Kris

    2016-03-02

    The lack of appropriate mouse models is likely one of the reasons of a limited translational success rate of therapeutic vaccines against cervical cancer, as rapidly growing ectopic tumours are commonly used for preclinical studies. In this work, we demonstrate that the tumour microenvironment of TC-1 tumours differs significantly depending on the anatomical location of tumour lesions (i.e. subcutaneously, in the lungs and in the genital tract). Our data demonstrate that E7-TriMix mRNA vaccine-induced CD8(+) T lymphocytes migrate into the tumour nest and control tumour growth, although they do not express mucosa-associated markers such as CD103 or CD49a. We additionally show that despite the presence of the antigen-specific T cells in the tumour lesions, the therapeutic outcomes in the genital tract model remain limited. Here, we report that such a hostile tumour microenvironment can be reversed by cisplatin treatment, leading to a complete regression of clinically relevant tumours when combined with mRNA immunization. We thereby demonstrate the necessity of utilizing clinically relevant models for preclinical evaluation of anticancer therapies and the importance of a simultaneous combination of anticancer immune response induction with targeting of tumour environment.

  12. Bilateral ovarian tumour in a young girl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Kumar Govindarajan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bilateral ovarian tumour in a girl presents the dilemma of conservative versus aggressive approach towards these tumours. When faced with suspicious tumour and complete replacement of the ovaries bilaterally, bilateral oophorectomy is a viable option, though the certain possibility of infertility and lifelong hormonal supplementation is unavoidable. We report a case of bilateral ovarian masses in a young girl, which on histopathological examination showed mature teratoma with aggregates of proliferating capillary and cavernous sized vessels in the tumour wall. Such associations are rare and must be differentiated from a vascular neoplasm.

  13. Tumour-targeted nanomedicines: principles and practice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lammers, T.G.G.M; Hennink, W.E; Storm, G

    2008-01-01

    .... Various different tumour-targeted nanomedicines have been evaluated over the years, and clear evidence is currently available for substantial improvement of the therapeutic index of anticancer agents...

  14. Elevated tumour marker: an indication for imaging?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McMahon, Colm J

    2012-02-01

    INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of imaging examinations in patients with elevated tumour markers when (a) the tumour marker is not validated for as a primary diagnostic test; (b) the patient had no personal history of cancer and (c) the patient had no other imaging indication. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients without known cancer who had abnormal carcinoembryonic antigen, CA19-9, CA125 and\\/or CA15-3 serology over a one-year period were included. A retrospective medical record review was performed to assess the number of these cases who underwent imaging because of \\'elevated tumour marker\\' in the absence of a clinical indication for imaging. The number and result of these imaging studies were evaluated. RESULTS: Eight hundred and nineteen patients were included. Of those, 25 patients (mean age: 67.8 [range 41-91] y), were imaged to evaluate: \\'elevated tumour marker\\'. They underwent 29 imaging studies (mean [+\\/-standard deviation (SD)] per patient = 1.2 [+\\/-0.4]), and had 42 elevated tumour marker serology tests (mean [+\\/-SD] per patient = 1.7 [+\\/-0.7]). Four patients had >1 imaging test. No patient had an imaging study which diagnosed a malignancy or explained the elevated tumour marker. CONCLUSION: The non-judicious use of tumour markers can prompt further unnecessary investigations including imaging. In this study, there was no positive diagnostic yield for imaging performed for investigation of \\'elevated tumour marker\\'. \\'Elevated tumour marker\\

  15. Focused ultrasound for treatment of bone tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Dario B; Stauffer, Paul R; Vrba, David; Hurwitz, Mark D

    2015-05-01

    Focused ultrasound (FUS) is a modality with rapidly expanding applications across the field of medicine. Treatment of bone lesions with FUS including both benign and malignant tumours has been an active area of investigation. Recently, as a result of a successful phase III trial, magnetic resonance-guided FUS is now a standardised option for treatment of painful bone metastases. This report reviews the clinical applications amenable to treatment with FUS and provides background on FUS and image guidance techniques, results of clinical studies, and future directions. A comprehensive literature search and review of abstracts presented at the recently completed fourth International Focused Ultrasound Symposium was performed. Case reports and older publications revisited in more recent studies were excluded. For clinical studies that extend beyond bone tumours, only the data regarding bone tumours are presented. Fifteen studies assessing the use of focused ultrasound in treatment of primary benign bone tumours, primary malignant tumours, and metastatic tumours meeting the search criteria were identified. For these clinical studies the responders group varied within 91-100%, 85-87% and 64-94%, respectively. Major complications were reported in the ranges 0%, 0-28% and 0-4% for primary benign, malignant and metastatic tumours, respectively. Image-guided FUS is both safe and effective in the treatment of primary and secondary tumours. Additional phase III trials are warranted to more fully define the role of FUS in treatment of both benign and malignant bone tumours.

  16. Case Report - Bilateral synchronous testicular germ cell tumours in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bilateral testicular tumours are rare, and 80% of bilateral tumours are metachronous. The incidence of testicular tumours is high in cryptorchidism. Synchronous bilateral testicular tumours are rare, and bilateral synchronous testicular tumours in bilateral cryptorchidism extremely rare, probably not reported previously.

  17. Health-related quality of life for everolimus versus placebo in patients with advanced, non-functional, well-differentiated gastrointestinal or lung neuroendocrine tumours (RADIANT-4): a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavel, Marianne E; Singh, Simron; Strosberg, Jonathan R; Bubuteishvili-Pacaud, Lida; Degtyarev, Evgeny; Neary, Maureen P; Carnaghi, Carlo; Tomasek, Jiri; Wolin, Edward; Raderer, Markus; Lahner, Harald; Valle, Juan W; Pommier, Rodney; Van Cutsem, Eric; Tesselaar, Margot E T; Fave, Gianfranco Delle; Buzzoni, Roberto; Hunger, Matthias; Eriksson, Jennifer; Cella, David; Ricci, Jean-François; Fazio, Nicola; Kulke, Matthew H; Yao, James C

    2017-10-01

    In the phase 3 RADIANT-4 trial, everolimus increased progression-free survival compared with placebo in patients with advanced, progressive, non-functional, well-differentiated gastrointestinal or lung neuroendocrine tumours (NETs). We now report the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) secondary endpoint. RADIANT-4 is a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial done in 97 centres in 25 countries worldwide. Adults (aged ≥18 years) were eligible for the study if they had pathologically confirmed, advanced (unresectable or metastatic), non-functional, well-differentiated (grade 1 or 2) NETs of lung or gastrointestinal origin. Patients were randomly allocated (2:1) using block randomisation (block size of three) by an interactive voice response system to receive oral everolimus (10 mg per day) or placebo, both with best supportive care, with stratification by tumour origin, WHO performance status, and previous somatostatin analogue treatment. HRQOL was assessed with the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General (FACT-G) questionnaire at baseline (visit 2, day 1), every 8 weeks (± 1 week) during the study for the first 12 months after randomisation, and every 12 weeks thereafter until study drug discontinuation. The primary endpoint, reported previously, was progression-free survival assessed by central review; HRQOL was a prespecified secondary endpoint. The prespecified secondary outcome measure was time to definitive deterioration (≥7 points) in FACT-G total score. Analyses were done on the full analysis set, consisting of all randomised patients, by intention to treat. Only data obtained while receiving the randomly allocated treatment were included in this analysis. Enrolment for RADIANT-4 was completed on Aug 23, 2013, but the trial is ongoing pending final analysis of the key secondary endpoint of overall survival. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01524783. Between April 3, 2012, and Aug 23

  18. Does Epstein-Barr virus infection have an influence on the development of laryngeal carcinoma? Detection of EBV by Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction in tumour tissues of patients with laryngeal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muderris, Tuba; Rota, Seyyal; Muderris, Togay; Inal, Erdogan; Fidan, Isil

    2013-08-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a well-known carcinogenic virus, and the association of EBV with some tumours suggests that there may also be an association between laryngeal carcinoma and EBV. The aim of this study is to determine the role of EBV in the aetiology of laryngeal carcinoma. Prospective investigation the EBV with real time polymerase chain reaction in tumour tissues of 25 patients with laryngeal carcinoma and 17 patients with benign laryngeal lesions, and investigation of the relationship between the presence of viral DNA and patients' smoking habits, alcohol consumption, localization and differentiation of the tumour. There was no significant difference between the control group and patient group in terms of EBV polymerase chain reaction positivity (p > 0.05). Also we couldn't find a statistically significant relationship between EBV positivity and differentiation of the tumour, localization of the tumour, smoking and alcohol consumption habits (p > 0.05). Our results suggest that, although EBV is present in some of the squamous cell laryngeal carcinomas, its presence has no effect on the pathogenesis of laryngeal carcinomas.

  19. Short-term memory in the service of executive control functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshad Alizadeh Mansouri

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Short-term memory is a crucial cognitive function for supporting on-going and upcoming behaviours, allowing storage of information across delay periods. The content of this memory may typically include tangible information about features such as the shape, colour or texture of an object, its location and motion relative to the body, or phonological information. The neural correlate of these short-term memories has been found in different brain areas involved in organizing perceptual or motor functions. In particular, neuronal activity in different prefrontal areas encodes task-related information corresponding to short-term memory across delay periods, and lesions in the prefrontal cortex severely affect the ability to hold this type of memory. Recent studies have further expanded the scope and possible role of short-term memory by showing that information of abstract entities such as a behaviour-guiding rule, or the occurrence of a conflict in information processing; can also be maintained in short-term memory and used for adjusting the allocation of executive control in dynamic environments. It has also been shown that neuronal activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal and orbitofrontal cortices encodes information about such abstract entities. These findings suggest that the prefrontal cortex plays crucial roles in organizing goal-directed behaviour by supporting various mnemonic processes that maintain a wide range of information in the service of executive control of on-going or upcoming behaviour.

  20. Golimumab in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis after treatment with tumour necrosis factor alpha inhibitors (GO-AFTER study): a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase III trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smolen, Josef S.; Kay, Jonathan; Doyle, Mittie K.; Landewé, Robert; Matteson, Eric L.; Wollenhaupt, Jürgen; Gaylis, Norman; Murphy, Frederick T.; Neal, Jeffrey S.; Zhou, Yiying; Visvanathan, Sudha; Hsia, Elizabeth C.; Rahman, Mahboob U.; Ahern, Michael John; Hall, Stephen; Nash, Peter Thomas; Graninger, Winfried; Ebner, Wolfgang; Machold, Klaus; Zamani, Omid; Atkins, Christopher; Beaulieu, André; Bell, Mary; Fitzcharles, Mary Ann; Keystone, Edward; Khraishi, Majed; McKendry, Robert J. R.; Rahman, Proton; Thomason, Glen T. D.; Thorne, J. Carter; Bookman, Arthur; Faraawi, Rafat; Hannonen, Pekka; Leirisalo-Repo, Marjetta; Järvinen, Pentti; Braun, Jürgen; Burmester, Gerd; Fiehn, Christoph; Gruenke, Mathias; Bäuerle, Michael; Hauer, Rolf-Walter; Kellner, Herbert; Rubbert, Andrea; Schewe, Stefan; Sieper, Joachim; Tony, Hans-Peter; Kekow, Jörn; Ching, Daniel Wai Tho; Jones, Peter Brian Barrie; Singh, Gagrath Pradeep; Navarro Sarabia, Federico; Rodríguez Valverde, Vincente; Román Ivorra, Jose A.; Harkin, Alan; Doyle, David; Kirkham, Bruce; Wordsworth, Bryan Paul; Emery, Paul; Anderson, James; Hou, Antony; Boling, Eugene P.; del Giudice, Jose; Forstot, Joseph; Griffin, Robert M.; Halter, Dale G.; Heick, Meredith A.; Kipnis, Robert; Klashman, David; Lee, Susan; Lowenstein, Mitchell; Luggen, Michael E.; Mandel, David; Mathews, Steven D.; Miniter, Michael F.; Pearson, Mark; Peters, Eric A.; Riccardi, Patrick; Rubin, Bernard R.; Shergy, William Julius; Siegel, Evan L.; Snow, David; Stern, Mark; Wasko, Mary Chester; Furst, Daniel E.; Busch, Howard M.; Trotter, Dana R.; DiGiovanni, Robert L.; Gladstein, Geoffrey S.; Kimball, Steven; Saway, P. Anthony; Schneider, Robert J.; Brooks, Michael S.; Capps, Robert J.; Kempf, Phillip W.; Troum, Orrin M.

    2009-01-01

    Tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) inhibitors are frequently used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, but whether use of a different TNFalpha inhibitor can improve patient response is unknown. We assess the efficacy and safety of the TNFalpha inhibitor golimumab in patients with active rheumatoid

  1. Granular cell tumour of the neurohypophysis: a rare sellar tumour with specific radiological and operative features.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Aquilina, K

    2012-02-03

    Symptomatic granular cell tumours of the neurohypophysis are rare sellar lesions. Preoperative prediction of the diagnosis on the basis of radiological appearance is useful as these tumours carry specific surgical difficulties. This is possible when the tumour arises from the pituitary stalk, rostral to a normal pituitary gland. This has not been emphasized previously.

  2. Tumour bed irradiation of human tumour xenografts in a nude rat ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 35; Issue 2 ... Human tumour xenografts; radiation; rats; tumour bed ... Dosimetry and the corresponding methodology for radiotherapy of human non-small cell lung cancer xenograft tumours transplanted to and growing subcutaneously on the right lower limb in a nude rat ...

  3. Tumour-to-tumour metastases: prostate carcinoma metastasising to a renal oncocytoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petts, Gemma; Rashid, Tina; Hrouda, David; Ngo, Nye-Thane

    2013-01-09

    This is a case report of prostate carcinoma metastasising to a renal oncocytoma. The report demonstrates the unusual presentation of metastases from a common cancer to a common benign tumour, and reviews the rare phenomenon of tumour-to-tumour metastases.

  4. Diagnostic utility of Wilms′ tumour-1 protein (WT-1 immunostaining in paediatric renal tumours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surbhi Goyal

    2016-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusions: WT1 helps to differentiate Wilms′ tumour from other paediatric renal tumours. It may help in differentiating the two subgroups of Wilms′ tumour which have distinct molecular pathogenesis and biological behaviour, however, further prospective studies are required for validation of this hypothesis.

  5. Preterm Infants Exhibit Greater Variability in Cerebrovascular Control than Term Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyfe, Karinna L; Odoi, Alexsandria; Yiallourou, Stephanie R; Wong, Flora Y; Walker, Adrian M; Horne, Rosemary S C

    2015-09-01

    Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) remains an important cause of infant death, particularly among infants born preterm. Prone sleeping is the major risk factor for SIDS and this has recently been shown to alter cerebrovascular control in term infants. As preterm infants are at greater risk for SIDS than those born at term, we hypothesized that their cerebrovascular control in the prone position would be reduced compared to term infants. There were 35 preterm (mean gestation 31.2 ± 0.4 w) and 17 term (mean gestation 40.1 ± 0.3 w) infants. Infants underwent daytime polysomnography at 2-4 w, 2-3 mo, and 5-6 mo postterm age. Infants slept both prone and supine and were presented with cardiovascular challenges in the form of 15° head-up tilts (HUT). Cerebral tissue oxygenation index (TOI) was recorded using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRO-200 spectrophotometer, Hamamatsu Photonics KK, Japan) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) was recorded using a Finometer cuff (Finapres Medical Systems, Amsterdam, The Netherlands). In the prone position TOI increased following the HUT (P position. The overall pattern of response was similar in both groups, but more variable in preterm than term infants (P positions in preterm infants. Although overall the responses to head-up tilts were similar between term and preterm infants, greater variability of responses in preterm infants suggests persisting immaturity of their cerebrovascular control in the first year of life, which may contribute to their increased risk of sudden infant death syndrome. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  6. Sleep disorders in children after treatment for a CNS tumour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verberne, Lisa M; Maurice-Stam, Heleen; Grootenhuis, Martha A; Van Santen, Hanneke M; Schouten-Van Meeteren, Antoinette Y N

    2012-08-01

    The long-term survival of children with a central nervous system (CNS) tumour is improving. However, they experience late effects, including altered habits and patterns of sleep. We evaluated the presence and type of sleep disorders and daytime sleepiness in these children, and its associations with clinical characteristics and daily performance (fatigue and psychosocial functioning). In a cross-sectional study at the outpatient clinic of the Emma Children's Hospital AMC (February-June 2010), sleep, fatigue and psychosocial functioning were analysed in 31 CNS tumour patients (mean age: 11.8years; 20 boys) and compared with 78 patients treated for a non-CNS malignancy (mean age: 9.7years; 41 boys) and norm data. Questionnaires applied were the Sleep Disorder Scale for Children, the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory, and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Sleeping habits and endocrine deficiencies were assessed with a self-developed questionnaire. Increased somnolence was found in CNS tumour patients compared with those with a non-CNS malignancy (8.8±2.8 versus 7.5±2.7; P<0.05). Both patient groups reported more problems (P<0.01) than the norm with initiating and maintaining sleep. No specific risk factors were identified for a sleep disorder in CNS tumour patients, but their excessive somnolence was correlated with lower fatigue related quality of life (QoL) (r=-0.78, P<0.001) and worse psychosocial functioning (r=0.63, P<0.001). In conclusion, children treated for a CNS tumour have increased somnolence, significantly increasing fatigue and worsening daily functioning. Further investigation should focus on possibilities to improve sleep quality and diminish fatigue. © 2011 European Sleep Research Society.

  7. Effects of childhood body size on breast cancer tumour characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Although a role of childhood body size in postmenopausal breast cancer risk has been established, less is known about its influence on tumour characteristics. Methods We studied the relationships between childhood body size and tumour characteristics in a Swedish population-based case-control study consisting of 2,818 breast cancer cases and 3,111 controls. Our classification of childhood body size was derived from a nine-level somatotype. Relative risks were estimated by odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals, derived from fitting unconditional logistic regression models. Association between somatotype at age 7 and tumour characteristics were evaluated in a case-only analysis where P values for heterogeneity were obtained by performing one degree of freedom trend tests. Results A large somatotype at age 7 was found to be associated with decreased postmenopausal breast cancer risk. Although strongly associated with other risk factors such as age of menarche, adult body mass index and mammographic density, somatotype at age 7 remained a significant protective factor (odds ratio (OR) comparing large to lean somatotype at age 7 = 0.73, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.58-0.91, P trend = 0.004) after adjustment. The significant protective effect was observed within all subgroups defined by estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) status, with a stronger effect for ER-negative (0.40, 95% CI = 0.21-0.75, P trend = 0.002), than for ER-positive (0.80, 95% CI = 0.62-1.05, P trend = 0.062), tumours (P heterogeneity = 0.046). Somatotype at age 7 was not associated with tumour size, histology, grade or the presence or absence of metastatic nodes. Conclusions Greater body size at age 7 is associated with a decreased risk of postmenopausal breast cancer, and the associated protective effect is stronger for the ER-negative breast cancer subtype than for the ER-positive subtype. PMID:20398298

  8. In vivo photothermal tumour ablation using gold nanorods

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas, L. F.; Zanelatto, L. C.; Mantovani, M. S.; Silva, P. B. G.; Ceccini, R.; Grecco, C.; Moriyama, L. T.; Kurachi, C.; Martins, V. C. A.; Plepis, A. M. G.

    2013-06-01

    Less invasive and more effective cancer treatments have been the aim of research in recent decades, e.g. photothermal tumour ablation using gold nanorods. In this study we investigate the cell death pathways activated, and confirm the possibility of CTAB-coated nanoparticle use in vivo. Nanorods were synthesized by the seeding method; some of them were centrifuged and washed to eliminate soluble CTAB. The MTT cytotoxicity test was performed to evaluate cytotoxicity, and the particles’ viability after their synthesis was assessed. Once it had been observed that centrifuged and washed nanorods are harmless, and that nanoparticles must be used within 48 h after their synthesis, in vivo hyperthermic treatment was performed. After irradiation, a tumour biopsy was subjected to a chemiluminescence assay to evaluate membrane lipoperoxidation, and to a TRAP assay to evaluate total antioxidant capacity. There was a 47 ° C rise in temperature observed at the tumour site. Animals irradiated with a laser (with or without nanorods) showed similar membrane lipoperoxidation, more intense than in control animals. The antioxidant capacity of experimental animal tumours was elevated. Our results indicate that necrosis is possibly the cell death pathway activated in this case, and that nanorod treatment is worthwhile.

  9. [Anterolateral thigh perforator flaps for facial reconstruction after tumour surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaggl, Alexander; Bürger, Heinz; Lesnik, Gerald; Müller, Ernst; Chiari, Friedrich

    2006-09-01

    Individual flap design and minor donor site morbidity are main criteria in the treatment of facial defects after tumour surgery. Microvascular perforator flaps seem to follow these criteria well. In the following study our experiences with microvascular anterolateral thigh perforator flaps (ALTPF) in reconstruction of the face following ablative tumour surgery are described and discussed in comparison to the present literature. In 19 patients with squamous cell carcinomas of the floor of the mouth (8), the cheek (6) or the mandible (5) of stadium T3 or T4 ablative tumour surgery followed by reconstruction was performed. For covering the soft tissue defects 19 ALTPF were used. In the five patients with carcinomas of the mandible a microvascular iliac crest transplant was combined with the anterolateral thigh perforator flap for complete chin reconstruction. In one patient an intraoperative dissection of the perforator vessels happened. In all other patients surgery and postoperative period was free of complications. Five patients had minor second surgery for aesthetic of functional reasons. At the end there were good aesthetic and functional results in every patient. The anterolateral thigh perforator flap is of great advantage in reconstruction of the face after tumour surgery. Individual designing, central and save perfusion, easy to be controlled, and a low incidence of donor site morbidity are their main advantages.

  10. Mobile phones, cordless phones and the risk for brain tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardell, Lennart; Carlberg, Michael

    2009-07-01

    The Hardell-group conducted during 1997-2003 two case control studies on brain tumours including assessment of use of mobile phones and cordless phones. The questionnaire was answered by 905 (90%) cases with malignant brain tumours, 1,254 (88%) cases with benign tumours and 2,162 (89%) population-based controls. Cases were reported from the Swedish Cancer Registries. Anatomical area in the brain for the tumour was assessed and related to side of the head used for both types of wireless phones. In the current analysis we defined ipsilateral use (same side as the tumour) as >or=50% of the use and contralateral use (opposite side) as phones. Regarding astrocytoma we found highest risk for ipsilateral mobile phone use in the >10 year latency group, OR=3.3, 95% CI=2.0-5.4 and for cordless phone use OR=5.0, 95% CI=2.3-11. In total, the risk was highest for cases with first use phone OR=5.2, 95% CI=2.2-12 and for cordless phone OR=4.4, 95% CI=1.9-10. For acoustic neuroma, the highest OR was found for ipsilateral use and >10 year latency, for mobile phone OR=3.0, 95% CI=1.4-6.2 and cordless phone OR=2.3, 95% CI=0.6-8.8. Overall highest OR for mobile phone use was found in subjects with first use at age phone in that group, but based on only one exposed case. The annual age-adjusted incidence of astrocytoma for the age group >19 years increased significantly by +2.16%, 95% CI +0.25 to +4.10 during 2000-2007 in Sweden in spite of seemingly underreporting of cases to the Swedish Cancer Registry. A decreasing incidence was found for acoustic neuroma during the same period. However, the medical diagnosis and treatment of this tumour type has changed during recent years and underreporting from a single center would have a large impact for such a rare tumour.

  11. Human Performance in a Realistic Instrument-Control Task during Short-Term Microgravity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Steinberg

    Full Text Available Previous studies have documented the detrimental effects of microgravity on human sensorimotor skills. While that work dealt with simple, laboratory-type skills, we now evaluate the effects of microgravity on a complex, realistic instrument-control skill. Twelve participants controlled a simulated power plant during the short-term microgravity intervals of parabolic flight as well as during level flight. To this end they watched multiple displays, made strategic decisions and used multiple actuators to maximize their virtual earnings from the power plant. We quantified control efficiency as the participants' net earnings (revenue minus expenses, motor performance as hand kinematics and dynamics, and stress as cortisol level, self-assessed mood and self-assessed workload. We found that compared to normal gravity, control efficiency substantially decreased in microgravity, hand velocity slowed down, and cortisol level and perceived physical strain increased, but other stress and motor scores didn't change. Furthermore, control efficiency was not correlated with motor and stress scores. From this we conclude that realistic instrument control was degraded in short-term microgravity. This degradation can't be explained by the motor and/or stress indicators under study, and microgravity affected motor performance differently in our complex, realistic skill than in the simple, laboratory-type skills of earlier studies.

  12. Human Performance in a Realistic Instrument-Control Task during Short-Term Microgravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Fabian; Kalicinski, Michael; Dalecki, Marc; Bock, Otmar

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have documented the detrimental effects of microgravity on human sensorimotor skills. While that work dealt with simple, laboratory-type skills, we now evaluate the effects of microgravity on a complex, realistic instrument-control skill. Twelve participants controlled a simulated power plant during the short-term microgravity intervals of parabolic flight as well as during level flight. To this end they watched multiple displays, made strategic decisions and used multiple actuators to maximize their virtual earnings from the power plant. We quantified control efficiency as the participants' net earnings (revenue minus expenses), motor performance as hand kinematics and dynamics, and stress as cortisol level, self-assessed mood and self-assessed workload. We found that compared to normal gravity, control efficiency substantially decreased in microgravity, hand velocity slowed down, and cortisol level and perceived physical strain increased, but other stress and motor scores didn't change. Furthermore, control efficiency was not correlated with motor and stress scores. From this we conclude that realistic instrument control was degraded in short-term microgravity. This degradation can't be explained by the motor and/or stress indicators under study, and microgravity affected motor performance differently in our complex, realistic skill than in the simple, laboratory-type skills of earlier studies.

  13. Why are epididymal tumours so rare?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Ching-Hei; Wang, Kai; Cooper, Trevor G

    2012-01-01

    Epididymal tumour incidence is at most 0.03% of all male cancers. It is an enigma why the human epididymis does not often succumb to cancer, when it expresses markers of stem and cancer cells, and constitutively expresses oncogenes, pro-proliferative and pro-angiogenic factors that allow tumour cells to escape immunosurveillance in cancer-prone tissues. The privileged position of the human epididymis in evading tumourigenicity is reflected in transgenic mouse models in which induction of tumours in other organs is not accompanied by epididymal neoplasia. The epididymis appears to: (i) prevent tumour initiation (it probably lacks stem cells and has strong anti-oxidative mechanisms, active tumour suppressors and inactive oncogene products); (ii) foster tumour monitoring and destruction (by strong immuno-surveillance and -eradication, and cellular senescence); (iii) avert proliferation and angiogenesis (with persistent tight junctions, the presence of anti-angiogenic factors and misplaced pro-angiogenic factors), which together (iv) promote dormancy and restrict dividing cells to hyperplasia. Epididymal cells may be rendered non-responsive to oncogenic stimuli by the constitutive expression of factors generally inducible in tumours, and resistant to the normal epididymal environment, which mimics that of a tumour niche promoting tumour growth. The threshold for tumour initiation may thus be higher in the epididymis than in other organs. Several anti-tumour mechanisms are those that maintain spermatozoa quiescent and immunologically silent, so the low incidence of cancer in the epididymis may be a consequence of its role in sperm maturation and storage. Understanding these mechanisms may throw light on cancer prevention and therapy in general. PMID:22522502

  14. Cell adhesion heterogeneity reinforces tumour cell dissemination: novel insights from a mathematical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reher, David; Klink, Barbara; Deutsch, Andreas; Voss-Böhme, Anja

    2017-08-11

    Cancer cell invasion, dissemination, and metastasis have been linked to an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of individual tumour cells. During EMT, adhesion molecules like E-cadherin are downregulated and the decrease of cell-cell adhesion allows tumour cells to dissociate from the primary tumour mass. This complex process depends on intracellular cues that are subject to genetic and epigenetic variability, as well as extrinsic cues from the local environment resulting in a spatial heterogeneity in the adhesive phenotype of individual tumour cells. Here, we use a novel mathematical model to study how adhesion heterogeneity, influenced by intrinsic and extrinsic factors, affects the dissemination of tumour cells from an epithelial cell population. The model is a multiscale cellular automaton that couples intracellular adhesion receptor regulation with cell-cell adhesion. Simulations of our mathematical model indicate profound effects of adhesion heterogeneity on tumour cell dissemination. In particular, we show that a large variation of intracellular adhesion receptor concentrations in a cell population reinforces cell dissemination, regardless of extrinsic cues mediated through the local cell density. However, additional control of adhesion receptor concentration through the local cell density, which can be assumed in healthy cells, weakens the effect. Furthermore, we provide evidence that adhesion heterogeneity can explain the remarkable differences in adhesion receptor concentrations of epithelial and mesenchymal phenotypes observed during EMT and might drive early dissemination of tumour cells. Our results suggest that adhesion heterogeneity may be a universal trigger to reinforce cell dissemination in epithelial cell populations. This effect can be at least partially compensated by a control of adhesion receptor regulation through neighbouring cells. Accordingly, our findings explain how both an increase in intra-tumour adhesion heterogeneity and the

  15. The role of high-dose myeloablative chemotherapy with haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in children with central nervous system (CNS) tumours: protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Main, Caroline; Wilson, Jayne S; Stevens, Simon P; Houlton, Aimee E; English, Martin; Kearns, Pamela R; Phillips, Bob; Pizer, Barry; Wilne, Sophie; Wheatley, Keith

    2015-11-20

    The objective of the study is to conduct a systematic review to compare the effects of high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT) with autologous haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) versus standard-dose chemotherapy (SDCT) in children with malignant central nervous system (CNS) tumours. Standard systematic review methods aimed at minimising bias will be employed for study identification, selection and data extraction. Ten electronic databases will be searched, along with citation searching and reference checking. Studies assessing the effects of HDCT with HSCT in children with CNS tumours will be included. The outcomes are survival (overall, progression-free, event-free, disease-free), response rates, short- and long-term adverse events and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Two reviewers will independently screen and select randomised and non-randomised controlled trials and controlled and uncontrolled observational studies for inclusion. Quality assessment will be tailored to the different study designs. Where possible data will be summarised using combined estimates of effect for the hazard ratio for survival outcomes and the risk ratio for response rates. A fixed effect model will be used; sub-group analyses and meta-regression will be used to explore potential sources of heterogeneity between studies. Given the poor prognosis of malignant brain tumours in children in terms of survival and quality of life, this review will help guide clinical practice by summarising the current evidence on the use of high-dose myeloblative chemotherapy with stem cell support in children with CNS tumours.

  16. PP13. CHERNOBYL, BREXIT AND BRAIN TUMOURS

    Science.gov (United States)

    chia, Dr kazumi; Davies, Ms Rhiannon; Brazil, Dr Lucy

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Following the 2004 enlargement of the European Union, many hundreds of thousands of people from the newly ascended states travelled to the UK to look for work. Polish workers were by far the largest group and today, Polish is the second most commonly spoken language in the UK. In central London, the multidisciplinary, neuro-oncology team at Guy’s and St. Thomas’ NHS Foundation Trust (GSTFT) and Kings College Hospital serves a catchment area of nearly 3.5 million, 1% (32,253) of whom are recorded to have been born in Poland at the last 2011 census. Over the past few years, we have observed a relatively large number of Polish-born UK residents presenting with primary brain and central nervous system (CNS) tumours. Data collection is ongoing but we believe that the numbers of newly diagnosed cases far exceeds the published age standardized incidence rate for brain and CNS tumors in Poland which is 10 per 100,000. If a higher than expected incidence of brain and CNS tumors in our local Polish population is observed this could be explained by a number of socioeconomic/health factors. However, as we mark the 30th anniversary of the Chernobyl accident this year, we should also keep in mind geohistorical factors that may be relevant to this particular immigrant population. Poland neighbours Ukraine where the Chernobyl accident occurred, and was affected by the radioactive fallout that followed the disaster. The main health impact from Chernobyl has so far been the increased incidence of thyroid cancer but there is now increasing concern about the increased risk of non-thyroid, solid tumors. An increased incidence in CNS tumours has been seen in atomic bomb survivors where even a low exposures (<1Sv) was associated with an increased risk. Cohort studies in Belarus and Ukraine, two countries with the most radiation contamination, have so far not demonstrated any significant increase in non-thyroid cancers but it may still be early days. We know from long term

  17. Pro-tumoural CXCL10/CXCR3-A autocrine loop in invasive mucinous lung adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaël Duruisseaux

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Invasive mucinous adenocarcinoma (IMA is a mucinous variant of lepidic predominant lung adenocarcinoma (LPA and associated with a worse prognosis. We postulated that cytokine expression would enable us to differentiate IMA from LPA in terms of prognosis and acquisition of pro-tumoural capacities. A 30-cytokine panel was assessed in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALF from IMA (n=38, LPA (n=25 and control samples (n=7. We investigated the expression of differentially expressed cytokines and splice variants of their receptors in surgical samples. The presence of EGFR and KRAS mutations were determined. We also examined the expression of cytokines and splice variants of their receptors in different cell lines, exploring their functional impact on signalling pathways, proliferation and migration. Only C-X-C motif chemokine 10 (CXCL10 was differentially expressed, namely overexpressed in IMA BALF compared with LPA. CXCL10 overexpression in BALF was linked to a worse prognosis. In surgical samples, CXCL10 and its receptor C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 3 (CXCR3 were overexpressed in IMA compared to LPA. A pro-tumoural CXCR3-A splice variant was overexpressed in IMA, suggesting a CXCL10/CXCR3-A autocrine loop in IMA. CXCL10 and CXCR3 expression were not correlated with EGFR or KRAS status. CXCL10 up-regulated CXCR3-A expression, Erk1/2 phosphorylation and enhanced migration in the mucinous H2228 cell line. CXCL10/CXCR3-A may play a pro-tumoural role in IMA via an autocrine mechanism.

  18. The effect of metabolic control on hemodynamics in short-term insulin-dependent diabetic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, E R; Hilsted, J; Feldt-Rasmussen, B

    1985-01-01

    Hemodynamics variables (heart rate, arterial blood pressure, cardiac output, hepato-splanchnic blood flow, forearm blood flow, and plasma catecholamines) were measured during good (median blood glucose 4.7 mmol/L) and poor (median blood glucose 16.3 mmol/L) metabolic control in eight young, short......-term, insulin-dependent diabetic patients. The measurements were performed twice within 2 wk, in random order. Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) was applied for 1 wk in order to obtain good control. All eight patients had elevated cardiac output (median 9%) and forearm blood flow (median 34......%) during poor compared with good metabolic control, P less than 0.01. In contrast, hepato-splanchnic blood flow was lower (median 12%) during poor compared with good metabolic control, P less than 0.05. Heart rate remained unchanged, while mean arterial blood pressure was slightly higher during poor...

  19. Smart Demand for Improving Short-term Voltage Control on Distribution Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia-Valle, Rodrigo; P. Da Silva, Luiz C.; Xu, Zhao

    2009-01-01

    Smart grids must involve active roles from end users in order to be truly smart. The energy consumption has to be done in a flexible and intelligent manner, in accordance with the current conditions of the power system. Moreover, with the advent of dispersed and renewable generation, increasing...... customer integration to aid power system performance is almost inevitable. This study introduces a new type of smart demand side technology, denoted demand as voltage controlled reserve (DVR), to improve short-term voltage control, where customers are expected to play a more dynamic role to improve voltage...... control. The technology can be provided by thermostatically controlled loads as well as other types of load. This technology is proven to be effective in case of distribution systems with a large composition of induction motors, where the voltage presents a slow recovery characteristic due to deceleration...

  20. Molecular differential pathology of renal cell tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, G

    1993-01-01

    Recent application of molecular cytogenetic techniques to the evaluation of renal cell tumours revealed four subtypes, each with a characteristic combination of genetic alterations within the chromosomal and mitochondrial DNA. The most common, nonpapillary renal cell carcinomas are characterized by the loss of chromosome 3p sequences, rearrangement of the chromosome 5q region and loss of the chromosome 14q sequences. Papillary renal cell tumours can be divided into two groups. Tumours with a combined trisomy of chromosomes 7 and 17 as well as loss of the Y chromosome are papillary renal cell adenomas. Tumours with additional trisomies such as trisomy 16, 20 or 12 are papillary renal cell carcinomas. Chromophobe renal cell carcinomas show a combination of allelic losses, which do not occur in other types of renal tumours. In addition, they have a rearrangement in the mitochondrial DNA. Renal oncocytomas are benign tumours marked by normal or abnormal karyotypes with balanced or unbalanced translocations and an altered restriction pattern of the mitochondrial DNA. Although the major cytological characteristics of renal cell tumours, such as clear, granular, chromophobe and oncocytic cell phenotypes correspond to nonpapillary, papillary and chromophobe renal cell carcinomas and renal oncocytomas, there are many cases with overlapping phenotype. Therefore, a classification of renal cell tumours based on specific genetic alterations is proposed.

  1. Positron emission tomography (PET) in endocrine tumours ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    endocrine pancreatic tumours is probably limited to those that are less well differentiated and metabolically active. However, a future role for PET imaging in the detection of endocrine tumours, using more specific substrates, appears very promising. Journal of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes of South Africa Vol.

  2. Tumour cell expansion in bladder epithelium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M.J. Rebel (Annemarie)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractBladder cancer is common in western society. The major problem of patients with superficial bladder cancer is the high recurrence rate and multifocality of these tumours. In 70 % of the patients superficial bladder cancer recurs after local resection of the tumour within 15 years. The

  3. Neurofibromatosis type 1: brain stem tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilaniuk, L.T. [Department of Radiology, The Children`s Hospital of Philadelphia, 34th Street and Civic Center Boulevard, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Molloy, P.T. [Division of Neurology, Children`s Hospital of Philadelphia, PA (United States); Zimmerman, R.A. [Department of Radiology, The Children`s Hospital of Philadelphia, 34th Street and Civic Center Boulevard, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Phillips, P.C. [Division of Neurology, Children`s Hospital of Philadelphia, PA (United States); Vaughan, S.N. [Division of Neurology, Children`s Hospital of Philadelphia, PA (United States); Liu, G.T. [Division of Neuro-Ophthalmology, Children`s Hospital of Philadelphia, PA (United States); Sutton, L.N. [Division of Neurosurgery, Children`s Hospital of Philadelphia, PA (United States); Needle, M. [Division of Oncology, The Children`s Hospital of Philadelphia. PA (United States)

    1997-09-01

    We describe the clinical and imaging findings of brain stem tumours in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). The NF1 patients imaged between January 1984 and January 1996 were reviewed and 25 patients were identified with a brain stem tumour. Clinical, radiographical and pathological results were obtained by review of records and images. Brain stem tumour identification occurred much later than the clinical diagnosis of NF1. Medullary enlargement was most frequent (68 %), followed by pontine (52 %) and midbrain enlargement (44 %). Patients were further subdivided into those with diffuse (12 patients) and those with focal (13 patients) tumours. Treatment for hydrocephalus was required in 67 % of the first group and only 15 % of the second group. Surgery was performed in four patients and revealed fibrillary astrocytomas, one of which progressed to an anaplastic astrocytoma. In 40 % of patients both brain stem and optic pathway tumours were present. The biological behaviour of brain stem tumours in NF1 is unknown. Diffuse tumours in the patients with NF1 appear to have a much more favourable prognosis than patients with similar tumours without neurofibromatosis type 1. (orig.). With 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Childhood ovarian juvenile granulosa cell tumour

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof Ezechukwu

    2012-05-12

    May 12, 2012 ... exclusively localized in granulosa cell tumours. 6. Juvenile granulosa cell tumour a subtype of ovarian stro- ... organs such as endometrial hyperplasia, endometrial adenocarcinomas and increased risk of ... stem cell transplantation.5 Newer agents that block an- giogenesis are being studied; two are being ...

  5. Influence of initial treatment modality on long-term control of chronic idiopathic urticaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sujeong; Baek, Seunghee; Shin, Bomi; Yoon, Sun-young; Park, So Young; Lee, Taehoon; Lee, Yoon Su; Bae, Yun-Jeong; Kwon, Hyouk Soo; Cho, You Sook; Moon, Hee-Bom; Kim, Tae-Bum

    2013-01-01

    Chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU) is a common cutaneous disorder but the influence of initial treatment modality on long-term control is not known. The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical features, and the influence of initial treatment modality on long-term control. 641 CIU patients were enrolled from the allergy clinic in a tertiary referral hospital. Disease duration, aggravating factors and treatment modality at each visit were evaluated. Times required to reach a controlled state were analyzed according to initial treatment modality, using Kaplan-Meier survival curves, the Cox proportional-hazards model, and propensity scores. Female to male ratio was 1.7: 1; mean age at onset was 40.5 years. The most common aggravating factors were food (33.5%), stress (31.5%) and fatigue (21.6%). Most patients (82.2%) used H1-antihistamines alone as initial treatment while 17% used a combination treatment with oral corticosteroids. There was no significant difference in the time taken to reach a controlled state between patients treated with single vs multiple H1-antihistamines or between those who received H1-antihistamine monotherapy vs. a combination therapy with oral corticosteroids. The time required to control CIU is not reduced by use of multiple H1-antihistamines or oral corticosteroids in the initial treatment.

  6. Influence of initial treatment modality on long-term control of chronic idiopathic urticaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujeong Kim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU is a common cutaneous disorder but the influence of initial treatment modality on long-term control is not known. The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical features, and the influence of initial treatment modality on long-term control. METHODS AND RESULTS: 641 CIU patients were enrolled from the allergy clinic in a tertiary referral hospital. Disease duration, aggravating factors and treatment modality at each visit were evaluated. Times required to reach a controlled state were analyzed according to initial treatment modality, using Kaplan-Meier survival curves, the Cox proportional-hazards model, and propensity scores. Female to male ratio was 1.7: 1; mean age at onset was 40.5 years. The most common aggravating factors were food (33.5%, stress (31.5% and fatigue (21.6%. Most patients (82.2% used H1-antihistamines alone as initial treatment while 17% used a combination treatment with oral corticosteroids. There was no significant difference in the time taken to reach a controlled state between patients treated with single vs multiple H1-antihistamines or between those who received H1-antihistamine monotherapy vs. a combination therapy with oral corticosteroids. CONCLUSION: The time required to control CIU is not reduced by use of multiple H1-antihistamines or oral corticosteroids in the initial treatment.

  7. Corresponding influences of top-down control on task switching and long-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Franziska R; Yeung, Nick

    2015-01-01

    Three experiments investigated the impact of cognitive control on current performance and later memory in task switching. Participants first switched between object and word classification tasks, performed on picture-word stimuli that each appeared only once, then were tested for their recognition memory of these items. Each experiment replicated the recent finding that task switching results in reduced selectivity in later memory for task-relevant over task-irrelevant items. Top-down control was manipulated through varying the time available for advance task preparation (Experiment 1), the freedom of choice over which task to perform (Experiment 2), and the availability of reward incentives (Experiment 3). For each manipulation, more effective top-down control during task switching was associated with increased selectivity in memory for task-relevant information. These findings shed new light on the role of cognitive control in long-term memory encoding, in particular supporting an interactive model in which long-term memory reflects the enduring traces of perceptual and cognitive processes that operate under the selective influence of top-down control.

  8. Adalimumab in acute sciatica reduces the long-term need for surgery: a 3-year follow-up of a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genevay, S; Finckh, A; Zufferey, P; Viatte, S; Balagué, F; Gabay, C

    2012-04-01

    Two subcutaneous injections of adalimumab in severe acute sciatica significantly reduced the number of back operations in a short-term randomised controlled clinical trial. To determine in a 3-year follow-up study whether the short-term benefit of adalimumab in sciatica is sustained over a longer period of time. The primary outcome of this analysis was incident discectomy. Three years after randomisation, information on surgery could be retrieved in 56/61 patients (92%).A multivariate Cox proportional hazard models, adjusted for potential confounders, was used to determine factors predisposing to surgery. Twenty-three (41%) patients had back surgery within 3 years, 8/29 (28%) in the adalimumab group and 15/27 (56%) in the placebo group, p=0.04. Adalimumab injections reduced the need for back surgery by 61% (HR)=0.39 (95% CI 0.17 to 0.92). In a multivariate model, treatment with a tumour necrosis factor-α antagonist remained the strongest protective factor (HR=0.17, p=0.002). Other significant predictors of surgery were a good correlation between symptoms and MRI findings (HR=11.6, p=0.04), baseline intensity of leg pain (HR=1.3, p=0.06), intensity of back pain (HR=1.4, p=0.03) and duration of sickness leave (HR=1.01 per day, p=0.03). A short course of adalimumab in patients with severe acute sciatica significantly reduces the need for back surgery.

  9. Oral health in young adults with long-term, controlled asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stensson, Malin; Wendt, Lill-Kari; Koch, Göran; Oldaeus, Göran; Ramberg, Per; Birkhed, Dowen

    2011-05-01

    To study oral health in young adults with long-term, controlled asthma. Twenty 18- to 24-year-olds with a mean duration of asthma of 13.5 [standard deviation (SD) 5.4] years and 20 matched healthy controls were included. A clinical examination was performed and the prevalences of caries, erosions, gingival inflammation, cervicular fluid and periodontal pockets and the plaque formation rate were registered. The salivary flow rate and the numbers of mutans Streptococci and Lactobacilli in saliva were determined. Plaque pH was measured after a sucrose rinse for up to 40 min at two approximal sites. The participants were interviewed regarding dietary and oral hygiene habits. The mean (SD) DFS, including manifest and initial caries, was 8.6 (10.6) in the asthma group and 4.0 (5.2) in the control group (P = 0.09). Initial caries lesions were more common in the asthma group than in the control group: 6.0 (8.1) and 1.3 (2.0), respectively (P = 0.02). The asthma group had more gingivitis (P = 0.01) and a lower stimulated salivary secretion rate than the controls (P = 0.01). The asthmatics also had a somewhat, although not statistically significant, lower initial pH value in plaque and a more pronounced pH drop compared with the controls. In the asthma group, 65% reported frequent mouthbreathing, compared with 10% of the controls (P = 0.01). No differences were found in tooth-brushing or dietary habits between the groups. Young adults with long-term, controlled asthma had more initial caries, more gingival inflammation and a lower stimulated salivary secretion rate than individuals without asthma.

  10. Cooperative tumour cell membrane targeted phototherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Heegon; Lee, Junsung; Oh, Chanhee; Park, Ji-Ho

    2017-06-01

    The targeted delivery of therapeutics using antibodies or nanomaterials has improved the precision and safety of cancer therapy. However, the paucity and heterogeneity of identified molecular targets within tumours have resulted in poor and uneven distribution of targeted agents, thus compromising treatment outcomes. Here, we construct a cooperative targeting system in which synthetic and biological nanocomponents participate together in the tumour cell membrane-selective localization of synthetic receptor-lipid conjugates (SR-lipids) to amplify the subsequent targeting of therapeutics. The SR-lipids are first delivered selectively to tumour cell membranes in the perivascular region using fusogenic liposomes. By hitchhiking with extracellular vesicles secreted by the cells, the SR-lipids are transferred to neighbouring cells and further spread throughout the tumour tissues where the molecular targets are limited. We show that this tumour cell membrane-targeted delivery of SR-lipids leads to uniform distribution and enhanced phototherapeutic efficacy of the targeted photosensitizer.

  11. Variation of tumour radiosensitivity with time after anaesthetic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nias, A.H.W.; Perry, P.M. (Saint Thomas' Hospital, London (UK). Richard Dimbleby Research Lab.)

    1989-10-01

    Transplanted C{sub 3}H mouse mammary tumours were given single doses of X irradiation in air or oxygen at 1 atmosphere (atm) with or without anaesthesia of recipient mice by ketamine and diazepam. The radiation response to single doses of 25 Gy was determined in terms of time taken to reach 3.5 times the treatment volume. Under all conditions there was more growth delay in tumours irradiated in pure oxygen than in air. In air and oxygen, the radiation response for anaestheitized animals tended to fall below the level for non-anaesthetized ones when only 10 min had elapsed after administration of anaesthesia. After 25 min, the response in air was back to the level for non-anaesthetized animals but the oxygen group then showed significant sensitization compared with the oxygen without anaesthetic group. After 40 min, the air group showed slight sensitization and the oxygen group still showed significant sensitization by the anaesthetic. (author).

  12. Quantification of longitudinal tissue pO2 gradients in window chamber tumours: impact on tumour hypoxia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dewhirst, M W; Ong, E T; Braun, R D; Smith, B; Klitzman, B; Evans, S M; Wilson, D

    1999-01-01

    We previously reported that the arteriolar input in window chamber tumours is limited in number and is constrained to enter the tumour from one surface, and that the pO2 of tumour arterioles is lower...

  13. Detection in blood of autoantibodies to tumour antigens as a case-finding method in lung cancer using the EarlyCDT®-Lung Test (ECLS): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, F M; Farmer, Eoghan; Mair, Frances S; Treweek, Shaun; Kendrick, Denise; Jackson, Cathy; Robertson, Chris; Briggs, Andrew; McCowan, Colin; Bedford, Laura; Young, Ben; Vedhara, Kavita; Gallant, Stephanie; Littleford, Roberta; Robertson, John; Sewell, Herb; Dorward, Alistair; Sarvesvaran, Joseph; Schembri, Stuart

    2017-03-11

    Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer related death worldwide. The majority of cases are detected at a late stage when prognosis is poor. The EarlyCDT®-Lung Test detects autoantibodies to abnormal cell surface proteins in the earliest stages of the disease which may allow tumour detection at an earlier stage thus altering prognosis. The primary research question is: Does using the EarlyCDT®-Lung Test to identify those at high risk of lung cancer, followed by X-ray and computed tomography (CT) scanning, reduce the incidence of patients with late-stage lung cancer (III & IV) or unclassified presentation (U) at diagnosis, compared to standard practice? A randomised controlled trial of 12 000 participants in areas of Scotland targeting general practices serving patients in the most deprived quintile of the Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation. Adults aged 50-75 who are at high risk of lung cancer and healthy enough to undergo potentially curative therapy (Performance Status 0-2) are eligible to participate. The intervention is the EarlyCDT®-Lung Test, followed by X-ray and CT in those with a positive result. The comparator is standard clinical practice in the UK. The primary outcome is the difference, after 24 months, between the rates of patients with stage III, IV or unclassified lung cancer at diagnosis. The secondary outcomes include: all-cause mortality; disease specific mortality; a range of morbidity outcomes; cost-effectiveness and measures examining the psychological and behavioural consequences of screening. Participants with a positive test result but for whom the CT scan does not lead to a lung cancer diagnosis will be offered 6 monthly thoracic CTs for 24 months. An initial chest X-ray will be used to determine the speed and the need for contrast in the first screening CT. Participants who are found to have lung cancer will be followed-up to assess both time to diagnosis and stage of disease at diagnosis. The study will determine the

  14. Long-term quality of life after breast cancer: a French registry-based controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Delphine; Mercier, Mariette; Abeilard, Edwige; Puyraveau, Marc; Danzon, Arlette; Dalstein, Véronique; Pozet, Astrid; Guizard, Anne-Valérie; Henry-Amar, Michel; Velten, Michel

    2011-08-01

    Population-based studies on quality of life (QOL) of long-term breast cancer survivors are quite recent and insufficient attention has been paid to the effect of time since diagnosis. We compared long-term QOL of population-based breast cancer survivors 5, 10, and 15 years after diagnosis with that of healthy controls. Breast cancer survivors were randomly selected from three population-based cancer registries (Bas-Rhin, Calvados and Doubs, France) along with healthy controls, stratified for age and place of residence, randomly selected from electoral rolls. Participants completed five self-administered questionnaires: the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire Core 30 (EORTC QLQ-C30), Short Form-36 (SF-36), Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI) and a life conditions questionnaire. An analysis of variance was used to compare QOL scores of breast cancer survivors by period (5, 10, or 15 years) of diagnosis with those of controls, adjusted for sociodemographic data and comorbidities. Six hundred and fifty-two cases and 1,188 controls participated in the study. For many QOL scales, scores were significantly different between cancer survivors and controls. A clinically significant difference was evidenced for the fatigue scales, the SF36 physical functioning, role-physical, and role-emotional scales, with more favorable results for controls. Differences decreased with time and 15-year cancer survivors were generally not different from controls. Scores were particularly influenced by age and mean household income. More efforts should be made, specifically during the first 5 to 10 years after diagnosis, to help women with breast cancer to overcome their impairment in QOL.

  15. Long Term Control of Scabies Fifteen Years after an Intensive Treatment Programme.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Marks

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Scabies is a major public health problem in the Pacific and is associated with an increased risk of bacterial skin infections, glomerulonephritis and rheumatic fever. Mass drug administration with ivermectin is a promising strategy for the control of scabies. Mass treatment with ivermectin followed by active case finding was conducted in five communities in the Solomon Islands between 1997 and 2000 and resulted in a significant reduction in the prevalence of both scabies and bacterial skin infections.We conducted a prospective follow-up study of the communities where the original scabies control programme had been undertaken. All residents underwent a standardised examination for the detection of scabies and impetigo.Three hundred and thirty eight residents were examined, representing 69% of the total population of the five communities. Only 1 case of scabies was found, in an adult who had recently returned from the mainland. The prevalence of active impetigo was 8.8% overall and 12.4% in children aged 12 years or less.We found an extremely low prevalence of scabies 15 years after the cessation of a scabies control programme. The prevalence of impetigo had also declined further since the end of the control programme. Our results suggest that a combination of mass treatment with ivermectin and intensive active case finding may result in long term control of scabies. Larger scale studies and integration with other neglected tropical disease control programmes should be priorities for scabies control efforts.

  16. Surgical decision criteria: Bednar tumour of the foot in a child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubiak, Rainer; Weidner, Katrin; Bruder, Elisabeth; Kalbermatten, Daniel F; Haug, Martin

    2011-12-01

    An 8-year-old boy was admitted for excision of a putative 'blue nevus' on the left foot. Histological examination and immunohistochemistry revealed a Bednar tumour, the pigmented variant of dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans. Surgical options considered by a multidisciplinary team included wide local excision, Mohs micrographic surgery or a staged excision with examination of several histological sections. The third alternative procedure was chosen after consideration of tumour and patient factors to achieve the best possible clinical, cosmetic and functional outcome. After the final surgical procedure with resection of the third metatarsal bone, all peripheral margins were free of tumour, and the interdigital space was reconstructed with a pedicled pulpa flap. Three years after surgery, there was no tumour recurrence, and further long-term follow-up for this patient will be provided. Copyright © 2011 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Theoretical and experimental studies of combined therapy of tumours with application of ultrasound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minchenya, V. T.; Stepanenko, D. A.; Bobrovskaya, A. I.; Krutilina, N. I. [Belarussian National Technical University, 65 Nezavisimosti Ave., 220027 Minsk (Belarus); Republican Scientific and Practical Centre of Oncology and Medical Radiology after N.N. Alexandrov, Settlement Lesnoj, Minsk district, Minsk region, 223040 (Belarus)

    2012-05-24

    The article presents novel method of combined therapy of superficial tumours based on excitation of ultrasonic waves in tumour tissues by means of ring-shaped waveguide with subsequent radiotherapy and results of its theoretical and experimental studies. Harmonic analysis of forced flexural vibration of the waveguide using ANSYS software and APDL (ANSYS Parametric Design Language) was implemented for determination of waveguide geometric parameters providing its resonance for the given excitation frequency. The developed finite element model accounts for interaction between the waveguide and tumour tissue as well as initial prestressing of tissue radially compressed by the waveguide. Resonant curves of the waveguide in terms of its thickness and diameter are calculated and presented. Experimental studies were performed in vivo on white rats with inoculated sarcoma M-1 tumours. Treatment was performed using ultrasound with frequency 22-23 kHz and intensity about 2 W/cm{sup 2}. Ultrasonic treatment was proved to be an efficient modifier of radiotherapy.

  18. Recommendations for measurement of tumour vascularity with positron emission tomography in early phase clinical trials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aboagye, Eric O.; Kenny, Laura M.; Myers, Melvyn [Imperial College London, Department of Surgery and Cancer, Faculty of Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Gilbert, Fiona J. [University of Cambridge, Radiology Department, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Fleming, Ian N. [University of Aberdeen, NCRI PET Research Network, Aberdeen Bioimaging Centre, Aberdeen (United Kingdom); Beer, Ambros J. [Technische Universitaet Munchen, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); Cunningham, Vincent J. [University of Aberdeen, Institute of Medical Sciences, Aberdeen (United Kingdom); Marsden, Paul K. [St. Thomas' Hospital, Division of Imaging Sciences, PET Imaging Centre, London (United Kingdom); Visvikis, Dimitris [INSERM National Institute of Health and Clinical Sciences LaTIM, CHU Morvan, Brest (France); Gee, Antony D. [St. Thomas' Hospital, Division of Imaging Sciences, The Rayne Institute, London (United Kingdom); Groves, Ashley M. [University College London, University College Hospital, Institute of Nuclear Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Cook, Gary J. [St. Thomas' Hospital, KCL Division of Imaging, Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, PET Imaging Centre, London (United Kingdom); Kinahan, Paul E. [University of Washington, 222 Old Fisheries Center (FIS), Box 357987, Seattle, WA (United States); Clarke, Larry [Cancer Imaging Program, Imaging Technology Development Branch, Rockville, MD (United States)

    2012-07-15

    The evaluation of drug pharmacodynamics and early tumour response are integral to current clinical trials of novel cancer therapeutics to explain or predict long term clinical benefit or to confirm dose selection. Tumour vascularity assessment by positron emission tomography could be viewed as a generic pharmacodynamic endpoint or tool for monitoring response to treatment. This review discusses methods for semi-quantitative and quantitative assessment of tumour vascularity. The radioligands and radiotracers range from direct physiological functional tracers like [{sup 15}O]-water to macromolecular probes targeting integrin receptors expressed on neovasculature. Finally we make recommendations on ways to incorporate such measurements of tumour vascularity into early clinical trials of novel therapeutics. (orig.)

  19. Parameter estimation of breast tumour using dynamic neural network from thermal pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Saniei

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a new approach for estimating the depth, size, and metabolic heat generation rate of a tumour. For this purpose, the surface temperature distribution of a breast thermal image and the dynamic neural network was used. The research consisted of two steps: forward and inverse. For the forward section, a finite element model was created. The Pennes bio-heat equation was solved to find surface and depth temperature distributions. Data from the analysis, then, were used to train the dynamic neural network model (DNN. Results from the DNN training/testing confirmed those of the finite element model. For the inverse section, the trained neural network was applied to estimate the depth temperature distribution (tumour position from the surface temperature profile, extracted from the thermal image. Finally, tumour parameters were obtained from the depth temperature distribution. Experimental findings (20 patients were promising in terms of the model’s potential for retrieving tumour parameters.

  20. Impact of surgical staging on prognosis in patients with borderline ovarian tumours: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Seung-Hyuk; Kim, Soo-Nyung; Jung, Phill-Seung; Dong, Meari; Kim, Jung Eun; Lee, Sun Joo

    2016-02-01

    To quantify the effect of complete surgical staging (CSS) on prognosis in borderline ovarian tumour (BOT) patients through a meta-analysis. We systematically reviewed published studies comparing CSS with incomplete surgical staging (ISS) in BOT patients through April 2015. End-points were recurrence and mortality rates. Study design features that possibly affected participant selection, recurrence/death detection, and manuscript publication were assessed. For pooled estimates of the effect of CSS on recurrence/death, random- or fixed-effects meta-analytical models were used after assessing cross-study heterogeneity. Eighteen observational studies (CSS, 1297 patients; ISS, 1473 patients) met our search criteria. Fixed-effects model-based meta-analysis indicated a reduced recurrence risk among CSS patients (odds ratio [OR]=0.64; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.47-0.87, P types (OR = 0.66; 95% CI: 0.48-0.91, P BOT patients. No survival impact was observed. Longer-term randomised controlled trials could verify this relationship but appear infeasible for this rare tumour. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. MicroRNA-184-mediated inhibition of tumour growth in an orthotopic murine model of neuroblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tivnan, Amanda; Foley, Niamh H; Tracey, Lorraine; Davidoff, Andrew M; Stallings, Raymond L

    2010-11-01

    Neuroblastoma is a paediatric cancer which originates from precursor cells of the sympathetic nervous system. Previous studies have shown that miR-184 expression has anti-proliferative effects in neuroblastoma cells grown in culture. Therefore, it was of interest to evaluate this effect in vivo. Neuroblastoma cells overexpressing miR-184 were injected retroperitoneally into CB17-SCID mice and tumour burden was assessed by measuring bioluminescence. Overall survival was also evaluated. Ectopic overexpression of miR-184 in neuroblastoma cell lines is anti-proliferative. In addition, overexpression of miR-184 led to a significant reduction in tumour growth relative to negative control-treated cohorts in a xenograft model of neuroblastoma. This study demonstrated for the first time that miR-184 significantly reduces tumour growth and increases overall survival in an orthotopic murine model of neuroblastoma through assessment of tumour growth and moribundity relative to control miRNA-treated cohorts.

  2. Oscillatory dynamics in a model of vascular tumour growth - implications for chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maini PK

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Investigations of solid tumours suggest that vessel occlusion may occur when increased pressure from the tumour mass is exerted on the vessel walls. Since immature vessels are frequently found in tumours and may be particularly sensitive, such occlusion may impair tumour blood flow and have a negative impact on therapeutic outcome. In order to study the effects that occlusion may have on tumour growth patterns and therapeutic response, in this paper we develop and investigate a continuum model of vascular tumour growth. Results By analysing a spatially uniform submodel, we identify regions of parameter space in which the combination of tumour cell proliferation and vessel occlusion give rise to sustained temporal oscillations in the tumour cell population and in the vessel density. Alternatively, if the vessels are assumed to be less prone to collapse, stable steady state solutions are observed. When spatial effects are considered, the pattern of tumour invasion depends on the dynamics of the spatially uniform submodel. If the submodel predicts a stable steady state, then steady travelling waves are observed in the full model, and the system evolves to the same stable steady state behind the invading front. When the submodel yields oscillatory behaviour, the full model produces periodic travelling waves. The stability of the waves (which can be predicted by approximating the system as one of λ-ω type dictates whether the waves develop into regular or irregular spatio-temporal oscillations. Simulations of chemotherapy reveal that treatment outcome depends crucially on the underlying tumour growth dynamics. In particular, if the dynamics are oscillatory, then therapeutic efficacy is difficult to assess since the fluctuations in the size of the tumour cell population are enhanced, compared to untreated controls. Conclusions We have developed a mathematical model of vascular tumour growth formulated as a system of partial

  3. Metals distribution in colorectal biopsies: New insight on the elemental fingerprint of tumour tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, Leslie; Barabino, Gabriele; Klein, Jean-Philippe; Bitounis, Dimitrios; Pourchez, Jérémie; Forest, Valérie; Boudard, Delphine; Leclerc, Lara; Sarry, Gwendoline; Roblin, Xavier; Cottier, Michèle; Phelip, Jean-Marc

    2015-07-01

    Some studies have linked colorectal cancer to metal exposure. Our objective was to evaluate the element distribution in colorectal adenocarcinoma biopsies, adjacent non-tumour tissues, and healthy controls. The study is a case-control study which compared the element distribution in colon biopsies from two groups of patients: with colorectal cancer (2 types of samples: colorectal cancer biopsies and adjacent non-tumour tissues) and healthy controls. Fifteen metal concentrations (Aluminium, Boron, Cadmium, Chromium, Copper, Iron, Magnesium, Manganese, Nickel, Lead, Selenium, Silicon, Titanium, Vanadium, and Zinc) were quantified by using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. 104 patients were included: 76 in the colorectal cancer group, 28 in the healthy control group. Among the 15 elements analyzed, only boron, chromium, zinc, silicon and magnesium were found at clearly detectable concentrations. Colorectal tumour biopsies had significantly higher concentrations of magnesium as compared to adjacent non-tumour or healthy tissues. Zinc concentration followed the same trend but differences were not statistically significant. In addition, concentration of silicon was higher in colorectal cancer tissue than in healthy non-cancer tissue, while chromium was mostly found in adjacent non-tumour tissue. Magnesium, chromium, zinc and silicon were found in noteworthy concentrations in colorectal tumour. Their potential role in colorectal carcinogenesis should be explored. Copyright © 2015 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Long-Term Effects from Bacterial Meningitis in Childhood and Adolescence on Postural Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Hannes; Patel, Mitesh; Ingason, Einar F.; Einarsson, Einar J.; Haraldsson, Ásgeir; Fransson, Per-Anders

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial meningitis in childhood is associated with cognitive deficiencies, sensorimotor impairments and motor dysfunction later in life. However, the long-term effects on postural control is largely unknown, e.g., whether meningitis subjects as adults fully can utilize visual information and adaptation to enhance stability. Thirty-six subjects (20 women, mean age 19.3 years) treated in childhood or adolescence for bacterial meningitis, and 25 controls (13 women, mean age 25.1 years) performed posturography with eyes open and closed under unperturbed and perturbed standing. The meningitis subjects were screened for subjective vertigo symptoms using a questionnaire, clinically tested with headshake and head thrust test, as well as their hearing was evaluated. Meningitis subjects were significantly more unstable than controls during unperturbed (p≤0.014) and perturbed standing, though while perturbed only with eyes open in anteroposterior direction (p = 0.034) whereas in lateral direction both with eyes open and closed (pMeningitis subjects had poorer adaption ability to balance perturbations especially with eyes open, and they frequently reported symptoms of unsteadiness (88% of the subjects) and dizziness (81%), which was found significantly correlated to objectively decreased stability. Out of the 36 subjects only 3 had unilateral hearing impairment. Hence, survivors of childhood bacterial meningitis may suffer long-term disorders affecting postural control, and would greatly benefit if these common late effects became generally known so treatments can be developed and applied. PMID:25405756

  5. Long-term effects from bacterial meningitis in childhood and adolescence on postural control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannes Petersen

    Full Text Available Bacterial meningitis in childhood is associated with cognitive deficiencies, sensorimotor impairments and motor dysfunction later in life. However, the long-term effects on postural control is largely unknown, e.g., whether meningitis subjects as adults fully can utilize visual information and adaptation to enhance stability. Thirty-six subjects (20 women, mean age 19.3 years treated in childhood or adolescence for bacterial meningitis, and 25 controls (13 women, mean age 25.1 years performed posturography with eyes open and closed under unperturbed and perturbed standing. The meningitis subjects were screened for subjective vertigo symptoms using a questionnaire, clinically tested with headshake and head thrust test, as well as their hearing was evaluated. Meningitis subjects were significantly more unstable than controls during unperturbed (p≤0.014 and perturbed standing, though while perturbed only with eyes open in anteroposterior direction (p = 0.034 whereas in lateral direction both with eyes open and closed (p<0.001. Meningitis subjects had poorer adaption ability to balance perturbations especially with eyes open, and they frequently reported symptoms of unsteadiness (88% of the subjects and dizziness (81%, which was found significantly correlated to objectively decreased stability. Out of the 36 subjects only 3 had unilateral hearing impairment. Hence, survivors of childhood bacterial meningitis may suffer long-term disorders affecting postural control, and would greatly benefit if these common late effects became generally known so treatments can be developed and applied.

  6. Anaesthetic management for combined emergency caesarean section and craniotomy tumour removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Y Bisri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Presentation of primary intracranial tumour during pregnancy is extremely rare. Symptoms of brain tumour include nausea, vomiting, headache and seizures which mimic symptoms of pregnancy-related hyperemesis or eclampsia. In very few cases, craniotomy tumour removal is performed earlier or even simultaneously with foetal delivery. A 40-year-old woman at 32 weeks of gestation in foetal distress presented to the emergency room with decreased level of consciousness Glasgow Coma Scale 6 (E2M2V2. Computed tomographic scan revealed a mass lesion over the left temporoparietal region with midline shift and intratumoural bleeding. In view of high risk of herniation and foetal distress, she underwent emergency caesarean section followed by craniotomy tumour removal. In parturient with brain tumour, combined surgery of tumour removal and caesarean section is decided based on clinical symptoms, type of tumour and foetal viability. Successful anaesthetic management requires a comprehensive knowledge of physiology and pharmacology, individually tailored to control intracranial pressure while ensuring the safety of mother and foetus.

  7. One for the road! A study to assess the efficacy of single low-dose regimen of rasburicase in controlling hyperuricaemia in patients with tumour lysis syndrome due to haematological malignancies

    OpenAIRE

    Azim, Hamdy A.; Bahr, Sherif Ahmed; Kamal, Nermine Shawky; Koura, Mohamed Adel; Tolba, Rehab; Gad, Heba Abdelmoneem; Morsy, Ahmad; Attia, Hossameldin Mohsen; Iskander, Ibraheem; Hammad, Ahmed; Hemed, Mohammed Farouk; Abdallah, Mohammed Fathy; Sadek, Kareem Ahmed; Taha, Alaa Hamdi

    2013-01-01

    We conducted a retrospective audit of six patients with various haematological malignancies (two acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, one acute myeloid leukaemia, and three non-Hodgkin lymphoma); these patients were eligible to receive rasburicase, being at high risk of development of tumour lysis syndrome (TLS). They received a fixed single low-dose regimen of rasburicase (7.5 mg) mainly due to financial restriction, as patients were not supported by the National Health Service and did not have he...

  8. Saturations-based nonlinear controllers with integral term: validation in real-time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alatorre, A. G.; Castillo, P.; Mondié, S.

    2016-05-01

    Popular saturations-based nonlinear controller usually include proportional and derivative components of the state or output. The fact that in many applications, these components do not suffice to insure the convergence to the desired output values, motivate the addition of an integral term. In this paper, three configurations of nonlinear controllers based on saturation functions are improved with an integral component. The stability of the three algorithms is analysed using the Lyapunov theory. Simulation results validate the proposed control laws when they are applied to nonlinear systems with constant and unknown perturbations. Real-time experiments realised with a quad-rotor aerial vehicle and a hovercraft vehicle show that the proposed scheme can follow autonomously some trajectories, and that it could be robust with respect to delays.

  9. Human cytomegalovirus tegument protein pp65 is detected in all intra- and extra-axial brain tumours independent of the tumour type or grade.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Libard

    Full Text Available Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV has been indicated being a significant oncomodulator. Recent reports have suggested that an antiviral treatment alters the outcome of a glioblastoma. We analysed the performance of commercial HCMV-antibodies applying the immunohistochemical (IHC methods on brain sample obtained from a subject with a verified HCMV infection, on samples obtained from 14 control subjects, and on a tissue microarray block containing cores of various brain tumours. Based on these trials, we selected the best performing antibody and analysed a cohort of 417 extra- and intra-axial brain tumours such as gliomas, medulloblastomas, primary diffuse large B-cell lymphomas, and meningiomas. HCMV protein pp65 immunoreactivity was observed in all types of tumours analysed, and the IHC expression did not depend on the patient's age, gender, tumour type, or grade. The labelling pattern observed in the tumours differed from the labelling pattern observed in the tissue with an active HCMV infection. The HCMV protein was expressed in up to 90% of all the tumours investigated. Our results are in accordance with previous reports regarding the HCMV protein expression in glioblastomas and medulloblastomas. In addition, the HCMV protein expression was seen in primary brain lymphomas, low-grade gliomas, and in meningiomas. Our results indicate that the HCMV protein pp65 expression is common in intra- and extra-axial brain tumours. Thus, the assessment of the HCMV expression in tumours of various origins and pathologically altered tissue in conditions such as inflammation, infection, and even degeneration should certainly be facilitated.

  10. Short- and Long-Term Sleep Stability in Insomniacs and Healthy Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, Jordan; Vgontzas, Alexandros N; Fernandez-Mendoza, Julio; Basta, Maria; Pejovic, Slobodanka; He, Fan; Bixler, Edward O

    2015-11-01

    Assess the short- and long-term stability of sleep duration in patients with insomnia and normal-sleeping controls. Observational short-term and prospective studies. Sleep laboratory. Patients with insomnia (n = 150) and controls (n = 151) were recruited from the local community or sleep disorders clinic. A subsample of 95 men from the Penn State Adult Cohort (PSAC) were followed up 2.6 y after their initial visit. Participants underwent a physical examination and 8-h polysomnography (PSG) recording for 3 consecutive nights (controls and insomniacs), or 2 single nights separated by several years (PSAC). Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) assessed the stability of the variables total sleep time (TST), sleep onset latency (SOL), and wake after sleep onset (WASO). We also examined persistence of the first-night classification of "short" versus "normal" sleep duration on subsequent nights. Stability of TST, SOL, and WASO based on 1 night were slight to moderate in both patients with insomnia (ICC = 0.37-0.57) and controls (ICC = 0.39-0.59), and became substantial to almost perfect when based on the average of 3 nights (ICC = 0.64-0.81). We observed similar degrees of stability for TST and WASO in the longitudinal sample, with moderate stability based on a single night and substantial stability based on both nights. In examining the persistence of "short" and "normal" sleep duration, 71.4% (controls), 74.7% (patients with insomnia), and 72.6% (longitudinal sample) of participants retained their first-night classifications over subsequent nights. Sleep duration variables, particularly total sleep time based on 3 consecutive nights in both patients with insomnia and controls or two single-night recordings separated by several years, are stable and reflect a person's habitual sleep. Furthermore, a single night in the laboratory may be useful for reliably classifying one's sleep duration. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  11. Therapeutic effects of date fruits (Phoenix dactylifera) in the prevention of diseases via modulation of anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and anti-tumour activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Arshad H; Aly, Salah M; Ali, Habeeb; Babiker, Ali Y; Srikar, Sauda; Khan, Amjad A

    2014-01-01

    The current mode of treatment of various diseases based on synthetic drugs is expensive, alters genetic and metabolic pathways and also shows adverse side effects. Thus, safe and effective approach is needed to prevent the diseases development and progression. In this vista, Natural products are good remedy in the treatment/management of diseases and they are affordable and effective without any adverse effects. Dates are main fruit in the Arabian Peninsula and are considered to be one of the most significant commercial crops and also have been documented in Holy Quran and modern scientific literatures. Earlier studies have shown that constituents of dates act as potent antioxidant, anti-tumour as well as anti-inflammatory, provide a suitable alternative therapy in various diseases cure. In this review, dates fruits has medicinal value are summarized in terms of therapeutic implications in the diseases control through anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumour and ant-diabetic effect.

  12. Targeting of liver tumour in rats by selective delivery of holmium-166 loaded microspheres: a biodistribution study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nijsen, F.; Rook, D.; Zonnenberg, B.; Klerk, J. de; Rijk, P. van; Schip, F. van het [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center, Utrecht (Netherlands); Brandt, C. [Animal Inst., Utrecht Univ. (Netherlands); Meijer, R. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. Medical Center, Utrecht (Netherlands); Dullens, H. [Dept. of Pathology, Univ. Medical Center, Utrecht (Netherlands); Hennink, W. [Dept. of Pharmaceutics, Utrecht Univ. (Netherlands)

    2001-06-01

    Intra-arterial administration of beta-emitting particles that become trapped in the vascular bed of a tumour and remain there while delivering high doses, represents a unique approach in the treatment of both primary and metastatic liver tumours. Studies on selective internal radiation therapy of colorectal liver metastases using yttrium-90 glass microspheres have shown encouraging results. This study describes the biodistribution of 40-{mu}m poly lactic acid microspheres loaded with radioactive holmium-166, after intra-arterial administration into the hepatic artery of rats with implanted liver tumours. Radioactivity measurements showed >95% retention of injected activity in the liver and its resident tumour. The average activity detected in other tissues was {<=}0.1%ID/g, with incidental exceptions in the lungs and stomach. Very little {sup 166}Ho activity was detected in kidneys (<0.1%ID/g), thereby indicating the stability of the microspheres in vivo. Tumour targeting was very effective, with a mean tumour to liver ratio of 6.1{+-}2.9 for rats with tumour (n=15) versus 0.7{+-}0.5 for control rats (n=6; P<0.001). These ratios were not significantly affected by the use of adrenaline. Histological analysis showed that five times as many large (>10) and medium-sized (4-9) clusters of microspheres were present within tumour and peritumoural tissue, compared with normal liver. Single microspheres were equally dispersed throughout the tumour, as well as normal liver parenchyma. (orig.)

  13. Radiofrequency Ablation for 110 Malignant Liver Tumours: Preliminary Results on Percutaneous and Surgical Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Wong

    2009-01-01

    Conclusion: RFA is a safe and effective procedure for treating patients with malignant liver tumours. No difference in short term outcomes was observed between percutaneous and surgical approaches. A more prolonged follow-up study is required to assess longer-term outcomes.

  14. Short- and Long-Term Sleep Stability in Insomniacs and Healthy Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, Jordan; Vgontzas, Alexandros N.; Fernandez-Mendoza, Julio; Basta, Maria; Pejovic, Slobodanka; He, Fan; Bixler, Edward O.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Assess the short- and long-term stability of sleep duration in patients with insomnia and normal-sleeping controls. Design: Observational short-term and prospective studies. Setting: Sleep laboratory. Participants: Patients with insomnia (n = 150) and controls (n = 151) were recruited from the local community or sleep disorders clinic. A subsample of 95 men from the Penn State Adult Cohort (PSAC) were followed up 2.6 y after their initial visit. Measurements: Participants underwent a physical examination and 8-h polysomnography (PSG) recording for 3 consecutive nights (controls and insomniacs), or 2 single nights separated by several years (PSAC). Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) assessed the stability of the variables total sleep time (TST), sleep onset latency (SOL), and wake after sleep onset (WASO). We also examined persistence of the first-night classification of “short” versus “normal” sleep duration on subsequent nights. Results: Stability of TST, SOL, and WASO based on 1 night were slight to moderate in both patients with insomnia (ICC = 0.37–0.57) and controls (ICC = 0.39–0.59), and became substantial to almost perfect when based on the average of 3 nights (ICC = 0.64–0.81). We observed similar degrees of stability for TST and WASO in the longitudinal sample, with moderate stability based on a single night and substantial stability based on both nights. In examining the persistence of “short” and “normal” sleep duration, 71.4% (controls), 74.7% (patients with insomnia), and 72.6% (longitudinal sample) of participants retained their first-night classifications over subsequent nights. Conclusions: Sleep duration variables, particularly total sleep time based on 3 consecutive nights in both patients with insomnia and controls or two single-night recordings separated by several years, are stable and reflect a person's habitual sleep. Furthermore, a single night in the laboratory may be useful for reliably

  15. MRI of pineal region tumours: relationship between tumours and adjacent structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satoh, H. [Hiroshima University, School of Medicine (Japan). Dept. of Neurosurgery; Uozumi, T. [Hiroshima University, School of Medicine (Japan). Dept. of Neurosurgery; Kiya, K. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Hiroshima Prefectural Hospital, Hiroshima (Japan); Kurisu, K. [Hiroshima University, School of Medicine (Japan). Dept. of Neurosurgery; Arita, K. [Hiroshima University, School of Medicine (Japan). Dept. of Neurosurgery; Sumida, M. [Hiroshima University, School of Medicine (Japan). Dept. of Neurosurgery; Ikawa, F. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Hiroshima Prefectural Hospital, Hiroshima (Japan)

    1995-11-01

    A variety of tumours may arise in the pineal region; accurate diagnosis is important in the selection of treatment and prognosis. A retrospective analysis of the MRI studies of 25 patients with pathologically proven pineal region tumours was performed, focused on the relationship between the tumour and neighbouring structures. Compression of the tectal plate was classified as expansive or invasive, and compression of the corpus callosum as inferior, anterior or posterior. In 10 of the 14 patients (71 %) with germ cell tumours tectal compression was of the invasive type; 8 patients (57 %) had multiple tumours and in 13 (93 %) the tumour margins were irregular. Teratomas were readily diagnosed because of characteristic heterogeneous signal intensity. Pineal cell tumours were differentiated from germ cell tumours by their rounded shape, solid nature, sharp margins, and expansive type of tectal compression. Meningiomas were characterised by their falcotentorial attachments, posterior callosal compression, and a low-intensity rim on T2-weighted images. Gd-DTPA injection enabled clear demonstration of the site and extent of tumour spread and was useful in differentiating cystic and solid components. The appearances described, while not pathognomonic, are helpful in the differential diagnosis of pineal region tumours, and valuable in planning appropriate treatment. (orig.). With 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  16. Mechanisms of tumour escape from immune surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisiecka Urszula

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The progressive growth and spread of tumour cells in the form of metastases requires an interaction of healthy host cells, such as endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and other cells of mesenchymal origin with immune cells taking part in innate and adaptive responses within the tumour lesion and entire body. The host cells interact with tumour cells to create a dynamic tumour microenvironment, in which healthy cells can both positively and negatively influence the growth and spread of the tumour. The balance of cellular homeostasis and the effect of substances they secrete on the tumour microenvironment determine whether the tumour has a tendency to grow or disappear, and whether the cells remain within the lesion or are capable of metastasis to other regions of the body. Intercellular interactions also determine the tumour’s susceptibility to radiation or other types of cancer treatment. They may also be a rational explanation for differences in treatment outcomes, in which some metastases regress and others progress in response to the same treatment method.

  17. Spontaneous nonneoplastic lesions in control Syrian hamsters in three 24-month long-term carcinogenicity studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInnes, Elizabeth F; Ernst, Heinrich; Germann, Paul-Georg

    2015-02-01

    Information about the incidence of spontaneously occurring, nonneoplastic background findings in Syrian hamsters is essential if Syrian hamsters are to be used for toxicity studies. Male and female Syrian hamsters of the strain Han:AURA from the Fraunhofer Institute for Toxicology and Experimental Medicine (ITEM) breeding colony were maintained as control animals for carcinogenicity studies and were examined for the presence of nonneoplastic background findings either when they died or when the study was terminated. The nonneoplastic background lesions observed at an incidence of >50% (high), >25% (moderate), and >10% (low) in either male or female animals or in both sexes in one or more long-term studies are detailed. The results are compared to previous published reports of nonneoplastic, spontaneous background lesions in Syrian hamsters. Background information about the incidence of background lesions in Syrian hamsters on short- and long-term studies is useful to both toxicologists and toxicological pathologists. © 2014 by The Author(s).

  18. MRI appearances of borderline ovarian tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bent, C.L. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, St Bartholomew' s Hospital, West Smithfield, London (United Kingdom)], E-mail: clare.bent@bartsandthelondon.nhs.uk; Sahdev, A.; Rockall, A.G. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, St Bartholomew' s Hospital, West Smithfield, London (United Kingdom); Singh, N. [Department of Pathology, St Bartholomew' s Hospital, West Smithfield, London (United Kingdom); Sohaib, S.A. [Department of Radiology, Royal Marsden Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Reznek, R.H. [Cancer Imaging, St Bartholomew' s Hospital, West Smithfield, London (United Kingdom)

    2009-04-15

    This review was performed to describe the range of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearances of borderline ovarian tumours. The MRI findings in 26 patients with 31 borderline ovarian tumours (mean age: 40.1 years, range: 14-85 years) were retrospectively reviewed. For each tumour, site, size, MRI characteristics, and enhancement following gadolinium administration were recorded. There were 20 serous and 11 mucinous borderline ovarian subtypes. Nine of 26 patients demonstrated bilateral disease on MRI; synchronous contralateral ovarian disease included three benign, five serous borderline, and one serous invasive tumour. A history of a metachronous mucinous borderline tumour was identified in one patient. MRI appearances were classified into four morphological categories: group 1 (6/31, 19%), unilocular cysts; group 2 (6/31, 19%), minimally septate cysts with papillary projections; group 3 (14/31, 45%), markedly septate lesions with plaque-like excrescences; and group 4 (5/31, 16%), predominantly solid with exophytic papillary projections, all of serous subtype. There was a significant difference in mean volume between serous (841.5 cm{sup 3}) and mucinous (6358.2 cm{sup 3}) subtypes (p = 0.009). All tumours demonstrated at least one MRI feature suggestive of malignancy. The present review demonstrates the variable MRI appearances of borderline ovarian tumours along with imaging features suggestive of tumour subtype. In patients in whom the clinical features are suggestive of a borderline ovarian tumour (young age and normal or minimally elevated CA125), the ability to predict a borderline disease using morphological features observed on MRI would be extremely helpful in surgical planning, with the potential to offer fertility or ovary-preserving surgery. Future studies are required to further this aim.

  19. Intestinal tumours induced in Apc(Min/+) mice by X-rays and neutrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellender, Michele; Harrison, John D; Meijne, Emmy; Huiskamp, Rene; Kozlowski, Ryszard E; Haines, Jackie W; Edwards, Alan A; Ainsbury, Elizabeth A; Moody, John C; Bouffler, Simon D; Cox, Roger

    2011-04-01

    To compare the development of intestinal adenomas following neutron and X-ray exposure of Apc(Min/+) mice (Apc - adenomatous polyposis coli; Min - multiple intestinal neoplasia). Adult mice were exposed to acute doses of X-rays or fission neutrons. Tumour counting was undertaken 200 days later and samples were taken for Loss of Heterozygosity (LOH) analysis. Tumour numbers (adenomas and microadenomas) increased by 1.4-fold, 1.7-fold, 2.7-fold and 9-fold, after 0.5, 1, 2 and 5 Gy X-rays, respectively, and by 2.4-fold and 5.7-fold, after 0.5 and 1 Gy fission neutrons, respectively. LOH analysis of tumours from neutron-exposed mice showed that 63% had lost Apc and 90% (cf. 53% in controls) had lost D18mit84, a marker for Epb4.1l4a/NBL4 (erythrocyte protein band 4.1-like 4a/novel band 4.1-like 4), known to be involved in the Wnt (wingless-related mouse mammary tumour virus integration site) pathway. Some tumours from neutron-exposed mice appeared to have homozygous loss of some chromosomal markers. X-ray or fission neutron irradiation results in strongly enhanced tumour multiplicities. Comparison of tumour yields indicated a low Relative Biological Effectiveness of around 2-8 for fission neutrons compared with X-rays. LOH in intestinal tumours from neutron-exposed mice appeared to be more complex than previously reported for tumours from X-irradiated mice.

  20. {sup 1}H magnetic resonance spectroscopy in the diagnosis of paediatric low grade brain tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orphanidou-Vlachou, E., E-mail: eleni.orphanidou@googlemail.com [School of Cancer Sciences, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Birmingham Children' s Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Whittall Street, Birmingham, B4 6NH (United Kingdom); Auer, D., E-mail: dorothee.auer@nottingham.ac.uk [Division of Academic Radiology, School of Medical and Surgical Sciences, The University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Children' s Brain Tumour Research Centre, Queens Medical Centre, University of Nottingham (United Kingdom); Brundler, M.A., E-mail: marie-anne.brundler@bch.nhs.uk [Birmingham Children' s Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Whittall Street, Birmingham, B4 6NH (United Kingdom); Davies, N.P., E-mail: nigel.davies@nhs.net [School of Cancer Sciences, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Birmingham Children' s Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Whittall Street, Birmingham, B4 6NH (United Kingdom); Department of Medical Physics, University Hospitals Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust, Mindelsohn Way, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2WB (United Kingdom); Jaspan, T., E-mail: tim.jaspan@nuh.nhs.uk [Children' s Brain Tumour Research Centre, Queens Medical Centre, University of Nottingham (United Kingdom); MacPherson, L., E-mail: Lesley.MacPherson@bch.nhs.uk [Birmingham Children' s Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Whittall Street, Birmingham, B4 6NH (United Kingdom); Natarajan, K., E-mail: Kal.Natarajan@uhb.nhs.uk [Birmingham Children' s Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Whittall Street, Birmingham, B4 6NH (United Kingdom); Department of Medical Physics, University Hospitals Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust, Mindelsohn Way, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2WB (United Kingdom); and others

    2013-06-15

    Introduction: Low grade gliomas are the commonest brain tumours in children but present in a myriad of ways, each with its own treatment challenges. Conventional MRI scans play an important role in their management but have limited ability to identify likely clinical behaviour. The aim of this study is to investigate {sup 1}H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) as a method for detecting differences between the various low grade gliomas and related tumours in children. Patients and methods: Short echo time single voxel {sup 1}H MRS at 1.5 or 3.0 T was performed prior to treatment on children with low grade brain tumours at two centres and five MR scanners, 69 cases had data which passed quality control. MRS data was processed using LCModel to give mean spectra and metabolite concentrations which were compared using T-tests, ANOVA, Receiver Operator Characteristic curves and logistic regression in SPSS. Results: Significant differences were found in concentrations of key metabolites between glioneuronal and glial tumours (T-test p < 0.05) and between most of the individual histological subtypes of low grade gliomas. The discriminatory metabolites identified, such as choline and myoinositol, are known tumour biomarkers. In the set of pilocytic astrocytomas and unbiopsied optic pathway gliomas, significant differences (p < 0.05, ANOVA) were found in metabolite profiles of tumours depending on location and patient neurofibromatosis type 1 status. Logistic regression analyses yielded equations which could be used to assess the probability of a tumour being of a specific type. Conclusions: MRS can detect subtle differences between low grade brain tumours in children and should form part of the clinical assessment of these tumours.

  1. Modelling of long-term and short-term mechanisms of arterial pressure control in the cardiovascular system: an object-oriented approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez de Canete, J; Luque, J; Barbancho, J; Munoz, V

    2014-04-01

    A mathematical model that provides an overall description of both the short- and long-term mechanisms of arterial pressure regulation is presented. Short-term control is exerted through the baroreceptor reflex while renal elimination plays a role in long-term control. Both mechanisms operate in an integrated way over the compartmental model of the cardiovascular system. The whole system was modelled in MODELICA, which uses a hierarchical object-oriented modelling strategy, under the DYMOLA simulation environment. The performance of the controlled system was analysed by simulation in light of the existing hypothesis and validation tests previously performed with physiological data, demonstrating the effectiveness of both regulation mechanisms under physiological and pathological conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Enrichment of circulating head and neck tumour cells using spiral microfluidic technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulasinghe, Arutha; Tran, Thao Huynh Phuoc; Blick, Tony; O'Byrne, Ken; Thompson, Erik W; Warkiani, Majid E; Nelson, Colleen; Kenny, Liz; Punyadeera, Chamindie

    2017-02-15

    Whilst locoregional control of head and neck cancers (HNCs) has improved over the last four decades, long-term survival has remained largely unchanged. A possible reason for this is that the rate of distant metastasis has not changed. Such disseminated disease is reflected in measurable levels of cancer cells in the blood of HNC patients, referred to as circulating tumour cells (CTCs). Numerous marker-independent techniques have been developed for CTC isolation and detection. Recently, microfluidics-based platforms have come to the fore to avoid molecular bias. In this pilot, proof of concept study, we evaluated the use of the spiral microfluidic chip for CTC enrichment and subsequent detection in HNC patients. CTCs were detected in 13/24 (54%) HNC patients, representing both early to late stages of disease. Importantly, in 7/13 CTC-positive patients, CTC clusters were observed. This is the first study to use spiral microfluidics technology for CTC enrichment in HNC.

  3. Long-term leaching from MSWI air-pollution-control residues: Leaching characterization and modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyks, Jiri; Astrup, Thomas; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2009-01-01

    Long-term leaching of Ca, Fe, Mg, K, Na, S, Al, As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn, Mo, Sb, Si, Sri, Sr, Ti, V, P, Cl, and dissolved organic carbon from two different municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) air-pollution-control residues was monitored during 24 months of column percolat......Long-term leaching of Ca, Fe, Mg, K, Na, S, Al, As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn, Mo, Sb, Si, Sri, Sr, Ti, V, P, Cl, and dissolved organic carbon from two different municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) air-pollution-control residues was monitored during 24 months of column...... percolation experiments; liquid-to-solid (L/S) ratios of 200-250 L/kg corresponding to more than 10,000 years in a conventional landfill were reached. Less than 2% of the initially present As, Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr, and Sb had leached during the Course of the experiments. Concentrations of Cd, Fe, Mg, Hg, Mn, Ni, Co......, Sn, Ti, and P were generally bellow 1 mu g/L; overall less than 1% of their mass leached. Column leaching data were further used in a two-step geochemical modeling in PHREEQC in order to (i) identify solubility controlling minerals and (ii) evaluate their interactions in a water-percolated column...

  4. Lower cognitive performance among long-term type 1 diabetes survivors: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Anna; Lundqvist, Robert; Rolandsson, Olov; Sundström, Anna; Eliasson, Mats

    2017-08-01

    Patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) have an increased risk of cognitive dysfunction. The cognitive decrement is believed to depend on macro- and microvascular complications and long disease duration. Some patients do not develop these complications, but still report cognitive symptoms. We examined if long-standing T1D without complications is associated with lower cognitive performance. A group of patients (n=43) with long-standing T1D (>30years) without micro- or macro vascular complications was compared with a non-diabetic control group (n=86) on six cognitive tests which probed episodic memory, semantic memory, episodic short-term memory, visual attention and psychomotor speed. Each patient was matched with two controls regarding age, gender and education. A linear mixed effect model was used to analyze the data. The mean age was 57years and mean duration was 41years. Patients with diabetes had lower diastolic blood pressure but BMI, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure and smoking did not differ between groups. Patients had lower results than non-diabetic controls in episodic short-term memory (pcognitive performance, regardless of other diabetes-related complications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Carcinoid tumour of the middle ear

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Baig, Salman

    2012-09-01

    A case of middle ear mass in a young female from Ireland is described, who presented with left ear hearing loss and intermittent bloody discharge from the same ear. Examination under microscope revealed occlusive polyp in the left ear and a biopsy had been taken under general anaesthesia. Histopathology report described an adenoma \\/ carcinoid tumour of the middle ear confirmed by positive immunohistochemical staining. CT temporal bones revealed the extension of the disease. The patient underwent left tympanotomy and excision of the tumour. In general, these tumours are regarded as benign but may be mistaken for adenocarcinomas because of their histological heterogenecity.

  6. Radiopharmaceuticals as probes to characterize tumour tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alam, Israt S.; Arshad, Mubarik A.; Nguyen, Quang-De; Aboagye, Eric O. [Imperial College London, Comprehensive Cancer Imaging Centre, London (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-01

    Tumour cells exhibit several properties that allow them to grow and divide. A number of these properties are detectable by nuclear imaging methods. We discuss crucial tumour properties that can be described by current radioprobe technologies, further discuss areas of emerging radioprobe development, and finally articulate need areas that our field should aspire to develop. The review focuses largely on positron emission tomography and draws upon the seminal 'Hallmarks of Cancer' review article by Hanahan and Weinberg in 2011 placing into context the present and future roles of radiotracer imaging in characterizing tumours. (orig.)

  7. Gestational trophoblastic tumours: an update for 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froeling, Fieke E M; Seckl, Michael J

    2014-11-01

    Gestational trophoblastic disease describes a variety of pregnancy-related diseases including the premalignant conditions of a partial and complete hydatidiform mole and the malignant disorders of invasive mole, choriocarcinoma and the rare placental-site trophoblastic tumour and epithelioid trophoblastic tumour. The availability of a highly sensitive tumour marker in the form of human chorionic gonadotrophin, the chemosensitive character of the disease with effective treatment strategies and centralization of care of a rare group of diseases has resulted in excellent survival rates, which can exceed 98 %. This review gives a general overview of gestational trophoblastic disease, the most recent insights in aetiology and pathology and a summary of the different management strategies.

  8. Epithelial tumours of the lacrimal gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Holstein, Sarah Linéa; Coupland, Sarah E; Briscoe, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    of the lacrimal gland, displacement of the eyeball, reduced eye motility and diplopia. Pain and symptoms of short duration before the first ophthalmic consultation are characteristic of malignant tumours. The histological diagnosis determines the subsequent treatment regimen and provides important clues regarding...... the prognosis. The purpose of this paper is to describe the various primary epithelial tumours of the lacrimal gland. In the first part of the review, the frequency, demographics, clinical presentation and diagnostic features are described. In the second part, primarily tumour-specific histological...

  9. Impact of dose escalation and adaptive radiotherapy for cervical cancers on tumour shrinkage—a modelling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Røthe Arnesen, Marius; Paulsen Hellebust, Taran; Malinen, Eirik

    2017-03-01

    Tumour shrinkage occurs during fractionated radiotherapy and is regulated by radiation induced cellular damage, repopulation of viable cells and clearance of dead cells. In some cases additional tumour shrinkage during external beam therapy may be beneficial, particularly for locally advanced cervical cancer where a small tumour volume may simplify and improve brachytherapy. In the current work, a mathematical tumour model is utilized to investigate how local dose escalation affects tumour shrinkage, focusing on implications for brachytherapy. The iterative two-compartment model is based upon linear-quadratic radiation response, a doubling time for viable cells and a half-time for clearance of dead cells. The model was individually fitted to clinical tumour volume data from fractionated radiotherapy of 25 cervical cancer patients. Three different fractionation patterns for dose escalation, all with an additional dose of 12.2 Gy, were simulated and compared to standard fractionation in terms of tumour shrinkage. An adaptive strategy where dose escalation was initiated after one week of treatment was also considered. For 22 out of 25 patients, a good model fit was achieved to the observed tumour shrinkage. A large degree of inter-patient variation was seen in predicted volume reduction following dose escalation. For the 10 best responding patients, a mean tumour volume reduction of 34  ±  3% (relative to standard treatment) was estimated at the time of brachytherapy. Timing of initiating dose escalation had a larger impact than the number of fractions applied. In conclusion, the model was found useful in evaluating the impact from dose escalation on tumour shrinkage. The results indicate that dose escalation could be conducted from the start of external beam radiotherapy in order to obtain additional tumour shrinkage before brachytherapy.

  10. Chemical treatment of papaya seeds aiming at long-term storage and control of damping off

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia de Carvalho Campos Botelho

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Damping off is a nursery disease of great economic importance in papaya and seed treatment may be an effective measure to control. The aim of this work was to evaluate the quality of papaya seeds treated with fungicides and stored under two environmental and packaging conditions. Additionally, the efficiency of fungicide treatments in the control of damping-off caused by Rhizoctonia solani was evaluated. Papaya seeds were treated with the fungicides Captan, Tolylfluanid and the mixture Tolylfluanid + Captan (all commercial wettable powder formulations. Seeds of the control group were not treated. The seeds were stored for nine months in two conditions: packed in aluminum coated paper and kept at 7 ± 1ºC and in permeable kraft paper and kept in non-controlled environment. At the beginning of the storage and every three months the seed quality (germination and vigor tests, emergence rate index, height, dry mass and damping of plants in pre and post-emergence (in contaminated substrate and mycelia-free substrate were analyzed. Both storage conditions as well as the fungicide treatments preserved the germination and seed vigor. In the infested substrate, seedling emergence was favored by fungicides, but in post-emergence, fungicides alone did not control the damping off caused by R. solani. Symptoms of damping off were not observed in the clean substrate. The results showed that the fungicide treatments may be used to pretreat papaya seed for long-term storage and commercialization.

  11. Tumour seeding following percutaneous needle biopsy: The real story

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, E.G. [Department of Radiology, Western Infirmary, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Baxter, G., E-mail: grant.baxter@ggc.scot.nhs.uk [Department of Radiology, Western Infirmary, Glasgow (United Kingdom)

    2011-11-15

    The demand for percutaneous needle biopsy is greater than ever before and with the majority of procedures requiring imaging guidance, radiologists have an increasingly important role in the diagnostic work-up of patients with suspected malignancy. All invasive procedures incur potential risks; therefore, clinicians should be aware of the most frequently encountered complications and have a realistic idea of their likelihood. Tumour seeding, whereby malignant cells are deposited along the tract of a biopsy needle, can have disastrous consequences particularly in patients who are organ transplant candidates or in those who would otherwise expect good long-term survival. Fortunately, tumour seeding is a rare occurrence, yet the issue invariably receives a high profile and is often regarded as a major contraindication to certain biopsy procedures. Although its existence is in no doubt, realistic insight into its likelihood across the spectrum of biopsy procedures and multiple anatomical sites is required to permit accurate patient counselling and risk stratification. This review provides a comprehensive overview of tumour seeding and examines the likelihood of this much feared complication across the range of commonly performed diagnostic biopsy procedures. Conclusions have been derived from an extensive analysis of the published literature, and a number of key recommendations should assist practitioners in their everyday practice.

  12. Tumour seeding following percutaneous needle biopsy: the real story!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, E G; Baxter, G

    2011-11-01

    The demand for percutaneous needle biopsy is greater than ever before and with the majority of procedures requiring imaging guidance, radiologists have an increasingly important role in the diagnostic work-up of patients with suspected malignancy. All invasive procedures incur potential risks; therefore, clinicians should be aware of the most frequently encountered complications and have a realistic idea of their likelihood. Tumour seeding, whereby malignant cells are deposited along the tract of a biopsy needle, can have disastrous consequences particularly in patients who are organ transplant candidates or in those who would otherwise expect good long-term survival. Fortunately, tumour seeding is a rare occurrence, yet the issue invariably receives a high profile and is often regarded as a major contraindication to certain biopsy procedures. Although its existence is in no doubt, realistic insight into its likelihood across the spectrum of biopsy procedures and multiple anatomical sites is required to permit accurate patient counselling and risk stratification. This review provides a comprehensive overview of tumour seeding and examines the likelihood of this much feared complication across the range of commonly performed diagnostic biopsy procedures. Conclusions have been derived from an extensive analysis of the published literature, and a number of key recommendations should assist practitioners in their everyday practice. Copyright © 2011 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Refractive index of carcinogen-induced rat mammary tumours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zysk, Adam M.; Chaney, Eric J.; Boppart, Stephen A.

    2006-05-01

    Near-infrared optical techniques for clinical breast cancer screening in humans are rapidly advancing. Based on the computational inversion of the photon diffusion process through the breast, these techniques rely on optical tissue models for accurate image reconstruction. Recent interest has surfaced regarding the effect of refractive index variations on these reconstructions. Although many data exist regarding the scattering and absorption properties of normal and diseased tissue, no measurements of refractive index appear in the literature. In this paper, we present near-infrared refractive index data acquired from N-methyl-N-nitrosourea-induced rat mammary tumours, which are similar in pathology and disease progression to human ductal carcinoma. Eight animals, including one control, were employed in this study, yielding data from 32 tumours as well as adjacent adipose and connective tissues.

  14. SURGICAL MANAGEMENT OF NECK TUMOURS IN DOGS: CASE REPORTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayakrushna Das

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted on two dogs, one pug and one mongrel presented with the history of swelling at the base of neck. In one of the cases there was ulceration of the skin around the enlarged mass and in the second case there was gradual increase in size of the mass along with bending of neck to one side and reduced appetite. Further, the physical and radiographical examinations were conducted that confirmed the occurrence of tumour in both the cases. Under physical restraint and general anaesthesia the excision of the tumour mass was done along with the proper control of haemorrhage. Both the cases recovered well without any critical symptoms there of up to one year after surgery.

  15. Well-differentiated thyroid cancer with aerodigestive tract invasion: Long-term control and functional outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Shirley Y; Milas, Zvonimir L; Bhatt, Neel; Roberts, Dianna; Clayman, Gary L

    2016-01-01

    Well-differentiated thyroid cancer (WDTC) invading the aerodigestive tract is an uncommon entity associated with significant morbidity and reduced survival. We reviewed the surgical treatment, oncologic control, and functional outcomes of 69 consecutive patients with WDTC invading the upper aerodigestive tract. Complete tumor excision with negative margins was achieved in 62% of patients. Tracheostomy dependence (27%) and permanent hypoparathyroidism (49%) were present or the result of surgery. Seventy-one percent of patients ate a regular diet, 59% had normal speech, and the majority (62%) reported normal activities of daily living. The local, regional, and distant recurrence was 1%, 14%, and 23%, respectively. The 5-year overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) was 71% and 45%, respectively. Surgical resection and appropriate adjuvant treatment can achieve excellent locoregional control while preserving function and quality of life. Long-term survival is limited by the high incidence of distant metastasis. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Randomized controlled trial evaluating the temporal effects of high-intensity exercise on learning, short-term and long-term memory, and prospective memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frith, Emily; Sng, Eveleen; Loprinzi, Paul D

    2017-11-01

    The broader purpose of this study was to examine the temporal effects of high-intensity exercise on learning, short-term and long-term retrospective memory and prospective memory. Among a sample of 88 young adult participants, 22 were randomized into one of four different groups: exercise before learning, control group, exercise during learning, and exercise after learning. The retrospective assessments (learning, short-term and long-term memory) were assessed using the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test. Long-term memory including a 20-min and 24-hr follow-up assessment. Prospective memory was assessed using a time-based procedure by having participants contact (via phone) the researchers at a follow-up time period. The exercise stimulus included a 15-min bout of progressive maximal exertion treadmill exercise. High-intensity exercise prior to memory encoding (vs. exercise during memory encoding or consolidation) was effective in enhancing long-term memory (for both 20-min and 24-h follow-up assessments). We did not observe a differential temporal effect of high-intensity exercise on short-term memory (immediate post-memory encoding), learning or prospective memory. The timing of high-intensity exercise may play an important role in facilitating long-term memory. © 2017 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Prognostic relevance of FDG PET in patients with neurofibromatosis type-1 and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenner, Winfried; Buchert, Ralph; Clausen, Malte [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hamburg (Germany); Friedrich, Reinhard E.; Mautner, Victor F. [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Hamburg (Germany); Gawad, Karim A. [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of General, Visceral and Thoracic Surgery, Hamburg (Germany); Hagel, Christian [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Institute of Neuropathology, Hamburg (Germany); Deimling, Andreas von [Charite Universitaetsmedizin, Department of Neuropathology, Berlin (Germany); Wit, Maike de [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Medicine II, Hamburg (Germany)

    2006-04-15

    In patients with neurofibromatosis type-1 (NF1) and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumours (MPNSTs), survival rates are low and time to death is often less than 2 years. However, there are patients with a more favourable prognosis who develop metastases rather late or not at all. Since histopathology and tumour grading are not well correlated with prognosis, we aimed to evaluate the potential of {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET) for prediction of patient outcome in MPNST. FDG PET was performed in 16 patients with NF1 and MPNSTs. Standardised uptake values (SUVs) were calculated for each tumour and correlated to tumour grade and patient outcome in terms of survival or death. Three patients with tumour grade II had an SUV <3. None of these patients developed metastases or died during a follow-up of 41-62 months. Thirteen patients with tumour grades II and III had an SUV >3. Only one of these patients is still alive after 20 months; the remaining 12 died within 4-33 months. SUV predicted long-term survival with an accuracy of 94%, compared with 69% for tumour grade. In Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, patients with an SUV >3 had a significantly shorter mean survival time, 13 months, than patients with an SUV <3, in whom the mean survival time was 52 months. Tumour grading did not reveal differences in survival time (15 vs 12 months). Tumour SUV obtained by FDG PET was a significant parameter for prediction of survival in NF1 patients with MPNSTs while histopathological tumour grading did not predict outcome. (orig.)

  18. Medical exposure to ionising radiation and the risk of brain tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blettner, Maria; Schlehofer, Brigitte; Samkange-Zeeb, Florence

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The role of exposure to low doses of ionising radiation in the aetiology of brain tumours has yet to be clarified. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between medically or occupationally related exposure to ionising radiation and brain tumours. METHODS: We...... used self-reported medical and occupational data collected during the German part of a multinational case-control study on mobile phone use and the risk of brain tumours (Interphone study) for the analyses. RESULTS: For any exposure to medical ionising radiation we found odds ratios (ORs) of 0.63 (95...... regions. CONCLUSION: We did not find any significant increased risk of brain tumours for exposure to medical ionising radiation....

  19. Epigenetic inactivation of tumour suppressor coding and non-coding genes in human cancer: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llinàs-Arias, Pere; Esteller, Manel

    2017-09-01

    Cancer cells undergo many different alterations during their transformation, including genetic and epigenetic events. The controlled division of healthy cells can be impaired through the downregulation of tumour suppressor genes. Here, we provide an update of the mechanisms in which epigenetically altered coding and non-coding tumour suppressor genes are implicated. We will highlight the importance of epigenetics in the different molecular pathways that lead to enhanced and unlimited capacity of division, genomic instability, metabolic shift, acquisition of mesenchymal features that lead to metastasis, and tumour plasticity. We will briefly describe these pathways, focusing especially on genes whose epigenetic inactivation through DNA methylation has been recently described, as well as on those that are well established as being epigenetically silenced in cancer. A brief perspective of current clinical therapeutic approaches that can revert epigenetic inactivation of non-coding tumour suppressor genes will also be given. © 2017 The Authors.

  20. Air traffic controllers’ long-term speech-in-noise training effects: A control group study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria T.P. Zaballos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Speech perception in noise relies on the capacity of the auditory system to process complex sounds using sensory and cognitive skills. The possibility that these can be trained during adulthood is of special interest in auditory disorders, where speech in noise perception becomes compromised. Air traffic controllers (ATC are constantly exposed to radio communication, a situation that seems to produce auditory learning. The objective of this study has been to quantify this effect. Subjects and Methods: 19 ATC and 19 normal hearing individuals underwent a speech in noise test with three signal to noise ratios: 5, 0 and −5 dB. Noise and speech were presented through two different loudspeakers in azimuth position. Speech tokes were presented at 65 dB SPL, while white noise files were at 60, 65 and 70 dB respectively. Results: Air traffic controllers outperform the control group in all conditions [P<0.05 in ANOVA and Mann-Whitney U tests]. Group differences were largest in the most difficult condition, SNR=−5 dB. However, no correlation between experience and performance were found for any of the conditions tested. The reason might be that ceiling performance is achieved much faster than the minimum experience time recorded, 5 years, although intrinsic cognitive abilities cannot be disregarded. Discussion: ATC demonstrated enhanced ability to hear speech in challenging listening environments. This study provides evidence that long-term auditory training is indeed useful in achieving better speech-in-noise understanding even in adverse conditions, although good cognitive qualities are likely to be a basic requirement for this training to be effective. Conclusion: Our results show that ATC outperform the control group in all conditions. Thus, this study provides evidence that long-term auditory training is indeed useful in achieving better speech-in-noise understanding even in adverse conditions.

  1. Uncommon presentation of a rare tumour - incidental finding in an asymptomatic patient: case report and comprehensive review of the literature on intrapericardial solitary fibrous tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czimbalmos, Csilla; Csecs, Ibolya; Polos, Miklos; Bartha, Elektra; Szucs, Nikolette; Toth, Attila; Maurovich-Horvat, Pal; Becker, David; Sapi, Zoltan; Szabolcs, Zoltan; Merkely, Bela; Vago, Hajnalka

    2017-09-02

    A solitary fibrous tumour is a rare, mainly benign spindle cell mesenchymal tumour most commonly originating from the pleura. An intrapericardial location of a solitary fibrous tumour is extremely unusual. We present a case of an asymptomatic patient with a slow-growing massive benign cardiac solitary fibrous tumour. A 37-year-old asymptomatic female patient was referred to our hospital with an enlarged cardiac silhouette found on her screening chest X-ray. The echocardiographic examination revealed pericardial effusion and an inhomogeneous mobile mass located in the pericardial sac around the left ventricle. Cardiac magnetic resonance (MRI) examination showed an intrapericardial, semilunar-shaped mass attached to the pulmonary trunk with an intermediate signal intensity on proton density-weighted images and high signal intensity on T2-weighted spectral fat saturation inversion recovery images. First-pass perfusion and early and late gadolinium-enhanced images showed a vascularized mass with septated, patchy, inhomogeneous late enhancement. Coronary computed tomography angiography revealed no invasion of the coronaries. Based on the retrospectively analysed screening chest X-rays, the mass had started to form at least 7 years earlier. Complete resection of the tumour with partial resection of the pulmonary trunk was performed. Histological evaluation of the septated, cystic mass revealed tumour cells forming an irregular patternless pattern; immunohistochemically, the cells tested positive for vimentin, CD34, CD99 and STAT6 but negative for keratin (AE1-AE3), CD31 and S100. Thus, the diagnosis of an intrapericardial solitary fibrous tumour was established. There has been no recurrence for 3 years based on the regular MRI follow-up. Intrapericardial SFTs, showing slow growth dynamics, can present with massive extent even in completely asymptomatic patients. MRI is exceedingly useful for characterizing intrapericardial masses, allowing precise surgical planning, and

  2. Topically applied Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil causes direct anti-cancer cytotoxicity in subcutaneous tumour bearing mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, Demelza J; Greay, Sara J; Hooper, Cornelia M; Kissick, Haydn T; Filion, Pierre; Riley, Thomas V; Beilharz, Manfred W

    2012-08-01

    Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil (TTO) applied topically in a dilute (10%) dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) formulation exerts a rapid anti-cancer effect after a short treatment protocol. Tumour clearance is associated with skin irritation mediated by neutrophils which quickly and completely resolves upon treatment cessation. To examine the mechanism of action underlying the anti-cancer activity of TTO. Immune cell changes in subcutaneous tumour bearing mice in response to topically applied TTO treatments were assessed by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry. Direct cytotoxicity of TTO on tumour cells in vivo was assessed by transmission electron microscopy. Neutrophils accumulate in the skin following topical 10% TTO/DMSO treatment but are not required for tumour clearance as neutrophil depletion did not abrogate the anti-cancer effect. Topically applied 10% TTO/DMSO, but not neat TTO, induces an accumulation and activation of dendritic cells and an accumulation of T cells. Although topical application of 10% TTO/DMSO appears to activate an immune response, anti-tumour efficacy is mediated by a direct effect on tumour cells in vivo. The direct cytotoxicity of TTO in vivo appears to be associated with TTO penetration. Future studies should focus on enhancing the direct cytotoxicity of TTO by increasing penetration through skin to achieve a higher in situ terpene concentration. This coupled with boosting a more specific anti-tumour immune response will likely result in long term clearance of tumours. Copyright © 2012 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Symptoms and time to diagnosis in children with brain tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klitbo, Ditte Marie; Nielsen, Rine; Illum, Niels Ove

    2011-01-01

    Clinical symptoms in brain tumours in children are variable at onset and diagnosis is often delayed. Symptoms were investigated with regard to brain tumour localisation, prediagnostic symptomatic intervals and malignancy.......Clinical symptoms in brain tumours in children are variable at onset and diagnosis is often delayed. Symptoms were investigated with regard to brain tumour localisation, prediagnostic symptomatic intervals and malignancy....

  4. Malignant Renal Tumours in Adults in Nnamdi Azikiwe University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Malignant renal tumour is the third commonest urological tumour after prostate and bladder cancer. It is however the urological tumour with the highest mortality/ incidence ratio. OBJECTIVE: To review the frequency, mode of presentation and histological pattern of patients with malignant renal tumours in ...

  5. Histo-pathological features of primary ovarian Tumours managed in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Ovarian tumours are the 2nd most common female genital tract tumour in Sokoto, northwestern, Nigeria. We determined the histo-pathological features of surgically removed ... (12.5%), malignant teratoma 2(5%) and endodermal sinus tumour (5%). There were 2 cases of metastatic tumours: one from Burkitts ...

  6. Determining the amount of physical activity needed for long-term weight control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wier, L. T.; Ayers, G. W.; Jackson, A. S.; Rossum, A. C.; Poston, W. S.; Foreyt, J. P.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate prospectively the influence of habitual physical activity on body weight of men and women and to develop a model that defines the role of physical activity on longitudinal weight change. DESIGN AND SETTING: Occupational cohort study conducted for a mean of 5.5 y. SUBJECTS: A total of 496 (341 male and 155 female) NASA/Johnson Space Center employees who completed the 3 month education component of the employee health-related fitness program and remained involved for a minimum of 2 y. MEASUREMENTS: Body weights were measured at baseline (T1) and follow-up (T2), and habitual physical activity was obtained from the mean of multiple ratings of the 11-point (0-10) NASA Activity Scale (NAS) recorded quarterly between T1 and T2. Other measures included age, gender, VO(2 max) obtained from maximal treadmill testing, body mass index (BMI), and body fat percentage. RESULTS: Multiple regression demonstrated that mean NAS, T1 weight, aging and gender all influence long-term T2 weight. T1 age was significant for the men only. Independently, each increase in mean NAS significantly (Pactivity is a significant source of long-term weight change. The use of self-reported activity level is helpful in predicting long-term weight changes and may be used by health care professionals when counseling patients about the value of physical activity for weight control.

  7. Long-term efficacy of mycophenolate mofetil in the control of severe intraocular inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Chun H; Comer, Marie; Lightman, Susan

    2003-12-01

    To assess whether the previously demonstrated short-term efficacy of the immunosuppressant mycophenolate mofetil (MMF; CellCept, Roche) is maintained in the long-term management of refractory uveitis. The study was an open-label, non-comparative retrospective series of 14 patients with refractory uveitis and treated with MMF for a mean of >33 months. Mycophenolate mofetil was given at a dosage of 1 g (oral) twice daily. Indications included prednisolone reduction, additive agent with cyclosporin, or replacement therapy (azathioprine or methotrexate). The intraocular inflammatory response, side-effects, and toxicity were monitored. Intraocular inflammation remained under control in 10 patients, unchanged in three and deteriorated in one patient. Transient side-effects included tiredness, headache and dizziness (one patient each, lasting less than 2 weeks from the time of MMF introduction). Mycophenolate mofetil was stopped in one patient because of absence of prolonged clinical improvement. Vision improved in 25% (7 eyes), did not change in 50% (14 eyes), but was reduced in 25% (7 eyes). Mycophenolate mofetil is safe for long-term usage and is recommended for treatment of refractory panuveitis or posterior uveitis with uncontrolled inflammation despite high prednisolone maintenance dosage (>15 mg/day) or toxicity or lack of efficacy of other immuno-suppressive agents. However, MMF is less effective for refractory uveitis unresponsive to azathioprine.

  8. Fasting protects against the side effects of irinotecan treatment but does not affect anti-tumour activity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huisman, Sander A; de Bruijn, Peter; Ghobadi Moghaddam-Helmantel, Inge M; IJzermans, Jan N M; Wiemer, Erik A C; Mathijssen, Ron H J; de Bruin, Ron W F

    2016-03-01

    The main limitation to the use of irinotecan in the treatment of colorectal cancer is the severity of side effects, including neutropaenia and diarrhoea. Here, we explored the effects of 3 days of fasting on irinotecan-induced toxicities, on plasma, liver and tumour pharmacokinetics and on anti-tumour activity in mice. Male BALB/c mice received C26 colon carcinoma cells subcutaneously. They were randomized 1:1 into equally sized ad libitum fed and fasted groups after which they were treated with irinotecan. Weight and adverse side effects were recorded daily. At the end of the experiment, tumours were resected and weighed, and concentrations of irinotecan and its active metabolite SN-38 were determined in plasma and tumour. Fasting prevented the diarrhoea and visible signs of discomfort induced by irinotecan. Ad libitum fed animals developed leucopenia compared with untreated controls, whereas fasted mice did not. Irinotecan suppressed tumour growth equally in both treated groups, compared with untreated controls. Levels of the active irinotecan metabolite SN-38 9 (calculated as AUC values) were significantly lower in fasted mice in both plasma and liver, but not in tumour tissue. Fasting protected against irinotecan-induced side effects without interfering with its anti-tumour efficacy. Fasting induced a lower systemic exposure to SN-38, which may explain the absence of adverse side effects, while tumour levels of SN-38 remained unchanged. These data offer important new approaches to improve treatment with irinotecan in patients. © 2015 The British Pharmacological Society.

  9. Malignant Appendage Tumours in Zaria | Samaila | Sudanese ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and immunohistochemical studies should help in making diagnosis. Surgical intervention with wide margin excision should reduce recurrence rate. Further characterization of these tumours is desirable in our setting. Keywords: Skin Appendage, Malignant, Eccrine Sweat gland. Sudanese Journal of Dermatology Vol.

  10. Cognitive performance of long-term institutionalized elderly patients with schizophrenia: A case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Paim Diaz

    Full Text Available Abstract Cognitive impairment is inherent to the ageing process. Several studies suggest that patients with late-life schizophrenia have more marked cognitive impairment. Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the cognitive performance of elderly institutionalized patients with schizophrenia and institutionalized elderly control patients without neurological or psychiatric diseases, matched for age, educational level and institutionalization time. Methods: The Cambridge Examination for Mental Disorders of the Elderly (CAMCOG was used to test 10 institutionalized elderly patients with schizophrenia. Results were compared with those of 10 institutionalized control patients with history of Hansen's disease. Results: Patients with schizophrenia showed a worse performance in terms of total CAMCOG score and on its subtests of orientation, language, abstraction, and memory (p≤0.05. Patients with schizophrenia also disclosed a non-significant trend toward lower scores on the MMSE and on calculus. Conclusion: Findings demonstrated that schizophrenia was associated to worse cognitive impairment in long-term institutionalized elderly patients compared with institutionalized patients without neurological or psychiatric diseases.

  11. Force control tasks with pure haptic feedback promote short-term focused attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dangxiao; Zhang, Yuru; Yang, Xiaoxiao; Yang, Gaofeng; Yang, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Focused attention has great impact on our quality of life. Our learning, social skills and even happiness are closely intertwined with our capacity for focused attention. Attention promotion is replete with examples of training-induced increases in attention capability, most of which rely on visual and auditory stimulation. Pure haptic stimulation to increase attention capability is rarely found. We show that accurate force control tasks with pure haptic feedback enhance short-term focused attention. Participants were trained by a force control task in which information from visual and auditory channels was blocked, and only haptic feedback was provided. The trainees were asked to exert a target force within a pre-defined force tolerance for a specific duration. The tolerance was adaptively modified to different levels of difficulty to elicit full participant engagement. Three attention tests showed significant changes in different aspects of focused attention in participants who had been trained as compared with those who had not, thereby illustrating the role of haptic-based sensory-motor tasks in the promotion of short-term focused attention. The findings highlight the potential value of haptic stimuli in brain plasticity and serve as a new tool to extend existing computer games for cognitive enhancement.

  12. Effects of short-term treatment with atorvastatin in smokers with asthma - a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lloyd Suzanne M

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The immune modulating properties of statins may benefit smokers with asthma. We tested the hypothesis that short-term treatment with atorvastatin improves lung function or indices of asthma control in smokers with asthma. Methods Seventy one smokers with mild to moderate asthma were recruited to a randomized double-blind parallel group trial comparing treatment with atorvastatin (40 mg per day versus placebo for 4 weeks. After 4 weeks treatment inhaled beclometasone (400 μg per day was added to both treatment arms for a further 4 weeks. The primary outcome was morning peak expiratory flow after 4 weeks treatment. Secondary outcome measures included indices of asthma control and airway inflammation. Results At 4 weeks, there was no improvement in the atorvastatin group compared to the placebo group in morning peak expiratory flow [-10.67 L/min, 95% CI -38.70 to 17.37, p = 0.449], but there was an improvement with atorvastatin in asthma quality of life score [0.52, 95% CI 0.17 to 0.87 p = 0.005]. There was no significant improvement with atorvastatin and inhaled beclometasone compared to inhaled beclometasone alone in outcome measures at 8 weeks. Conclusions Short-term treatment with atorvastatin does not alter lung function but may improve asthma quality of life in smokers with mild to moderate asthma. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT00463827

  13. Short-term airing by natural ventilation - modeling and control strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perino, M; Heiselberg, P

    2009-10-01

    The need to improve the energy efficiency of buildings requires new and more efficient ventilation systems. It has been demonstrated that innovative operating concepts that make use of natural ventilation seem to be more appreciated by occupants. This kind of system frequently integrates traditional mechanical ventilation components with natural ventilation devices, such as motorized windows and louvers. Among the various ventilation strategies that are currently available, buoyancy driven single-sided natural ventilation has proved to be very effective and can provide high air change rates for temperature and IAQ control. However, in order to promote a wider applications of these systems, an improvement in the knowledge of their working principles and the availability of new design and simulation tools is necessary. In this context, the paper analyses and presents the results of a research that was aimed at developing and validating numerical models for the analysis of buoyancy driven single-sided natural ventilation systems. Once validated, these models can be used to optimize control strategies in order to achieve satisfactory indoor comfort conditions and IAQ. Practical Implications Numerical and experimental analyses have proved that short-term airing by intermittent ventilation is an effective measure to satisfactorily control IAQ. Different control strategies have been investigated to optimize the capabilities of the systems. The proposed zonal model has provided good performances and could be adopted as a design tool, while CFD simulations can be profitably used for detailed studies of the pollutant concentration distribution in a room and to address local discomfort problems.

  14. Short-term and long-term effects of weed control and fertilization on growth and wood anatomy of a Populus deltoides clone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Estela Monteoliva

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aims of study: The short- and long-term effects of weed control and fertilization on growth and wood anatomy of 10-y-old Populus deltoides were investigated. Weed control and fertilization usually leads to an increase the growth rate of trees, and consequently, a possible modification in the quality of produced wood. Area of study: We analyzed trees from an experimental plantation in Buenos Aires, Argentina (34° 50’ S Lat; 60° 30’ W Long. Methods: 32 trees from three treatments: mechanical weed control (M, chemical and mechanical weed control (CHM and fertilized plus chemical and mechanical weed control (CHM-F were analyzed. Basal area, fibre morphology, cell wall area and vessel size were measured in the growth ring 1, 3 and 10. Results: differences on wood anatomy among treatments were mainly observed at the third year (short-term effect. Long-term negative effects were not observed. Fertilized trees had greater proportion and quality of wood closer to pith. Research highlights: fibre and vessel differences seen in CHM and CHM-F compared to controls in year 3 could be interpreted as evidence of maturation in cambial development (thicker, longer and wider fibres and greater vessels. The CHM-F treatment had a greater proportion of wood that showed characteristics of more mature wood.

  15. Clinicopathologic Profile Of Sweat Gland Tumours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Harsh

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Benign adnexal tumours of the skin, excluding pilosebaceous tumours were identified in 24 patients between the ages of 9 and 70 years with a mean age of 34 years; 17 women and 7 men. Most lesions (n = 13 occurred on the face and scalp. Apocrine hydrocystoma and eccrine acrospiroma were the commonest tumors with apocrine and eccrine differentiation respectively. Few uncommon tumors with included were chondroid syringoma, syringocystadenoma papilliferum. Excisional biopsy is the treatment of choice.

  16. Antenatally detected solid tumour of kidney

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Shasanka Shekhar; Mandelia, Ankur; Gupta, Devendra Kumar; Singh, Amit

    2014-01-01

    Congenital renal tumours are rare and usually benign. Polyhydramnios is the most common mode of presentation. Although most cases have been diagnosed postnatally, with advances in imaging technology, an increasing number of cases are being detected on antenatal scans. We describe a case of solid tumour of kidney detected in the second trimester of pregnancy and managed by surgery in the postnatal period. PMID:24526198

  17. Tumour volume and high grade tumour volume are the best predictors of pathologic stage and biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Felix K-H; Briganti, Alberto; Jeldres, Claudio; Gallina, Andrea; Erbersdobler, Andreas; Schlomm, Thorsten; Walz, Jochen; Eichelberg, Christian; Salomon, Georg; Haese, Alexander; Currlin, Eike; Ahyai, Sascha A; Bénard, François; Huland, Hartwig; Graefen, Markus; Karakiewicz, Pierre I

    2007-02-01

    Our goal was to examine to what extent tumour volume (TV) and percentage of high grade tumour volume (%HGTV) affect the rate of positive surgical margins and the rate of biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy. TV and %HGTV were routinely planimetrically quantified in a cohort of 780 consecutive patients. Mean follow-up was 46.7 months. Multivariable regression models addressed two separate endpoints: positive surgical margins and biochemical recurrence. The increase in model predictive accuracy related to the addition of TV and %HGTV to radical prostatectomy stage and grade was assessed, after 200 bootstrap resamples to reduce overfit bias. In multivariable logistic regression models addressing positive surgical margins rate, predictive accuracy increased by 1.9% (p<0.001) when TV was added to other covariates. No further increment was noted when %HGTV was added (p=0.3). In multivariable Cox regression models addressing biochemical recurrence, accuracy increased by 0.6% (p=0.002) when TV was added and an additional increase of 0.7% was recorded when %HGTV (p<0.001) was added. Tumour bulk reflected by TV affects local cancer control rate, which is reflected in the rate of positive surgical margins. Conversely, high grade cancer determines the rate of biochemical recurrence. These two variables represent the most powerful predictors of cancer control in men treated for localised prostate cancer. Moreover, they increase the ability of established predictors to predict the outcomes of interest. In consequence, they warrant consideration in future predictive and prognostic tools.

  18. Long-term effect of periodontal surgery on oral health and metabolic control of diabetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pranckeviciene, Alma; Siudikiene, Jolanta; Ostrauskas, Rytas; Machiulskiene, Vita

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate impact of periodontal surgery on periodontal health and on glycaemia control of type 1 and type 2 (T1DM; T2DM) diabetics with severe periodontitis, during 12 months follow-up, in comparison with non-diabetic controls. A total of 23 T1DM and 10 T2DM patients with respective number of matched non-diabetics were examined prior to, and 3, 6 and 12 months after periodontal surgery. Glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) reflected control of DM. Periodontal parameters were oral debris (DI-S), probing pocket depth (PPD), clinical attachment loss (CAL) and bleeding on probing (BOP). Periodontal status in all diabetics improved after 3 months and remained so during follow-up: mean (SD) DI-S > 1 (T1DM 1.1(0.5)/0.9(0.7); T2DM 1.2(0.4)/0.8(0.4)), PPD >5 mm (T1DM 35.1(32.2)/5.1(7.8); T2DM 46.3(24.2)/13.0(10.9)), CAL ≥6 mm (T1DM 44.4(37.0)/24.52(27.2)); mean % BOP >50 % (T1DM 57.1(25.1)/22.8(20.8)), T2DM 59.4(20.8)/18.9(15.7)), p periodontal parameters did not differ between diabetics and controls. Periodontal surgery improved significantly periodontal status of all patients and metabolic control of T2DM patients. Research findings concerning long-term effect of periodontal surgery among patients with diabetes mellitus are scarce. We found that surgical periodontal treatment positively affects periodontal health of all diabetics and improves metabolic control of type 2 DM. There is a positive correlation between clinical attachment loss and glycosylated haemoglobin levels.

  19. Predictors of long-term benzodiazepine abstinence in participants of a randomized controlled benzodiazepine withdrawal program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voshaar, Richard C Oude; Gorgels, Wim J; Mol, Audrey J; van Balkom, Anton J; Mulder, Jan; van de Lisdonk, Eloy H; Breteler, Marinus H; Zitman, Frans G

    2006-06-01

    To identify predictors of resumed benzodiazepine use after participation in a benzodiazepine discontinuation trial. We performed multiple Cox regression analyses to predict the long-term outcome of a 3-condition, randomized, controlled benzodiazepine discontinuation trial in general practice. Of 180 patients, we completed follow-up for 170 (94%). Of these, 50 (29%) achieved long-term success, defined as no use of benzodiazepines during follow-up. Independent predictors of success were as follows: offering a taper-off program with group therapy (hazard ratio [HR] 2.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.5 to 3.9) or without group therapy (HR 2.9; 95% CI, 1.8 to 4.8); a lower daily benzodiazepine dosage at the start of tapering off (HR 1.5; 95% CI, 1.2 to 1.9); a substantial dosage reduction by patients themselves just before the start of tapering off (HR 2.1; 95% CI, 1.4 to 3.3); less severe benzodiazepine dependence, as measured by the Benzodiazepine Dependence Self-Report Questionnaire Lack of Compliance subscale (HR 2.4; 95%CI, 1.1 to 5.2); and no use of alcohol (HR 1.7; 95% CI, 1.2 to 2.5). Patients who used over 10 mg of diazepam equivalent, who had a score of 3 or more on the Lack of Compliance subscale, or who drank more than 2 units of alcohol daily failed to achieve long-term abstinence. Benzodiazepine dependence severity affects long-term taper outcome independent of treatment modality, benzodiazepine dosage, psychopathology, and personality characteristics. An identifiable subgroup needs referral to specialized care.

  20. Perfusion imaging of parotid gland tumours: usefulness of arterial spin labeling for differentiating Warthin's tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Hiroki; Watanabe, Haruo [Gifu University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Gifu (Japan); Kanematsu, Masayuki [Gifu University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Gifu (Japan); Gifu University Hospital, High-level Imaging Diagnosis Center, Gifu (Japan); Kajita, Kimihiro [Gifu University Hospital, High-level Imaging Diagnosis Center, Gifu (Japan); Mizuta, Keisuke; Aoki, Mitsuhiro [Gifu University School of Medicine, Department of Otolaryngology, Gifu (Japan); Okuaki, Tomoyuki [Philips Healthcare, Tokyo (Japan)

    2015-11-15

    To assess prospectively the efficacy of arterial spin labelling (ASL) against conventional and diffusion-weighted (DW) MR imaging for differentiating parotid gland tumours. We included 10 pleomorphic adenomas, 12 Warthin's tumours, and nine malignant tumours of the parotid glands. Only tumours larger than 10 mm were included in this study. All parotid gland tumours underwent T1-weighted, T2-weighted, DW, and ASL imaging. Tumour-to-parotid gland signal intensity ratios (SIRs) and apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) of solid components were correlated with these pathologies. SIRs on T2-weighted images and ADCs were higher in pleomorphic adenomas than in Warthin's tumours (p <.01) and malignant tumours (p <.01). SIRs on ASL were higher in Warthin's tumours than in pleomorphic adenomas (p <.01) and malignant tumours (p <.05). Az value of SIRs on ASL for differentiating Warthin's tumours from the other pathologies was 0.982. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of SIRs on ASL for the diagnosis of Warthin's tumours at an optimal SIR threshold of over 8.70 were 91.7 %, 94.7 %, and 93.5 %, respectively. ASL with SIR measurements could non-invasively evaluate tumour blood flow of parotid gland tumours and differentiate Warthin's tumours from pleomorphic adenomas and malignant tumours. (orig.)

  1. Stage is a prognostic factor for surgically treated patients with early-stage lip cancer for whom a 'wait and see' policy in terms of neck status has been implemented.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskiizmir, G; Ozgur, E; Karaca, G; Temiz, P; Yanar, N Hacioglu; Ozyurt, B Cengiz

    2017-10-01

    To determine the locoregional control and survival rates (in terms of risk factors) of patients who underwent surgical resection of early-stage lip cancer and for whom a 'wait and see' policy in terms of neck status had been implemented. The sociodemographic data, tumour stage, tumour characteristics and histopathological features of 41 patients with early-stage lip cancer were evaluated. Factors predictive of survival and locoregional recurrence were analysed. The five-year overall survival and disease-free survival rates were determined, and the prognostic risk factors were compared. The mean follow-up period was 60.5 months (range, 4-92 months). Age, sex, tumour stage, tumour thickness and volume, and perineural involvement were not predictive of locoregional recurrence or survival. Pathological tumour stage (T1 vs T2) was a prognostic factor for both five-year overall survival (87.3 vs 65.6 per cent, p = 0.042) and disease-free survival (88.6 vs 65.6 per cent, p = 0.037). Tumour stage was clearly a major factor affecting the prognosis of surgically treated patients with early-stage lip cancer for whom a 'wait and see' policy in terms of neck status had been implemented.

  2. Benefits of repeated individual dietary counselling in long-term weight control in women after delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaakkola, Johanna; Isolauri, Erika; Poussa, Tuija; Laitinen, Kirsi

    2015-10-01

    As pregnancy may trigger overweight in women, new means for its prevention are being sought. The aim here was to investigate the effect of individual dietary counselling during and after pregnancy on post-partum weight and waist circumference up to 4 years post-partum. A cohort of women (n = 256) were randomized to receive repeated individual dietary counselling by a nutritionist during and after pregnancy, or as controls not receiving dietary counselling, from the first trimester of pregnancy until 6 months after delivery. Counselling aimed to bring dietary intake into line with recommendations, with particular focus on the increase in the intake of unsaturated fatty acids instead of saturated. Pre-pregnancy weight was taken from welfare clinic records. Weight and waist circumference were measured at 4 years after delivery. The proportion of overweight women increased from 26% prior to pregnancy to 30% at 4 years after delivery among women receiving dietary counselling, as against considerably more, from 32% to 57%, among controls. The prevalence of central adiposity was 31% in women receiving dietary counselling, 64% in controls. Likewise, both the risk of overweight (odds ratio: 0.23, 0.08-0.63, P = 0.005) and central adiposity (odds ratio: 0.18, 0.06-0.52, P = 0.002) were lower in women receiving dietary counselling compared with controls. Repeated dietary counselling initiated in early pregnancy can be beneficial in long-term weight control after delivery. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Exophytic benign mixed epithelial stromal tumour of the kidney: case report of a rare tumour entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Küster Jens

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mixed epithelial and stromal tumour (MEST represents a recently described benign composite neoplasm of the kidney, which predominantly affects perimenopausal females. Most tumours are benign, although rare malignant cases have been observed. Case report A 47-year-old postmenopausal female presented to the urologist with flank pain. A CT scan of the abdomen showed a 30-mm-in-diameter uniform mass adjacent to the pelvis of the left kidney. Surgical exploration showed a tumour arising from the lower anterior hilus of the left kidney. The tumour could be excised by preserving the kidney. By intraoperative frozen section the tumour showed characteristic features of MEST with epithelial-covered cysts embedded in an "ovarian-like" stroma. Additional immunohistochemistry investigations showed expression for hormone receptors by the stromal component of the tumour. Discussion MEST typically presents in perimenopausal women as a primarily cystic mass. Commonly, the tumour arises from the renal parenchyma or pelvis. The tumour is composed of an admixture of cystic and sometimes more solid areas. The stromal cells typically demonstrate an ovarian-type stroma showing expression for the estrogen and progesterone receptors. Conclusion MEST represents a distinctive benign tumour entity of the kidney, which affects perimenopausal woman. The tumour should be distinguished from other cystic renal neoplasms. By imaging studies it is difficult to distinguish between a benign or malignant nature of the tumour. Thus, intraoperative frozen section is necessary for conservative surgery, since the overall prognosis is favourable and renal function can be preserved in most cases.

  4. N-nitroso compounds and human intracranial tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preston-Martin, S.; Henderson, B.E.

    1984-01-01

    Experimentalists have shown that various N-nitroso compounds are potent nervous system carcinogens, particularly when animals are exposed transplacentally. Information has been obtained concerning exposure to N-nitroso compounds and their precursors in three case-control studies of intracranial tumour patients in Los Angeles County, California. A study of women (185 pairs) found that level of consumption of nitrite-cured meats was related to meningioma development (p = 0.01). In a similar study of meningiomas in men (105 pairs), the association with cured meats was not clear. The most striking results were obtained in a study of young brain tumour patients (209 matched pairs). Increased risk was associated with maternal contact, during pregnancy, with N-nitrosamine-containing substances, such as burning incense, sidestream cigarette smoke and face make-up. Increased risk was also associated with maternal use of diuretics and antihistamines and with the level of maternal consumption of cured meats. Additional epidemiological studies of nervous system tumours in young people would appear to offer considerable promise for testing the hypothesis that N-nitroso compounds are etiologically related to human neurogenic neoplasms.

  5. Social, economic and policy issues in the long-term control of HPAI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, A; Guerne-Bleich, E

    2006-01-01

    Prevention and control of HPAI in Asia is a long term problem with important economic and policy consequences. The macro level impact of a single national outbreak is greatest for an exporting country, ranging in 2003-5 from dollars 65 million to over dollars 400 million. No estimates are available for the impact of market disruption if endemic disease changes the pattern of regional and international trade. In countries with minimal exports, the total financial impact may be much smaller, but there can be serious losses to vulnerable sectors of society at several stages of the market chain. The economies of the region are growing and some countries could finance recurrent costs of AI control, but substantial investment in veterinary services is required. National and regional financing structures need to be reviewed. AI control strategies should include a broad financial support system that addresses education, credit, compensation and social relief programmes. Some strategies may result in restructuring of the industry, or affect the wider development of rural areas and local food security.

  6. Stochastic Power Control for Time-Varying Long-Term Fading Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charalambous Charalambos D

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A new time-varying (TV long-term fading (LTF channel model which captures both the space and time variations of wireless systems is developed. The proposed TV LTF model is based on a stochastic differential equation driven by Brownian motion. This model is more realistic than the static models usually encountered in the literature. It allows viewing the wireless channel as a dynamical system, thus enabling well-developed tools of adaptive and nonadaptive estimation and identification techniques to be applied to this class of problems. In contrast with the traditional models, the statistics of the proposed model are shown to be TV, but converge in steady state to their static counterparts. Moreover, optimal power control algorithms (PCAs based on the new model are proposed. A centralized PCA is shown to reduce to a simple linear programming problem if predictable power control strategies (PPCS are used. In addition, an iterative distributed stochastic PCA is used to solve for the optimization problem using stochastic approximations. The latter solely requires each mobile to know its received signal-to-interference ratio. Generalizations of the power control problem based on convex optimization techniques are provided if PPCS are not assumed. Numerical results show that there are potentially large gains to be achieved by using TV stochastic models, and the distributed stochastic PCA provides better power stability and consumption than the distributed deterministic PCA.

  7. Pre-term delivery and periodontal disease: a case-control study from Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosnjak, Andrija; Relja, Tomislav; Vucićević-Boras, Vanja; Plasaj, Hrvoje; Plancak, Darije

    2006-10-01

    The aim of this report was to assess the strength and influence of periodontitis as a possible risk factor for pre-term birth (PTB) in a cohort of 81 primiparous Croatian mothers aged 18-39 years. PTB cases (n = 17; mean age 25 +/- 2.9 years; age range 20-33 years) were defined as spontaneous delivery after less than 37 completed weeks of gestation that were followed by spontaneous labour or spontaneous rupture of membranes. Controls (full-time births) were normal births at or after 37 weeks of gestation (n = 64; mean age 25 +/- 2.9 years; age range 19-39 years). Information on known risk factors and obstetric factors included the current pregnancy history, maternal age at delivery, pre-natal care, nutritional status, tobacco use, alcohol use, genitourinary infections, vaginosis, gestational age, and birth weight. Full-mouth periodontal examination was performed on all mothers within 2 days of delivery. PTB cases had significantly worse periodontal status than controls (p = 0.008). Multivariate logistic regression model, after controlling for other risk factors, demonstrated that periodontal disease is a significant independent risk factor for PTB, with an adjusted odds ratio of 8.13 for the PTB group (95% confidence interval 2.73-45.9). Periodontal disease represents a strong, independent, and clinically significant risk factor for PTB in the studied cohort. There are strong indicators that periodontal therapy should form a part of preventive prenatal care in Croatia.

  8. Long-term effects of daily postprandial physical activity on blood glucose: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygaard, Håvard; Grindaker, Eirik; Rønnestad, Bent Ronny; Holmboe-Ottesen, Gerd; Høstmark, Arne Torbjørn

    2017-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that a bout of moderate or light postprandial physical activity effectively blunts the postprandial increase in blood glucose. The objective of this study was to test whether regular light postprandial physical activity can improve glycemia in persons with hyperglycemia or with a high risk of hyperglycemia. We randomized 56 participants to an intervention or a control group. They were diagnosed as hyperglycemic, not using antidiabetics, or were categorized as high-risk individuals for type 2 diabetes. The intervention group was instructed to undertake a minimum 30 min of daily light physical activity, starting a maximum of 30 min after a meal in addition to their usual physical activity for 12 weeks. The control group maintained their usual lifestyle. Blood samples were taken pre- and post-test. Forty participants completed the study and are included in the results. The self-reported increase in daily physical activity from before to within the study period was higher in the intervention group compared with control (41 ± 25 vs. 2 ± 16 min, p postprandial physical activity improves blood glucose in the long term in persons with hyperglycemia or with high risk of hyperglycemia.

  9. Short-term effects of a randomized controlled worksite relaxation intervention in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelos C Alexopoulos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available objective. To evaluate the short-term benefits of simple relaxation techniques in white-collar employees. materials and methods. The study was a two-arm parallel group randomized controlled trial. 152 employees were randomly assigned to receive the 8-week programme (N=80 (relaxation breathing and progressive muscle relaxation, twice a day or not (wait-list group N=72. Self-reported validated measures were used to evaluate perceived stress, health locus of control, job and lifestyle related variables. Saliva cortisol were also sampled and measured. Adjusted mean changes on outcomes were estimated by linear mixed model analysis. 127 employees were finally analyzed (68 in the intervention and 59 in the control group. results. Specific stress-related symptoms, psychological job demands and cortisol levels were found to be significantly decreased after 8-weeks in the intervention group. The result was probably affected by the general socio-economic condition during the study period. Cortisol levels were also significantly related with age, family situation, gender and sampling time. conclusions. Simple relaxation training (diaphragmatic breathing and progressive muscle relaxation could benefit employees and it is strongly proposed that these and other similar techniques should be tested in various labour settings

  10. Long-term Diet and Biomarker Changes after a Short-term Intervention among Hispanic Breast Cancer Survivors: The ¡Cocinar Para Su Salud! Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenlee, Heather; Ogden Gaffney, Ann; Aycinena, A Corina; Koch, Pam; Contento, Isobel; Karmally, Wahida; Richardson, John M; Shi, Zaixing; Lim, Emerson; Tsai, Wei-Yann; Santella, Regina M; Blaner, William S; Clugston, Robin D; Cremers, Serge; Pollak, Susan; Sirosh, Iryna; Crew, Katherine D; Maurer, Matthew; Kalinsky, Kevin; Hershman, Dawn L

    2016-11-01

    Among Hispanic breast cancer survivors, we examined the long-term effects of a short-term culturally based dietary intervention on increasing fruits/vegetables (F/V), decreasing fat, and changing biomarkers associated with breast cancer recurrence risk. Spanish-speaking women (n = 70) with a history of stage 0-III breast cancer who completed treatment were randomized to ¡Cocinar Para Su Salud! (n = 34), a culturally based 9-session program (24 hours over 12 weeks, including nutrition education, cooking classes, and food-shopping field trips), or a control group (n = 36, written dietary recommendations for breast cancer survivors). Diet recalls, fasting blood, and anthropometric measures were collected at baseline, 6, and 12 months. We report changes between groups at 12 months in dietary intake and biomarkers using 2-sample Wilcoxon t tests and generalized estimating equation (GEE) models. At 12 months, the intervention group compared with the control group reported higher increases in mean daily F/V servings (total: +2.0 vs. -0.4; P Salud! program was effective at increasing long-term F/V intake in Hispanic breast cancer survivors and changed biomarkers associated with breast cancer recurrence risk. It is possible for short-term behavioral interventions to have long-term effects on behaviors and biomarkers in minority cancer patient populations. Results can inform future study designs. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 25(11); 1491-502. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  11. Increased FOXP3 expression in tumour-associated tissues of horses affected with equine sarcoid disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mählmann, K; Hamza, E; Marti, E; Dolf, G; Klukowska, J; Gerber, V; Koch, C

    2014-12-01

    Recent studies suggest that regulatory T cells (Tregs) are associated with disease severity and progression in papilloma virus induced neoplasia. Bovine papilloma virus (BPV) is recognised as the most important aetiological factor in equine sarcoid (ES) disease. The aim of this study was to compare expression levels of Treg markers and associated cytokines in tissue samples of ES-affected equids with skin samples of healthy control horses. Eleven ES-affected, and 12 healthy horses were included in the study. Expression levels of forkhead box protein 3 (FOXP3), interleukin 10 (IL10), interleukin 4 (IL4) and interferon gamma (IFNG) mRNA in lesional and tumour-distant samples from ES-affected horses, as well as in dermal samples of healthy control horses were measured using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Expression levels were compared between lesional and tumour-distant as well as between tumour-distant and control samples. Furthermore, BPV-1 E5 DNA in samples of ES-affected horses was quantified using quantitative PCR, and possible associations of viral load, disease severity and gene expression levels were evaluated. Expression levels of FOXP3, IL10 and IFNG mRNA and BPV-1 E5 copy numbers were significantly increased in lesional compared to tumour-distant samples. There was no difference in FOXP3 and cytokine expression in tumour-distant samples from ES- compared with control horses. In tumour-distant samples viral load was positively correlated with IL10 expression and severity score. The increased expression of Treg markers in tumour-associated tissues of ES-affected equids indicates a local, Treg-induced immune suppression. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Guidelines for the management of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (including bronchopulmonary and thymic neoplasms). Part II-specific NE tumour types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oberg, Kjell; Astrup, Lone Bording; Eriksson, Barbro

    2004-01-01

    Part II of the guidelines contains a description of epidemiology, histopathology, clinical presentation, diagnostic procedure, treatment, and survival for each type of neuroendocrine tumour. We are not only including gastroenteropancreatic tumours but also bronchopulmonary and thymic neuroendocrine...... tumours. These guidelines essentially cover basic knowledge in the diagnosis and management of the different forms of neuroendocrine tumour. We have, however, tried to give more updated information about the epidemiology and histopathology, which is essential for the clinical management of these tumours....

  13. Short-term and long-term effects of a psycho-educational group intervention for family caregivers in palliative home care - results from a randomized control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Maja; Årestedt, Kristofer; Carlander, Ida; Fürst, Carl-Johan; Wengström, Yvonne; Öhlen, Joakim; Alvariza, Anette

    2016-07-01

    Family caregivers in cancer and palliative care often face heavy responsibilities and feel insufficiently prepared for the situation as caregivers. This study evaluates short-term and long-term effects of a psycho-educational group intervention aiming to increase preparedness for family caregiving in specialized palliative home care. The study design was a randomized control trial where family caregivers were allocated either to an intervention or control group. The intervention was delivered as a program including three sessions by health professionals (physician, nurse, and social worker/priest). Family caregivers from 10 specialized palliative home care settings were included. Questionnaires with validated instruments at baseline, upon completion, and 2 months following the intervention were used to measure effects of the intervention. The primary outcome was preparedness for caregiving in family caregivers. In total, 21 intervention programs were delivered, and 119 family caregivers completed all three measurements. The intervention group had significantly increased their preparedness for caregiving in both the short-term and long-term follow-up compared with the control group. The intervention group also reported significantly increased competence for caregiving in short-term but not long. No effects of the intervention were found on rewards for caregiving, caregiver burden, health, anxiety, or depression. The psycho-educational intervention has the potential to be used by health professionals to improve preparedness for caregiving among family caregivers in palliative care both in short and long terms. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Tumour-to-tumour metastasis: male breast carcinoma metastasis arising in an extrapleural solitary fibrous tumour - a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheipl, Susanne; Moinfar, Farid; Leithner, Andreas; Sadoghi, Patrick; Jorgensen, Mette; Rinner, Beate; Liegl, Bernadette

    2014-11-25

    Tumour-to-tumour metastasis (TTM) occurs when one tumour metastasises to a separate tumour within the same individual. TTM is observed frequently in breast cancer but has not been described in male breast cancer. In addition reports describing solitary fibrous tumours (SFT) of the pleura hosting other neoplasms' metastases are limited. We report an exceptional case of male breast cancer metastasising to an extrapleural SFT, occurring in the subcutaneous tissue of the back of a 68-year old Caucasian patient. A 68-year old male was diagnosed with a metastasising ductal breast cancer. He was treated by mastectomy of the right breast and axillary lymph-adenectomy. Further staging revealed an increasing subcutaneous expansion located on the patient's back. Excision biopsy confirmed a SFT hosting a breast cancer metastasis. The patient received palliative chemotherapy but died of disease seven years after initial diagnosis. The abundance of blood vessels within these lesions might predispose SFTs for an involvement in TTM. This case describes the possibility of concurrent rare occurrences and reminds clinicians, as well as pathologists, to be open-minded and fastidious about their differential diagnoses, sampling and examination of histological specimens. The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/13000_2014_203.

  15. Photosynthesis Control: An underrated short-term regulatory mechanism essential for plant viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Monica; Suorsa, Marjaana; Rossi, Fabio; Ferrari, Roberto; Tadini, Luca; Barbato, Roberto; Pesaresi, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Regulation of photosynthetic electron transport provides efficient performance of oxygenic photosynthesis in plants. During the last 15 years, the molecular bases of various photosynthesis short-term regulatory processes have been elucidated, however the wild type-like phenotypes of mutants lacking of State Transitions, Non Photochemical Quenching, or Cyclic Electron Transport, when grown under constant light conditions, have also raised doubts about the acclimatory significance of these short-regulatory mechanisms on plant performance. Interestingly, recent studies performed by growing wild type and mutant plants under field conditions revealed a prominent role of State Transitions and Non Photochemical Quenching on plant fitness, with almost no effect on vegetative plant growth. Conversely, the analysis of plants lacking the regulation of electron transport by the cytochrome b6f complex, also known as Photosynthesis Control, revealed the fundamental role of this regulatory mechanism in the survival of young, developing seedlings under fluctuating light conditions.

  16. Placebo-Controlled Discontinuation of Long-Term Acid-Suppressant Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zwisler, Jon Eik; Jarbøl, Dorte Ejg; Lassen, Annmarie Touborg

    2015-01-01

    -term basis were randomized to esomeprazole 40 mg or identical placebo. Outcome measures were time to discontinuation with trial medication due to failed symptom control analysed as survival data. The proportion of patients stopping trial medication during the one-year follow-up was estimated. Results....... A total of 171 patients were included with a median prior duration of antisecretory treatment of four years (range: 0.5 to 14.6 years). 86 patients received esomeprazole 40 mg and 85 patients received placebo. At 12 months, statistically significantly more patients in the placebo group had discontinued...... (73% (62/85)) compared with the esomeprazole group (21% (18/86); p

  17. Pneumodissection for skin protection in image-guided cryoablation of superficial musculoskeletal tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maybody, Majid; Tang, Peter Q; Moskowitz, Chaya S; Hsu, Meier; Yarmohammadi, Hooman; Boas, F Edward

    2017-03-01

    Pneumodissection is described as a simple method for preventing skin injury during cryoablation of superficial musculoskeletal tumours. Superficial tumour cryoablations performed from 2009 to 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. Pneumodissection was performed in 13 patients when the shortest tumour-skin distance was less than 25 mm. Indications were pain palliation (n = 9) and local tumour control (n = 4). Patients, target tumours, technical characteristics and complications up to 60 days post ablation were reviewed. The ice ball-skin distances with and without pneumodissection were compared by a paired t-test and further assessed for association with covariates using ANCOVA. Technical success for ablation was 12 of 13. The mean shortest tumour-skin distance was 15.0 mm (3.2-24.5 mm). The mean thickness of pneumodissection was 9.6 mm (5.2-16.6 mm) resulting in mean elevation of skin of 3.4 mm (1.2-5.3 mm). Mean shortest ice ball-skin distance after pneumodissection was 10.5 mm (4.2-19.7 mm). No infection or systemic air embolism was noted. No intraprocedural frostbite was observed. Pneumodissection is feasible, effective and safe in protecting the skin during image-guided cryoablation of superficial tumours. • Frostbite during image-guided cryoablation of superficial tumours is commonly under-reported. • Frostbites are painful and may introduce infection into the superficial ablation zone. • Warm compress, saline and CO 2 have shortcomings in protecting the skin. • Pneumodissection is free, readily available, easy to use and safe and effective.

  18. Oregano demonstrates distinct tumour-suppressive effects in the breast carcinoma model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubatka, Peter; Kello, Martin; Kajo, Karol; Kruzliak, Peter; Výbohová, Desanka; Mojžiš, Ján; Adamkov, Marián; Fialová, Silvia; Veizerová, Lucia; Zulli, Anthony; Péč, Martin; Statelová, Dagmar; Grančai, Daniel; Büsselberg, Dietrich

    2017-04-01

    There has been a considerable interest in the identification of natural plant foods for developing effective agents against cancer. Thus, the anti-tumour effects of oregano in the in vivo and in vitro breast cancer model were evaluated. Lyophilized oregano (ORE) was administered at two concentrations of 0.3 and 3 % through diet. The experiment was terminated 14 weeks after carcinogen administration. At autopsy, mammary tumours were removed and prepared for histopathological and immunohistochemical analysis. Moreover, in vitro evaluation in MCF-7 cells was carried out. Low-dose ORE suppressed tumour frequency by 55.5 %, tumour incidence by 44 %, and tumour volume by 44.5 % compared to control animals. Analysis of rat tumour cells showed Ki67, VEGFR-2, CD24, and EpCAM expression decrease and caspase-3 expression increase after low-dose ORE treatment. High-dose ORE lengthened tumour latency by 12.5 days; moreover, Bcl-2, VEGFR-2, CD24, and EpCAM expression decrease and caspase-3 expression increase in carcinoma cells were observed. Histopathological analysis revealed a decrease in the ratio of high-/low-grade carcinomas in both treated groups. In vitro studies showed that ORE decreased survival and proliferation of MCF-7 cells. In ORE-treated MCF-7 cells, an increase in cells expressing sub-G 0/G 1 DNA content and an increase in the percentage of annexin V/PI positive MCF-7 cells were observed. In vitro, both caspase-dependent and possible non-caspase-dependent apoptotic pathways were found. The deactivation of anti-apoptotic activity of Bcl-2, a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential, and the activation of mitochondrial apoptosis pathway were observed in the ORE-treated MCF-7 cells. Our results demonstrate, for the first time, a distinct tumour-suppressive effect of oregano in the breast cancer model.

  19. Investigating the effect of longitudinal micro-CT imaging on tumour growth in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, W. Kyle; Ford, Nancy L.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the impact of longitudinal micro-CT imaging on the growth of B16F1 tumours in C57BL/6 mice. Sixty mice received 2 × 105 B16F1 cells subcutaneously in the hind flank and were divided into control (no scan), 'low-dose' (80 kVp, 70 mA, 8 s, 0.07 Gy), 'medium-dose' (80 kVp, 50 mA, 30 s, 0.18 Gy) and 'high-dose' (80 kVp, 50 mA, 50 s, 0.30 Gy) groups. All imaging was performed on a fast volumetric micro-CT scanner (GE Locus Ultra, London, Canada). Each mouse was imaged on days 4, 8, 12 and 16. After the final imaging session, each tumour was excised, weighed on an electronic balance, imaged to obtain the final tumour volume and processed for histology. Final tumour volume was used to evaluate the impact of longitudinal micro-CT imaging on the tumour growth. An ANOVA indicated no statistically significant difference in tumour volume (p = 0.331, α = β = 0.1) when discriminating against a treatment-sized effect. Histological samples revealed no observable differences in apoptosis or cell proliferation. We conclude that four imaging sessions, using standard protocols, over the course of 16 days did not cause significant changes in final tumour volume for B16F1 tumours in female C57BL/6 mice (ANOVA, α = β = 0.1, p = 0.331).

  20. Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumour: Correlation of apparent diffusion coefficient or WHO classification with recurrence-free survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mimi; Kang, Tae Wook; Kim, Young Kon; Kim, Seong Hyun; Kwon, Wooil; Ha, Sang Yun; Ji, Sang A

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the correlation between grade of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (pNETs) based on the 2010 World Health Organization (WHO) classification and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), and to assess whether the ADC value and WHO classification can predict recurrence-free survival (RFS) after surgery for pNETs. This retrospective study was approved by the Institutional Review Board. The requirement for informed consent was waived. Between March 2009 and November 2014, forty-nine patients who underwent magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with diffusion-weighted image and subsequent surgery for single pNETs were included. Correlations among qualitative MR imaging findings, quantitative ADC values, and WHO classifications were assessed. An ordered logistic regression test was used to control for tumour size as a confounding factor. The association between ADC value (or WHO classification) and RFS was analysed. All tumors (n=49) were classified as low- (n=29, grade 1), intermediate- (n=17, grade 2), and high-grade (n=3, grade 3), respectively. The mean ADC of pNETs was moderately negatively correlated with WHO classification before and after adjustment for tumour size (ρ=-0.64, pcorrelated with WHO tumour grade, regardless of tumour size. However, the WHO tumour classification of pNET may be more suitable for predicting RFS than the ADC value. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Transoral robotic surgery of parapharyngeal space tumours: a series of four cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maglione, M G; Guida, A; Pavone, E; Longo, F; Aversa, C; Villano, S; Ionna, F

    2018-01-31

    Tumours arising from the parapharyngeal space (PPS) represent less than 1% of all head and neck tumours. Salivary gland tumours account for 40-50% of PPS lesions and are located in the pre-styloid parapharyngeal space. Pleomorphic adenomas represent 80-90% of salivary tumours in the PPS. Recently, transoral robotic surgery (TORS) has become common in head and neck surgery as a minimally invasive procedure. Four cases of benign PPS tumour treated with TORS are presented here. Preoperative diagnosis was conducted by fine needle aspiration biopsy and magnetic resonance imaging, and the results were used to plan the correct surgical approach. One case required a change of approach to conventional transoral blunt dissection. Patients required pain control and reported dysphagia symptoms for a period of weeks, but no nasogastric tube was needed at any time. This case series indicates that TORS is a safe surgical procedure for the excision of benign tumours of the PPS in selected cases. Copyright © 2018 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of short-term music and second-language training on executive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janus, Monika; Lee, Yunjo; Moreno, Sylvain; Bialystok, Ellen

    2016-04-01

    Separate lines of research have identified enhanced performance on nonverbal executive control (EC) tasks for bilinguals and those with music training, but little is known about the relation between them in terms of the specificity of the effects of each experience or the degree of exposure necessary to induce these changes. Using an intervention design, the current study pseudorandomly assigned 57 4- to 6-year-old children (matched on age, maternal education, and cognitive scores) to a 20-day training program offering instruction in either music or conversational French. The test battery consisted of verbal and nonverbal tasks requiring EC. All children improved on these tasks following training with some training-specific differences. No changes were observed on background or working memory measures after either training, ruling out simple practice effects. Children in both groups had better scores on the most challenging condition of a grammaticality sentence judgment task in which it was necessary to ignore conflict introduced through misleading semantic content. Children in both training groups also showed better accuracy on the easier condition of a nonverbal visual search task at post-test, but children in the French training group also showed significant improvement on the more challenging condition of this task. These results are discussed in terms of emergent EC benefits of language and music training. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Medium to long term behavior of MR dampers for structural control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caterino, N.; Azmoodeh, B. M.; Occhiuzzi, A.

    2014-10-01

    The medium to long term behavior of a prototype magnetorheological (MR) damper for structural control of earthquake induced vibrations is investigated herein. Unlike some applications for which MR devices experience frequent dynamic loads, seismic dampers might not be used for most of their life, staying dormant for a long period until an earthquake hits the hosting structure. This work aims to evaluate the effectiveness of a MR damper after years of inactivity. A MR device has been tested twice, first in 2008 and then in 2013, after five years of absolute inactivity. The comparison between the results of the two tests is made in terms of force-displacement loops. It is shown that, after a 5-year rest, only part of the first stroke of the damper is characterized by an unexpected response of the damper. After half a stroke, the damper quickly returned to behave like in 2008, even if a slight non-reversible decrease of the reacting force has been recorded. The latter is found to be more evident (5-7%) for larger currents, less visible in the case of zero magnetic field. From the point of view of civil engineering, this decay of performance is definitely acceptable, being largely bounded within the limits of the uncertainties typically involved and taken into account in the structural design. Finally, starting from a literature review, the paper discusses the possible causes of the observed changes in the mechanical response of the damper over time.

  4. Tumours and tumour-like conditions of the jaw seen in Zaria, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    About 94% of the ameloblastomas occurred in the mandible. The malignant jaw tumours were made up of the following histological types: - 79 (75.2%) malignant lymphoma; 10 (9.5%) osteogenic sarcomas; 2 (1.9%) chondrosarcoma; 1 (1.0%) malignant ameloblastoma and 6 (5.7%) secondary tumours, 7 (6.7%) were ...

  5. Orofacial tumours and tumour-like lesions in Kano, Nigeria | Arotiba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The most prevalent tumours were squamous cell carcinoma (46% of malignant lesions) and ameloblastoma (31% of benign lesions) the mandible (38.2%) and the maxilla (23.6%) were the most commonly affected sites. Patients usually delayed before seeking treatment and the mean duration of tumours was 30 months ...

  6. Tumour-induced neoneurogenesis and perineural tumour growth: a mathematical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lolas, Georgios; Bianchi, Arianna; Syrigos, Konstantinos N.

    2016-02-01

    It is well-known that tumours induce the formation of a lymphatic and a blood vasculature around themselves. A similar but far less studied process occurs in relation to the nervous system and is referred to as neoneurogenesis. The relationship between tumour progression and the nervous system is still poorly understood and is likely to involve a multitude of factors. It is therefore relevant to study tumour-nerve interactions through mathematical modelling: this may reveal the most significant factors of the plethora of interacting elements regulating neoneurogenesis. The present work is a first attempt to model the neurobiological aspect of cancer development through a system of differential equations. The model confirms the experimental observations that a tumour is able to promote nerve formation/elongation around itself, and that high levels of nerve growth factor and axon guidance molecules are recorded in the presence of a tumour. Our results also reflect the observation that high stress levels (represented by higher norepinephrine release by sympathetic nerves) contribute to tumour development and spread, indicating a mutually beneficial relationship between tumour cells and neurons. The model predictions suggest novel therapeutic strategies, aimed at blocking the stress effects on tumour growth and dissemination.

  7. Primary bone tumours and tumour-like lesions in children in Zaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    osteoma 2.5%, osterochondroma 22.5%, fibroma 5%); while malignant tumours occurred in 19 (47.5%) (osteosarcoma 5%, Burkitt's lymphoma 37.5%, diffuse lympholastic lymphoma 5%). Tumour-like lesions accounted for 9 (22.5%), all Þ brous ...

  8. Hydrodynamic controls on the long-term construction of large river floodplains and alluvial ridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, Andrew; Aalto, Rolf; Sambrook Smith, Gregory; Schwendel, Arved

    2017-04-01

    Floodplain construction involves the interplay between channel belt sedimentation and avulsion, overbank deposition of fines, and sediment reworking by channel migration. Each of these processes is controlled, in part, by within-channel and/or overbank hydraulics. However, while spatially-distributed hydrodynamic models are used routinely to simulate floodplain inundation and overbank sedimentation during individual floods, most existing models of long-term floodplain construction and alluvial architecture do not account for flood hydraulics explicitly. Instead, floodplain sedimentation is typically modelled as an exponential function of distance from the river, and avulsion thresholds are defined using topographic indices that quantify alluvial ridge morphology (e.g., lateral:downstream slope ratios or metrics of channel belt super-elevation). Herein, we apply a hydraulically driven model of floodplain evolution, in order to quantify the controls on alluvial ridge construction and avulsion likelihood in large lowland rivers. We combine a simple model of meander migration and cutoff with a 2D grid-based model of flood hydrodynamics and overbank sedimentation. The latter involves a finite volume solution of the shallow water equations and an advection-diffusion model for suspended sediment transport. The model is used to carry out a series of numerical experiments to investigate floodplain construction for a range of flood regimes and sediment supply scenarios, and results are compared to field data from the Rio Beni system, northern Bolivia. Model results, supported by field data, illustrate that floodplain sedimentation is characterised by a high degree of intermittency that is driven by autogenic mechanisms (i.e. even in the absence of temporal variations in flood magnitude and sediment supply). Intermittency in overbank deposits occurs over a range of temporal and spatial scales, and is associated with the interaction between channel migration dynamics and

  9. Short-term aerobic exercise and vascular function in CKD stage 3: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Headley, Samuel; Germain, Michael; Wood, Richard; Joubert, Jyovani; Milch, Charles; Evans, Elizabeth; Poindexter, Anthony; Cornelius, Allen; Brewer, Britton; Pescatello, Linda S; Parker, Beth

    2014-08-01

    The present study was designed to determine the effect of short-term moderate-intensity exercise training on arterial stiffness in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage 3. Randomized controlled trial with a parallel-group design. Testing and training sessions were performed at Springfield College. 46 (treatment group, n=25; control group, n=21) patients with CKD with diabetes and/or hypertension completed the study. The aerobic training program consisted of 16 weeks of supervised exercise training at 50%-60% peak oxygen uptake (Vo2peak) 3 times per week, while the control group remained sedentary. Identical testing procedures were performed following the 16-week intervention. The primary outcome was arterial stiffness. Secondary outcomes were aerobic capacity, various blood parameters (endothelin 1, nitrate/nitrite, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein), and health-related quality of life. Arterial stiffness was assessed with aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV), aerobic capacity by Vo2peak, blood parameters by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, and health-related quality of life by the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36). Participants attended 4 sessions before being randomly assigned to either the treatment or control group. Participants gave consent during the first session, whereas a graded exercise test with measurement of Vo2peak was completed during the second session. During sessions 3 and 4, aortic PWV was measured at rest prior to 40 minutes of either moderate-intensity exercise training or seated rest. A venous blood sample was obtained prior to exercise or rest and participants completed the SF-36 questionnaire. 16 weeks of training led to an 8.2% increase in Vo2peak for the treatment group (P=0.05), but no changes in aortic PWV . Randomization was not concealed and was violated on one occasion; also, use of an indirect measurement of endothelial function and the short duration of the intervention. Short-term moderate-intensity exercise

  10. Electroacupuncture for tapering off long-term benzodiazepine use: study protocol of randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Wing-Fai; Chung, Ka-Fai; Zhang, Zhang-Jin; Chan, Wai-Chi; Zhang, Shi-Ping; Ng, Roger Man-Kin; Chan, Connie Lai-Wah; Ho, Lai-Ming; Yu, Yee-Man; Lao, Li-Xing

    2017-03-31

    Conventional approaches for benzodiazepine tapering have their limitations. Anecdotal studies have shown that acupuncture is a potential treatment for facilitating successful benzodiazepine tapering. As of today, there was no randomized controlled trial examining its efficacy and safety. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the efficacy of using electroacupuncture as an adjunct treatment to gradual tapering of benzodiazepine doses in complete benzodiazepine cessation in long-term benzodiazepine users. The study protocol of a randomized, assessor- and subject-blinded, controlled trial is presented. One hundred and forty-four patients with histories of using benzodiazepines in ≥50% of days for more than 3 months will be randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive either electroacupuncture or placebo electroacupuncture combined with gradual benzodiazepine tapering schedule. Both experimental and placebo treatments will be delivered twice per week for 4 weeks. Major assessments will be conducted at baseline, week 6 and week 16 post-randomization. Primary outcome is the cessation rate of benzodiazepine use. Secondary outcomes include the percentage change in the doses of benzodiazepine usage and the severity of withdrawal symptoms experienced based on the Benzodiazepine Withdrawal Symptom Questionnaire, insomnia as measured by the Insomnia Severity Index, and anxiety and depressive symptoms as evaluated by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Adverse events will also be measured at each study visit. Results of this study will provide high quality evidence of the efficacy and safety of electroacupuncture as an adjunct treatment for benzodiazepine tapering in long-term users. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02475538 .

  11. [Insufficient symptom control under long-term treatment with PPI in GERD - fact or fiction?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labenz, Joachim; Labenz, Gisela; Stephan, Dietmar; Willeke, Frank

    2016-05-25

    Randomized controlled trials show that patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and treatment with proton pump inhibitors (PPI) in about 30% of the cases complain about persisting reflux symptoms (heartburn, regurgitation). The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of PPI long-term treatment in patients with GERD in the family doctor's office. Patients with GERD and a PPI therapy of at least one year participated in a prospective, multicenter observational study. The patients obtained a questionnaire together with a further prescription of PPI. They were asked about the intensity and frequency of heartburn, regurgitation and sleep disorders due to reflux symptoms, satisfaction with PPI therapy, diagnostics performed up to now (endoscopy, pH monitoring, manometry) and surgical consultation. The questionnaire included a validated instrument for the diagnosis of GERD (GerdQ). Patients with the diagnosis "GERD " according to the questionnaire who were very dissatisfied with their current PPI therapy (score 1 or 2 on a 5-point Likert scale) were defined as "lost patients " (LOPA). 39% of the patients still suffered from heartburn at least two days a week, 30% of regurgitation. In 22% of the patients, reflux symptoms led to sleep disorder at least two days a week. 20% of the patients were very dissatisfied with the current PPI therapy. 70% of them (= 14% of the total patient population) were "lost patients " according to the definition. An endoscopy was performed in 86% of the patients and function diagnosis (pH monitoring ± manometry) in 8%. A surgeon was consulted in 8% of the patients, a third of which had received function diagnosis before. A poor symptom control can often be found in GERD patients with PPI long-term therapy, but does not stand out in the daily routine. So diagnosis will not continue and treatment alternatives will not be searched for. In the future quality of treatment should be verified e. g. by questionnaires.

  12. Stillbirths at Term: Case Control Study of Risk Factors, Growth Status and Placental Histology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mecacci, Federico; Serena, Caterina; Avagliano, Laura; Cozzolino, Mauro; Baroni, Eleonora; Rambaldi, Marianna Pina; Simeone, Serena; Castiglione, Francesca; Taddei, Gian Luigi; Bulfamante, Gaetano

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the proportion of stillbirths at term associated with abnormal growth using customized birth weight percentiles and to compare histological placental findings both in underweight stillborn fetuses and in live births. A retrospective case-control study of 150 singleton term stillbirths. The livebirth control groups included 586 cases of low-risk pregnancies and 153 late fetal growth restriction fetuses. Stillbirths and livebirths from low-risk pregnancies were classified using customized standards for fetal weight at birth, as adequate for gestational age (AGA; 10-90th percentile), small (SGA; percentile) or large for gestational age (LGA; >90th percentile). Placental characteristics in stillbirth were compared with those from livebirths using four categories: inflammation, disruptive, obstructive and adaptive lesions. There was a higher rate of SGA (26% vs 6%, ppercentile) (12% vs 0.3%, p<0.001). The disruptive (7.3% vs 0.17%;p<0.001), obstructive (54.6% vs 7.5%;p<0.001) and adaptive (46.6% vs 35.8%;p<0.001) findings were significantly more common in than in livebirth-low risk. Placental characteristics of AGA and SGA stillbirth were compared with those of AGA and FGR livebirth. In stillbirths-SGA we found a higher number of disruptive (12.8% vs 0%; p<0.001), obstructive (58.9% vs 23.5%;p<0.001) and adaptive lesions (56.4% vs 49%; p 0.47) than in livebirth-FGR. The assessment of fetal weight with customized curves can identify fetuses which have not reached their genetically determined growth potential and are therefore at risk for adverse outcomes. Placental evaluation in stillbirths can reveal chronic histological signs that might be useful to clinical assessment, especially in underweight fetuses.

  13. Long-term microfluidic tracking of coccoid cyanobacterial cells reveals robust control of division timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Feiqiao Brian; Willis, Lisa; Chau, Rosanna Man Wah; Zambon, Alessandro; Horowitz, Mark; Bhaya, Devaki; Huang, Kerwyn Casey; Quake, Stephen R

    2017-02-14

    Cyanobacteria are important agents in global carbon and nitrogen cycling and hold great promise for biotechnological applications. Model organisms such as Synechocystis sp. and Synechococcus sp. have advanced our understanding of photosynthetic capacity and circadian behavior, mostly using population-level measurements in which the behavior of individuals cannot be monitored. Synechocystis sp. cells are small and divide slowly, requiring long-term experiments to track single cells. Thus, the cumulative effects of drift over long periods can cause difficulties in monitoring and quantifying cell growth and division dynamics. To overcome this challenge, we enhanced a microfluidic cell-culture device and developed an image analysis pipeline for robust lineage reconstruction. This allowed simultaneous tracking of many cells over multiple generations, and revealed that cells expand exponentially throughout their cell cycle. Generation times were highly correlated for sister cells, but not between mother and daughter cells. Relationships between birth size, division size, and generation time indicated that cell-size control was inconsistent with the "sizer" rule, where division timing is based on cell size, or the "timer" rule, where division occurs after a fixed time interval. Instead, single cell growth statistics were most consistent with the "adder" rule, in which division occurs after a constant increment in cell volume. Cells exposed to light-dark cycles exhibited growth and division only during the light period; dark phases pause but do not disrupt cell-cycle control. Our analyses revealed that the "adder" model can explain both the growth-related statistics of single Synechocystis cells and the correlation between sister cell generation times. We also observed rapid phenotypic response to light-dark transitions at the single cell level, highlighting the critical role of light in cyanobacterial cell-cycle control. Our findings suggest that by monitoring the growth

  14. Tumour CD274 (PD-L1) expression and T cells in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masugi, Yohei; Nishihara, Reiko; Yang, Juhong; Mima, Kosuke; da Silva, Annacarolina; Shi, Yan; Inamura, Kentaro; Cao, Yin; Song, Mingyang; Nowak, Jonathan A; Liao, Xiaoyun; Nosho, Katsuhiko; Chan, Andrew T; Giannakis, Marios; Bass, Adam J; Hodi, F Stephen; Freeman, Gordon J; Rodig, Scott; Fuchs, Charles S; Qian, Zhi Rong; Ogino, Shuji

    2017-08-01

    Evidence suggests that CD274 (programmed death-ligand 1, B7-H1) immune checkpoint ligand repress antitumour immunity through its interaction with the PDCD1 (programmed cell death 1, PD-1) receptor of T lymphocytes in various tumours. We hypothesised that tumour CD274 expression levels might be inversely associated with T-cell densities in colorectal carcinoma tissue. We evaluated tumour CD274 expression by immunohistochemistry in 823 rectal and colon cancer cases within the Nurses' Health Study and Health Professionals Follow-up Study. We conducted multivariable ordinal logistic regression analyses to examine the association of tumour CD274 expression with CD3+, CD8+, CD45RO (PTPRC)+ or FOXP3+ cell density in tumour tissue, controlling for potential confounders including tumour status of microsatellite instability (MSI), CpG island methylator phenotype, long interspersed nucleotide element-1 methylation level and KRAS, BRAF and PIK3CA mutations. CD274 expression in tumour cells or stromal cells (including immune cells) was detected in 731 (89%) or 44 (5%) cases, respectively. Tumour CD274 expression level correlated inversely with FOXP3+ cell density in colorectal cancer tissue (outcome) (ptrend=0.0002). For a unit increase in outcome quartile categories, multivariable OR in the highest (vs lowest) CD274 expression score was 0.22 (95% CI 0.10 to 0.47). Tumour CD274 expression was inversely associated with MSI-high status (p=0.001). CD274 expression was not significantly associated with CD3+, CD8+ or CD45RO+ cell density, pathological lymphocytic reactions or patient survival prognosis. Tumour CD274 expression is inversely associated with FOXP3+ cell density in colorectal cancer tissue, suggesting a possible influence of CD274-expressing carcinoma cells on regulatory T cells in the tumour microenvironment. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  15. Long-term tolerability of inhaled human insulin (Exubera) in patients with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barnett, A H; Lange, P; Dreyer, M

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Inhaled human insulin (Exubera; EXU) has shown encouraging tolerability in short-term trials. We evaluated the safety profile of EXU after long-term exposure. DESIGN: In two, open-label, 2-year studies patients poorly controlled on a sulphonylurea were randomised to adjunctive EXU or m...

  16. Loss of the tumour suppressor gene AIP mediates the browning of human brown fat tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, Linda; Hansen, Nils; Saba, Karim H; Nilsson, Jenny; Fioretos, Thoas; Rissler, Pehr; Nord, Karolin H

    2017-10-01

    Human brown fat tumours (hibernomas) show concomitant loss of the tumour suppressor genes MEN1 and AIP. We hypothesized that the brown fat phenotype is attributable to these mutations. Accordingly, in this study, we demonstrate that silencing of AIP in human brown preadipocytic and white fat cell lines results in the induction of the brown fat marker UCP1. In human adipocytic tumours, loss of MEN1 was found both in white (one of 51 lipomas) and in brown fat tumours. In contrast, concurrent loss of AIP was always accompanied by a brown fat morphology. We conclude that this white-to-brown phenotype switch in brown fat tumours is mediated by the loss of AIP. Copyright © 2017 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Naturally occurring tumours in the basal metazoan Hydra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domazet-Lošo, Tomislav; Klimovich, Alexander; Anokhin, Boris; Anton-Erxleben, Friederike; Hamm, Mailin J; Lange, Christina; Bosch, Thomas C G

    2014-06-24

    The molecular nature of tumours is well studied in vertebrates, although their evolutionary origin remains unknown. In particular, there is no evidence for naturally occurring tumours in pre-bilaterian animals, such as sponges and cnidarians. This is somewhat surprising given that recent computational studies have predicted that most metazoans might be prone to develop tumours. Here we provide first evidence for naturally occurring tumours in two species of Hydra. Histological, cellular and molecular data reveal that these tumours are transplantable and might originate by differentiation arrest of female gametes. Growth of tumour cells is independent from the cellular environment. Tumour-bearing polyps have significantly reduced fitness. In addition, Hydra tumours show a greatly altered transcriptome that mimics expression shifts in vertebrate cancers. Therefore, this study shows that spontaneous tumours have deep evolutionary roots and that early branching animals may be informative in revealing the fundamental mechanisms of tumorigenesis.

  18. Targeting ALCAM in the cryo-treated tumour microenvironment successfully induces systemic anti-tumour immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo-Saito, Chie; Fuwa, Takafumi; Kawakami, Yutaka

    2016-07-01

    Cryoablative treatment has been widely used for treating cancer. However, the therapeutic efficacies are still controversial. The molecular mechanisms of the cryo-induced immune responses, particularly underlying the ineffectiveness, remain to be fully elucidated. In this study, we identified a new molecular mechanism involved in the cryo failure. We used cryo-ineffective metastatic tumour models that murine melanoma B16-F10 cells were subcutaneously and intravenously implanted into C57BL/6 mice. When the subcutaneous tumours were treated cryoablation on day 7 after tumour implantation, cells expressing activated leucocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM/CD166) were significantly expanded not only locally in the treated tumours but also systemically in spleen and bone marrow of the mice. The cryo-induced ALCAM(+) cells including CD45(-) mesenchymal stem/stromal cells, CD11b(+)Gr1(+) myeloid-derived suppressor cells, and CD4(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells significantly suppressed interferon γ production and cytotoxicity of tumour-specific CD8(+) T cells via ALCAM expressed in these cells. This suggests that systemic expansion of the ALCAM(+) cells negatively switches host-immune directivity to the tumour-supportive mode. Intratumoural injection with anti-ALCAM blocking monoclonal antibody (mAb) following the cryo treatment systemically induced tumour-specific CD8(+) T cells with higher cytotoxic activities, resulting in suppression of tumour growth and metastasis in the cryo-resistant tumour models. These suggest that expansion of ALCAM(+) cells is a determinant of limiting the cryo efficacy. Further combination with an immune checkpoint inhibitor anti-CTLA4 mAb optimized the anti-tumour efficacy of the dual-combination therapy. Targeting ALCAM may be a promising strategy for overcoming the cryo ineffectiveness leading to the better practical use of cryoablation in clinical treatment of cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Augmented reality in bone tumour resection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Y. K.; Gupta, S.; Yoon, C.; Han, I.; Kim, H-S.; Choi, H.; Hong, J.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives We evaluated the accuracy of augmented reality (AR)-based navigation assistance through simulation of bone tumours in a pig femur model. Methods We developed an AR-based navigation system for bone tumour resection, which could be used on a tablet PC. To simulate a bone tumour in the pig femur, a cortical window was made in the diaphysis and bone cement was inserted. A total of 133 pig femurs were used and tumour resection was simulated with AR-assisted resection (164 resection in 82 femurs, half by an orthropaedic oncology expert and half by an orthopaedic resident) and resection with the conventional method (82 resection in 41 femurs). In the conventional group, resection was performed after measuring the distance from the edge of the condyle to the expected resection margin with a ruler as per routine clinical practice. Results The mean error of 164 resections in 82 femurs in the AR group was 1.71 mm (0 to 6). The mean error of 82 resections in 41 femurs in the conventional resection group was 2.64 mm (0 to 11) (p Augmented reality in bone tumour resection: An experimental study. Bone Joint Res 2017;6:137–143. PMID:28258117

  20. [Tumours of the upper cervical spine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández García, Borja Jesús; Isla Guerrero, Alberto; Castaño, Ana; Alvarez Ruiz, Fernando; Gómez de la Riva, Alvaro

    2013-01-01

    Vertebral tumours arising in the upper cervical spine are rare. We present our experience in managing these neoplasms. We retrospectively reviewed the case histories of patients treated at our institution between January 2000 and June 2011. There were 9 patients with tumours in C1-C2-C3: 2metastases, 3chordomas, 2plasmocytomas, 1chondrosarcoma and 1osteochondroma. All patients complained of neck pain at the time of diagnosis. Three patients underwent an anterior and posterior approach, 3 an exclusively posterior approach and 3 an exclusively anterior surgical approach. Tumour resection was intralesional in 7 cases. Chemo-radiotherapy was used as adjuvant therapy in patients with malignant tumours. Vertebral tumours in the upper cervical spine are usually malignant. Achieving en bloc resection is particularly challenging and is technically unfeasible in many cases. This worsens the prognosis and makes adjuvant treatment very important. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Neurocirugía. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  1. An Ectopic ACTH Secreting Metastatic Parotid Tumour

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    Thomas Dacruz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A 60-year old woman presented with features of Cushing’s syndrome (CS secondary to an ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH secreting metastatic parotid tumour 3 years after excision of the original tumour. She subsequently developed fatal intestinal perforation and unfortunately died despite best possible medical measures. Ectopic ACTH secretion accounts for 5–10% of all patients presenting with ACTH dependent hypercortisolism; small cell carcinoma of lung (SCLC and neuroendocrine tumours (NET account for the majority of such cases. Although there are 4 previous case reports of ectopic ACTH secreting salivary tumours in literature, to our knowledge this is the first published case report in which the CS developed after 3 years of what was deemed as a successful surgical excision of primary salivary tumour. Our patient initially had nonspecific symptoms which may have contributed to a delay in diagnosis. Perforation of sigmoid colon is a recognised though underdiagnosed complication associated with steroid therapy and hypercortisolism. This case demonstrates the challenges faced in diagnosis as well as management of patients with CS apart from the practical difficulties faced while trying to identify source of ectopic ACTH.

  2. TUMOUR CASE IN KOI CARP (Cyprinus carpio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Sholichah

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A case study of tumour in koi carp (Cyprinus carpio was observed in rearing periode. This tumour occurs solitary, large, pale red, fleshy masses under the lips and dental plates on the outside, and by reason of its size, may prevent closure the mouth. Moreover, this tumour goes through into the inside of the mouth. At necropsy, there were two soft, firm, small mass at inside of the mouth and the bigger mass at outside the mouth. Samples of this tumour were fixed in 10% formalin were used for histology analysis. The clinical course of the tumour is one of relatively slow but progressive growth. The proliferative stage of the neoplastic process is preceded and accompanied by a striking vascular reaction. Intensed hyperemia invariably occurs in that region of the mucosal surface which later becomes the site of neoplastic proliferation. Neoplastic cells lied around lamina propria and submucosal. These cells were joined together to make vacuolization and the other cells become pleiomorphism with hyperchromatic nucleus and N/C ratio cells are 1:1. In some area, there were many empty holes, around the holes there were debris cells, inflammation cells, and erythrocytes.

  3. Targeting the tumour microenvironment in ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Jean M; Coleman, Robert L; Sood, Anil K

    2016-03-01

    The study of cancer initiation, growth, and metastasis has traditionally been focused on cancer cells, and the view that they proliferate due to uncontrolled growth signalling owing to genetic derangements. However, uncontrolled growth in tumours cannot be explained solely by aberrations in cancer cells themselves. To fully understand the biological behaviour of tumours, it is essential to understand the microenvironment in which cancer cells exist, and how they manipulate the surrounding stroma to promote the malignant phenotype. Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death from gynaecologic cancer worldwide. The majority of patients will have objective responses to standard tumour debulking surgery and platinum-taxane doublet chemotherapy, but most will experience disease recurrence and chemotherapy resistance. As such, a great deal of effort has been put forth to develop therapies that target the tumour microenvironment in ovarian cancer. Herein, we review the key components of the tumour microenvironment as they pertain to this disease, outline targeting opportunities and supporting evidence thus far, and discuss resistance to therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Glycaemic control and long-term outcomes following transition from modified intensive insulin therapy to conventional glycaemic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orford, N R; Bailey, M; Kaukonen, K; Elderkin, T; Stow, Pj; Cattigan, C; Kotowicz, M; Bellomo, R

    2014-03-01

    This retrospective observational cohort study compared glycaemic control and long-term outcomes following transition from a modified intensive insulin therapy (mIIT) regimen to conventional glycaemic control (CGC) in adult patients admitted to a tertiary adult general intensive care unit, during two 24-month periods, before and after the publication of the Normoglycemia in Intensive Care Evaluation and Surviving Using Glucose Algorithm Regulation (NICE-SUGAR) trial. The before NICE-SUGAR cohort received mIIT (target glycaemic ranges 4.4 to 7.0 mmol/l), while the after NICE-SUGAR cohort received CGC (target glycaemic range 7.1 to 9.0 mmol/l). A total of 5202 patients were included in the study. With transition from mIIT to CGC, the mean time-weighted glucose increased from 6.94 mmol/l to 8.2 mmol/l (P <0.0001). A similar increase was observed in other glycaemic indices (mean, highest and lowest glucose values, P <0.0001 for all). The adjusted 90-day odds ratio for mortality decreased by 47% with transition from mIIT to CGC (odds ratio 1.47 (95% confidence interval, 1.22 to 1.78) (P <0.0001). The rate of severe and moderate hypoglycaemia also decreased from 1.2 to 0.4% (P=0.004) and from 23.3 to 5.9% (P <0.0001), respectively. mIIT was associated with an increased risk of moderate and severe hypoglycaemia compared to CGC (odds ratio 3.1 (1.51 to 6.39) (P=0.002), 6.29 (5.1 to 7.75) (P <0.0001)). Changes in recommended glycaemic control were translated into practice, with increased glycaemic indices and decreased rates of severe and moderate hypoglycaemia after the introduction of CGC. The associated decrease in 90-day mortality suggests mIIT was not superior to CGC, despite a lower hypoglycaemia rate than in previous IIT trials. Our findings support the continued use of CGC.

  5. Long-Term Improvements After Multimodal Rehabilitation in Late Phase After Stroke: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunketorp-Käll, Lina; Lundgren-Nilsson, Åsa; Samuelsson, Hans; Pekny, Tulen; Blomvé, Karin; Pekna, Marcela; Pekny, Milos; Blomstrand, Christian; Nilsson, Michael

    2017-07-01

    Treatments that improve function in late phase after stroke are urgently needed. We assessed whether multimodal interventions based on rhythm-and-music therapy or horse-riding therapy could lead to increased perceived recovery and functional improvement in a mixed population of individuals in late phase after stroke. Participants were assigned to rhythm-and-music therapy, horse-riding therapy, or control using concealed randomization, stratified with respect to sex and stroke laterality. Therapy was given twice a week for 12 weeks. The primary outcome was change in participants' perception of stroke recovery as assessed by the Stroke Impact Scale with an intention-to-treat analysis. Secondary objective outcome measures were changes in balance, gait, grip strength, and cognition. Blinded assessments were performed at baseline, postintervention, and at 3- and 6-month follow-up. One hundred twenty-three participants were assigned to rhythm-and-music therapy (n=41), horse-riding therapy (n=41), or control (n=41). Post-intervention, the perception of stroke recovery (mean change from baseline on a scale ranging from 1 to 100) was higher among rhythm-and-music therapy (5.2 [95% confidence interval, 0.79-9.61]) and horse-riding therapy participants (9.8 [95% confidence interval, 6.00-13.66]), compared with controls (-0.5 [-3.20 to 2.28]); P =0.001 (1-way ANOVA). The improvements were sustained in both intervention groups 6 months later, and corresponding gains were observed for the secondary outcomes. Multimodal interventions can improve long-term perception of recovery, as well as balance, gait, grip strength, and working memory in a mixed population of individuals in late phase after stroke. URL: http//www.ClinicalTrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01372059. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. Tai Chi for treating knee osteoarthritis: Designing a long-term follow up randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rones Ramel

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knee Osteoarthritis (KOA is a major cause of pain and functional impairment among elders. Currently, there are neither feasible preventive intervention strategies nor effective medical remedies for the management of KOA. Tai Chi, an ancient Chinese mind-body exercise that is reported to enhance muscle function, balance and flexibility, and to reduce pain, depression and anxiety, may safely and effectively be used to treat KOA. However, current evidence is inconclusive. Our study examines the effects of a 12-week Tai Chi program compared with an attention control (wellness education and stretching on pain, functional capacity, psychosocial variables, joint proprioception and health status in elderly people with KOA. The study will be completed by July 2009. Methods/Design Forty eligible patients, age > 55 yr, BMI ≤ 40 kg/m2 with tibiofemoral osteoarthritis (American College of Rheumatology criteria are identified and randomly allocated to either Tai Chi (10 modified forms from classical Yang style Tai Chi or attention control (wellness education and stretching. The 60-minute intervention sessions take place twice weekly for 12 weeks. The study is conducted at an urban tertiary medical center in Boston, Massachusetts. The primary outcome measure is the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities (WOMAC pain subscale at 12 weeks. Secondary outcomes include weekly WOMAC pain, function and stiffness scores, patient and physician global assessments, lower-extremity function, knee proprioception, depression, self-efficacy, social support, health-related quality of life, adherence and occurrence of adverse events after 12, 24 and 48 weeks. Discussion In this article, we present the challenges of designing a randomized controlled trial with long-term follow up. The challenges encountered in this design are: strategies for recruitment, avoidance of selection bias, the actual practice of Tai Chi, and the maximization of adherence

  7. Long-term lifestyle changes after colorectal cancer screening: randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berstad, Paula; Løberg, Magnus; Larsen, Inger Kristin; Kalager, Mette; Holme, Øyvind; Botteri, Edoardo; Bretthauer, Michael; Hoff, Geir

    2015-08-01

    There is uncertainty whether cancer screening affects participant incentives for favourable lifestyle. The present study investigates long-term effects of colorectal cancer (CRC) screening on lifestyle changes. In 1999-2001, men and women drawn from the population registry were randomised to screening for CRC by flexible sigmoidoscopy ('invited-to-screening' arm) or to no-screening (control arm) in the Norwegian Colorectal Cancer Prevention trial. A subgroup of 3043 individuals in the 'invited-to-screening' and 2819 in the control arm, aged 50-55 years, randomised during 2001 had their lifestyle assessed by a questionnaire at inclusion and after 11 years (42% of cohort). The outcome was 11-year changes in lifestyle factors (body weight, smoking status, physical exercise, selected dietary habits) and in total lifestyle score (0-4 points, translating to the number of lifestyle recommendations adhered to). We compared outcomes in the two randomisation arms and attendees with positive versus negative findings. Total lifestyle scores improved in both arms. The improvement was smaller in the 'invited-to-screening' arm (score 1.43 at inclusion; 1.58 after 11 years) compared with the control arm (score 1.49 at inclusion; 1.67 after 11 years); adjusted difference -0.05 (95% CI -0.09 to -0.01; p=0.03). The change in the score was less favourable in screening attendees with a positive compared with negative screening result; adjusted difference -0.16 (95% CI -0.25 to -0.08; pcancer screening programmes. NCT00119912. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  8. 1,5-Anhydroglucitol in saliva is a noninvasive marker of short-term glycemic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mook-Kanamori, Dennis O; Selim, Mohammed M El-Din; Takiddin, Ahmed H; Al-Homsi, Hala; Al-Mahmoud, Khoulood A S; Al-Obaidli, Amina; Zirie, Mahmoud A; Rowe, Jillian; Yousri, Noha A; Karoly, Edward D; Kocher, Thomas; Sekkal Gherbi, Wafaa; Chidiac, Omar M; Mook-Kanamori, Marjonneke J; Abdul Kader, Sara; Al Muftah, Wadha A; McKeon, Cindy; Suhre, Karsten

    2014-03-01

    In most ethnicities at least a quarter of all cases with diabetes is assumed to be undiagnosed. Screening for diabetes using saliva has been suggested as an effective approach to identify affected individuals. The objective of the study was to identify a noninvasive metabolic marker of type 2 diabetes in saliva. In a case-control study of type 2 diabetes, we used a clinical metabolomics discovery study to screen for diabetes-relevant metabolic readouts in saliva, using blood and urine as a reference. With a combination of three metabolomics platforms based on nontargeted mass spectrometry, we examined 2178 metabolites in saliva, blood plasma, and urine samples from 188 subjects with type 2 diabetes and 181 controls of Arab and Asian ethnicities. We found a strong association of type 2 diabetes with 1,5-anhydroglucitol (1,5-AG) in saliva (P = 3.6 × 10(-13)). Levels of 1,5-AG in saliva highly correlated with 1,5-AG levels in blood and inversely correlated with blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin levels. These findings were robust across three different non-Caucasian ethnicities (Arabs, South Asians, and Filipinos), irrespective of body mass index, age, and gender. Clinical studies have already established 1,5-AG in blood as a reliable marker of short-term glycemic control. Our study suggests that 1,5-AG in saliva can be used in national screening programs for undiagnosed diabetes, which are of particular interest for Middle Eastern countries with young populations and exceptionally high diabetes rates.

  9. Chronic Glibenclamide Treatment Attenuates Walker-256 Tumour Growth in Prediabetic Obese Rats

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    Claudinéia Conationi da Silva Franco

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The sulphonylurea glibenclamide (Gli is widely used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. In addition to its antidiabetic effects, low incidences of certain types of cancer have been observed in Gli-treated diabetic patients. However, the mechanisms underlying this observation remain unclear. The aim of the present work was to evaluate whether obese adult rats that were chronically treated with an antidiabetic drug, glibenclamide, exhibit resistance to rodent breast carcinoma growth. Methods: Neonatal rats were treated with monosodium L-glutamate (MSG to induce prediabetes. Control and MSG groups were treated with Gli (2 mg/kg body weight/day from weaning to 100 days old. After Gli treatment, the control and MSG rats were grafted with Walker-256 tumour cells. After 14 days, grafted rats were euthanized, and tumour weight as well as glucose homeostasis were evaluated. Results: Treatment with Gli normalized tissue insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance, suppressed fasting hyperinsulinaemia, reduced fat tissue accretion in MSG rats, and attenuated tumour growth by 27% in control and MSG rats. Conclusions: Gli treatment also resulted in a large reduction in the number of PCNA-positive tumour cells. Although treatment did improve the metabolism of pre-diabetic MSG-rats, tumour growth inhibition may be a more direct effect of glibenclamide.

  10. A STUDY OF OVARIAN TUMOURS : CLINICAL AND PATHOLOGICAL CORRELATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uma Devi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study incidence age distribution of benign and malignant ovarian tu mours in general population. METHODS AND MATERIAL : To study 120 patients with ovarian tumours in Govt . general hospital during June 2003 and June 2005. RESULTS: Clinical and pathological evaluation of all ovarian tumours was done and incidence, age distrib ution of various benign and malignant ovarian neoplasms were tabulated and compared with other studies. CONCLUSIONS: Most common ovarian tumours are benign tumours and serous cystadenoma is the commonest benign tumour and S erous cystadeno carcinoma is the most common malignant tumour.

  11. Immediate and short-term pain relief by acute sciatic nerve press: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Wenlong

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite much research, an immediately available, instantly effective and harmless pain relief technique has not been discovered. This study describes a new manipulation: a "2-minute sciatic nerve press", for rapid short-term relief of pain brought on by various dental and renal diseases. Methods This randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled trial ran in three hospitals in Anhui Province, China, with an enrollment of 66 out of 111 solicited patients aged 16 to 74 years. Patients were recruited sequentially, by specific participating physicians at their clinic visits to three independent hospitals. The diseases in enrolled dental patients included dental caries, periodontal diseases and dental trauma. Renal diseases in recruits included kidney infections, stones and some other conditions. Patients were randomly assigned to receive the "2-minute sciatic nerve press" or the "placebo press". For the "2-minute sciatic nerve press", pressure was applied simultaneously to the sciatic nerves at the back of the thighs, using the fists while patients lay prone. For the "placebo press", pressure was applied simultaneously to a parallel spot on the front of the thighs, using the fists while patients lay supine. Each fist applied a pressure of 11 to 20 kg for 2 minutes, after which, patients arose to rate pain. Results The "2-minute sciatic nerve press" produced greater pain relief than the "placebo press". Within the first 10 minutes after sciatic pressure, immediate pain relief ratings averaged 66.4% (p Conclusion Two minutes of pressure on both sciatic nerves can produce immediate significant conduction analgesia, providing a convenient, safe and powerful way to overcome clinical pain brought on by dental diseases and renal diseases for short term purposes. Trial registration ACTR 12606000439549

  12. Gastroesophageal Acid Reflux Control 5 Years After Antireflux Surgery, Compared With Long-term Esomeprazole Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatlebakk, Jan G; Zerbib, Frank; Bruley des Varannes, Stanislas; Attwood, Stephen E; Ell, Christian; Fiocca, Roberto; Galmiche, Jean-Paul; Eklund, Stefan; Långström, Göran; Lind, Tore; Lundell, Lars R

    2016-05-01

    We compared the ability of laparoscopic antireflux surgery (LARS) and esomeprazole to control esophageal acid exposure, over a 5-year period, in patients with chronic gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). We also studied whether intraesophageal and intragastric pH parameters off and on therapy were associated with long-term outcomes. We analyzed data from a prospective, randomized, open-label trial comparing the efficacy and safety of LARS vs esomeprazole (20 or 40 mg/d) over 5 years in patients with chronic GERD. Ambulatory intraesophageal and intragastric 24-hour pH monitoring data were compared between groups before LARS or the start of esomeprazole treatment, and 6 months and 5 years afterward. A secondary aim was to evaluate the association between baseline and 6-month pH parameters and esomeprazole dose escalation, reappearance of GERD symptoms, and treatment failure over 5 years in patients receiving LARS or esomeprazole. In the LARS group (n = 116), the median 24-hour esophageal acid exposure was 8.6% at baseline and 0.7% after 6 months and 5 years (P esomeprazole group (n = 151), the median 24-hour esophageal acid exposure was 8.8% at baseline, 2.1% after 6 months, and 1.9% after 5 years (P esomeprazole). Gastric acidity was stable in both groups. Patients who required a dose increase to 40 mg/d had more severe supine reflux at baseline, and decreased esophageal acid exposure (P esomeprazole therapy. However, patients receiving LARS had significantly greater reductions in 24-hour esophageal acid exposure after 6 months and 5 years. Esophageal and gastric pH, off and on therapy, did not predict long-term outcomes of patients. Abnormal supine acid exposure predicted esomeprazole dose escalation. ClinicalTrials.Gov identifier: NCT00251927 (available: http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00251927). Copyright © 2016 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. MRI of intracranial germ cell tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumida, M. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Hiroshima Univ. School of Medicine, Hiroshima (Japan); Uozumi, T. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Hiroshima Univ. School of Medicine, Hiroshima (Japan); Kiya, K. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Hiroshima Univ. School of Medicine, Hiroshima (Japan); Mukada, K. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Hiroshima Univ. School of Medicine, Hiroshima (Japan); Arita, K. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Hiroshima Univ. School of Medicine, Hiroshima (Japan); Kurisu, K. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Hiroshima Univ. School of Medicine, Hiroshima (Japan); Sugiyama, K. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Hiroshima Univ. School of Medicine, Hiroshima (Japan); Onda, J. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Hiroshima Univ. School of Medicine, Hiroshima (Japan); Satoh, H. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Hiroshima Univ. School of Medicine, Hiroshima (Japan); Ikawa, F. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Hiroshima Univ. School of Medicine, Hiroshima (Japan); Migita, K. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Hiroshima Univ. School of Medicine, Hiroshima (Japan)

    1995-01-01

    We reviewed MRI findings in proven intracranial germ cell tumours in 22 cases, 12 of whom received Gd-DTPA. On T1-weighted images, the signal intensity of the tumour parenchyma was moderately low in 19 cases and isointense in 3; on T2-weighted images, it was high in all cases. Regions of different intensity thought to be cysts were found in 17 (77 %): 7 of 12 patients with germinoma (58 %) and in all other cases. Of the 13 patients with pineal lesions T1-weighted sagittal images showed the aqueduct to be obstructed in 5, stenotic in 7 and normal in 1. Strong contrast enhancement was observed in all 12 cases. Of the 14 patients with suprasellar lesions, 5 were found to have an intrasellar extension, and in 3 of these, the normal pituitary gland, which could be distinguished from the tumour, was displaced anteriorly. Ten patients (45 %) had multiple lesions. (orig.)

  14. Long-Term Instrumentation, Information, and Control Systems (II&C) Modernization Future Vision and Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenneth Thomas

    2012-02-01

    Life extension beyond 60 years for the U.S operating nuclear fleet requires that instrumentation and control (I&C) systems be upgraded to address aging and reliability concerns. It is impractical for the legacy systems based on 1970's vintage technology operate over this extended time period. Indeed, utilities have successfully engaged in such replacements when dictated by these operational concerns. However, the replacements have been approached in a like-for-like manner, meaning that they do not take advantage of the inherent capabilities of digital technology to improve business functions. And so, the improvement in I&C system performance has not translated to bottom-line performance improvement for the fleet. Therefore, wide-scale modernization of the legacy I&C systems could prove to be cost-prohibitive unless the technology is implemented in a manner to enable significant business innovation as a means of off-setting the cost of upgrades. A Future Vision of a transformed nuclear plant operating model based on an integrated digital environment has been developed as part of the Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control (II&C) research pathway, under the Light Water Reactor (LWR) Sustainability Program. This is a research and development program sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), performed in close collaboration with the nuclear utility industry, to provide the technical foundations for licensing and managing the long-term, safe and economical operation of current nuclear power plants. DOE's program focus is on longer-term and higher-risk/reward research that contributes to the national policy objectives of energy security and environmental security . The Advanced II&C research pathway is being conducted by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The Future Vision is based on a digital architecture that encompasses all aspects of plant operations and support, integrating plant systems, plant work processes, and plant workers in a

  15. Long-Term Instrumentation, Information, and Control Systems (II&C) Modernization Future Vision and Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenneth Thomas; Bruce Hallbert

    2013-02-01

    Life extension beyond 60 years for the U.S operating nuclear fleet requires that instrumentation and control (I&C) systems be upgraded to address aging and reliability concerns. It is impractical for the legacy systems based on 1970’s vintage technology operate over this extended time period. Indeed, utilities have successfully engaged in such replacements when dictated by these operational concerns. However, the replacements have been approached in a like-for-like manner, meaning that they do not take advantage of the inherent capabilities of digital technology to improve business functions. And so, the improvement in I&C system performance has not translated to bottom-line performance improvement for the fleet. Therefore, wide-scale modernization of the legacy I&C systems could prove to be cost-prohibitive unless the technology is implemented in a manner to enable significant business innovation as a means of off-setting the cost of upgrades. A Future Vision of a transformed nuclear plant operating model based on an integrated digital environment has been developed as part of the Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control (II&C) research pathway, under the Light Water Reactor (LWR) Sustainability Program. This is a research and development program sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), performed in close collaboration with the nuclear utility industry, to provide the technical foundations for licensing and managing the long-term, safe and economical operation of current nuclear power plants. DOE’s program focus is on longer-term and higher-risk/reward research that contributes to the national policy objectives of energy security and environmental security . The Advanced II&C research pathway is being conducted by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The Future Vision is based on a digital architecture that encompasses all aspects of plant operations and support, integrating plant systems, plant work processes, and plant workers in a

  16. Living with a pituitary tumour: a narrative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Jane; Heath, James; Wall, Gemma

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to synthesise the illness narratives of individuals living with a pituitary tumour. Eight adults with a pituitary tumour were recruited from an endocrinology service in the north-west of England. A narrative methodology was adopted which investigated elements of the individual narratives such as metaphor and structure but which also aimed to produce a joint account of experience in this particular illness context by extracting themes across the stories; these are presented as part of a chronological narrative. However, the resulting group story was also analysed in terms of different types of narrative plots. The group narrative started from the recognition of symptoms and then diagnosis though treatment to post-treatment and future plans. In terms of narrative plots, one notable element of the joint narrative was the flow between the culturally dominant restitution narrative, where participants focused on treatment and recovery and the chaos narrative when recovery did not seem possible. The findings contain many elements consistent with previous research; however, the use of a celebrity figure to communicate about the illness experience and a perception that objects or individuals should not be taken at face value emerged as more novel findings.

  17. p53 status determines the role of autophagy in pancreatic tumour development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeldt, Mathias T.; O'Prey, Jim; Morton, Jennifer P.; Nixon, Colin; Mackay, Gillian; Mrowinska, Agata; Au, Amy; Rai, Taranjit Singh; Zheng, Liang; Ridgway, Rachel; Adams, Peter D.; Anderson, Kurt I.; Gottlieb, Eyal; Sansom, Owen J.; Ryan, Kevin M.

    2013-12-01

    Macroautophagy (hereafter referred to as autophagy) is a process in which organelles termed autophagosomes deliver cytoplasmic constituents to lysosomes for degradation. Autophagy has a major role in cellular homeostasis and has been implicated in various forms of human disease. The role of autophagy in cancer seems to be complex, with reports indicating both pro-tumorigenic and tumour-suppressive roles. Here we show, in a humanized genetically-modified mouse model of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), that autophagy's role in tumour development is intrinsically connected to the status of the tumour suppressor p53. Mice with pancreases containing an activated oncogenic allele of Kras (also called Ki-Ras)--the most common mutational event in PDAC--develop a small number of pre-cancerous lesions that stochastically develop into PDAC over time. However, mice also lacking the essential autophagy genes Atg5 or Atg7 accumulate low-grade, pre-malignant pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia lesions, but progression to high-grade pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasias and PDAC is blocked. In marked contrast, in mice containing oncogenic Kras and lacking p53, loss of autophagy no longer blocks tumour progression, but actually accelerates tumour onset, with metabolic analysis revealing enhanced glucose uptake and enrichment of anabolic pathways, which can fuel tumour growth. These findings provide considerable insight into the role of autophagy in cancer and have important implications for autophagy inhibition in cancer therapy. In this regard, we also show that treatment of mice with the autophagy inhibitor hydroxychloroquine, which is currently being used in several clinical trials, significantly accelerates tumour formation in mice containing oncogenic Kras but lacking p53.

  18. Hyperglycaemia and aberrated insulin signalling stimulate tumour progression via induction of the extracellular matrix component hyaluronan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twarock, Sören; Reichert, Christina; Peters, Ulrike; Gorski, Daniel J; Röck, Katharina; Fischer, Jens W

    2017-08-15

    Epidemiological studies have detected a higher incidence of various tumour entities in diabetic patients. However, the underlying mechanisms remain insufficiently understood. Glucose-derived pericellular and extracellular hyaluronan (HA) promotes tumour progression and development. In our study, we tested the hypothesis that a diabetic metabolic state, characterised by hyperglycaemia and concomitant aberrant insulin signalling, stimulates tumour progression via the induction of HA synthesis. In a streptozotocin-induced diabetic nude mouse tumour xenograft model, hyperglycaemia and lack of insulin caused an increased formation of tumour-associated HA-matrix, which in turn accelerated tumour progression and neoangiogenesis. This process was effectively attenuated by treatment with 4-methylumbelliferone, a pharmacological inhibitor of HA-synthesis. To define the mechanisms behind these in vivo observations, we investigated the impact of hyperglycaemia and insulin on the glucose metabolism in oesophageal squamous cell cancer cells (ESCC). Hyperglycaemia induced HA synthesis while insulin diminished HA production by directing glucose metabolites to glycolysis. Vice versa, inhibition of glycolysis, either by knockdown of the glycolytic key enzyme phosphofructokinase or by an experimental abrogation of insulin signalling (knockdown of the insulin receptor and long-term treatment with insulin) augmented HA synthesis. Consequently, these processes induced invasion, anchorage-independent growth and adhesion of ESCC to endothelial cells in vitro. Thus, the cellular shift in glucose usage from catabolism of glucose to anabolism of HA driven by hyperglycaemia and insulin resistance may represent an important link between diabetes and cancer progression. Hence, therapeutical inhibition of HA synthesis may represent a promising approach for tumour treatment in diabetic patients. © 2017 UICC.

  19. Development of a versatile oncolytic virus platform for local intra-tumoural expression of therapeutic transgenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Nalini; Illingworth, Sam; Kodialbail, Prithvi; Patel, Ashvin; Calderon, Hugo; Lear, Rochelle; Fisher, Kerry D; Champion, Brian R; Brown, Alice C N

    2017-01-01

    Oncolytic viruses which infect and kill tumour cells can also be genetically modified to express therapeutic genes that augment their anti-cancer activities. Modifying oncolytic viruses to produce effective cancer therapies is challenging as encoding transgenes often attenuates virus activity or prevents systemic delivery in patients due to the risk of off-target expression of transgenes in healthy tissues. To overcome these issues we aimed to generate a readily modifiable virus platform using the oncolytic adenovirus, enadenotucirev. Enadenotucirev replicates in human tumour cells but not cells from healthy tissues and can be delivered intravenously because it is stable in human blood. Here, the enadenotucirev genome was used to generate plasmids into which synthesised transgene cassettes could be directly cloned in a single step reaction. The platform enabled generation of panels of reporter viruses to identify cloning sites and transgene cassette designs where transgene expression could be linked to the virus life cycle. It was demonstrated using these viruses that encoded transgene proteins could be successfully expressed in tumour cells in vitro and tumours in vivo. The expression of transgenes did not impact either the oncolytic activity or selective properties of the virus. The effectiveness of this approach as a drug delivery platform for complex therapeutics was demonstrated by inserting multiple genes in the virus genome to encode full length anti-VEGF antibodies. Functional antibody could be synthesised and secreted from infected tumour cells without impacting the activity of the virus particle in terms of oncolytic potency, manufacturing yields or selectivity for tumour cells. In vivo, viral particles could be efficaciously delivered intravenously to disseminated orthotopic tumours.

  20. Modified laparoscopic nephroureterectomy for treatment of upper urinary tract transitional cell cancer is not associated with an increased risk of tumour recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingler, H C; Lodde, M; Pycha, A; Remzi, M; Janetschek, G; Marberger, M

    2003-10-01

    Laparoscopic nephroureterectomy reduces the morbidity of surgical management of urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma (TCC), but a potentially increased risk for local tumour spreading was reported. We evaluated results obtained from patients undergoing a modified laparoscopic approach and open procedures in this respect. Between January 2000 and March 2002 we performed 19 modified laparoscopic nephroureterectomies (LNU) with open intact specimen retrieval in conjunction with open distal ureter and bladder cuff removal and 15 open standard nephroureterectomies (ONU). Staging lymphadenectomy was performed in 14/19 (73.7%) patients with LNU and in 6/15 (40.0%) with ONU. In all patients operating time, blood loss, complications, pain score (VAS) and data in respect to tumour recurrence were analysed. Mean follow-up was 22.1+/-9.2 (range 14-34) months for LNU and 23.1+/-8.8 (14-36) for ONU respectively. In LNU and ONU pathological features were 12 pT1 vs. 10 pT1, 2 pT2 vs. 2 pT2 and 5 pT3 vs. 3 pT3, respectively. All patients had TCC and were R0 at final histology. Four patients with LNU had lymph node involvement, one in ONU. LNU had decreased operating times (p=0.057), blood loss (p=0.018), complications (p=0.001) and VAS scores (p=0.001). One tumour recurrence occurred in LNU, associated with a pT3b pN2 G3 TCC at final histology. One patient with ONU had local tumour recurrence at the site of the bladder cuff. No port-site metastasis occurred during follow-up with LNU. Improved peri-operative results and same cancer control as compared to open surgery by this modified LNU was not associated with an increased risk for tumour recurrence, since strict "non-touch" preparation, avoiding of urine spillage and intact specimen retrieval prevents tumour seeding. However, results from long term studies are still warranted to clarify this issue.

  1. Prevalence and epidemiological and histopathological features of canine cutaneous mast cell tumours in Uberlândia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Carrijo Costa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to perform a retrospective survey of canine cutaneous mast cell tumours at the Veterinary Hospital of the Federal University of Uberl‰ndia, as well as to gather epidemiological data, such as breed, age, sex, and location. We also sought to histopathologically classify and characterize the mast cell tumours. Mast cell tumour was the most common neoplasm, accounting for 16.78% of skin neoplasms. In terms of the epidemiological data, the mast cell tumours did not show sexual predilection. Animals aged 9 to 12 years were the most affected (44.14%. The genitalia were the most frequent location (28.15%, and mongrel dogs showed the highest prevalence (30.43%, followed by boxers (22.61%. A total of 92 slides were classified; grade II was most frequently seen (61.96%. Statistically, injuries such as necrosis, oedema, and haemorrhage were not related with histological classification (P > 0.05. Finally, the mitotic index was related to tumour grade (P < 0.05, and can act as an instrument for histological classification of these tumours. Mast cell tumour is the most common neoplasm in dogs, with no sex predilection. Contrary to what was expected, oedema, necrosis and haemorrhage do not increase according to graduation and can be seen in all classifications. Mitotic index is the best indicator to classify these neoplasms.

  2. Impact of Infection Prevention and Control Initiatives on Acute Respiratory Infections in a Pediatric Long-Term Care Facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Meghan T; Jackson, Olivia; Cohen, Bevin; Hutcheon, Gordon; Saiman, Lisa; Larson, Elaine; Neu, Natalie

    2016-07-01

    We evaluated the collective impact of several infection prevention and control initiatives aimed at reducing acute respiratory infections (ARIs) in a pediatric long-term care facility. ARIs did not decrease overall, though the proportion of infections associated with outbreaks and average number of cases per outbreak decreased. Influenza rates decreased significantly. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016;37:859-862.

  3. Stillbirths at Term: Case Control Study of Risk Factors, Growth Status and Placental Histology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Mecacci

    Full Text Available To investigate the proportion of stillbirths at term associated with abnormal growth using customized birth weight percentiles and to compare histological placental findings both in underweight stillborn fetuses and in live births.A retrospective case-control study of 150 singleton term stillbirths. The livebirth control groups included 586 cases of low-risk pregnancies and 153 late fetal growth restriction fetuses. Stillbirths and livebirths from low-risk pregnancies were classified using customized standards for fetal weight at birth, as adequate for gestational age (AGA; 10-90th percentile, small (SGA; 90th percentile. Placental characteristics in stillbirth were compared with those from livebirths using four categories: inflammation, disruptive, obstructive and adaptive lesions.There was a higher rate of SGA (26% vs 6%, p<0.001 and LGA fetuses (10.6% vs 5.6%, p<0.05 in the stillbirth group. Among stillbirth fetuses, almost half of the SGA were very low birthweight (≤3°percentile (12% vs 0.3%, p<0.001. The disruptive (7.3% vs 0.17%;p<0.001, obstructive (54.6% vs 7.5%;p<0.001 and adaptive (46.6% vs 35.8%;p<0.001 findings were significantly more common in than in livebirth-low risk. Placental characteristics of AGA and SGA stillbirth were compared with those of AGA and FGR livebirth. In stillbirths-SGA we found a higher number of disruptive (12.8% vs 0%; p<0.001, obstructive (58.9% vs 23.5%;p<0.001 and adaptive lesions (56.4% vs 49%; p 0.47 than in livebirth-FGR.The assessment of fetal weight with customized curves can identify fetuses which have not reached their genetically determined growth potential and are therefore at risk for adverse outcomes. Placental evaluation in stillbirths can reveal chronic histological signs that might be useful to clinical assessment, especially in underweight fetuses.

  4. MR molecular imaging of tumours using ferritin heavy chain reporter gene expression mediated by the hTERT promoter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yan [Third Military Medical University, Department of Radiology, XinQiao Hospital, ChongQing (China); The First Affiliated Hospital of ChengDu Medical College, Department of Radiology, ChengDu (China); Gong, Ming-fu; Yang, Hua; Zhang, Song; Wang, Guang-xian; Su, Tong-sheng; Wen, Li; Zhang, Dong [Third Military Medical University, Department of Radiology, XinQiao Hospital, ChongQing (China)

    2016-11-15

    Using the human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) promoter and the modified ferritin heavy chain (Fth) reporter gene, reporter gene expression for MRI was examined in telomerase positive and negative tumour cells and xenografts. Activity of the reporter gene expression vector Lenti-hTERT-Fth1-3FLAG-Puro was compared to constitutive CMV-driven expression and to the untransfected parental control in five tumour cell lines: A549, SKOV3, 293T, U2OS and HPDLF. In vitro, transfected cells were evaluated for FLAG-tagged protein expression, iron accumulation and transverse relaxation. In vivo, tumours transduced by lentiviral vector injection were imaged using T2*WI. Changes in tumour signal intensity were validated by histology. Only telomerase positive tumour cells expressed FLAG-tagged Fth and displayed an increase in R2* above the parental control, with a corresponding change in T2*WI. In addition, only telomerase positive tumours, transduced by injection of the reporter gene expression construct, exhibited a change in signal intensity on T2*WI. Tumour histology verified the expression of FLAG-tagged Fth and iron accumulation in telomerase positive tissue. Reporter gene expression for MRI, using the Fth reporter and the hTERT promoter, may be a useful strategy for the non-invasive diagnosis of many types of cancer. (orig.)

  5. Disaggregation of human solid tumours by combined mechanical and enzymatic methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelholm, S A; Spang-Thomsen, M; Brünner, N

    1985-01-01

    Two combined mechanical and enzymatic disaggregation techniques and a simple mechanical disaggregation procedure were compared. The combined procedures involved a mechanical comminution of the tumour tissue followed by incubation in trypsin. In one method, the tissue was subjected to long....... The combined techniques provided reproducible cell yields of 2-10 X 10(7) viable cells g-1 of tissue, whereas only a small number of tumour cells was produced by the mechanical method. DNA analysis demonstrated that only the long-term trypsinization procedure resulted in a representative cell yield from all...

  6. Effects of radiation therapy on tissue and serum concentrations of tumour associated trypsin inhibitor and their prognostic significance in rectal cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stenman Ulf-Håkan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have previously demonstrated that elevated concentrations of tumour-associated trypsin inhibitor (TATI in both tumour tissue (t-TATI and in serum (s-TATI are associated with a poor prognosis in colorectal cancer patients. It was also found that s-TATI concentrations were lower in patients with rectal cancer compared to patients with colon cancer. In this study, we investigated the effects of neoadjuvant radiotherapy (RT on concentrations of t-TATI and s-TATI in patients with rectal cancer. Methods TATI was analysed in serum, normal mucosa and tumour tissue collected at various time points in 53 rectal cancer patients enrolled in a case-control study where 12 patients received surgery alone, 20 patients 5 × 5 Gy (short-term preoperative RT and 21 patients 25 × 2 Gy (long-term preoperative RT. T-TATI was analysed by immunohistochemistry and s-TATI was determined by an immunofluorometric assay. Mann-Whitney U test and Wilcoxon Z (Z test were used to assess t-TATI and s-TATI concentrations in relation to RT. Spearman's correlation (R test was used to explore the associations between t-TATI, s-TATI and clinicopathological parameters. Overall survival (OS according to high and low t-TATI and s-TATI concentrations was estimated by classification and regression tree analysis, Kaplan-Meier analysis and the log rank test. Results RT did not affect concentrations of t-TATI or s-TATI. In patients receiving short-term but not long-term RT, s-TATI concentrations were significantly higher 4 weeks post surgery than in serum drawn prior to surgery (Z = -3.366, P Conclusions The results presented here further validate the utility of t-TATI and s-TATI as prognostic biomarkers in patients with rectal cancer, independent of neoadjuvant RT.

  7. Angiofibroma, a rare cardiac tumour in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Gayen

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Angiofibromas, located in any other sites than nasopharynx are unusual. Cardiac angiofibromas are a very rare cardiac tumours in comparison to rhabdomyomas which are the commonest in the children. We report a right ventricular tumour in a10 year old girl which was excised under cardiopulmonary bypass successfully and diagnosed as angiofibroma on histopathology. Journal of College of Medical Sciences-Nepal, 2012, Vol-8, No-4, 51-54 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jcmsn.v8i4.8702  

  8. Analysis of the immune system of multiple myeloma patients achieving long-term disease control by multidimensional flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessoa de Magalhães, Roberto J; Vidriales, María-Belén; Paiva, Bruno; Fernandez-Gimenez, Carlos; García-Sanz, Ramón; Mateos, Maria-Victoria; Gutierrez, Norma C; Lecrevisse, Quentin; Blanco, Juan F; Hernández, Jose; de las Heras, Natalia; Martinez-Lopez, Joaquin; Roig, Monica; Costa, Elaine Sobral; Ocio, Enrique M; Perez-Andres, Martin; Maiolino, Angelo; Nucci, Marcio; De La Rubia, Javier; Lahuerta, Juan-Jose; San-Miguel, Jesús F; Orfao, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Multiple myeloma remains largely incurable. However, a few patients experience more than 10 years of relapse-free survival and can be considered as operationally cured. Interestingly, long-term disease control in multiple myeloma is not restricted to patients with a complete response, since some patients revert to having a profile of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance. We compared the distribution of multiple compartments of lymphocytes and dendritic cells in the bone marrow and peripheral blood of multiple myeloma patients with long-term disease control (n=28), patients with newly diagnosed monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (n=23), patients with symptomatic multiple myeloma (n=23), and age-matched healthy adults (n=10). Similarly to the patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and symptomatic multiple myeloma, patients with long-term disease control showed an expansion of cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells and natural killer cells. However, the numbers of bone marrow T-regulatory cells were lower in patients with long-term disease control than in those with symptomatic multiple myeloma. It is noteworthy that B cells were depleted in patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and in those with symptomatic multiple myeloma, but recovered in both the bone marrow and peripheral blood of patients with long-term disease control, due to an increase in normal bone marrow B-cell precursors and plasma cells, as well as pre-germinal center peripheral blood B cells. The number of bone marrow dendritic cells and tissue macrophages differed significantly between patients with long-term disease control and those with symptomatic multiple myeloma, with a trend to cell count recovering in the former group of patients towards levels similar to those found in healthy adults. In summary, our results indicate that multiple myeloma patients with long-term disease control have a constellation of unique immune changes

  9. Sertoliform cystadenoma: a rare benign tumour of the rete testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremmer, Felix; Schweyer, Stefan; Behnes, Carl Ludwig; Blech, Manfred; Radzun, Heinz Joachim

    2013-02-14

    Sertoliform cystadenoma of the rete testis represents an uncommon benign tumour. They appear in patients from 26 to 62 years of age. We describe a case of a 66-year-old man with a tumour in the area of the epididymal head. The tumour markers were not increased. Under the assumption of a malignant testicular tumour an inguinal orchiectomy was performed. The cut surface of this tumour was of grey/white color and showed small cysts. The tumour consisted of two compartments. The epithelial like tumour cells showed a sertoliform growth pattern and cystic dilatations. In between the tumour cells repeatedly actin expressing sclerotic areas could be recognized as the second tumour component. Proliferative activity was not increased. Immunohistochemically the tumour cells were positiv for inhibin, S-100, and CD 99. Alpha feto protein (AFP), human chorionic gonadotropin (ß-HCG) and placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP) as well as synaptophysin, epithelial membrane antigene (EMA), and BCL-2 were not expressed. As far as we know this is the sixth reported case of this tumour. Because of the benign nature of this tumour the correct diagnosis is important for the intra- and postoperative management. Here we present a case of this rare tumour and discuss potential differential diagnosis. The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1956026143857335.

  10. A comparative study on long-term MTX controlled release from intercalated nanocomposites for nanomedicine applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexa, Iuliana Florentina; Pastravanu, Cristina Giorgiana; Ignat, Maria; Popovici, Evelini

    2013-06-01

    The feasibility of some mesoporous materials such as SBA-15 and MCM-41 silica, LDH (layered double hydroxide) (Mg3Al-NO3) and MC (mesoporous carbon) have been comparatively evaluated for oral drug delivery applications, in order to broaden the range of matrices and implicitly to develop the class of drug delivery systems based on diffusion mechanism. As well known, methotrexate (MTX) is used widely to treat various neoplastic diseases such as acute lymphoblast leukemia, lymphoma and solid cancers and autoimmune diseases such as psoriasis and rheumatoid arthritis. The commercially available formulations of this drug have disadvantages due to the traditional release process that occurs in the body. Thus, this work is focused on the long-term controlled MTX delivery because this one could eliminate over or underdosing, could maintain drug levels in desired range, could increase patient compliance and prevent the side effects. Therefore, the mesoporous materials are used and efficient MTX-delivery systems, based on above-mentioned mesoporous materials, are successfully prepared by intercalation. The obtained drug carriers were tested in the controlled MTX-drug release process and the influence of the pore morphology and geometry on MTX release profiles was extensively studied comparatively. The prepared MTX delivery systems were characterized by FTIR and UV-vis spectroscopy, N2 sorption measurements. Then, the data obtained from the in vitro release studies have been analyzed, and in order to evaluate the MTX-release mechanism and kinetics, the Korsmeyer-Peppas equation has been applied. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Long-term cognitive follow-up of Parkinson's disease patients with impulse control disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siri, Chiara; Cilia, Roberto; Reali, Elisa; Pozzi, Beatrice; Cereda, Emanuele; Colombo, Aurora; Meucci, Nicoletta; Canesi, Margherita; Zecchinelli, Anna L; Tesei, Silvana; Mariani, Claudio B; Sacilotto, Giorgio; Zini, Michela; Pezzoli, Gianni

    2015-04-15

    This study investigated cognitive functions in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients with impulse control disorders (ICDs) and aimed to identify possible predictors of behavioral outcome. In this longitudinal cohort study, 40 PD outpatients with ICDs and 40 without, were matched for sex, age at PD onset, age and disease duration at cognitive assessment. All patients had two neuropsychological assessments at least 2 years apart (mean, 3.5 years). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify predictors of ICDs remission at follow-up. The PD patients with and without ICDs had overall comparable cognitive performance at baseline. When evaluating changes between baseline and follow-up, we found significant group × time interactions in several frontal lobe-related tests, with the ICDs group showing a less pronounced worsening over time. ICDs remission was associated with better performance at baseline in working memory-related tasks, such as digit span (odds ratio [OR] = 2.69 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.09-6.66]) and attentive matrices (OR=1.19 [95%CI, 1.03-1.37]). ICDs remitters and non-remitters had no remarkable differences in baseline PD-related features and therapy management strategies (including the extent of dopamine agonist dose reduction). In conclusion, ICDs in PD patients are not related to greater cognitive impairment or executive dysfunction, but rather show relatively lower cognitive decline over time. The impaired top-down inhibitory control characterizing ICDs is likely attributable to a drug-induced overstimulation of relatively preserved prefrontal cognitive functions. Full behavioral remission in the long term was predicted by better working memory abilities. © 2015 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2015 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  12. Effect of multisensory stimulation on analgesia in term neonates: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellieni, Carlo Valerio; Bagnoli, Franco; Perrone, Serafina; Nenci, Anna; Cordelli, Duccio Maria; Fusi, Mara; Ceccarelli, Simona; Buonocore, Giuseppe

    2002-04-01

    Many attempts have been made to obtain safe and effective analgesia in newborns. Oral glucose-water has been found to have analgesic properties in neonates. We investigated whether other sensory stimulation added to oral glucose provided more effective analgesia than oral glucose alone. In a randomized prospective double-blind trial, we studied 120 term newborns during heel prick. The babies were divided randomly into six groups of 20, and each group was treated with a different procedure during heel prick: A) control; B) 1 mL 33% oral glucose given 2 min before the heel prick; C) sucking; D) 1 mL 33% oral glucose plus sucking; E) multisensory stimulation including 1 mL 33% oral glucose (sensorial saturation); F) multisensory stimulation without oral glucose. Sensorial saturation consisted in massage, voice, eye contact, and perfume smelling during heel prick. Each heel prick was filmed and assigned a point score according to the Douleur Aiguë du Nouveau-né (DAN) neonatal acute pain scale. Camera recording began 30 s before the heel prick, so it was impossible for the scorers to distinguish procedure A (control) from B (glucose given 2 min before), C (sucking water) from D (sucking glucose), and E (multisensory stimulation and glucose) from F (multisensory stimulation and water) from the video. Procedure E (multisensory stimulation and glucose) was found to be the most effective procedure, and the analgesia was even more effective than that produced by procedure D (sucking glucose). We conclude that sensorial saturation is an effective analgesic technique that potentiates the analgesic effect of oral sugar. It can be used for minor painful procedures on newborns.

  13. Prone sleeping impairs circulatory control during sleep in healthy term infants: implications for SIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiallourou, Stephanie R; Walker, Adrian M; Horne, Rosemary S C

    2008-08-01

    To determine the effects of sleeping position on development of circulatory control in infants over the first 6 months of postnatal age (PNA). Effects of sleeping position, sleep state and PNA on beat-beat heart rate (HR) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) responses to a head-up tilt (HUT) were assessed during sleep in infants at 2-4 wks, 2-3 mo and 5-6 mo PNA. Daytime polysomnography was performed on 20 full-term infants (12 F/8 M) and MAP was recorded continuously and noninvasively (Finometer). HUTs of 15 degrees were performed during active sleep (AS) and quiet sleep (QS) in both the prone and supine sleeping positions. MAP and HR data were expressed as the percentage change from baseline, and responses were divided into initial, middle and late phases. In the supine position HUT usually resulted in an initial increase (P sleeping throughout the HUT. Prone sleeping alters MAP responses to a HUT during QS at 2-3 mo PNA. Decreased autonomic responsiveness may contribute to the increased risk for SIDS of infants sleeping in the prone position.

  14. [Calcifediol and calcitonin in the therapy of rheumatoid arthritis. A short-term controlled study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dottori, L; D'Ottavio, D; Brundisini, B

    1982-11-10

    A short-term study (30 days) has been carried out on 45 patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis with radiologically verified osteoporosis and definite pain symptomatology. The patients were divided at random into three groups (A, B, C) of 15 each. Group A was given basic therapy (calcium, dichlrophenac, nor-androstenolone) with addition of calcifediol. Group B received basic therapy plus calcitonine in paraphysiological doses. Group C was treated with basic therapy only (highly effective on its own). Observation and treatment were brief but able to provide useful indications regarding the implementation of longer courses of treatment (3-6 months). At the end of treatment, results were submitted to biometric control. With the aid of statistics it can thus be stated that alkaline phosphatase and hydroxyprolinuria fall in group B (basic treatment + calcitonine) and this suggests that the treatment causes some improvement in the exchangeable bone calcium pool. The values of these parameters also fall with the addition of calcifediol to basic therapy, but this fall is not very high. Pain symptomatology is also favourably affected, and to a statistically significant extent, by the three treatments: group A patients (basic + calcifediol) show greater improvement compared with straightforward basic therapy, but the best results are encountered in group B, treated with an association of basic and calcitonine. No side-effects were observed.

  15. Selected Remarks about Computer Processing in Terms of Flow Control and Statistical Mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik Strzałka

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that much has been said about processing in computer science, it seems that there is still much to do. A classical approach assumes that the computations done by computers are a kind of mathematical operation (calculations of functions values and have no special relations to energy transformation and flow. However, there is a possibility to get a new view on selected topics, and as a special case, the sorting problem is presented; we know many different sorting algorithms, including those that have complexity equal to O(n lg(n , which means that this problem is algorithmically closed, but it is also possible to focus on the problem of sorting in terms of flow control, entropy and statistical mechanics. This is done in relation to the existing definitions of sorting, connections between sorting and ordering and some important aspects of computer processing understood as a flow that are not taken into account in many theoretical considerations in computer science. The proposed new view is an attempt to change the paradigm in the description of algorithms’ performance by computational complexity and processing, taking into account the existing references between the idea of Turing machines and their physical implementations. This proposal can be expressed as a physics of computer processing; a reference point to further analysis of algorithmic and interactive processing in computer systems.

  16. Long-term Outcomes of Immediate Loading of Short Implants: A Controlled Retrospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anitua, Eduardo; Flores, Javier; Flores, Carlos; Alkhraisat, Mohammad Hamdan

    Short implants (≤ 8.5 mm in length) have presented predictable outcomes. However, there is paucity in the long-term evaluation of immediate loading of short implants. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of the immediate loading of short implants on treatment outcomes. Patients having short implants inserted before December 2010 that were immediately loaded were selected. A database was then created to include the patient's data as well as implant- and prostheses-related outcomes. Long implants inserted at the same surgery and immediately loaded by the same prosthesis formed the control group. The proximal bone loss and the survival rates of implants and prostheses were assessed. Forty-nine short and 38 long implants were placed in 30 patients. The mean follow-up time was 5.2 ± 0.8 years after loading, and three implants (two short and one long) failed. The differences in marginal bone loss and implant survival between short and long implants were not statistically significant. Three prosthetic complications occurred. Two prostheses failed, and the survival rate was 95.8%. The immediate loading of short implants is not a risk factor for treatment success. This could be related to the good bone quality and the achievement of adequate primary stability.

  17. In Silico Modelling of Tumour Margin Diffusion and Infiltration: Review of Current Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Leyla Moghaddasi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available As a result of advanced treatment techniques, requiring precise target definitions, a need for more accurate delineation of the Clinical Target Volume (CTV has arisen. Mathematical modelling is found to be a powerful tool to provide fairly accurate predictions for the Microscopic Extension (ME of a tumour to be incorporated in a CTV. In general terms, biomathematical models based on a sequence of observations or development of a hypothesis assume some links between biological mechanisms involved in cancer development and progression to provide quantitative or qualitative measures of tumour behaviour as well as tumour response to treatment. Generally, two approaches are taken: deterministic and stochastic modelling. In this paper, recent mathematical models, including deterministic and stochastic methods, are reviewed and critically compared. It is concluded that stochastic models are more promising to provide a realistic description of cancer tumour behaviour due to being intrinsically probabilistic as well as discrete, which enables incorporation of patient-specific biomedical data such as tumour heterogeneity and anatomical boundaries.

  18. Significance of the detection of esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid (parabens) in human breast tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Philip W; Everett, David J

    2004-01-01

    This issue of Journal of Applied Toxicology publishes the paper Concentrations of Parabens in Human Breast Tumours by Darbre et al. (2004), which reports that esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid (parabens) can be detected in samples of tissue from human breast tumours. Breast tumour samples were supplied from 20 patients, in collaboration with the Edinburgh Breast Unit Research Group, and analysed by high-pressure liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. The parabens are used as antimicrobial preservatives in underarm deodorants and antiperspirants and in a wide range of other consumer products. The parabens also have inherent oestrogenic and other hormone related activity (increased progesterone receptor gene expression). As oestrogen is a major aetiological factor in the growth and development of the majority of human breast cancers, it has been previously suggested by Darbre that parabens and other chemicals in underarm cosmetics may contribute to the rising incidence of breast cancer. The significance of the finding of parabens in tumour samples is discussed here in terms of 1). Darbre et al's study design, 2). what can be inferred from this type of data (and what can not, such as the cause of these tumours), 3). the toxicology of these compounds and 4). the limitations of the existing toxicology database and the need to consider data that is appropriate to human exposures. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. The short-term and long-term effects of tolvaptan in patients with heart failure: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Bo; Huang, Yuwen; Tan, Jie; Yao, Yuanqing; Wang, Chunbin; Qian, Jun; Rong, Shunkang; Deng, Shimin; Cao, Yin; Zou, Yanke; Huang, Jing

    2015-11-01

    A comprehensive evaluation of the benefits of tolvaptan for the management of heart failure (HF) is lacking. The objective of this meta-analysis was to assess the short-term and long-term effects of tolvaptan in patients with HF. Articles were searched from PubMed, MEDLINE and Cochrane Library before March 31, 2015. Randomized controlled trials enrolling adult HF patients and reporting the all-cause mortality, cardiac events, body weight change or changes of serum electrolytes including sodium, potassium and creatinine were included in our meta-analysis. Ten studies covering 5574 patients met the inclusion criteria. Based on the data of meta-analysis, tolvaptan had no impact on the all-cause mortality [relative risk (RR) 0.96; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.87-1.06; P = 0.40] and incidence of cardiac events (RR 1.03; 95 % CI 0.96-1.11; P = 0.40) of HF patients. Furthermore, in comparison with control treatments, tolvaptan significantly decreased the body weight [weight mean difference (WMD), -0.87; 95 % CI -1.03 to -0.71; P tolvaptan (WMD, 0.05; 95 % CI 0.03-0.07; P tolvaptan may not bring long-term benefits, but it effectively improves the volume overload and hyponatremia without obvious increases in serum potassium and creatinine. Hence, tolvaptan is likely to be a promising diuretic for the treatment of HF.

  20. Effects of thermoablation with or without caffeine on giant cell tumour of bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimolsanti, Rapin; Wongkajornsilpa, Adisak; Chotiyarnwong, Pojchong; Asavamongkolku, Apichart; Waikakul, Saranatra

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate the effect of caffeine on the apoptosis rate of giant cell tumour of bone cells during thermoablation. Giant cell tumour of bone tissue (2 cm3) was collected from 10 patients. Cells were incubated at 37ºC, 40ºC, 45ºC, 50ºC, 52.5ºC, and 55ºC for 20 minutes (3 tubes for each temperature). Caffeine was added to the tubes in amounts of 0 μg/ml (control), 50 μg/ml, and 100 μg/ml. The apoptotic effect of thermoablation with or without caffeine was evaluated. In all test conditions, the apoptotic rate of tumour cells increased when the temperature increased. Compared with controls (no caffeine), adding 50 or 100 μg/ml of caffeine did not increase the apoptotic rate significantly at 40ºC to 52.5ºC. Caffeine had no enhancing effect at any temperature. Conversely, at 55ºC, the apoptotic rate was lower when 100 μg/ml of caffeine was added than when no or 50 μg/ml of caffeine added (p=0.045). Thermoablation at 40ºC to 52.5ºC for 20 minutes increased the apoptosis rate of giant cell tumour of bone cells. Caffeine had no enhancing effect at any temperature. Conversely, at 55ºC, caffeine had cytoprotective effects on the tumour cells against thermoablation.

  1. Gastrin: growth enhancing effects on human gastric and colonic tumour cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, S.; Durrant, L.; Morris, D.

    1989-01-01

    Two colorectal (HT29, LoVo) and one gastric (MKN45) human tumour cell lines were examined for their in vitro trophic response to human gastrin-17. MKN45 and HT29 responded by increased 75Se selenomethionine uptake to exogenous gastrin (139 +/- 5.5% and 123 +/- 3% of control values respectively) whereas LoVo showed no significant response to this hormone. When these same cell lines were grown as xenografts in nude mice, similar responses were seen to exogenously administered human gastrin-17 (10 micrograms mouse-1 day-1, subcutaneous injection). MKN45 xenografts showed a greater response to continuously administered gastrin (osmotic mini-pumps, (10 micrograms mouse-1 day-1) when compared to the same dose given via a subcutaneous bolus injection. The hormone-treated xenografts had a two-fold increase in tumour cross-sectional area and growth rate when compared to saline-treated controls. Dose-response studies revealed that 0.4 micrograms gastrin mouse-1 day-1 appeared to be the minimally effective dose. As gastric and colorectal tumour cells show a trophic response to gastrin, antagonists of the gastrin receptor may prevent this effect causing tumour stasis. The gastric tumour cell line, MKN45, is gastrin-responsive and would be an ideal model for screening potent receptor antagonists. PMID:2713241

  2. p38 MAP kinase inhibition promotes primary tumour growth via VEGF independent mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Adrian W; Wang, Jiang H; Redmond, Henry P

    2009-11-15

    The surgical insult induces an inflammatory response that activates P38 MAP kinases and solid tumours can also release cytokines. Therfore inhibition of these pathways may reduce tumour growth We set out to examine the effects of P38-MAPK inhibition on apoptosis, proliferation, VEGF release and cell cycle effects in-vitro and on primary tumour growth in-vivo. 4T-1 cells (2 x 105 cells/well) were incubated, in 24 well plates with control, 25, 50 or 100 ng/ml of SB-202190 for 24 hours. Cells were subsequently asessed for apoptosis, proliferation, VEGF release and cell cycle analysis. Balb-c mice each received 1 x 106 4T 1 cells subcutaneously in the flank and were then randomised to receive control or SB202190 (2.5 microM/kg) by intraperitoneal injection daily. Tumour size was measured alternate days and at day 24 animals were sacrificed and serum VEGF assessed. P38-MAPK inhibition in-vitro resulted in a significant reduction in proliferation (75.2 +/- 8.4% vs. 100 +/- 4.3%, p etag/ml compared to 158.6 +/- 27.1 etag/ml) These findings demonstrate that P38-MAPK inhibition in-vitro reduces proliferation and G1 cell cycle phase as well as promoting primary tumour growth in-vivo. These effects would appear to be independent of VEGF.

  3. Local control and intermediate-term cosmetic outcome following IMRT for nasal tumors. An update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukai, Yuki [University Hospital Zurich, Department of Radiation Oncology, Head Neck Cancer Center, Zurich (Switzerland); Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Yokohama (Japan); Janssen, Stefan [University Hospital Zurich, Department of Radiation Oncology, Head Neck Cancer Center, Zurich (Switzerland); Glanzmann, Christoph; Studer, Gabriela [University Hospital Zurich, Department of Radiation Oncology, Head Neck Cancer Center, Zurich (Switzerland); Cantonal Hospital Lucerne, Institute for Radiation Oncology, Lucerne (Switzerland); Holzmann, David [University Hospital Zurich, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Head Neck Cancer Center, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2017-04-15

    This study aims to evaluate local control and intermediate-term cosmetic outcome in patients with cancer of the nose treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). From June 2008 to September 2015, 36 consecutive patients presenting with nasal cavity, ala of the nose, or nasal vestibule tumors were treated at the Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Zurich either postoperatively (n = 14; 3/14 with nasal ablation) or with definitive IMRT (n = 22). Of these 36 patients, 8 presented with recurrent disease after surgery only and 1/36 with N1 disease. Concurrent systemic therapy was administered in 18/36 patients (50%). Nasal follow-up (FU) imaging documentation of 13 patients with preserved organ and >6 months FU offers a pre/post IMRT FU comparison. In addition, these patients' subjective evaluation of cosmesis was assessed. Mean/median FU was 41/33 months (range 5-92 months). Salvage ablation with curative intent was undergone by 3 patients with local relapse after definitive (n = 2) and postoperative (n = 1) IMRT. The 3-year local control, ultimate local control, and overall survival rates were 90, 97, and 90 %, respectively. Subjective and objective cosmetic outcome after IMRT is very satisfying so far. IMRT for nasal tumors was found to be effective and well tolerated. Intermediate-term cosmetic results are good. Radical surgical procedures may be saved for curative salvage treatment. (orig.) [German] Evaluation der Lokalkontrolle und des mittelfristigen kosmetischen Resultats nach intensitaetsmodulierter Radiotherapie (IMRT) von Patienten mit Nasentumoren. Von Juni 2008 bis September 2015 wurden an der Klinik fuer RadioOnkologie am UniversitaetsSpital Zuerich 36 konsekutive Patienten mit Tumoren der Nasenhoehle, der Nasenfluegel oder des Vestibulum nasi postoperativ (n = 14; 3/14 nach Nasenablation) oder definitiv IMRT-bestrahlt (n = 22). Von diesen 36 Patienten zeigten 8 ein Lokalrezidiv nach alleiniger vorangegangener Chirurgie und

  4. Ovarian hilus-cell tumour: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiev, T N; Valkov, I M; Dokumov, S I

    1980-01-01

    A case of hilus-cell tumour of the ovary, associated with polycystic ovarian disease is reported. The authors discuss the data from hormonal investigations, the morphological picture and the genesis of the tumour.

  5. Sexual function in patients with metastatic midgut carcinoid tumours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Horst-Schrivers, Anouk N. A.; van Ieperen, Ellen; Wymenga, A. N. Machteld; Boezen, H. Marike; Weijmar-Schultz, Willibrord C. M.; Kema, Ido P.; Meijer, Wim G.; de Herder, Wouter W.; Willemse, Pax H. B.; Links, Thera P.; de Vries, Elisabeth G. E.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Sexual dysfunction is a poorly studied aspect of quality of life in patients with midgut carcinoid tumours. We investigated whether carcinoid patients experience sexual problems. Methods: Patients with metastatic midgut carcinoid tumours filled in a validated questionnaire for sexual

  6. Laryngeal tumours: clinical features and management challenges as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Laryngeal tumours: clinical features and management challenges as seen in two centres in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. ... The commonest mode of presentation was hoarseness (100%). Twenty ... Keywords: Challenges, Management, Laryngeal tumours, Squamous cell carcinoma, Papillomas, Total laryngectomy, Port Harcourt ...

  7. Prime-boost using separate oncolytic viruses in combination with checkpoint blockade improves anti-tumour therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilett, E; Kottke, T; Thompson, J; Rajani, K; Zaidi, S; Evgin, L; Coffey, M; Ralph, C; Diaz, R; Pandha, H; Harrington, K; Selby, P; Bram, R; Melcher, A; Vile, R

    2017-01-01

    The anti-tumour effects associated with oncolytic virus therapy are mediated significantly through immune-mediated mechanisms, which depend both on the type of virus and the route of delivery. Here, we show that intra-tumoral oncolysis by Reovirus induced the priming of a CD8+, Th1-type anti-tumour response. By contrast, systemically delivered Vesicular Stomatitis Virus expressing a cDNA library of melanoma antigens (VSV-ASMEL) promoted a potent anti-tumour CD4+ Th17 response. Therefore, we hypothesised that combining the Reovirus-induced CD8+ T cell response, with the VSV-ASMEL CD4+ Th17 helper response, would produce enhanced anti-tumour activity. Consistent with this, priming with intra-tumoral Reovirus, followed by an intra-venous VSV-ASMEL Th17 boost, significantly improved survival of mice bearing established subcutaneous B16 melanoma tumours. We also show that combination of either therapy alone with anti-PD-1 immune checkpoint blockade augmented both the Th1 response induced by systemically delivered Reovirus in combination with GM-CSF, and also the Th17 response induced by VSV-ASMEL. Significantly, anti-PD-1 also uncovered an anti-tumour Th1 response following VSV-ASMEL treatment that was not seen in the absence of checkpoint blockade. Finally, the combination of all three treatments (priming with systemically delivered Reovirus, followed by double boosting with systemic VSV-ASMEL and anti-PD-1) significantly enhanced survival, with long-term cures, compared to any individual, or double, combination therapies, associated with strong Th1 and Th17 responses to tumour antigens. Our data show that it is possible to generate fully systemic, highly effective anti-tumour immunovirotherapy by combining oncolytic viruses, along with immune checkpoint blockade, to induce complementary mechanisms of anti-tumour immune responses.

  8. Therapeutically blocking Interleukin-11 Receptor-α enhances doxorubicin cytotoxicity in high grade type I endometrioid tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winship, Amy; Van Sinderen, Michelle; Rainczuk, Katarzyna; Dimitriadis, Evdokia

    2017-04-04

    High grade type I endometrial cancers have poor prognosis. Interleukin (IL)11 is elevated in tumours and uterine lavage with increasing tumour grade in women. IL11 regulates cell cycle, invasion and migration and we recently demonstrated that IL11 receptor (R)α inhibition impaired low and moderate grade endometrial tumourigenesis in vivo. In this report, we hypothesized that micro-RNA(miR)-1 regulates IL11 and that IL11 promotes high grade endometrial tumour growth. We aimed to determine whether combination treatment using an anti-human IL11Rα blocking antibody (Ab) and doxorubicin chemotherapeutic impairs high grade tumour growth. MiR-1 was absent in human endometrial tumours versus human benign endometrium (n = 10/group). Transfection with miR-1 mimic restored miR-1 expression, down-regulated IL11 mRNA and impaired cell viability in grade 3-derived AN3CA human endometrial epithelial cancer cells. AN3CA cell proliferation was reduced in response to Ab and doxorubicin combination treatment versus Ab, IgG control, or doxorubicin alone. Subcutaneous xenograft tumours were established in female Balb/c athymic nude mice using AN3CA cells expressing IL11 and IL11Rα. Administration of recombinant human IL11 to mice (n = 4/group) activated IL11 downstream target, signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT3) and significantly increased tumour growth (p < 0.05), suggesting that IL11 promotes high grade tumour growth. IL11Rα blocking Ab reduced STAT3 phosphorylation and combination treatment with doxorubicin resulted in a significant reduction in tumour growth (p < 0.05) compared to Ab, doxorubicin, or IgG control. Our data suggest that therapeutically targeting IL11Rα in combination with doxorubicin chemotherapy could inhibit high grade type I endometrioid cancer growth.

  9. Short-term adhesion and long-term biofouling testing of polydopamine and poly(ethylene glycol) surface modifications of membranes and feed spacers for biofouling control

    KAUST Repository

    Miller, Daniel J.

    2012-08-01

    Ultrafiltration, nanofiltration membranes and feed spacers were hydrophilized with polydopamine and polydopamine- g-poly(ethylene glycol) surface coatings. The fouling propensity of modified and unmodified membranes was evaluated by short-term batch protein and bacterial adhesion tests. The fouling propensity of modified and unmodified membranes and spacers was evaluated by continuous biofouling experiments in a membrane fouling simulator. The goals of the study were: 1) to determine the effectiveness of polydopamine and polydopamine- g-poly(ethylene glycol) membrane coatings for biofouling control and 2) to compare techniques commonly used in assessment of membrane biofouling propensity with biofouling experiments under practical conditions. Short-term adhesion tests were carried out under static, no-flow conditions for 1 h using bovine serum albumin, a common model globular protein, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a common model Gram-negative bacterium. Biofouling tests were performed in a membrane fouling simulator (MFS) for several days under flow conditions similar to those encountered in industrial modules with the autochthonous drinking water population and acetate dosage as organic substrate. Polydopamine- and polydopamine- g-poly(ethylene glycol)-modified membranes showed significantly reduced adhesion of bovine serum albumin and P. aeruginosa in the short-term adhesion tests, but no reduction of biofouling was observed during longer biofouling experiments with modified membranes and spacers. These results demonstrate that short-term batch adhesion experiments using model proteins or bacteria under static conditions are not indicative of biofouling, while continuous biofouling experiments showed that membrane surface modification by polydopamine and polydopamine- g-poly(ethylene glycol) is not effective for biofouling control. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Short-term adhesion and long-term biofouling testing of polydopamine and poly(ethylene glycol) surface modifications of membranes and feed spacers for biofouling control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Daniel J; Araújo, Paula A; Correia, Patricia B; Ramsey, Matthew M; Kruithof, Joop C; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M; Freeman, Benny D; Paul, Donald R; Whiteley, Marvin; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes S

    2012-08-01

    Ultrafiltration, nanofiltration membranes and feed spacers were hydrophilized with polydopamine and polydopamine-g-poly(ethylene glycol) surface coatings. The fouling propensity of modified and unmodified membranes was evaluated by short-term batch protein and bacterial adhesion tests. The fouling propensity of modified and unmodified membranes and spacers was evaluated by continuous biofouling experiments in a membrane fouling simulator. The goals of the study were: 1) to determine the effectiveness of polydopamine and polydopamine-g-poly(ethylene glycol) membrane coatings for biofouling control and 2) to compare techniques commonly used in assessment of membrane biofouling propensity with biofouling experiments under practical conditions. Short-term adhesion tests were carried out under static, no-flow conditions for 1 h using bovine serum albumin, a common model globular protein, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a common model Gram-negative bacterium. Biofouling tests were performed in a membrane fouling simulator (MFS) for several days under flow conditions similar to those encountered in industrial modules with the autochthonous drinking water population and acetate dosage as organic substrate. Polydopamine- and polydopamine-g-poly(ethylene glycol)-modified membranes showed significantly reduced adhesion of bovine serum albumin and P. aeruginosa in the short-term adhesion tests, but no reduction of biofouling was observed during longer biofouling experiments with modified membranes and spacers. These results demonstrate that short-term batch adhesion experiments using model proteins or bacteria under static conditions are not indicative of biofouling, while continuous biofouling experiments showed that membrane surface modification by polydopamine and polydopamine-g-poly(ethylene glycol) is not effective for biofouling control. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Platinum compounds with anti-tumour activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plooy, A.C.M.; Lohman, P.H.M.

    1980-01-01

    Ten platinum (Pt) coordination complexes with different ligands, comprising both Pt(II) and Pt(IV) complexes of which the cis-compounds all possessed at least some anti-tumour activity and the trans-compounds were inactive, were tested as to their effect on cell survival and the induction and repair

  12. Spermatogenesis and testicular tumours in ageing dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, M. A.; de rooij, D. G.; Teerds, K. J.; van de Gaag, I.; van Sluijs, F. J.

    2001-01-01

    The aims of this investigation were to quantify the changes in canine spermatogenesis that occur during ageing and to study the prevalence of testicular tumours and their effects on spermatogenesis in dogs. Testes from 74 dogs of various breeds without clinically detected testicular disease and from

  13. Granular cell tumour of the urinary bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph von Klot

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available With only 16 cases reported in the literature, the mostly benign granular cell tumour of the urinary bladder is exceptionally rare. We present the case of a 68-year old patient with one of these lesions demonstrating our histological findings including several immunohistochemical stainings used to differentiate between other more common entities.

  14. Melanotic neuroectodermal tumour of infancy (progonoma) treated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The two infants both presented within three months of each other and though clinically Burkitt's lymphoma was stated as a possible diagnosis, the correct diagnosis was made on biopsy specimens. Radical surgery consisting of wide resection of the tumour with margins of healthy tissue via hemi-maxillectomy was performed ...

  15. Unique Juxtaposition of Onchocerca Nodule and Tumoural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 45-year-old Igbo man presented with a subcutaneous nodule in the lateral aspect of his left thigh. Following its excision, the lesion turned out on microscopy to be due to the unique juxtaposition of onchocerca nodule and tumoural calcinosis. Such selectivity in disease localization is deemed to be worthy of documentation ...

  16. Maxillary brown tumour: unusual presentation of parathyroid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is a report of a maxillary brown tumour caused by primary hyperparathyroidism (HPT) secondary to parathyroid carcinoma. A 62-year-old man presented with a large swelling in the right maxilla, which caused right-sided nasal obstruction, intermittent bleeding and diplopia. A computed tomography scan demonstrated ...

  17. POSTERIOR CRANIAL FOSSA TUMOURS IN CHILDREN AT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2004-05-05

    May 5, 2004 ... symptoms were the most common mode of presentation (30%) followed by headaches and vomiting. Twenty percent of our patients ... paediatric posterior fossa tumours are medulloblastoma. (20%) astrocytoma (15%) ... cranial nerve palsies, headaches, vomiting and blindness due to raised intracranial ...

  18. Gastrointestinal stromal tumour presenting as gastroduodenal intussusception.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Wilson, Mark H

    2012-08-01

    Gastroduodenal intussusception secondary to gastrointestinal stromal tumour is a very rare cause for intestinal obstruction. The diagnosis of this condition can be challenging, as symptoms are often non-specific and intermittent. This article reports a case where the diagnosis was made preoperatively with abdominal imaging and was treated by a combination of endoscopic reduction and laparoscopic resection.

  19. The role of methylation in urological tumours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijden, A.G. van der

    2013-01-01

    Alterations in DNA methylation have been described in human cancer for more than thirty years now. Since the last decade DNA methylation gets more and more important in cancer research. In this review the different alterations of DNA methylation are discussed in testicular germ cell tumours,

  20. Cystic lesions accompanying extra-axial tumours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lohle, PNM; Wurzer, HAL; Seelen, PJ; Kingma, LM; Go, KG

    We examined the mechanism of cyst formation in extra-axial tumours in the central nervous system (CNS). Cyst fluid, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood plasma were analysed in eight patients with nine peritumoral cysts: four with meningiomas, two with intracranial and two spinal intradural

  1. The feasibility of a brain tumour website

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piil, K; Jakobsen, J; Juhler, M

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: Patients with a high-grade glioma (HGG) and their caregivers have imminent and changing informational and supportive care needs. The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility and safety of a Danish brain tumour website (BTW) in patients with HGG and their caregivers. We...

  2. Minor salivary gland tumours in Kaduna, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    were 6 metastatic lesions (5 loco—regiona1 and l pulmonary). Duration of symptoms ranged from 2 weeks to 192 months (mean. 22.3 months). Treatment protocol (Table. 2) for malignant tumours was surgery. (n=l9), radiotherapy (n=l l), chemotherapy. 102 andiradiotherapy (nil). Suprahyoid neck dissection was undertaken ...

  3. Staging primary breast cancer. Are there tumour pathological features that correlate with a false-negative axillary ultrasound?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, S., E-mail: sarahjljohnson@gmail.co [Peninsula Radiology Academy, Plymouth International Business Park, Plymouth (United Kingdom); Brown, S.; Porter, G.; Steel, J.; Paisley, K.; Watkins, R.; Holgate, C. [Peninsula Radiology Academy, Plymouth International Business Park, Plymouth (United Kingdom)

    2011-06-15

    Aim: To investigate whether the histopathological characteristics of primary breast cancer tumours could predict the likelihood of false-negative axillary ultrasound. Materials and methods: Screening and symptomatic patients were identified from pathology records and imaging and pathology records reviewed. True and false-negative axillary staging ultrasound groups were compared statistically in terms of tumour size, pathological type and grade, lymphovascular invasion, and oestrogen receptor (ER) status. Results: Of 155 women with normal ultrasounds, 45 (29%) were node positive at axillary surgery. Breast tumour size was significantly different with the average size smaller in the true-negative group: 21 versus 30 mm (p < 0.02). The histological type varied significantly between the groups, with more lobular carcinomas in the false-negative group [6/110 (5%) versus 6/45 (13%), p < 0.001]. The false-negative group was also more likely to show lymphovascular invasion in the breast [6/110 (5%) versus 14/45 (31%), p < 0.001]. There was no significant difference in tumour grade or ER status. Conclusion: The present study has found significant differences in tumour characteristics between women with true-negative and false-negative axillary staging ultrasound in terms of size, primary tumour histological type and presence of lymphovascular invasion. In particular, axillary ultrasound in primary lobular carcinoma may be less accurate and a negative result is more likely to be spurious than with primary ductal carcinomas.

  4. Safety and efficacy of doxorubicin-eluting superabsorbent polymer microspheres for the treatment of liver metastases from neuroendocrine tumours: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonne Lawrence

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to retrospectively evaluate the symptom control, tumour response, and complication rate in patients with liver-predominant metastatic neuroendocrine tumours treated with transarterial chemoembolization using doxorubicin-eluting superabsorbent polymer (SAP microspheres.

  5. Tumour and tumour-like lesions of the patella - a multicentre experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, J.; James, S.L.; Davies, A.M. [The Royal Orthopaedic Hospital, Department of Radiology, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Kroon, H.M. [Leiden University Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, C-2-S, P. O Box 9600, Leiden (Netherlands); Woertler, K. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Radiology, Munich (Germany); Anderson, S.E. [Knochentumor- Referenzzentrum der Schweizerischen Gesellschaft fuer Pathologie, Basel (Switzerland)

    2009-03-15

    Fifty-nine cases of lesions presenting in the patella were identified after review of the databases of four European bone tumour registries. Of the 59 cases, 46% were non neoplastic, 39% were benign and 15% were malignant. The commonest benign neoplasm was giant cell tumour (GCT) (11 cases). Younger patients were more likely to have a benign neoplasm. Lesions in patients less than 40 years of age included giant cell tumour, chondroblastoma, aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC), osteomyelitis, osteoid osteoma and solitary bone cyst. In patients older than 40 years, the following were common lesions: intra-osseous gout, metastasis and intra-osseous ganglion. Expansion of the patella with thinning of cortex was seen more commonly in GCT and brown tumour in hyperparathyroidism. There was associated soft tissue extension in gout and malignant lesions. (orig.)

  6. Primitive neuroectodermal tumour of the kidney with vena caval and atrial tumour thrombus: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Poh Ho; Manikandan, Ramaswamy; Philip, Joe; Hope, Kirsten; Williamson, Michael

    2008-08-11

    Renal primitive neuroectodermal tumour is an extremely rare malignancy. A 21-year-old woman presented with microscopic haematuria, a palpable right loin mass, dyspnoea, dizziness and fatigue. Initial ultrasound scan of the kidneys revealed an 11 cm right renal mass with venous extension into the inferior vena cava. Computed tomography of the thorax and abdomen revealed an extension of the large renal mass into the right renal vein, inferior vena cava and up to the right atrium. A small paracaval lymph node was noted and three small metastatic nodules were identified within the lung parenchyma. The patient underwent a radical nephrectomy and inferior vena caval tumour (level IV) thrombectomy with cardiopulmonary bypass and deep hypothermic circulatory arrest. Immunohistochemical staining of the specimen showed a highly specific cluster of differentiation (CD) 99, thus confirming the diagnosis of a primitive neuroectodermal tumour. It is important that a renal primitive neuroectodermal tumour be considered, particularly in young patients with a renal mass and extensive thrombus.

  7. Fas Ligand Expression in Lynch Syndrome-Associated Colorectal Tumours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koornstra, Jan J.; de Jong, Steven; Boersma-van Eck, Wietske; Zwart, Nynke; Hollema, Harry; de Vries, Elisabeth G. E.; Kleibeuker, Jan H.

    Fas Ligand (FasL) expression by cancer cells may contribute to tumour immune escape via the Fas counterattack against tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs). Whether this plays a role in colorectal carcinogenesis in Lynch syndrome was examined studying FasL expression, tumour cell apoptosis and

  8. Odontogenic tumours in Children and Adilescents: A Review od ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ameloblastoma was the commonest odontogenic tumours with 14 (29.1%) solid ameloblastoma and 9 (18.8%) cystic ameloblastoma cases followed by fibromyxoma with 8 (16.7%) cases. calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumour , calcifying cystic odontogenic tumour and odontogenic fibroma were occasionally seen.

  9. GRANULAR CELL TUMOUR OF THE LARYNX – A CASE REPORT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-12-01

    Dec 1, 2015 ... neuroectodermal origin as demonstrated by immunophenotypic and ultrastructural evidence.1. These tumours occur commonly in the tongue though they can occur in any part of the body. Granular cell tumours (GCTs) may be benign or malignant though the latter versions are rare (2% of all such tumours).

  10. Clinico-pathological analysis of malignant salivary gland tumours in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND Salivary gland tumours are common head and neck tumours. Malignant salivary gland tumours generally occur less frequently than benign ones and account for greater morbidity and mortality. Patients in our environment are seen to present at late stages and Mucoepidermoid carcinoma is the commonest ...

  11. Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumour-case series from five ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumour (CEOT) also known as Pindborg's tumour is a relatively rare odontogenic neoplasm of epithelial derivation that constitutes about 0.4-3% of all intraosseous odontogenic tumours. Objectives: To document all cases of CEOT encountered in five tertiary centres in Nigeria ...

  12. Multicentre study of Wilm's tumours treated by different therapeutic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Both National Wilm's Tumour Study (NWTS) group and the International Society of Paediatric Oncology (SIOP) have helped to improve the clinical management and outcome of patients with Wilm's tumours. In this study, we compared three groups of patients with Wilm's tumours from different racial backgrounds and ...

  13. Carcinoid heart disease secondary to ovarian tumour: a logical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-13

    Mar 13, 2013 ... Carcinoid heart disease secondary to ovarian tumours is uncommon. The ovarian carcinoids do not have metastasis in the liver unlike gastrointestinal tumours. Hence the management priorities need to be different. We present a case in which removal of the primary tumour before heart surgery resulted in a ...

  14. Mesenchymal tumours of the mediastinum—part II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. den Bakker (Michael); A. Marx (Alexander); K. Mukai (Kiyoshi); P. Ströbel (Philipp)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThis is the second part of a two-part review on soft tissue tumours which may be encountered in the mediastinum. This review is based on the 2013 WHO classification of soft tissue tumours and the 2015 WHO classification of tumours of the lung, pleura, thymus and heart and provides an

  15. Central nervous system tumours in children in Ibadan, Nigeria: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CNS) tumours are uncommon in black children, these neoplasms are the fourth most common paediatric tumours in Ibadan. Our centre is the major referral centre for CNS tumours in Nigeria. The last major study of paediatric CNS neoplasms from ...

  16. Tumour suppressor genes in sporadic epithelial ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Ying; Ganesan, Trivadi S

    2002-01-01

    of the evolution of tumour progression. A major focus of research has been to identify tumour suppressor genes implicated in sporadic ovarian cancer over the past decade. Several tumour suppressor genes have been identified by strategies such as positional cloning and differential expression display. Further...

  17. Neonatal testicular tumour presenting as an acute scrotum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ann Pediatr Surg 8:19–21 c. 2012 Annals of Pediatric Surgery. Annals of Pediatric Surgery 2012, 8:19–21. Keywords: acute scrotum, granulosa cell tumour, neonatal, testicular tumour .... that trisomy 12 may be widespread (75%) in paediatric granulosa stromal cell tumours and can be identified by fluorescence in-situ ...

  18. Management of Giant Cell Tumour: A Nigerian Experience | Eyesan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Giant cell tumours (GCT) are the commonest bone tumours worldwide. It is rarely malignant but when it does it progresses to fibrosarcoma with high mortality. Otherwise it causes poor cosmesis, disability and pathological fractures. A total of 19 cases of histologically established Giant cell tumour of the bone were reviewed ...

  19. Regional tumour glutamine supply affects chromatin and cell identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højfeldt, Jonas W; Helin, Kristian

    2016-01-01

    Limited perfusion of solid tumours produces a nutrient-deprived tumour core microenvironment. Low glutamine levels in the tumour core are now shown to lead to reduced levels of α-ketoglutarate and decreased histone demethylase activity, thereby promoting a less differentiated and more therapy...

  20. Largest recorded non-invasive true intrathoracic desmoid tumour ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intrathoracic desmoid tumours are rare soft-tissue neoplasms arising from fascial or musculo-aponeurotic structures, accounting for less than 0.03% of all neoplasms. Most cases in fact represent intrathoracic extension of chest wall tumours. This case report describes the largest recorded true intrathoracic desmoid tumour ...

  1. Urological Tumours in Jos University Teaching Hospital, Jos, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is a hospital based retrospective histopathological study of urological tumours in 10 years. Specimens consisted of all surgical excisions, trucut and fine needle biopsies of kidney, prostate, urinary bladder, testis and penis. Urological tumours accounted for 11.45% of all malignant tumours during the period of study.

  2. Spinal cord compression due to tumours at Kenyatta Nationa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The commonest spinal cord tumour was meningioma (23.7%) followed by neurofibroma (15.8%). Most of the patients (70%) did not show any clinical improvement after surgery. Conclusion: Spinal cord tumours accounted for about 15% of all CNS tumours treated at the Kenyatta National Hospital. Most of the patients had ...

  3. Primary Central Nervous System Tumours in Children and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Primary CNS tumours are the commonest childhood solid tumours in most developed countries, accounting for 25-30% of cases. In our environment they occur less frequently. These tumours are nonetheless the cause of significant morbidity and mortality in the paediatric age group worldwide. However paediatric CNS ...

  4. Hypophosphataemia-inducing mesenchymal tumour in the foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Christa; Brücker, Rolf; Bützberger, Stefan; Schmid, Christoph

    2010-10-06

    Tumour-induced (or oncogenic) osteomalacia is a paraneoplastic syndrome characterised by progressive fatigue, muscle weakness, bone pain, non-healing and recurrent fractures caused by mesenchymal tumours that secrete proteins that inhibit renal phosphate transport and 1α-hydroxylation of 25-OH-vitamin D. The potentially curative treatment of choice is complete surgical excision of the tumour.

  5. Orbito-Ocular Tumours In Nigerian Children | Onwasigwe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: This study has brought to light the many aspect of orbito-ocular tumours in Nigerian children and also highlighted the many problems caused by inadequate facilities for diagnosis and management. Key words: Orbito-ocular tumours, children, retinoblastoma, tumour sites. [Jnl College of Medicine Vol.7(2) 2002: ...

  6. Malignant tumours of childhood in Zaria | Samaila | African Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The fi ve commonest tumours over-all were rhabdomyosarcoma, Burkitt lymphoma, retinoblastoma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and nephroblastoma. Germ cell tumours affected the ovary predominantly and two of the endodermal sinus tumour cases were seen in the testis of an eighteen month child and sacrococcygeum of a ...

  7. A Retroperitoneal Extra-Renal Wilms' Tumour: A Case Report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-03-06

    Mar 6, 2017 ... Abdominal ultrasound and CT scans revealed an extra-renal mass. Intravenous urogram (IVU) showed prompt excretion bilaterally. Post excision histology of the tumour confirmed a Wilms' tumour. A Retroperitoneal Extra-Renal Wilms' Tumour: A Case Report. Address for correspondence: Dr. Samuel ...

  8. Congenital granula cell tumour: report of a case | Olojede | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Congenital granular cell tumour of the newborn is an uncommon benign tumour of uncertain origin. Mostly, it occurs as a single tumour but rarely as multiple. The lesion arises from the mucosa of the gingiva either from maxillary or mandibular alveolar ridge. This paper reports a three-day old female patient who presented at ...

  9. The Dosimetric Consequences of Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy for Cervix Cancer: The Impact of Organ Motion, Deformation and Tumour Regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Karen Siah Huey

    Hypothesis: In intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for cervix cancer, the dose received by the tumour target and surrounding normal tissues is significantly different to that indicated by a single static plan. Rationale: The optimal use of IMRT in cervix cancer requires a greater attention to clinical target volume (CTV) definition and tumour & normal organ motion to assure maximum tumour control with the fewest side effects. Research Aims: 1) Generate consensus CTV contouring guidelines for cervix cancer; 2) Evaluate intra-pelvic tumour and organ dynamics during radiotherapy; 3) Analyze the dose consequences of intra-pelvic organ dynamics on different radiotherapy strategies. Results: Consensus CTV definitions were generated using experts-in-the-field. Substantial changes in tumour volume and organ motion, resulted in significant reductions in accumulated dose to tumour targets and variability in accumulated dose to surrounding normal tissues. Significance: Formalized CTV definitions for cervix cancer is important in ensuring consistent standards of practice. Complex and unpredictable tumour and organ dynamics mandates daily soft-tissue image guidance if IMRT is used. To maximize the benefits of IMRT for cervix cancer, a strategy of adaptation is necessary.

  10. Orbital tumours and tumour-like lesions: exploring the armamentarium of multiparametric imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purohit, Bela S; Vargas, Maria Isabel; Ailianou, Angeliki; Merlini, Laura; Poletti, Pierre-Alexandre; Platon, Alexandra; Delattre, Bénédicte M; Rager, Olivier; Burkhardt, Karim; Becker, Minerva

    2016-02-01

    Although the orbit is a small anatomical space, the wide range of structures present within it are often the site of origin of various tumours and tumour-like conditions, both in adults and children. Cross-sectional imaging is mandatory for the detection, characterization, and mapping of these lesions. This review focuses on multiparametric imaging of orbital tumours. Each tumour is reviewed in relation to its clinical presentation, compartmental location, imaging characteristics, and its histological features. We herein describe orbital tumours as lesions of the globe (retinoblastoma, uveal melanoma), optic nerve sheath complex (meningioma, optic nerve glioma), conal-intraconal compartment (hemangioma), extraconal compartment (dermoid/epidermoid, lacrimal gland tumours, lymphoma, rhabdomysarcoma), and bone and sinus compartment (fibrous dysplasia). Lesions without any typical compartmental localization and those with multi-compartment involvement (veno-lymphatic malformation, plexiform neurofibroma, idiopathic orbital pseudotumour, IgG4 related disease, metastases) are also reviewed. We discuss the role of advanced imaging techniques, such as MR diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), diffusion tensor imaging, fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography CT (FDG-PET CT), and positron emission tomography MRI (MRI PET) as problem-solving tools in the evaluation of those orbital masses that present with non-specific morphologic imaging findings. Main messages/Teaching points • A compartment-based approach is essential for the diagnosis of orbital tumours. • CT and MRI play a key role in the work-up of orbital tumours. • DWI, PET CT, and MRI PET are complementary tools to solve diagnostic dilemmas. • Awareness of salient imaging pearls and diagnostic pitfalls avoids interpretation errors.

  11. Carcinogenesis and Chemotherapy Viewed from the Perspective of Stoichiometric Network Analysis (SNA: What Can the Biological System of the Elements Contribute to an Understanding of Tumour Induction by Elemental Chemical Noxae (e.g., Ni2+, Cd2+ and to an Understanding of Chemotherapy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Franzle

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The biological application of stoichiometric network analysis (SNA permits an understanding of tumour induction, carcinogenesis, and chemotherapy. Starting from the Biological System of the Elements, which provides a comprehensive treatment of the functions and distributions of chemical (trace elements in biology, an attempt is made to interrelate the essential feature of biology and — regrettably — of tumour genesis by superimposing SNA reasoning on common features of all crucial biological processes. For this purpose, aspects, effects and drawbacks of autocatalysis (identical reproduction which can occur either under control or without control [in tumours] are linked with the known facts about element distributions in living beings and about interference of metals with tumours (in terms of both chemotherapy and carcinogenesis. The essential role of autocatalysis in biology and the drawbacks of either controlled or spontaneous cell division can be used to understand crucial aspects of carcinogenesis and chemotherapy because SNA describes and predicts effects of autocatalysis, including phase effects that may be due to some kind of intervention. The SNA-based classifications of autocatalytic networks in cell biology are outlined here to identify new approaches to chemotherapy.

  12. Atmospheric carbon dioxide and the long-term control of the Earth's climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. Carver

    1995-07-01

    Full Text Available A CO2-weathering model has been used to explore the possible evolution of the Earth's climate as the Sun steadily brightened throughout geologic time. The results of the model calculations can be described in terms of three, qualitatively different, "Megaclimates". Mega-climate 1 resulted from a period of rapid outgassing in the early Archean, with high, but declining, temperatures caused by the small weathering rates on a largely water-covered planet. Mega-climate 2 began about 3 Gyear ago as major continental land masses developed, increasing the weathering rate in the early Proterozoic and thereby depleting the atmospheric CO2 concentration. This process produced the first Precambrian glaciations about 2.3 Gyear ago. During Mega-climate 2, evolutionary biological processes increased the surface weatherability in incremental steps and plate tectonics modulated the CO2 outgassing rate with an estimated period of 150 Myear (approximately one-half the period for the formation and breakup of super continents. Throughout Mega-climate 2 the surface temperature was controlled by variations in the atmospheric CO2 level allowing transitions between glacial and non-glacial conditions. The results of the model for Mega-climate 2 are in agreement with the occurrence (and absence of glaciations in the geologic record. Extending the model to the future suggests that CO2 control of the Earth's temperature will no longer be able to compensate for a solar flux that continues to increase. The present level of atmospheric CO2 is so small that further reduction in CO2 cannot prevent the Earth from experiencing Mega-climate 3 with steadily increasing surface temperatures caused by the continued brightening of the Sun. During Mega-climate 3, the main danger to the biosphere would come not from an increasing temperature but from a decreasing (rather than an increasing CO2 level which could, in time, fall below 0.5 PAL, causing serious damage to the biosphere

  13. Controlled trial for long-term low-dose erythromycin after sinus surgery for chronic rhinosinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haxel, Boris R; Clemens, Meike; Karaiskaki, Niki; Dippold, Uta; Kettern, Lisanne; Mann, Wolf J

    2015-05-01

    The efficacy of macrolides in chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is still under controversy. To date, only two double-blind, placebo-controlled studies have been published with differing results. None of these studies investigated the possible benefit of macrolides in the postoperative period. We conducted an investigator-initiated clinical trial using 250-mg erythromycin once a day over a period of 3 months, beginning the administration of either erythromycin or placebo 2 weeks after a surgical intervention for CRS. Randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. The concentrations of eosinophilic cationic protein (ECP) and myeloperoxidase in nasal secretion were chosen as primary outcome measures. Additionally, as a secondary outcome measure, changes in the Sino-Nasal Outcome Test-20 score, olfaction, saccharin transit time, nasal endoscopy score, and self-rating of nasal health using a visual analogue scale were evaluated. Sixty-seven patients after surgery for CRS with or without nasal polyps were screened, and 58 patients were randomized to the study groups. For the primary outcomes, the concentrations of ECP changed from 176.4 µl/l ± 79.0 to 226.1 µl/l ± 200.6 in the erythromycin group and from 186.9 µl/l ± 36.0 to 192.9 µl/l ± 189.2 in the placebo group; no statistical differences were found. Of the secondary outcomes, only the nasal endoscopy score showed a statistically significant improvement in the erythromycin group (from 2.6 ± 1.4 to 1.9 ± 1.5 points) compared to the placebo group (from 2.5 ± 1.3 to 2.6 ± 1.5 points). The subgroup of patients without nasal polyps in the erythromycin group showed a tendency to improvement in some secondary outcome criteria. A general recommendation for long-term, low-dose erythromycin treatment after surgery for CRS cannot be given. In patients with CRS without nasal polyps, a tendency to improved parameters was detected. Ib. © 2014 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and

  14. Atmospheric carbon dioxide and the long-term control of the Earth's climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. Carver

    Full Text Available A CO2-weathering model has been used to explore the possible evolution of the Earth's climate as the Sun steadily brightened throughout geologic time. The results of the model calculations can be described in terms of three, qualitatively different, "Megaclimates". Mega-climate 1 resulted from a period of rapid outgassing in the early Archean, with high, but declining, temperatures caused by the small weathering rates on a largely water-covered planet. Mega-climate 2 began about 3 Gyear ago as major continental land masses developed, increasing the weathering rate in the early Proterozoic and thereby depleting the atmospheric CO2 concentration. This process produced the first Precambrian glaciations about 2.3 Gyear ago. During Mega-climate 2, evolutionary biological processes increased the surface weatherability in incremental steps and plate tectonics modulated the CO2 outgassing rate with an estimated period of 150 Myear (approximately one-half the period for the formation and breakup of super continents. Throughout Mega-climate 2 the surface temperature was controlled by variations in the atmospheric CO2 level allowing transitions between glacial and non-glacial conditions. The results of the model for Mega-climate 2 are in agreement with the occurrence (and absence of glaciations in the geologic record. Extending the model to the future suggests that CO2 control of the Earth's temperature will no longer be able to compensate for a solar flux that continues to increase. The present level of atmospheric CO2 is so small that further reduction in CO2 cannot prevent the Earth from experiencing Mega-climate 3 with steadily increasing surface temperatures caused by the continued brightening of the Sun. During Mega-climate 3, the main danger to the biosphere would come not from an increasing temperature but from a decreasing (rather than an increasing CO2

  15. Short-term genome evolution of Listeria monocytogenes in a non-controlled environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivy Reid A

    2008-11-01

    outbreak was caused by a L. monocytogenes strain that persisted in a food processing facility over 12 years and show that genome sequencing is a valuable and feasible tool for retrospective epidemiological analyses. Short-term evolution of L. monocytogenes in non-controlled environments appears to involve limited diversification beyond plasmid gain or loss and prophage diversification, highlighting the importance of phages in bacterial evolution.

  16. Fractionated Radiotherapy with 3 x 8 Gy Induces Systemic Anti-Tumour Responses and Abscopal Tumour Inhibition without Modulating the Humoral Anti-Tumour Response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas H P M Habets

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence indicates that fractionated radiotherapy (RT can result in distant non-irradiated (abscopal tumour regression. Although preclinical studies indicate the importance of T cells in this infrequent phenomenon, these studies do not preclude that other immune mechanisms exhibit an addition role in the abscopal effect. We therefore addressed the question whether in addition to T cell mediated responses also humoral anti-tumour responses are modulated after fractionated RT and whether systemic dendritic cell (DC stimulation can enhance tumour-specific antibody production. We selected the 67NR mammary carcinoma model since this tumour showed spontaneous antibody production in all tumour-bearing mice. Fractionated RT to the primary tumour was associated with a survival benefit and a delayed growth of a non-irradiated (contralateral secondary tumour. Notably, fractionated RT did not affect anti-tumour antibody titers and the composition of the immunoglobulin (Ig isotypes. Likewise, we demonstrated that treatment of tumour-bearing Balb/C mice with DC stimulating growth factor Flt3-L did neither modulate the magnitude nor the composition of the humoral immune response. Finally, we evaluated the immune infiltrate and Ig isotype content of the tumour tissue using flow cytometry and found no differences between treatment groups that were indicative for local antibody production. In conclusion, we demonstrate that the 67NR mammary carcinoma in Balb/C mice is associated with a pre-existing antibody response. And, we show that in tumour-bearing Balb/C mice with abscopal tumour regression such pre-existing antibody responses are not altered upon fractionated RT and/or DC stimulation with Flt3-L. Our research indicates that evaluating the humoral immune response in the setting of abscopal tumour regression is not invariably associated with therapeutic effects.

  17. The short term effect of kettlebell swings on lumbopelvic pressure pain thresholds: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keilman, Brandon M; Hanney, William J; Kolber, Morey J; Pabian, Patrick S; Salamh, Paul A; Rothschild, Carey E; Liu, Xinliang

    2016-11-19

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the short-term effect of kettlebell swings (KBSs) on lumbopelvic pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) in healthy adults. Sixty participants (male=23, female=37, mean age=25.12 years ±2.86, height=170.73 cm ± 9.2, mass=70.49 kg ± 13.32) were randomized into one of two groups. The experimental group performed a warm-up followed by eight consecutive 20-second rounds of KBS with 10-second rest periods. The control group performed the warm-up alone. An evaluator blinded to group assignment, assessed PPTs immediately before and after the intervention using a handheld pressure algometer. The algometer was applied to the regions of the right paravertebral (PVM), quadratus lumborum (QL), and piriformis (PF) muscles perpendicular to the skin based on standardized palpation procedures. The participants were instructed to report when sensation changed from "comfortable pressure" to "slightly unpleasant pain." No significant between group differences existed at baseline for PPTs (PVM p=.068; QL p = .134, & PF p=.105). Significant group by time interactions existed for each site following the interventions (PVM, p=.018; QL, p=.004; PF, p=.026) favoring the KBS group. Results suggest that KBSs create a reduction in muscle sensitivity to noxious pressure based on pressure algometry measurements. These findings may be due to the unique cyclic muscle contraction associated with KBSs, which has been proposed to facilitate removal of muscle metabolites. The findings of this study provide a foundation for future studies to examine the use of this type of training in patients with low back pain of a muscular etiology or post-exercise muscle soreness. Furthermore, future studies should evaluate specific mechanisms for these effects.

  18. Long-term glycaemic control with metformin-sulphonylurea-pioglitazone triple therapy in PROactive (PROactive 17).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheen, A J; Tan, M H; Betteridge, D J; Birkeland, K; Schmitz, O; Charbonnel, B

    2009-10-01

    We assessed the long-term glycaemic effects and the safety profile of triple therapy with the addition of pioglitazone vs. placebo in patients with Type 2 diabetes treated with combined metformin-sulphonylurea therapy in the PROspective pioglitAzone Clinical Trial In macroVascular Events (PROactive). In a post-hoc analysis, we identified patients treated with metformin plus sulphonylurea combination therapy and not receiving insulin at baseline (n = 1314). In those patients, we compared the effects of pioglitazone (force-titrated to 45 mg/day, n = 654) vs. placebo (n = 660) on glycated haemoglobin (HbA(1c)) reduction, concomitant changes in medications and initiation of permanent insulin use (defined as daily insulin use for a period of > or = 90 days or ongoing use at death/final visit). Significantly greater reductions in HbA(1c) and greater proportions of patients with HbA(1c) at target were noted with pioglitazone vs, placebo, despite a decrease in the use of other oral glucose-lowering agents. There was an approximate twofold increase in progression to permanent insulin use in the placebo group vs. the pioglitazone group: 31.1 vs. 16.1%, respectively, when added to combination therapy. The overall safety of the metformin-sulphonylurea-pioglitazone triple therapy was good. Intensifying an existing dual oral therapy regimen to a triple oral regimen by adding pioglitazone to the classical metformin-sulphonylurea combination resulted in sustained improvements in glycaemic control and reduced progression to insulin therapy. The advantages and disadvantages of adding pioglitazone instead of adding basal insulin should be assessed further.

  19. Short-Term Effects of Thoracic Spine Manipulation on Shoulder Impingement Syndrome: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haik, Melina N; Alburquerque-Sendín, Francisco; Camargo, Paula R

    2017-08-01

    To investigate the short-term effects of thoracic spine manipulation (TSM) on pain, function, scapular kinematics, and scapular muscle activity in individuals with shoulder impingement syndrome. Randomized controlled trial with blinded assessor and patient. Laboratory. Patients with shoulder impingement syndrome (N=61). Participants were randomly allocated to TSM group (n=30) or sham-TSM group (n=31) and attended 2 intervention sessions over a 1-week period. Scapular kinematics and muscle activity were measured at day 1 (baseline, before the first intervention), day 2 preintervention (before second intervention), day 2 postintervention (after the second intervention), and day 3 (follow-up). Shoulder pain and function were assessed by the Disability of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand questionnaire and Western Ontario Rotator Cuff Index at baseline, day 2 preintervention, and follow-up. An assessor blinded to group assignment measured all outcomes. Pain decreased by 0.7 points (95% confidence interval, 1.3-0.1 points) at day 2 preintervention and 0.9 points (95% confidence interval, 1.5-0.3 points) at day 2 postintervention in the TSM group. The Disability of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand questionnaire (P=.01) and Western Ontario Rotator Cuff Index (P=.02) scores improved in both groups. Scapular upward rotation increased during arm lowering (PTSM group. Upper trapezius activity increased (PTSM group. Middle trapezius, lower trapezius, and serratus anterior decreased activities in both groups during elevation and lowering of the arm. TSM may increase scapular upward rotation during arm lowering. TSM does not seem to influence activity of the scapular muscles. The results concerning shoulder pain, function, scapular tilt, and internal rotation are not conclusive. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Work and family: associations with long-term sick-listing in Swedish women ? a case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Sandmark Hélène

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background The number of Swedish women who are long-term sick-listed is high, and twice as high as for men. Also the periods of sickness absence have on average been longer for women than for men. The objective of this study was to investigate the associations between factors in work- and family life and long-term sick-listing in Swedish women. Methods This case-control study included 283 women on long-term sick-listing ≥90 days, and 250 female referents, randomly chosen, living in f...

  1. Doctors' characteristics do not predict long-term glycaemic control in type 2 diabetic patiens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars J.; Olivarius, Niels de Fine; Siersma, Volkert Dirk

    2003-01-01

    diabetes mellitus; glycaemic control; practice organisation; GP characteristics; family practice......diabetes mellitus; glycaemic control; practice organisation; GP characteristics; family practice...

  2. Neurocognitive function in clinically stable individuals with long-term bipolar I disorder: Comparisons with schizophrenia patients and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Pei-Yun; Wang, Peng-Wei; Chen, Cheng-Sheng; Yen, Cheng-Fang

    2017-05-01

    This study compared the levels of the five domains of neurocognitive function-executive function, attention, memory, verbal comprehension, and perceptual organization-among clinically stable individuals with long-term bipolar I disorder, individuals with long-term schizophrenia, and a group of controls. We recruited a total of 93 clinically stable individuals with bipolar I disorder, 94 individuals with schizophrenia, and 106 controls in this study. Their neurocognitive function was measured using a series of neurocognitive function tests: the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition (WAIS-III), Line Cancellation Test, Visual Form Discrimination, Controlled Oral Word Association Test, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Continuous Performance Task, and Wechsler Memory Scale-Third Edition. Neurocognitive function was compared among the three groups through a multivariate analysis of variance. The results indicated that when the effect of age was controlled, clinically stable individuals with bipolar I disorder and those with schizophrenia demonstrated poor neurocognitive function on all tests except for the WAIS-III Similarity and Information and the Line Cancellation Test. The individuals with bipolar I disorder had similar levels of neurocognitive function compared with the schizophrenia group, but higher levels of neurocognitive function on the WAIS-III Comprehension, Controlled Oral Word Association Test, and Wechsler Memory Scale-Third Edition Auditory Immediate and Delayed Index and Visual Immediate and Delayed Index. The conclusions of this study suggest that compared with controls, individuals with long-term bipolar I disorder and those with long-term schizophrenia have poorer neurocognitive function, even when clinically stable. Individuals with long-term bipolar I disorder and those with long-term schizophrenia have similar levels of deficits in several domains of neurocognitive function. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  3. Neurocognitive function in clinically stable individuals with long-term bipolar I disorder: Comparisons with schizophrenia patients and controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Yun Lin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the levels of the five domains of neurocognitive function—executive function, attention, memory, verbal comprehension, and perceptual organization—among clinically stable individuals with long-term bipolar I disorder, individuals with long-term schizophrenia, and a group of controls. We recruited a total of 93 clinically stable individuals with bipolar I disorder, 94 individuals with schizophrenia, and 106 controls in this study. Their neurocognitive function was measured using a series of neurocognitive function tests: the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale—Third Edition (WAIS-III, Line Cancellation Test, Visual Form Discrimination, Controlled Oral Word Association Test, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Continuous Performance Task, and Wechsler Memory Scale—Third Edition. Neurocognitive function was compared among the three groups through a multivariate analysis of variance. The results indicated that when the effect of age was controlled, clinically stable individuals with bipolar I disorder and those with schizophrenia demonstrated poor neurocognitive function on all tests except for the WAIS-III Similarity and Information and the Line Cancellation Test. The individuals with bipolar I disorder had similar levels of neurocognitive function compared with the schizophrenia group, but higher levels of neurocognitive function on the WAIS-III Comprehension, Controlled Oral Word Association Test, and Wechsler Memory Scale—Third Edition Auditory Immediate and Delayed Index and Visual Immediate and Delayed Index. The conclusions of this study suggest that compared with controls, individuals with long-term bipolar I disorder and those with long-term schizophrenia have poorer neurocognitive function, even when clinically stable. Individuals with long-term bipolar I disorder and those with long-term schizophrenia have similar levels of deficits in several domains of neurocognitive function.

  4. Infective complications following tumour endoprosthesis surgery for bone and soft tissue tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peel, T; May, D; Buising, K; Thursky, K; Slavin, M; Choong, P

    2014-09-01

    This study aims to describe the incidence of infective complications, including tumour endoprosthesis infection, in a cohort of patients undergoing tumour endoprosthesis surgery in Victoria, Australia. This retrospective cohort study was performed over 15 years (January 1996-December 2010). 121 patients underwent tumour endoprosthesis surgery during the study period. Patients were followed for a median of 34 months (interquartile range [IQR] 17, 80). Overall, 34 patients (28%) experienced infective complications including: bacteraemia in 19 patients (16%) and tumour endoprosthesis infection in 17 (14%). The majority of patients with early and late acute infections (haematogenous) were managed with debridement and retention of the prosthesis in addition to biofilm-active antibiotics. Late chronic infections were predominantly managed by exchange of the prosthesis. The overall success rate of treatment was 71%. The success rate for debridement and retention was 75% compared with 67% for exchange procedures. There is a significant rate of infective complications following tumour endoprosthesis surgery including 14% of patients experiencing infection involving the tumour endoprosthesis. This study is the first to report on outcomes from debridement and retention of the prosthesis; which had comparable success rates to other treatment modalities. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Immunohistochemical detection of tumour cell proliferation and intratumoural microvessel density in canine malignant mammary tumours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sennazli Gulbin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the correlation between different histological types and grades of canine malignant mammary tumours, tumour cell proliferation and their angiogenic activity using immunohistochemical markers. Mammary tissue samples from 47 bitches with mammary cancer were evaluated. The expression of cellular proliferation marker Ki-67 and endothelial marker Von Willebrand’s factor (vWF were immunohistochemically demonstrated. The tumours with the highest Ki-67 and vWF expressions were found to share similar histomorphological features. Simple solid carcinoma had the highest levels of Ki-67, vWF, and higher histological grade while complex carcinomas, osteosarcomas, and carcinosarcomas had the lowest ones. The differences between the expressions of Ki-67 and vWF in different tumour types were considered to be of great importance in determination of biological behaviour and prognosis of these tumours. This study is one of the few studies that evaluate these differences among the subtypes of malignant canine mammary tumours

  6. Primary liver tumour of intermediate (hepatocyte-bile duct cell) phenotype: a progenitor cell tumour?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robrechts, C; De Vos, R; Van den Heuvel, M; Van Cutsem, E; Van Damme, B; Desmet, V; Roskams, T

    1998-08-01

    A 57-year-old female patient presented with painless obstructive jaundice and mild mesogastric pain; she was in good general condition on admission. Abdominal ultrasonography revealed diffuse tumoral invasion of the liver, suggesting diffuse metastases. A liver biopsy showed a tumour with a trabecular growth pattern, composed of uniform relatively small cells, very suggestive of an endocrine carcinoma. Additional immunohistochemical stains, however, did not show any endocrine differentiation, but showed positivity for both hepatocyte-type cytokeratins (cytokeratin 8 and 18) and bile duct-type cytokeratins (cytokeratin 7 and 19). In addition, parathyroid hormone-related peptide, shown to be a good marker for cholangiocarcinoma, was immunoreactive. Electron microscopy revealed tumour cells with an intermediate phenotype: the cells clearly showed hepatocyte features on one hand and bile duct cell features on the other hand. Nine days after admission, the patient died due to liver failure and hepatic encephalopathy. Autopsy excluded another primary tumour site. Overall, this tumour was a primary liver tumour with an intermediate phenotype and with a very rapid clinical course. The intermediate (between hepatocyte and bile duct cell) phenotype suggests an immature progenitor cell origin, which is concordant with a rapid clinical course. This type of tumour has not been described previously and provides additional evidence for the existence of progenitor cells in human liver.

  7. Tumour biomarkers: homeostasis as a novel prognostic indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falco, Michela; Palma, Giuseppe; Rea, Domenica; De Biase, Davide; Scala, Stefania; D'Aiuto, Massimiliano; Facchini, Gaetano; Perdonà, Sisto; Barbieri, Antonio; Arra, Claudio

    2016-12-01

    The term 'personalized medicine' refers to a medical procedure that consists in the grouping of patients based on their predicted individual response to therapy or risk of disease. In oncologic patients, a 'tailored' therapeutic approach may potentially improve their survival and well-being by not only reducing the tumour, but also enhancing therapeutic response and minimizing the adverse effects. Diagnostic tests are often used to select appropriate and optimal therapies that rely both on patient genome and other molecular/cellular analysis. Several studies have shown that lifestyle and environmental factors can influence the epigenome and that epigenetic events may be involved in carcinogenesis. Thus, in addition to traditional biomarkers, epigenetic factors are raising considerable interest, because they could potentially be used as an excellent tool for cancer diagnosis and prognosis. In this review, we summarize the role of conventional cancer genetic biomarkers and their association with epigenomics. Furthermore, we will focus on the so-called 'homeostatic biomarkers' that result from the physiological response to cancer, emphasizing the concept that an altered 'new' homeostasis influence not only tumour environment, but also the whole organism. © 2016 The Authors.

  8. Species differences in tumour responses to cancer chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Jessica; Cameron, David; Argyle, David

    2015-01-01

    Despite advances in chemotherapy, radiotherapy and targeted drug development, cancer remains a disease of high morbidity and mortality. The treatment of human cancer patients with chemotherapy has become commonplace and accepted over the past 100 years. In recent years, and with a similar incidence of cancer to people, the use of cancer chemotherapy drugs in veterinary patients such as the dog has also become accepted clinical practice. The poor predictability of tumour responses to cancer chemotherapy drugs in rodent models means that the standard drug development pathway is costly, both in terms of money and time, leading to many drugs failing in Phase I and II clinical trials. This has led to the suggestion that naturally occurring cancers in pet dogs may offer an alternative model system to inform rational drug development in human oncology. In this review, we will explore the species variation in tumour responses to conventional chemotherapy and highlight our understanding of the differences in pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics and pharmacogenomics between humans and dogs. Finally, we explore the potential hurdles that need to be overcome to gain the greatest value from comparative oncology studies. PMID:26056373

  9. Cognitive outcome after awake surgery for left and right hemisphere tumours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elke De Witte

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Awake surgery in eloquent brain regions is performed to preserve language and other cognitive functions. Although in general, no major permanent cognitive deficits are found after awake brain surgery, clinically relevant impairments are detected and cognitive recovery takes longer than generally assumed (3 months (Santini et al., 2012; Satoer et al., 2014; Talacchi et al., 2012. However, as there is a lack of extensive cognitive follow-up data it is unknown when recovery takes place. In addition, the influence of critical language sites identified by direct electrical stimulation (DES and tumour variables (e.g. left/right tumour location, tumour grade on long-term cognitive findings remains unclear. METHODS: In this longitudinal study the short-term and long-term effects of awake surgery on cognition were investigated in 40 patients (29 patients with left and 11 with right hemisphere tumours. Language, memory, attentional, executive and visuospatial functions were assessed in the preoperative phase, at short-term follow-up (6 weeks postsurgery and at long-term follow-up (6 months postsurgery with a neuropsychological protocol. In addition, the effect of intraoperative critical language sites, left/right tumour location, hemispheric language dominance, extent of resection and adjuvant treatment on cognitive change was studied. RESULTS: Both pre- and postoperatively, the mean performance of the patients was worse (impairment = z-score below -2 than the performance of the normal population in the language domain, the memory domain, the attentional and executive domain (p .05. Awake surgery negatively affected language, attentional and executive functions but not memory and visuospatial functions. At 6 weeks postsurgery, performance on all language, attentional and executive tasks deteriorated (object/action naming, semantic/phonological fluency from DuLIP, Token test; Trail Making Test A & B, Stroop I, II, & III. At 6 months

  10. Childhood tumours with a high probability of being part of a tumour predisposition syndrome; reason for referral for genetic consultation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postema, Floor A M; Hopman, Saskia M J; Aalfs, Cora M; Berger, Lieke P V; Bleeker, Fonnet E; Dommering, Charlotte J; Jongmans, Marjolijn C J|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314344349; Letteboer, Tom G W|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304815837; Olderode-Berends, Maran J W; Wagner, Anja; Hennekam, Raoul C; Merks, Johannes H M

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Recognising a tumour predisposition syndrome (TPS) in childhood cancer patients is of major clinical relevance. The presence of a TPS may be suggested by the type of tumour in the child. We present an overview of 23 childhood tumours that in themselves should be a reason to refer a

  11. Childhood tumours with a high probability of being part of a tumour predisposition syndrome; reason for referral for genetic consultation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postema, Floor A. M.; Hopman, Saskia M. J.; Aalfs, Cora M.; Berger, Lieke P. V.; Bleeker, Fonnet E.; Dommering, Charlotte J.; Jongmans, Marjolijn C. J.; Letteboer, Tom G. W.; Olderode-Berends, Maran J. W.; Wagner, Anja; Hennekam, Raoul C.; Merks, Johannes H. M.

    2017-01-01

    Recognising a tumour predisposition syndrome (TPS) in childhood cancer patients is of major clinical relevance. The presence of a TPS may be suggested by the type of tumour in the child. We present an overview of 23 childhood tumours that in themselves should be a reason to refer a child for genetic

  12. Childhood tumours with a high probability of being part of a tumour predisposition syndrome; reason for referral for genetic consultation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postema, Floor A. M.; Hopman, Saskia M. J.; Aalfs, Cora M.; Berger, Lieke P. V.; Bleeker, Fonnet E.; Dommering, Charlotte J.; Jongmans, Marjolijn C. J.; Letteboer, Tom G. W.; Olderode - Berends, Maran J.W.; Wagner, Anja; Hennekam, Raoul C.; Merks, Johannes H. M.

    Introduction: Recognising a tumour predisposition syndrome (TPS) in childhood cancer patients is of major clinical relevance. The presence of a TPS may be suggested by the type of tumour in the child. We present an overview of 23 childhood tumours that in themselves should be a reason to refer a

  13. Quantitative histology analysis of the ovarian tumour microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Chunyan; Heindl, Andreas; Huang, Xin; Xi, Shaoyan; Banerjee, Susana; Liu, Jihong; Yuan, Yinyin

    2015-11-17

    Concerted efforts in genomic studies examining RNA transcription and DNA methylation patterns have revealed profound insights in prognostic ovarian cancer subtypes. On the other hand, abundant histology slides have been generated to date, yet their uses remain very limited and largely qualitative. Our goal is to develop automated histology analysis as an alternative subtyping technology for ovarian cancer that is cost-efficient and does not rely on DNA quality. We developed an automated system for scoring primary tumour sections of 91 late-stage ovarian cancer to identify single cells. We demonstrated high accuracy of our system based on expert pathologists' scores (cancer = 97.1%, stromal = 89.1%) as well as compared to immunohistochemistry scoring (correlation = 0.87). The percentage of stromal cells in all cells is significantly associated with poor overall survival after controlling for clinical parameters including debulking status and age (multivariate analysis p = 0.0021, HR = 2.54, CI = 1.40-4.60) and progression-free survival (multivariate analysis p = 0.022, HR = 1.75, CI = 1.09-2.82). We demonstrate how automated image analysis enables objective quantification of microenvironmental composition of ovarian tumours. Our analysis reveals a strong effect of the tumour microenvironment on ovarian cancer progression and highlights the potential of therapeutic interventions that target the stromal compartment or cancer-stroma signalling in the stroma-high, late-stage ovarian cancer subset.

  14. Short-term and long-term effects of a progressive resistance and balance exercise program in individuals with chronic stroke: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahlberg, Birgit; Cederholm, Tommy; Lindmark, Birgitta; Zetterberg, Lena; Hellström, Karin

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the effects of progressive resistance and balance (PRB) exercises on physical and psychological functions of post-stroke individuals. In a randomized controlled trial with follow-up at 3, 6 and 15 months, 67 community-living individuals (76% male; 65-85 years) with a stroke 1-3 years previously were allocated to an intervention group (IG, n = 34; PRB exercises combined with motivational group discussions twice weekly for 3 months) or a control group (CG, n = 33). The primary outcomes were balance (Berg Balance Scale, 0-56 points) and mobility (Short Physical Performance Battery, 0-12 points) at 3 months. The secondary outcomes were 10 m comfortable walking speed, physical activity levels, health-related quality of life, depression and fall-related self-efficacy. At 3 months, the IG exhibited significant improvements in balance (MD 2.5 versus 0 points; effect size [ES], 0.72; p resistance and balance exercise program supported by motivational group discussions and one home-based exercise appears to be an effective means of improving the short-term balance and the walking speed in individuals with chronic stroke. People with poor balance and motor function discontinued the study more often and may require additional support. There is a need for powerful and cost-effective strategies that target changes in behavior to obtain long-term changes in physical function after exercising.

  15. Are intrapartum and neonatal deaths in breech delivery at term potentially avoidable?--a blinded controlled audit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krebs, Lone; Langhoff-Roos, Jens; Bødker, Birgit

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate whether deaths in term breech deliveries could have been avoided with improved care during pregnancy and delivery. All cases of intrapartum/early neonatal death of nonmalformed infants in breech presentation delivered at term in Denmark in the period 1982......-92 were studied. For each of the 12 deaths two controls matched by presentation and planned mode of delivery were selected. Eleven obstetricians assessed the care through narratives that ended when the infant was delivered to umbilicus and stated if the infant died, and whether the "possible death......" was potentially avoidable. The majority thought that 42% of cases and 9% of the controls had died. Antenatal and intrapartum care was suboptimal respectively in 17% and 25% of cases and 4% and 26% of controls. The assumed death was found to have been potentially avoidable in 58% of cases and 17% of controls. Care...

  16. Early systemic effects on the hepatic mitochondria of tumour bearing mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urdiales, J L; Medina, M A; Núñez de Castro, I; Sánchez-Jiménez, F

    1989-03-01

    The activities of citrate synthase and cytochrome c oxidase, mitochondrial marker enzymes, were evaluated in the liver of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma-bearing mice during the life span of the inoculated animals. After 10 days of tumour transplantation, when cell proliferation has ceased, a 30-40% decrease of these activities was detected in both liver and kidney. Simultaneously, an increase in the total acidic proteinase activity (50-60%) was observed. The gel filtration profiles of liver proteinase activities from inoculated animal extracts displayed different patterns to those of the controls; low molecular weight proteinase activities appear to be enhanced in the livers of tumour-bearing animals.

  17. Lymphovascular and neural regulation of metastasis: Shared tumour signalling pathways and novel therapeutic approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, C.P.; Karnezis, T.; Achen, M. G.; Stacker, S.A.; Sloan, E.K.

    2014-01-01

    The progression of cancer is supported by a wide variety of non-neoplastic cell types which make up the tumour stroma, including immune cells, endothelial cells, cancer-associated fibroblasts and nerve fibres. These host cells contribute molecular signals that enhance primary tumour growth and provide physical avenues for metastatic dissemination. This article provides an overview of the role of blood vessels, lymphatic vessels and nerve fibres in the tumour microenvironment, and highlights the interconnected molecular signalling pathways that control their development and activation in cancer. Further the review highlights the known pharmacological agents which target these pathways and discusses the potential therapeutic uses of drugs that target angiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis and stress response pathways in the different stages of cancer care. PMID:24267548

  18. Standardisation of imaging in neuroendocrine tumours: results of a European delphi process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricke, J. E-mail: jens@charite.de; Klose, K.-J.; Mignon, M.; Oeberg, K.; Wiedenmann, B

    2001-01-01

    In 1998 and 1999, a delphi consensus procedure was performed to establish guidelines for standardised diagnostic imaging of neuroendocrine tumours. The procedure included four consecutive workshops of a European group of experts in neuroendocrine tumours as well as feedback given by specialists from the departments of radiology, nuclear medicine, surgery and internal medicine of the according home institutions. Diverging approaches among the centres, which became apparent during the discussion, reflect a lack of controlled studies specifically for rare subgroups of neuroendocrine tumours. This paper summarises the standards for diagnostic imaging as developed during the delphi process. In particular, the diagnostic workflows as well as the technical properties of different imaging modalities are described in detail.

  19. [Novel irradiation techniques in the treatment of solid tumours. Radiotherapy for metastases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Arpád; Póti, Zsuzsa

    2014-02-23

    Novel developments in percutaneous radiotherapy, such as positron emission tomography/computed tomography, adaptive radiation planning, intensity modulation radiotherapy and intensity modulated arc therapy (RapidArc), as well as the newer generation of image control (cone-beam computed tomography) and image guided radiotherapy ensure increased dosages of planning target volume and clinical target volume of solid tumours without damaging surrounding tissues and providing maximal protection. By raising the dosages of planned target volume and clinical target volume, these novel technical developments have created new indications in the treatment of solid tumours. With the aid of the cone-beam computed tomography and image guided radiotherapy the organ metastasis (lung, liver, spinal cord) and the primary tumour can be treated safety and effectively. Hypofractionation, dose escalation and the use of stereotactic devices can probably decrease radiation damage. The authors review the most common forms of evidence-based fractionation schemes used in irradiation therapy.

  20. Short-Term and Procedural Memory for Colours and Inferior Temporal Cortex Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Castro-Sierra

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Two children (male, 10 years, and female, 13 years one month with tumours of the inferior temporal (IT cortex of the brain were studied post-surgically for their abilities to carry out a short-term memory test. This involved: differences in colour, number and shape of small plastic objects; differences in receptacles where these objects should be placed and in ways in which this placement should be done; a procedural task involving differences either in colour or in size of wooden rings employed in the task. Their performances in these tests, and those of patients with tumours of other encephalic areas, were compared with the performances of normal controls. The subjects with IT tumours spent a significantly greater amount of time than normal subjects of their age in carrying out the procedural task involving differences in colour. One of the IT subjects also spent a significantly greater amount of time in the procedural task involving size differences. Other differences in the performances of patients with encephalic tumours and the performances of normal controls were not significant. Results are discussed in relation to findings of colour and size perception and memory localized to the inferior temporal and middle temporal cortices.

  1. Comparison of circulating tumour necrosis factor superfamily cytokines in periodontitis patients undergoing supportive therapy: a case-controlled cross-sectional study comparing smokers and non-smokers in health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nile, Christopher J; Sherrabeh, Sakhr; Ramage, Gordon; Lappin, David F

    2013-09-01

    B-cells are prominent immune cells in established periodontitis lesions. Tumour necrosis factor superfamily (TNFSF) cytokines play roles in supporting B-cell function as well as bone re-modelling. The influence of smoking on factors that support B-cell function in periodontitis remains unclear. To investigate plasma concentrations of TNF (TNSF1A), soluble receptor activator of nuclear-factor Kappa-B ligand (sRANKL/TNFSF11), a proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL/TNFSF13), B-cell activating factor (BAFF/TNFSF13B) and Osteoprotegerin (OPG/TNFRSF11B) in smokers and non-smokers with and without chronic periodontitis Plasma concentrations of TNFSF and OPG were evaluated in 200 systemically healthy subjects divided into four groups: non-smokers with periodontitis (n = 101), smokers with periodontitis (n = 55), healthy non-smokers (n = 27) and healthy smokers (n = 17). Periodontitis patients had significantly higher plasma sRANKL, TNF, APRIL and BAFF and lower OPG than healthy subjects (p < 0.01). TNF and sRANKL were significantly greater in smokers with periodontitis (p = 0.011, p = 0.001) and OPG concentrations significantly lower (p = 0.001), whereas APRIL or BAFF were little changed. Plasma APRIL, BAFF, sRANKL and TNF correlated with probing depth and clinical attachment loss. TNFSF cytokines correlate with periodontitis disease severity. However, only TNF, sRANKL and OPG levels were altered by cigarette smoking. APRIL and BAFF appear as good indicators of disease severity. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Effect of urinary pH on the progression of urinary bladder tumours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lina, B.A.R.; Garderen-Hoetmer, A. van

    1999-01-01

    Systemic alkalosis has been postulated to enhance tumorigenesis, whereas systemic acidosis has been implicated to exert a favourable influence on tumour control and regression. In the present study the urinary pH was influenced by feeding acid-forming or base-forming diets, and the effect of

  3. DIAGNOSTIC ABILITY OF MRI IN CHARACTERISATION OF SUPRATENTORIAL BRAIN TUMOURS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indira Sri Sailaja Rednam

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Brain tumours arise from the normal constituents of brain and its coverings; 80% of all the intracranial tumours are supratentorial. Imaging plays a crucial function in the management of patients with brain tumours. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI has earned recognition as the optimal screening technique for the detection of most intracranial tumours. MRI using conventional Spin-Echo sequences like axial T1, T2 and Fluid-Attenuated Inversion Recovery (FLAIR, coronal T2, sagittal T1, post contrast SE T1 axial, sagittal and coronal sequences were taken which provides inherently illustrious contrast resolution between structural abnormalities and adjacent brain parenchyma and has proved to be more sensitive in identification of focal lesions of the brain. MATERIALS AND METHODS The present study was conducted in 50 patients who all were clinically suspected of supratentorial brain tumour cases and underwent MRI in the Department of Radiodiagnosis, Konaseema Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Foundation, Amalapuram, during the period of 18 months from July 2015 to December 2016. RESULTS The MRI features of 50 supratentorial tumours were reviewed, out of which 72% were found to be extra-axial tumours and 28% intra-axial tumours. About 48% were found to be glial tumours and 52% were found to be non-glial tumours. CONCLUSION MRI proves to be a valuable modality of imaging in evaluating the characteristics, distribution, location and assessing the extent of various intra- and extra-axial tumours in the supratentorial region.

  4. Incidence and prevalence of salivary gland tumours in Valparaiso, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araya, Juan; Martinez, René; Niklander, Sven; Marshall, Maureen

    2015-01-01

    Background To determine the incidence and prevalence of salivary gland tumours in the province of Valparaíso, Chile. Material and Methods Retrospective review of salivary gland tumours diagnosed between the years 2000 and 2011 from four local pathology services. Information on demographics and histopathology were retrieved from the medical records. Results The study sample consisted of 279 salivary gland tumours. Prevalence and incidence rates per 100.000 persons were 15.4 and 2.51, respectively. Most of the neoplasms corresponded to benign tumours (70.3%). The most affected gland was the parotid gland. Pleomorphic adenoma was the most common benign tumour (53.8%) and mucoepidermoid carcinoma was the most common malignant tumour (7.2%). Conclusions Salivary gland tumours are uncommon neoplasms that usually arise in the parotid gland. Pleomorphic adenoma and mucoepidermoid carcinoma were the most common benign and malignant tumours reported in this series. Key words:Salivary gland tumours, benign tumours, malignant tumours, salivary glands neoplasms, cancer, neoplasia. PMID:26034925

  5. Molecular characterisation of soft tissue tumours: a gene expression study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Torsten O; West, Rob B; Linn, Sabine C; Alter, Orly; Knowling, Margaret A; O'Connell, John X; Zhu, Shirley; Fero, Mike; Sherlock, Gavin; Pollack, Jonathan R; Brown, Patrick O; Botstein, David; van de Rijn, Matt

    2002-04-13

    Soft-tissue tumours are derived from mesenchymal cells such as fibroblasts, muscle cells, or adipocytes, but for many such tumours the histogenesis is controversial. We aimed to start molecular characterisation of these rare neoplasms and to do a genome-wide search for new diagnostic markers. We analysed gene-expression patterns of 41 soft-tissue tumours with spotted cDNA microarrays. After removal of errors introduced by use of different microarray batches, the expression patterns of 5520 genes that were well defined were used to separate tumours into discrete groups by hierarchical clustering and singular value decomposition. Synovial sarcomas, gastrointestinal stromal tumours, neural tumours, and a subset of the leiomyosarcomas, showed strikingly distinct gene-expression patterns. Other tumour categories--malignant fibrous histiocytoma, liposarcoma, and the remaining leiomyosarcomas--shared molecular profiles that were not predicted by histological features or immunohistochemistry. Strong expression of known genes, such as KIT in gastrointestinal stromal tumours, was noted within gene sets that distinguished the different sarcomas. However, many uncharacterised genes also contributed to the distinction between tumour types. These results suggest a new method for classification of soft-tissue tumours, which could improve on the method based on histological findings. Large numbers of uncharacterised genes contributed to distinctions between the tumours, and some of these could be useful markers for diagnosis, have prognostic significance, or prove possible targets for treatment.

  6. The role of tumour necrosis factor alpha and soluble tumour necrosis factor alpha receptors in the symptomatology of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turhan, Levent; Batmaz, Sedat; Kocbiyik, Sibel; Soygur, Arif Haldun

    2016-07-01

    Background Immunological mechanisms may be responsible for the development and maintenance of schizophrenia symptoms. Aim The aim of this study is to measure tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), soluble tumour necrosis factor-alpha receptor I (sTNF-αRI), and soluble tumour necrosis factor-alpha receptor II (sTNF-αRII) levels in patients with schizophrenia and healthy individuals, and to determine their relationship with the symptoms of schizophrenia. Methods Serum TNF-α, sTNF-αRI and sTNF-αRII levels were measured. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) was administered for patients with schizophrenia (n = 35), and the results were compared with healthy controls (n = 30). Hierarchical regression analyses were undertaken to predict the levels of TNF-α, sTNF-αRI and sTNF-αRII. Results No significant difference was observed in TNF-α levels, but sTNF-αRI and sTNF-αRII levels were lower in patients with schizophrenia. Serum sTNF-αRI and sTNF-αRII levels were found to be negatively correlated with the negative subscale score of the PANSS, and sTNF-αRI levels were also negatively correlated with the total score of the PANSS. Smoking, gender, body mass index were not correlated with TNF-α and sTNF-α receptor levels. Conclusions These results suggest that there may be a change in anti-inflammatory response in patients with schizophrenia due to sTNF-αRI and sTNF-αRII levels. The study also supports low levels of TNF activity in schizophrenia patients with negative symptoms.