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Sample records for term suggestion etilefrine

  1. Self-association and thermodynamic behavior of etilefrine hydrochloride in aqueous electrolyte solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmasry, Manal S.; Hassan, Wafaa S.; Elazazy, Marwa S.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The self-association of etilefrine HCl in aqueous solution has been studied. • Conductivity and 1 H NMR measurements were used to study the self association. • The critical micelle concentrations and the degree of ionizations were calculated. • The effect of different temperatures and NaCl concentrations were studied. • The thermodynamic parameters of self association of etilefrine HCl were evaluated. - Abstract: The self-association (micellization) behavior of etilefrine HCl, an amphiphilic drug, in aqueous electrolyte solution has been investigated as a function of temperature and sodium chloride (NaCl) concentration by conductivity and 1 H NMR measurements. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) was calculated from the inflection in the data obtained from both techniques. The CMC and the degree of ionization (α) values were determined over the temperature range (298.15 to 313.15) K in water and in presence of different concentrations of NaCl. The thermodynamic parameters of micellization for etilefrine HCl i.e. the standard Gibbs free energy change ΔG° m , the standard enthalpy change, ΔH° m , and the standard entropy change, ΔS° m , were evaluated according to the pseudo-phase model. The obtained CMC values, in presence and absence of electrolyte, showed an inverted U-shaped behavior. While the degree of micelle ionization (α) showed a linear response to the increase in temperature in absence of electrolyte, addition of NaCl did not cause a specific response

  2. New Combined Medical Treatment With Etilefrine and Octreotide for Chylothorax After Esophagectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkura, Yu; Ueno, Masaki; Iizuka, Toshiro; Haruta, Shusuke; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi; Udagawa, Harushi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Postoperative chylothorax is a rare but well-known complication of general thoracic surgery. Medical treatment of chylothorax was reported in the past, but there is still considerable controversy on the appropriate management strategies. Two patients with esophageal cancer underwent esophagectomy, 2-field lymph node dissection, and resection of thoracic duct together with ileocolic reconstruction via the retrosternal route at our hospital. Chylothorax developed on the 32nd postoperative day (POD) in 1 patient and the 12th POD in the other, manifesting as a change in the character of thoracic drainage to turbid white. Both were immediately started on octreotide (300 μg/ day) and etilefrine (120 mg/day). When the amount of pleural effusion decreased to Picibanil (OK432). Thereafter, the patients gradually made satisfactory progress and resumed oral food intake, and the thoracotomy tubes were eventually removed. They have remained recurrence-free at the time of writing. In this report, we demonstrated the clinical efficacy of etilefrine for the management of postesophagectomy chylothorax. New medical treatment options for this condition are now broad and the usefulness of combined therapy consisting of a sclerosing agent, etilefrine, and octreotide is underscored, regardless of the status of the thoracic duct. PMID:26656358

  3. Successful Management of Chylothorax With Etilefrine: Case Report in 2 Pediatric Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muniz, Gysella; Hidalgo-Campos, Jennifer; Valdivia-Tapia, Maria Del Carmen; Shaikh, Nader; Carreazo, Nilton Yhuri

    2018-04-27

    Chylothorax is defined as the accumulation of chyle within the pleural space. Originally described in 1917 by Pisek, it is the most common cause of pleural effusion in the neonatal period. The leading cause of chylothorax is laceration of the thoracic duct during surgery, which occurs in 0.85% to 6.6% of children undergoing cardiothoracic surgery. Few authors of reports in the literature have looked at etilefrine, a relatively unknown sympathomimetic, as an option for the medical treatment of chylothorax. In this case report, we review the clinical course of 2 infants with type III esophageal atresia who developed chylothorax after thoracic surgery and were successfully treated with intravenous etilefrine after failing initial dietary and pharmacological management. Copyright © 2018 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  4. New Combined Medical Treatment With Etilefrine and Octreotide for Chylothorax After Esophagectomy: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkura, Yu; Ueno, Masaki; Iizuka, Toshiro; Haruta, Shusuke; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi; Udagawa, Harushi

    2015-12-01

    Postoperative chylothorax is a rare but well-known complication of general thoracic surgery. Medical treatment of chylothorax was reported in the past, but there is still considerable controversy on the appropriate management strategies.Two patients with esophageal cancer underwent esophagectomy, 2-field lymph node dissection, and resection of thoracic duct together with ileocolic reconstruction via the retrosternal route at our hospital. Chylothorax developed on the 32nd postoperative day (POD) in 1 patient and the 12th POD in the other, manifesting as a change in the character of thoracic drainage to turbid white. Both were immediately started on octreotide (300 μg/ day) and etilefrine (120 mg/day). When the amount of pleural effusion decreased to Picibanil (OK432). Thereafter, the patients gradually made satisfactory progress and resumed oral food intake, and the thoracotomy tubes were eventually removed. They have remained recurrence-free at the time of writing.In this report, we demonstrated the clinical efficacy of etilefrine for the management of postesophagectomy chylothorax. New medical treatment options for this condition are now broad and the usefulness of combined therapy consisting of a sclerosing agent, etilefrine, and octreotide is underscored, regardless of the status of the thoracic duct.

  5. Estudo comparativo entre efedrina e etilefrina como vasopressor para correção da hipotensão arterial materna em cesarianas eletivas com raquianestesia Estudio comparativo entre efedrina y etilefrina como vasopresor para correción de la hipotensión materna en cesáreas electivas con raquianestesia Ephedrine and etilefrine as vasopressor to correct maternal arterial hypotension during elective cesarean section under spinal anesthesia. Comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio D. Belzarena

    2006-06-01

    grupos iguales. Todas recibieron raquianestesia con bupivacaína, fentanil y morfina. Se les midió la presión arterial no invasiva y la frecuencia cardiaca. Los recién nacidos fueron evaluados con el índice de Apgar. La incidencia de hipotensión arterial, la cantidad de vasopresor necesaria para corrección y los efectos adversos fueron registrados. RESULTADOS: Ocurrió hipotensión arterial materna con frecuencia en los dos grupos, siendo un 68% del grupo etilefrina y un 63% del grupo efedrina. En la mayoría de las embrazadas, se corrigió con la primera dosis del vasopresor, sin diferencia entre los grupos (66% etilefrina, 58% efedrina. La hipotensión arterial necesitó dos o más dosis de vasopresor para ser corregida o se registró hipertensión reactiva en pocas pacientes (un 24% y un 10% del grupo etilefrina y 34% y 8% del grupo efedrina, respectivamente, sin diferencia estadística significativa. No hubo diferencia en los efectos adversos y en las pruebas de los recién nacidos. CONCLUSIONES: Con el método de administración empleado y con las dosis de vasopresor seleccionadas no hubo diferencia entre la efedrina y la etilefrina cuando se utilizaron para corregir la hipotensión arterial materna en cesáreas con raquianestesia.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Ephedrine is the most popular vasopressor for obstetrics and etilefrine is widely used in regional anesthesia. This study aimed at comparing ephedrine and etilefrine to correct maternal arterial hypotension during elective Cesarean section under spinal anesthesia. METHODS: Participated in this study 120 pregnant patients who were randomly distributed in two equal groups. All patients received spinal anesthesia with bupivacaine, fentanyl and morphine. Noninvasive blood pressure and heart rate were monitored. Neonates were evaluated by the Apgar score. The incidence of hypotension, the amount of vasopressor needed to correct it and adverse effects were recorded. RESULTS: Maternal hypotension was similar in

  6. Placebo-mediated, Naloxone-sensitive suggestibility of short-term memory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Jair; Candia, Victor; Porchet, Roseline I; Krummenacher, Peter; Folkers, Gerd; Schedlowski, Manfred; Ettlin, Dominik A; Schönbächler, Georg

    2011-03-01

    Physiological studies of placebo-mediated suggestion have been recently performed beyond their traditional clinical context of pain and analgesia. Various neurotransmitter systems and immunological modulators have been used in successful placebo suggestions, including Dopamine, Cholecystokinin and, most extensively, opioids. We adhered to an established conceptual framework of placebo research and used the μ-opioid-antagonist Naloxone to test the applicability of this framework within a cognitive domain (e.g. memory) in healthy volunteers. Healthy men (n=62, age 29, SD=9) were required to perform a task-battery, including standardized and custom-designed memory tasks, to test short-term recall and delayed recognition. Tasks were performed twice, before and after intravenous injection of either NaCl (0.9%) or Naloxone (both 0.15 mg/kg), in a double-blind setting. While one group was given neutral information (S-), the other was told that it might receive a drug with suspected memory-boosting properties (S+). Objective and subjective indexes of memory performance and salivary cortisol (as a stress marker) were recorded during both runs and differences between groups were assessed. Short-term memory recall, but not delayed recognition, was objectively increased after placebo-mediated suggestion in the NaCl-group. Naloxone specifically blocked the suggestion effect without interfering with memory performance. These results were not affected when changes in salivary cortisol levels were considered. No reaction time changes, recorded to uncover unspecific attentional impairment, were seen. Placebo-mediated suggestion produced a training-independent, objective and Naloxone-sensitive increase in memory performance. These results indicate an opioid-mediated placebo effect within a circumscribed cognitive domain in healthy volunteers. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Spectrophotometric and theoretical studies on the determination of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... which a basic analytical laboratory can afford. No interference was observed from common pharmaceutical excipients and additives. ETMO ion pair has a larger interaction energy (higher stability) than ET-BCG ion pair as inferred from their interaction energies. Keywords: Density functional theory, Etilefrine hydrochloride, ...

  8. Invertebrate neurophylogeny: suggested terms and definitions for a neuroanatomical glossary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müller Carsten HG

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Invertebrate nervous systems are highly disparate between different taxa. This is reflected in the terminology used to describe them, which is very rich and often confusing. Even very general terms such as 'brain', 'nerve', and 'eye' have been used in various ways in the different animal groups, but no consensus on the exact meaning exists. This impedes our understanding of the architecture of the invertebrate nervous system in general and of evolutionary transformations of nervous system characters between different taxa. Results We provide a glossary of invertebrate neuroanatomical terms with a precise and consistent terminology, taxon-independent and free of homology assumptions. This terminology is intended to form a basis for new morphological descriptions. A total of 47 terms are defined. Each entry consists of a definition, discouraged terms, and a background/comment section. Conclusions The use of our revised neuroanatomical terminology in any new descriptions of the anatomy of invertebrate nervous systems will improve the comparability of this organ system and its substructures between the various taxa, and finally even lead to better and more robust homology hypotheses.

  9. Spectrophotometric and theoretical studies on the determination of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To develop a simple and cost effective spectrophotometric method for the ... species exhibited absorption maxima at 410 and 479 nm for the two systems in ... etilefrine in plasma and urine in pharmacokinetic ... In this work, the interactions of ET with BCG and ... prepared where the total volume of investigated.

  10. Brief communication: sliding displacement of amnion and chorion following controlled laser wounding suggests a mechanism for short-term sealing of ruptured membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behzad, F; Dickinson, M R; Charlton, A; Aplin, J D

    1994-10-01

    The Erbium-YAG laser was used to produce narrow wounds of defined depth in term amniochorion. The charring effect of the laser meant that sites could be readily localized in histological sections. During brief post-wounding incubations, sliding displacement of the amnion relative to the chorion occurred through the plane of the spongy layer. This suggests a possible short-term mechanism whereby a spontaneous rupture could be sealed in vivo.

  11. EXTRACT: interactive extraction of environment metadata and term suggestion for metagenomic sample annotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pafilis, Evangelos; Buttigieg, Pier Luigi; Ferrell, Barbra; Pereira, Emiliano; Schnetzer, Julia; Arvanitidis, Christos; Jensen, Lars Juhl

    2016-01-01

    The microbial and molecular ecology research communities have made substantial progress on developing standards for annotating samples with environment metadata. However, sample manual annotation is a highly labor intensive process and requires familiarity with the terminologies used. We have therefore developed an interactive annotation tool, EXTRACT, which helps curators identify and extract standard-compliant terms for annotation of metagenomic records and other samples. Behind its web-based user interface, the system combines published methods for named entity recognition of environment, organism, tissue and disease terms. The evaluators in the BioCreative V Interactive Annotation Task found the system to be intuitive, useful, well documented and sufficiently accurate to be helpful in spotting relevant text passages and extracting organism and environment terms. Comparison of fully manual and text-mining-assisted curation revealed that EXTRACT speeds up annotation by 15-25% and helps curators to detect terms that would otherwise have been missed. Database URL: https://extract.hcmr.gr/. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  12. Forgotten but not gone: Retro-cue costs and benefits in a double-cueing paradigm suggest multiple states in visual short-term memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Moorselaar, D.; Olivers, C.N.L.; Theeuwes, J.; Lamme, V.A.F.; Sligte, I.G.

    2015-01-01

    Visual short-term memory (VSTM) performance is enhanced when the to-be-tested item is cued after encoding. This so-called retro-cue benefit is typically accompanied by a cost for the noncued items, suggesting that information is lost from VSTM upon presentation of a retrospective cue. Here we

  13. Forgotten but not gone: retro-cue cost and benefits in a double-cueing paradigm suggest multiple states in visual short-term memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Moorselaar, D.; Olivers, C.N.L.; Theeuwes, J.; Lamme, V.A.F.; Sligte, I.G.

    2015-01-01

    Visual short-term memory (VSTM) performance is enhanced when the to-be-tested item is cued after encoding. This so-called retro-cue benefit is typically accompanied by a cost for the noncued items, suggesting that information is lost from VSTM upon presentation of a retrospective cue. Here we

  14. Correlated individual differences suggest a common mechanism underlying metacognition in visual perception and visual short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaha, Jason; Postle, Bradley R

    2017-11-29

    Adaptive behaviour depends on the ability to introspect accurately about one's own performance. Whether this metacognitive ability is supported by the same mechanisms across different tasks is unclear. We investigated the relationship between metacognition of visual perception and metacognition of visual short-term memory (VSTM). Experiments 1 and 2 required subjects to estimate the perceived or remembered orientation of a grating stimulus and rate their confidence. We observed strong positive correlations between individual differences in metacognitive accuracy between the two tasks. This relationship was not accounted for by individual differences in task performance or average confidence, and was present across two different metrics of metacognition and in both experiments. A model-based analysis of data from a third experiment showed that a cross-domain correlation only emerged when both tasks shared the same task-relevant stimulus feature. That is, metacognition for perception and VSTM were correlated when both tasks required orientation judgements, but not when the perceptual task was switched to require contrast judgements. In contrast with previous results comparing perception and long-term memory, which have largely provided evidence for domain-specific metacognitive processes, the current findings suggest that metacognition of visual perception and VSTM is supported by a domain-general metacognitive architecture, but only when both domains share the same task-relevant stimulus feature. © 2017 The Author(s).

  15. Forgotten but Not Gone: Retro-Cue Costs and Benefits in a Double-Cueing Paradigm Suggest Multiple States in Visual Short-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Moorselaar, Dirk; Olivers, Christian N. L.; Theeuwes, Jan; Lamme, Victor A. F.; Sligte, Ilja G.

    2015-01-01

    Visual short-term memory (VSTM) performance is enhanced when the to-be-tested item is cued after encoding. This so-called retro-cue benefit is typically accompanied by a cost for the noncued items, suggesting that information is lost from VSTM upon presentation of a retrospective cue. Here we assessed whether noncued items can be restored to VSTM…

  16. Interrogative suggestibility in patients with conversion disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foong, J; Lucas, P A; Ron, M A

    1997-09-01

    We tested the hypothesis that increased interrogative suggestibility may contribute to the shaping and maintaining of conversions symptoms. Interrogative suggestibility was measured in 12 patients with conversion disorder and 10 control patients with confirmed neurological disease matched for age, premorbid intelligence, and as closely as possible in terms of their neurological symptoms to the patients with conversion disorder. Our observations do not support the contention that individual differences in interrogative suggestibility are of importance in the etiology of conversion disorders.

  17. The relationships between suggestibility, influenceability, and relaxability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polczyk, Romuald; Frey, Olga; Szpitalak, Malwina

    2013-01-01

    This research explores the relationships between relaxability and various aspects of suggestibility and influenceability. The Jacobson Progressive Muscle Relaxation procedure was used to induce relaxation. Tests of direct suggestibility, relating to the susceptibility of overt suggestions, and indirect suggestibility, referring to indirect hidden influence, as well as self-description questionnaires on suggestibility and the tendency to comply were used. Thayer's Activation-Deactivation Adjective Check List, measuring various kinds of activation and used as a pre- and posttest, determined the efficacy of the relaxation procedure. Indirect, direct, and self-measured suggestibility proved to be positively related to the ability to relax, measured by Thayer's subscales relating to emotions. Compliance was not related to relaxability. The results are discussed in terms of the aspects of relaxation training connected with suggestibility.

  18. Testing long-term memory in animal models of schizophrenia: suggestions from CNTRICS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussey, Timothy J; Barch, Deanna M; Baxter, Mark G

    2013-11-01

    This paper reports the results of discussions at the fourth meeting of Cognitive Neuroscience Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (CNTRICS) meeting, held over two days in Washington, DC in April 2011. The meeting focused on animal paradigms for assessing the cognitive constructs relevant to schizophrenia identified in previous CNTRICS meetings. This report focuses on the outcome of discussions in the general area of long-term memory. A number of candidate animal paradigms were discussed. Two of these - one for rodents and one for non-human primates - were recommended as particularly promising for further development. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of stereotypes and suggestion on memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shechory, Mally; Nachson, Israel; Glicksohn, Joseph

    2010-02-01

    In this study, the interactive effect of stereotype and suggestion on accuracy of memory was examined by presenting 645 participants (native Israelis and immigrants from the former Soviet Union and Ethiopia) with three versions of a story about a worker who is waiting in a manager's office for a meeting. All versions were identical except for the worker's name, which implied a Russian or an Ethiopian immigrant or a person of no ethnic origin. Each participant was presented with one version of the story. After an hour delay, the participants' memories were tested via two questionnaires that differed in terms of level of suggestion. Data analyses show that (a) when a suggestion matched the participant's stereotypical perception, the suggestion was incorporated into memory but (b) when the suggestion contradicted the stereotype, it did not influence memory. The conclusion was that recall is influenced by stereotypes but can be enhanced by compatible suggestions.

  20. Three suggestions on the definition of terms for the safety and reliability analysis of digital systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Man Cheol; Smidts, Carol S.

    2015-01-01

    As digital instrumentation and control systems are being progressively introduced into nuclear power plants, a growing number of related technical issues are coming to light needing to be resolved. As a result, an understanding of relevant terms and basic concepts becomes increasingly important. Under the framework of the OECD/NEA WGRISK DIGREL Task Group, the authors were involved in reviewing definitions of terms forming the supporting vocabulary for addressing issues related to the safety and reliability analysis of digital instrumentation and control (SRA of DI and C). These definitions were extracted from various standards regulating the disciplines that form the technical and scientific basis of SRA DI and C. The authors discovered that different definitions are provided by different standards within a common discipline and used differently across various disciplines. This paper raises the concern that a common understanding of terms and basic concepts has not yet been established to address the very specific technical issues facing SRA DI and C. Based on the lessons learned from the review of the definitions of interest and the analysis of dependency relationships existing between these definitions, this paper establishes a set of recommendations for the development of a consistent terminology for SRA DI and C. - Highlights: ●We reviewed definitions of terms used in reliability analysis of digital systems. ●Different definitions are provided by different standards within a common discipline. ●Acyclic and cyclic structures of dependency in defining terms are compared. ●Three recommendations for the development of a consistent terminology provided

  1. Suggestibility and suggestive modulation of the Stroop effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Irving

    2011-06-01

    Although the induction of a hypnotic state does not seem necessary for suggestive modulation of the Stroop effect, this important phenomenon has seemed to be dependent on the subject's level of hypnotic suggestibility. Raz and Campbell's (2011) study indicates that suggestion can modulate the Stroop effect substantially in very low suggestible subjects, as well as in those who are highly suggestible. This finding casts doubt on the presumed mechanism by which suggestive modulation is brought about. Research aimed at uncovering the means by which low suggestible individuals are able to modulate the Stroop effect would be welcome, as would assessment of this effect in moderately suggestible people. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Transit pipelines suggest a tendency to produce conflict and disagreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, P.

    2009-01-01

    Any reading to the history of transit pipeline suggests a tendency to produce conflict and disagreement, often resulting to the cessation of throughput, sometimes for a short period and sometimes for longer. That bad political relation between neighbours have certain a role, but very important is the economic nature of the transit terms, tariff and off take terms. What might be done to improve this record in the future and make transit pipeline less vulnerable and troublesome? [it

  3. Terms standardization between the rules of diagnosis radiation equipment safety management and atomic energy law: problems and suggestions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hwa Gon; Kang, Se Sik; Kim, Chang Soo; Park, Cheol Seo [Catholic University of Pusan, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-03-15

    The rules and terms are described different meaning in this results the research is accomplished for preventing practical workers from confusion. Atomic law are kept up modification and development in our situation by the ICRP's recommendation, on the other hand, the rules of diagnosis radiation equipment safety managements are modified partial, then resulted in confusion. The study was comparison between the rules of diagnosis radiation equipment safety management and atomic energy law, and the modification items obtained were as follows. With each other different the terms and units are used. With the exception of special terms for affairs usage, it is needless to say that common term uniformity is standardized. The standardization of rules and guidance have not need to confusion radiological practical workers. The following is omitted. The radiation protection against the patient and the hospital visitor. Radiation dose limit of the woman patient who is in the process of becoming pregnant. Radiation dose limit of the person who is not regarded as medical exposure. The control of the exposure of pregnant of women at work.

  4. Terms standardization between the rules of diagnosis radiation equipment safety management and atomic energy law: problems and suggestions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hwa Gon; Kang, Se Sik; Kim, Chang Soo; Park, Cheol Seo

    2006-01-01

    The rules and terms are described different meaning in this results the research is accomplished for preventing practical workers from confusion. Atomic law are kept up modification and development in our situation by the ICRP's recommendation, on the other hand, the rules of diagnosis radiation equipment safety managements are modified partial, then resulted in confusion. The study was comparison between the rules of diagnosis radiation equipment safety management and atomic energy law, and the modification items obtained were as follows. With each other different the terms and units are used. With the exception of special terms for affairs usage, it is needless to say that common term uniformity is standardized. The standardization of rules and guidance have not need to confusion radiological practical workers. The following is omitted. The radiation protection against the patient and the hospital visitor. Radiation dose limit of the woman patient who is in the process of becoming pregnant. Radiation dose limit of the person who is not regarded as medical exposure. The control of the exposure of pregnant of women at work

  5. Hypnosis, suggestion, and suggestibility: an integrative model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Steven Jay; Laurence, Jean-Roch; Kirsch, Irving

    2015-01-01

    This article elucidates an integrative model of hypnosis that integrates social, cultural, cognitive, and neurophysiological variables at play both in and out of hypnosis and considers their dynamic interaction as determinants of the multifaceted experience of hypnosis. The roles of these variables are examined in the induction and suggestion stages of hypnosis, including how they are related to the experience of involuntariness, one of the hallmarks of hypnosis. It is suggested that studies of the modification of hypnotic suggestibility; cognitive flexibility; response sets and expectancies; the default-mode network; and the search for the neurophysiological correlates of hypnosis, more broadly, in conjunction with research on social psychological variables, hold much promise to further understanding of hypnosis.

  6. Forgotten but not gone: Retro-cue costs and benefits in a double-cueing paradigm suggest multiple states in visual short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Moorselaar, Dirk; Olivers, Christian N L; Theeuwes, Jan; Lamme, Victor A F; Sligte, Ilja G

    2015-11-01

    Visual short-term memory (VSTM) performance is enhanced when the to-be-tested item is cued after encoding. This so-called retro-cue benefit is typically accompanied by a cost for the noncued items, suggesting that information is lost from VSTM upon presentation of a retrospective cue. Here we assessed whether noncued items can be restored to VSTM when made relevant again by a subsequent second cue. We presented either 1 or 2 consecutive retro-cues (80% valid) during the retention interval of a change-detection task. Relative to no cue, a valid cue increased VSTM capacity by 2 items, while an invalid cue decreased capacity by 2. Importantly, when a second, valid cue followed an invalid cue, capacity regained 2 items, so that performance was back on par. In addition, when the second cue was also invalid, there was no extra loss of information from VSTM, suggesting that those items that survived a first invalid cue, automatically also survived a second. We conclude that these results are in support of a very versatile VSTM system, in which memoranda adopt different representational states depending on whether they are deemed relevant now, in the future, or not at all. We discuss a neural model that is consistent with this conclusion. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Maxillectomy defects: a suggested classification scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinmoladun, V I; Dosumu, O O; Olusanya, A A; Ikusika, O F

    2013-06-01

    The term "maxillectomy" has been used to describe a variety of surgical procedures for a spectrum of diseases involving a diverse anatomical site. Hence, classifications of maxillectomy defects have often made communication difficult. This article highlights this problem, emphasises the need for a uniform system of classification and suggests a classification system which is simple and comprehensive. Articles related to this subject, especially those with specified classifications of maxillary surgical defects were sourced from the internet through Google, Scopus and PubMed using the search terms maxillectomy defects classification. A manual search through available literature was also done. The review of the materials revealed many classifications and modifications of classifications from the descriptive, reconstructive and prosthodontic perspectives. No globally acceptable classification exists among practitioners involved in the management of diseases in the mid-facial region. There were over 14 classifications of maxillary defects found in the English literature. Attempts made to address the inadequacies of previous classifications have tended to result in cumbersome and relatively complex classifications. A single classification that is based on both surgical and prosthetic considerations is most desirable and is hereby proposed.

  8. Types of suggestibility: Relationships among compliance, indirect, and direct suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polczyk, Romuald; Pasek, Tomasz

    2006-10-01

    It is commonly believed that direct suggestibility, referring to overt influence, and indirect suggestibility, in which the intention to influence is hidden, correlate poorly. This study demonstrates that they are substantially related, provided that they tap similar areas of influence. Test results from 103 students, 55 women and 48 men, were entered into regression analyses. Indirect suggestibility, as measured by the Sensory Suggestibility Scale for Groups, and compliance, measured by the Gudjonsson Compliance Scale, were predictors of direct suggestibility, assessed with the Barber Suggestibility Scale. Spectral analyses showed that indirect suggestibility is more related to difficult tasks on the BSS, but compliance is more related to easy tasks on this scale.

  9. Bryophytes as Teaching Materials on the Textbook of Botany (The Latter Term of Meiji to the Beginning of Showa) and Suggestions for Development of New Teaching Material

    OpenAIRE

    Sato, Takayuki; Muko, Heiwa; Ohshika, Kiyoyuki

    2007-01-01

    Bryophytes have some characteristics as teaching material, but it is very difficult to use them in secondary education. Nevertheless, from the latter term of Meiji to the beginning of Showa, there are many teaching materials for natural history.Therefore, we analyzed teaching materials on the textbook of botany that was published at the period, take suggestions for newly development of teaching material. We analyzed composition of textbooks and species of Bryophytes, and compared them to a ma...

  10. Audit of long-term and short-term liabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korinko M.D.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article determines the importance of long-term and short-term liabilities for the management of financial and material resources of an enterprise. It reviews the aim, objects and information generators for realization of audit of short-term and long-term obligations. The organizing and methodical providing of audit of long-term and short-term liabilities of an enterprise are generalized. The authors distinguish the stages of realization of audit of long-term and short-term liabilities, the aim of audit on each of the presented stages, and recommend methodical techniques. It is fixed that it is necessary to conduct the estimation of the systems of internal control and record-keeping of an enterprise by implementation of public accountant procedures for determination of volume and maintenance of selection realization. After estimating the indicated systems, a public accountant determines the methodology for realization of public accountant verification of long-term and short-term liabilities. The analytical procedures that public accountants are expedient to use for realization of audit of short-term and long-term obligations are determined. The authors suggest the classification of the educed defects on the results of the conducted public accountant verification of short-term and long-term obligations.

  11. Open to Suggestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Reading, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Offers (1) suggestions for improving college students' study skills; (2) a system for keeping track of parent, teacher, and community contacts; (3) suggestions for motivating students using tic tac toe; (4) suggestions for using etymology to improve word retention; (5) a word search grid; and (6) suggestions for using postcards in remedial reading…

  12. Creativity at the Place of Work: Studies of Suggestors and Suggestion Systems in Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekvall, Goran

    1976-01-01

    In the context of an industrial organization, the term "suggestion system" means an administrative procedure for collecting, judging, and compensating ideas for improvements conceived by the employees. Four different problem areas of the suggestion system are examined to determine whether the psychological advantages claimed for the suggestion…

  13. Factor structure of suggestibility revisited: new evidence for direct and indirect suggestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romuald Polczyk

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Yielding to suggestions can be viewed as a relatively stable individual trait, called suggestibility. It has been long proposed that there are two kinds of suggestible influence, and two kinds of suggestibility corresponding to them: direct and indirect. Direct suggestion involves overt unhidden influence, while indirect suggestion concerns influence that is hidden, and the participant does not know that the suggestibility is being measured. So far however, empirical evidence for the existence of the two factors has been scarce. In the present study, more sophisticated and reliable tools for measuring suggestibility were applied than in the previous research, in the hope that better measurement would reveal the factor structure of suggestibility. Two tests of direct suggestibility were used: the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form A, measuring hypnotic susceptibility, and the Barber Suggestibility Scale, measuring non-hypnotic direct imaginative suggestibility. Three tests served to measure indirect suggestibility: the Sensory Suggestibility Scale, measuring indirect suggestibility relating to perception; the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale, measuring the tendency to yield to suggestive questions and changing answers after negative feedback; and the Emotional Dialogs Tests, measuring the tendency to perceive nonexistent aggression. Participants and procedure In sum, 115 participants were tested, 69 women, 49 men, mean age 22.20 years, SD = 2.20. Participants were tested in two sessions, lasting for a total of four hours. Results Confirmatory factor analyses confirmed the existence of two uncorrelated factors of suggestibility: direct and indirect. Conclusions Suggestibility may indeed involve two factors, direct and indirect, and failure to discover them in previous research may be due to methodological problems.

  14. Factor structure of suggestibility revisited: new evidence for direct and indirect suggestibility

    OpenAIRE

    Romuald Polczyk

    2016-01-01

    Background Yielding to suggestions can be viewed as a relatively stable individual trait, called suggestibility. It has been long proposed that there are two kinds of suggestible influence, and two kinds of suggestibility corresponding to them: direct and indirect. Direct suggestion involves overt unhidden influence, while indirect suggestion concerns influence that is hidden, and the participant does not know that the suggestibility is being measured. So far however, empirical evidence ...

  15. Memory and Suggestibility in Maltreated Children: Age, Stress Arousal, Dissociation, and Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisen, Mitchell L.; Qin, Jianjian; Goodman, Gail S.; Davis, Suzanne L.

    2002-01-01

    This study assessed 3- to 17-year-olds' memory and suggestibility in the context of ongoing child maltreatment investigations. Results from 189 subjects indicated that general psychopathology, short-term memory, and intellectual ability predicted facets of children's memory performance. Older compared to young children evinced fewer memory errors…

  16. Responding to hypnotic and nonhypnotic suggestions: performance standards, imaginative suggestibility, and response expectancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Eric C; Lynn, Steven Jay

    2011-07-01

    This study examined the relative impact of hypnotic inductions and several other variables on hypnotic and nonhypnotic responsiveness to imaginative suggestions. The authors examined how imaginative suggestibility, response expectancies, motivation to respond to suggestions, and hypnotist-induced performance standards affected participants' responses to both hypnotic and nonhypnotic suggestions and their suggestion-related experiences. Suggestions were administered to 5 groups of participants using a test-retest design: (a) stringent performance standards; (b) lenient performance standards; (c) hypnosis test-retest; (d) no-hypnosis test-retest; and (e) no-hypnosis/hypnosis control. The authors found no support for the influence of a hypnotic induction or performance standards on responding to suggestions but found considerable support for the role of imaginative suggestibility and response expectancies in predicting responses to both hypnotic and nonhypnotic suggestions.

  17. Effects of information type on children's interrogative suggestibility: is Theory-of-Mind involved?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hünefeldt, Thomas; Rossi-Arnaud, Clelia; Furia, Augusta

    2009-08-01

    This research was aimed at learning more about the different psychological mechanisms underlying children's suggestibility to leading questions, on the one hand, and children's suggestibility to negative feedback, on the other, by distinguishing between interview questions concerning different types of information. Results showed that, unlike the developmental pattern of children's suggestibility to leading questions, the developmental pattern of children's suggestibility to negative feedback differed depending on whether the interview questions concerned external facts (physical states and events) or internal facts (mental states and events). This difference was not manifested in response to questions concerning central versus peripheral facts. Results are interpreted in terms of the hypothesis that children's suggestibility to negative feedback is differently affected by "Theory-of-Mind" abilities than children's suggestibility to leading questions. Further research is needed in order to test this hypothesis.

  18. Suicidality and interrogative suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard-Boone, Lea; Range, Lillian M

    2005-01-01

    All people are subject to memory suggestibility, but suicidal individuals may be especially so. The link between suicidality and suggestibility is unclear given mixed findings and methodological weaknesses of past research. To test the link between suicidality and interrogative suggestibility, 149 undergraduates answered questions about suicidal thoughts and reasons for living, and participated in a direct suggestibility procedure. As expected, suggestibility correlated with suicidality but accounted for little overall variance (4%). Mental health professionals might be able to take advantage of client suggestibility by directly telling suicidal persons to refrain from suicidal thoughts or actions.

  19. Network externality perspective of feed-in-tariffs (FIT) instruments-Some observations and suggestions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shum, Kwok L.; Watanabe, Chihiro

    2010-01-01

    Existing energy policy frameworks revolving around the acceleration of deployment of renewable energy technology can be broadly classified as the quantity vs. price approach. With this brief viewpoint, this paper suggests another perspective of viewing these instruments in terms of a more fundamental basis: whether the deployment in capacity is in terms of a cost minimization approach or a network externality approach. We suggest that the generic price or feed in tariff (FIT) approach in subsidizing renewable electricity generation and associated income would create a bandwagon or self-propagation effect among users rendering the renewable energy technology spreads like a software or information technology. Our objective is to raise awareness of this technology dynamics oriented perspective in renewable deployment supplementing the conventional installation subsidies perspective. We hope that it would inspire more empirical works and studies relating to the policy implications of this viewpoint.

  20. Are Dysphoric Individuals More Suggestible or Less Suggestible Than Nondysphoric Individuals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacFarland, Wendy L.; Morris, Steven J.

    1998-01-01

    Dysphoric individuals are shown to be susceptible to interrogative suggestion, whether in the form of leading questions or interrogative pressure. The association of a clinically relevant condition of dysphoria (depression) with relatively high levels of suggestibility was investigated in a college student population (N=139). Applicability to…

  1. The Demonstration of Short-Term Consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolicoeur, Pierre; Dell'Acqua, Roberto

    1998-01-01

    Results of seven experiments involving 112 college students or staff using a dual-task approach provide evidence that encoding information into short-term memory involves a distinct process termed short-term consolidation (STC). Results suggest that STC has limited capacity and that it requires central processing mechanisms. (SLD)

  2. Do Short-Term Managerial Objectives Lead to Under- or Over-Investment in Long-Term Projects

    OpenAIRE

    Lucian Arye Bebchuk; Lars A. Stole

    1994-01-01

    This paper studies managerial decisions about investment in long-run projects in the presence of imperfect information (the market knows less about such investments than the firm's managers) and short-term managerial objectives (the managers are concerned about the short-term stock price as well as the long-term stock price). Prior work has suggested that imperfect information and short-term managerial objectives induce managers to underinvest in long-run projects. We show that either underin...

  3. The Spiritual Well-Being Scale: Portuguese Translation and Suggestions for Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond F. Paloutzian

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years the study of the relationships between religion and health has expanded to include the study of the relationships between spirituality and health. “Spirituality” is typically thought of as the more inclusive of the two terms. Meanwhile, the concept of spiritual well-being (SWB has been invoked to reflect someone’s self-perception of well-being in terms that the person understands “spiritual” to mean – whether religious or existential in connotation. Thus, spirituality and SWB should not be confused with each other. Measures of each construct differ in psychological dimensions they are trying to tap and in the kind of assessments they are intended to yield. This paper explains each construct, presents the Portuguese translation of the SWBS, and notes suggestions for its use.

  4. Classification of hadith into positive suggestion, negative suggestion, and information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraby, Said Al; Riviera Rachmawati Jasin, Eliza; Kusumaningrum, Andina; Adiwijaya

    2018-03-01

    As one of the Muslim life guidelines, based on the meaning of its sentence(s), a hadith can be viewed as a suggestion for doing something, or a suggestion for not doing something, or just information without any suggestion. In this paper, we tried to classify the Bahasa translation of hadith into the three categories using machine learning approach. We tried stemming and stopword removal in preprocessing, and TF-IDF of unigram, bigram, and trigram as the extracted features. As the classifier, we compared between SVM and Neural Network. Since the categories are new, so in order to compare the results of the previous pipelines, we created a baseline classifier using simple rule-based string matching technique. The rule-based algorithm conditions on the occurrence of words such as “janganlah, sholatlah, and so on” to determine the category. The baseline method achieved F1-Score of 0.69, while the best F1-Score from the machine learning approach was 0.88, and it was produced by SVM model with the linear kernel.

  5. Pragmatic awareness of Suggestions: From (Im)Polite Mannerism to Attitudinal Appropriateness

    OpenAIRE

    Hamid Allami; Nasim Boustani

    2017-01-01

    The present research seeks to determine: (a) Iranian EFL learners’ application of suggestion semantic formulae ;(b) their attitude of appropriateness in terms of confidence in the employment of appropriate supportive moves; (c), their (im)polite mannerism with respect to the selected strategies; and (d) the relationship between attitude of appropriateness and mannerism of (im)politeness. An Oxford Quick placement Test (OQPT) was administered among 60 Iranian EFL learners to check their langua...

  6. CREB binding protein is required for both short-term and long-term memory formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guiquan; Zou, Xiaoyan; Watanabe, Hirotaka; van Deursen, Jan M; Shen, Jie

    2010-09-29

    CREB binding protein (CBP) is a transcriptional coactivator with histone acetyltransferase activity. Our prior study suggested that CBP might be a key target of presenilins in the regulation of memory formation and neuronal survival. To elucidate the role of CBP in the adult brain, we generated conditional knock-out (cKO) mice in which CBP is completely inactivated in excitatory neurons of the postnatal forebrain. Histological analysis revealed normal neuronal morphology and absence of age-dependent neuronal degeneration in the CBP cKO cerebral cortex. CBP cKO mice exhibited robust impairment in the formation of spatial, associative, and object-recognition memory. In addition to impaired long-term memory, CBP cKO mice also displayed deficits in short-term associative and object-recognition memory. Administration of a histone deacetylase inhibitor, trichostatin A, rescued the reduction of acetylated histones in the CBP cKO cortex but failed to rescue either short- or long-term memory deficits, suggesting that the memory impairment may not be caused by general reduction of histone acetyltransferase activity in CBP cKO mice. Further microarray and Western analysis showed decreased expression of calcium-calmodulin-dependent kinase isoforms and NMDA and AMPA receptor subunits in the cerebral cortex of CBP cKO mice. Collectively, these findings suggest a crucial role for CBP in the formation of both short- and long-term memory.

  7. Independence of long-term contextual memory and short-term perceptual hypotheses: Evidence from contextual cueing of interrupted search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlagbauer, Bernhard; Mink, Maurice; Müller, Hermann J; Geyer, Thomas

    2017-02-01

    Observers are able to resume an interrupted search trial faster relative to responding to a new, unseen display. This finding of rapid resumption is attributed to short-term perceptual hypotheses generated on the current look and confirmed upon subsequent looks at the same display. It has been suggested that the contents of perceptual hypotheses are similar to those of other forms of memory acquired long-term through repeated exposure to the same search displays over the course of several trials, that is, the memory supporting "contextual cueing." In three experiments, we investigated the relationship between short-term perceptual hypotheses and long-term contextual memory. The results indicated that long-term, contextual memory of repeated displays neither affected the generation nor the confirmation of short-term perceptual hypotheses for these displays. Furthermore, the analysis of eye movements suggests that long-term memory provides an initial benefit in guiding attention to the target, whereas in subsequent looks guidance is entirely based on short-term perceptual hypotheses. Overall, the results reveal a picture of both long- and short-term memory contributing to reliable performance gains in interrupted search, while exerting their effects in an independent manner.

  8. Employee suggestion programs: the rewards of involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, J M; McKendall, M

    1993-09-01

    Successful ESPs are the products of a great deal of effort by managers, administrators, teams, individuals, and reviewers, who are all striving to achieve the goals of increased profitability and enhanced employee involvement. A review of the literature indicates that there are several prescriptions that will increase the likelihood of a successful ESP (see the box). Today's American business prophets sound ceaseless calls to arms in the name of "world class performance," "global competitiveness," "total quality management," and a variety of other buzz terms. A burgeoning industry has evolved that promises, through speeches, teleconferences, seminars, and consulting contracts, to teach American organizations how to achieve excellence. In the face of a sputtering economy and unrelenting competitive pressure, today's managers must translate these laudatory ideals into hands-on reality without sacrificing the firm's profit margin to experimentation. If any idea can help an organization achieve improvement through a workable program, then that idea and that program deserve real consideration. An ESP represents an opportunity to tap the intelligence and resourcefulness of an organization's employees, and by doing so, reap significant cost savings. Those companies and managers that have an ESP program uniformly list economic advantages first when describing the benefits of their employee suggestion programs. But there is another deeper and longer term benefit inherent in an ESP. These programs allow employees to become involved in their organization; they drive deaccession to lower levels, they give employees more responsibility, they foster creative approaches to work, and they encourage creativity in pursuit of company goals.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Hypnosis and the relationship between trance, suggestion, expectancy and depth: some semantic and conceptual issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagstaff, Graham F

    2010-07-01

    In the first of two recent papers, Pekala, Kumar, Maurer, Elliot-Carter, Moon and Mullen (2010a) review what they consider to be the relationships between trance or altered state effects, suggestibility, and expectancy, and how they relate to the concepts of hypnosis and hypnotism. They also suggest that these concepts can be assessed with an instrument they term the PCI-HAP (Phenomenology of Consciousness: Inventory-Hypnotic Assessment Procedure). In the second paper (Pekala, Kumar, Elliot-Carter, Moon, & Mullen, 2010b), they set out to determine empirically whether these concepts can predict hypnotic depth scores using the PCI-HAP. They conclude that their results support the view that all of these component processes may be involved in 'hypnotism' and experiences of hypnotic depth. However, according to their conceptualization, 'hypnosis' itself involves, or consists of, only altered state or trance effects. These papers raise a number of fundamental methodological, semantic and conceptual issues that are discussed in this commentary. Topics discussed include distinctions between concepts such as 'hypnosis', and 'hypnotism,' the role of inductions and suggestion in producing hypnotic phenomena, and the measurement and conceptualization of 'hypnotic depth.' It is concluded that many of the problems relating to the definition and conceptualization of terms associated with hypnosis may be clarified by placing the terms in their historical context, and that difficulties in identifying the origins of the experiences and behaviours associated with hypnosis may stem from insufficient attention to the role of suggestion and expectancies in producing hypnotic phenomena, and an over-reliance on the role of the procedures and mechanics of the induction process.

  10. Communicating about nuclear events: Some suggestions to improve INES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kermisch, Céline; Labeau, Pierre-Etienne

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides a critical analysis of the International Nuclear and Radiological Event Scale (INES) and its use, both from an epistemic and an ethical perspective. As very few papers have been dedicated to this subject, our critical analysis is mainly based on the INES 2009 User's Manual and on technical information issued by different nuclear agencies. Our critical analysis leads to suggest several elements, which could contribute to the improvement of the INES scale and thereby to a better communication about nuclear events. First, we show that multiple criteria are used to assign an INES rating, which could lead to an insufficient differentiation between events. In order to avoid this issue, we suggest to clarify the criteria that are used to assess the level of the event. Then, we show that level 7 of the INES scale is ill-defined as it does not allow to properly take differences in severity between disasters into account. In this regard, we recommend to use an open scale instead. Moreover, we highlight the fact that INES is able to take into account neither events with long-term evolution nor events involving multiple initiators. In this respect, we suggest providing additional guidelines and reflecting about the data on which to rely, in order to assess an INES level. Furthermore, we reflect on who should be rating a nuclear event and we recommend that, for severe events, an independent and plural agency should be in charge. Finally, we show why INES appears to be insufficient for a global communication, and we suggest to complement the INES rating with additional information in parallel. -- Highlights: •We provide a critical analysis of the INES scale and suggestions to improve it. •The rating criteria should be clarified to allow differentiation between events. •An open scale should be used to differentiate between level-7 accidents. •Additional guidelines should be provided for complex and evolving events. •We provide suggestions to satisfy

  11. The effect of posthypnotic suggestion, hypnotic suggestibility, and goal intentions on adherence to medical instructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Claudia; Mazzoni, Giuliana; Kirsch, Irving; Meo, Maria; Santandrea, Maura

    2008-04-01

    The effects of implementation intentions and posthypnotic suggestion were investigated in 2 studies. In Experiment 1, participants with high levels of hypnotic suggestibility were instructed to take placebo pills as part of an investigation of how to best enhance compliance with medical instruction. In Experiment 2, participants with high, medium, and low levels of hypnotic suggestibility were asked to run in place, take their pulse rate before, and send an e-mail report to the experimenter each day. Experiment 1 revealed enhanced adherence as a function of both implementation intentions and posthypnotic suggestion. Experiment 2 failed to find any significant main effects but found a significant interaction between suggestibility and the effects of posthypnotic suggestion. Posthypnotic suggestion enhanced adherence among high suggestible participants but lowered it among low suggestibles.

  12. Long-term contracts vs. short-term trade of natural gas - a European perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuhoff, Karsten; Hirschhausen, Christian von

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyses the economics of long-term gas contracts under changing institutional conditions, mainly gas sector liberalisation. The paper is motivated by the increasingly tense debate in continental Europe, UK and the US on the security of long-term gas supply. We discuss the main issues regarding long-term contracts, i.e. the changing role of the flexibility clause, the effect of abandoning the destination clause, and the strategic behaviour of producers between long-term sales and spot-sales. The literature suggests consumers and producers benefit from risk hedging through long-term contracts. Furthermore long-term contracts may reduce exercise of market power. Our analysis adds an additional benefit if the long-run demand elasticity is significantly lower than the short-run elasticity, both strategic producers and consumers benefit from lower prices and larger market volume. Some policy implications of the findings are also discussed. (Author)

  13. Forecasting stock return volatility: A comparison between the roles of short-term and long-term leverage effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Zhiyuan; Liu, Li

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we extend the GARCH-MIDAS model proposed by Engle et al. (2013) to account for the leverage effect in short-term and long-term volatility components. Our in-sample evidence suggests that both short-term and long-term negative returns can cause higher future volatility than positive returns. Out-of-sample results show that the predictive ability of GARCH-MIDAS is significantly improved after taking the leverage effect into account. The leverage effect for short-term volatility component plays more important role than the leverage effect for long-term volatility component in affecting out-of-sample forecasting performance.

  14. Pragmatic awareness of Suggestions: From (ImPolite Mannerism to Attitudinal Appropriateness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Allami

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The present research seeks to determine: (a Iranian EFL learners’ application of suggestion semantic formulae ;(b their attitude of appropriateness in terms of confidence in the employment of appropriate supportive moves; (c, their (impolite mannerism with respect to the selected strategies; and (d the relationship between attitude of appropriateness and mannerism of (impoliteness. An Oxford Quick placement Test (OQPT was administered among 60 Iranian EFL learners to check their language proficiency level and to satisfy the assumption of homogeneity among the learners. These participants along with 10 American native speakers then underwent a suggestion DCT. The questionnaire included questions addressing interlocutors’ with higher, lower or equal power status and intimate or strange social distance. The DCT also involved attitudinal appropriateness scale and (impoliteness mannerism likert scale to examine the learners’ degree of confidence and mannerism. Besides similarities and differences in the application of suggestion semantic formulae between the Iranian learners and American speakers, the results revealed variations in the two groups’ performances for appropriateness and (impoliteness. The results also indicated a positive relationship between the attitude and mannerism scales.

  15. Suggestibility under Pressure: Theory of Mind, Executive Function, and Suggestibility in Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpinski, Aryn C.; Scullin, Matthew H.

    2009-01-01

    Eighty preschoolers, ages 3 to 5 years old, completed a 4-phase study in which they experienced a live event and received a pressured, suggestive interview about the event a week later. Children were also administered batteries of theory of mind and executive function tasks, as well as the Video Suggestibility Scale for Children (VSSC), which…

  16. Management of male lower urinary tract symptoms suggestive of benign prostatic hyperplasia by general practitioners in Jakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal Abdi Matondang

    2014-06-01

    Conclusions: Our study provides evidence that the management of male LUTS suggestive of BPH by GPs in Jakarta suggests referral in part to available guidelines in terms of diagnostic methods and initial therapy. However, several aspects of the guidelines, such as PSA level measurement, renal function assessment, urinalysis, ultrasound examination, and prescription of combination therapies, are still infrequently performed.

  17. Verbal Short-Term Memory Span in Speech-Disordered Children: Implications for Articulatory Coding in Short-Term Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raine, Adrian; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Children with speech disorders had lower short-term memory capacity and smaller word length effect than control children. Children with speech disorders also had reduced speech-motor activity during rehearsal. Results suggest that speech rate may be a causal determinant of verbal short-term memory capacity. (BC)

  18. Testing increases suggestibility for narrative-based misinformation but reduces suggestibility for question-based misinformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPaglia, Jessica A; Chan, Jason C K

    2013-01-01

    A number of recent studies have found that recalling details of an event following its occurrence can increase people's suggestibility to later presented misinformation. However, several other studies have reported the opposite result, whereby earlier retrieval can reduce subsequent eyewitness suggestibility. In the present study, we investigated whether differences in the way misinformation is presented can modulate the effects of testing on suggestibility. Participants watched a video of a robbery and some were questioned about the event immediately afterwards. Later, participants were exposed to misinformation in a narrative (Experiment 1) or in questions (Experiment 2). Consistent with previous studies, we found that testing increased suggestibility when misinformation was presented via a narrative. Remarkably, when misinformation was presented in questions, testing decreased suggestibility. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Short-term and long-term effects of GDP on traffic deaths in 18 OECD countries, 1960-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadgar, Iman; Norström, Thor

    2017-02-01

    Research suggests that increases in gross domestic product (GDP) lead to increases in traffic deaths plausibly due to the increased road traffic induced by an expanding economy. However, there also seems to exist a long-term effect of economic growth that is manifested in improved traffic safety and reduced rates of traffic deaths. Previous studies focus on either the short-term, procyclical effect, or the long-term, protective effect. The aim of the present study is to estimate the short-term and long-term effects jointly in order to assess the net impact of GDP on traffic mortality. We extracted traffic death rates for the period 1960-2011 from the WHO Mortality Database for 18 OECD countries. Data on GDP/capita were obtained from the Maddison Project. We performed error correction modelling to estimate the short-term and long-term effects of GDP on the traffic death rates. The estimates from the error correction modelling for the entire study period suggested that a one-unit increase (US$1000) in GDP/capita yields an instantaneous short-term increase in the traffic death rate by 0.58 (pGDP leads to an immediate increase in traffic deaths. However, after the mid-1970s this short-term effect is more than outweighed by a markedly stronger protective long-term effect, whereas the reverse is true for the period before the mid-1970s. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  20. Deepening Sleep by Hypnotic Suggestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordi, Maren J.; Schlarb, Angelika A.; Rasch, Björn

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Slow wave sleep (SWS) plays a critical role in body restoration and promotes brain plasticity; however, it markedly declines across the lifespan. Despite its importance, effective tools to increase SWS are rare. Here we tested whether a hypnotic suggestion to “sleep deeper” extends the amount of SWS. Design: Within-subject, placebo-controlled crossover design. Setting: Sleep laboratory at the University of Zurich, Switzerland. Participants: Seventy healthy females 23.27 ± 3.17 y. Intervention: Participants listened to an auditory text with hypnotic suggestions or a control tape before napping for 90 min while high-density electroencephalography was recorded. Measurements and Results: After participants listened to the hypnotic suggestion to “sleep deeper” subsequent SWS was increased by 81% and time spent awake was reduced by 67% (with the amount of SWS or wake in the control condition set to 100%). Other sleep stages remained unaffected. Additionally, slow wave activity was significantly enhanced after hypnotic suggestions. During the hypnotic tape, parietal theta power increases predicted the hypnosis-induced extension of SWS. Additional experiments confirmed that the beneficial effect of hypnotic suggestions on SWS was specific to the hypnotic suggestion and did not occur in low suggestible participants. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate the effectiveness of hypnotic suggestions to specifically increase the amount and duration of slow wave sleep (SWS) in a midday nap using objective measures of sleep in young, healthy, suggestible females. Hypnotic suggestions might be a successful tool with a lower risk of adverse side effects than pharmacological treatments to extend SWS also in clinical and elderly populations. Citation: Cordi MJ, Schlarb AA, Rasch B. Deepening sleep by hypnotic suggestion. SLEEP 2014;37(6):1143-1152. PMID:24882909

  1. Crisis Phones - Suicide Prevention Versus Suggestion/Contagion Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stack, Steven

    2015-01-01

    There has been no systematic work on the short- or long-term impact of the installation of crisis phones on suicides from bridges. The present study addresses this issue. Data refer to 219 suicides from 1954 through 2013 on the Skyway Bridge in St. Petersburg, Florida. Six crisis phones with signs were installed in July 1999. In the first decade after installation, the phones were used by 27 suicidal persons and credited with preventing 26 or 2.6 suicides a year. However, the net suicide count increased from 48 in the 13 years before installation of phones to 106 the following 13 years or by 4.5 additional suicides/year (t =3.512, p < .001). Although the phones prevented some suicides, there was a net increase after installation. The findings are interpreted with reference to suggestion/contagion effects including the emergence of a controversial bridge suicide blog.

  2. Long-term trends in nitrogen isotope composition and nitrogen concentration in brazilian rainforest trees suggest changes in nitrogen cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hietz, Peter; Dünisch, Oliver; Wanek, Wolfgang

    2010-02-15

    Direct or indirect anthropogenic effects on ecosystem nitrogen cycles are important components of global change. Recent research has shown that N isotopes in tree rings reflect changes in ecosystem nitrogen sources or cycles and can be used to study past changes. We analyzed trends in two tree species from a remote and pristine tropical rainforest in Brazil, using trees of different ages to distinguish between the effect of tree age and long-term trends. Because sapwood differed from heartwood in delta(15)N and N concentration and N can be translocated between living sapwood cells, long-term trends are best seen in dead heartwood. Heartwood delta(15)N in Spanish cedar (Cedrela odorata) and big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) increased with tree age, and N concentrations increased with age in Cedrela. Controlling for tree age, delta(15)N increased significantly during the past century even when analyzing only heartwood and after removing labile N compounds. In contrast to northern temperate and boreal forests where wood delta(15)N often decreased, the delta(15)N increase in a remote rainforest is unlikely to be a direct signal of changed N deposition. More plausibly, the change in N isotopic composition indicates a more open N cycle, i.e., higher N losses relative to internal N cycling in the forest, which could be the result of changed forest dynamics.

  3. Selective insectivory at Toro-Semliki, Uganda: comparative analyses suggest no 'savanna' chimpanzee pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Timothy H; McGrew, William C; Marchant, Linda F; Payne, Charlotte L R; Hunt, Kevin D

    2014-06-01

    Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) insectivory across Africa is ubiquitous. Insects provide a significant nutritional payoff and may be important for chimpanzees in dry, open habitats with narrow diets. We tested this hypothesis at Semliki, Uganda, a long-term dry study site. We evaluated prospects for insectivory by measuring insect abundance along de novo transects and trails, monitoring social insect colonies, and surveying available raw materials for elementary technology. We determined the frequency and nature of insectivory through behavioral observation and fecal analysis. We then compared our results with those from 15 other long-term chimpanzee study sites using a cluster analysis. We found that Semliki chimpanzees are one of the most insectivorous populations studied to date in terms of frequency of consumption, but they are very selective in their insectivory, regularly consuming only weaver ants (Oecophylla longinoda) and honey and bees from hives of Apis mellifera. This selectivity obtains despite having a full range of typical prey species available in harvestable quantities. We suggest that Semliki chimpanzees may face ecological time constraints and therefore bias their predation toward prey taxa that can be quickly consumed. Geographical proximity correlated with the results of the cluster analysis, while rainfall, a relatively gross measure of environment, did not. Because broad taxonomic groups of insects were used in analyses, prey availability was unlikely to have a strong effect on this pattern. Instead, we suggest that transmission of cultural knowledge may play a role in determining chimpanzee prey selection across Africa. Further study is needed to test these hypotheses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Competitive short-term and long-term memory processes in spatial habituation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, David J; Bannerman, David M

    2011-04-01

    Exposure to a spatial location leads to habituation of exploration such that, in a novelty preference test, rodents subsequently prefer exploring a novel location to the familiar location. According to Wagner's (1981) theory of memory, short-term and long-term habituation are caused by separate and sometimes opponent processes. In the present study, this dual-process account of memory was tested. Mice received a series of exposure training trials to a location before receiving a novelty preference test. The novelty preference was greater when tested after a short, rather than a long, interval. In contrast, the novelty preference was weaker when exposure training trials were separated by a short, rather than a long interval. Furthermore, it was found that long-term habituation was determined by the independent effects of the amount of exposure training and the number of exposure training trials when factors such as the intertrial interval and the cumulative intertrial interval were controlled. A final experiment demonstrated that a long-term reduction of exploration could be caused by a negative priming effect due to associations formed during exploration. These results provide evidence against a single-process account of habituation and suggest that spatial habituation is determined by both short-term, recency-based memory and long-term, incrementally strengthened memory.

  5. Anisomycin Injection in Area CA3 of the Hippocampus Impairs Both Short-Term and Long-Term Memories of Contextual Fear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remaud, Jessica; Ceccom, Johnatan; Carponcy, Julien; Dugué, Laura; Menchon, Gregory; Pech, Stéphane; Halley, Helene; Francés, Bernard; Dahan, Lionel

    2014-01-01

    Protein synthesis is involved in the consolidation of short-term memory into long-term memory. Previous electrophysiological data concerning LTP in CA3 suggest that protein synthesis in that region might also be necessary for short-term memory. We tested this hypothesis by locally injecting the protein synthesis inhibitor anisomycin in hippocampal…

  6. The Structure and Content of Long-Term and Short-Term Mate Preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter K. Jonason

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study addresses two limitations in the mate preferences literature. First, research all-too-often relies on single-item assessments of mate preferences precluding more advanced statistical techniques like factor analysis. Second, when factor analysis could be done, it exclusively has done for long-term mate preferences, at the exclusion of short-term mate preferences. In this study (N = 401, we subjected 20 items designed to measure short- and long-term mate preferences to both principle components (n = 200 and confirmatory factor analysis (n = 201. In the long-term context, we replicated previous findings that there are three different categories of preferences: physical attractiveness, interpersonal warmth, and social status. In the short-term context, physical attractiveness occupied two parts of the structure, social status dropped out, and interpersonal warmth remained. Across short- and long-term contexts, there were slight changes in what defined the shared dimensions (i.e., physical attractiveness and interpersonal warmth, suggesting prior work that applies the same inventory to each context might be flawed. We also replicated sex differences and similarities in mate preferences and correlates with sociosexuality and mate value. We adopt an evolutionary paradigm to understand our results.

  7. Comparing to Prepare: Suggesting Ways to Study Social Media Today—and Tomorrow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Olof Larsson

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available While the two currently most popular social media services – Twitter and Facebook – are different in terms of technical and end-user details, this paper suggests that a series of similarities can also be found regarding different modes of communication offered by both services. These modes are labeled as Broadcasting, Redistributing, Interacting and Acknowledging. The argument is put forward that such synthesis of communication modes across platform could prove useful for longitudinal and comparative research efforts.

  8. Is the term "fasciculus opticus cerebralis" more justifiable than the term "optic nerve"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vojniković, Bojo; Bajek, Snjezana; Bajek, Goran; Strenja-Linić, Ines; Grubesić, Aron

    2013-04-01

    The terminology of the optic nerve had already been changed three times, since 1895 until 1955 when the term "nervus opticus" was introduced in the "Terminologia Anatomica". Following our study we claim that, from the aspect of phylogenetic evolution of binocular vision development as well as optical embryogenesis where opticus is evidently presented as a product of diencephalic structures, the addition of the term "nervus" to opticus is not adequate and justified. From the clinical aspect the term "nervus opticus" is also inadequate, both as a "nerve" that has no functional regenerative properties, unlike other cranial nerves, as well as from a pedagogical and didactical aspect of educating future physicians. We suggest that the term "Fasciculus Opticus Cerebralis" should be used as it much better explains the origin as well as its affiliation to the central nervous system.

  9. The interaction of short-term and long-term memory in phonetic category formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnsberger, James D.

    2002-05-01

    This study examined the role that short-term memory capacity plays in the relationship between novel stimuli (e.g., non-native speech sounds, native nonsense words) and phonetic categories in long-term memory. Thirty native speakers of American English were administered five tests: categorial AXB discrimination using nasal consonants from Malayalam; categorial identification, also using Malayalam nasals, which measured the influence of phonetic categories in long-term memory; digit span; nonword span, a short-term memory measure mediated by phonetic categories in long-term memory; and paired-associate word learning (word-word and word-nonword pairs). The results showed that almost all measures were significantly correlated with one another. The strongest predictor for the discrimination and word-nonword learning results was nonword (r=+0.62) and digit span (r=+0.51), respectively. When the identification test results were partialed out, only nonword span significantly correlated with discrimination. The results show a strong influence of short-term memory capacity on the encoding of phonetic detail within phonetic categories and suggest that long-term memory representations regulate the capacity of short-term memory to preserve information for subsequent encoding. The results of this study will also be discussed with regards to resolving the tension between episodic and abstract models of phonetic category structure.

  10. The Oslo definitions for coeliac disease and related terms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludvigsson, Jonas F; Leffler, Daniel A; Bai, Julio; Biagi, Federico; Fasano, Alessio; Green, Peter HR; Hadjivassiliou, Marios; Kaukinen, Katri; Kelly, Ciaran; Leonard, Jonathan N; Lundin, Knut E; Murray, Joseph A; Sanders, David S; Walker, Marjorie M; Zingone, Fabiana; Ciacci, Carolina

    2012-01-01

    Background The literature suggests a lack of consensus on the use of terms related to coeliac disease (CD) and gluten. Methods A multi-disciplinary task force of 16 physicians from 7 countries used the electronic database PubMed to review the literature with regards to CD-related terms up to January 2011. Teams of physicians then suggested a definition for each term, followed by feedback of these definitions through a web survey on definitions, discussions during a meeting in Oslo, and phone conferences. We evaluated the following terms (in alphabetical order): Coeliac disease and the following descriptors of CD: asymptomatic, atypical, classical, latent, non-classical, overt, paediatric classical, potential, refractory, silent, subclinical, symptomatic, typical, CD serology, CD autoimmunity, genetically at risk of CD, dermatitis herpetiformis, gluten, gluten ataxia, gluten intolerance, gluten sensitivity, and gliadin-specific antibodies. Results CD was defined as “a chronic small intestinal immune-mediated enteropathy precipitated by exposure to dietary gluten in genetically predisposed individuals”. Classical CD was defined as “CD presenting with signs and symptoms of malabsorption. Diarrhoea, steatorrhoea, weight loss or growth failure is required.” We suggest that “gluten-related disorders” is the umbrella term for all diseases triggered by gluten and that the term gluten intolerance is not to be used. Other definitions are presented in the paper. Conclusion This paper presents the Oslo definitions for CD-related terms. PMID:22345659

  11. Hypnotic suggestibility predicts the magnitude of the imaginative word blindness suggestion effect in a non-hypnotic context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parris, Benjamin A; Dienes, Zoltan

    2013-09-01

    The present study investigated how the magnitude the word blindness suggestion effect on Stroop interference depended on hypnotic suggestibility when given as an imaginative suggestion (i.e. not post-hypnotic suggestion) and under conditions in which hypnosis was not mentioned. Hypnotic suggestibility is shown to be a significant predictor of the magnitude of the imaginative word blindness suggestion effect under these conditions. This is therefore the first study to show a linear relationship between the imaginative word blindness suggestion effect and hypnotic suggestibility across the whole hypnotizability spectrum. The results replicate previous findings showing that highs respond to the word blindness suggestion to a greater extent than lows but extend previous work by showing that the advantage for those higher on the hypnotizability spectrum occurs even in a non-hypnotic context. Negative attitudes about hypnosis may not explain the failure to observe similar effects of the word blindness suggestion in less hypnotizable individuals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Short-term plasticity in auditory cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jääskeläinen, Iiro P; Ahveninen, Jyrki; Belliveau, John W; Raij, Tommi; Sams, Mikko

    2007-12-01

    Converging lines of evidence suggest that auditory system short-term plasticity can enable several perceptual and cognitive functions that have been previously considered as relatively distinct phenomena. Here we review recent findings suggesting that auditory stimulation, auditory selective attention and cross-modal effects of visual stimulation each cause transient excitatory and (surround) inhibitory modulations in the auditory cortex. These modulations might adaptively tune hierarchically organized sound feature maps of the auditory cortex (e.g. tonotopy), thus filtering relevant sounds during rapidly changing environmental and task demands. This could support auditory sensory memory, pre-attentive detection of sound novelty, enhanced perception during selective attention, influence of visual processing on auditory perception and longer-term plastic changes associated with perceptual learning.

  13. Children's Memory for Their Mother's Murder: Accuracy, Suggestibility, and Resistance to Suggestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliams, Kelly; Narr, Rachel; Goodman, Gail S; Ruiz, Sandra; Mendoza, Macaria

    2013-01-31

    From its inception, child eyewitness memory research has been guided by dramatic legal cases that turn on the testimony of children. Decades of scientific research reveal that, under many conditions, children can provide veracious accounts of traumatic experiences. Scientific studies also document factors that lead children to make false statements. In this paper we describe a legal case in which children testified about their mother's murder. We discuss factors that may have influenced the accuracy of the children's eyewitness memory. Children's suggestibility and resistance to suggestion are illustrated. Expert testimony, based on scientific research, can aid the trier of fact when children provide crucial evidence in criminal investigations and courtroom trials about tragic events.

  14. New Computer Terms in Bloggers’ Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilija Celiešienė

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an analysis of new words in computer terminology that make their way to blogs and analyzes how the official neologisms and computer terms, especially the equivalents to barbarisms, are employed in everyday use. The article also discusses the ways of including the new computer terms into texts. The blogs on topics of information technology are the objects of the research. The analysis of the aforementioned blogs allowed highlighting certain trends in the use of new computer terms. An observation was made that even though the authors of the blogs could freely choose their writing style, they were not bound by the standards of literary language. Thus, their language was full of non-standard vocabulary; however, self-control regarding the language used could still be noticed. An interest in novelties of computer terminology and the tendency to accept some of the suggested new Lithuanian and loaned computer terms were noticed. When using the new words the bloggers frequently employed specific graphical elements and (or comments. The graphical elements were often chosen by bloggers to express their feelings of doubt regarding the suitability of the use of the suggested loanword. Attempting to explain the meaning of the new word to the readers the bloggers tended to post comments about the new computer terms.

  15. Maritime health: a review with suggestions for research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLachlan, Malcolm; Kavanagh, Bill; Kay, Alison

    2012-01-01

    International maritime health has largely developed within the sphere of occupational health services and international health problems. We reviewed publications in the journal International Maritime Health from 2000 to 2010 to establish the coverage of the journal and the scope of research in maritime health. We identified six thematic categories: healthcare access, delivery and integration; telehealth; non-communicable diseases and physical health problems; communicable diseases; psychological functioning and health; and safety-related issues. We describe the research within these themes and report on their publication prominence. We also analyse the research in terms of its geographical focus, the population groups addressed and the research methodologies used. We suggest a broadening of maritime research to include randomised controlled trials, longitudinal studies and more qualitative research; more research addressing the context for non-European seafarers; and research on seafarers spouses and family supports and obligations. We also recommend more research on psychosocial and cultural issues and on telehealth, as well as the development of a stronger systems perspective for promoting maritime health.

  16. Validation of Suggestion-Induced Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-10-01

    Long-term Environment Foreign climate, geography, culture Diet / hunger Fatigue- -loss of sleep, exertion Isolation Crowding Perceived threat... neuropsychological theory of age regression and progression. In M.V. Kline (Ed..), Clinical correlations of experiment.al l~ypnosis. Springfield

  17. Clinical trials with rasagiline: evidence for short-term and long-term effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siderowf, Andrew; Stern, Matthew

    2006-05-23

    Rasagiline (N-propargyl-1 (R)-aminoindan) is a selective, potent irreversible inhibitor of MAO-B that possesses neuroprotective and anti-apoptotic properties in a variety of in vitro and in vivo animal models relevant to Parkinson's disease (PD). Several randomized controlled clinical trials have demonstrated the safety and efficacy of rasagiline as monotherapy in PD and as adjunctive therapy for patients receiving levodopa. In addition, the 1-year randomized, delayed-start analysis of the TEMPO study suggests that rasagiline may slow the rate of progression of PD. The randomized delayed-start paradigm has potential to differentiate short-term symptomatic effects from long-term effects of anti-parkinsonian agents. In the future, long-term trials to examine the potential disease-modifying effects of rasagiline, which incorporate biological markers as well as clinical endpoints, may further elucidate the role of rasagiline in the treatment of both early and advanced PD.

  18. The influence of suggestibility on memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas, Serge; Collins, Thérèse; Gounden, Yannick; Roediger, Henry L

    2011-06-01

    We provide a translation of Binet and Henri's pioneering 1894 paper on the influence of suggestibility on memory. Alfred Binet (1857-1911) is famous as the author who created the IQ test that bears his name, but he is almost unknown as the psychological investigator who generated numerous original experiments and fascinating results in the study of memory. His experiments published in 1894 manipulated suggestibility in several ways to determine effects on remembering. Three particular modes of suggestion were employed to induce false recognitions: (1) indirect suggestion by a preconceived idea; (2) direct suggestion; and (3) collective suggestion. In the commentary we suggest that Binet and Henri's (1894) paper written over 115 years ago is still highly relevant even today. In particular, Binet's legacy lives on in modern research on misinformation effects in memory, in studies of conformity, and in experiments on the social contagion of memory. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Retrieval Can Increase or Decrease Suggestibility Depending on How Memory Is Tested: The Importance of Source Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Jason C. K.; Wilford, Miko M.; Hughes, Katharine L.

    2012-01-01

    Taking an intervening test between learning episodes can enhance later source recollection. Paradoxically, testing can also increase people's susceptibility to the misinformation effect--a finding termed retrieval-enhanced suggestibility (RES, Chan, Thomas, & Bulevich, 2009). We conducted three experiments to examine this apparent contradiction.…

  20. Representational constraints on children's suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceci, Stephen J; Papierno, Paul B; Kulkofsky, Sarah

    2007-06-01

    In a multistage experiment, twelve 4- and 9-year-old children participated in a triad rating task. Their ratings were mapped with multidimensional scaling, from which euclidean distances were computed to operationalize semantic distance between items in target pairs. These children and age-mates then participated in an experiment that employed these target pairs in a story, which was followed by a misinformation manipulation. Analyses linked individual and developmental differences in suggestibility to children's representations of the target items. Semantic proximity was a strong predictor of differences in suggestibility: The closer a suggested distractor was to the original item's representation, the greater was the distractor's suggestive influence. The triad participants' semantic proximity subsequently served as the basis for correctly predicting memory performance in the larger group. Semantic proximity enabled a priori counterintuitive predictions of reverse age-related trends to be confirmed whenever the distance between representations of items in a target pair was greater for younger than for older children.

  1. The role of suggestibility in determinations of Miranda abilities: a study of the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Richard; Harrison, Kimberly S; Rogstad, Jill E; LaFortune, Kathryn A; Hazelwood, Lisa L

    2010-02-01

    Traditionally, high levels of suggestibility have been widely assumed to be linked with diminished Miranda abilities, especially in relationship to the voluntariness of waivers. The current investigation examined suggestibility on the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scales in a multisite study of pretrial defendants. One important finding was the inapplicability of British norms to American jurisdictions. Moreover, suggestibility appeared unrelated to Miranda comprehension, reasoning, and detainees' perceptions of police coercion. In testing rival hypotheses, defendants with high compliance had significantly lower Miranda comprehension and ability to reason about exercising Miranda rights than their counterparts with low compliance. Implications of these findings to forensic practice are examined.

  2. Basal Ganglia Calcification with Tetanic Seizure Suggest Mitochondrial Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finsterer, Josef; Enzelsberger, Barbara; Bastowansky, Adam

    2017-04-09

    BACKGROUND Basal ganglia calcification (BGC) is a rare sporadic or hereditary central nervous system (CNS) abnormality, characterized by symmetric or asymmetric calcification of the basal ganglia. CASE REPORT We report the case of a 65-year-old Gypsy female who was admitted for a tetanic seizure, and who had a history of polyneuropathy, restless-leg syndrome, retinopathy, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, osteoporosis with consecutive hyperkyphosis, cervicalgia, lumbalgia, struma nodosa requiring thyroidectomy and consecutive hypothyroidism, adipositas, resection of a vocal chord polyp, arterial hypertension, coronary heart disease, atheromatosis of the aorta, peripheral artery disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, steatosis hepatis, mild renal insufficiency, long-term hypocalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, impingement syndrome, spondylarthrosis of the lumbar spine, and hysterectomy. History and clinical presentation suggested a mitochondrial defect which also manifested as hypoparathyroidism or Fanconi syndrome resulting in BGC. After substitution of calcium, no further tetanic seizures occurred. CONCLUSIONS Patients with BGC should be investigated for a mitochondrial disorder. A mitochondrial disorder may also manifest as tetanic seizure.

  3. Reinventing suggestion systems for continuous improvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuring, R.W.; Luijten, Harald

    2001-01-01

    This article reports an experiment to increase the effectiveness of a suggestion system by deliberately applying principles of the kaizen and performance management. Design rules for suggestion systems are derived from these theories. The suggestion system that resulted differs from traditional

  4. Suggestive Objects at Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ratner, Helene Gad

    2009-01-01

    In Western secular societies, spiritual life is no longer limited to classical religious institutions but can also be found at workplace organizations. While spirituality is conventionally understood as a subjective and internal process, this paper proposes the concept of ‘suggestive objects......’, constructed by combining insights from Gabriel Tarde's sociology with Bruno Latour's actor-network theory, to theorize the material dimension of organizational spirituality. The sacred in organizations arises not from the internalization of collective values but through the establishment of material...... scaffolding. This has deep implications for our understanding of the sacred, including a better appreciation of the way that suggestive objects make the sacred durable, the way they organize it....

  5. Oxytocin impedes the effect of the word blindness post-hypnotic suggestion on Stroop task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parris, Benjamin A; Dienes, Zoltan; Bate, Sarah; Gothard, Stace

    2014-07-01

    The ability to enhance sensitivity to relevant (post)hypnotic suggestions has implications for creating clinically informed analogues of psychological and neuropsychological conditions and for the use of hypnotic interventions in psychological and medical conditions. The aim of this study was to test the effect of oxytocin inhalation on a post-hypnotic suggestion that previously has been shown to improve the selectivity of attention in the Stroop task. In a double-blind placebo-controlled between-subjects study, medium hypnotizable individuals performed the Stroop task under normal conditions and when they had been given a post-hypnotic suggestion that they would perceive words as meaningless symbols. In line with previous research, Stroop interference was substantially reduced by the suggestion in the placebo condition. However, contrary to expectations, oxytocin impeded the effect of the word blindness suggestion on performance. The results are explained in terms of the requirement for the re-implementation of the word blindness suggestion on a trial-by-trial basis and the need to sustain activation of the suggestion between trials. The findings contrast with a recent study showing a beneficial effect of oxytocin on sensitivity to (post)hypnotic suggestions but are consistent with findings showing a detrimental effect of oxytocin on memory processes. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Interrogative suggestibility in opiate users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, A; Edelmann, R J; Davis, P E

    1996-09-01

    The present study investigated interrogative suggestibility in opiate users. A group of patients undergoing a methadone detoxification programme in an in-patient drug treatment unit (Detox group, n = 21), and a group of residents who had come off drugs and were no longer suffering from withdrawal syndrome (Rehab group, n = 19) were compared on interrogative suggestibility and various other psychological factors. Significant differences were found between the two groups, with the Detox group having more physical and psychological problems, and a higher total suggestibility score in comparison with the Rehab group. These findings are discussed in relation to the context of police interrogations and the reliability of confessions made by suspects and witnesses dependent on opiates.

  7. Are You Suggesting That's My Hand? The Relation Between Hypnotic Suggestibility and the Rubber Hand Illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, E; Guilmette, D N; Longo, M R; Moore, J W; Oakley, D A; Halligan, P W; Mehta, M A; Deeley, Q

    2015-01-01

    Hypnotic suggestibility (HS) is the ability to respond automatically to suggestions and to experience alterations in perception and behavior. Hypnotically suggestible participants are also better able to focus and sustain their attention on an experimental stimulus. The present study explores the relation between HS and susceptibility to the rubber hand illusion (RHI). Based on previous research with visual illusions, it was predicted that higher HS would lead to a stronger RHI. Two behavioral output measures of the RHI, an implicit (proprioceptive drift) and an explicit (RHI questionnaire) measure, were correlated against HS scores. Hypnotic suggestibility correlated positively with the implicit RHI measure contributing to 30% of the variation. However, there was no relation between HS and the explicit RHI questionnaire measure, or with compliance control items. High hypnotic suggestibility may facilitate, via attentional mechanisms, the multisensory integration of visuoproprioceptive inputs that leads to greater perceptual mislocalization of a participant's hand. These results may provide insight into the multisensory brain mechanisms involved in our sense of embodiment.

  8. The Effects of Suggestibility on Relaxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickard, Henry C.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Selected undergraduates (N=32) on the basis of Creative Imagination Scale scores and randomly assigned high and low suggestibility subjects to progressive relaxation (PR) and suggestions of relaxation (SR) training modes. Results revealed a significant pre-post relaxation effect, and main efffects for both suggestibility and training mode. (NRB)

  9. Conversion of short-term to long-term memory in the novel object recognition paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Shannon J; Deshpande, Kaivalya; Stinnett, Gwen S; Seasholtz, Audrey F; Murphy, Geoffrey G

    2013-10-01

    It is well-known that stress can significantly impact learning; however, whether this effect facilitates or impairs the resultant memory depends on the characteristics of the stressor. Investigation of these dynamics can be confounded by the role of the stressor in motivating performance in a task. Positing a cohesive model of the effect of stress on learning and memory necessitates elucidating the consequences of stressful stimuli independently from task-specific functions. Therefore, the goal of this study was to examine the effect of manipulating a task-independent stressor (elevated light level) on short-term and long-term memory in the novel object recognition paradigm. Short-term memory was elicited in both low light and high light conditions, but long-term memory specifically required high light conditions during the acquisition phase (familiarization trial) and was independent of the light level during retrieval (test trial). Additionally, long-term memory appeared to be independent of stress-mediated glucocorticoid release, as both low and high light produced similar levels of plasma corticosterone, which further did not correlate with subsequent memory performance. Finally, both short-term and long-term memory showed no savings between repeated experiments suggesting that this novel object recognition paradigm may be useful for longitudinal studies, particularly when investigating treatments to stabilize or enhance weak memories in neurodegenerative diseases or during age-related cognitive decline. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The term origo in Roman epigraphy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael GONZÁLEZ FERNÁNDEZ

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available It is sometimes very difficult to interpret the term origo, since it can refer to different elements such as birth, place of origin, family or tribe. From the Republican period the Romans used to include this type of information in their inscriptions after the mention of the name, although, curiously, they did not employ the term origo itself, but other forms of expression. In this work we suggest that in Roman epigraphy this term was used, from the end of the Second Century and during the first half of the Third Century A. D., mainly in the times of the Severan Dynasty.

  11. Semantic and phonological contributions to short-term repetition and long-term cued sentence recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer, Jed A; Rose, Nathan S; Deschamps, Tiffany; Leigh, Rosie C; Panamsky, Lilia; Silberberg, Alexandra; Madani, Noushin; Links, Kira A

    2016-02-01

    The function of verbal short-term memory is supported not only by the phonological loop, but also by semantic resources that may operate on both short and long time scales. Elucidation of the neural underpinnings of these mechanisms requires effective behavioral manipulations that can selectively engage them. We developed a novel cued sentence recall paradigm to assess the effects of two factors on sentence recall accuracy at short-term and long-term stages. Participants initially repeated auditory sentences immediately following a 14-s retention period. After this task was complete, long-term memory for each sentence was probed by a two-word recall cue. The sentences were either concrete (high imageability) or abstract (low imageability), and the initial 14-s retention period was filled with either an undemanding finger-tapping task or a more engaging articulatory suppression task (Exp. 1, counting backward by threes; Exp. 2, repeating a four-syllable nonword). Recall was always better for the concrete sentences. Articulatory suppression reduced accuracy in short-term recall, especially for abstract sentences, but the sentences initially recalled following articulatory suppression were retained better at the subsequent cued-recall test, suggesting that the engagement of semantic mechanisms for short-term retention promoted encoding of the sentence meaning into long-term memory. These results provide a basis for using sentence imageability and subsequent memory performance as probes of semantic engagement in short-term memory for sentences.

  12. Sleep Quality, Short-Term and Long-Term CPAP Adherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somiah, Manya; Taxin, Zachary; Keating, Joseph; Mooney, Anne M.; Norman, Robert G.; Rapoport, David M.; Ayappa, Indu

    2012-01-01

    Study Objectives: Adherence to CPAP therapy is low in patients with obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS). The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the utility of measures of sleep architecture and sleep continuity on the CPAP titration study as predictors of both short- and long-term CPAP adherence. Methods: 93 patients with OSAHS (RDI 42.8 ± 34.3/h) underwent in-laboratory diagnostic polysomnography, CPAP titration, and follow-up polysomnography (NPSG) on CPAP. Adherence to CPAP was objectively monitored. Short-term (ST) CPAP adherence was averaged over 14 days immediately following the titration study. Long-term (LT) CPAP adherence was obtained in 56/93 patients after approximately 2 months of CPAP use. Patients were grouped into CPAP adherence groups for ST ( 4 h) and LT adherence ( 4 h). Sleep architecture, sleep disordered breathing (SDB) indices, and daytime outcome variables from the diagnostic and titration NPSGs were compared between CPAP adherence groups. Results: There was a significant relationship between ST and LT CPAP adherence (r = 0.81, p CPAP adherence groups had significantly lower %N2 and greater %REM on the titration NPSG. A model combining change in sleep efficiency and change in sleep continuity between the diagnostic and titration NPSGs predicted 17% of the variance in LT adherence (p = 0.006). Conclusions: These findings demonstrate that characteristics of sleep architecture, even on the titration NPSG, may predict some of the variance in CPAP adherence. Better sleep quality on the titration night was related to better CPAP adherence, suggesting that interventions to improve sleep on/prior to the CPAP titration study might be used as a therapeutic intervention to improve CPAP adherence. Citation: Somiah M; Taxin Z; Keating J; Mooney AM; Norman RG; Rapoport DM; Ayappa I. Sleep quality, short-term and long-term CPAP adherence. J Clin Sleep Med 2012;8(5):489-500. PMID:23066359

  13. LSD enhances suggestibility in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carhart-Harris, R L; Kaelen, M; Whalley, M G; Bolstridge, M; Feilding, A; Nutt, D J

    2015-02-01

    Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) has a history of use as a psychotherapeutic aid in the treatment of mood disorders and addiction, and it was also explored as an enhancer of mind control. The present study sought to test the effect of LSD on suggestibility in a modern research study. Ten healthy volunteers were administered with intravenous (i.v.) LSD (40-80 μg) in a within-subject placebo-controlled design. Suggestibility and cued mental imagery were assessed using the Creative Imagination Scale (CIS) and a mental imagery test (MIT). CIS and MIT items were split into two versions (A and B), balanced for 'efficacy' (i.e. A ≈ B) and counterbalanced across conditions (i.e. 50 % completed version 'A' under LSD). The MIT and CIS were issued 110 and 140 min, respectively, post-infusion, corresponding with the peak drug effects. Volunteers gave significantly higher ratings for the CIS (p = 0.018), but not the MIT (p = 0.11), after LSD than placebo. The magnitude of suggestibility enhancement under LSD was positively correlated with trait conscientiousness measured at baseline (p = 0.0005). These results imply that the influence of suggestion is enhanced by LSD. Enhanced suggestibility under LSD may have implications for its use as an adjunct to psychotherapy, where suggestibility plays a major role. That cued imagery was unaffected by LSD implies that suggestions must be of a sufficient duration and level of detail to be enhanced by the drug. The results also imply that individuals with high trait conscientiousness are especially sensitive to the suggestibility-enhancing effects of LSD.

  14. Depletion of serotonin selectively impairs short-term memory without affecting long-term memory in odor learning in the terrestrial slug Limax valentianus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirahata, Takaaki; Tsunoda, Makoto; Santa, Tomofumi; Kirino, Yutaka; Watanabe, Satoshi

    2006-01-01

    The terrestrial slug Limax is able to acquire short-term and long-term memories during aversive odor-taste associative learning. We investigated the effect of the selective serotonergic neurotoxin 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (5,7-DHT) on memory. Behavioral studies indicated that 5,7-DHT impaired short-term memory but not long-term memory. HPLC (high-performance liquid chromatography) analysis revealed that 5,7-DHT significantly reduced serotonin content in the central nervous system. The present study suggests that acquisition, retention, and/or retrieval of short-term memory involves serotonin, and neither acquisition nor retrieval of long-term memory requires serotonin at a level as high as that required for short-term memory.

  15. Behavioural Decision Making and Suggestional Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Molz, Günter

    2001-01-01

    Common features between the domains of behavioural decision making and suggestional processes are discussed. These features are allocated in two aspects. First, behavioural decision making and suggestional processes are traditionally considered to provoke inadequate human behaviour. In this article arguments are put forward against this interpretation: Actions induced by non-rational decisions and / or by suggestional processes often have adaptive functions. Second, two common themat...

  16. Evidence for preserved novel word learning in Down syndrome suggests multiple routes to vocabulary acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosse, Emma K; Jarrold, Christopher

    2011-08-01

    Three studies investigated novel word learning, some requiring phonological production, each involving between 11 and 17 individuals with Down syndrome, and between 15 and 24 typically developing individuals matched for receptive vocabulary. The effect of stimuli wordlikeness and incidental procedure-based memory demands were examined to see whether these may account for an apparent impairment in word learning in Down syndrome demonstrated in earlier research. Paired associate word and nonword learning tasks were presented, requiring participants to learn the names of novel characters. The nonword stimuli varied in the degree of wordlikeness in 2 studies. A third study investigated extraneous task demand. Across 3 studies, there was no suggestion of a word learning deficit associated with Down syndrome (η(2)(p) for the main effect of group of .03, .11, and .03, respectively), despite the level of phonological representation required. There was evidence that novel word learning by participants with Down syndrome exceeded that which their verbal short-term memory capacity would predict. Vocabulary acquisition in Down syndrome may not rely on verbal short-term memory to the same extent as in typically developing children, lending support to the suggestion that new word learning may be underpinned by an additional memory process.

  17. ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY, TOURISM, SUGGESTION OF HEALTHCITY ANDMEDICALPARK

    OpenAIRE

    KALYONCU, Kahraman

    2016-01-01

    In general these differences among the countries are mentioned: in terms of human and physical capital accumalation, technological differences, production power and depending on this production power they have difeerences for human capital power, educational structure, creativity. Therefore, these differences create the differences among the countries for productivity and efficiency level, producing the quality goods and services. Thus, we propose healthcity and medical park in terms of havin...

  18. Measuring Children's Suggestibility in Forensic Interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpini, Laura; Melis, Manuela; Petralia, Stefania; Rosenberg, Melina D

    2016-01-01

    According to the scientific literature, childrens' cognitive development is not complete until adolescence. Therefore, the problems inherent in children serving as witnesses are crucial. In preschool-aged children, false memories may be identified because of misinformation and insight bias. Additionally, they are susceptible of suggestions. The aim of this study was to verify the levels of suggestibility in children between three and 5 years of age. Ninety-two children were examined (44 male, 48 female; M = 4.5 years, SD = 9.62). We used the correlation coefficient (Pearson's r) and the averages variance by SPSS statistical program. The results concluded that: younger children are almost always more susceptible to suggestibility. The dimension of immediate recall was negatively correlates with that of total suggestibility (r = -0.357 p suggestibility, because older children shift their answers more often (r = 0.394 p < 0.001). Younger children change their answers more times (r = -0.395 p < 0.001). © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  19. Impulsivity, self-control, and hypnotic suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, V U; Stelzel, C; Krutiak, H; Prunkl, C E; Steimke, R; Paschke, L M; Kathmann, N; Walter, H

    2013-06-01

    Hypnotic responding might be due to attenuated frontal lobe functioning after the hypnotic induction. Little is known about whether personality traits linked with frontal functioning are associated with responsiveness to hypnotic suggestions. We assessed whether hypnotic suggestibility is related to the traits of self-control and impulsivity in 154 participants who completed the Brief Self-Control Scale, the Self-Regulation Scale, the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11), and the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility (HGSHS:A). BIS-11 non-planning impulsivity correlated positively with HGSHS:A (Bonferroni-corrected). Furthermore, in the best model emerging from a stepwise multiple regression, both non-planning impulsivity and self-control positively predicted hypnotic suggestibility, and there was an interaction of BIS-11 motor impulsivity with gender. For men only, motor impulsivity tended to predict hypnotic suggestibility. Hypnotic suggestibility is associated with personality traits linked with frontal functioning, and hypnotic responding in men and women might differ. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Same-sex marriage and context-specific kinship terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ould, Patricia; Whitlow, C Julie

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates whether married gays and lesbians in Massachusetts are using the kinship terms commonly associated with marriage in referring to and introducing their marriage partners and, if not, whether alternative terms are being used in a variety of social contexts. We demonstrate through survey and interview data that marriage-related terms are used discriminately, are consciously chosen, and are context specific. Choices are dependent on a variety of factors related to personal demographics, speech community associations, intimacy, identity, and safety. A significant difference in the use of terms after legal marriage has occurred suggesting a shift in attitude.

  1. Suggestibility and negative priming: two replication studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Daniel; Brown, Richard J

    2002-07-01

    Research suggests that inhibiting the effect of irrelevant stimuli on subsequent thought and action (cognitive inhibition) may be an important component of suggestibility. Two small correlation studies were conducted to address the relationship between different aspects of suggestibility and individual differences in cognitive inhibition, operationalized as the degree of negative priming generated by to-be-ignored stimuli in a semantic categorization task. The first study found significant positive correlations between negative priming, hypnotic suggestibility, and creative imagination; a significant negative correlation was obtained between negative priming and interrogative suggestibility, demonstrating the discriminant validity of the study results. The second study replicated the correlation between negative priming and hypnotic suggestibility, using a different suggestibility measurement procedure that assessed subjective experience and hypnotic involuntariness as well as objective responses to suggestions. These studies support the notion that the ability to engage in cognitive inhibition may be an important component of hypnotic responsivity and maybe of other forms of suggestibility.

  2. Precise synaptic efficacy alignment suggests potentiation dominated learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph eHartmann

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence suggests that parallel synapses from the same axonal branch onto the same dendritic branch have almost identical strength. It has been proposed that this alignment is only possible through learning rules that integrate activity over long time spans. However, learning mechanisms such as spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP are commonly assumed to be temporally local. Here, we propose that the combination of temporally local STDP and a multiplicative synaptic normalization mechanism is sufficient to explain the alignment of parallel synapses.To address this issue, we introduce three increasingly complex models: First, we model the idealized interaction of STDP and synaptic normalization in a single neuron as a simple stochastic process and derive analytically that the alignment effect can be described by a so-called Kesten process. From this we can derive that synaptic efficacy alignment requires potentiation-dominated learning regimes. We verify these conditions in a single-neuron model with independent spiking activities but more realistic synapses. As expected, we only observe synaptic efficacy alignment for long-term potentiation-biased STDP. Finally, we explore how well the findings transfer to recurrent neural networks where the learning mechanisms interact with the correlated activity of the network. We find that due to the self-reinforcing correlations in recurrent circuits under STDP, alignment occurs for both long-term potentiation- and depression-biased STDP, because the learning will be potentiation dominated in both cases due to the potentiating events induced by correlated activity. This is in line with recent results demonstrating a dominance of potentiation over depression during waking and normalization during sleep. This leads us to predict that individual spine pairs will be more similar in the morning than they are after sleep depriviation.In conclusion, we show that synaptic normalization in conjunction with

  3. On the relationship between short- and long-term memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Thomas Alrik

    James (1890) divided memory into separate stores; primary and secondary – or short-term and long-term memory. The interaction between the two stores often assumes that information initially is represented in volatile short-term store before entering and consolidating in the more durable long-term......, accepted). Counter to popular beliefs this suggest that long-term memory precedes short-term memory and not vice versa....... memory system (e.g. Atkinson & Shiffrin, 1968). Short-term memory seems to provide a surprising processing bottleneck where only a very limited amount of information can be represented at any given moment (Miller, 1956; Cowan, 2001). A number of studies have investigated the nature of this processing...

  4. NOTION VS TERM: LINGUO-SEMIOTIC ASPECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Viktorovna Tyurneva

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. As the title implies the article describes linguo-semiotic analysis of the notion and term suggesting differentiation of the mental entities based on discourse community classification. The paper is concerned with peculiarities of notion and term interpretation illustrating their different nature as well as sphere of usage. Methods and methodology. To achieve the objectives the following methods were used: interpretive method, method of speech act analysis, definitional analysis. Results. The article presents a study of semiotic entities in relation to certain discursive practices that allows us to differentiate the term and concept. Applications. Results of the study can be used in teaching such university courses as intercultural communication, discourse analysis and interpretation of the text.

  5. Trophic signatures of seabirds suggest shifts in oceanic ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagne, Tyler O.; Hyrenbach, K. David; Hagemann, Molly E.; Van Houtan, Kyle S.

    2018-01-01

    Pelagic ecosystems are dynamic ocean regions whose immense natural capital is affected by climate change, pollution, and commercial fisheries. Trophic level–based indicators derived from fishery catch data may reveal the food web status of these systems, but the utility of these metrics has been debated because of targeting bias in fisheries catch. We analyze a unique, fishery-independent data set of North Pacific seabird tissues to inform ecosystem trends over 13 decades (1890s to 2010s). Trophic position declined broadly in five of eight species sampled, indicating a long-term shift from higher–trophic level to lower–trophic level prey. No species increased their trophic position. Given species prey preferences, Bayesian diet reconstructions suggest a shift from fishes to squids, a result consistent with both catch reports and ecosystem models. Machine learning models further reveal that trophic position trends have a complex set of drivers including climate, commercial fisheries, and ecomorphology. Our results show that multiple species of fish-consuming seabirds may track the complex changes occurring in marine ecosystems. PMID:29457134

  6. Gummed-up memory: chewing gum impairs short-term recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, Michail D; Hughes, Robert W; Jones, Dylan M

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have suggested that short-term memory is generally improved by chewing gum. However, we report the first studies to show that chewing gum impairs short-term memory for both item order and item identity. Experiment 1 showed that chewing gum reduces serial recall of letter lists. Experiment 2 indicated that chewing does not simply disrupt vocal-articulatory planning required for order retention: Chewing equally impairs a matched task that required retention of list item identity. Experiment 3 demonstrated that manual tapping produces a similar pattern of impairment to that of chewing gum. These results clearly qualify the assertion that chewing gum improves short-term memory. They also pose a problem for short-term memory theories asserting that forgetting is based on domain-specific interference given that chewing does not interfere with verbal memory any more than tapping. It is suggested that tapping and chewing reduce the general capacity to process sequences.

  7. Evidence-based review, grade of recommendation, and suggested treatment recommendations for melasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilendu Sarma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of melasma is known to be less satisfactory, often incomplete, and relapse is frequent. Although many treatment options are available, they are either known to be unsafe on long-term use or their long-term safety profile is unknown. Patients often use various drugs, even topical steroid-based preparation without any medical supervision for long period of time, making the skin unsuitable for many of the drugs available. Thus, there has been gross disparity among the treating physician about what drugs and what regimen are best suitable for various categories of melasma patients and in different situations. With this background, numerous newer drugs, mostly combinations of some proprietary molecules or even unknown plant extracts, have flooded the market for the management of melasma. Information on efficacy or safety of these products are almost unknown. Studies on Asian people, especially Indian population, are far less commonly available. Therapeutic guideline for use on Indian patients with melasma is almost missing. Extrapolation of data from Caucasian people for use on Asian people may not be scientifically justifiable because Caucasian and Asian people are known to have inherent difference in their response as well as tolerance to the drugs used for melasma. With this background, we have extensively evaluated, following a strict, scientifically designed protocol, all the available studies on melasma management till May 2016 and prepared this document on level of evidence, grade of recommendation and suggested therapeutic guideline for melasma as per the method proposed by Oxford Centre of Evidence-Based Medicine. Various ethical, social, logical, regional, and economic issues in the context of Indian and similar populations were given due importance while preparing the suggested therapeutic recommendation.

  8. Coral reef growth in an era of rapidly rising sea level: predictions and suggestions for long-term research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buddemeier, R W; Smith, S V

    1988-01-01

    Coral reef growth is intimately linked to sea level. It has been postulated that over the next century, sea level will rise at a probable average rate of 15 mm/year, in response to fossil fuel emissions, heating, and melting of the Antarctic ice cap. This predicted rate of sea level rise is five times the present modal rate of vertical accretion on coral reef flats and 50% greater than the maximum vertical accretion rates apparently attained by coral reefs. We use these predictions and observations to offer the following hypothesis for reef growth over the next century. The vertical accretion rates of protected reef flats will accelerate from the present modal rate up to the maximum rate, in response to the more rapidly rising sea level. This more rapid vertical accretion rate will be insufficient to keep up with sea level rise, if present predictions prove to be correct. Less protected reef flats will slow their rate of growth as they become inundated and subjected to erosion by progressively larger waves. This projected sea level rise and postulated reef response will provide an opportunity for long- term studies of the response of coral reef systems to a predictable and measurable forcing function.

  9. Adverse event reporting in Czech long-term care facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hěib, Zdenřk; Vychytil, Pavel; Marx, David

    2013-04-01

    To describe adverse event reporting processes in long-term care facilities in the Czech Republic. Prospective cohort study involving a written questionnaire followed by in-person structured interviews with selected respondents. Long-term care facilities located in the Czech Republic. Staff of 111 long-term care facilities (87% of long-term care facilities in the Czech Republic). None. Sixty-three percent of long-term health-care facilities in the Czech Republic have adverse event-reporting processes already established, but these were frequently very immature programs sometimes consisting only of paper recording of incidents. Compared to questionnaire responses, in-person interview responses only partially tended to confirm the results of the written survey. Twenty-one facilities (33%) had at most 1 unconfirmed response, 31 facilities (49%) had 2 or 3 unconfirmed responses and the remaining 11 facilities (17%) had 4 or more unconfirmed responses. In-person interviews suggest that use of a written questionnaire to assess the adverse event-reporting process may have limited validity. Staff of the facilities we studied expressed an understanding of the importance of adverse event reporting and prevention, but interviews also suggested a lack of knowledge necessary for establishing a good institutional reporting system in long-term care.

  10. Is a community still a community? Reviewing definitions of key terms in community ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroud, James T; Bush, Michael R; Ladd, Mark C; Nowicki, Robert J; Shantz, Andrew A; Sweatman, Jennifer

    2015-11-01

    Community ecology is an inherently complicated field, confounded by the conflicting use of fundamental terms. Nearly two decades ago, Fauth et al. (1996) demonstrated that imprecise language led to the virtual synonymy of important terms and so attempted to clearly define four keywords in community ecology; "community," "assemblage," "guild," and "ensemble". We revisit Fauth et al.'s conclusion and discuss how the use of these terms has changed over time since their review. An updated analysis of term definition from a selection of popular ecological textbooks suggests that definitions have drifted away from those encountered pre-1996, and slightly disagreed with results from a survey of 100 ecology professionals (comprising of academic professors, nonacademic PhDs, graduate and undergraduate biology students). Results suggest that confusion about these terms is still widespread in ecology. We conclude with clear suggestions for definitions of each term to be adopted hereafter to provide greater cohesion among research groups.

  11. A review of cyberbullying and suggestions for online psychological therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mairéad Foody

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Investigations of cyberbullying are beginning to emerge in the scientific literature because of their implications for child and adolescent development. In particular, cyberbullying victimisation has been associated with similar negative consequences to traditional or face-to-face bullying such as lower academic achievement, anxiety, and sometimes even suicide. Research has also started to emerge investigating the impact of such incidences on the life of adults. The literature in this area has been steadily growing over the last decade and this review highlights the current situation in terms of relevant features and the psychological impact on victims. The selection process consisted of a comprehensive search that was conducted in January 2015 in the following databases: PsychInfo, ERIC, Web of Science and Medline. A total of 19 papers were included. We conclude with suggestions for online psychological treatment for victims and bullies as a means of coping with the distress caused from cyberbullying experiences.

  12. Independence of long-term contextual memory and short-term perceptual hypotheses: evidence from contextual cueing of interrupted search

    OpenAIRE

    Schlagbauer, B.; Mink, M.; Muller, Hermann J.; Geyer, T.

    2017-01-01

    Observers are able to resume an interrupted search trial faster relative to responding to a new, unseen display. This finding of rapid resumption is attributed to short-term perceptual hypotheses generated on the current look and confirmed upon subsequent looks at the same display. It has been suggested that the contents of perceptual hypotheses are similar to those of other forms of memory acquired long-term through repeated exposure to the same search displays over the course of several tri...

  13. Standardizing the Term "Strategy" in Retail and Business Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, So Young

    2017-01-01

    Strategy is a key concept in retail and business education. Yet, this important term has evolved to include many definitions, which can create confusion in the classroom environment. This paper proposes a standardized use of the term "strategy" in retail and business classrooms. It suggests a focused definition of strategy as "the…

  14. Relation between source term and emergency planning for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Zhongqi; Yang Ling

    1992-01-01

    Some background information of the severe accidents and source terms related to the nuclear power plant emergency planning are presented. The new source term information in NUREG-0956 and NUREG-1150, and possible changes in emergency planning requirements in U.S.A. are briefly provided. It is suggested that a principle is used in selecting source terms for establishing the emergency planning policy and a method is used in determining the Emergency Planning Zone (EPZ) size in China. Based on the research results of (1) EPZ size of PWR nuclear power plants being built in China, and (2) impact of reactor size and selected source terms on the EPZ size, it is concluded that the suggested principle and the method are suitable and feasible for PWR nuclear power plants in China

  15. Distinct cerebellar engrams in short-term and long-term motor learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen; Nakadate, Kazuhiko; Masugi-Tokita, Miwako; Shutoh, Fumihiro; Aziz, Wajeeha; Tarusawa, Etsuko; Lorincz, Andrea; Molnár, Elek; Kesaf, Sebnem; Li, Yun-Qing; Fukazawa, Yugo; Nagao, Soichi; Shigemoto, Ryuichi

    2014-01-07

    Cerebellar motor learning is suggested to be caused by long-term plasticity of excitatory parallel fiber-Purkinje cell (PF-PC) synapses associated with changes in the number of synaptic AMPA-type glutamate receptors (AMPARs). However, whether the AMPARs decrease or increase in individual PF-PC synapses occurs in physiological motor learning and accounts for memory that lasts over days remains elusive. We combined quantitative SDS-digested freeze-fracture replica labeling for AMPAR and physical dissector electron microscopy with a simple model of cerebellar motor learning, adaptation of horizontal optokinetic response (HOKR) in mouse. After 1-h training of HOKR, short-term adaptation (STA) was accompanied with transient decrease in AMPARs by 28% in target PF-PC synapses. STA was well correlated with AMPAR decrease in individual animals and both STA and AMPAR decrease recovered to basal levels within 24 h. Surprisingly, long-term adaptation (LTA) after five consecutive daily trainings of 1-h HOKR did not alter the number of AMPARs in PF-PC synapses but caused gradual and persistent synapse elimination by 45%, with corresponding PC spine loss by the fifth training day. Furthermore, recovery of LTA after 2 wk was well correlated with increase of PF-PC synapses to the control level. Our findings indicate that the AMPARs decrease in PF-PC synapses and the elimination of these synapses are in vivo engrams in short- and long-term motor learning, respectively, showing a unique type of synaptic plasticity that may contribute to memory consolidation.

  16. Topological terms induced by finite temperature and density fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemi, A.J.; Department of Physics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210)

    1986-01-01

    In (3+1)-dimensional finite-temperature and -density SU(2) gauge theories with left-handed fermions, the three-dimensional Chern-Simons term (topological mass) can be induced by radiative corrections. This result is derived by use of a family's index theorem which also implies that in many other quantum field theories various additional lower-dimensional topological terms can be induced. In the high-temperature limit these terms dominate the partition function, which suggests applications to early-Universe cosmology

  17. The relative kicking frequency of infants born full-term and preterm during learning and short-term and long-term memory periods of the mobile paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heathcock, Jill C; Bhat, Anjana N; Lobo, Michele A; Galloway, James C

    2005-01-01

    Infants born preterm differ in their spontaneous kicking, as well as their learning and memory abilities in the mobile paradigm, compared with infants born full-term. In the mobile paradigm, a supine infant's ankle is tethered to a mobile so that leg kicks cause a proportional amount of mobile movement. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relative kicking frequency of the tethered (right) and nontethered (left) legs in these 2 groups of infants. Ten infants born full-term and 10 infants born preterm (infants participated in the study. The relative kicking frequencies of the tethered and nontethered legs were analyzed during learning and short-term and long-term memory periods of the mobile paradigm. Infants born full-term showed an increase in the relative kicking frequency of the tethered leg during the learning period and the short-term memory period but not for the long-term memory period. Infants born preterm did not show a change in kicking pattern for learning or memory periods, and consistently kicked both legs in relatively equal amounts. Infants born full-term adapted their baseline kicking frequencies in a task-specific manner to move the mobile and then retained this adaptation for the short-term memory period. In contrast, infants born preterm showed no adaptation, suggesting a lack of purposeful leg control. This lack of control may reflect a general decrease in the ability of infants born preterm to use their limb movements to interact with their environment. As such, the mobile paradigm may be clinically useful in the early assessment and intervention of infants born preterm and at risk for future impairment.

  18. The requirement for enhanced CREB1 expression in consolidation of long-term synaptic facilitation and long-term excitability in sensory neurons of Aplysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rong-Yu; Cleary, Leonard J.; Byrne, John H.

    2011-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that the transcriptional activator CREB1 is important for serotonin (5-HT)-induced long-term facilitation (LTF) of the sensorimotor synapse in Aplysia. Moreover, creb1 is among the genes activated by CREB1, suggesting a role for this protein beyond the induction phase of LTF. The time course of the requirement for CREB1 synthesis in the consolidation of long-term facilitation was examined using RNA interference (RNAi) techniques in sensorimotor co-cultures. Injection of CREB1 small-interfering RNA (siRNA) immediately or 10 h after 5-HT treatment blocked LTF when measured at 24 h and 48 h after treatment. In contrast, CREB1 siRNA did not block LTF when injected 16 h after 5-HT treatment. These results demonstrate that creb1 expression must be sustained for a relatively long time in order to support the consolidation of LTF. In addition, LTF is also accompanied by a long-term increase in the excitability (LTE) of sensory neurons (SNs). Because LTE was observed in the isolated SN after 5-HT treatment, this long-term change was intrinsic to that element of the circuit. LTE was blocked when CREB1 siRNA was injected into isolated SNs immediately after 5-HT treatment. These data suggest that 5-HT-induced CREB1 synthesis is required for consolidation of both LTF and LTE. PMID:21543617

  19. Inhibition of protein kinase A activity interferes with long-term, but not short-term, memory of conditioned taste aversions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Ming Teng; Thiele, Todd E; Bernstein, Ilene L

    2002-12-01

    The present experiments examined whether inhibition of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) activity interferes with conditioned taste aversion (CTA) memories. Rats were centrally infused with the selective PKA inhibitor Rp-adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphothioate triethylamine (Rp-cAMPS) before conditioning. Direct infusions of Rp-cAMPS into the amygdala showed no interference with short-term memory but did show significant attenuation of long-term memory and more rapid extinction. Results suggest that PKA activity is involved in the consolidation of long-term memory of CTAs, and that the amygdala may be 1 site that is important for this activity.

  20. Interrogative suggestibility and perceptual motor performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudjonsson, G H

    1984-04-01

    This study investigates the relationship between interrogative suggestibility, as measured by the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale, and Arrow-Dot scores. The tendency of subjects (25 men and 25 women, mean age 30.2 yr.) to alter their answers once interpersonal pressure had been applied correlated significantly with poor Arrow-Dot Ego functioning.

  1. Managerial Long-Term Responsibility in Family-Controlled Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dietmar Sternad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidence suggests that long-term orientation (LTO as a dominantstrategic logic contributes to the sustainable performance offamily-controlled firms (FCFS. Combining a review of the literatureon lto with stewardship theory and upper echelons theoryreasoning, this article presents a typology of managerial responsibilityand introduces the concept of long-term responsibility as amanagerial characteristic constituting a major driving force behindcreating lto. The antecedents of long-term responsibilityunder family firm-specific conditions (stemming from the familysystem, the governance system, and family-firm managers’ personalcharacteristics are also identified and presented in an integratedmodel. The paper contributes to a more comprehensiveunderstanding of intertemporal choice in fcfs and explains whythey tend to be more long-term oriented than other types of firms.

  2. Evidentiality and Suggestibility: A New Research Venue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Cagla; Ceci, Stephen J.

    2009-01-01

    Recent research suggests that acquisition of mental-state language may influence conceptual development. We examine this possibility by investigating the conceptual links between evidentiality in language and suggestibility. Young children are disproportionately suggestible and tend to change their reports or memories when questioned. The authors…

  3. The histone deacetylase HDAC4 regulates long-term memory in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimons, Helen L; Schwartz, Silvia; Given, Fiona M; Scott, Maxwell J

    2013-01-01

    A growing body of research indicates that pharmacological inhibition of histone deacetylases (HDACs) correlates with enhancement of long-term memory and current research is concentrated on determining the roles that individual HDACs play in cognitive function. Here, we investigate the role of HDAC4 in long-term memory formation in Drosophila. We show that overexpression of HDAC4 in the adult mushroom body, an important structure for memory formation, resulted in a specific impairment in long-term courtship memory, but had no affect on short-term memory. Overexpression of an HDAC4 catalytic mutant also abolished LTM, suggesting a mode of action independent of catalytic activity. We found that overexpression of HDAC4 resulted in a redistribution of the transcription factor MEF2 from a relatively uniform distribution through the nucleus into punctate nuclear bodies, where it colocalized with HDAC4. As MEF2 has also been implicated in regulation of long-term memory, these data suggest that the repressive effects of HDAC4 on long-term memory may be through interaction with MEF2. In the same genetic background, we also found that RNAi-mediated knockdown of HDAC4 impairs long-term memory, therefore we demonstrate that HDAC4 is not only a repressor of long-term memory, but also modulates normal memory formation.

  4. The Real Transformation: Building and Maintaining Long-Term Competitive Advantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    TERM COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE LTC EDWARD C. CARDON, USA A TRANFORMATION PAPER FOR THE CHAIRMAN OF THE JOINT CHIEFS OF STAFF SEMINAR...SUBTITLE The Real Transformation: Building and Maintaining Long-Term Competitive Advantage 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...long-term military competitive advantage in comparison to the rest of the world.4 This approach suggests a model that places competition as the

  5. Long-Term Memory Performance in Adult ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skodzik, Timo; Holling, Heinz; Pedersen, Anya

    2017-02-01

    Memory problems are a frequently reported symptom in adult ADHD, and it is well-documented that adults with ADHD perform poorly on long-term memory tests. However, the cause of this effect is still controversial. The present meta-analysis examined underlying mechanisms that may lead to long-term memory impairments in adult ADHD. We performed separate meta-analyses of measures of memory acquisition and long-term memory using both verbal and visual memory tests. In addition, the influence of potential moderator variables was examined. Adults with ADHD performed significantly worse than controls on verbal but not on visual long-term memory and memory acquisition subtests. The long-term memory deficit was strongly statistically related to the memory acquisition deficit. In contrast, no retrieval problems were observable. Our results suggest that memory deficits in adult ADHD reflect a learning deficit induced at the stage of encoding. Implications for clinical and research settings are presented.

  6. Short-term memory and dual task performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    Two hypotheses concerning the way in which short-term memory interacts with another task in a dual task situation are considered. It is noted that when two tasks are combined, the activity of controlling and organizing performance on both tasks simultaneously may compete with either task for a resource; this resource may be space in a central mechanism or general processing capacity or it may be some task-specific resource. If a special relationship exists between short-term memory and control, especially if there is an identity relationship between short-term and a central controlling mechanism, then short-term memory performance should show a decrement in a dual task situation. Even if short-term memory does not have any particular identity with a controlling mechanism, but both tasks draw on some common resource or resources, then a tradeoff between the two tasks in allocating resources is possible and could be reflected in performance. The persistent concurrence cost in memory performance in these experiments suggests that short-term memory may have a unique status in the information processing system.

  7. Impaired short-term memory for pitch in congenital amusia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillmann, Barbara; Lévêque, Yohana; Fornoni, Lesly; Albouy, Philippe; Caclin, Anne

    2016-06-01

    Congenital amusia is a neuro-developmental disorder of music perception and production. The hypothesis is that the musical deficits arise from altered pitch processing, with impairments in pitch discrimination (i.e., pitch change detection, pitch direction discrimination and identification) and short-term memory. The present review article focuses on the deficit of short-term memory for pitch. Overall, the data discussed here suggest impairments at each level of processing in short-term memory tasks; starting with the encoding of the pitch information and the creation of the adequate memory trace, the retention of the pitch traces over time as well as the recollection and comparison of the stored information with newly incoming information. These impairments have been related to altered brain responses in a distributed fronto-temporal network, associated with decreased connectivity between these structures, as well as in abnormalities in the connectivity between the two auditory cortices. In contrast, amusic participants׳ short-term memory abilities for verbal material are preserved. These findings show that short-term memory deficits in congenital amusia are specific to pitch, suggesting a pitch-memory system that is, at least partly, separated from verbal memory. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Auditory working memory. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Reconciling long-term cultural diversity and short-term collective social behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valori, Luca; Picciolo, Francesco; Allansdottir, Agnes; Garlaschelli, Diego

    2012-01-24

    An outstanding open problem is whether collective social phenomena occurring over short timescales can systematically reduce cultural heterogeneity in the long run, and whether offline and online human interactions contribute differently to the process. Theoretical models suggest that short-term collective behavior and long-term cultural diversity are mutually excluding, since they require very different levels of social influence. The latter jointly depends on two factors: the topology of the underlying social network and the overlap between individuals in multidimensional cultural space. However, while the empirical properties of social networks are intensively studied, little is known about the large-scale organization of real societies in cultural space, so that random input specifications are necessarily used in models. Here we use a large dataset to perform a high-dimensional analysis of the scientific beliefs of thousands of Europeans. We find that interopinion correlations determine a nontrivial ultrametric hierarchy of individuals in cultural space. When empirical data are used as inputs in models, ultrametricity has strong and counterintuitive effects. On short timescales, it facilitates a symmetry-breaking phase transition triggering coordinated social behavior. On long timescales, it suppresses cultural convergence by restricting it within disjoint groups. Moreover, ultrametricity implies that these results are surprisingly robust to modifications of the dynamical rules considered. Thus the empirical distribution of individuals in cultural space appears to systematically optimize the coexistence of short-term collective behavior and long-term cultural diversity, which can be realized simultaneously for the same moderate level of mutual influence in a diverse range of online and offline settings.

  9. An investigation of the closure problem applied to reactor accident source terms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brearley, I.R.; Nixon, W.; Hayns, M.R.

    1987-01-01

    The closure problem, as considered here, focuses attention on the question of when in current research programmes enough has been learned about the source terms for reactor accident releases. Noting that current research is tending to reduce the estimated magnitude of the aerosol component of atmospheric, accidental releases, several possible criteria for closure are suggested. Moreover, using the reactor accident consequence model CRACUK, the effect of gradually reducing the aerosol release fractions of a pressurized water reactor (PWR2) source term (as defined in the WASH-1400 study) is investigated and the implications of applying the suggested criteria to current source term research discussed. (author)

  10. Characteristics of asthma attack with long-term management for bronchial asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, Noriko; Hasegawa, Shunji; Hashimoto, Kunio; Matsubara, Tomoyo; Ichiyama, Takashi; Furukawa, Susumu

    2009-10-01

    There have been no reports on the evaluation of the usefulness of long-term asthma management based on the Japanese Pediatric Guideline for the Treatment and Management of Bronchial Asthma 2005 (JPGL 2005). The purpose of the present study was to retrospectively investigate the records of 350 patients admitted to Yamaguchi University Hospital who had asthma attacks from January 2006 to June 2008. There were 149 patients who were treated for more than 3 months in accordance with the guideline (long-term management group) and 201 who were not (non-long-term management group). The patients were divided into three age groups: 100 infants, 159 toddlers, and 91 schoolchildren. The onset age of asthma in the long-term management group was earlier than that in the non-long-term management group in toddlers and schoolchildren. The white blood cell counts and C-reactive protein levels were higher in the non-long-term management group in schoolchildren, suggesting the complication of some infections. The severity of asthma in the long-term management group was greater than that in the non-long-term management group among all three age groups. There were no significant differences, however, in the severity of asthma attack at admission between the long-term and non-long-term management groups in the three age groups. Patients who had severe asthma tended to be treated with long-term management, which suggests that long-term asthma management according to JPGL 2005 may reduce the severity of asthma attack at that admission, because the severity of asthma in patients undergoing long-term management correlates with the severity of asthma attack.

  11. The histone deacetylase HDAC4 regulates long-term memory in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen L Fitzsimons

    Full Text Available A growing body of research indicates that pharmacological inhibition of histone deacetylases (HDACs correlates with enhancement of long-term memory and current research is concentrated on determining the roles that individual HDACs play in cognitive function. Here, we investigate the role of HDAC4 in long-term memory formation in Drosophila. We show that overexpression of HDAC4 in the adult mushroom body, an important structure for memory formation, resulted in a specific impairment in long-term courtship memory, but had no affect on short-term memory. Overexpression of an HDAC4 catalytic mutant also abolished LTM, suggesting a mode of action independent of catalytic activity. We found that overexpression of HDAC4 resulted in a redistribution of the transcription factor MEF2 from a relatively uniform distribution through the nucleus into punctate nuclear bodies, where it colocalized with HDAC4. As MEF2 has also been implicated in regulation of long-term memory, these data suggest that the repressive effects of HDAC4 on long-term memory may be through interaction with MEF2. In the same genetic background, we also found that RNAi-mediated knockdown of HDAC4 impairs long-term memory, therefore we demonstrate that HDAC4 is not only a repressor of long-term memory, but also modulates normal memory formation.

  12. Personality Styles and Suggestibility: A Differential Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Pires, Rute; Silva, Danilo R.; Ferreira, Ana Sousa

    2013-01-01

    This study addresses the relationship between personality styles measured with the Portuguese adaptation of the Millon Index of Personality Styles Revised – MIPS-R and interrogative suggestibility assessed by the Portuguese adaptation of the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale – GSS1. Hypotheses predicted individual differences in suggestibility and that these differences correspond to differences in individuals’ personality styles. The study was conducted with a sample of 258 individuals (M age ...

  13. Modulation of working memory updating: Does long-term memory lexical association matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artuso, Caterina; Palladino, Paola

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate how working memory updating for verbal material is modulated by enduring properties of long-term memory. Two coexisting perspectives that account for the relation between long-term representation and short-term performance were addressed. First, evidence suggests that performance is more closely linked to lexical properties, that is, co-occurrences within the language. Conversely, other evidence suggests that performance is linked more to long-term representations which do not entail lexical/linguistic representations. Our aim was to investigate how these two kinds of long-term memory associations (i.e., lexical or nonlexical) modulate ongoing working memory activity. Therefore, we manipulated (between participants) the strength of the association in letters based on either frequency of co-occurrences (lexical) or contiguity along the sequence of the alphabet (nonlexical). Results showed a cost in working memory updating for strongly lexically associated stimuli only. Our findings advance knowledge of how lexical long-term memory associations between consonants affect working memory updating and, in turn, contribute to the study of factors which impact the updating process across memory systems.

  14. A Simple Account of the Behavior of Long-Term Interest Rates.

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, John Y; Shiller, Robert J

    1984-01-01

    Recent empirical research on the term structure of interest rates has shown that the long-term interest rate is well described by a distributed lag on short-term interest rates, but does not conform to the expectations theory of the term structure. It has been suggested that the long rate "overreacts" to the short rate. This paper presents aunified taxonomy of risk premia, or deviations from the expectations theory. This enables the hypothesis of overreaction to be formally stated. It is show...

  15. CHANGES IN FARMER TERMS OF TRADE AND AGRICULTURE NET-BARTER TERMS OF TRADE: AN EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermanto Siregar

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1\\:*{behavior:url(#ieooui } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} In line with the Prebisch-Singerhypothesis, it is found that the Indonesian farmer terms of trade in aggregatefollowed a negative trend. Spatially, this tendency was mainly the case for theWestern Part of Indonesia, whereas in the Eastern Part of the country,especially in some Sulawesi and Kalimantan provinces, the farmer terms of tradeincreased significantly. This shows a potency to properly expand theagricultural sector in these provinces without risking the relative welfare offarmers to decline. Thus more agricultural development efforts should bedevoted to these regions. The net barter terms of trade for agriculture, whichmay be seen as a proxy of relative welfare of farmers with some accesses toexport/import market, on the other hand, generally depict a non-negative trend.This suggest that in average this group of farmers, or perhaps a group ofagricultural exporters, was less severaly affected by the crisis or crisis-likeevents than the peasant farmers. Therefore, systematic development program,which should be more than a rescue-short-term-demand-side program, is neededwith a main aim to stabilize the relative welfare of the peasant. The analysisalso suggests that Indonesiaagricultural exports are supply determined, which means that eliminations ofsupply bottlenecks and technological advancement leading to a lower unit costrelative to price received are necessary to undertake.

  16. A suggestion to assess spilled hydrocarbons as a greenhouse gas source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAlexander, Benjamin L., E-mail: bmcalexander@trihydro.com

    2014-11-15

    Petroleum-contaminated site management typically counts destruction of hydrocarbons by either natural or engineered processes as a beneficial component of remediation. While such oxidation of spilled hydrocarbons is often necessary for achieving risk reduction for nearby human and ecological receptors, site assessments tend to neglect that this also means that the pollutants are converted to greenhouse gases and emitted to the atmosphere. This article presents a suggestion that the current and long term greenhouse gas emissions from spilled hydrocarbons be incorporated to petroleum site assessments. This would provide a more complete picture of pollutant effects that could then be incorporated to remedial objectives. At some sites, this additional information may affect remedy selection. Possible examples include a shift in emphasis to remedial technologies that reduce pollutant greenhouse gas effects (e.g., by conversion of methane to carbon dioxide in the subsurface), and a more holistic context for considering remedial technologies with low emission footprints.

  17. A proposed lexicon of terms and concepts for human-bear management in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, John B.; Herrero, Stephen; Shideler, Richard T.; Gunther, Kerry A.; Schwartz, Charles C.; Kalinowski, Steven T.

    2010-01-01

    We believe that communication within and among agency personnel in the United States and Canada about the successes and failures of their human–bear (Ursidae) management programs will increase the effectiveness of these programs and of bear research. To communicate more effectively, we suggest agencies clearly define terms and concepts used in human–bear management and use them in a consistent manner. We constructed a human–bear management lexicon of terms and concepts using a modified Delphi method to provide a resource that facilitates more effective communication among human–bear management agencies. Specifically, we defined 40 terms and concepts in human–bear management and suggest definitions based on discussions with 13 other professionals from the United States and Canada. Although new terms and concepts will emerge in the future and definitions will evolve as we learn more about bear behavior and ecology, our purpose is to suggest working definitions for terms and concepts to help guide human–bear management and research activities in North America. Applications or revisions of these definitions may be useful outside of North America.

  18. Infants long-term memory for complex music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilari, Beatriz; Polka, Linda; Costa-Giomi, Eugenia

    2002-05-01

    In this study we examined infants' long-term memory for two complex pieces of music. A group of thirty 7.5 month-old infants was exposed daily to one short piano piece (i.e., either the Prelude or the Forlane by Maurice Ravel) for ten consecutive days. Following the 10-day exposure period there was a two-week retention period in which no exposure to the piece occurred. After the retention period, infants were tested on the Headturn Preference Procedure. At test, 8 different excerpts of the familiar piece were mixed with 8 different foil excerpts of the unfamiliar one. Infants showed a significant preference for the familiar piece of music. A control group of fifteen nonexposed infants was also tested and showed no preferences for either piece of music. These results suggest that infants in the exposure group retained the familiar music in their long-term memory. This was demonstrated by their ability to discriminate between the different excerpts of both the familiar and the unfamiliar pieces of music, and by their preference for the familiar piece. Confirming previous findings (Jusczyk and Hohne, 1993; Saffran et al., 2000), in this study we suggest that infants can retain complex pieces of music in their long-term memory for two weeks.

  19. ?1-Blockers in Men with Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms Suggestive of Benign Prostatic Obstruction: Is Silodosin Different?

    OpenAIRE

    Roehrborn, Claus G.; Cruz, Francisco; Fusco, Ferdinando

    2016-01-01

    Available ?1-blockers (ABs) have different profiles of receptor selectivity. Silodosin exhibits the highest selectivity for the ?1A adrenergic receptor. This pharmacological feature couples with a singular urodynamic and clinical profile. The magnitude of bladder outlet obstruction improvement in patients receiving silodosin is higher if compared to other ABs. From a clinical point of view, current evidence suggests an advantage in favor of silodosin in terms of nocturia improvement and cardi...

  20. The effects of short- and long-term air pollutants on plant phenology and leaf characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jochner, Susanne; Markevych, Iana; Beck, Isabelle; Traidl-Hoffmann, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Pollution adversely affects vegetation; however, its impact on phenology and leaf morphology is not satisfactorily understood yet. We analyzed associations between pollutants and phenological data of birch, hazel and horse chestnut in Munich (2010) along with the suitability of leaf morphological parameters of birch for monitoring air pollution using two datasets: cumulated atmospheric concentrations of nitrogen dioxide and ozone derived from passive sampling (short-term exposure) and pollutant information derived from Land Use Regression models (long-term exposure). Partial correlations and stepwise regressions revealed that increased ozone (birch, horse chestnut), NO_2, NO_x and PM levels (hazel) were significantly related to delays in phenology. Correlations were especially high when rural sites were excluded suggesting a better estimation of long-term within-city pollution. In situ measurements of foliar characteristics of birch were not suitable for bio-monitoring pollution. Inconsistencies between long- and short-term exposure effects suggest some caution when interpreting short-term data collected within field studies. - Highlights: • We present results of a field survey examining pollution effects on vegetation. • Particularly ozone was significantly associated with delays in spring phenology. • Leaf morphology of birch was found to be inadequate for bio-monitoring pollution. • Inconsistencies between long-/short-term exposure effects suggest caution. - Pollutants were significantly associated with delays in spring phenology. However, inconsistencies between long- and short-term exposure effects suggest some caution when interpreting results.

  1. The Effect of Memory Trace Strength on Suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezdek, Kathy; Roe, Chantal

    1995-01-01

    Examined the conditions under which children's memory is resistant to suggestibility versus vulnerable to suggestibility. Results suggest that children have more accurate memory for an event that occurred to them frequently, and that they are less vulnerable to suggestive influences such as biased interviewing procedures than they would be for an…

  2. Visual long-term memory for spatial frequency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lages, Martin; Paul, Aileen

    2006-06-01

    It has been suggested that a visual long-term memory based on a sensory representation of the stimulus accounts for discrimination performance when the reference and the test stimuli are separated in time. Decision processes involved in setting response criteria, however, may also contribute to discrimination performance. In the present study, it is shown that under proper control, spatial frequency discrimination thresholds from a group of observers, each performing on a single trial, are significantly higher for a 2-h than for a 5-sec retention interval, whereas thresholds from individual observers performing in repeated trials with a 2-h retention interval are considerably lower. The results suggest that discrimination performance may depend on the retention of task-relevant information, such as a response criterion, rather than on visual memory of the stimulus. It is concluded that it is risky to postulate a high-fidelity long-term visual memory for spatial frequency on the basis of psychophysical group discrimination thresholds.

  3. Suggestibility and Expectancy in a Counseling Analogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul, Theodore J.; Parker, Clyde A.

    1971-01-01

    The data indicated that (a) subjectively experienced suggestibility was more closely related to attitude change than was objective suggestibility, and (b) the generalized expectancy treatments were ineffective in influencing different criterion scores. (Author)

  4. Hippocampal Focal Knockout of CBP Affects Specific Histone Modifications, Long-Term Potentiation, and Long-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Ruth M; Malvaez, Melissa; Kramar, Eniko; Matheos, Dina P; Arrizon, Abraham; Cabrera, Sara M; Lynch, Gary; Greene, Robert W; Wood, Marcelo A

    2011-01-01

    To identify the role of the histone acetyltransferase (HAT) CREB-binding protein (CBP) in neurons of the CA1 region of the hippocampus during memory formation, we examine the effects of a focal homozygous knockout of CBP on histone modifications, gene expression, synaptic plasticity, and long-term memory. We show that CBP is critical for the in vivo acetylation of lysines on histones H2B, H3, and H4. CBP's homolog p300 was unable to compensate for the loss of CBP. Neurons lacking CBP maintained phosphorylation of the transcription factor CREB, yet failed to activate CREB:CBP-mediated gene expression. Loss of CBP in dorsal CA1 of the hippocampus resulted in selective impairments to long-term potentiation and long-term memory for contextual fear and object recognition. Together, these results suggest a necessary role for specific chromatin modifications, selectively mediated by CBP in the consolidation of memories. PMID:21508930

  5. Some basic terms from the point of view of andragogical didactics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nena Mijoč

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available From the point of view of andragogical didactics as one of the basic science of andragogy, we first define basic andragogical terms. Andragogical didactics is mostly interested in the process of education of adults. The terms it focuses on are learning followed by education and fixing boundaries of the term lesson. The key question is whether education follows andragogical or pedagogical process and how are these two approaches different. The author also suggests some translations of terms form the area of andragogical didactics.

  6. The role of maternal elaborative structure and control in children's memory and suggestibility for a past event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Principe, Gabrielle F; Trumbull, Jacqueline; Gardner, Grace; Van Horn, Elizabeth; Dean, Abigail M

    2017-11-01

    In this investigation, preschool-aged children experienced a staged event about which their mothers received misinformation suggesting that their children witnessed an activity that did not occur. Later, mothers were asked to talk about this event with their children. Consistent with previous research, mothers' provision of structure (defined as elaborative questions and statements) and degree of control (defined in terms of functional control of conversational turns) emerged as separate dimensions of maternal memory sharing style. When later interviewed by an unfamiliar examiner about the event, children whose mothers demonstrated both high structure and high control provided the highest levels of false reports of the activity suggested to mothers and generously embellished their accounts of this activity with nonoccurring details. In contrast, children with mothers who provided low structure, regardless of their degree of control, made few false reports and used sparse narrative detail. The implications of these findings for children's memory and suggestibility are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Long-term effects of interference on short-term memory performance in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missaire, Mégane; Fraize, Nicolas; Joseph, Mickaël Antoine; Hamieh, Al Mahdy; Parmentier, Régis; Marighetto, Aline; Salin, Paul Antoine; Malleret, Gaël

    2017-01-01

    A distinction has always been made between long-term and short-term memory (also now called working memory, WM). The obvious difference between these two kinds of memory concerns the duration of information storage: information is supposedly transiently stored in WM while it is considered durably consolidated into long-term memory. It is well acknowledged that the content of WM is erased and reset after a short time, to prevent irrelevant information from proactively interfering with newly stored information. In the present study, we used typical WM radial maze tasks to question the brief lifespan of spatial WM content in rodents. Groups of rats were submitted to one of two different WM tasks in a radial maze: a WM task involving the repetitive presentation of a same pair of arms expected to induce a high level of proactive interference (PI) (HIWM task), or a task using a different pair in each trial expected to induce a low level of PI (LIWM task). Performance was effectively lower in the HIWM group than in LIWM in the final trial of each training session, indicative of a "within-session/short-term" PI effect. However, we also observed a different "between-session/long-term" PI effect between the two groups: while performance of LIWM trained rats remained stable over days, the performance of HIWM rats dropped after 10 days of training, and this impairment was visible from the very first trial of the day, hence not attributable to within-session PI. We also showed that a 24 hour-gap across training sessions known to allow consolidation processes to unfold, was a necessary and sufficient condition for the long-term PI effect to occur. These findings suggest that in the HIWM task, WM content was not entirely reset between training sessions and that, in specific conditions, WM content can outlast its purpose by being stored more permanently, generating a long-term deleterious effect of PI. The alternative explanation is that WM content could be transferred and stored

  8. Long-term effects of interference on short-term memory performance in the rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mégane Missaire

    Full Text Available A distinction has always been made between long-term and short-term memory (also now called working memory, WM. The obvious difference between these two kinds of memory concerns the duration of information storage: information is supposedly transiently stored in WM while it is considered durably consolidated into long-term memory. It is well acknowledged that the content of WM is erased and reset after a short time, to prevent irrelevant information from proactively interfering with newly stored information. In the present study, we used typical WM radial maze tasks to question the brief lifespan of spatial WM content in rodents. Groups of rats were submitted to one of two different WM tasks in a radial maze: a WM task involving the repetitive presentation of a same pair of arms expected to induce a high level of proactive interference (PI (HIWM task, or a task using a different pair in each trial expected to induce a low level of PI (LIWM task. Performance was effectively lower in the HIWM group than in LIWM in the final trial of each training session, indicative of a "within-session/short-term" PI effect. However, we also observed a different "between-session/long-term" PI effect between the two groups: while performance of LIWM trained rats remained stable over days, the performance of HIWM rats dropped after 10 days of training, and this impairment was visible from the very first trial of the day, hence not attributable to within-session PI. We also showed that a 24 hour-gap across training sessions known to allow consolidation processes to unfold, was a necessary and sufficient condition for the long-term PI effect to occur. These findings suggest that in the HIWM task, WM content was not entirely reset between training sessions and that, in specific conditions, WM content can outlast its purpose by being stored more permanently, generating a long-term deleterious effect of PI. The alternative explanation is that WM content could be

  9. Validity of a Test of Children's Suggestibility for Predicting Responses to Two Interview Situations Differing in Their Degree of Suggestiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnila, Katarina; Mahlberg, Nina; Santtila, Pekka; Sandnabba, Kenneth; Niemi, Pekka

    2003-01-01

    Examined the relative contributions of internal and external sources of variation in children's suggestibility in interrogative situations. Found that internal sources of individual differences in suggestibility measured on a suggestibility test did influence children's answers during an interview, but that external sources or interview styles had…

  10. [Psychosocial issues of long-term cancer survivors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weis, J; Faller, H

    2012-04-01

    Although cancer incidence rates are increasing, recent statistical studies suggest that cancer patients are showing higher cure rates as well as improved overall survival rates for most cancer locations. These advances are explained by improved strategies in early diagnoses as well as improved cancer therapies. Therefore, the number of long-term cancer survivors has also increased, but only few studies, especially within the last years, have focused on psychosocial issues of this subgroup. Some studies show that overall quality of life of long-term cancer survivors is quite high and comparable to that of the normal population. Nevertheless, a substantial percentage of former patients shows reduced quality of life and suffers from various sequelae of cancer and its treatment. This review focuses on the most common psychosocial issue of long-term survivors such as reduced psychological wellbeing, neuropsychological deficits and cancer-related fatigue syndrome. Finally, recommendations for problem-oriented interventions as well as improvement of psychosocial care of long-term survivors are given.

  11. Retrieval-Induced Inhibition in Short-Term Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Min-Suk; Choi, Joongrul

    2015-07-01

    We used a visual illusion called motion repulsion as a model system for investigating competition between two mental representations. Subjects were asked to remember two random-dot-motion displays presented in sequence and then to report the motion directions for each. Remembered motion directions were shifted away from the actual motion directions, an effect similar to the motion repulsion observed during perception. More important, the item retrieved second showed greater repulsion than the item retrieved first. This suggests that earlier retrieval exerted greater inhibition on the other item being held in short-term memory. This retrieval-induced motion repulsion could be explained neither by reduced cognitive resources for maintaining short-term memory nor by continued inhibition between short-term memory representations. These results indicate that retrieval of memory representations inhibits other representations in short-term memory. We discuss mechanisms of retrieval-induced inhibition and their implications for the structure of memory. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Short-term memory in Down syndrome: applying the working memory model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrold, C; Baddeley, A D

    2001-10-01

    This paper is divided into three sections. The first reviews the evidence for a verbal short-term memory deficit in Down syndrome. Existing research suggests that short-term memory for verbal information tends to be impaired in Down syndrome, in contrast to short-term memory for visual and spatial material. In addition, problems of hearing or speech do not appear to be a major cause of difficulties on tests of verbal short-term memory. This suggests that Down syndrome is associated with a specific memory problem, which we link to a potential deficit in the functioning of the 'phonological loop' of Baddeley's (1986) model of working memory. The second section considers the implications of a phonological loop problem. Because a reasonable amount is known about the normal functioning of the phonological loop, and of its role in language acquisition in typical development, we can make firm predictions as to the likely nature of the short-term memory problem in Down syndrome, and its consequences for language learning. However, we note that the existing evidence from studies with individuals with Down syndrome does not fit well with these predictions. This leads to the third section of the paper, in which we consider key questions to be addressed in future research. We suggest that there are two questions to be answered, which follow directly from the contradictory results outlined in the previous section. These are 'What is the precise nature of the verbal short-term memory deficit in Down syndrome', and 'What are the consequences of this deficit for learning'. We discuss ways in which these questions might be addressed in future work.

  13. Circulating sclerostin is elevated in short-term and reduced in long-term SCI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglino, Ricardo A; Sudhakar, Supreetha; Lazzari, Antonio A; Garshick, Eric; Zafonte, Ross; Morse, Leslie R

    2012-09-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) causes profound bone loss due to muscle paralysis resulting in the inability to walk. Sclerostin, a Wnt signaling pathway antagonist produced by osteocytes, is a potent inhibitor of bone formation. Short-term studies in rodent models have demonstrated increased sclerostin in response to mechanical unloading that is reversed with reloading. Although sclerostin inhibition has been proposed as a potential therapy for bone loss, it is not known if sclerostin levels vary with duration of SCI in humans. We analyzed circulating sclerostin in 155 men with varying degrees of SCI who were 1 year or more post-injury. We report that sclerostin levels are greatest in subjects with short-term SCI (≤5 years post-injury) and decrease significantly over the first 5 years post-injury. There was no association between sclerostin and injury duration in subjects with long-term SCI (>5 years post-injury). In subjects with long-term SCI, sclerostin levels were positively associated with lower extremity bone density and bone mineral content. These data suggest that sclerostin levels are initially increased after SCI in response to mechanical unloading. This response is time-limited and as bone loss progresses, circulating sclerostin is lowest in subjects with severe osteoporosis. These findings support a dual role for sclerostin after SCI: a therapeutic target in acute SCI, and a biomarker of osteoporosis severity in chronic SCI. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The human hippocampal formation mediates short-term memory of colour-location associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finke, Carsten; Braun, Mischa; Ostendorf, Florian; Lehmann, Thomas-Nicolas; Hoffmann, Karl-Titus; Kopp, Ute; Ploner, Christoph J

    2008-01-31

    The medial temporal lobe (MTL) has long been considered essential for declarative long-term memory, whereas the fronto-parietal cortex is generally seen as the anatomical substrate of short-term memory. This traditional dichotomy is questioned by recent studies suggesting a possible role of the MTL for short-term memory. In addition, there is no consensus on a possible specialization of MTL sub-regions for memory of associative information. Here, we investigated short-term memory for single features and feature associations in three humans with post-surgical lesions affecting the right hippocampal formation and in 10 healthy controls. We used three delayed-match-to-sample tasks with two delays (900/5000 ms) and three set sizes (2/4/6 items). Subjects were instructed to remember either colours, locations or colour-location associations. In colour-only and location-only conditions, performance of patients did not differ from controls. By contrast, a significant group difference was found in the association condition at 5000 ms delay. This difference was largely independent of set size, thus suggesting that it cannot be explained by the increased complexity of the association condition. These findings show that the hippocampal formation plays a significant role for short-term memory of simple visuo-spatial associations, and suggest a specialization of MTL sub-regions for associative memory.

  15. Enhancing business intelligence by means of suggestive reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qazi, Atika; Raj, Ram Gopal; Tahir, Muhammad; Cambria, Erik; Syed, Karim Bux Shah

    2014-01-01

    Appropriate identification and classification of online reviews to satisfy the needs of current and potential users pose a critical challenge for the business environment. This paper focuses on a specific kind of reviews: the suggestive type. Suggestions have a significant influence on both consumers' choices and designers' understanding and, hence, they are key for tasks such as brand positioning and social media marketing. The proposed approach consists of three main steps: (1) classify comparative and suggestive sentences; (2) categorize suggestive sentences into different types, either explicit or implicit locutions; (3) perform sentiment analysis on the classified reviews. A range of supervised machine learning approaches and feature sets are evaluated to tackle the problem of suggestive opinion mining. Experimental results for all three tasks are obtained on a dataset of mobile phone reviews and demonstrate that extending a bag-of-words representation with suggestive and comparative patterns is ideal for distinguishing suggestive sentences. In particular, it is observed that classifying suggestive sentences into implicit and explicit locutions works best when using a mixed sequential rule feature representation. Sentiment analysis achieves maximum performance when employing additional preprocessing in the form of negation handling and target masking, combined with sentiment lexicons.

  16. Auditory-Cortex Short-Term Plasticity Induced by Selective Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jääskeläinen, Iiro P.; Ahveninen, Jyrki

    2014-01-01

    The ability to concentrate on relevant sounds in the acoustic environment is crucial for everyday function and communication. Converging lines of evidence suggests that transient functional changes in auditory-cortex neurons, “short-term plasticity”, might explain this fundamental function. Under conditions of strongly focused attention, enhanced processing of attended sounds can take place at very early latencies (~50 ms from sound onset) in primary auditory cortex and possibly even at earlier latencies in subcortical structures. More robust selective-attention short-term plasticity is manifested as modulation of responses peaking at ~100 ms from sound onset in functionally specialized nonprimary auditory-cortical areas by way of stimulus-specific reshaping of neuronal receptive fields that supports filtering of selectively attended sound features from task-irrelevant ones. Such effects have been shown to take effect in ~seconds following shifting of attentional focus. There are findings suggesting that the reshaping of neuronal receptive fields is even stronger at longer auditory-cortex response latencies (~300 ms from sound onset). These longer-latency short-term plasticity effects seem to build up more gradually, within tens of seconds after shifting the focus of attention. Importantly, some of the auditory-cortical short-term plasticity effects observed during selective attention predict enhancements in behaviorally measured sound discrimination performance. PMID:24551458

  17. Elegy as a film genre. Adaptation — inspiration — suggestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Koschany

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The question that this is article is concerned to answer is how the position of the film elegy can be best formally established — with its artistic representations, as well as its functioning in the genology of the genre. An attempt to provide definitive answers that emerge from interdisciplinary, film and literary discourse brings a number of substantial threads. Firstly, there is, indeed, no theoretical description of the elegy as a film genre, though the very name does appear in many titles. Secondly, it seems that a juxtaposition of available examples of film ad-aptations of elegies does not lead to any consistent conclusion, since, apart from the suggestion proposed by the author, they are different in terms of formal and thematic elements involved. Thirdly, any attempt at a genological profiling has to, somehow, refer to a more or less fixed literary genre and the relevant theory behind it. In a most general way, one can state, albeit with a number of reservations, that the elegiac film is characterized by a distinguishable style, often simply called the elegiac style, and the theme, very broadly associated with time and the theme of passing.

  18. Enhancing Business Intelligence by Means of Suggestive Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qazi, Atika

    2014-01-01

    Appropriate identification and classification of online reviews to satisfy the needs of current and potential users pose a critical challenge for the business environment. This paper focuses on a specific kind of reviews: the suggestive type. Suggestions have a significant influence on both consumers' choices and designers' understanding and, hence, they are key for tasks such as brand positioning and social media marketing. The proposed approach consists of three main steps: (1) classify comparative and suggestive sentences; (2) categorize suggestive sentences into different types, either explicit or implicit locutions; (3) perform sentiment analysis on the classified reviews. A range of supervised machine learning approaches and feature sets are evaluated to tackle the problem of suggestive opinion mining. Experimental results for all three tasks are obtained on a dataset of mobile phone reviews and demonstrate that extending a bag-of-words representation with suggestive and comparative patterns is ideal for distinguishing suggestive sentences. In particular, it is observed that classifying suggestive sentences into implicit and explicit locutions works best when using a mixed sequential rule feature representation. Sentiment analysis achieves maximum performance when employing additional preprocessing in the form of negation handling and target masking, combined with sentiment lexicons. PMID:25054188

  19. Enhancing Business Intelligence by Means of Suggestive Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atika Qazi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Appropriate identification and classification of online reviews to satisfy the needs of current and potential users pose a critical challenge for the business environment. This paper focuses on a specific kind of reviews: the suggestive type. Suggestions have a significant influence on both consumers’ choices and designers’ understanding and, hence, they are key for tasks such as brand positioning and social media marketing. The proposed approach consists of three main steps: (1 classify comparative and suggestive sentences; (2 categorize suggestive sentences into different types, either explicit or implicit locutions; (3 perform sentiment analysis on the classified reviews. A range of supervised machine learning approaches and feature sets are evaluated to tackle the problem of suggestive opinion mining. Experimental results for all three tasks are obtained on a dataset of mobile phone reviews and demonstrate that extending a bag-of-words representation with suggestive and comparative patterns is ideal for distinguishing suggestive sentences. In particular, it is observed that classifying suggestive sentences into implicit and explicit locutions works best when using a mixed sequential rule feature representation. Sentiment analysis achieves maximum performance when employing additional preprocessing in the form of negation handling and target masking, combined with sentiment lexicons.

  20. Macro Expectations, Aggregate Uncertainty, and Expected Term Premia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dick, Christian D.; Schmeling, Maik; Schrimpf, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    as well as aggregate macroeconomic uncertainty at the level of individual forecasters. We find that expected term premia are (i) time-varying and reasonably persistent, (ii) strongly related to expectations about future output growth, and (iii) positively affected by uncertainty about future output growth...... and in ation rates. Expectations about real macroeconomic variables seem to matter more than expectations about nominal factors. Additional findings on term structure factors suggest that the level and slope factor capture information related to uncertainty about real and nominal macroeconomic prospects...

  1. Narcissism and the Strategic Pursuit of Short-Term Mating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmitt, David P.; Alcalay, Lidia; Allik, Jüri

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have documented links between sub-clinical narcissism and the active pursuit of short-term mating strategies (e.g., unrestricted sociosexuality, marital infidelity, mate poaching). Nearly all of these investigations have relied solely on samples from Western cultures. In the curr...... limitations of these cross-culturally universal findings and presents suggestions for future research into revealing the precise psychological features of narcissism that facilitate the strategic pursuit of short-term mating....

  2. Changes in globus pallidus with (pre)term kernicterus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Govaert (Paul); R.M.C. Swarte (Renate); S.G.F. Robben (Simon); I.F.M. de Coo (René); N. Weisglas-Kuperus (Nynke); M. Sinaasappel (Maarten); J. Barkovich (James); Y.B. de Rijke (Yolanda); M.H. Lequin (Maarten)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: We report serial magnetic resonance (MR) and sonographic behavior of globus pallidus in 5 preterm and 3 term infants with kernicterus and describe the clinical context in very low birth weight preterm infants. On the basis of this information, we suggest

  3. Maltreated Children's Memory: Accuracy, Suggestibility, and Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisen, Mitchell L.; Goodman, Gail S.; Qin, Jianjian; Davis, Suzanne; Crayton, John

    2007-01-01

    Memory, suggestibility, stress arousal, and trauma-related psychopathology were examined in 328 3- to 16-year-olds involved in forensic investigations of abuse and neglect. Children's memory and suggestibility were assessed for a medical examination and venipuncture. Being older and scoring higher in cognitive functioning were related to fewer…

  4. Long-term consolidation of declarative memory: insight from temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tramoni, Eve; Felician, Olivier; Barbeau, Emmanuel J; Guedj, Eric; Guye, Maxime; Bartolomei, Fabrice; Ceccaldi, Mathieu

    2011-03-01

    Several experiments carried out with a subset of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy have demonstrated normal memory performance at standard delays of recall (i.e. minutes to hours) but impaired performance over longer delays (i.e. days or weeks), suggesting altered long-term consolidation mechanisms. These mechanisms were specifically investigated in a group of five adult-onset pharmaco-sensitive patients with temporal lobe epilepsy, exhibiting severe episodic memory complaints despite normal performance at standardized memory assessment. In a first experiment, the magnitude of autobiographical memory loss was evaluated using retrograde personal memory tasks based on verbal and visual cues. In both conditions, results showed an unusual U-shaped pattern of personal memory impairment, encompassing most of the patients' life, sparing however, periods of the childhood, early adulthood and past several weeks. This profile was suggestive of a long-term consolidation impairment of personal episodes, adequately consolidated over 'short-term' delays but gradually forgotten thereafter. Therefore, in a subsequent experiment, patients were submitted to a protocol specifically devised to investigate short and long-term consolidation of contextually-bound experiences (episodic memory) and context-free information (semantic knowledge and single-items). In the short term (1 h), performance at both contextually-free and contextually-bound memory tasks was intact. After a 6-week delay, however, contextually-bound memory performance was impaired while contextually-free memory performance remained preserved. This effect was independent of task difficulty and the modality of retrieval (recall and recognition). Neuroimaging studies revealed the presence of mild metabolic changes within medial temporal lobe structures. Taken together, these results show the existence of different consolidation systems within declarative memory. They suggest that mild medial temporal lobe dysfunction

  5. Short-Term International Internship Experiences for Future Teachers and Other Child Development Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kari Knutson; Gonzalez, Amber M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines outcomes associated with participation in short-term, international internship experiences. Results suggest short-term international internship experiences contribute to rich personal and professional development outcomes. Findings highlight participant challenges associated with initial internship experiences, professional…

  6. Suggestibility and signal detection performance in hallucination-prone students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alganami, Fatimah; Varese, Filippo; Wagstaff, Graham F; Bentall, Richard P

    2017-03-01

    Auditory hallucinations are associated with signal detection biases. We examine the extent to which suggestions influence performance on a signal detection task (SDT) in highly hallucination-prone and low hallucination-prone students. We also explore the relationship between trait suggestibility, dissociation and hallucination proneness. In two experiments, students completed on-line measures of hallucination proneness (the revised Launay-Slade Hallucination Scale; LSHS-R), trait suggestibility (Inventory of Suggestibility) and dissociation (Dissociative Experiences Scale-II). Students in the upper and lower tertiles of the LSHS-R performed an auditory SDT. Prior to the task, suggestions were made pertaining to the number of expected targets (Experiment 1, N = 60: high vs. low suggestions; Experiment 2, N = 62, no suggestion vs. high suggestion vs. no voice suggestion). Correlational and regression analyses indicated that trait suggestibility and dissociation predicted hallucination proneness. Highly hallucination-prone students showed a higher SDT bias in both studies. In Experiment 1, both bias scores were significantly affected by suggestions to the same degree. In Experiment 2, highly hallucination-prone students were more reactive to the high suggestion condition than the controls. Suggestions may affect source-monitoring judgments, and this effect may be greater in those who have a predisposition towards hallucinatory experiences.

  7. A Consumer-Driven Approach To Increase Suggestive Selling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohn, Don; Austin, John; Sanford, Alison

    2003-01-01

    Discussion of the effectiveness of behavioral interventions in improving suggestive selling behavior of sales staff focuses on a study that examined the efficacy of a consumer-driven approach to improve suggestive selling behavior of three employees of a fast food franchise. Reports that consumer-driven intervention increased suggestive selling…

  8. Gummed-up memory: Chewing gum impairs short-term recall

    OpenAIRE

    Kozlov, Michail D; Hughes, Robert W; Jones, Dylan M

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have suggested that short-term memory is generally improved by chewing gum. However, we report the first studies to show that chewing gum impairs short-term memory for both item order and item identity. Experiment 1 showed that chewing gum reduces serial recall of letter lists. Experiment 2 indicated that chewing does not simply disrupt vocal-articulatory planning required for order retention: Chewing equally impairs a matched task that required retention of list item identity...

  9. Memory for relations in the short term and the long term after medial temporal lobe damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squire, Larry R

    2017-05-01

    A central idea about the organization of declarative memory and the function of the hippocampus is that the hippocampus provides for the coding of relationships between items. A question arises whether this idea refers to the process of forming long-term memory or whether, as some studies have suggested, memory for relations might depend on the hippocampus even at short retention intervals and even when the task falls within the province of short-term (working) memory. The latter formulation appears to place the operation of relational memory into conflict with the idea that working memory is independent of medial temporal lobe (MTL) structures. In this report, the concepts of relational memory and working memory are discussed in the light of a simple demonstration experiment. Patients with MTL lesions successfully learned and recalled two word pairs when tested directly after learning but failed altogether when tested after a delay. The results do not contradict the idea that the hippocampus has a fundamental role in relational memory. However, there is a need for further elaboration and specification of the idea in order to explain why patients with MTL lesions can establish relational memory in the short term but not in long-term memory. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. A parallel form of the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudjonsson, G H

    1987-09-01

    The purpose of this study is twofold: (1) to present a parallel form of the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale (GSS, Form 1); (2) to study test-retest reliabilities of interrogative suggestibility. Three groups of subjects were administered the two suggestibility scales in a counterbalanced order. Group 1 (28 normal subjects) and Group 2 (32 'forensic' patients) completed both scales within the same testing session, whereas Group 3 (30 'forensic' patients) completed the two scales between one week and eight months apart. All the correlations were highly significant, giving support for high 'temporal consistency' of interrogative suggestibility.

  11. The Interdependence of Long- and Short-Term Components in Unmasked Repetition Priming: An Indication of Shared Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merema, Matt R; Speelman, Craig P

    2015-01-01

    It has been suggested that unmasked repetition priming is composed of distinct long-and short-term priming components. The current study sought to clarify the relationship between these components by examining the relationship between them. A total of 60 people (45 females, 15 males) participated in a computer-based lexical decision task designed to measure levels of short-term priming across different levels of long-term priming. The results revealed an interdependent relationship between the two components, whereby an increase in long-term priming prompted a decrease in short-term priming. Both long-term and short-term priming were accurately captured by a single power function over seven minutes post repetition, suggesting the two components may draw on the same resources. This interdependence between long- and short-term priming may serve to improve fluency in reading.

  12. The Interdependence of Long- and Short-Term Components in Unmasked Repetition Priming: An Indication of Shared Resources.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt R Merema

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that unmasked repetition priming is composed of distinct long-and short-term priming components. The current study sought to clarify the relationship between these components by examining the relationship between them. A total of 60 people (45 females, 15 males participated in a computer-based lexical decision task designed to measure levels of short-term priming across different levels of long-term priming. The results revealed an interdependent relationship between the two components, whereby an increase in long-term priming prompted a decrease in short-term priming. Both long-term and short-term priming were accurately captured by a single power function over seven minutes post repetition, suggesting the two components may draw on the same resources. This interdependence between long- and short-term priming may serve to improve fluency in reading.

  13. Verbal short-term memory and vocabulary learning in polyglots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papagno, C; Vallar, G

    1995-02-01

    Polyglot and non-polyglot Italian subjects were given tests assessing verbal (phonological) and visuo-spatial short-term and long-term memory, general intelligence, and vocabulary knowledge in their native language. Polyglots had a superior level of performance in verbal short-term memory tasks (auditory digit span and nonword repetition) and in a paired-associate learning test, which assessed the subjects' ability to acquire new (Russian) words. By contrast, the two groups had comparable performance levels in tasks assessing general intelligence, visuo-spatial short-term memory and learning, and paired-associate learning of Italian words. These findings, which are in line with neuropsychological and developmental evidence, as well as with data from normal subjects, suggest a close relationship between the capacity of phonological memory and the acquisition of foreign languages.

  14. Improving creativity performance by short-term meditation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background One form of meditation intervention, the integrative body-mind training (IBMT) has been shown to improve attention, reduce stress and change self-reports of mood. In this paper we examine whether short-term IBMT can improve performance related to creativity and determine the role that mood may play in such improvement. Methods Forty Chinese undergraduates were randomly assigned to short-term IBMT group or a relaxation training (RT) control group. Mood and creativity performance were assessed by the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) and Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT) questionnaire respectively. Results As predicted, the results indicated that short-term (30 min per day for 7 days) IBMT improved creativity performance on the divergent thinking task, and yielded better emotional regulation than RT. In addition, cross-lagged analysis indicated that both positive and negative affect may influence creativity in IBMT group (not RT group). Conclusions Our results suggested that emotion-related creativity-promoting mechanism may be attributed to short-term meditation. PMID:24645871

  15. Short-term and long-term plasticity interaction in human primary motor cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iezzi, Ennio; Suppa, Antonio; Conte, Antonella; Li Voti, Pietro; Bologna, Matteo; Berardelli, Alfredo

    2011-05-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over primary motor cortex (M1) elicits changes in motor evoked potential (MEP) size thought to reflect short- and long-term forms of synaptic plasticity, resembling short-term potentiation (STP) and long-term potentiation/depression (LTP/LTD) observed in animal experiments. We designed this study in healthy humans to investigate whether STP as elicited by 5-Hz rTMS interferes with LTP/LTD-like plasticity induced by intermittent and continuous theta-burst stimulation (iTBS and cTBS). The effects induced by 5-Hz rTMS and iTBS/cTBS were indexed as changes in MEP size. We separately evaluated changes induced by 5-Hz rTMS, iTBS and cTBS applied alone and those induced by iTBS and cTBS delivered after priming 5-Hz rTMS. Interactions between 5-Hz rTMS and iTBS/cTBS were investigated under several experimental conditions by delivering 5-Hz rTMS at suprathreshold and subthreshold intensity, allowing 1 and 5 min intervals to elapse between 5-Hz rTMS and TBS, and delivering one and ten 5-Hz rTMS trains. We also investigated whether 5-Hz rTMS induces changes in intracortical excitability tested with paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation. When given alone, 5-Hz rTMS induced short-lasting and iTBS/cTBS induced long-lasting changes in MEP amplitudes. When M1 was primed with 10 suprathreshold 5-Hz rTMS trains at 1 min before iTBS or cTBS, the iTBS/cTBS-induced after-effects disappeared. The 5-Hz rTMS left intracortical excitability unchanged. We suggest that STP elicited by suprathreshold 5-Hz rTMS abolishes iTBS/cTBS-induced LTP/LTD-like plasticity through non-homeostatic metaplasticity mechanisms. Our study provides new information on interactions between short-term and long-term rTMS-induced plasticity in human M1. © 2011 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience © 2011 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. PKA increases in the olfactory bulb act as unconditioned stimuli and provide evidence for parallel memory systems: pairing odor with increased PKA creates intermediate- and long-term, but not short-term, memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Matthew T; Harley, Carolyn W; Darby-King, Andrea; McLean, John H

    2012-02-21

    Neonatal odor-preference memory in rat pups is a well-defined associative mammalian memory model dependent on cAMP. Previous work from this laboratory demonstrates three phases of neonatal odor-preference memory: short-term (translation-independent), intermediate-term (translation-dependent), and long-term (transcription- and translation-dependent). Here, we use neonatal odor-preference learning to explore the role of olfactory bulb PKA in these three phases of mammalian memory. PKA activity increased normally in learning animals 10 min after a single training trial. Inhibition of PKA by Rp-cAMPs blocked intermediate-term and long-term memory, with no effect on short-term memory. PKA inhibition also prevented learning-associated CREB phosphorylation, a transcription factor implicated in long-term memory. When long-term memory was rescued through increased β-adrenoceptor activation, CREB phosphorylation was restored. Intermediate-term and long-term, but not short-term odor-preference memories were generated by pairing odor with direct PKA activation using intrabulbar Sp-cAMPs, which bypasses β-adrenoceptor activation. Higher levels of Sp-cAMPs enhanced memory by extending normal 24-h retention to 48-72 h. These results suggest that increased bulbar PKA is necessary and sufficient for the induction of intermediate-term and long-term odor-preference memory, and suggest that PKA activation levels also modulate memory duration. However, short-term memory appears to use molecular mechanisms other than the PKA/CREB pathway. These mechanisms, which are also recruited by β-adrenoceptor activation, must operate in parallel with PKA activation.

  17. Opportunities and improvisations: a pediatric surgeon's suggestions for successful short-term surgical volunteer work in resource-poor areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Donald

    2010-05-01

    There is a paucity of trained pediatric surgeons in resource-poor areas, and many children never receive care for debilitating problems that could readily be managed by surgeons with proper training, supplies, and instrumentation. This article, written from the perspective of a surgeon who has been both the recipient of and the provider of volunteer surgical services, is intended to encourage surgeons in technologically advanced locations to volunteer in underserved areas and to assist them in the implementation of such endeavors. Concepts are presented with an emphasis on pediatric surgery, but most are relevant for volunteers in all surgical specialties. Volunteer paradigms include, but are not limited to, the "surgical brigade" model, where a large group of health care professionals take all needed equipment and supplies for the duration of their stint, and the "minimalist" model, where a single volunteer works with local personnel using locally available equipment. For a successful volunteer endeavor the host needs to have a perceived need for the volunteer's services, and the volunteer must be flexible in adapting to meet overwhelming needs with limited resources. It is suggested that appropriate technology, such as the inexpensive anal stimulator presented herein, should be employed whenever possible. With proper planning, realistic expectations, and a cooperative and helpful attitude, volunteer trips can be rewarding experiences for both volunteers and host physicians and lead to lasting relationships that improve children's lives globally.

  18. Microarray and bioinformatic analyses suggest models for carbon metabolism in the autotroph Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. Appia-ayme; R. Quatrini; Y. Denis; F. Denizot; S. Silver; F. Roberto; F. Veloso; J. Valdes; J. P. Cardenas; M. Esparza; O. Orellana; E. Jedlicki; V. Bonnefoy; D. Holmes

    2006-09-01

    Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans is a chemolithoautotrophic bacterium that uses iron or sulfur as an energy and electron source. Bioinformatic analysis was used to identify putative genes and potential metabolic pathways involved in CO2 fixation, 2P-glycolate detoxification, carboxysome formation and glycogen utilization in At. ferrooxidans. Microarray transcript profiling was carried out to compare the relative expression of the predicted genes of these pathways when the microorganism was grown in the presence of iron versus sulfur. Several gene expression patterns were confirmed by real-time PCR. Genes for each of the above predicted pathways were found to be organized into discrete clusters. Clusters exhibited differential gene expression depending on the presence of iron or sulfur in the medium. Concordance of gene expression within each cluster, suggested that they are operons Most notably, clusters of genes predicted to be involved in CO2 fixation, carboxysome formation, 2P-glycolate detoxification and glycogen biosynthesis were up-regulated in sulfur medium, whereas genes involved in glycogen utilization were preferentially expressed in iron medium. These results can be explained in terms of models of gene regulation that suggest how A. ferrooxidans can adjust its central carbon management to respond to changing environmental conditions.

  19. Effect of BRCA1/2 mutation on short-term and long-term breast cancer survival: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun-Ha; Park, Sue K; Park, Boyoung; Kim, Sung-Won; Lee, Min Hyuk; Ahn, Sei Hyun; Son, Byung Ho; Yoo, Keun-Young; Kang, Daehee

    2010-07-01

    Reports of BRCA genetic mutations and risk of death or recurrence are inconsistent. This study aimed to compare overall and disease-free breast cancer survival rates between BRCA1/2 mutation carriers and non-carriers for short-term and long-term outcomes separately. We searched the PUBMED and EMBASE databases and retrieved 452 articles using keywords that included breast cancer, BRCA mutation, and survival. Seventeen articles were selected for systematic review and among them 11 were included in our meta-analysis. We used the random-effects model to calculate the summary hazard ratio and corresponding 95% confidence interval. BRCA1 mutation carriers had significantly lower short-term and long-term overall survival rates (OSR) relative to non-carriers (HR = 1.92 [95% CI = 1.45-2.53]; 1.33 [1.12-1.58], respectively), while both short-term and long-term OSR of BRCA2 carriers did not differ from non-carriers (HR = 1.30 [95% CI = 0.95-1.76]; 1.12 [95% CI = 0.86-1.45], respectively). For short-term progression-free survival rate (PFSR), BRCA1 mutation carriers had a significantly lower rate than non-carriers (HR = 1.54 [95% CI = 1.12-2.12]), while BRCA2 mutation carriers had a similar PFSR (HR = 1.23 [95% CI = 0.96-1.58]). For long-term PFSRs, we found no significant results. Our results suggest that BRCA1 mutation decreases short-term and long-term OSRs and short-term PFSR, however, BRCA2 mutation does not affect either short-term or long-term survival rate, which is attributed to the different carcinogenic pathways for BRCA1 and BRCA2.

  20. Short-term plasticity as a neural mechanism supporting memory and attentional functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jääskeläinen, Iiro P; Ahveninen, Jyrki; Andermann, Mark L; Belliveau, John W; Raij, Tommi; Sams, Mikko

    2011-11-08

    Based on behavioral studies, several relatively distinct perceptual and cognitive functions have been defined in cognitive psychology such as sensory memory, short-term memory, and selective attention. Here, we review evidence suggesting that some of these functions may be supported by shared underlying neuronal mechanisms. Specifically, we present, based on an integrative review of the literature, a hypothetical model wherein short-term plasticity, in the form of transient center-excitatory and surround-inhibitory modulations, constitutes a generic processing principle that supports sensory memory, short-term memory, involuntary attention, selective attention, and perceptual learning. In our model, the size and complexity of receptive fields/level of abstraction of neural representations, as well as the length of temporal receptive windows, increases as one steps up the cortical hierarchy. Consequently, the type of input (bottom-up vs. top down) and the level of cortical hierarchy that the inputs target, determine whether short-term plasticity supports purely sensory vs. semantic short-term memory or attentional functions. Furthermore, we suggest that rather than discrete memory systems, there are continuums of memory representations from short-lived sensory ones to more abstract longer-duration representations, such as those tapped by behavioral studies of short-term memory. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. An effective suggestion method for keyword search of databases

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Hai

    2016-09-09

    This paper solves the problem of providing high-quality suggestions for user keyword queries over databases. With the assumption that the returned suggestions are independent, existing query suggestion methods over databases score candidate suggestions individually and return the top-k best of them. However, the top-k suggestions have high redundancy with respect to the topics. To provide informative suggestions, the returned k suggestions are expected to be diverse, i.e., maximizing the relevance to the user query and the diversity with respect to topics that the user might be interested in simultaneously. In this paper, an objective function considering both factors is defined for evaluating a suggestion set. We show that maximizing the objective function is a submodular function maximization problem subject to n matroid constraints, which is an NP-hard problem. An greedy approximate algorithm with an approximation ratio O((Formula presented.)) is also proposed. Experimental results show that our suggestion outperforms other methods on providing relevant and diverse suggestions. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media New York

  2. Hypercognitive seizures - Proposal of a new term for the phenomenon forced thinking in epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephani, C; Koubeissi, M

    2017-08-01

    Here we propose the term hypercognitive seizures as a descriptor for seizures that manifest as a transient mental experience of intrusive thoughts or words that do not consist mainly of reminiscence. Currently, the term forced thinking is used to describe this uncommon seizure semiology, which has also been elicited by electrical brain stimulation. The available literature on forced thinking shows discordant interpretations of its meaning, justifying the suggestion of a new descriptor. In this paper, we would like to suggest and explain the term hypercognitive seizure and argue that this type of seizure lateralizes to the dominant hemisphere. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Long-term follow-up of psilocybin-facilitated smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Matthew W; Garcia-Romeu, Albert; Griffiths, Roland R

    2017-01-01

    A recent open-label pilot study (N = 15) found that two to three moderate to high doses (20 and 30 mg/70 kg) of the serotonin 2A receptor agonist, psilocybin, in combination with cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for smoking cessation, resulted in substantially higher 6-month smoking abstinence rates than are typically observed with other medications or CBT alone. To assess long-term effects of a psilocybin-facilitated smoking cessation program at ≥12 months after psilocybin administration. The present report describes biologically verified smoking abstinence outcomes of the previous pilot study at ≥12 months, and related data on subjective effects of psilocybin. All 15 participants completed a 12-month follow-up, and 12 (80%) returned for a long-term (≥16 months) follow-up, with a mean interval of 30 months (range = 16-57 months) between target-quit date (i.e., first psilocybin session) and long-term follow-up. At 12-month follow-up, 10 participants (67%) were confirmed as smoking abstinent. At long-term follow-up, nine participants (60%) were confirmed as smoking abstinent. At 12-month follow-up 13 participants (86.7%) rated their psilocybin experiences among the five most personally meaningful and spiritually significant experiences of their lives. These results suggest that in the context of a structured treatment program, psilocybin holds considerable promise in promoting long-term smoking abstinence. The present study adds to recent and historical evidence suggesting high success rates when using classic psychedelics in the treatment of addiction. Further research investigating psilocybin-facilitated treatment of substance use disorders is warranted.

  4. Structural and functional cerebral correlates of hypnotic suggestibility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexa Huber

    Full Text Available Little is known about the neural bases of hypnotic suggestibility, a cognitive trait referring to the tendency to respond to hypnotic suggestions. In the present magnetic resonance imaging study, we performed regression analyses to assess hypnotic suggestibility-related differences in local gray matter volume, using voxel-based morphometry, and in waking resting state functional connectivity of 10 resting state networks, in 37 healthy women. Hypnotic suggestibility was positively correlated with gray matter volume in portions of the left superior and medial frontal gyri, roughly overlapping with the supplementary and pre-supplementary motor area, and negatively correlated with gray matter volume in the left superior temporal gyrus and insula. In the functional connectivity analysis, hypnotic suggestibility was positively correlated with functional connectivity between medial posterior areas, including bilateral posterior cingulate cortex and precuneus, and both the lateral visual network and the left fronto-parietal network; a positive correlation was also found with functional connectivity between the executive-control network and a right postcentral/parietal area. In contrast, hypnotic suggestibility was negatively correlated with functional connectivity between the right fronto-parietal network and the right lateral thalamus. These findings demonstrate for the first time a correlation between hypnotic suggestibility, the structural features of specific cortical regions, and the functional connectivity during the normal resting state of brain structures involved in imagery and self-monitoring activity.

  5. Structural and functional cerebral correlates of hypnotic suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Alexa; Lui, Fausta; Duzzi, Davide; Pagnoni, Giuseppe; Porro, Carlo Adolfo

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the neural bases of hypnotic suggestibility, a cognitive trait referring to the tendency to respond to hypnotic suggestions. In the present magnetic resonance imaging study, we performed regression analyses to assess hypnotic suggestibility-related differences in local gray matter volume, using voxel-based morphometry, and in waking resting state functional connectivity of 10 resting state networks, in 37 healthy women. Hypnotic suggestibility was positively correlated with gray matter volume in portions of the left superior and medial frontal gyri, roughly overlapping with the supplementary and pre-supplementary motor area, and negatively correlated with gray matter volume in the left superior temporal gyrus and insula. In the functional connectivity analysis, hypnotic suggestibility was positively correlated with functional connectivity between medial posterior areas, including bilateral posterior cingulate cortex and precuneus, and both the lateral visual network and the left fronto-parietal network; a positive correlation was also found with functional connectivity between the executive-control network and a right postcentral/parietal area. In contrast, hypnotic suggestibility was negatively correlated with functional connectivity between the right fronto-parietal network and the right lateral thalamus. These findings demonstrate for the first time a correlation between hypnotic suggestibility, the structural features of specific cortical regions, and the functional connectivity during the normal resting state of brain structures involved in imagery and self-monitoring activity.

  6. Consideration of emergency source terms for pebble-bed high temperature gas-cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao, Liu; Jun, Zhao; Jiejuan, Tong; Jianzhu, Cao

    2009-01-01

    Being the last barrier in the nuclear power plant defense-in-depth strategy, emergency planning (EP) is an integrated project. One of the key elements in this process is emergency source terms selection. Emergency Source terms for light water reactor (LWR) nuclear power plant (NPP) have been introduced in many technical documents, and advanced NPP emergency planning is attracting attention recently. Commercial practices of advanced NPP are undergoing in the world, pebble-bed high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) power plant is under construction in China which is considered as a representative of advanced NPP. The paper tries to find some pieces of suggestion from our investigation. The discussion of advanced NPP EP will be summarized first, and then the characteristics of pebble-bed HTGR relating to EP will be described. Finally, PSA insights on emergency source terms selection and current pebble-bed HTGR emergency source terms suggestions are proposed

  7. A comparison of world-wide uses of severe reactor accident source terms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ang, M.L.; Frid, W.; Kersting, E.J.; Friederichs, H.G.; Lee, R.Y.; Meyer-Heine, A.; Powers, D.A.; Soda, K.; Sweet, D.

    1994-09-01

    The definitions of source terms to reactor containments and source terms to the environment are discussed. A comparison is made between the TID-14844 example source term and the alternative source term described in NUREG-1465. Comparisons of these source terms to the containments and those used in France, Germany, Japan, Sweden, and the United Kingdom are made. Source terms to the environment calculated in NUREG-1500 and WASH-1400 are discussed. Again, these source terms are compared to those now being used in France, Germany, Japan, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. It is concluded that source terms to the containment suggested in NUREG-1465 are not greatly more conservative than those used in other countries. Technical bases for the source terms are similar. The regulatory use of the current understanding of radionuclide behavior varies among countries

  8. Treating ADHD With Suggestion: Neurofeedback and Placebo Therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibault, Robert T; Veissière, Samuel; Olson, Jay A; Raz, Amir

    2018-06-01

    We propose that clinicians can use suggestion to help treat conditions such as ADHD. We use EEG neurofeedback as a case study, alongside evidence from a recent pilot experiment utilizing a sham MRI scanner to highlight the therapeutic potential of suggestion-based treatments. The medical literature demonstrates that many practitioners already prescribe treatments that hardly outperform placebo comparators. Moreover, the sham MRI experiment showed that, even with full disclosure of the procedure, suggestion alone can reduce the symptomatology of ADHD. Non-deceptive suggestion-based treatments, especially those drawing on accessories from neuroscience, may offer a safe complement and potential alternative to current standard of care for individuals with ADHD.

  9. Are there multiple visual short-term memory stores?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sligte, I.G.; Scholte, H.S.; Lamme, V.A.F.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Classic work on visual short-term memory (VSTM) suggests that people store a limited amount of items for subsequent report. However, when human observers are cued to shift attention to one item in VSTM during retention, it seems as if there is a much larger representation, which keeps

  10. Some practical implications of source term reassessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-03-01

    This report provides a brief summary of the current knowledge of severe accident source terms and suggests how this knowledge might be applied to a number of specific aspects of reactor safety. In preparing the report, consideration has been restricted to source term issues relating to light water reactors (LWRs). Consideration has also generally been restricted to the consequences of hypothetical severe accidents rather than their probability of occurrence, although it is recognized that, in the practical application of source term research, it is necessary to take account of probability as well as consequences. The specific areas identified were as follows: Exploration of the new insights that are available into the management of severe accidents; Investigating the impact of source term research on emergency planning and response; Assessing the possibilities which exist in present reactor designs for preventing or mitigating the consequences of severe accidents and how these might be used effectively; Exploring the need for backfitting and assessing the implications of source term research for future designs; and Improving the quantification of the radiological consequences of hypothetical severe accidents for probabilistic safety assessments (PSAs) and informing the public about the realistic risks associated with nuclear power plants. 7 refs

  11. Relationship between short-term sexual strategies and sexual jealousy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathes, Eugene W

    2005-02-01

    In a classic study, Buss, Larson, Westen, and Semmelroth reported that men were more distressed by the thought of a partner's sexual infidelity (sexual jealousy) and women were more distressed by the thought of a partner's emotional infidelity (emotional jealousy). Initially, Buss and his associates explained these results by suggesting that men are concerned about uncertainty of paternity, that is, the possibility of raising another man's child while believing the child is their own. However, later they explained the results in terms of men's preference for short-term sexual strategies. The purpose of this research was to test the explanation of short-term sexual strategies. Men and women subjects were instructed to imagine themselves in a relationship which was either short-term (primarily sexual) or long-term (involving commitment) and then respond to Buss's jealousy items. It was hypothesized that, when both men and women imagined a short-term relationship, they would be more threatened by a partner's sexual infidelity, and, when they imagined a long-term relationship, they would be more threatened by a partner's emotional infidelity. Support was found for this hypothesis.

  12. The long-term benefits of director stock ownership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Bolton

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In October 2009, the United States Treasury Department and Congress considered new regulations requiring executives and directors to receive much of their compensation in the form of long-term stock. One concern with this is that it may have negative consequences by entrenching managers and directors over the long term. This study compares the potential benefits of long-term director ownership with the potential costs of entrenchment. Using the dollar amount of stock owned by independent directors, the results suggest that the incentive effect dominates any costs related to entrenchment: firms with greater stock ownership outperform other firms, regardless of the degree of managerial entrenchment that may be present. The implication for policy-makers is that providing directors with incentives through stock ownership can be a very effective corporate governance mechanism.

  13. Placebo-suggestion modulates conflict resolution in the Stroop Task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro A Magalhães De Saldanha da Gama

    Full Text Available Here, we ask whether placebo-suggestion (without any form of hypnotic induction can modulate the resolution of cognitive conflict. Naïve participants performed a Stroop Task while wearing an EEG cap described as a "brain wave" machine. In Experiment 1, participants were made to believe that the EEG cap would either enhance or decrease their color perception and performance on the Stroop task. In Experiment 2, participants were explicitly asked to imagine that their color perception and performance would be enhanced or decreased (non-hypnotic imaginative suggestion. We observed effects of placebo-suggestion on Stroop interference on accuracy: interference was decreased with positive suggestion and increased with negative suggestion compared to baseline. Intra-individual variability was also increased under negative suggestion compared to baseline. Compliance with the instruction to imagine a modulation of performance, on the other hand, did not influence accuracy and only had a negative impact on response latencies and on intra-individual variability, especially in the congruent condition of the Stroop Task. Taken together, these results demonstrate that expectations induced by a placebo-suggestion can modulate our ability to resolve cognitive conflict, either facilitating or impairing response accuracy depending on the suggestion's contents. Our results also demonstrate a dissociation between placebo-suggestion and non-hypnotic imaginative suggestion.

  14. On the Effects of Suggested Prices in Gasoline Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.P. Faber (Riemer); M.C.W. Janssen (Maarten)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis article analyzes the role of suggested prices in the Dutch retail market for gasoline. Suggested prices are announced by large oil companies with the suggestion that retailers follow them. There are at least two competing rationales for the existence of suggested prices: they may

  15. Long-term repetition priming with symmetrical polygons and words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersteen-Tucker, Z

    1991-01-01

    In two different tasks, subjects were asked to make lexical decisions (word or nonword) and symmetry judgments (symmetrical or nonsymmetrical) about two-dimensional polygons. In both tasks, every stimulus was repeated at one of four lags (0, 1, 4, or 8 items interposed between the first and second stimulus presentations). This paradigm, known as repetition priming, revealed comparable short-term priming (Lag 0) and long-term priming (Lags 1, 4, and 8) both for symmetrical polygons and for words. A shorter term component (Lags 0 and 1) of priming was observed for nonwords, and only very short-term priming (Lag 0) was observed for nonsymmetrical polygons. These results indicate that response facilitation accruing from repeated exposure can be observed for stimuli that have no preexisting memory representations and suggest that perceptual factors contribute to repetition-priming effects.

  16. Alternative processes for the long-term storage of Kr-85

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penzhorn, R.D.

    1977-12-01

    The forseeable problems which are characteristic of the long-term storage of Kr-85, are discussed on the basis of the chemical, physical and radiological properties of the fission noble gases krypton and xenon as well as rubidium, the daughter nuclide of Kr-85. The various alternatives suggested in the literature for the long-term storage of Kr-85 are reviewed. The technological realization of each of the proposed alternatives is analyzed. (orig.) [de

  17. Records, record linkage, and the identification of long term environmental hazards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acheson, E. D.

    1978-11-15

    Long-term effects of toxic substances in man which have been recognized so far have been noticed because they have involved gross relative risks, or bizarre effects, or have been stumbled upon by chance or because of special circumstances. These facts and some recent epidemiological evidence together suggest that a systematic approach with more precise methods and data would almost certainly reveal the effects of many more toxic substances, particularly in workers exposed in manufacturing industry. Additional ways are suggested in which record linkage techniques might be used to identify substances with long-term toxic effects. Obstacles to further progress in the field of monitoring for long-term hazards in man are: lack of a public policy dealing with confidentiality and informed consent in the use of identifiable personal records, which balances the needs of bona fide research workers with proper safeguards for the privacy of the individual, and lack of resources to improve the quality, accessibility and organization of the appropriate data. (PCS)

  18. Dissociative tendencies and individual differences in high hypnotic suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terhune, Devin Blair; Cardeña, Etzel; Lindgren, Magnus

    2011-03-01

    Inconsistencies in the relationship between dissociation and hypnosis may result from heterogeneity among highly suggestible individuals, in particular the existence of distinct highly suggestible subtypes that are of relevance to models of psychopathology and the consequences of trauma. This study contrasted highly suggestible subtypes high or low in dissociation on measures of hypnotic responding, cognitive functioning, and psychopathology. Twenty-one low suggestible (LS), 19 low dissociative highly suggestible (LDHS), and 11 high dissociative highly suggestible (HDHS) participants were administered hypnotic suggestibility scales and completed measures of free recall, working memory capacity, imagery, fantasy-proneness, psychopathology, and exposure to stressful life events. HDHS participants were more responsive to positive and negative hallucination suggestions and experienced greater involuntariness during hypnotic responding. They also exhibited impaired working memory capacity, elevated pathological fantasy and dissociative symptomatology, and a greater incidence of exposure to stressful life events. In contrast, LDHS participants displayed superior object visual imagery. These results provide further evidence for two highly suggestible subtypes: a dissociative subtype characterised by deficits in executive functioning and a predisposition to psychopathology, and a subtype that exhibits superior imagery and no observable deficits in functioning.

  19. Strategies to overcome barriers to implementing osteoporosis and fracture prevention guidelines in long-term care: a qualitative analysis of action plans suggested by front line staff in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamri, Sultan H; Kennedy, Courtney C; Marr, Sharon; Lohfeld, Lynne; Skidmore, Carly J; Papaioannou, Alexandra

    2015-08-01

    Osteoporosis is a major global health problem, especially among long-term care (LTC) facilities. Despite the availability of effective clinical guidelines to prevent osteoporosis and bone fractures, few LTC homes actually adhere to these practical recommendations. The purpose of this study was to identify barriers to the implementation of evidence-based practices for osteoporosis and fracture prevention in LTC facilities and elicit practical strategies to address these barriers. We performed a qualitative analysis of action plans formulated by Professional Advisory Committee (PAC) teams at 12 LTC homes in the intervention arm of the Vitamin D and Osteoporosis Study (ViDOS) in Ontario, Canada. PAC teams were comprised of medical directors, administrators, directors of care, pharmacists, dietitians, and other staff. Thematic content analysis was performed to identify the key themes emerging from the action plans. LTC teams identified several barriers, including lack of educational information and resources prior to the ViDOS intervention, difficulty obtaining required patient information for fracture risk assessment, and inconsistent prescribing of vitamin D and calcium at the time of admission. The most frequently suggested recommendations was to establish and adhere to standard admission orders regarding vitamin D, calcium, and osteoporosis therapies, improve the use of electronic medical records for osteoporosis and fracture risk assessment, and require bone health as a topic at quarterly reviews and multidisciplinary conferences. This qualitative study identified several important barriers and practical recommendations for improving the implementation of osteoporosis and fracture prevention guidelines in LTC settings.

  20. LONG-TERM OUTCOME IN PEDIATRIC TRICHOTILLOMANIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumer, Maya C; Panza, Kaitlyn E; Mulqueen, Jilian M; Jakubovski, Ewgeni; Bloch, Michael H

    2015-10-01

    To examine long-term outcome in children with trichotillomania. We conducted follow-up clinical assessments an average of 2.8 ± 0.8 years after baseline evaluation in 30 of 39 children who previously participated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) for pediatric trichotillomania. Our primary outcome was change in hairpulling severity on the Massachusetts General Hospital Hairpulling Hospital Hairpulling Scale (MGH-HPS) between the end of the acute phase and follow-up evaluation. We also obtained secondary measures examining styles of hairpulling, comorbid anxiety and depressive symptoms, as well as continued treatment utilization. We examined both correlates and predictors of outcome (change in MGH-HPS score) using linear regression. None of the participants continued to take NAC at the time of follow-up assessment. No significant changes in hairpulling severity were reported over the follow-up period. Subjects reported significantly increased anxiety and depressive symptoms but improvement in automatic pulling symptoms. Increased hairpulling symptoms during the follow-up period were associated with increased depression and anxiety symptoms and increased focused pulling. Older age and greater focused pulling at baseline assessment were associated with poor long-term prognosis. Our findings suggest that few children with trichotillomania experience a significant improvement in trichotillomania symptoms if behavioral treatments are inaccessible or have failed to produce adequate symptom relief. Our findings also confirm results of previous cross-sectional studies that suggest an increased risk of depression and anxiety symptoms with age in pediatric trichotillomania. Increased focused pulling and older age among children with trichotillomania symptoms may be associated with poorer long-term prognosis. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Energy in 2010 - 2020. Long term challenges; Energie 2010-2020. Les defis du long terme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dessus, Benjamin [ed.] [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 75 - Paris (France)

    2000-02-02

    This report presents the results of a workshop intending to anticipate the long term challenges, to guide better the short term power options, to understand the available political, economical and technical assumptions for the prospective world situation, to give some strategic hints on the necessary transition. Indeed, the difficult issue which the workshop tried to tackle was how should we prepare to reveal the energetic challenge of the development of the eight to ten billion inhabitants of our Planet in the next century without jeopardizing its existence. The energetic problems, a hardcore of the international preoccupation of both growth and environment, as it was recently evidenced by the climatic conference in Kyoto, have ever been the object of a particular attention on the part of General Commissariat of Plan. Thus, the commission 'Energy in 2010 - 2020' has been instituted in April 1996 in order to update the works done in 1990 - 1991 by the commission 'Energy 2010'. Soon it occurred to this new commission the task of illuminating its works by a long term (2050 - 2100) world prospective analysis of the challenges and problems linked to energy, growth and environment. In conclusion, this document tried to find answers to questions like: - which are the risks the energy consumption augmentation entail? - can we control them by appropriate urbanism and transport policies or technological innovation?. Four options for immediate action are suggested: - the energy efficiency should become a priority objective of policies; -coping with the long term challenges requires acting at present; - building the transition between governmental leadership and market; - taking profit of all the possible synergies between short and long term planning.

  2. Retrospective attention in short-term memory has a lasting effect on long-term memory across age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strunk, Jonathan; Morgan, Lauren; Reaves, Sarah; Verhaeghen, Paul; Duarte, Audrey

    2018-04-13

    Declines in both short- and long-term memory are typical of healthy aging. Recent findings suggest that retrodictive attentional cues ("retro-cues") that indicate the location of to-be-probed items in short-term memory (STM) have a lasting impact on long-term memory (LTM) performance in young adults. Whether older adults can also use retro-cues to facilitate both STM and LTM is unknown. Young and older adults performed a visual STM task in which spatially informative retro-cues or non-informative neutral-cues were presented during STM maintenance of real-world objects. We tested participants' memory at both STM and LTM delays for objects that were previously cued with retrodictive or neutral cues during STM order to measure the lasting impact of retrospective attention on LTM. Older adults showed reduced STM and LTM capacity compared to young adults. However, they showed similar magnitude retro-cue memory benefits as young adults at both STM and LTM delays. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate whether retro-cues in STM facilitate the encoding of objects into LTM such that they are more likely to be subsequently retrieved by older adults. Our results support the idea that retrospective attention can be an effective means by which older adults can improve their short and long-term memory performance, even in the context of reduced memory capacity.

  3. Hypnotic suggestibility, cognitive inhibition, and dissociation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dienes, Zoltán; Brown, Elizabeth; Hutton, Sam; Kirsch, Irving; Mazzoni, Giuliana; Wright, Daniel B

    2009-12-01

    We examined two potential correlates of hypnotic suggestibility: dissociation and cognitive inhibition. Dissociation is the foundation of two of the major theories of hypnosis and other theories commonly postulate that hypnotic responding is a result of attentional abilities (including inhibition). Participants were administered the Waterloo-Stanford Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form C. Under the guise of an unrelated study, 180 of these participants also completed: a version of the Dissociative Experiences Scale that is normally distributed in non-clinical populations; a latent inhibition task, a spatial negative priming task, and a memory task designed to measure negative priming. The data ruled out even moderate correlations between hypnotic suggestibility and all the measures of dissociation and cognitive inhibition overall, though they also indicated gender differences. The results are a challenge for existing theories of hypnosis.

  4. Modeling long-term dynamics of electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsina, Fernando; Garces, Francisco; Haubrich, H.-J.

    2006-01-01

    In the last decade, many countries have restructured their electricity industries by introducing competition in their power generation sectors. Although some restructuring has been regarded as successful, the short experience accumulated with liberalized power markets does not allow making any founded assertion about their long-term behavior. Long-term prices and long-term supply reliability are now center of interest. This concerns firms considering investments in generation capacity and regulatory authorities interested in assuring the long-term supply adequacy and the stability of power markets. In order to gain significant insight into the long-term behavior of liberalized power markets, in this paper, a simulation model based on system dynamics is proposed and the underlying mathematical formulations extensively discussed. Unlike classical market models based on the assumption that market outcomes replicate the results of a centrally made optimization, the approach presented here focuses on replicating the system structure of power markets and the logic of relationships among system components in order to derive its dynamical response. The simulations suggest that there might be serious problems to adjust early enough the generation capacity necessary to maintain stable reserve margins, and consequently, stable long-term price levels. Because of feedback loops embedded in the structure of power markets and the existence of some time lags, the long-term market development might exhibit a quite volatile behavior. By varying some exogenous inputs, a sensitivity analysis is carried out to assess the influence of these factors on the long-run market dynamics

  5. Accounting of Long-Term Biological Assets

    OpenAIRE

    Valeriy Mossakovskyy; Vasyl Korytnyy

    2015-01-01

    The article is devoted to generalization of experience in valuation of long-term biological assets of plant-growing and animal-breeding, and preparation of suggestions concerning improvement of accounting in this field. Recommendations concerning accounting of such assets are given based on the study of accounting practice at specific agricultural company during long period of time. Authors believe that fair value is applicable only if price level for agricultural products is fixed by the gov...

  6. Short-term decisions under long-term uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tol, R.S.J.

    1998-01-01

    The behaviour of future policy-makers substantially influences future greenhouse gas emissions. Uncertainty about the motives of future policy-makers may thus strongly influence the climate policy strategies of current policy-makers. Analytical and numerical analyses in this paper confirm this hypothesis. If current policy-makers want to constrain emissions accumulated over a prolonged period of time, and if future policy-makers tend, with a certain chance, to a less ambitious climate policy, then current policy-makers should intensify their efforts to reduce emissions and the cost of emission reduction. In this setting, if current policy-makers want to meet a cumulative emission constraint in expectation, then the preferred policy trajectory does not qualitatively deviate from one suggested by a standard cost-effective trajectory. If, however, the constraint is to be met with a certain probability, then the importance of early action is enhanced relative to that of postponed action. Costs substantially increase if current policy-makers want to set long-term goals without the full cooperation of future policy-makers. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  7. Changes in heart rate variability are associated with expression of short-term and long-term contextual and cued fear memories.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Liu

    Full Text Available Heart physiology is a highly useful indicator for measuring not only physical states, but also emotional changes in animals. Yet changes of heart rate variability during fear conditioning have not been systematically studied in mice. Here, we investigated changes in heart rate and heart rate variability in both short-term and long-term contextual and cued fear conditioning. We found that while fear conditioning could increase heart rate, the most significant change was the reduction in heart rate variability which could be further divided into two distinct stages: a highly rhythmic phase (stage-I and a more variable phase (stage-II. We showed that the time duration of the stage-I rhythmic phase were sensitive enough to reflect the transition from short-term to long-term fear memories. Moreover, it could also detect fear extinction effect during the repeated tone recall. These results suggest that heart rate variability is a valuable physiological indicator for sensitively measuring the consolidation and expression of fear memories in mice.

  8. Robust short-term memory without synaptic learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Johnson

    Full Text Available Short-term memory in the brain cannot in general be explained the way long-term memory can--as a gradual modification of synaptic weights--since it takes place too quickly. Theories based on some form of cellular bistability, however, do not seem able to account for the fact that noisy neurons can collectively store information in a robust manner. We show how a sufficiently clustered network of simple model neurons can be instantly induced into metastable states capable of retaining information for a short time (a few seconds. The mechanism is robust to different network topologies and kinds of neural model. This could constitute a viable means available to the brain for sensory and/or short-term memory with no need of synaptic learning. Relevant phenomena described by neurobiology and psychology, such as local synchronization of synaptic inputs and power-law statistics of forgetting avalanches, emerge naturally from this mechanism, and we suggest possible experiments to test its viability in more biological settings.

  9. Robust short-term memory without synaptic learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Samuel; Marro, J; Torres, Joaquín J

    2013-01-01

    Short-term memory in the brain cannot in general be explained the way long-term memory can--as a gradual modification of synaptic weights--since it takes place too quickly. Theories based on some form of cellular bistability, however, do not seem able to account for the fact that noisy neurons can collectively store information in a robust manner. We show how a sufficiently clustered network of simple model neurons can be instantly induced into metastable states capable of retaining information for a short time (a few seconds). The mechanism is robust to different network topologies and kinds of neural model. This could constitute a viable means available to the brain for sensory and/or short-term memory with no need of synaptic learning. Relevant phenomena described by neurobiology and psychology, such as local synchronization of synaptic inputs and power-law statistics of forgetting avalanches, emerge naturally from this mechanism, and we suggest possible experiments to test its viability in more biological settings.

  10. Robust Short-Term Memory without Synaptic Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Samuel; Marro, J.; Torres, Joaquín J.

    2013-01-01

    Short-term memory in the brain cannot in general be explained the way long-term memory can – as a gradual modification of synaptic weights – since it takes place too quickly. Theories based on some form of cellular bistability, however, do not seem able to account for the fact that noisy neurons can collectively store information in a robust manner. We show how a sufficiently clustered network of simple model neurons can be instantly induced into metastable states capable of retaining information for a short time (a few seconds). The mechanism is robust to different network topologies and kinds of neural model. This could constitute a viable means available to the brain for sensory and/or short-term memory with no need of synaptic learning. Relevant phenomena described by neurobiology and psychology, such as local synchronization of synaptic inputs and power-law statistics of forgetting avalanches, emerge naturally from this mechanism, and we suggest possible experiments to test its viability in more biological settings. PMID:23349664

  11. Application of the ex-Gaussian function to the effect of the word blindness suggestion on Stroop task performance suggests no word blindness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Andrew Parris

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present paper was to apply the ex-Gaussian function to data reported by Parris et al. (2012 given its utility in studies involving the Stroop task. Parris et al. showed an effect of the word blindness suggestion when Response-Stimulus Interval (RSI was 500ms but not when it was 3500ms. Analysis revealed that: 1 The effect of the suggestion on interference is observed in µ, supporting converging evidence indicating the suggestion operates over response competition mechanisms; and, 2 Contrary to Parris et al., an effect of the suggestion was observed in µ when RSI was 3500ms. The reanalysis of the data from Parris et al. (2012 supports the utility of ex-Gaussian analysis in revealing effects that might otherwise be thought of as absent. We suggest that word reading itself is not suppressed by the suggestion but instead that response conflict is dealt with more effectively.

  12. Overwriting and intrusion in short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancroft, Tyler D; Jones, Jeffery A; Ensor, Tyler M; Hockley, William E; Servos, Philip

    2016-04-01

    Studies of interference in working and short-term memory suggest that irrelevant information may overwrite the contents of memory or intrude into memory. While some previous studies have reported greater interference when irrelevant information is similar to the contents of memory than when it is dissimilar, other studies have reported greater interference for dissimilar distractors than for similar distractors. In the present study, we find the latter effect in a paradigm that uses auditory tones as stimuli. We suggest that the effects of distractor similarity to memory contents are mediated by the type of information held in memory, particularly the complexity or simplicity of information.

  13. Short-term Treatment of Daumone Improves Hepatic Inflammation in Aged Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong Hee; Ha, Hunjoo

    2015-05-01

    Chronic inflammation has been proposed as one of the main molecular mechanisms of aging and age-related diseases. Although evidence in humans is limited, short-term calorie restriction (CR) has been shown to have anti-inflammatory effects in aged experimental animals. We reported on the long-term treatment of daumone, a synthetic pheromone secreted by Caenorhabditis elegans in an energy deficient environment, extends the life-span and attenuates liver injury in aged mice. The present study examined whether late onset short-term treatment of daumone exerts anti-inflammatory effects in the livers of aged mice. Daumone was administered orally at doses of 2 or 20 mg/kg/day for 5 weeks to 24-month-old male C57BL/6J mice. Increased liver macrophage infiltration and gene expression of proinflammatory cytokines in aged mice were significantly attenuated by daumone treatment, suggesting that short-term oral administration of daumone may have hepatoprotective effects. Daumone also dose-dependently suppressed tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-induced nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) phosphorylation in HepG2 cells. The present data demonstrated that short-term treatment of daumone has anti-inflammatory effects in aged mouse livers possibly through suppression of NF-κB signaling and suggest that daumone may become a lead compound targeting aging and age-associated diseases.

  14. Fragile visual short-term memory is an object-based and location-specific store

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pinto, Y.; Sligte, I.G.; Shapiro, K.L.; Lamme, V.A.F.

    2013-01-01

    Fragile visual short-term memory (FM) is a recently discovered form of visual short-term memory. Evidence suggests that it provides rich and high-capacity storage, like iconic memory, yet it exists, without interference, almost as long as visual working memory. In the present study, we sought to

  15. Disorganized Cortical Patches Suggest Prenatal Origin of Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2014 Disorganized cortical patches suggest prenatal origin of autism NIH-funded study shows disrupted cell layering process ... study suggests that brain irregularities in children with autism can be traced back to prenatal development. “While ...

  16. Mathematical modeling of sustainable synaptogenesis by repetitive stimuli suggests signaling mechanisms in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiromu Takizawa

    Full Text Available The mechanisms of long-term synaptic maintenance are a key component to understanding the mechanism of long-term memory. From biological experiments, a hypothesis arose that repetitive stimuli with appropriate intervals are essential to maintain new synapses for periods of longer than a few days. We successfully reproduce the time-course of relative numbers of synapses with our mathematical model in the same conditions as biological experiments, which used Adenosine-3', 5'-cyclic monophosphorothioate, Sp-isomer (Sp-cAMPS as external stimuli. We also reproduce synaptic maintenance responsiveness to intervals of Sp-cAMPS treatment accompanied by PKA activation. The model suggests a possible mechanism of sustainable synaptogenesis which consists of two steps. First, the signal transduction from an external stimulus triggers the synthesis of a new signaling protein. Second, the new signaling protein is required for the next signal transduction with the same stimuli. As a result, the network component is modified from the first network, and a different signal is transferred which triggers the synthesis of another new signaling molecule. We refer to this hypothetical mechanism as network succession. We build our model on the basis of two hypotheses: (1 a multi-step network succession induces downregulation of SSH and COFILIN gene expression, which triggers the production of stable F-actin; (2 the formation of a complex of stable F-actin with Drebrin at PSD is the critical mechanism to achieve long-term synaptic maintenance. Our simulation shows that a three-step network succession is sufficient to reproduce sustainable synapses for a period longer than 14 days. When we change the network structure to a single step network, the model fails to follow the exact condition of repetitive signals to reproduce a sufficient number of synapses. Another advantage of the three-step network succession is that this system indicates a greater tolerance of parameter

  17. Implication of Paris Agreement in the context of long-term climate mitigation goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimori, Shinichiro; Su, Xuanming; Liu, Jing-Yu; Hasegawa, Tomoko; Takahashi, Kiyoshi; Masui, Toshihiko; Takimi, Maho

    2016-01-01

    The Paris Agreement confirmed the global aim to achieve a long-term climate goal, in which the global increase in mean temperature is kept below 2 °C compared to the preindustrial level. We investigated the implications of the near-term emissions targets (for around the year 2030) in the context of the long-term climate mitigation goal using the Asia-Pacific Integrated Model framework. To achieve the 2 °C goal, a large greenhouse gas emissions reduction is required, either in the early or latter half of this century. In the mid-term (from 2030 to 2050), it may be necessary to consider rapid changes to the existing energy or socioeconomic systems, while long-term measures (after 2050) will rely on the substantial use of biomass combined with carbon capture and storage technology or afforestation, which will eventually realize so-called negative CO2 emissions. With respect to the policy context, two suggestions are provided here. The first is the review and revision of the nationally determined contributions (NDCs) in 2020, with an additional reduction target to the current NDCs being one workable alternative. The second suggestion is a concrete and numerical mid-term emissions reduction target, for example to be met by 2040 or 2050, which could also help to achieve the long-term climate goal.

  18. Enhancement of suggestibility and imaginative ability with nitrous oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalley, M G; Brooks, G B

    2009-05-01

    Imaginative suggestibility, a trait closely related to hypnotic suggestibility, is modifiable under some circumstances. Nitrous oxide (laughing gas) is commonly used for sedation in dentistry and is reported to be more effective when combined with appropriate suggestions. The aim of this study was to determine whether nitrous oxide inhalation alters imaginative suggestibility and imagery vividness. Thirty participants were tested twice in a within-subjects design, once during inhalation of 25% nitrous oxide and once during inhalation of air plus oxygen. Before the study, participants' expectancies regarding the effects of nitrous oxide were assessed. Participants were blinded to drug administration. During each session, participants were verbally administered detailed measures of imagination and suggestibility: the Sheehan-Betts Quality of Mental Imagery scale and the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale Form C, minus the hypnotic induction. Imaginative suggestibility and imaginative ability (imagery vividness) were both elevated in the nitrous oxide condition. This effect was unrelated to participants' expectations regarding the effects of the drug. Nitrous oxide increased imaginative suggestibility and imaginative ability. Possible explanations of these findings are discussed with respect to the effects of N-methyl-d-aspartate antagonists and to other pharmacological effects upon suggestibility and imagination.

  19. An effective suggestion method for keyword search of databases

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Hai; Chen, Zonghai; Liu, Chengfei; Huang, He; Zhang, Xiangliang

    2016-01-01

    This paper solves the problem of providing high-quality suggestions for user keyword queries over databases. With the assumption that the returned suggestions are independent, existing query suggestion methods over databases score candidate

  20. Pediatric polytrauma : Short-term and long-term outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vanderSluis, CK; Kingma, J; Eisma, WH; tenDuis, HJ

    Objective: To assess the short-term and long-term outcomes of pediatric polytrauma patients and to analyze the extent to which short-term outcomes can predict long-term outcomes. Materials and Methods: Ail pediatric polytrauma patients (Injury Severity Score of greater than or equal to 16, less than

  1. Worth the Wait? The Effect of Early Term Birth on Maternal and Infant Health

    OpenAIRE

    Buckles, Kasey; Guldi, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    Early term birth is defined as birth at 37 or 38 weeks gestation. While infants born early term are not considered premature, the medical literature suggests that they have an increased risk of serious adverse health outcomes compared to infants born at term (39 or 40 weeks). Despite these known harms, we document a rise in early term births in the United States from 1989 to the mid-2000's, followed by a decline in recent years. We posit that the recent decline in early term births has been d...

  2. Do astrophysical measurements suggest massive neutrinos?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, M.; Fazal-e-Aleem; Rashid, H.

    1996-01-01

    We discuss the solar neutrino puzzle and suggest modification in the standard solar model. It has been observed that the discrepancy between experimental measurements and theoretically produced values can be removed by considering neutrinos to process non-zero mass. (author)

  3. The role of long-term familiarity and attentional maintenance in short-term memory for timbre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siedenburg, Kai; McAdams, Stephen

    2017-04-01

    We study short-term recognition of timbre using familiar recorded tones from acoustic instruments and unfamiliar transformed tones that do not readily evoke sound-source categories. Participants indicated whether the timbre of a probe sound matched with one of three previously presented sounds (item recognition). In Exp. 1, musicians better recognised familiar acoustic compared to unfamiliar synthetic sounds, and this advantage was particularly large in the medial serial position. There was a strong correlation between correct rejection rate and the mean perceptual dissimilarity of the probe to the tones from the sequence. Exp. 2 compared musicians' and non-musicians' performance with concurrent articulatory suppression, visual interference, and with a silent control condition. Both suppression tasks disrupted performance by a similar margin, regardless of musical training of participants or type of sounds. Our results suggest that familiarity with sound source categories and attention play important roles in short-term memory for timbre, which rules out accounts solely based on sensory persistence.

  4. Correlates of the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale in delinquent adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muris, Peter; Meesters, Cor; Merckelbach, Harald

    2004-02-01

    Correlations between scores on the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale and a number of relevant personality characteristics, i.e., intelligence, memory, social inadequacy, social desirability, and fantasy proneness, were examined in a sample of 71 delinquent boys. Analysis showed that intelligence and memory were negatively related to suggestibility scores. That is, lower memory and intelligence were associated with higher suggestibility. No significant correlations were found between suggestibility and other personality characteristics.

  5. Long-term predictive capability of erosion models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veerabhadra, P.; Buckley, D. H.

    1983-01-01

    A brief overview of long-term cavitation and liquid impingement erosion and modeling methods proposed by different investigators, including the curve-fit approach is presented. A table was prepared to highlight the number of variables necessary for each model in order to compute the erosion-versus-time curves. A power law relation based on the average erosion rate is suggested which may solve several modeling problems.

  6. Didactic Experiments Suggest Enhanced Learning Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pals Svendsen, Lisbet

    2011-01-01

    and presenting material in the language studied, just as they were encouraged to systematically use evaluation processes to enhance learning outcomes. Eventually, increased grade point averages suggested that the experiment was successful. The article also mentions subsequent revisions to the original format...

  7. Metacognition of agency is reduced in high hypnotic suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terhune, Devin B; Hedman, Love R A

    2017-11-01

    A disruption in the sense of agency is the primary phenomenological feature of response to hypnotic suggestions but its cognitive basis remains elusive. Here we tested the proposal that distorted volition during response to suggestions arises from poor metacognition pertaining to the sources of one's control. Highly suggestible and control participants completed a motor task in which performance was reduced through surreptitious manipulations of cursor lag and stimuli speed. Highly suggestible participants did not differ from controls in performance or metacognition of performance, but their sense of agency was less sensitive to cursor lag manipulations, suggesting reduced awareness that their control was being manipulated. These results indicate that highly suggestible individuals have aberrant metacognition of agency and may be a valuable population for studying distortions in the sense of agency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Overview of the SBS 2016 Suggestion Track

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koolen, Marijn; Bogers, Toine; Jaap, Kamps

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the SBS 2016 Suggestion Track is to evaluate approaches for supporting users in searching collections of books who express their information needs both in a query and through example books. The track investigates the complex nature of relevance in book search and the role of traditional...... and user-generated book metadata in retrieval. We consolidated last year’s investigation into the nature of book suggestions from the LibraryThing forums and how they compare to book relevance judgements. Participants were encouraged to incorporate rich user profiles of both topic creators and other...

  9. Seven Salutary Suggestions for Counselor Stamina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, Cynthia J.

    2004-01-01

    Counselor stamina is deemed essential in the midst of a consistently challenging, complex, and changing mental health care environment. Rather than perpetuating conversations about "burnout" and "burnout prevention," this article provides a salutary or health-promoting perspective. Seven suggestions for counselor stamina are presented and…

  10. Is high hypnotic suggestibility necessary for successful hypnotic pain intervention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milling, Leonard S

    2008-04-01

    Hypnotic suggestibility is a trait-like, individual difference variable reflecting the general tendency to respond to hypnosis and hypnotic suggestions. Research with standardized measures of hypnotic suggestibility has demonstrated that there are substantial individual differences in this variable. Higher suggestibility has been found to be associated with greater relief from hypnotic pain interventions. Although individuals in the high suggestibility range show the strongest response to hypnotic analgesia, people of medium suggestibility, who represent approximately one third of the population, also have been found to obtain significant relief from hypnosis. Thus, high hypnotic suggestibility is not necessary for successful hypnotic pain intervention. However, the available evidence does not support the efficacy of hypnotic pain interventions for people who fall in the low hypnotic suggestibility range. However, some studies suggest that these individuals may benefit from imaginative analgesia suggestions, or suggestions for pain reduction that are delivered while the person is not in hypnosis.

  11. Effects of Counselor Facilitative Level on Client Suggestibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Harry B.; Rowe, Wayne

    1977-01-01

    University students (N=48) were individually tested for suggestibility in one of three conditions. Results indicated subjects of higher rated experimenters would demonstrate more suggestibility than subjects of lower rated experimenters. Results did not indicate that subject interaction with lower rated experimenters would elicit less…

  12. Hypnosis, hypnotic suggestibility, memory, and involvement in films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Reed; Lynn, Steven Jay; Condon, Liam

    2015-05-01

    Our research extends studies that have examined the relation between hypnotic suggestibility and experiential involvement and the role of an hypnotic induction in enhancing experiential involvement (e.g., absorption) in engaging tasks. Researchers have reported increased involvement in reading (Baum & Lynn, 1981) and music-listening (Snodgrass & Lynn, 1989) tasks during hypnosis. We predicted a similar effect for film viewing: greater experiential involvement in an emotional (The Champ) versus a non-emotional (Scenes of Toronto) film. We tested 121 participants who completed measures of absorption and trait dissociation and the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility and then viewed the two films after either an hypnotic induction or a non-hypnotic task (i.e., anagrams). Experiential involvement varied as a function of hypnotic suggestibility and film clip. Highly suggestible participants reported more state depersonalization than less suggestible participants, and depersonalization was associated with negative affect; however, we observed no significant correlation between hypnotic suggestibility and trait dissociation. Although hypnosis had no effect on memory commission or omission errors, contrary to the hypothesis that hypnosis facilitates absorption in emotionally engaging tasks, the emotional film was associated with more commission and omission errors compared with the non-emotional film. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Examining the Contemporaneous, Short-Term, and Long-Term Effects of Secondary Exposure to Violence on Adolescent Substance Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Gregory M; Kushner, Mackenzie

    2017-09-01

    The relationship between secondary exposure to violence-defined as witnessing violence in the home, community, or school-and adolescent substance use is well-documented. Yet, multi-wave empirical studies examining this relationship are sparse. In addition, studies have only begun to examine whether this relationship varies by the situational components of the violent event. Using data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN), this study examines the contemporaneous, short-term, and long-term effects of secondary exposure to violence on substance use, and whether witnessing violence in which a weapon is present has a different impact on adolescent substance use than does witnessing violence without a weapon. Hierarchical logistic regression models on a racially and ethnically diverse sample of 1670 youth (51.5% female) residing in 79 neighborhoods indicated that: (1) the effects of secondary exposure to violence on alcohol and marijuana use were enduring, albeit attenuated, over time; (2) the effect of secondary exposure to violence on illicit drug use was suppressed in the short-term but significant in the long-term; (3) witnessing violence without a weapon was salient for alcohol and marijuana use at all time points; and (4) witnessing violence with a weapon impacted illicit drug use in the long-term. The results suggest that addressing the consequences of secondary exposure to violence requires prolonged intervention efforts and that the study of secondary exposure to violence requires a more nuanced approach that accounts for situational aspects of the violent event.

  14. A Temporal Discriminability Account of Children's Eyewitness Suggestibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright-Paul, Alexandra; Jarrold, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Children's suggestibility is typically measured using a three-stage "event-misinformation-test" procedure. We examined whether suggestibility is influenced by the time delays imposed between these stages, and in particular whether the temporal discriminability of sources (event and misinformation) predicts performance. In a novel approach, the…

  15. Manufacturer Suggested Retail Prices, Loss Aversion and Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fabrizi, Simona; Lippert, Steffen; Puppe, Clemens; Rosenkranz, S.

    2016-01-01

    We study a model of vertical relations with imperfect retail competition in which a fraction of the consumers display reference-dependent demand with respect to the manufacturer’s suggested retail price. We demonstrate that in equilibrium the suggestion will either be undercut or complied with by

  16. Age and interviewer behavior as predictors of interrogative suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukala, Karolina; Polczyk, Romuald

    2014-05-01

    The main objective was to explore the influence of interviewer behavior-abrupt versus friendly-and the age of participants on interrogative suggestibility. The study involved 42 young adults and 50 elderly participants. The Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale 2 was used. Data analysis involved a 2-factor between-subjects design (interviewer behavior × age) and mediation analysis. The scores of elderly participants were significantly lower than younger adults on memory indices and significantly higher on some suggestibility indexes. Some suggestibility indices in the abrupt experimental condition were higher than those in the friendly experimental condition. Elderly participants who were interviewed under the abrupt condition were more likely to change their answers after receiving negative feedback than younger adults. Memory quality was a mediator of the relationship between age and the tendency to yield to suggestive questions. Self-appraisal of memory was a mediator between both age and interviewer behavior and the tendency to change answers after negative feedback. Mechanisms of the relationship between age, interviewer behavior, and suggestibility are discussed on the basis of the mediational analyses. The findings suggest that a friendly manner should be adopted when interrogating witnesses.

  17. Leadership Theories--Managing Practices, Challenges, Suggestions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Cheryl

    2009-01-01

    A shortage of community college executives due to the number of retirements occurring among current leaders is predicted. An examination of three leadership theories--servant-leadership, business leadership and transformational leadership--suggests techniques for potential community college leaders. Servant-leaders focus on the needs of their…

  18. Cable Television Report and Suggested Ordinance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    League of California Cities, Sacramento.

    Guidelines and suggested ordinances for cable television regulation by local governments are comprehensively discussed in this report. The emphasis is placed on franchising the cable operator. Seventeen legal aspects of franchising are reviewed, and an exemplary ordinance is presented. In addition, current statistics about cable franchising in…

  19. Medium-term dynamics of a middle Adriatic barred beach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Postacchini

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, attention has been paid to beach protection by means of soft and hard defenses. Along the Italian coast of the Adriatic Sea, sandy beaches are the most common landscape feature and around 70 % of the Marche region's coast (central Adriatic is protected by defense structures. The longest free-from-obstacle nearshore area in the region includes the beach of Senigallia, frequently monitored in the last decades and characterized by a multiple bar system, which represents a natural beach defense. The bathymetries surveyed in 2006, 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013 show long-term stability, confirmed by a good adaptation of an analyzed stretch of the beach to the Dean-type equilibrium profile, though a strong short- to medium-term variability of the wave climate has been observed during the monitored periods. The medium-term dynamics of the beach, which deal with the evolution of submerged bars and are of the order of years or seasons, have been related to the wave climate collected, during the analyzed temporal windows, by a wave buoy located about 40 km off Senigallia. An overall interpretation of the hydrodynamics, sediment characteristics and seabed morphology suggests that the wave climate is fundamental for the morphodynamic changes of the beach in the medium term. These medium-term time ranges during which waves mainly come from NNE/ESE are characterized by a larger/smaller steepness and by a larger/smaller relative wave height, and seem to induce seaward/shoreward bar migration as well as bar smoothing/steepening. Moving southeastward, the bar dimension increases, while the equilibrium profile shape suggests the adaptation to a decreasing sediment size in the submerged beach. This is probably due to the presence of both the harbor jetty and river mouth north of the investigated area.

  20. Suggestion of a conventional Islamic calendar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.G. Rashed

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a complexity of the problem concerning the first sighting of the new lunar crescent, which is attributed to various astronomical, astrophysical and geographical factors. Therefore, Astronomers adopted various criteria for the new crescent visibility. Muslims around the world differ in the beginning of the Hijric months. In fact the differences are not due to different methodology of astronomical calculations, which in turn the variations of the calendar at different countries gives. Farewell Hajj of Prophet Mohamed was on Friday, the ninth of Thul'hejja of the tenth year of immigration (Biography of the Prophet Mohamed. Therefor; the beginning of the month of Thul'hejja 10 A.H is on Thursday. Our suggested calendar takes Farewell Hajj of the Prophet Mohammad to be the base of this calendar. The advantage of our suggested calendar far away from any criteria; where the adoption of criteria for the new crescent visibility is often misleading.

  1. Suggestion of a conventional Islamic calendar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashed, M. G.; Moklof, M. G.

    2017-12-01

    There is a complexity of the problem concerning the first sighting of the new lunar crescent, which is attributed to various astronomical, astrophysical and geographical factors. Therefore, Astronomers adopted various criteria for the new crescent visibility. Muslims around the world differ in the beginning of the Hijric months. In fact the differences are not due to different methodology of astronomical calculations, which in turn the variations of the calendar at different countries gives. Farewell Hajj of Prophet Mohamed was on Friday, the ninth of Thul'hejja of the tenth year of immigration (Biography of the Prophet Mohamed). Therefor; the beginning of the month of Thul'hejja 10 A.H is on Thursday. Our suggested calendar takes Farewell Hajj of the Prophet Mohammad to be the base of this calendar. The advantage of our suggested calendar far away from any criteria; where the adoption of criteria for the new crescent visibility is often misleading.

  2. Qualitative similarities in the visual short-term memory of pigeons and people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Brett; Wasserman, Edward; Luck, Steven J

    2011-10-01

    Visual short-term memory plays a key role in guiding behavior, and individual differences in visual short-term memory capacity are strongly predictive of higher cognitive abilities. To provide a broader evolutionary context for understanding this memory system, we directly compared the behavior of pigeons and humans on a change detection task. Although pigeons had a lower storage capacity and a higher lapse rate than humans, both species stored multiple items in short-term memory and conformed to the same basic performance model. Thus, despite their very different evolutionary histories and neural architectures, pigeons and humans have functionally similar visual short-term memory systems, suggesting that the functional properties of visual short-term memory are subject to similar selective pressures across these distant species.

  3. What's in a name? Coming to terms with the child's linguistic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxton, Matthew

    2008-08-01

    This article reviews the proliferation of terms that have been coined to denote the language environment of the young child. It is argued that terms are often deployed by researchers without due consideration of their appropriateness for particular empirical studies. It is further suggested that just three of the dozen or more available terms meet the needs of child language researchers in most instances: CHILD-DIRECTED SPEECH, INFANT-DIRECTED SPEECH AND EXPOSURE LANGUAGE. The phenomena denoted by these terms are then considered. The term register is generally borrowed for this purpose from sociolinguistics. However, close inspection of this concept reveals that the notion of register needs to be constrained, in specified ways, in order to be of any real value within the field of child language research.

  4. Short- and long-term memory contributions to immediate serial recognition: evidence from serial position effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purser, Harry; Jarrold, Christopher

    2010-04-01

    A long-standing body of research supports the existence of separable short- and long-term memory systems, relying on phonological and semantic codes, respectively. The aim of the current study was to measure the contribution of long-term knowledge to short-term memory performance by looking for evidence of phonologically and semantically coded storage within a short-term recognition task, among developmental samples. Each experimental trial presented 4-item lists. In Experiment 1 typically developing children aged 5 to 6 years old showed evidence of phonologically coded storage across all 4 serial positions, but evidence of semantically coded storage at Serial Positions 1 and 2. In a further experiment, a group of individuals with Down syndrome was investigated as a test case that might be expected to use semantic coding to support short-term storage, but these participants showed no evidence of semantically coded storage and evidenced phonologically coded storage only at Serial Position 4, suggesting that individuals with Down syndrome have a verbal short-term memory capacity of 1 item. Our results suggest that previous evidence of semantic effects on "short-term memory performance" does not reflect semantic coding in short-term memory itself, and provide an experimental method for researchers wishing to take a relatively pure measure of verbal short-term memory capacity, in cases where rehearsal is unlikely.

  5. Family Living: Suggestions for Effective Parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Lilian G.; And Others

    Suggestions for effective parenting of preschool children are provided in 33 brief articles on children's feelings concerning self-esteem; fear; adopted children; the birth of a sibling; death; depression; and coping with stress, trauma, and divorce. Children's behavior is discussed in articles on toddlers' eating habits, punishment and…

  6. Critical Success Factors of Suggestions Systems. | Marx | IFE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A literature study approach is followed to establish which factors contribute to the success and failure of various suggestion systems. It was found ... The value of the paper firstly, shows the importance of creativity and innovation within the organisation's own culture and the framework of a formal suggestion system. Secondly ...

  7. α1-Blockers in Men with Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms Suggestive of Benign Prostatic Obstruction: Is Silodosin Different?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roehrborn, Claus G; Cruz, Francisco; Fusco, Ferdinando

    2017-01-01

    Available α1-blockers (ABs) have different profiles of receptor selectivity. Silodosin exhibits the highest selectivity for the α 1A adrenergic receptor. This pharmacological feature couples with a singular urodynamic and clinical profile. The magnitude of bladder outlet obstruction improvement in patients receiving silodosin is higher if compared to other ABs. From a clinical point of view, current evidence suggests an advantage in favor of silodosin in terms of nocturia improvement and cardiovascular safety. The incidence of ejaculatory dysfunction with silodosin is higher compared to other Abs.

  8. Eliminating cubic terms in the pseudopotential lattice Boltzmann model for multiphase flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Rongzong; Wu, Huiying; Adams, Nikolaus A.

    2018-05-01

    It is well recognized that there exist additional cubic terms of velocity in the lattice Boltzmann (LB) model based on the standard lattice. In this work, elimination of these cubic terms in the pseudopotential LB model for multiphase flow is investigated, where the force term and density gradient are considered. By retaining high-order (≥3 ) Hermite terms in the equilibrium distribution function and the discrete force term, as well as introducing correction terms in the LB equation, the additional cubic terms of velocity are entirely eliminated. With this technique, the computational simplicity of the pseudopotential LB model is well maintained. Numerical tests, including stationary and moving flat and circular interface problems, are carried out to show the effects of such cubic terms on the simulation of multiphase flow. It is found that the elimination of additional cubic terms is beneficial to reduce the numerical error, especially when the velocity is relatively large. Numerical results also suggest that these cubic terms mainly take effect in the interfacial region and that the density-gradient-related cubic terms are more important than the other cubic terms for multiphase flow.

  9. Visual working memory buffers information retrieved from visual long-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Keisuke; Woodman, Geoffrey F

    2017-05-16

    Human memory is thought to consist of long-term storage and short-term storage mechanisms, the latter known as working memory. Although it has long been assumed that information retrieved from long-term memory is represented in working memory, we lack neural evidence for this and need neural measures that allow us to watch this retrieval into working memory unfold with high temporal resolution. Here, we show that human electrophysiology can be used to track information as it is brought back into working memory during retrieval from long-term memory. Specifically, we found that the retrieval of information from long-term memory was limited to just a few simple objects' worth of information at once, and elicited a pattern of neurophysiological activity similar to that observed when people encode new information into working memory. Our findings suggest that working memory is where information is buffered when being retrieved from long-term memory and reconcile current theories of memory retrieval with classic notions about the memory mechanisms involved.

  10. Development of source term evaluation method for Korean Next Generation Reactor(III)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Geon Jae; Park, Jin Baek; Lee, Yeong Il; Song, Min Cheonl; Lee, Ho Jin [Korea Advanced Institue of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-06-15

    This project had investigated irradiation characteristics of MOX fuel method to predict nuclide concentration at primary and secondary coolant using a core containing 100% of all MOX fuel and development of source term evaluation tool. In this study, several prediction methods of source term are evaluated. Detailed contents of this project are : an evaluation of model for nuclear concentration at Reactor Coolant System, evaluation of primary and secondary coolant concentration of reference Nuclear Power Plant using purely MOX fuel, suggestion of source term prediction method of NPP with a core using MOX fuel.

  11. Circadian modulation of short-term memory in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Lisa C; Roman, Gregg

    2009-01-01

    Endogenous biological clocks are widespread regulators of behavior and physiology, allowing for a more efficient allocation of efforts and resources over the course of a day. The extent that different processes are regulated by circadian oscillators, however, is not fully understood. We investigated the role of the circadian clock on short-term associative memory formation using a negatively reinforced olfactory-learning paradigm in Drosophila melanogaster. We found that memory formation was regulated in a circadian manner. The peak performance in short-term memory (STM) occurred during the early subjective night with a twofold performance amplitude after a single pairing of conditioned and unconditioned stimuli. This rhythm in memory is eliminated in both timeless and period mutants and is absent during constant light conditions. Circadian gating of sensory perception does not appear to underlie the rhythm in short-term memory as evidenced by the nonrhythmic shock avoidance and olfactory avoidance behaviors. Moreover, central brain oscillators appear to be responsible for the modulation as cryptochrome mutants, in which the antennal circadian oscillators are nonfunctional, demonstrate robust circadian rhythms in short-term memory. Together these data suggest that central, rather than peripheral, circadian oscillators modulate the formation of short-term associative memory and not the perception of the stimuli.

  12. Long-term nitrogen regulation of forest carbon sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y.; Luo, Y.

    2009-12-01

    It is well established that nitrogen (N) limits plant production but unclear how N regulates long-term terrestrial carbon (C) sequestration in response to rising atmospheric C dioxide (CO2)(Luo et al., 2004). Most experimental evidence on C-N interactions is primarily derived from short-term CO2 manipulative studies (e.g. Oren et al., 2001; Reich et al., 2006a), which abruptly increase C inputs into ecosystems and N demand from soil while atmospheric CO2 concentration in the real world is gradually increasing over time (Luo & Reynolds, 1999). It is essential to examine long-term N regulations of C sequestration in natural ecosystems. Here we present results of a synthesis of more than 100 studies on long-term C-N interactions during secondary succession. C significantly accumulates in plant, litter and forest floor in most studies, and in mineral soil in one-third studies during stand development. Substantial increases in C stock are tightly coupled with N accretion. The C: N ratio in plant increases with stand age in most cases, but remains relatively constant in litter, forest floor and mineral soil. Our results suggest that natural ecosystems could have the intrinsic capacity to maintain long-term C sequestration through external N accrual, high N use efficiency, and efficient internal N cycling.

  13. The Effects of Repeated Experience on Children's Suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Martine B.; Roberts, Kim P.; Ceci, Stephen J.; Hembrooke, Helene

    1999-01-01

    Examined effect of suggestive questions on 3- to 5-year-olds' and 6- to 8-year-olds' recall of the final occurrence of repeated event. Found that relative to reports of children experiencing single occurrence, reports about fixed items of repeated events were less contaminated by false suggestions. Children's age and delay of interview were…

  14. Near-Term Actions to Address Long-Term Climate Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lempert, R. J.

    2014-12-01

    Addressing climate change requires effective long-term policy making, which occurs when reflecting on potential events decades or more in the future causes policy makers to choose near-term actions different than those they would otherwise pursue. Contrary to some expectations, policy makers do sometimes make such long-term decisions, but not as commonly and successfully as climate change may require. In recent years however, the new capabilities of analytic decision support tools, combined with improved understanding of cognitive and organizational behaviors, has significantly improved the methods available for organizations to manage longer-term climate risks. In particular, these tools allow decision makers to understand what near-term actions consistently contribute to achieving both short- and long-term societal goals, even in the face of deep uncertainty regarding the long-term future. This talk will describe applications of these approaches for infrastructure, water, and flood risk management planning, as well as studies of how near-term choices about policy architectures can affect long-term greenhouse gas emission reduction pathways.

  15. Consumer Understanding of Nutrition Marketing Terms: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haroldson, Amber; Yen, Chih-Lun

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to examine the validity of a questionnaire developed to assess adult consumer understanding of nutrition marketing terms and the resulting impact on consumer behavior. Participants (n = 40) completed an electronic questionnaire. Efforts to establish validity and reliability suggest that the questionnaire is a…

  16. Language familiarity effects in short-term memory: the role of output delay and long-term knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorn, Annabel S C; Gathercole, Susan E; Frankish, Clive R

    2002-10-01

    Four experiments examined the origins of language familiarity effects in bilingual short-term recall. In Experiments 1A and 1B, bilingual adults were tested on serial recall and probed serial recall of words and nonwords in their first and second languages. A first-language advantage was obtained on both measures, indicating that the beneficial effects of language familiarity are not exclusively attributable to lesser output delay during overt recall. In Experiments 2A and 2B, the same group of bilinguals was tested on serial recall and serial recognition of word lists in both languages. Although a sizeable first-language advantage was obtained on the serial recall measure, recognition performance was comparable in the two languages. On the basis of these results it is suggested that language differences in bilingual immediate memory arise in large part as a consequence of the differential availability of language-specific long-term knowledge with which to support retrieval processes in serial recall.

  17. Oxygen isotopes from biogenic apatites suggest widespread endothermy in Cretaceous dinosaurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiot, Romain; Lécuyer, Christophe; Buffetaut, Eric; Escarguel, Gilles; Fluteau, Frédéric; Martineau, François

    2006-06-01

    The much debated question of dinosaur thermophysiology has not yet been conclusively solved despite numerous attempts. We used the temperature-dependent oxygen isotope fractionation between vertebrate body water (δ 18O body water) and phosphatic tissues (δ 18O p) to compare the thermophysiology of dinosaurs with that of non-dinosaurian ectothermic reptiles. Present-day δ 18O p values of vertebrate apatites show that ectotherms have higher δ 18O p values than endotherms at high latitudes due to their lower body temperature, and conversely lower δ 18O p values than endotherms at low latitudes. Using a data set of 80 new and 49 published δ 18O p values, we observed similar and systematic differences in δ 18O p values (Δ 18O) between four groups of Cretaceous dinosaurs (theropods, sauropods, ornithopods and ceratopsians) and associated fresh water crocodiles and turtles. Expressed in terms of body temperatures ( Tb), these Δ 18O values indicate that dinosaurs maintained rather constant Tb in the range of endotherms whatever ambient temperatures were. This implies that high metabolic rates were widespread among Cretaceous dinosaurs belonging to widely different taxonomic groups and suggest that endothermy may be a synapomorphy of dinosaurs, or may have been acquired convergently in the studied taxa.

  18. Structural and functional correlates of hypnotic depth and suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGeown, William Jonathan; Mazzoni, Giuliana; Vannucci, Manila; Venneri, Annalena

    2015-02-28

    This study explores whether self-reported depth of hypnosis and hypnotic suggestibility are associated with individual differences in neuroanatomy and/or levels of functional connectivity. Twenty-nine people varying in suggestibility were recruited and underwent structural, and after a hypnotic induction, functional magnetic resonance imaging at rest. We used voxel-based morphometry to assess the correlation of grey matter (GM) and white matter (WM) against the independent variables: depth of hypnosis, level of relaxation and hypnotic suggestibility. Functional networks identified with independent components analysis were regressed with the independent variables. Hypnotic depth ratings were positively correlated with GM volume in the frontal cortex and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Hypnotic suggestibility was positively correlated with GM volume in the left temporal-occipital cortex. Relaxation ratings did not correlate significantly with GM volume and none of the independent variables correlated with regional WM volume measures. Self-reported deeper levels of hypnosis were associated with less connectivity within the anterior default mode network. Taken together, the results suggest that the greater GM volume in the medial frontal cortex and ACC, and lower connectivity in the DMN during hypnosis facilitate experiences of greater hypnotic depth. The patterns of results suggest that hypnotic depth and hypnotic suggestibility should not be considered synonyms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A Parametric Factor Model of the Term Structure of Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haldrup, Niels; Rosenskjold, Carsten Paysen T.

    The prototypical Lee-Carter mortality model is characterized by a single common time factor that loads differently across age groups. In this paper we propose a factor model for the term structure of mortality where multiple factors are designed to influence the age groups differently via...... on the loading functions, the factors are not designed to be orthogonal but can be dependent and can possibly cointegrate when the factors have unit roots. We suggest two estimation procedures similar to the estimation of the dynamic Nelson-Siegel term structure model. First, a two-step nonlinear least squares...... procedure based on cross-section regressions together with a separate model to estimate the dynamics of the factors. Second, we suggest a fully specified model estimated by maximum likelihood via the Kalman filter recursions after the model is put on state space form. We demonstrate the methodology for US...

  20. Upregulation of CREB-mediated transcription enhances both short- and long-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Akinobu; Fukushima, Hotaka; Mukawa, Takuya; Toyoda, Hiroki; Wu, Long-Jun; Zhao, Ming-Gao; Xu, Hui; Shang, Yuze; Endoh, Kengo; Iwamoto, Taku; Mamiya, Nori; Okano, Emiko; Hasegawa, Shunsuke; Mercaldo, Valentina; Zhang, Yue; Maeda, Ryouta; Ohta, Miho; Josselyn, Sheena A; Zhuo, Min; Kida, Satoshi

    2011-06-15

    Unraveling the mechanisms by which the molecular manipulation of genes of interest enhances cognitive function is important to establish genetic therapies for cognitive disorders. Although CREB is thought to positively regulate formation of long-term memory (LTM), gain-of-function effects of CREB remain poorly understood, especially at the behavioral level. To address this, we generated four lines of transgenic mice expressing dominant active CREB mutants (CREB-Y134F or CREB-DIEDML) in the forebrain that exhibited moderate upregulation of CREB activity. These transgenic lines improved not only LTM but also long-lasting long-term potentiation in the CA1 area in the hippocampus. However, we also observed enhanced short-term memory (STM) in contextual fear-conditioning and social recognition tasks. Enhanced LTM and STM could be dissociated behaviorally in these four lines of transgenic mice, suggesting that the underlying mechanism for enhanced STM and LTM are distinct. LTM enhancement seems to be attributable to the improvement of memory consolidation by the upregulation of CREB transcriptional activity, whereas higher basal levels of BDNF, a CREB target gene, predicted enhanced shorter-term memory. The importance of BDNF in STM was verified by microinfusing BDNF or BDNF inhibitors into the hippocampus of wild-type or transgenic mice. Additionally, increasing BDNF further enhanced LTM in one of the lines of transgenic mice that displayed a normal BDNF level but enhanced LTM, suggesting that upregulation of BDNF and CREB activity cooperatively enhances LTM formation. Our findings suggest that CREB positively regulates memory consolidation and affects memory performance by regulating BDNF expression.

  1. Development of source term evaluation method for Korean Next Generation Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Keon Jae; Cheong, Jae Hak; Park, Jin Baek; Kim, Guk Gee [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-10-15

    This project had investigate several design features of radioactive waste processing system and method to predict nuclide concentration at primary coolant basic concept of next generation reactor and safety goals at the former phase. In this project several prediction methods of source term are evaluated conglomerately and detailed contents of this project are : model evaluation of nuclide concentration at Reactor Coolant System, evaluation of primary and secondary coolant concentration of reference Nuclear Power Plant(NPP), investigation of prediction parameter of source term evaluation, basic parameter of PWR, operational parameter, respectively, radionuclide removal system and adjustment values of reference NPP, suggestion of source term prediction method of next generation NPP.

  2. The role of long-term and short-term familiarity in visual and haptic face recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Sarah J; Newell, Fiona N

    2005-10-01

    Recent studies have suggested that the familiarity of a face leads to more robust recognition, at least within the visual domain. The aim of our study was to investigate whether face familiarity resulted in a representation of faces that was easily shared across the sensory modalities. In Experiment 1, we tested whether haptic recognition of a highly familiar face (one's own face) was as efficient as visual recognition. Our observers were unable to recognise their own face models from tactile memory alone but were able to recognise their faces visually. However, haptic recognition improved when participants were primed by their own live face. In Experiment 2, we found that short-term familiarisation with a set of previously unfamiliar face stimuli improved crossmodal recognition relative to the recognition of unfamiliar faces. Our findings suggest that familiarisation provides a strong representation of faces but that the nature of the information encoded during learning is critical for efficient crossmodal recognition.

  3. The impact of hypnotic suggestibility in clinical care settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Guy H; Schnur, Julie B; David, Daniel

    2011-07-01

    Hypnotic suggestibility has been described as a powerful predictor of outcomes associated with hypnotic interventions. However, there have been no systematic approaches to quantifying this effect across the literature. This meta-analysis evaluates the magnitude of the effect of hypnotic suggestibility on hypnotic outcomes in clinical settings. PsycINFO and PubMed were searched from their inception through July 2009. Thirty-four effects from 10 studies and 283 participants are reported. Results revealed a statistically significant overall effect size in the small to medium range (r = .24; 95% Confidence Interval = -0.28 to 0.75), indicating that greater hypnotic suggestibility led to greater effects of hypnosis interventions. Hypnotic suggestibility accounted for 6% of the variance in outcomes. Smaller sample size studies, use of the SHCS, and pediatric samples tended to result in larger effect sizes. The authors question the usefulness of assessing hypnotic suggestibility in clinical contexts.

  4. Suggestions for Structuring a Research Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, James D.; Reiser, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    Researchers often experience difficulty as they attempt to prepare journal articles that describe their work. The purpose of this article is to provide researchers in the field of education with a series of suggestions as to how to clearly structure each section of a research manuscript that they intend to submit for publication in a scholarly…

  5. Interrogative suggestibility, compliance and false confessions among prisoners and their relationship with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudjonsson, G H; Sigurdsson, J F; Bragason, O O; Newton, A K; Einarsson, E

    2008-07-01

    Interrogative suggestibility and compliance are important psychological vulnerabilities during interrogation. The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship of suggestibility and compliance with childhood and current symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Compliance has not been studied previously in relation to ADHD. A further aim was to investigate the relationship between ADHD and the reporting of having made a false confession to the police. The participants were 90 male prisoners, all of whom had completed the Gudjonsson Suggestibility and Compliance Scales (GSS and GCS) within 10 days of admission to the prison. Childhood ADHD symptoms were screened by the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS) and current adult symptoms by the DSM-IV Checklist criteria for ADHD. Half of the prisoners (50%) were found on screening to meet criteria for ADHD in childhood and, of those, over half (60%) were either fully symptomatic or in partial remission of their symptoms. ADHD symptoms were found to be significantly associated with compliance, but not with suggestibility. The relationship with compliance was stronger (effect size) in relation to current than childhood symptoms. The ADHD symptomatic groups were significantly more likely to claim that they had made a false confession to the police in the past. The findings raise important questions about the potential vulnerability of adults with ADHD symptoms in terms of their ability to cope with interrogation.

  6. Long-Term Stability of Young Children's Eyewitness Accuracy, Suggestibility, and Resistance to Misinformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Elyse Brauch; McKinley, Marcia J.; Thompson, David W.; Leonard, Ann Marie; Liebman, Julie I.; Rothrock, Danielle D.

    2010-01-01

    Forty 4-year-olds and 39 6-year-olds participated in a modified misinformation-effects paradigm. At time 1 they reviewed a story and some of the children were asked questions about it in either recall or recognition format. Three weeks later they were given misinformation about some of the story events. The following week they were asked the…

  7. Additional short-term plutonium urinary excretion data from the 1945-1947 plutonium injection studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moss, W.D.; Gautier, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    A review of original injection experimental records at LASL suggest that the power function fit is a good choice to describe early plutonium excretion; however, the later period (300-, 500-, and 1600-day) results along with 10,000 day results show a significant departure from the Langham power function model used to describe long-term Pu excretion. The authors suggest that since the 523- and 1600-day data in question influenced the mathematical development of the Langham power function equation, its use in predicting Pu body burdens from long-term excretion data should be discouraged. 9 references, 2 figures, 2 tables

  8. Short-term and working memory impairments in aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potagas, Constantin; Kasselimis, Dimitrios; Evdokimidis, Ioannis

    2011-08-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate short-term memory and working memory deficits in aphasics in relation to the severity of their language impairment. Fifty-eight aphasic patients participated in this study. Based on language assessment, an aphasia score was calculated for each patient. Memory was assessed in two modalities, verbal and spatial. Mean scores for all memory tasks were lower than normal. Aphasia score was significantly correlated with performance on all memory tasks. Correlation coefficients for short-term memory and working memory were approximately of the same magnitude. According to our findings, severity of aphasia is related with both verbal and spatial memory deficits. Moreover, while aphasia score correlated with lower scores in both short-term memory and working memory tasks, the lack of substantial difference between corresponding correlation coefficients suggests a possible primary deficit in information retention rather than impairment in working memory. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. LESPRO - an expert system for the decision support in determination and suggestion of protective measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohunova, J.; Duranova, T.; Hatar, E.

    2000-01-01

    A prototype expert system for advising emergency procedures for nuclear regulatory authority has been developed. The expert system ESPRO is known as goal oriented rule-based knowledge system. The system is based on emergency procedures developed in VUJE Trnava, Inc. for use by the Emergency Response Centre (ERC) of the Slovak Nuclear Regulatory Authority (NRA). The operation interpretation module uses the knowledge base of emergency procedures for the evaluation of source term and determination and suggestion of protective measures which is represented in the form of a Petri net model. Its verification and validation was done on the basis of the results of two exercises: joint exercise of ERC staff with Slovak Army Headquarters and full scale Mochovce NPP emergency exercise with use of the Mochovce NPP simulator. (author)

  10. Short-term plasticity as a neural mechanism supporting memory and attentional functions

    OpenAIRE

    Jääskeläinen, Iiro P.; Ahveninen, Jyrki; Andermann, Mark L.; Belliveau, John W.; Raij, Tommi; Sams, Mikko

    2011-01-01

    Based on behavioral studies, several relatively distinct perceptual and cognitive functions have been defined in cognitive psychology such as sensory memory, short-term memory, and selective attention. Here, we review evidence suggesting that some of these functions may be supported by shared underlying neuronal mechanisms. Specifically, we present, based on an integrative review of the literature, a hypothetical model wherein short-term plasticity, in the form of transient center-excitatory ...

  11. What Brain Research Suggests for Teaching Reading Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Judy

    2009-01-01

    How the brain learns to read has been the subject of much neuroscience educational research. Evidence is mounting for identifiable networks of connected neurons that are particularly active during reading processes such as response to visual and auditory stimuli, relating new information to prior knowledge, long-term memory storage, comprehension,…

  12. Individual decision making in the non-purchase of long-term care insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Leslie A; Robison, Julie; Shugrue, Noreen; Keenan, Patricia; Kapp, Marshall B

    2009-08-01

    Although prior research suggests that economic, behavioral, and psychosocial factors influence decisions not to purchase long-term care insurance, few studies have examined the interplay among these factors in depth and from the consumer's point of view. This study was intended to further illuminate these considerations, generate hypotheses about non-purchasing decisions, and inform the design of policies that are responsive to concerns and preferences of potential purchasers. Qualitative study using 32 in-depth interviews and 6 focus groups, following a grounded theory approach. Five themes characterize decisions not to purchase long-term care insurance: (a) the determination that a policy is "too costly" reflects highly individualized and complex trade-offs not solely economic in nature, (b) non-purchasers are skeptical about the viability and integrity of private insurance companies and seek an unbiased source of information, (c) family dynamics play an important role in insurance decisions, (d) contemplating personal risk for long-term care triggers psychological responses that have implications for decision making, and (e) non-purchasers feel inadequately informed and overwhelmed by the process of deciding whether to purchase long-term care insurance. States are seeking to offset escalating Medicaid long-term care expenditures through a variety of policy mechanisms, including stimulating individual purchase of long-term care insurance. Findings suggest that economic incentives such as lowering premiums will be necessary but not sufficient to attract appropriate candidates. Attention to behavioral and psychosocial factors is essential to designing incentives that are responsive to concerns and preferences of potential purchasers.

  13. Gamma dose rate estimation and operation management suggestions for decommissioning the reactor pressure vessel of HTR-PM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng Fang; Hong Li; Jianzhu Cao; Wenqian Li; Feng Xie; Jiejuan Tong [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua, University, Beijing (China)

    2013-07-01

    China is now designing and constructing a high temperature gas cooled reactor-pebble bed module (HTR-PM). In order to investigate the future decommissioning approach and evaluate possible radiation dose, gamma dose rate near the reactor pressure vessel was calculated for different cooling durations using QAD-CGA program. The source term of this calculation was provided by KORIGEN program. Based on the calculated results, the spatial distribution and temporal changes of gamma dose rate near reactor pressure vessel was systematically analyzed. A suggestion on planning decommissioning operation of reactor pressure vessel of HTRPM was given based on calculated dose rate and the Chinese Standard GB18871-2002. (authors)

  14. Long-term associative learning predicts verbal short-term memory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Gary; Macken, Bill

    2018-02-01

    Studies using tests such as digit span and nonword repetition have implicated short-term memory across a range of developmental domains. Such tests ostensibly assess specialized processes for the short-term manipulation and maintenance of information that are often argued to enable long-term learning. However, there is considerable evidence for an influence of long-term linguistic learning on performance in short-term memory tasks that brings into question the role of a specialized short-term memory system separate from long-term knowledge. Using natural language corpora, we show experimentally and computationally that performance on three widely used measures of short-term memory (digit span, nonword repetition, and sentence recall) can be predicted from simple associative learning operating on the linguistic environment to which a typical child may have been exposed. The findings support the broad view that short-term verbal memory performance reflects the application of long-term language knowledge to the experimental setting.

  15. Using suggestion to model different types of automatic writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, E; Mehta, M A; Oakley, D A; Guilmette, D N; Gabay, A; Halligan, P W; Deeley, Q

    2014-05-01

    Our sense of self includes awareness of our thoughts and movements, and our control over them. This feeling can be altered or lost in neuropsychiatric disorders as well as in phenomena such as "automatic writing" whereby writing is attributed to an external source. Here, we employed suggestion in highly hypnotically suggestible participants to model various experiences of automatic writing during a sentence completion task. Results showed that the induction of hypnosis, without additional suggestion, was associated with a small but significant reduction of control, ownership, and awareness for writing. Targeted suggestions produced a double dissociation between thought and movement components of writing, for both feelings of control and ownership, and additionally, reduced awareness of writing. Overall, suggestion produced selective alterations in the control, ownership, and awareness of thought and motor components of writing, thus enabling key aspects of automatic writing, observed across different clinical and cultural settings, to be modelled. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Mitarbeiteranreizsysteme und Innovationserfolg (Employee suggestion schemes and innovation success)

    OpenAIRE

    Czarnitzki, Dirk; Kraft, Kornelius

    2008-01-01

    "We discuss the determinants of a successful implementation of an employee suggestion scheme and other measures to stimulate innovation success. Subsequently the effects of the employee suggestion schemes are investigated empirically. We analyse the realisation of cost reductions and alternatively sales expansion due to quality improvements. It turns out that employee suggestion schemes have a positive effect on cost efficiency and sales growth. Delegation of decision authority reduces produc...

  17. Monkeys have a limited form of short-term memory in audition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Brian H; Mishkin, Mortimer; Yin, Pingbo

    2012-07-24

    A stimulus trace may be temporarily retained either actively [i.e., in working memory (WM)] or by the weaker mnemonic process we will call passive short-term memory, in which a given stimulus trace is highly susceptible to "overwriting" by a subsequent stimulus. It has been suggested that WM is the more robust process because it exploits long-term memory (i.e., a current stimulus activates a stored representation of that stimulus, which can then be actively maintained). Recent studies have suggested that monkeys may be unable to store acoustic signals in long-term memory, raising the possibility that they may therefore also lack auditory WM. To explore this possibility, we tested rhesus monkeys on a serial delayed match-to-sample (DMS) task using a small set of sounds presented with ~1-s interstimulus delays. Performance was accurate whenever a match or a nonmatch stimulus followed the sample directly, but it fell precipitously if a single nonmatch stimulus intervened between sample and match. The steep drop in accuracy was found to be due not to passive decay of the sample's trace, but to retroactive interference from the intervening nonmatch stimulus. This "overwriting" effect was far greater than that observed previously in serial DMS with visual stimuli. The results, which accord with the notion that WM relies on long-term memory, indicate that monkeys perform serial DMS in audition remarkably poorly and that whatever success they had on this task depended largely, if not entirely, on the retention of stimulus traces in the passive form of short-term memory.

  18. Academic skills in the long term after epilepsy surgery in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puka, Klajdi; Smith, Mary Lou

    2016-09-01

    We evaluated the progression of academic skills in a cohort of patients who underwent, or were considered for, epilepsy surgery in childhood, four to eleven years before. The few existing studies that have evaluated cognitive function in the long term after surgery have examined intelligence and memory. Participants were 97 patients with childhood-onset intractable epilepsy; 61 had undergone resective epilepsy surgery. Participants completed standardized tests of reading, spelling, arithmetic, and intelligence at baseline and, on average, 7years after. Surgical patients were additionally assessed one year postsurgery. At baseline and long-term follow-up, 61% and 69% of patients, respectively, scored at least one standard deviation below normative data in at least one academic domain. Evaluation of change over time while controlling for IQ showed that arithmetic scores were lower at long-term follow-up in comparison with those at baseline among all patient groups, whereas reading and spelling scores remained unchanged. Few advantages were associated with seizure control. Multiple regression analyses found that older age at surgery, cessation of antiepileptic medications, improved IQ, and low baseline scores were independently associated with improvement in some academic domains among all patient groups. We found that arithmetic scores were lower at long-term follow-up, suggesting a lack of ongoing development or deterioration in skills. Reading and spelling scores remained stable suggesting that patients made gains in abilities at a rate expected for their increase in age; this finding contrasts with recent short-term outcome studies identifying significantly lower scores over time in these areas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Do patients prefer optimistic or cautious psychiatrists? An experimental study with new and long-term patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priebe, Stefan; Ramjaun, Gonca; Strappelli, Nadia; Arcidiacono, Eleonora; Aguglia, Eugenio; Greenberg, Lauren

    2017-01-17

    Patients seeking treatment may be assumed to prefer a psychiatrist who suggests a new treatment with confidence and optimism. Yet, this might not apply uniformly to all patients. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that new patients prefer psychiatrists who present treatments optimistically, whilst patients with longer-term experience of mental health care may rather prefer more cautious psychiatrists. In an experimental study, we produced video-clips of four psychiatrists, each suggesting a pharmacological and a psychological treatment once with optimism and once with caution. 100 'new' patients with less than 3 months experience of mental health care and 100 'long-term' patients with more than one year of experience were shown a random selection of one video-clip from each psychiatrist, always including an optimistic and a cautious suggestion of each treatment. Patients rated their preferences for psychiatrists on Likert type scales. Differences in subgroups with different age (18-40 vs. 41-65 years), gender, school leaving age (≤16 vs. >16 years), and diagnosis (ICD 10 F2 vs. others) were explored. New patients preferred more optimistic treatment suggestions, whilst there was no preference among long-term patients. The interaction effect between preference for treatment presentations and experience of patients was significant (interaction p-value = 0.003). Findings in subgroups were similar. In line with the hypothesis, psychiatrists should suggest treatments with optimism to patients with little experience of mental health care. However, this rule does not apply to longer-term patients, who may have experienced treatment failures in the past.

  20. Sleep facilitates long-term face adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditye, Thomas; Javadi, Amir Homayoun; Carbon, Claus-Christian; Walsh, Vincent

    2013-10-22

    Adaptation is an automatic neural mechanism supporting the optimization of visual processing on the basis of previous experiences. While the short-term effects of adaptation on behaviour and physiology have been studied extensively, perceptual long-term changes associated with adaptation are still poorly understood. Here, we show that the integration of adaptation-dependent long-term shifts in neural function is facilitated by sleep. Perceptual shifts induced by adaptation to a distorted image of a famous person were larger in a group of participants who had slept (experiment 1) or merely napped for 90 min (experiment 2) during the interval between adaptation and test compared with controls who stayed awake. Participants' individual rapid eye movement sleep duration predicted the size of post-sleep behavioural adaptation effects. Our data suggest that sleep prevented decay of adaptation in a way that is qualitatively different from the effects of reduced visual interference known as 'storage'. In the light of the well-established link between sleep and memory consolidation, our findings link the perceptual mechanisms of sensory adaptation--which are usually not considered to play a relevant role in mnemonic processes--with learning and memory, and at the same time reveal a new function of sleep in cognition.

  1. The Effects of Elaboration and Rehearsal on Long-Term Retention of Shape Names by Kindergarteners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallimore, Ronald; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Elaboration and overt rehearsal are compared as instructional paradigms for memory retention. Superior long-term retention was produced in the elaboration condition when the initial acquisition effects were statistically removed. Short-term data suggest acquisition was complexly affected by experimental condition, I.Q., and task. Elaboration…

  2. Meta-analysis suggests choosy females get sexy sons more than "good genes".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokop, Zofia M; Michalczyk, Łukasz; Drobniak, Szymon M; Herdegen, Magdalena; Radwan, Jacek

    2012-09-01

    Female preferences for specific male phenotypes have been documented across a wide range of animal taxa, including numerous species where males contribute only gametes to offspring production. Yet, selective pressures maintaining such preferences are among the major unknowns of evolutionary biology. Theoretical studies suggest that preferences can evolve if they confer genetic benefits in terms of increased attractiveness of sons ("Fisherian" models) or overall fitness of offspring ("good genes" models). These two types of models predict, respectively, that male attractiveness is heritable and genetically correlated with fitness. In this meta-analysis, we draw general conclusions from over two decades worth of empirical studies testing these predictions (90 studies on 55 species in total). We found evidence for heritability of male attractiveness. However, attractiveness showed no association with traits directly associated with fitness (life-history traits). Interestingly, it did show a positive correlation with physiological traits, which include immunocompetence and condition. In conclusion, our results support "Fisherian" models of preference evolution, while providing equivocal evidence for "good genes." We pinpoint research directions that should stimulate progress in our understanding of the evolution of female choice. © 2012 The Author(s). Evolution© 2012 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  3. Age and binding within-dimension features in visual short-term memory

    OpenAIRE

    Parra, Mario; Abrahams, S.; Logie, R. H.; Della Sala, S.

    2009-01-01

    Older adults have difficulties in binding information in long-term memory (e.g. objects with colours). The effect of age on visual short-term memory (VSTM) binding is less well understood. Recent evidence has suggested that older adults' VSTM for colours bound to shapes or for locations bound in configural representations may be preserved. In two experiments we investigated whether this lack of an age effect on VSTM for bound features can be reproduced when features are drawn from the same di...

  4. Long-term associative learning predicts verbal short-term memory performance

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Gary; Macken, Bill

    2017-01-01

    Studies using tests such as digit span and nonword repetition have implicated short-term memory across a range of developmental domains. Such tests ostensibly assess specialized processes for the short-term manipulation and maintenance of information that are often argued to enable long-term learning. However, there is considerable evidence for an influence of long-term linguistic learning on performance in short-term memory tasks that brings into question the role of a specialized short-term...

  5. CCAA Mid Term Review | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    7 janv. 2011 ... ... been prepared by four scientists tasked with evaluating, measuring and reporting on the performance of the Programme to date, suggesting adjustments and commenting on the appropriateness of the current time frame. Download the File: Mid-Term Review of CCAA programme Executive Summary.doc ...

  6. Statistical modeling of the Internet traffic dynamics: To which extent do we need long-term correlations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markelov, Oleg; Nguyen Duc, Viet; Bogachev, Mikhail

    2017-11-01

    Recently we have suggested a universal superstatistical model of user access patterns and aggregated network traffic. The model takes into account the irregular character of end user access patterns on the web via the non-exponential distributions of the local access rates, but neglects the long-term correlations between these rates. While the model is accurate for quasi-stationary traffic records, its performance under highly variable and especially non-stationary access dynamics remains questionable. In this paper, using an example of the traffic patterns from a highly loaded network cluster hosting the website of the 1998 FIFA World Cup, we suggest a generalization of the previously suggested superstatistical model by introducing long-term correlations between access rates. Using queueing system simulations, we show explicitly that this generalization is essential for modeling network nodes with highly non-stationary access patterns, where neglecting long-term correlations leads to the underestimation of the empirical average sojourn time by several decades under high throughput utilization.

  7. Clarification of the memory artefact in the assessment of suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willner, P

    2008-04-01

    The Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale (GSS) assesses suggestibility by asking respondents to recall a short story, followed by exposure to leading questions and pressure to change their responses. Suggestibility, as assessed by the GSS, appears to be elevated in people with intellectual disabilities (ID). This has been shown to reflect to some extent the fact that people with ID have poor recall of the story; however, there are discrepancies in this relationship. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether a closer match between memory and suggestibility would be found using a measure of recognition memory rather than free recall. Three modifications to the procedure were presented to users of a learning disabilities day service. In all three experiments, a measure of forced-choice recognition memory was built into the suggestibility test. In experiments 1 and 2, the GSS was presented using either divided presentation (splitting the story into two halves, with memory and suggestibility tests after each half) or multiple presentation (the story was presented three times before presentation of the memory and suggestibility tests). Participants were tested twice, once with the standard version of the test and once with one of the modified versions. In experiment 3, an alternative suggestibility scale (ASS3) was created, based on real events in a learning disabilities day service. The ASS3 was presented to one group of participants who had been present at the events, and a second group who attended a different day service, to whom the events were unfamiliar. As observed previously, suggestibility was not closely related to free recall performance: recall was increased equally by all three manipulations, but they produced, respectively, no effect, a modest effect and a large effect on suggestibility. However, the effects on suggestibility were closely related to performance on the forced-choice recognition memory task: divided presentation of the GSS2 had no

  8. Systems Engineering in Terms of Exergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Camberos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We address the design of a flight vehicle from the viewpoint of a system of systems and we discuss the integration of the individual technical disciplines. Then a conceptual fundamental methodology and tools required for the analysis, design, and optimization of aerospace vehicles in terms of the efficient use of on-board energy are discussed. This suggests changing the design paradigm to the optimization of a system of energy systems. We propose a foundation for system-level design with optimization based on minimum exergy destruction.

  9. Priapism in Sickle Cell Disease: A Hematologist’s Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Gregory J.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Priapism is a familiar problem to hematologists, well known for its association with sickle cell disease. It also occurs in a variety of other hematological illnesses, nearly all forms of congenital hemolytic anemia, including other hemoglobinopathies and red blood cell membranopathies and enzymopathies. Aim Provide urologists with a comprehensive review of priapism in sickle cell disease, with an emphasis on the perspective of a practicing hematologist. Methods Medline searches through July 2010 were conducted using the terms priapism, erectile dysfunction, and sickle cell. Main Outcome Measure Expert opinion was based on review of the medical literature related to this subject matter. Results In men with sickle cell disease, large epidemiological studies have linked the risk of priapism to clinical markers of the severity of intravascular hemolysis. Extracellular hemoglobin and arginase released during hemolysis has been implicated in reducing nitric oxide bioavailability, although the relevance of hemolysis to vascular dysfunction has been challenged by some scientists. Consistent with the role of impairment of the nitric oxide axis, mice genetically deficient in nitric oxide production have also been shown to develop priapic activity. Provocative new data indicates that hemolysis-linked dysregulation of adenosine signaling in the penis contributes to priapism in sickle cell mice. Serious questions have arisen regarding the efficacy of mainstays of textbook dogma for treatment of acute severe priapism, including intravenous fluids, alkalinization and exchange transfusion, and there is increasing acceptance for early aspiration and irrigation of the corpus cavernosum. Conclusions For sickle cell patients with recurrent priapism, there is very limited evidence for a medical prophylaxis role for hydroxyurea, etilefrine, pseudoephedrine, leuprolide, sildenafil, and other agents. Recent publications have highlighted nitric oxide and adenosine signal

  10. Testing for long-range dependence in the Brazilian term structure of interest rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cajueiro, Daniel O.; Tabak, Benjamin M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents empirical evidence of fractional dynamics in interest rates for different maturities for Brazil. A variation of a newly developed test for long-range dependence, the V/S statistic, with a post-blackening bootstrap is employed. Results suggest that Brazilian interest rates possess strong long-range dependence in volatility, even when considering the structural break in 1999. These findings imply that the development of policy models that give rise to long-range dependence in interest rates' volatility could be very useful. The long-short-term interest rates spread has strong long-range dependence, which suggests that traditional tests of expectation hypothesis of the term structure of interest rates may be misspecified.

  11. Clinically isolated syndromes suggestive of multiple sclerosis: an optical coherence tomography study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celia Oreja-Guevara

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Optical coherence tomography (OCT is a simple, high-resolution technique to quantify the thickness of retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL, which provides an indirect measurement of axonal damage in multiple sclerosis (MS. This study aimed to evaluate RNFL thickness in patients at presentation with clinically isolated syndromes (CIS suggestive of MS. METHODOLOGY: This was a cross-sectional study. Twenty-four patients with CIS suggestive of MS (8 optic neuritis [ON], 6 spinal cord syndromes, 5 brainstem symptoms and 5 with sensory and other syndromes were prospectively studied. The main outcome evaluated was RNFL thickness at CIS onset. Secondary objectives were to study the relationship between RNFL thickness and MRI criteria for disease dissemination in space (DIS as well as the presence of oligoclonal bands in the cerebrospinal fluid. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Thirteen patients had decreased RNFL thickness in at least one quadrant. Mean RNFL thickness was 101.67±10.72 µm in retrobulbar ON eyes and 96.93±10.54 in unaffected eyes. Three of the 6 patients with myelitis had at least one abnormal quadrant in one of the two eyes. Eight CIS patients fulfilled DIS MRI criteria. The presence of at least one quadrant of an optic nerve with a RNFL thickness at a P<5% cut-off value had a sensitivity of 75% and a specificity of 56% for predicting DIS MRI. CONCLUSIONS: The findings from this study show that axonal damage measured by OCT is present in any type of CIS; even in myelitis forms, not only in ON as seen up to now. OCT can detect axonal damage in very early stages of disease and seems to have high sensitivity and moderate specificity for predicting DIS MRI. Studies with prospective long-term follow-up would be needed to establish the prognostic value of baseline OCT findings.

  12. Long-term musical training may improve different forms of visual attention ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Ana Carolina; Loureiro, Maurício Alves; Caramelli, Paulo

    2013-08-01

    Many studies have suggested that structural and functional cerebral neuroplastic processes result from long-term musical training, which in turn may produce cognitive differences between musicians and non-musicians. We aimed to investigate whether intensive, long-term musical practice is associated with improvements in three different forms of visual attention ability: selective, divided and sustained attention. Musicians from symphony orchestras (n=38) and non-musicians (n=38), who were comparable in age, gender and education, were submitted to three neuropsychological tests, measuring reaction time and accuracy. Musicians showed better performance relative to non-musicians on four variables of the three visual attention tests, and such an advantage could not solely be explained by better sensorimotor integration. Moreover, in the group of musicians, significant correlations were observed between the age at the commencement of musical studies and reaction time in all visual attention tests. The results suggest that musicians present augmented ability in different forms of visual attention, thus illustrating the possible cognitive benefits of long-term musical training. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Distinct electrophysiological indices of maintenance in auditory and visual short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, Christine; Vachon, François; Grimault, Stephan; Thibault, Jennifer; Guimond, Synthia; Peretz, Isabelle; Zatorre, Robert J; Jolicœur, Pierre

    2013-11-01

    We compared the electrophysiological correlates for the maintenance of non-musical tones sequences in auditory short-term memory (ASTM) to those for the short-term maintenance of sequences of coloured disks held in visual short-term memory (VSTM). The visual stimuli yielded a sustained posterior contralateral negativity (SPCN), suggesting that the maintenance of sequences of coloured stimuli engaged structures similar to those involved in the maintenance of simultaneous visual displays. On the other hand, maintenance of acoustic sequences produced a sustained negativity at fronto-central sites. This component is named the Sustained Anterior Negativity (SAN). The amplitude of the SAN increased with increasing load in ASTM and predicted individual differences in the performance. There was no SAN in a control condition with the same auditory stimuli but no memory task, nor one associated with visual memory. These results suggest that the SAN is an index of brain activity related to the maintenance of representations in ASTM that is distinct from the maintenance of representations in VSTM. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Maternity Leave and Mothers' Long-Term Sickness Absence: Evidence From West Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guertzgen, Nicole; Hank, Karsten

    2018-04-01

    Exploiting unique German administrative data, we estimate the association between an expansion in maternity leave duration from two to six months in 1979 and mothers' postbirth long-term sickness absence over a period of three decades after childbirth. Adopting a difference-in-difference approach, we first assess the reform's labor market effects and, subsequently, prebirth and postbirth maternal long-term sickness absence, accounting for the potential role of the reform in mothers' selection into employment. Consistent with previous research, our estimates show that the leave extension caused mothers to significantly delay their return to work within the first year after childbirth. We then provide difference-in-difference estimates for the number and length of spells of long-term sickness absence among returned mothers. Our findings suggest that among those returned, mothers subject to the leave extension exhibit a higher incidence of long-term sickness absence compared with mothers who gave birth before the reform. This also holds true after we control for observable differences in prebirth illness histories. At the same time, we find no pronounced effects on mothers' medium-run labor market attachment following the short-run delay in return to work, which might rationalize a negative causal health effect. Breaking down the results by mothers' prebirth health status suggests that the higher incidence of long-term sickness absence among mothers subject to the reform may be explained by the fact that the reform facilitated the reentry of a negative health selection into the labor market.

  15. LONGER-TERM EFFECTIVENESS OF CBT IN TREATMENT OF COMORBID AUD/MDD ADOLESCENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, Jack R; Douaihy, Antoine B; Kirisci, Levent; Daley, Dennis C

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) is a commonly used therapy among persons with major depressive disorder (MDD) and also among those with alcohol use disorders (AUD). However, less is known regarding the efficacy of CBT for treating persons with co-occurring disorders involving both MDD and an AUD. Studies assessing the efficacy of CBT in adolescent populations with co-occurring disorders are particularly sparse, especially studies designed to assess the potential longer-term efficacy of an acute phase trial of CBT therapy in that youthful comorbid population. We recently conducted a first acute phase treatment study involving comorbid AUD/MDD adolescents, which involved the medication fluoxetine as well as manualized CBT therapy. The results of that acute phase study suggested efficacy for CBT therapy but not for fluoxetine for treating the depressive symptoms and the excessive alcohol use of study subjects (Cornelius et al., 2009). The current chapter provides an assessment of the long-term efficacy of CBT for treating comorbid AUD/MDD adolescents, based on results from our own long-term (four-year) follow-up study, which was conducted following the completion of our recent acute phase treatment study. The results of the study suggest long-term efficacy for acute phase CBT/MET therapy for treating both the depressive symptoms and the excessive alcohol use of comorbid AUD/MDD adolescents, but demonstrate no evidence of long-term efficacy for fluoxetine for treating either the depressive symptoms or the excessive alcohol use of that population.

  16. Rewriting and suppressing UMLS terms for improved biomedical term identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hettne Kristina M

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identification of terms is essential for biomedical text mining.. We concentrate here on the use of vocabularies for term identification, specifically the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS. To make the UMLS more suitable for biomedical text mining we implemented and evaluated nine term rewrite and eight term suppression rules. The rules rely on UMLS properties that have been identified in previous work by others, together with an additional set of new properties discovered by our group during our work with the UMLS. Our work complements the earlier work in that we measure the impact on the number of terms identified by the different rules on a MEDLINE corpus. The number of uniquely identified terms and their frequency in MEDLINE were computed before and after applying the rules. The 50 most frequently found terms together with a sample of 100 randomly selected terms were evaluated for every rule. Results Five of the nine rewrite rules were found to generate additional synonyms and spelling variants that correctly corresponded to the meaning of the original terms and seven out of the eight suppression rules were found to suppress only undesired terms. Using the five rewrite rules that passed our evaluation, we were able to identify 1,117,772 new occurrences of 14,784 rewritten terms in MEDLINE. Without the rewriting, we recognized 651,268 terms belonging to 397,414 concepts; with rewriting, we recognized 666,053 terms belonging to 410,823 concepts, which is an increase of 2.8% in the number of terms and an increase of 3.4% in the number of concepts recognized. Using the seven suppression rules, a total of 257,118 undesired terms were suppressed in the UMLS, notably decreasing its size. 7,397 terms were suppressed in the corpus. Conclusions We recommend applying the five rewrite rules and seven suppression rules that passed our evaluation when the UMLS is to be used for biomedical term identification in MEDLINE. A software

  17. Short-Term Memory for Order but Not for Item Information Is Impaired in Developmental Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachmann, Wibke M.; Bogaerts, Louisa; Szmalec, Arnaud; Woumans, Evy; Duyck, Wouter; Job, Remo

    2014-01-01

    Recent findings suggest that people with dyslexia experience difficulties with the learning of serial order information during the transition from short-to long-term memory (Szmalec et al. "Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition" 37(5): 1270-1279, 2011). At the same time, models of short-term memory…

  18. Visual dot interaction with short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etindele Sosso, Faustin Armel

    2017-06-01

    Many neurodegenerative diseases have a memory component. Brain structures related to memory are affected by environmental stimuli, and it is difficult to dissociate effects of all behavior of neurons. Here, visual cortex of mice was stimulated with gratings and dot, and an observation of neuronal activity before and after was made. Bandwidth, firing rate and orientation selectivity index were evaluated. A primary communication between primary visual cortex and short-term memory appeared to show an interesting path to train cognitive circuitry and investigate the basics mechanisms of the neuronal learning. The findings also suggested the interplay between primary visual cortex and short-term plasticity. The properties inside a visual target shape the perception and affect the basic encoding. Using visual cortex, it may be possible to train the memory and improve the recovery of people with cognitive disabilities or memory deficit.

  19. Synaptic Transmission Optimization Predicts Expression Loci of Long-Term Plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Rui Ponte; Padamsey, Zahid; D'Amour, James A; Emptage, Nigel J; Froemke, Robert C; Vogels, Tim P

    2017-09-27

    Long-term modifications of neuronal connections are critical for reliable memory storage in the brain. However, their locus of expression-pre- or postsynaptic-is highly variable. Here we introduce a theoretical framework in which long-term plasticity performs an optimization of the postsynaptic response statistics toward a given mean with minimal variance. Consequently, the state of the synapse at the time of plasticity induction determines the ratio of pre- and postsynaptic modifications. Our theory explains the experimentally observed expression loci of the hippocampal and neocortical synaptic potentiation studies we examined. Moreover, the theory predicts presynaptic expression of long-term depression, consistent with experimental observations. At inhibitory synapses, the theory suggests a statistically efficient excitatory-inhibitory balance in which changes in inhibitory postsynaptic response statistics specifically target the mean excitation. Our results provide a unifying theory for understanding the expression mechanisms and functions of long-term synaptic transmission plasticity. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Sustainability and Long Term-Tenure: Lion Trophy Hunting in Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Brink

    Full Text Available It is argued that trophy hunting of large, charismatic mammal species can have considerable conservation benefits but only if undertaken sustainably. Social-ecological theory suggests such sustainability only results from developing governance systems that balance financial and biological requirements. Here we use lion (Panthera leo trophy hunting data from Tanzania to investigate how resource ownership patterns influence hunting revenue and offtake levels. Tanzania contains up to half of the global population of free-ranging lions and is also the main location for lion trophy hunting in Africa. However, there are concerns that current hunting levels are unsustainable. The lion hunting industry in Tanzania is run by the private sector, although the government leases each hunting block to companies, enforces hunting regulation, and allocates them a species-specific annual quota per block. The length of these leases varies and theories surrounding property rights and tenure suggest hunting levels would be less sustainable in blocks experiencing a high turnover of short-term leases. We explored this issue using lion data collected from 1996 to 2008 in the Selous Game Reserve (SGR, the most important trophy hunting destination in Tanzania. We found that blocks in SGR with the highest lion hunting offtake were also those that experienced the steepest declines in trophy offtake. In addition, we found this high hunting offtake and the resultant offtake decline tended to be in blocks under short-term tenure. In contrast, lion hunting levels in blocks under long-term tenure matched more closely the recommended sustainable offtake of 0.92 lions per 1000 km2. However, annual financial returns were higher from blocks under short-term tenure, providing $133 per km2 of government revenue as compared to $62 per km2 from long-term tenure blocks. Our results provide evidence for the importance of property rights in conservation, and support calls for an overhaul

  1. Sustainability and Long Term-Tenure: Lion Trophy Hunting in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brink, Henry; Smith, Robert J; Skinner, Kirsten; Leader-Williams, Nigel

    2016-01-01

    It is argued that trophy hunting of large, charismatic mammal species can have considerable conservation benefits but only if undertaken sustainably. Social-ecological theory suggests such sustainability only results from developing governance systems that balance financial and biological requirements. Here we use lion (Panthera leo) trophy hunting data from Tanzania to investigate how resource ownership patterns influence hunting revenue and offtake levels. Tanzania contains up to half of the global population of free-ranging lions and is also the main location for lion trophy hunting in Africa. However, there are concerns that current hunting levels are unsustainable. The lion hunting industry in Tanzania is run by the private sector, although the government leases each hunting block to companies, enforces hunting regulation, and allocates them a species-specific annual quota per block. The length of these leases varies and theories surrounding property rights and tenure suggest hunting levels would be less sustainable in blocks experiencing a high turnover of short-term leases. We explored this issue using lion data collected from 1996 to 2008 in the Selous Game Reserve (SGR), the most important trophy hunting destination in Tanzania. We found that blocks in SGR with the highest lion hunting offtake were also those that experienced the steepest declines in trophy offtake. In addition, we found this high hunting offtake and the resultant offtake decline tended to be in blocks under short-term tenure. In contrast, lion hunting levels in blocks under long-term tenure matched more closely the recommended sustainable offtake of 0.92 lions per 1000 km2. However, annual financial returns were higher from blocks under short-term tenure, providing $133 per km2 of government revenue as compared to $62 per km2 from long-term tenure blocks. Our results provide evidence for the importance of property rights in conservation, and support calls for an overhaul of the system in

  2. Interteaching and Lecture: A Comparison of Long-Term Recognition Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saville, Bryan K.; Bureau, Alex; Eckenrode, Claire; Fullerton, Alison; Herbert, Reanna; Maley, Michelle; Porter, Allen; Zombakis, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Although a number of studies suggest that interteaching is an effective alternative to traditional teaching methods, no studies have systematically examined whether interteaching improves long-term memory. In this study, we assigned students to different teaching conditions--interteaching, lecture, or control--and then gave them a multiple-choice…

  3. Suicide risk in long-term care facilities: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezuk, Briana; Rock, Andrew; Lohman, Matthew C; Choi, Moon

    2014-12-01

    Suicide risk is highest in later life; however, little is known about the risk of suicide among older adults in long-term care facilities (e.g., nursing homes and assisted living facilities). The goal of this paper is to review and synthesize the descriptive and analytic epidemiology of suicide in long-term care settings over the past 25 years. Four databases (PubMed, CINAHL Plus, Web of Knowledge, and EBSCOHost Academic Search Complete) were searched for empirical studies of suicide risk in nursing homes, assisted living, and other residential facilities from 1985 to 2013. Of the 4073 unique research articles identified, 37 were selected for inclusion in this review. Of the included reports, 21 were cross-sectional, 8 cohort, 3 qualitative, and 5 intervention studies. Most studies indicate that suicidal thoughts (active and passive) are common among residents (prevalence in the past month: 5-33%), although completed suicide is rare. Correlates of suicidal thoughts among long-term care residents include depression, social isolation, loneliness, and functional decline. Most studies examined only individual-level correlates of suicide, although there is suggestive evidence that organizational characteristics (e.g., bed size and staffing) may also be relevant. Existing research on suicide risk in long-term care facilities is limited but suggests that this is an important issue for clinicians and medical directors to be aware of and address. Research is needed on suicide risk in assisted living and other non-nursing home residential settings, as well as the potential role of organizational characteristics on emotional well-being for residents. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. The ratio of high-molecular weight adiponectin and total adiponectin differs in preterm and term infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Tomohide; Nagasaki, Hiraku; Asato, Yoshihide; Ohta, Takao

    2009-05-01

    Adiponectin consists of three subspecies (high-, middle- and low-molecular weight adiponectin). Among these, high-molecular weight adiponectin (H-adn) is suggested to be an active form of this protein. To assess the relationship between H-adn and postnatal growth in preterm infants (PIs), serum H-adn and total adiponectin (T-adn) were measured in 46 PIs at birth and at corrected term, and 26 term infants (TI) at birth. T-adn and H-adn concentrations, and the ratio of H-adn to T-adn (H/T-adn) were significantly greater in TI and PI at corrected term than in PI at birth (p adn and H-adn concentrations in PI at corrected term were similar to those in TI, but H/T-adn in PI at corrected term was less than that in TI (p adn and serum concentrations of T- and H-adn in PI at corrected term were different from those in TI. These data suggest that quality of early postnatal growth in PIs is different from that in normally developed TI. Postnatal growth accompanying adipose tissue similar to TI may be important for PI to prevent future development of cardiovascular disease.

  5. [Suggestions to improve dentist-endodontist collaboration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabalegui, B; Zabalegui, I; Flores, L

    1989-01-01

    Referrals from the general dentist to the endodontist are in some occasions complicated with lack of proper communication among dentist-patient-specialist, resulting in the loss of confidence or even the patient. Suggestions to improve this communication are discussed, which will provide the patient a higher confidence in the indicated endodontic treatment and a better dental service. It will also enhance the prestige of the general dentists' and specialists' practice.

  6. Genetic deletion of melanin-concentrating hormone neurons impairs hippocampal short-term synaptic plasticity and hippocampal-dependent forms of short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Barillier, Léa; Léger, Lucienne; Luppi, Pierre-Hervé; Fort, Patrice; Malleret, Gaël; Salin, Paul-Antoine

    2015-11-01

    The cognitive role of melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) neurons, a neuronal population located in the mammalian postero-lateral hypothalamus sending projections to all cortical areas, remains poorly understood. Mainly activated during paradoxical sleep (PS), MCH neurons have been implicated in sleep regulation. The genetic deletion of the only known MCH receptor in rodent leads to an impairment of hippocampal dependent forms of memory and to an alteration of hippocampal long-term synaptic plasticity. By using MCH/ataxin3 mice, a genetic model characterized by a selective deletion of MCH neurons in the adult, we investigated the role of MCH neurons in hippocampal synaptic plasticity and hippocampal-dependent forms of memory. MCH/ataxin3 mice exhibited a deficit in the early part of both long-term potentiation and depression in the CA1 area of the hippocampus. Post-tetanic potentiation (PTP) was diminished while synaptic depression induced by repetitive stimulation was enhanced suggesting an alteration of pre-synaptic forms of short-term plasticity in these mice. Behaviorally, MCH/ataxin3 mice spent more time and showed a higher level of hesitation as compared to their controls in performing a short-term memory T-maze task, displayed retardation in acquiring a reference memory task in a Morris water maze, and showed a habituation deficit in an open field task. Deletion of MCH neurons could thus alter spatial short-term memory by impairing short-term plasticity in the hippocampus. Altogether, these findings could provide a cellular mechanism by which PS may facilitate memory encoding. Via MCH neuron activation, PS could prepare the day's learning by increasing and modulating short-term synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. The cointegrated vector autoregressive model with general deterministic terms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Søren; Nielsen, Morten Ørregaard

    2017-01-01

    In the cointegrated vector autoregression (CVAR) literature, deterministic terms have until now been analyzed on a case-by-case, or as-needed basis. We give a comprehensive unified treatment of deterministic terms in the additive model X(t)=Z(t) Y(t), where Z(t) belongs to a large class...... of deterministic regressors and Y(t) is a zero-mean CVAR. We suggest an extended model that can be estimated by reduced rank regression and give a condition for when the additive and extended models are asymptotically equivalent, as well as an algorithm for deriving the additive model parameters from the extended...... model parameters. We derive asymptotic properties of the maximum likelihood estimators and discuss tests for rank and tests on the deterministic terms. In particular, we give conditions under which the estimators are asymptotically (mixed) Gaussian, such that associated tests are X 2 -distributed....

  8. The cointegrated vector autoregressive model with general deterministic terms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Søren; Nielsen, Morten Ørregaard

    In the cointegrated vector autoregression (CVAR) literature, deterministic terms have until now been analyzed on a case-by-case, or as-needed basis. We give a comprehensive unified treatment of deterministic terms in the additive model X(t)= Z(t) + Y(t), where Z(t) belongs to a large class...... of deterministic regressors and Y(t) is a zero-mean CVAR. We suggest an extended model that can be estimated by reduced rank regression and give a condition for when the additive and extended models are asymptotically equivalent, as well as an algorithm for deriving the additive model parameters from the extended...... model parameters. We derive asymptotic properties of the maximum likelihood estimators and discuss tests for rank and tests on the deterministic terms. In particular, we give conditions under which the estimators are asymptotically (mixed) Gaussian, such that associated tests are khi squared distributed....

  9. Can climate sensitivity be estimated from short-term relationships of top-of-atmosphere net radiation and surface temperature?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Bing; Min Qilong; Sun Wenbo; Hu Yongxiang; Fan, Tai-Fang

    2011-01-01

    Increasing the knowledge in climate radiative feedbacks is critical for current climate studies. This work focuses on short-term relationships between global mean surface temperature and top-of-atmosphere (TOA) net radiation. The relationships may be used to characterize the climate feedback as suggested by some recent studies. As those recent studies, an energy balance model with ocean mixed layer and both radiative and non-radiative heat sources is used here. The significant improvement of current model is that climate system memories are considered. Based on model simulations, short-term relationship between global mean surface temperature and TOA net radiation (or the linear striation feature as suggested by previous studies) might represent climate feedbacks when the system had no memories. However, climate systems with the same short-term feedbacks but different memories would have a similar linear striation feature. This linear striation feature reflects only fast components of climate feedbacks and may not represent the total climate feedback even when the memory length of climate systems is minimal. The potential errors in the use of short-term relationships in estimations of climate sensitivity could be big. In short time scales, fast climate processes may overwhelm long-term climate feedbacks. Thus, the climate radiative feedback parameter obtained from short-term data may not provide a reliable estimate of climate sensitivity. This result also suggests that long-term observations of global surface temperature and TOA radiation are critical in the understanding of climate feedbacks and sensitivities.

  10. Near-term technology policies for long-term climate targets--economy wide versus technology specific approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanden, B.A.; Azar, Christian

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to offer suggestions when it comes to near-term technology policies for long-term climate targets based on some insights into the nature of technical change. We make a distinction between economy wide and technology specific policy instruments and put forward two key hypotheses: (i) Near-term carbon targets such as the Kyoto protocol can be met by economy wide price instruments (carbon taxes, or a cap-and-trade system) changing the technologies we pick from the shelf (higher energy efficiency in cars, buildings and industry, wind, biomass for heat and electricity, natural gas instead of coal, solar thermal, etc.). (ii) Technology specific policies are needed to bring new technologies to the shelf. Without these new technologies, stricter emission reduction targets may be considered impossible to meet by the government, industry and the general public, and therefore not adopted. The policies required to bring these more advanced technologies to the shelf are more complex and include increased public research and development, demonstration, niche market creation, support for networks within the new industries, standard settings and infrastructure policies (e.g., when it comes to hydrogen distribution). There is a risk that the society in its quest for cost-efficiency in meeting near-term emissions targets, becomes blindfolded when it comes to the more difficult, but equally important issue of bringing more advanced technologies to the shelf. The paper presents mechanisms that cause technology look in, how these very mechanisms can be used to get out of the current 'carbon lock-in' and the risk with premature lock-ins into new technologies that do not deliver what they currently promise. We then review certain climate policy proposals with regards to their expected technology impact, and finally we present a let-a-hundred-flowers-bloom strategy for the next couple of decades

  11. SHORT-TERM MEMORY IS INDEPENDENT OF BRAIN PROTEIN SYNTHESIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Hasker P.; Rosenzweig, Mark R.; Jones, Oliver W.

    1980-09-01

    Male Swiss albino CD-1 mice given a single injection of a cerebral protein synthesis inhibitor, anisomycin (ANI) (1 mg/animal), 20 min prior to single trial passive avoidance training demonstrated impaired retention at tests given 3 hr, 6 hr, 1 day, and 7 days after training. Retention was not significantly different from saline controls when tests were given 0.5 or 1.5 hr after training. Prolonging inhibition of brain protein synthesis by giving either 1 or 2 additional injections of ANI 2 or 2 and 4 hr after training did not prolong short-term retention performance. The temporal development of impaired retention in ANI treated mice could not be accounted for by drug dosage, duration of protein synthesis inhibition, or nonspecific sickness at test. In contrast to the suggestion that protein synthesis inhibition prolongs short-term memory (Quinton, 1978), the results of this experiment indicate that short-term memory is not prolonged by antibiotic drugs that inhibit cerebral protein synthesis. All evidence seems consistent with the hypothesis that short-term memory is protein synthesis independent and that the establishment of long-term memory depends upon protein synthesis during or shortly after training. Evidence for a role of protein synthesis in memory maintenance is discussed.

  12. Dopamine Modulation of Reunion Behavior in Short and Long Term Marmoset Pairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah B. Carp

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available One major neurobiological substrate regulating social processes is dopamine (DA. DA is implicated in social behavior in species as diverse as fish and birds, and has an established role in regulating relationships between mates in socially monogamous rodents. Marmoset monkeys display traits associated with social monogamy including high rates of affiliation, biparental care, distress upon separation, and aggression toward strangers; several of these behavioral patterns change throughout the development of relationships. This temporal change may represent changing demands, as pairs are likely to jointly face new experiences (e.g., parenthood throughout pairing. We investigated the role of DA and pairing length on social behavior during reunion after separation from the mate. Marmosets were removed from their home environment and treated with agonists and antagonists for the D1 and D2 receptor subtypes. They were exposed to a novel environment containing an opposite-sex stranger and their pair mate, and then reunited with their mate in the home enclosure. Marmosets in long term pairs exhibited higher levels of food sharing during reunion than marmosets in short term pairs, with females in long term pairs sharing food more than males; no sex difference was observed in short term pairs. Subjects in short term pairs spent more time grooming their mate than receiving grooming during reunion, while marmosets in long term pairs displayed similar amounts of both initiated and received grooming. DA treatment altered pair-level behavior. When females received either a D2 agonist or antagonist, short term pairs spent less time in proximity, compared to when males received the same treatments. In long term pairs, treatment of females with either a D1 agonist or antagonist resulted in pairs spending less time in social proximity than when males were treated. These findings suggest that the function of the DA system in mate behavior may be similar between

  13. Source term model evaluations for the low-level waste facility performance assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yim, M.S.; Su, S.I. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The estimation of release of radionuclides from various waste forms to the bottom boundary of the waste disposal facility (source term) is one of the most important aspects of LLW facility performance assessment. In this work, several currently used source term models are comparatively evaluated for the release of carbon-14 based on a test case problem. The models compared include PRESTO-EPA-CPG, IMPACTS, DUST and NEFTRAN-II. Major differences in assumptions and approaches between the models are described and key parameters are identified through sensitivity analysis. The source term results from different models are compared and other concerns or suggestions are discussed.

  14. Anticipatory eye movements and long-term memory in early infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong-Kee-You, Audrey M B; Adler, Scott A

    2016-11-01

    Advances in our understanding of long-term memory in early infancy have been made possible by studies that have used the Rovee-Collier's mobile conjugate reinforcement paradigm and its variants. One function that has been attributed to long-term memory is the formation of expectations (Rovee-Collier & Hayne, 1987); consequently, a long-term memory representation should be established during expectation formation. To examine this prediction and potentially open the door on a new paradigm for exploring infants' long-term memory, using the Visual Expectation Paradigm (Haith, Hazan, & Goodman, 1988), 3-month-old infants were trained to form an expectation for predictable color and spatial information of picture events and emit anticipatory eye movements to those events. One day later, infants' anticipatory eye movements decreased in number relative to the end of training when the predictable colors were changed but not when the spatial location of the predictable color events was changed. These findings confirm that information encoded during expectation formation are stored in long-term memory, as hypothesized by Rovee-Collier and colleagues. Further, this research suggests that eye movements are potentially viable measures of long-term memory in infancy, providing confirmatory evidence for early mnemonic processes. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Mechanisms of eyewitness suggestibility: tests of the explanatory role hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rindal, Eric J; Chrobak, Quin M; Zaragoza, Maria S; Weihing, Caitlin A

    2017-10-01

    In a recent paper, Chrobak and Zaragoza (Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 142(3), 827-844, 2013) proposed the explanatory role hypothesis, which posits that the likelihood of developing false memories for post-event suggestions is a function of the explanatory function the suggestion serves. In support of this hypothesis, they provided evidence that participant-witnesses were especially likely to develop false memories for their forced fabrications when their fabrications helped to explain outcomes they had witnessed. In three experiments, we test the generality of the explanatory role hypothesis as a mechanism of eyewitness suggestibility by assessing whether this hypothesis can predict suggestibility errors in (a) situations where the post-event suggestions are provided by the experimenter (as opposed to fabricated by the participant), and (b) across a variety of memory measures and measures of recollective experience. In support of the explanatory role hypothesis, participants were more likely to subsequently freely report (E1) and recollect the suggestions as part of the witnessed event (E2, source test) when the post-event suggestion helped to provide a causal explanation for a witnessed outcome than when it did not serve this explanatory role. Participants were also less likely to recollect the suggestions as part of the witnessed event (on measures of subjective experience) when their explanatory strength had been reduced by the presence of an alternative explanation that could explain the same outcome (E3, source test + warning). Collectively, the results provide strong evidence that the search for explanatory coherence influences people's tendency to misremember witnessing events that were only suggested to them.

  16. Terms for describing new, advanced nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-04-01

    The IAEA's Division of Nuclear Power and the Fuel Cycle (then the Division of Nuclear Power) took an initiative in this field some years ago when work was initiated in the area of ''safety related terms'' by its International Working Group on Advanced Technologies for Water Cooled Reactors. This activity drew on advice from reactor design organizations, research institutes and government organizations, and aimed at helping eliminate confusion and misuse of safety related terms in widespread use, clarifying technical thinking regarding these terms, and improving nuclear power acceptability by providing precisely described technical meanings to them. After discussion also in the International Working Groups for Gas Cooled Reactors and Fast Reactors, the work resulted in the publication in September 1991 of IAEA-TECDOC-626, entitled ''Safety Related Terms for Advanced Nuclear Plants'', which has become a widely used publication. The present TECDOC has been prepared using the same approach to obtain advice from involved parties. Drafts of this report have been reviewed by the International Working Groups on Water Cooled Reactors, Fast Reactors and Gas Cooled Reactors, as well as by the IAEA's International Fusion Research Council (IFRC). The comments and suggestions received have been evaluated and utilized for producing the present TECDOC. 3 figs

  17. Social evolution and genetic interactions in the short and long term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Cleve, Jeremy

    2015-08-01

    The evolution of social traits remains one of the most fascinating and feisty topics in evolutionary biology even after half a century of theoretical research. W.D. Hamilton shaped much of the field initially with his 1964 papers that laid out the foundation for understanding the effect of genetic relatedness on the evolution of social behavior. Early theoretical investigations revealed two critical assumptions required for Hamilton's rule to hold in dynamical models: weak selection and additive genetic interactions. However, only recently have analytical approaches from population genetics and evolutionary game theory developed sufficiently so that social evolution can be studied under the joint action of selection, mutation, and genetic drift. We review how these approaches suggest two timescales for evolution under weak mutation: (i) a short-term timescale where evolution occurs between a finite set of alleles, and (ii) a long-term timescale where a continuum of alleles are possible and populations evolve continuously from one monomorphic trait to another. We show how Hamilton's rule emerges from the short-term analysis under additivity and how non-additive genetic interactions can be accounted for more generally. This short-term approach reproduces, synthesizes, and generalizes many previous results including the one-third law from evolutionary game theory and risk dominance from economic game theory. Using the long-term approach, we illustrate how trait evolution can be described with a diffusion equation that is a stochastic analogue of the canonical equation of adaptive dynamics. Peaks in the stationary distribution of the diffusion capture classic notions of convergence stability from evolutionary game theory and generally depend on the additive genetic interactions inherent in Hamilton's rule. Surprisingly, the peaks of the long-term stationary distribution can predict the effects of simple kinds of non-additive interactions. Additionally, the peaks

  18. Nurse Case Managers' Experiences on Case Management for Long-term Hospitalization in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Jinjoo Oh, Ph.D., RN, GNP; Seieun Oh, Ph.D., RN

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The implementation of case management for long-term hospitalization use has been approved for controlling medical cost increases in other countries. But, introduction of the case management in Korea has created issues that hinder its effective operation. This qualitative study aimed to obtain further understanding of the issues surrounding the management of Medical Aid beneficiaries' use of long-term hospitalization from the case managers' perspectives and to provide suggestions for ...

  19. Fragile visual short-term memory is an object-based and location-specific store.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Yaïr; Sligte, Ilja G; Shapiro, Kimron L; Lamme, Victor A F

    2013-08-01

    Fragile visual short-term memory (FM) is a recently discovered form of visual short-term memory. Evidence suggests that it provides rich and high-capacity storage, like iconic memory, yet it exists, without interference, almost as long as visual working memory. In the present study, we sought to unveil the functional underpinnings of this memory storage. We found that FM is only completely erased when the new visual scene appears at the same location and consists of the same objects as the to-be-recalled information. This result has two important implications: First, it shows that FM is an object- and location-specific store, and second, it suggests that FM might be used in everyday life when the presentation of visual information is appropriately designed.

  20. The Nature of the Capacity Limitations in Visual Short-Term Memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Thomas Alrik; Kyllingsbæk, Søren

    Several studies have explored the nature and in particular the limitations of human visual short-term memory (VSTM) (e.g. Luck & Vogel, 1997). A VSTM capacity limit of about 3 to 4 objects has been found, thus confirming results from earlier studies (e.g. Sperling, 1960). However, Alvarez...... either Arabic or Japanese. Our results indicate that VSTM capacity for familiar items - compared to unfamiliar - is larger, irrespective of their visual complexity, hereby suggesting that visual long-term memory representation and training play an important role in regard to the capacity limitations...

  1. Protein kinase M ζ and the maintenance of long-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Zong, Wei; Zhang, Lei; Ma, Yuanye; Wang, Jianhong

    2016-10-01

    Although various molecules have been found to mediate the processes of memory acquisition and consolidation, the molecular mechanism to maintain memory still remains elusive. In recent years, a molecular pathway focusing on protein kinase Mζ (PKMζ) has become of interest to researchers because of its potential role in long-term memory maintenance. PKMζ is an isoform of protein kinase C (PKC) and has a related structure that influences its function in maintaining memory. Considerable evidence has been gathered on PKMζ activity, including loss of function studies using PKMζ inhibitors, such as PKMζ inhibitory peptide (ZIP), suggesting PKMζ plays an important role in long-term memory maintenance. This review provides an overview of the role of PKMζ in long-term memory and outlines the molecular structure of PKMζ, the molecular mechanism of PKMζ in long-term memory maintenance and future directions of PKMζ research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Short-Term Monocular Deprivation Enhances Physiological Pupillary Oscillations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Binda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Short-term monocular deprivation alters visual perception in adult humans, increasing the dominance of the deprived eye, for example, as measured with binocular rivalry. This form of plasticity may depend upon the inhibition/excitation balance in the visual cortex. Recent work suggests that cortical excitability is reliably tracked by dilations and constrictions of the pupils of the eyes. Here, we ask whether monocular deprivation produces a systematic change of pupil behavior, as measured at rest, that is independent of the change of visual perception. During periods of minimal sensory stimulation (in the dark and task requirements (minimizing body and gaze movements, slow pupil oscillations, “hippus,” spontaneously appear. We find that hippus amplitude increases after monocular deprivation, with larger hippus changes in participants showing larger ocular dominance changes (measured by binocular rivalry. This tight correlation suggests that a single latent variable explains both the change of ocular dominance and hippus. We speculate that the neurotransmitter norepinephrine may be implicated in this phenomenon, given its important role in both plasticity and pupil control. On the practical side, our results indicate that measuring the pupil hippus (a simple and short procedure provides a sensitive index of the change of ocular dominance induced by short-term monocular deprivation, hence a proxy for plasticity.

  3. Investigating domain-general short-term memory for order versus specific item memory in developmental dyslexia

    OpenAIRE

    Hachmann, Wibke Maria

    2012-01-01

    Recent findings suggest that people with dyslexia experience difficulties with the learning of serial order information during the transition from short- to long-term memory. At the same time, models of short-term memory increasingly incorporate a distinction of order and item processing. This work aims to investigate whether serial order processing deficiencies in dyslexia can be traced back to a selective impairment of short-term memory for serial order, and whether this impairment also aff...

  4. ORACLE--antibiotics for preterm prelabour rupture of the membranes: short-term and long-term outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, S; Taylor, D J; Tarnow-Mordi, W O

    2002-01-01

    Preterm prelabour rupture of the foetal membranes (pPROM) is the most common antecedent of preterm birth and can lead to death, neonatal disease and long-term disability. Previous small trials of antibiotics for pPROM suggested some health benefits for the neonate, but the results were inconclusive. A large, randomized, multicentre trial was undertaken to try to resolve this issue. In total, 4826 women with pPROM were randomized to one of four treatments: 325 mg co-amoxiclav plus 250 mg erythromycin, co-amoxiclav plus erythromycin placebo, erythromycin plus co-amoxiclav placebo, or co-amoxiclav placebo plus erythromycin placebo, four times daily for 10 d or until delivery. The primary outcome measure was a composite of neonatal death, chronic lung disease or major cerebral abnormality on ultrasonography before discharge from hospital. The analysis was undertaken by intention to treat. Indications of short-term respiratory function, chronic lung disease and major neonatal cerebral abnormality were reduced with the prescription of erythromycin. In contrast, the use of co-amoxiclav was associated with a significant increase in the occurrence of neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis. Prophylactic antibiotics can play a role in preterm prelabour rupture of the membranes in reducing infant morbidity.

  5. Implicit short- and long-term memory direct our gaze in visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruijne, Wouter; Meeter, Martijn

    2016-04-01

    Visual attention is strongly affected by the past: both by recent experience and by long-term regularities in the environment that are encoded in and retrieved from memory. In visual search, intertrial repetition of targets causes speeded response times (short-term priming). Similarly, targets that are presented more often than others may facilitate search, even long after it is no longer present (long-term priming). In this study, we investigate whether such short-term priming and long-term priming depend on dissociable mechanisms. By recording eye movements while participants searched for one of two conjunction targets, we explored at what stages of visual search different forms of priming manifest. We found both long- and short- term priming effects. Long-term priming persisted long after the bias was present, and was again found even in participants who were unaware of a color bias. Short- and long-term priming affected the same stage of the task; both biased eye movements towards targets with the primed color, already starting with the first eye movement. Neither form of priming affected the response phase of a trial, but response repetition did. The results strongly suggest that both long- and short-term memory can implicitly modulate feedforward visual processing.

  6. FEM effective suggestion of guitar construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Dániel

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Modal analysis of the whole guitar construction was performed. The results of eigenfrequencies were obtained. Stress in strings affects not only static loading of material, but also shift of eigenfrequencies. From obtained natural frequencies for solved spectrum such frequencies were used which coincides with assumed ribs new positions of ribs were suggested. Other ribs which do not carry out the mechanical function were removed. Also static reaction was evaluated and new position of ribs was adjusted. For final model new eigenfrequencies were computed and compared with previous ones. Significant changes were revealed in low frequencies (bellow 400 Hz where fewer amounts of natural shapes were obtained. Approximately 50% were lost by adding of ribs. For chosen frequencies of equal temperament the harmonic analysis was performed. The analysis proved ability of oscillation for frequencies far of natural frequencies. The final model satisfies the requirement of minimization of static stress in material due to strings and allows very effective oscillation of top the guitar resonance board. In comparison with literature good agreement in amplitude size of front board and amount of modes in appropriate frequencies were achieved. Suggested model even offers higher amount of natural shapes in comparison with literature, namely in high frequencies. From additional comparison of eigenfrequencies and natural shapes the influence of ribs position on natural shapes was approved.

  7. Stress, pre-term labour and birth outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKey, M C; Williams, C A; Tiller, C M

    2000-09-01

    Stress, pre-term labour and birth outcomes Preliminary studies have suggested that stress may be associated with the onset, treatment and outcomes of pre-term labour; however, a systematic comparison of the stress of women with and without pre-term labour has not been reported. Therefore, the purpose of this exploratory study was to compare the stress (daily hassles and mood states) and birth outcomes of black and white women who experienced pre-term labour (PTL) during pregnancy with those who did not. The convenience sample consisted of 35 pregnant women hospitalized in 1996-1997 for the treatment of PTL (24-35 weeks gestation) and 35 controls matched on age, race, parity, gestational age and method of hospital payment. Women in the PTL group had significantly higher tension-anxiety and depression-dejection on the Profile of Mood States (POMS), lower mean birthweight and mean gestational age, and a higher percentage of babies born <37 weeks and weighing 2500 g or less. Black women in the PTL group and white women in the control group had significantly higher scores on the fatigue sub-scale of the POMS and the work and future security sub-scales of the Daily Hassles Scale. Women in the PTL group whose babies weighed 2500 g or less had significantly higher scores on the health, inner concern and financial responsibility sub-scales of the Daily Hassles Scale. The findings from this study indicate the need for further exploration of the interaction of race and stress in understanding and preventing PTL and low birthweight and the need to examine the role of social support in preventing pre-term birth after an episode of PTL.

  8. Faecal analysis suggests generalist diets in three species of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The overlap in other arthropod taxa ingested was low across species and seasons, suggesting an opportunistic component to their foraging behaviour. We distinguished plant matter in faecal samples of all species in all seasons, reflecting either voluntary or accidental ingestion. The results of this study suggest that the ...

  9. Clarification of the Memory Artefact in the Assessment of Suggestibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willner, P.

    2008-01-01

    Aim: The Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale (GSS) assesses suggestibility by asking respondents to recall a short story, followed by exposure to leading questions and pressure to change their responses. Suggestibility, as assessed by the GSS, appears to be elevated in people with intellectual disabilities (ID). This has been shown to reflect to some…

  10. Theta coupling between V4 and prefrontal cortex predicts visual short-term memory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebe, Stefanie; Hoerzer, Gregor M; Logothetis, Nikos K; Rainer, Gregor

    2012-01-29

    Short-term memory requires communication between multiple brain regions that collectively mediate the encoding and maintenance of sensory information. It has been suggested that oscillatory synchronization underlies intercortical communication. Yet, whether and how distant cortical areas cooperate during visual memory remains elusive. We examined neural interactions between visual area V4 and the lateral prefrontal cortex using simultaneous local field potential (LFP) recordings and single-unit activity (SUA) in monkeys performing a visual short-term memory task. During the memory period, we observed enhanced between-area phase synchronization in theta frequencies (3-9 Hz) of LFPs together with elevated phase locking of SUA to theta oscillations across regions. In addition, we found that the strength of intercortical locking was predictive of the animals' behavioral performance. This suggests that theta-band synchronization coordinates action potential communication between V4 and prefrontal cortex that may contribute to the maintenance of visual short-term memories.

  11. The role of tag suggestions in folksonomies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bollen, D.G.F.M.; Halpin, H.

    2009-01-01

    Most tagging systems support the user in the tag selection process by providing tag suggestions, or recommendations, based on a popularity measurement of tags other users provided when tagging the same resource. The majority of theories and mathematical models of tagging found in the literature

  12. Long Term Monitoring of Microbial Induced Soil Strengthening Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saneiyan, S.; Ntarlagiannis, D.; Werkema, D. D., Jr.; Colwell, F. S.; Ohan, J.

    2016-12-01

    Soil strengthening/stabilization processes are used to address some of soil quality issues. Microbial induced calcite precipitation (MICP) is a promising soil stabilization process that could offer long term solution by overcoming problems of commonly used methods (e.g. injecting cement slurry). MICP can be applied in larger spatial scales, allowing the enhanced soils to be maintained in an economic sustainable and environmental friendly way. Methods are sought for the long term monitoring of MICP enhanced soils. The spectral induced polarization (SIP) method is one promising method due to sensitivity on such processes and the ability for long term, even autonomous, operation as well as cost effectiveness. Previous laboratory tests showed the sensitivity of the SIP method on soil strengthening as a result of abiotic calcite precipitation. We extended this work to biotic calcite precipitation through MICP. Early results suggest that the MICP formed calcite is denser and could provide improved strengthening capabilities. Our results are supported by geophysical (SIP and shear-wave velocity), geo-chemical and microbiological monitoring. Destructive analysis and visualization (scanning electron imaging - SEM) is expected to provide conclusive evidence on the MICP long term effectiveness.

  13. Theory-of-Mind Development Influences Suggestibility and Source Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright-Paul, Alexandra; Jarrold, Christopher; Wright, Daniel B.

    2008-01-01

    According to the mental-state reasoning model of suggestibility, 2 components of theory of mind mediate reductions in suggestibility across the preschool years. The authors examined whether theory-of-mind performance may be legitimately separated into 2 components and explored the memory processes underlying the associations between theory of mind…

  14. Comparative analyses suggest that information transfer promoted sociality in male bats in the temperate zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safi, Kamran; Kerth, Gerald

    2007-09-01

    The evolution of sociality is a central theme in evolutionary biology. The vast majority of bats are social, which has been explained in terms of the benefits of communal breeding. However, the causes for segregated male groups remain unknown. In a comparative study, we tested whether diet and morphological adaptations to specific foraging styles, two factors known to influence the occurrence of information transfer, can predict male sociality. Our results suggest that the species most likely to benefit from information transfer--namely, those preying on ephemeral insects and with morphological adaptations to feeding in open habitat--are more likely to form male groups. Our findings also indicate that solitary life was the ancestral state of males and sociality evolved in several lineages. Beyond their significance for explaining the existence of male groups in bats, our findings highlight the importance of information transfer in the evolution of animal sociality.

  15. Perceptions of short-term medical volunteer work: a qualitative study in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Tyler; Green, Heidi; Scandlyn, Jean; Kestler, Andrew

    2009-02-26

    Each year medical providers from wealthy countries participate in short-term medical volunteer work in resource-poor countries. Various authors have raised concern that such work has the potential to be harmful to recipient communities; however, the social science and medical literature contains little research into the perceptions of short-term medical volunteer work from the perspective of members of recipient communities. This exploratory study examines the perception of short-term medical volunteer work in Guatemala among groups of actors affected by or participating in these programs. The researchers conducted in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 72 individuals, including Guatemalan healthcare providers and health authorities, foreign medical providers, non-medical personnel working on health projects, and Guatemalan parents of children treated by a short-term volunteer group. Detailed notes and summaries of these interviews were uploaded, coded and annotated using Atlas.ti (Scientific Software Development GmbH, Berlin) to identify recurrent themes from the interviews. Informants commonly identified a need for increased access to medical services in Guatemala, and many believed that short-term medical volunteers are in a position to offer improved access to medical care in the communities where they serve. Informants most frequently cited appropriate patient selection and attention to payment systems as the best means to avoid creating dependence on foreign aid. The most frequent suggestion to improve short-term medical volunteer work was coordination with and respect for local Guatemalan healthcare providers and their communities, as insufficient understanding of the country's existing healthcare resources and needs may result in perceived harm to the recipient community. The perceived impact of short-term medical volunteer projects in Guatemala is highly variable and dependent upon the individual project. In this exploratory study, project

  16. Long-Term Experience with Chinese Language Shapes the Fusiform Asymmetry of English Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Leilei; Xue, Gui; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Chen, Chuansheng; Wei, Miao; He, Qinghua; Dong, Qi

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested differential engagement of the bilateral fusiform gyrus in the processing of Chinese and English. The present study tested the possibility that long-term experience with Chinese language affects the fusiform laterality of English reading by comparing three samples: Chinese speakers, English speakers with Chinese experience, and English speakers without Chinese experience. We found that, when reading words in their respective native language, Chinese and English speakers without Chinese experience differed in functional laterality of the posterior fusiform region (right laterality for Chinese speakers, but left laterality for English speakers). More importantly, compared with English speakers without Chinese experience, English speakers with Chinese experience showed more recruitment of the right posterior fusiform cortex for English words and pseudowords, which is similar to how Chinese speakers processed Chinese. These results suggest that long-term experience with Chinese shapes the fusiform laterality of English reading and have important implications for our understanding of the cross-language influences in terms of neural organization and of the functions of different fusiform subregions in reading. PMID:25598049

  17. Visual Short-Term Memory Capacity for Simple and Complex Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luria, Roy; Sessa, Paola; Gotler, Alex; Jolicoeur, Pierre; Dell'Acqua, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    Does the capacity of visual short-term memory (VSTM) depend on the complexity of the objects represented in memory? Although some previous findings indicated lower capacity for more complex stimuli, other results suggest that complexity effects arise during retrieval (due to errors in the comparison process with what is in memory) that is not…

  18. Accounting: Suggested Content for Postsecondary Tax Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Patricia H.; Morgan, Samuel D.

    1978-01-01

    Surveys of community college graduates and of certified public accountants were made to determine employment relevance of the accounting curriculum. The article suggests topics from the study data which should be included in taxation courses, e.g., income tax accounting, corporate taxation accounting, and tax law. (MF)

  19. Overview of the SBS 2016 Suggestion Track

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koolen, Marijn; Bogers, Toine; Jaap, Kamps

    2016-01-01

    and user-generated book metadata in retrieval. We consolidated last year’s investigation into the nature of book suggestions from the LibraryThing forums and how they compare to book relevance judgements. Participants were encouraged to incorporate rich user profiles of both topic creators and other...

  20. Provision or Good Genes? Menstrual Cycle Shifts in Women's Preferences for Short-Term and Long-Term Mates' Altruistic Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryo Oda

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Men's altruism may have evolved, via female choice, as a signal of either their genetic quality or their willingness to allocate resources to offspring. The possibility that men display altruism to signal their genetic quality may be tested by examining women's preference for men's altruism across the stages of the menstrual cycle. Because women can maximize reproductive benefits by mating with men who have “good genes” on high-fertility versus low-fertility days, women should show a heightened preference for male altruism on high-fertility days compared to low-fertility days, and this heightened preference should be more apparent when women evaluate men for short-term sexual relationships than for long-term committed relationships. The possibility that men display altruism to signal their willingness to provision, as opposed to their genetic quality, may be tested by examining women's preference for men's altruism toward different recipients. More specifically, altruistic behavior toward family members may reflect a willingness to provide resources for kin and, hence, willingness to provision, whereas altruistic behavior toward strangers may function as an honest signal of genetic quality. In two samples of young women (TVs = 131 and 481, we found no differences between high- and low-fertility participants in preference for men's altruism, and women preferred men's altruism more in long-term than short-term relationships. The findings suggest that men's altruistic behavior functions as a signal of willingness to provide resources rather than genetic quality.

  1. Dinosaur peptides suggest mechanisms of protein survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Antonio, James D; Schweitzer, Mary H; Jensen, Shane T; Kalluri, Raghu; Buckley, Michael; Orgel, Joseph P R O

    2011-01-01

    Eleven collagen peptide sequences recovered from chemical extracts of dinosaur bones were mapped onto molecular models of the vertebrate collagen fibril derived from extant taxa. The dinosaur peptides localized to fibril regions protected by the close packing of collagen molecules, and contained few acidic amino acids. Four peptides mapped to collagen regions crucial for cell-collagen interactions and tissue development. Dinosaur peptides were not represented in more exposed parts of the collagen fibril or regions mediating intermolecular cross-linking. Thus functionally significant regions of collagen fibrils that are physically shielded within the fibril may be preferentially preserved in fossils. These results show empirically that structure-function relationships at the molecular level could contribute to selective preservation in fossilized vertebrate remains across geological time, suggest a 'preservation motif', and bolster current concepts linking collagen structure to biological function. This non-random distribution supports the hypothesis that the peptides are produced by the extinct organisms and suggests a chemical mechanism for survival.

  2. Dinosaur Peptides Suggest Mechanisms of Protein Survival

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    San Antonio, James D.; Schweitzer, Mary H.; Jensen, Shane T.; Kalluri, Raghu; Buckley, Michael; Orgel, Joseph P.R.O. (Harvard-Med); (IIT); (NCSU); (UPENN); (Manchester); (Orthovita)

    2011-09-16

    Eleven collagen peptide sequences recovered from chemical extracts of dinosaur bones were mapped onto molecular models of the vertebrate collagen fibril derived from extant taxa. The dinosaur peptides localized to fibril regions protected by the close packing of collagen molecules, and contained few acidic amino acids. Four peptides mapped to collagen regions crucial for cell-collagen interactions and tissue development. Dinosaur peptides were not represented in more exposed parts of the collagen fibril or regions mediating intermolecular cross-linking. Thus functionally significant regions of collagen fibrils that are physically shielded within the fibril may be preferentially preserved in fossils. These results show empirically that structure-function relationships at the molecular level could contribute to selective preservation in fossilized vertebrate remains across geological time, suggest a 'preservation motif', and bolster current concepts linking collagen structure to biological function. This non-random distribution supports the hypothesis that the peptides are produced by the extinct organisms and suggests a chemical mechanism for survival.

  3. Ethnicity-specific birthweight distributions improve identification of term newborns at risk for short-term morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, Gillian E; Janssen, Patricia A

    2013-11-01

    We aimed to determine whether ethnicity-specific birthweight distributions more accurately identify newborns at risk for short-term neonatal morbidity associated with small for gestational age (SGA) birth than population-based distributions not stratified on ethnicity. We examined 100,463 singleton term infants born to parents in Washington State between Jan. 1, 2006, and Dec. 31, 2008. Using multivariable logistic regression models, we compared the ability of an ethnicity-specific growth distribution and a population-based growth distribution to predict which infants were at increased risk for Apgar score distributions had the highest rates of each of the adverse outcomes assessed-more than double those of infants only considered SGA by the population-based standards. When controlling for mother's age, parity, body mass index, education, gestational age, mode of delivery, and marital status, newborns considered SGA by ethnicity-specific birthweight distributions were between 2 and 7 times more likely to suffer from the adverse outcomes listed above than infants who were not SGA. In contrast, newborns considered SGA by population-based birthweight distributions alone were at no higher risk of any adverse outcome except hypothermia (adjusted odds ratio, 2.76; 95% confidence interval, 1.68-4.55) and neonatal intensive care unit admission (adjusted odds ratio, 1.40; 95% confidence interval, 1.18-1.67). Ethnicity-specific birthweight distributions were significantly better at identifying the infants at higher risk of short-term neonatal morbidity, suggesting that their use could save resources and unnecessary parental anxiety. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Decoding attended information in short-term memory: an EEG study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaRocque, Joshua J; Lewis-Peacock, Jarrod A; Drysdale, Andrew T; Oberauer, Klaus; Postle, Bradley R

    2013-01-01

    For decades it has been assumed that sustained, elevated neural activity--the so-called active trace--is the neural correlate of the short-term retention of information. However, a recent fMRI study has suggested that this activity may be more related to attention than to retention. Specifically, a multivariate pattern analysis failed to find evidence that information that was outside the focus of attention, but nonetheless in STM, was retained in an active state. Here, we replicate and extend this finding by querying the neural signatures of attended versus unattended information within STM with electroencephalograpy (EEG), a method sensitive to oscillatory neural activity to which the previous fMRI study was insensitive. We demonstrate that in the delay-period EEG activity, there is information only about memory items that are also in the focus of attention. Information about items outside the focus of attention is not detectable. This result converges with the fMRI findings to suggest that, contrary to conventional wisdom, an active memory trace may be unnecessary for the short-term retention of information.

  5. Do experiments suggest a hierarchy problem?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vissani, F.

    1997-09-01

    The hierarchy problem of the scalar sector of the standard model is reformulated, emphasizing the role of experimental facts that may suggest the existence of a new physics large mass scale, for instance indications of the instability of the matter, or indications in favor of massive neutrinos. In the see-saw model for the neutrino masses a hierarchy problem arises if the mass of the right-handed neutrinos is larger than approximatively 10 7 GeV: this problem, and its possible solutions, are discussed. (author)

  6. Rapid-rate transcranial magnetic stimulation of animal auditory cortex impairs short-term but not long-term memory formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Wang, Xu; Wetzel, Wolfram; Scheich, Henning

    2006-04-01

    Bilateral rapid-rate transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of gerbil auditory cortex with a miniature coil device was used to study short-term and long-term effects on discrimination learning of frequency-modulated tones. We found previously that directional discrimination of frequency modulation (rising vs. falling) relies on auditory cortex processing and that formation of its memory depends on local protein synthesis. Here we show that, during training over 5 days, certain rTMS regimes contingent on training had differential effects on the time course of learning. When rTMS was applied several times per day, i.e. four blocks of 5 min rTMS each followed 5 min later by a 3-min training block and 15-min intervals between these blocks (experiment A), animals reached a high discrimination performance more slowly over 5 days than did controls. When rTMS preceded only the first two of four training blocks (experiment B), or when prolonged rTMS (20 min) preceded only the first block, or when blocks of experiment A had longer intervals (experiments C and D), no significant day-to-day effects were found. However, in experiment A, and to some extent in experiment B, rTMS reduced the within-session discrimination performance. Nevertheless the animals learned, as demonstrated by a higher performance the next day. Thus, our results indicate that rTMS treatments accumulate over a day but not strongly over successive days. We suggest that rTMS of sensory cortex, as used in our study, affects short-term memory but not long-term memory formation.

  7. Evidence Suggesting Absence of Mitochondrial DNA Methylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mechta, Mie; Ingerslev, Lars R; Fabre, Odile

    2017-01-01

    , 16S, ND5 and CYTB, suggesting that mtDNA supercoiled structure blocks the access to bisulfite conversion. Here, we identified an artifact of mtDNA bisulfite sequencing that can lead to an overestimation of mtDNA methylation levels. Our study supports that cytosine methylation is virtually absent...

  8. Cognitive effects of pregabalin in the treatment of long-term benzodiazepine-use and dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oulis, Panagiotis; Kalogerakou, Stamatina; Anyfandi, Eleni; Konstantakopoulos, George; Papakosta, Vassiliki-Maria; Masdrakis, Vasilios; Tsaltas, Eleftheria

    2014-05-01

    Long-term benzodiazepine (BDZ) use and dependence affect cognitive functioning adversely and partly irreversibly. Emerging evidence suggests that pregabalin (PGB) might be a safe and efficacious treatment of long-term BDZ use. The aim of the present study was to investigate the changes in several core cognitive functions after successful treatment of long-term BDZ use and dependence with PGB. Fourteen patients with long-term BDZ use (mean duration >15 years) underwent neuropsychological assessment with the mini-mental state examination and four tests from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) battery before the initiation of PGB treatment and at a two months follow-up after the cessation of BDZs. Patients' CANTAB percentile score distributions were compared with normative CANTAB data. Patients improved on cognitive measures of global cognitive functioning, time orientation, psychomotor speed, and visuospatial memory and learning with strong effect sizes. By contrast, they failed to improve on measures of attentional flexibility. Despite their significant improvement, patients' scores on most tests remained still at the lower percentiles of CANTAB normative scores. Although preliminary, our findings suggest that successful treatment of long-term BDZ use with PGB is associated with a substantial, though only partial, recovery of BDZ-compromised neuropsychological functioning, at least at a 2-month follow-up. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. How long-term dynamics of sediment subduction controls short-term dynamics of seismicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brizzi, S.; van Zelst, I.; van Dinther, Y.; Funiciello, F.; Corbi, F.

    2017-12-01

    Most of the world's greatest earthquakes occur along the subduction megathrust. Weak and porous sediments have been suggested to homogenize the plate interface and thereby promote lateral rupture propagation and great earthquakes. However, the importance of sediment thickness, let alone their physical role, is not yet unequivocally established. Based on a multivariate statistical analysis of a global database of 62 subduction segments, we confirm that sediment thickness is one of the key parameters controlling the maximum magnitude a megathrust can generate. Moreover, Monte Carlo simulations highlighted that the occurrence of great earthquakes on sediment-rich subduction segments is very unlikely (p-value≪0.05) related to pure chance. To understand how sediments in the subduction channel regulate earthquake size, this study extends and demystifies multivariate, spatiotemporally limited data through numerical modeling. We use the 2D Seismo-Thermo-Mechanical modeling approach to simulate both the long- and short-term dynamics of subduction and related seismogenesis (van Dinther et al., JGR, 2013). These models solve for the conservation of mass, momentum and energy using a visco-elasto-plastic rheology with rate-dependent friction. Results show that subducted sediments have a strong influence on the long-term evolution of the convergent margin. Increasing the sediment thickness on the incoming plate from 0 to 6 km causes a decrease of slab dip from 23° to 10°. This, in addition to increased radiogenic heating, extends isotherms, thereby widening the seismogenic portion of the megathrust from 80 to 150 km. Consequently, over tens of thousands of years, we observe that the maximum moment magnitude of megathrust earthquakes increases from 8.2 to 9.2 for these shallower and warmer interfaces. In addition, we observe more and larger splay faults, which could enhance vertical seafloor displacements. These results highlight the primary role of subducted sediments in

  10. Coping with terms-of-trade shocks in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Broda; Cedric Tille

    2003-01-01

    Sharp swings in a developing country's terms of trade, the price of its exports relative to the price of its imports, can seriously disrupt output growth. An analysis of the effects of a decline in export prices in seventy-five developing economies suggests that countries with a flexible exchange rate will experience a much milder contraction in output than their counterparts with fixed exchange rate regimes.

  11. Short-term electric load forecasting using computational intelligence methods

    OpenAIRE

    Jurado, Sergio; Peralta, J.; Nebot, Àngela; Mugica, Francisco; Cortez, Paulo

    2013-01-01

    Accurate time series forecasting is a key issue to support individual and organizational decision making. In this paper, we introduce several methods for short-term electric load forecasting. All the presented methods stem from computational intelligence techniques: Random Forest, Nonlinear Autoregressive Neural Networks, Evolutionary Support Vector Machines and Fuzzy Inductive Reasoning. The performance of the suggested methods is experimentally justified with several experiments carried out...

  12. Working memory, long-term memory, and medial temporal lobe function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeneson, Annette; Squire, Larry R.

    2012-01-01

    Early studies of memory-impaired patients with medial temporal lobe (MTL) damage led to the view that the hippocampus and related MTL structures are involved in the formation of long-term memory and that immediate memory and working memory are independent of these structures. This traditional idea has recently been revisited. Impaired performance in patients with MTL lesions on tasks with short retention intervals, or no retention interval, and neuroimaging findings with similar tasks have been interpreted to mean that the MTL is sometimes needed for working memory and possibly even for visual perception itself. We present a reappraisal of this interpretation. Our main conclusion is that, if the material to be learned exceeds working memory capacity, if the material is difficult to rehearse, or if attention is diverted, performance depends on long-term memory even when the retention interval is brief. This fundamental notion is better captured by the terms subspan memory and supraspan memory than by the terms short-term memory and long-term memory. We propose methods for determining when performance on short-delay tasks must depend on long-term (supraspan) memory and suggest that MTL lesions impair performance only when immediate memory and working memory are insufficient to support performance. In neuroimaging studies, MTL activity during encoding is influenced by the memory load and correlates positively with long-term retention of the material that was presented. The most parsimonious and consistent interpretation of all the data is that subspan memoranda are supported by immediate memory and working memory and are independent of the MTL. PMID:22180053

  13. Long-term aversive taste memory requires insular and amygdala protein degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Ortiz, Carlos J; Balderas, Israela; Saucedo-Alquicira, Fernando; Cruz-Castañeda, Paulina; Bermudez-Rattoni, Federico

    2011-03-01

    Some reports have shown that the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is necessary to degrade repressor factors to produce new proteins essential to memory consolidation. Furthermore, recent evidence suggests that memory updating also relies on protein degradation through the UPS. To evaluate whether degradation of proteins is part of the cellular events needed for long-term storage of taste aversion, we injected lactacystin--an UPS inhibitor--into the amygdala and/or insular cortex 30 min before the first or second training trials. The results revealed that degradation of proteins in either the amygdala or insular cortex suffices for long-term stabilization of first-time encounter taste aversion. On the other hand, lactacystin applied in the insula, but not in the amygdala, before the second training prevented long-term storage of updated information. Our results support that degradation of proteins by means of the UPS is required every time taste aversion is to be stored in long-term memory. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Long term potentiation, but not depression, in interlamellar hippocampus CA1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Duk-Gyu; Kang, Hyeri; Tetteh, Hannah; Su, Junfeng; Lee, Jihwan; Park, Sung-Won; He, Jufang; Jo, Jihoon; Yang, Sungchil; Yang, Sunggu

    2018-03-26

    Synaptic plasticity in the lamellar CA3 to CA1 circuitry has been extensively studied while interlamellar CA1 to CA1 connections have not yet received much attention. One of our earlier studies demonstrated that axons of CA1 pyramidal neurons project to neighboring CA1 neurons, implicating information transfer along a longitudinal interlamellar network. Still, it remains unclear whether long-term synaptic plasticity is present within this longitudinal CA1 network. Here, we investigate long-term synaptic plasticity between CA1 pyramidal cells, using in vitro and in vivo extracellular recordings and 3D holography glutamate uncaging. We found that the CA1-CA1 network exhibits NMDA receptor-dependent long-term potentiation (LTP) without direction or layer selectivity. By contrast, we find no significant long-term depression (LTD) under various LTD induction protocols. These results implicate unique synaptic properties in the longitudinal projection suggesting that the interlamellar CA1 network could be a promising structure for hippocampus-related information processing and brain diseases.

  15. Colour Terms Affect Detection of Colour and Colour-Associated Objects Suppressed from Visual Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forder, Lewis; Taylor, Olivia; Mankin, Helen; Scott, Ryan B.; Franklin, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The idea that language can affect how we see the world continues to create controversy. A potentially important study in this field has shown that when an object is suppressed from visual awareness using continuous flash suppression (a form of binocular rivalry), detection of the object is differently affected by a preceding word prime depending on whether the prime matches or does not match the object. This may suggest that language can affect early stages of vision. We replicated this paradigm and further investigated whether colour terms likewise influence the detection of colours or colour-associated object images suppressed from visual awareness by continuous flash suppression. This method presents rapidly changing visual noise to one eye while the target stimulus is presented to the other. It has been shown to delay conscious perception of a target for up to several minutes. In Experiment 1 we presented greyscale photos of objects. They were either preceded by a congruent object label, an incongruent label, or white noise. Detection sensitivity (d’) and hit rates were significantly poorer for suppressed objects preceded by an incongruent label compared to a congruent label or noise. In Experiment 2, targets were coloured discs preceded by a colour term. Detection sensitivity was significantly worse for suppressed colour patches preceded by an incongruent colour term as compared to a congruent term or white noise. In Experiment 3 targets were suppressed greyscale object images preceded by an auditory presentation of a colour term. On congruent trials the colour term matched the object’s stereotypical colour and on incongruent trials the colour term mismatched. Detection sensitivity was significantly poorer on incongruent trials than congruent trials. Overall, these findings suggest that colour terms affect awareness of coloured stimuli and colour- associated objects, and provide new evidence for language-perception interaction in the brain. PMID:27023274

  16. Colour Terms Affect Detection of Colour and Colour-Associated Objects Suppressed from Visual Awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forder, Lewis; Taylor, Olivia; Mankin, Helen; Scott, Ryan B; Franklin, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The idea that language can affect how we see the world continues to create controversy. A potentially important study in this field has shown that when an object is suppressed from visual awareness using continuous flash suppression (a form of binocular rivalry), detection of the object is differently affected by a preceding word prime depending on whether the prime matches or does not match the object. This may suggest that language can affect early stages of vision. We replicated this paradigm and further investigated whether colour terms likewise influence the detection of colours or colour-associated object images suppressed from visual awareness by continuous flash suppression. This method presents rapidly changing visual noise to one eye while the target stimulus is presented to the other. It has been shown to delay conscious perception of a target for up to several minutes. In Experiment 1 we presented greyscale photos of objects. They were either preceded by a congruent object label, an incongruent label, or white noise. Detection sensitivity (d') and hit rates were significantly poorer for suppressed objects preceded by an incongruent label compared to a congruent label or noise. In Experiment 2, targets were coloured discs preceded by a colour term. Detection sensitivity was significantly worse for suppressed colour patches preceded by an incongruent colour term as compared to a congruent term or white noise. In Experiment 3 targets were suppressed greyscale object images preceded by an auditory presentation of a colour term. On congruent trials the colour term matched the object's stereotypical colour and on incongruent trials the colour term mismatched. Detection sensitivity was significantly poorer on incongruent trials than congruent trials. Overall, these findings suggest that colour terms affect awareness of coloured stimuli and colour- associated objects, and provide new evidence for language-perception interaction in the brain.

  17. Colour Terms Affect Detection of Colour and Colour-Associated Objects Suppressed from Visual Awareness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewis Forder

    Full Text Available The idea that language can affect how we see the world continues to create controversy. A potentially important study in this field has shown that when an object is suppressed from visual awareness using continuous flash suppression (a form of binocular rivalry, detection of the object is differently affected by a preceding word prime depending on whether the prime matches or does not match the object. This may suggest that language can affect early stages of vision. We replicated this paradigm and further investigated whether colour terms likewise influence the detection of colours or colour-associated object images suppressed from visual awareness by continuous flash suppression. This method presents rapidly changing visual noise to one eye while the target stimulus is presented to the other. It has been shown to delay conscious perception of a target for up to several minutes. In Experiment 1 we presented greyscale photos of objects. They were either preceded by a congruent object label, an incongruent label, or white noise. Detection sensitivity (d' and hit rates were significantly poorer for suppressed objects preceded by an incongruent label compared to a congruent label or noise. In Experiment 2, targets were coloured discs preceded by a colour term. Detection sensitivity was significantly worse for suppressed colour patches preceded by an incongruent colour term as compared to a congruent term or white noise. In Experiment 3 targets were suppressed greyscale object images preceded by an auditory presentation of a colour term. On congruent trials the colour term matched the object's stereotypical colour and on incongruent trials the colour term mismatched. Detection sensitivity was significantly poorer on incongruent trials than congruent trials. Overall, these findings suggest that colour terms affect awareness of coloured stimuli and colour- associated objects, and provide new evidence for language-perception interaction in the brain.

  18. Interrogative Suggestibility in an Adolescent Forensic Occupation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, G.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Sixty-five juvenile offenders in residential care completed the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale, and their scores were matched for IQ and memory with those of 60 adult offenders. The juveniles gave in significantly more to interrogative pressure through negative feedback but were no more yielding to leading questions than adults. (JPS)

  19. Critical mid-term uncertainties in long-term decarbonisation pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usher, Will; Strachan, Neil

    2012-01-01

    Over the next decade, large energy investments are required in the UK to meet growing energy service demands and legally binding emission targets under a pioneering policy agenda. These are necessary despite deep mid-term (2025–2030) uncertainties over which national policy makers have little control. We investigate the effect of two critical mid-term uncertainties on optimal near-term investment decisions using a two-stage stochastic energy system model. The results show that where future fossil fuel prices are uncertain: (i) the near term hedging strategy to 2030 differs from any one deterministic fuel price scenario and is structurally dissimilar to a simple ‘average’ of the deterministic scenarios, and (ii) multiple recourse strategies from 2030 are perturbed by path dependencies caused by hedging investments. Evaluating the uncertainty under a decarbonisation agenda shows that fossil fuel price uncertainty is very expensive at around £20 billion. The addition of novel mitigation options reduces the value of fossil fuel price uncertainty to £11 billion. Uncertain biomass import availability shows a much lower value of uncertainty at £300 million. This paper reveals the complex relationship between the flexibility of the energy system and mitigating the costs of uncertainty due to the path-dependencies caused by the long-life times of both infrastructures and generation technologies. - Highlights: ► Critical mid-term uncertainties affect near-term investments in UK energy system. ► Deterministic scenarios give conflicting near-term actions. ► Stochastic scenarios give one near-term hedging strategy. ► Technologies exhibit path dependency or flexibility. ► Fossil fuel price uncertainty is very expensive, biomass availability uncertainty is not.

  20. Long-Term Care Insurance: Does Experience Matter?*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, Norma B.; Skira, Meghan M.; Van Houtven, Courtney Harold

    2015-01-01

    We examine whether long-term care (LTC) experience helps explain the low demand for long-term care insurance (LTCI). We test if expectations about future informal care receipt, expectations about inheritance receipt, and LTCI purchase decisions vary between individuals whose parents or in-laws have used LTC versus those who have not. We find parental use of a nursing home decreases expectations that one’s children will provide informal care, consistent with the demonstration effect. Nursing home use by in-laws does not have the same impact, suggesting that individuals are responding to information gained about their own aging trajectory. Nursing home use by either a parent or in-law increases LTCI purchase probability by 0.8 percentage points, with no significant difference in response between parents’ and in-laws’ use. The estimated increase in purchase probability from experience with LTC is about half the previously estimated increase from tax policy-induced price decreases. PMID:25647006

  1. Long-term care insurance: Does experience matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, Norma B; Skira, Meghan M; Van Houtven, Courtney Harold

    2015-03-01

    We examine whether long-term care (LTC) experience helps explain the low demand for long-term care insurance (LTCI). We test if expectations about future informal care receipt, expectations about inheritance receipt, and LTCI purchase decisions vary between individuals whose parents or in-laws have used LTC versus those who have not. We find parental use of a nursing home decreases expectations that one's children will provide informal care, consistent with the demonstration effect. Nursing home use by in-laws does not have the same impact, suggesting that individuals are responding to information gained about their own aging trajectory. Nursing home use by either a parent or in-law increases LTCI purchase probability by 0.8 percentage points, with no significant difference in response between parents' and in-laws' use. The estimated increase in purchase probability from experience with LTC is about half the previously estimated increase from tax policy-induced price decreases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The developmental environment, epigenetic biomarkers and long-term health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, K M; Costello, P M; Lillycrop, K A

    2015-10-01

    Evidence from both human and animal studies has shown that the prenatal and early postnatal environments influence susceptibility to chronic disease in later life and suggests that epigenetic processes are an important mechanism by which the environment alters long-term disease risk. Epigenetic processes, including DNA methylation, histone modification and non-coding RNAs, play a central role in regulating gene expression. The epigenome is highly sensitive to environmental factors in early life, such as nutrition, stress, endocrine disruption and pollution, and changes in the epigenome can induce long-term changes in gene expression and phenotype. In this review we focus on how the early life nutritional environment can alter the epigenome leading to an altered susceptibility to disease in later life.

  3. Dealing with labor shortages in long-term care: a marketing problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, S T

    1990-01-01

    A recent analysis of data from the Bureau of Labor statistics raise serious implications for the long-term care industry. The human resource problems faced by managers in long-term care will escalate into a fullblown crisis by the end of this century. This will result from a decrease in the number of young workers available to work in unskilled and semiskilled occupations. The effect of this shortage will be exaggerated by an expansion of other sectors of the service industry. Long-term care facilities will be forced to compete with the fast food and retail industry as well as other sectors of the health industry for scarce workers. This article briefly examines the causes, consequences of this problem and suggests several strategies to mitigate the effect of the coming labor shortage.

  4. Evaluation of patients with symptoms suggestive of chronic polyneuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannsen, L; Smith, T; Havsager, A M

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic yield and to describe the spectrum of diagnosis encountered by evaluation of patients with symptoms suggestive of chronic polyneuropathy. METHODS: We prospectively evaluated 198 patients referred to a department of neurology...... with symptoms suggestive of polyneuropathy. The evaluation included nerve conduction studies with near-nerve technique, quantitative examination of temperature sensation, blood tests, chest x-rays, and skin biopsies as well as diagnostic tests for differential diagnoses. RESULTS: Polyneuropathy was found in 147......%), drugs (5%), connective tissue disease (3%), and a number of less frequent conditions. A previously undiagnosed condition was found in 30% of the patients with polyneuropathy. CONCLUSION: Evaluation of patients with symptoms suggestive of polyneuropathy reveals a high fraction of patients with previously...

  5. Neural correlates of long-term intense romantic love.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, Bianca P; Aron, Arthur; Fisher, Helen E; Brown, Lucy L

    2012-02-01

    The present study examined the neural correlates of long-term intense romantic love using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Ten women and 7 men married an average of 21.4 years underwent fMRI while viewing facial images of their partner. Control images included a highly familiar acquaintance; a close, long-term friend; and a low-familiar person. Effects specific to the intensely loved, long-term partner were found in: (i) areas of the dopamine-rich reward and basal ganglia system, such as the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and dorsal striatum, consistent with results from early-stage romantic love studies; and (ii) several regions implicated in maternal attachment, such as the globus pallidus (GP), substantia nigra, Raphe nucleus, thalamus, insular cortex, anterior cingulate and posterior cingulate. Correlations of neural activity in regions of interest with widely used questionnaires showed: (i) VTA and caudate responses correlated with romantic love scores and inclusion of other in the self; (ii) GP responses correlated with friendship-based love scores; (iii) hypothalamus and posterior hippocampus responses correlated with sexual frequency; and (iv) caudate, septum/fornix, posterior cingulate and posterior hippocampus responses correlated with obsession. Overall, results suggest that for some individuals the reward-value associated with a long-term partner may be sustained, similar to new love, but also involves brain systems implicated in attachment and pair-bonding.

  6. Neural correlates of long-term intense romantic love

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aron, Arthur; Fisher, Helen E.; Brown, Lucy L.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the neural correlates of long-term intense romantic love using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Ten women and 7 men married an average of 21.4 years underwent fMRI while viewing facial images of their partner. Control images included a highly familiar acquaintance; a close, long-term friend; and a low-familiar person. Effects specific to the intensely loved, long-term partner were found in: (i) areas of the dopamine-rich reward and basal ganglia system, such as the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and dorsal striatum, consistent with results from early-stage romantic love studies; and (ii) several regions implicated in maternal attachment, such as the globus pallidus (GP), substantia nigra, Raphe nucleus, thalamus, insular cortex, anterior cingulate and posterior cingulate. Correlations of neural activity in regions of interest with widely used questionnaires showed: (i) VTA and caudate responses correlated with romantic love scores and inclusion of other in the self; (ii) GP responses correlated with friendship-based love scores; (iii) hypothalamus and posterior hippocampus responses correlated with sexual frequency; and (iv) caudate, septum/fornix, posterior cingulate and posterior hippocampus responses correlated with obsession. Overall, results suggest that for some individuals the reward-value associated with a long-term partner may be sustained, similar to new love, but also involves brain systems implicated in attachment and pair-bonding. PMID:21208991

  7. Effect of individual parameter changes on the outcome of the estimated short-term dietary exposure to pesticides.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Velde-Koerts, Trijntje; Breysse, Nicolas; Pattingre, Lauriane; Hamey, Paul Y; Lutze, Jason; Mahieu, Karin; Margerison, Sam; Ossendorp, Bernadette C; Reich, Hermine; Rietveld, Anton; Sarda, Xavier; Vial, Gaelle; Sieke, Christian

    2018-01-01

    In 2015 a scientific workshop was held in Geneva, where updating the International Estimate of Short-Term Intake (IESTI) equations was suggested. This paper studies the effects of the proposed changes in residue inputs, large portions, variability factors and unit weights on the overall short-term

  8. Long-Term Problems of Nuclear Energy, October 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broda, E.

    1976-01-01

    The Text was written by Enelbert Broda in Oktober 1976. In this report, the physicist and chemist Engelbert Broda discusses various areas of peaceful uses of nuclear energy and concludes that the negative aspects outweigh the positive and that the use of nuclear energy has to be rejected in the long term. In 16 chapters the biggest and most dangerous problems are discussed. Include the unresolved question of disposal, problems of reprocessing and transport of fissile materials, the proliferation of nuclear weapons technology, risks of terrorism, dismantling and decontamination of old nuclear power plants, the toxicity of fissile material, as well as the general unprofitable use of nuclear power plants. As a long-term alternative the author suggests an intensification of the exploitation of solar energy, as well as a deliberate restriction of the rising demand for energy.(roessner) [de

  9. Long-Term Problems of Nuclear Energy, December 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broda, E.

    1976-01-01

    The Text was written by Enelbert Broda in Oktober 1976. In this report, the physicist and chemist Engelbert Broda discusses various areas of peaceful uses of nuclear energy and concludes that the negative aspects outweigh the positive and that the use of nuclear energy has to be rejected in the long term. In 16 chapters the biggest and most dangerous problems are discussed. Include the unresolved question of disposal, problems of reprocessing and transport of fissile materials, the proliferation of nuclear weapons technology, risks of terrorism, dismantling and decontamination of old nuclear power plants, the toxicity of fissile material, as well as the general unprofitable use of nuclear power plants. As a long-term alternative the author suggests an intensification of the exploitation of solar energy, as well as a deliberate restriction of the rising demand for energy.(roessner)

  10. Visual short-term store can compensate for a defective phonological short-term store in patients with apraxia of speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveri, Maria Caterina; Baldonero, Eleonora

    2013-11-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate whether, within the phonological short-term memory (STM) system, speech articulation disorders primarily due to cortical damage are associated with deficits in the phonological recoding of visual-verbal material, and whether the visual short-term store (STS) can compensate for inefficient access to the phonological STS, as suggested in previous reports. Two patients (AE and TM) with apraxia of speech due to atrophic cerebral damage were administered a battery of tasks devised to explore the organization of the phonological STM. AE's span was normal and TM's span was markedly reduced. Phonological similarity and word-length effects: Both patients showed the effects in visual presentation; the effect was less evident in verbal presentation. This suggests a phonological STS disorder and preserved rehearsal/phonological recoding, consistently with involvement of the left parietal regions, which was documented by the MRI in both patients. Unexpectedly, TM had a longer span for similar than for dissimilar words in visually presented stimuli. Silent phonology (on written material): At variance with controls, stress assignment improved during unattended speech both in AE and TM, while in both patients and controls a detrimental effect of unattended speech was documented in the initial sound task. To account for this unusual pattern of results, we hypothesized that whenever possible, AE and TM adopt the strategy that takes advantage of the visual STM store to compensate for a defective phonological STS. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. Whole-Body Exposure to 28Si-Radiation Dose-Dependently Disrupts Dentate Gyrus Neurogenesis and Proliferation in the Short Term and New Neuron Survival and Contextual Fear Conditioning in the Long Term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whoolery, Cody W; Walker, Angela K; Richardson, Devon R; Lucero, Melanie J; Reynolds, Ryan P; Beddow, David H; Clark, K Lyles; Shih, Hung-Ying; LeBlanc, Junie A; Cole, Mara G; Amaral, Wellington Z; Mukherjee, Shibani; Zhang, Shichuan; Ahn, Francisca; Bulin, Sarah E; DeCarolis, Nathan A; Rivera, Phillip D; Chen, Benjamin P C; Yun, Sanghee; Eisch, Amelia J

    2017-11-01

    in male and female mice, although only male mice showed fewer surviving BrdU + cells in the long-term group. Fluorescent immunolabeling and confocal phenotypic analysis revealed that most surviving BrdU + cells in the long-term group expressed the neuronal marker NeuN, definitively confirming that exposure to 1 Gy 28 Si radiation decreased the number of surviving adult-generated neurons in male mice relative to both 0- and 0.2-Gy-irradiated mice. For hippocampal function assessment, 9-week-old male C57BL/6J mice received whole-body 28 Si-particle exposure and were then assessed long-term for performance on contextual and cued fear conditioning. In the context test the animals that received 0.2 Gy froze less relative to control animals, suggesting decreased hippocampal-dependent function. However, in the cued fear conditioning test, animals that received 1 Gy froze more during the pretone portion of the test, relative to controls and 0.2-Gy-irradiated mice, suggesting enhanced anxiety. Compared to previously reported studies, these data suggest that 28 Si-radiation exposure damages neurogenesis, but to a lesser extent than 56 Fe radiation and that low-dose 28 Si exposure induces abnormalities in hippocampal function, disrupting fear memory but also inducing anxiety-like behavior. Furthermore, exposure to 28 Si radiation decreased new neuron survival in long-term male groups but not females suggests that sex may be an important factor when performing brain health risk assessment for astronauts traveling in space.

  12. The difference in subjective and objective complexity in the visual short-term memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dall, Jonas Olsen; Sørensen, Thomas Alrik

    Several studies discuss the influence of complexity on the visual short term memory; some have demonstrated that short-term memory is surprisingly stable regardless of content (e.g. Luck & Vogel, 1997) where others have shown that memory can be influenced by the complexity of stimulus (e.g. Alvarez...... characters. On the contrary expertise or word frequency may reflect what could be termed subjective complexity, as this relate directly to the individual mental categories established. This study will be able to uncover more details on how we should define complexity of objects to be encoded into short-term....... & Cavanagh, 2004). But the term complexity is often not clearly defined. Sørensen (2008; see also Dall, Katsumi, & Sørensen, 2016) suggested that complexity can be related to two different types; objective and subjective complexity. This distinction is supported by a number of studies on the influence...

  13. Suggesting a new paradigm for agricultural extension policy: the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In terms of approaches and functions, the study found that public sector extension in West Africa is undergoing transformation including decentralization and outsourcing extension services in the context of adopting a pluralistic system of extension delivery. While up to six models of extension are a commonly applied in the ...

  14. Shortening the length of stay and mechanical ventilation time by using positive suggestions via MP3 players for ventilated patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    K Szilágyi, Adrienn; Diószeghy, Csaba; Fritúz, Gábor; Gál, János; Varga, Katalin

    2014-03-01

    Long stay in intensive care unit (ICU) and prolonged ventilation are deleterious for subsequent quality of life and surcharge financial capacity. We have already demonstrated the beneficial effects of using suggestive communication on recovery time during intensive care. The aim of our present study was to prove the same effects with standardized positive suggestive message delivered by an MP3 player. Patients ventilated in ICU were randomized into a control group receiving standard ICU treatment and two groups with a standardized pre-recorded material delivered via headphones: a suggestive message about safety, self-control, and recovery for the study group and a relaxing music for the music group. Groups were similar in terms of age, gender, and mortality, but the SAPS II scores were higher in the study group than that in the controls (57.8 ± 23.6 vs. 30.1 ± 15.5 and 33.7 ± 17.4). Our post-hoc analysis results showed that the length of ICU stay (134.2 ± 73.3 vs. 314.2 ± 178.4 h) and the time spent on ventilator (85.2 ± 34.9 vs. 232.0 ± 165.6 h) were significantly shorter in the study group compared to the unified control. The advantage of the structured positive suggestive message was proven against both music and control groups.

  15. The relationship between criminal conviction and interrogative suggestibility among delinquent boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudjonsson, G H; Singh, K K

    1984-03-01

    This study investigates the relationship between interrogative suggestibility, as measured by the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale (GSS), and number of previous convictions among 35 delinquent boys. The GSS measures two independent aspects of suggestibility. First, the extent to which subjects give in to suggestive questions. Second, the extent to which subjects give in to interpersonal pressure given in the form of critical feedback about test performance. The number of convictions were found to correlate negatively with the latter aspect of interrogative suggestibility, but not significantly with the former.

  16. Short- and long-term memory: differential involvement of neurotransmitter systems and signal transduction cascades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MÔNICA R.M. VIANNA

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Since William James (1890 first distinguished primary from secondary memory, equivalent to short- and long-term memory, respectively, it has been assumed that short-term memory processes are in charge of cognition while long-term memory is being consolidated. From those days a major question has been whether short-term memory is merely a initial phase of long-term memory, or a separate phenomena. Recent experiments have shown that many treatments with specific molecular actions given into the hippocampus and related brain areas after one-trial avoidance learning can effectively cancel short-term memory without affecting long-term memory formation. This shows that short-term memory and long-term memory involve separate mechanisms and are independently processed. Other treatments, however, influence both memory types similarly, suggesting links between both at the receptor and at the post-receptor level, which should not be surprising as they both deal with nearly the same sensorimotor representations. This review examines recent advances in short- and long-term memory mechanisms based on the effect of intra-hippocampal infusion of drugs acting upon neurotransmitter and signal transduction systems on both memory types.

  17. The semantic-similarity effect in children: influence of long-term knowledge on verbal short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnier, Catherine; Bonthoux, Françoise

    2011-11-01

    The present research was designed to highlight the relation between children's categorical knowledge and their verbal short-term memory (STM) performance. To do this, we manipulated the categorical organization of the words composing lists to be memorized by 5- and 9-year-old children. Three types of word list were drawn up: semantically similar context-dependent (CD) lists, semantically similar context-independent (CI) lists, and semantically dissimilar lists. In line with the procedure used by Poirier and Saint-Aubin (1995), the dissimilar lists were produced using words from the semantically similar lists. Both 5- and 9-year-old children showed better recall for the semantically similar CD lists than they did for the unrelated lists. In the semantic similar CI condition, semantic similarity enhanced immediate serial recall only at age 9 but contributed to item information memory both at ages 5 and 9. These results, which indicate a semantic influence of long-term memory (LTM) on serial recall from age 5, are discussed in the light of current models of STM. Moreover, we suggest that differences between results at 5 and 9 years are compatible with pluralist models of development. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  18. Maize Stem Response to Long-Term Attack by Sesamia nonagrioides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor M. Rodriguez

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Plants defend themselves against herbivores by activating a plethora of genetic and biochemical mechanisms aimed at reducing plant damage and insect survival. The short-term plant response to insect attack is well understood, but less is known about the maintenance of this response over time. We performed transcriptomic and metabolomics analyses in order to identify genes and metabolites involved in the long-term response of maize to attack by the corn borer Sesamina nonagrioides. To determine the role of elicitors present in caterpillar secretions, we also evaluated the response of maize stem challenged with insect regurgitates. The integrative analysis of the omics results revealed that the long-term response in maize is characterized by repression of the primary metabolism and a strong redox response, mainly mediated by germin-like proteins to produce anti-nutritive and toxic compounds that reduce insect viability, and with the glutathione–ascorbate cycle being crucial to minimize the adverse effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS on the plant. Our results suggest that different defense mechanisms are involved in the long-term response compared to those reported during the early response. We also observed a marginal effect of the caterpillar regurgitates on the long-term defensive response.

  19. Holding multiple items in short term memory: a neural mechanism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmund T Rolls

    Full Text Available Human short term memory has a capacity of several items maintained simultaneously. We show how the number of short term memory representations that an attractor network modeling a cortical local network can simultaneously maintain active is increased by using synaptic facilitation of the type found in the prefrontal cortex. We have been able to maintain 9 short term memories active simultaneously in integrate-and-fire simulations where the proportion of neurons in each population, the sparseness, is 0.1, and have confirmed the stability of such a system with mean field analyses. Without synaptic facilitation the system can maintain many fewer memories active in the same network. The system operates because of the effectively increased synaptic strengths formed by the synaptic facilitation just for those pools to which the cue is applied, and then maintenance of this synaptic facilitation in just those pools when the cue is removed by the continuing neuronal firing in those pools. The findings have implications for understanding how several items can be maintained simultaneously in short term memory, how this may be relevant to the implementation of language in the brain, and suggest new approaches to understanding and treating the decline in short term memory that can occur with normal aging.

  20. Holding multiple items in short term memory: a neural mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolls, Edmund T; Dempere-Marco, Laura; Deco, Gustavo

    2013-01-01

    Human short term memory has a capacity of several items maintained simultaneously. We show how the number of short term memory representations that an attractor network modeling a cortical local network can simultaneously maintain active is increased by using synaptic facilitation of the type found in the prefrontal cortex. We have been able to maintain 9 short term memories active simultaneously in integrate-and-fire simulations where the proportion of neurons in each population, the sparseness, is 0.1, and have confirmed the stability of such a system with mean field analyses. Without synaptic facilitation the system can maintain many fewer memories active in the same network. The system operates because of the effectively increased synaptic strengths formed by the synaptic facilitation just for those pools to which the cue is applied, and then maintenance of this synaptic facilitation in just those pools when the cue is removed by the continuing neuronal firing in those pools. The findings have implications for understanding how several items can be maintained simultaneously in short term memory, how this may be relevant to the implementation of language in the brain, and suggest new approaches to understanding and treating the decline in short term memory that can occur with normal aging.

  1. Holding Multiple Items in Short Term Memory: A Neural Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolls, Edmund T.; Dempere-Marco, Laura; Deco, Gustavo

    2013-01-01

    Human short term memory has a capacity of several items maintained simultaneously. We show how the number of short term memory representations that an attractor network modeling a cortical local network can simultaneously maintain active is increased by using synaptic facilitation of the type found in the prefrontal cortex. We have been able to maintain 9 short term memories active simultaneously in integrate-and-fire simulations where the proportion of neurons in each population, the sparseness, is 0.1, and have confirmed the stability of such a system with mean field analyses. Without synaptic facilitation the system can maintain many fewer memories active in the same network. The system operates because of the effectively increased synaptic strengths formed by the synaptic facilitation just for those pools to which the cue is applied, and then maintenance of this synaptic facilitation in just those pools when the cue is removed by the continuing neuronal firing in those pools. The findings have implications for understanding how several items can be maintained simultaneously in short term memory, how this may be relevant to the implementation of language in the brain, and suggest new approaches to understanding and treating the decline in short term memory that can occur with normal aging. PMID:23613789

  2. Life assessment of gas turbine blades after long term service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auerkari, Pertti; Salonen, Jorma [VTT, Espoo (Finland); Maekinen, Sari [Helsingin Energia, Helsinki (Finland); Karvonen, Ikka; Tanttari, Heikki [Lappeenrannan Laempoevoima, Lappeenranta (Finland); Kangas, Pekka [Neste Oil, Kilpilahti (Finland); Scholz, Alfred [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany); Vacchieri, Erica [Ansaldo Richerche, Genoa (Italy)

    2010-07-01

    Turbine blade samples from three land based gas turbines have been subjected to systematic condition and life assessment after long term service (88000 - 109000 equivalent operating hours, eoh), when approaching the nominal or suggested life limits. The blades represent different machine types, materials and design generations, and uncooled blading outside the hottest front end of the turbine, i.e. blades with relatively large size and considerable expected life. For a reasonable assessment, a range of damage mechanisms need to be addressed and evaluated for the impact in the residual life. The results suggested significant additional safe life for all three blade sets. In some cases this could warrant yet another life cycle comparable to that of new blades, even after approaching the nominal end of life in terms of recommended equivalent operating hours. This is thought to be partly because of base load combined cycle operation and natural gas fuel, or modest operational loading if the design also accounted for more intensive cycling operation and more corrosive oil firing. In any case, long term life extension is only appropriate if not intervened by events of overloading, overheating or other sudden events such as foreign object damage (FOD), and if supported by the regular inspection and maintenance program to control in-service damage. Condition based assessment therefore remains an important part of the blade life management after the decision of accepted life extension. (orig.)

  3. Source terms: an investigation of uncertainties, magnitudes, and recommendations for research. [PWR; BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, S.; Kaiser, G. D.; Arcieri, W. C.; Firstenberg, H.; Fulford, P. J.; Lam, P. S.; Ritzman, R. L.; Schmidt, E. R.

    1982-03-01

    The purpose of this document is to assess the state of knowledge and expert opinions that exist about fission product source terms from potential nuclear power plant accidents. This is so that recommendations can be made for research and analyses which have the potential to reduce the uncertainties in these estimated source terms and to derive improved methods for predicting their magnitudes. The main reasons for writing this report are to indicate the major uncertainties involved in defining realistic source terms that could arise from severe reactor accidents, to determine which factors would have the most significant impact on public risks and emergency planning, and to suggest research and analyses that could result in the reduction of these uncertainties. Source terms used in the conventional consequence calculations in the licensing process are not explicitly addressed.

  4. Career Path Suggestion using String Matching and Decision Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagpal, Akshay; P. Panda, Supriya

    2015-05-01

    High school and college graduates seemingly are often battling for the courses they should major in order to achieve their target career. In this paper, we worked on suggesting a career path to a graduate to reach his/her dream career given the current educational status. Firstly, we collected the career data of professionals and academicians from various career fields and compiled the data set by using the necessary information from the data. Further, this was used as the basis to suggest the most appropriate career path for the person given his/her current educational status. Decision trees and string matching algorithms were employed to suggest the appropriate career path for a person. Finally, an analysis of the result has been done directing to further improvements in the model.

  5. Modeling Long-Term Fluvial Incision : Shall we Care for the Details of Short-Term Fluvial Dynamics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lague, D.; Davy, P.

    2008-12-01

    Fluvial incision laws used in numerical models of coupled climate, erosion and tectonics systems are mainly based on the family of stream power laws for which the rate of local erosion E is a power function of the topographic slope S and the local mean discharge Q : E = K Qm Sn. The exponents m and n are generally taken as (0.35, 0.7) or (0.5, 1), and K is chosen such that the predicted topographic elevation given the prevailing rates of precipitation and tectonics stay within realistic values. The resulting topographies are reasonably realistic, and the coupled system dynamics behaves somehow as expected : more precipitation induces increased erosion and localization of the deformation. Yet, if we now focus on smaller scale fluvial dynamics (the reach scale), recent advances have suggested that discharge variability, channel width dynamics or sediment flux effects may play a significant role in controlling incision rates. These are not factored in the simple stream power law model. In this work, we study how these short- term details propagate into long-term incision dynamics within the framework of surface/tectonics coupled numerical models. To upscale the short term dynamics to geological timescales, we use a numerical model of a trapezoidal river in which vertical and lateral incision processes are computed from fluid shear stress at a daily timescale, sediment transport and protection effects are factored in, as well as a variable discharge. We show that the stream power law model might still be a valid model but that as soon as realistic effects are included such as a threshold for sediment transport, variable discharge and dynamic width the resulting exponents m and n can be as high as 2 and 4. This high non-linearity has a profound consequence on the sensitivity of fluvial relief to incision rate. We also show that additional complexity does not systematically translates into more non-linear behaviour. For instance, considering only a dynamical width

  6. CRISPR distribution within the Escherichia coli species is not suggestive of immunity-associated diversifying selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touchon, Marie; Charpentier, Sophie; Clermont, Olivier; Rocha, Eduardo P C; Denamur, Erick; Branger, Catherine

    2011-05-01

    In order to get further insights into the role of the clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) in Escherichia coli, we analyzed the CRISPR diversity in a collection of 290 strains, in the phylogenetic framework of the strains represented by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). The set included 263 natural E. coli isolates exposed to various environments and isolated over a 20-year period from humans and animals, as well as 27 fully sequenced strains. Our analyses confirm that there are two largely independent pairs of CRISPR loci (CRISPR1 and -2 and CRISPR3 and -4), each associated with a different type of cas genes (Ecoli and Ypest, respectively), but that each pair of CRISPRs has similar dynamics. Strikingly, the major phylogenetic group B2 is almost devoid of CRISPRs. The majority of genomes analyzed lack Ypest cas genes and contain CRISPR3 with spacers matching Ypest cas genes. The analysis of relatedness between strains in terms of spacer repertoire and the MLST tree shows a pattern where closely related strains (MLST phylogenetic distance of 0.01) exhibit completely different CRISPRs. This suggests rare but radical turnover of spacers in CRISPRs rather than CRISPR gradual change. We found no link between the presence, size, or content of CRISPRs and the lifestyle of the strains. Our data suggest that, within the E. coli species, CRISPRs do not have the expected characteristics of a classical immune system.

  7. The (lack of) effect of dynamic visual noise on the concreteness effect in short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellà, Judit; Campoy, Guillermo

    2018-05-17

    It has been suggested that the concreteness effect in short-term memory (STM) is a consequence of concrete words having more distinctive and richer semantic representations. The generation and storage of visual codes in STM could also play a crucial role on the effect because concrete words are more imaginable than abstract words. If this were the case, the introduction of a visual interference task would be expected to disrupt recall of concrete words. A Dynamic Visual Noise (DVN) display, which has been proven to eliminate the concreteness effect on long-term memory (LTM), was presented along encoding of concrete and abstract words in a STM serial recall task. Results showed a main effect of word type, with more item errors in abstract words, a main effect of DVN, which impaired global performance due to more order errors, but no interaction, suggesting that DVN did not have any impact on the concreteness effect. These findings are discussed in terms of LTM participation through redintegration processes and in terms of the language-based models of verbal STM.

  8. Identity modulates short-term memory for facial emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galster, Murray; Kahana, Michael J; Wilson, Hugh R; Sekuler, Robert

    2009-12-01

    For some time, the relationship between processing of facial expression and facial identity has been in dispute. Using realistic synthetic faces, we reexamined this relationship for both perception and short-term memory. In Experiment 1, subjects tried to identify whether the emotional expression on a probe stimulus face matched the emotional expression on either of two remembered faces that they had just seen. The results showed that identity strongly influenced recognition short-term memory for emotional expression. In Experiment 2, subjects' similarity/dissimilarity judgments were transformed by multidimensional scaling (MDS) into a 2-D description of the faces' perceptual representations. Distances among stimuli in the MDS representation, which showed a strong linkage of emotional expression and facial identity, were good predictors of correct and false recognitions obtained previously in Experiment 1. The convergence of the results from Experiments 1 and 2 suggests that the overall structure and configuration of faces' perceptual representations may parallel their representation in short-term memory and that facial identity modulates the representation of facial emotion, both in perception and in memory. The stimuli from this study may be downloaded from http://cabn.psychonomic-journals.org/content/supplemental.

  9. Subliminal messages exert long-term effects on decision making

    OpenAIRE

    Ruch, Simon; Züst, Marc; Henke, Katharina

    2016-01-01

    Subliminal manipulation is often considered harmless because its effects typically decay within a second. So far, subliminal long-term effects on behavior were only observed in studies which repeatedly presented highly familiar information such as single words. These studies suggest that subliminal messages are only slowly stored and might not be stored at all if they provide novel, unfamiliar information. We speculated that subliminal messages might affect delayed decision making especially ...

  10. Long-term elevated temperature leaching of solid waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenna, B.T.; Murphy, K.D.; Levine, H.S.

    1978-01-01

    Long-term soxhlet leaching of simulated waste glass and ceramic materials was initiated to elucidate leaching behavior of complex wasteforms. A cyclic leaching pattern was found in all systems over a 20 month period. Maxima and minima were observed in the leaching rates of all components studied with the minima coinciding. The data suggested several mechanistic features which are described, but they did not conform with reported simple leaching mechanisms

  11. Belief in the paranormal and suggestion in the seance room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, Richard; Greening, Emma; Smith, Matthew

    2003-08-01

    In Experiment 1, participants took part in a fake seance. An actor suggested that a table was levitating when, in fact, it remained stationary. After the seance, approximately one third of participants incorrectly reported that the table had moved. Results also showed a significant relationship between the reported movement of the table and belief in the paranormal, with a greater percentage of believers than disbelievers, reporting that the table had moved. Experiment 2 varied whether the suggestion was consistent, or inconsistent, with participants' belief in the paranormal. Results again showed that believers were more susceptible to suggestion than disbelievers, but only when the suggestion was consistent with their belief in the paranormal. Approximately one fifth of participants believed that the fake seances contained genuine paranormal phenomena.

  12. Pedunculated Pulmonary Artery Sarcoma Suggested by Transthoracic Echocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaobing; Ren, Weidong; Yang, Jun

    2016-04-01

    Pulmonary artery sarcoma (PAS) is an extremely rare malignancy. It is usually found after it grows large enough to occupy almost the entire lumen of the pulmonary artery and causes serious clinical symptoms. Thus, it is usually difficult to distinguish PAS from pulmonary thromboembolism based on imaging examinations. Few case reports had shown the attachment of PAS to pulmonary artery, a key characteristic for diagnosis, and differential diagnosis of PAS. In this case, we found a PAS, which did not cause local obstruction and some tumor emboli, which obstructed the branches of the pulmonary arteries and caused pulmonary hypertension and clinical symptoms. Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) revealed a part of the tumor attached to the intima of the main pulmonary artery with a peduncle and had obvious mobility, which was suggestive of PAS and differentiated it from the pulmonary thromboembolism. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of a pedunculated PAS suggested by TTE. Combined with pulmonary artery computed tomography angiography, the diagnosis of PAS is strongly suggested before the operation. This case indicates that TTE could reveal the attachment and mobility of PAS in the main pulmonary and may provide useful information for the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of PAS, especially a pedunculated PAS. © 2015, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Psychometric Analysis of the Barber Suggestibility Scale in a Clinical Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellicer Asensio, Xavier; Fusté Escolano, Adela; Ruiz Rodríguez, José

    2018-04-01

    The aim of the study was to administer the Barber suggestibility scale to a clinical population in Spain and to examine its psychometric properties therein. The reliability and factor structure of the adapted scale was compared with that of the original (American) scale and with data from two other versions (British and Puerto Rican samples). Sex differences in suggestibility were also analyzed. The Barber suggestibility scale was administered (without preliminaries) to a sample of 283 patients (130 women, 153 men) with a range of diagnoses: anxiety disorder (33.9%), substance-related and addictive disorder (25.8%), mood disorder (12.7%), somatic symptom disorder (4.6%), trauma- and stress-related disorder (3.5%), and other disorders (19.5%). Results indicated a higher degree of suggestibility among women, with the effect size being low (d = 0.26) for the objective subscale and moderate (d = 0.55) for the subjective subscale. Therefore, normative scores were reported by sex for both subscales. As a whole, the present clinical sample showed higher suggestibility than has been reported previously for nonclinical populations (p suggestibility scale showed a three-factor structure for the objective subscale and a more complex structure for the subjective subscale. These results suggest that the Barber suggestibility scale is a suitable instrument for assessing the degree of suggestibility in persons with a clinical disorder.

  14. Long-term injury in B-lymphocyte precursor cells in repeatedly-irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendry, J.H.; Clarke, D.; Testa, N.; Kimber, J.

    1984-01-01

    Mice irradiated with 4 doses of 4,5 Gy X-rays at 3-week intervals, demonstrated long-term proliferative defects in B lymphocytes. There was a reduced mitogenic response to bacterial polysaccharide (30%), a lower concentration (35%) of B-lymphocyte colony-forming cells (BL-CFC) in agar with an increased proportion of clusters (x2), and a reduced concentration (30%) of plaque-forming cells. Grafts of thymocytes were able to restore the levels of BL-CFC in the short term, but in the long term large grafts of femoral marrow cells were much better in restoring the numbers of BL-CFC. The reduced mitogenesis (25%) of splenocytes by concanavalin A and the diminished number of plaque-forming cells, may suggest persistent injury in T-B cell cooperation

  15. Unified pre- and postsynaptic long-term plasticity enables reliable and flexible learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Rui Ponte; Froemke, Robert C; Sjöström, P Jesper; van Rossum, Mark Cw

    2015-08-26

    Although it is well known that long-term synaptic plasticity can be expressed both pre- and postsynaptically, the functional consequences of this arrangement have remained elusive. We show that spike-timing-dependent plasticity with both pre- and postsynaptic expression develops receptive fields with reduced variability and improved discriminability compared to postsynaptic plasticity alone. These long-term modifications in receptive field statistics match recent sensory perception experiments. Moreover, learning with this form of plasticity leaves a hidden postsynaptic memory trace that enables fast relearning of previously stored information, providing a cellular substrate for memory savings. Our results reveal essential roles for presynaptic plasticity that are missed when only postsynaptic expression of long-term plasticity is considered, and suggest an experience-dependent distribution of pre- and postsynaptic strength changes.

  16. Pigeon visual short-term memory directly compared to primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Anthony A; Elmore, L Caitlin

    2016-02-01

    Three pigeons were trained to remember arrays of 2-6 colored squares and detect which of two squares had changed color to test their visual short-term memory. Procedures (e.g., stimuli, displays, viewing times, delays) were similar to those used to test monkeys and humans. Following extensive training, pigeons performed slightly better than similarly trained monkeys, but both animal species were considerably less accurate than humans with the same array sizes (2, 4 and 6 items). Pigeons and monkeys showed calculated memory capacities of one item or less, whereas humans showed a memory capacity of 2.5 items. Despite the differences in calculated memory capacities, the pigeons' memory results, like those from monkeys and humans, were all well characterized by an inverse power-law function fit to d' values for the five display sizes. This characterization provides a simple, straightforward summary of the fundamental processing of visual short-term memory (how visual short-term memory declines with memory load) that emphasizes species similarities based upon similar functional relationships. By closely matching pigeon testing parameters to those of monkeys and humans, these similar functional relationships suggest similar underlying processes of visual short-term memory in pigeons, monkeys and humans. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The uranium industry: long-term planning for short-term competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vottero, X.; Georges Capus, G.

    2001-01-01

    Long term planning for short term competition Today, uranium producers face new challenges in terms of both production (new regulatory, environmental and social constraints) and market conditions (new sources of uranium supply, very low prices and tough competition). In such a context, long-term planning is not just a prerequisite to survive in the nuclear fuel cycle industry. In fact, it also contributes to sustaining nuclear electricity generation facing fierce competition from other energy sources in increasingly deregulated markets. Firstly, the risk of investing in new mining projects in western countries is growing because, on the one hand, of very erratic market conditions and, on the other hand, of increasingly lengthy, complex and unpredictable regulatory conditions. Secondly, the supply of other sources of uranium (uranium derived from nuclear weapons, uranium produced in CIS countries, ...) involve other risks, mainly related to politics and commercial restrictions. Consequently, competitive uranium supply requires not only technical competence but also financial strength and good marketing capabilities in order to anticipate long-term market trends, in terms of both demand and supply. It also requires taking into account new parameters such as politics, environment, regulations, etc. Today, a supplier dedicated to the sustainable production of nuclear electricity must manage a broad range of long-term risks inherent to the procurement of uranium. Taking into account all these parameters in a context of short-term, fast-changing market is a great challenge for the future generation. World Uranium Civilian Supply and Demand. (authors)

  18. Long-term sustainability of the landscape in new climatic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubeckova, D.; Krocova, S.

    2017-10-01

    The long-term sustainability of the landscape and its natural environment must be the decisive task of the public administration and, in the wider concept, of every citizen. In new climatic conditions, this need has intensified. The following article suggests in a basic scope whether the above-mentioned task can be accomplished, and what means of solution should be used.

  19. Designing indicators of long-term energy supply security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, J.C.; Van Arkel, W.G.; Boots, M.G.

    2004-01-01

    To our knowledge, so far amazingly little research work has been undertaken to construct meaningful indicators of long-run energy supply security for a particular nation or region. Currently, in addressing energy supply security, policy makers tend to emphasise short-term supply disruptions. In contrast, this pre-study accords with the broader Sustainability Outlook in considering the long-term perspective. This report starts with taking stock, in a concise way, of the official EU energy outlook and issues related to the opportunities to administer changes in the energy mix at the level of major energy use categories. Then a brief survey of relevant literature is made on long-term strategies to ensure survival of systems - be it biological, social, etc. - in an environment largely characterised by high uncertainty and a lot of unchartered territory. We found the work of Andrew Stirling very inspiring in this context. Based on his work and considering the limitations of the present research activity, we retained the Shannon index as the best 'simple' indicator of diversity. In the core of the report, the Shannon index is elaborated into four indicators of long-term energy supply security. Stepwise, additional aspects of long-term energy supply security are introduced. These aspects are: Diversification of energy sources in energy supply; Diversification of imports with respect to imported energy sources; Long-term political stability in regions of origin; The resource base in regions of origin, including the home region/country itself. After small adjustments to allow for data availability, these indicators were applied to the reference year 2030 of four long-term scenarios with data of base year 1995 and projections for underlying variables provided by the Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (MNP). Preliminary interpretation of the results suggests the usefulness of the indicators presented in this report. A second activity undertaken in this report was

  20. RxTerms

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — RxTerms is a drug interface terminology derived from RxNorm for prescription writing or medication history recording (e.g. in e-prescribing systems, PHRs). RxTerms...

  1. Long-term memory of heterospecific vocalizations by African lions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinnell, Jon; van Dyk, Gus; Slotow, Rob

    2005-09-01

    Animals that use and evaluate long-distance signals have the potential to glean valuable information about others in their environment via eavesdropping. In those areas where they coexist, African lions (Panthera leo) are a significant eavesdropper on spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta), often using hyena vocalizations to locate and scavenge from hyena kills. This relationship was used to test African lions' long-term memory of the vocalizations of spotted hyenas via playback experiments. Hyena whoops and a control sound (Canis lupus howls) were played to three populations of lions in South Africa: (1) lions with past experience of spotted hyenas; (2) lions with current experience; and (3) lions with no experience. The results strongly suggest that lions have the cognitive ability to remember the vocalizations of spotted hyenas even after 10 years with no contact of any kind with them. Such long-term memory of heterospecific vocalizations may be widespread in species that gain fitness benefits from eavesdropping on others, but where such species are sympatric and often interact it may pass unrecognized as short-term memory instead.

  2. Introducing the term 'Biocontrol Plants' for integrated pest management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pia Parolin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Studies of interactions between crops, additional plants, pests and beneficial organisms already exist as well as studies of natural enemy preference, dispersal, and abundance. However, these studies focus on tri-trophic interactions from an "arthropod" point of view. We think that in order to optimize crop protection methods we need to understand the effects that plant structures have on the various arthropods and on subsequent tri-trophic interactions. Although studies and reviews describing the role of secondary plants in Integrated Pest Management (IPM exist, to date a general term which encompasses all plants added to a cropping system with the aim of enhancing IPM strategies has yet to be formulated. Therefore, we suggest a new term, "biocontrol plants", which we define as plants that are intentionally added to a crop system with the aim of enhancing crop productivity through pest attraction and/or pest regulation; a term that will promote the use of biocontrol services, and can ultimately lead to an increase in the sustainability of cropping systems.

  3. Incidental biasing of attention from visual long-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Judith E; Turk-Browne, Nicholas B

    2016-06-01

    Holding recently experienced information in mind can help us achieve our current goals. However, such immediate and direct forms of guidance from working memory are less helpful over extended delays or when other related information in long-term memory is useful for reaching these goals. Here we show that information that was encoded in the past but is no longer present or relevant to the task also guides attention. We examined this by associating multiple unique features with novel shapes in visual long-term memory (VLTM), and subsequently testing how memories for these objects biased the deployment of attention. In Experiment 1, VLTM for associated features guided visual search for the shapes, even when these features had never been task-relevant. In Experiment 2, associated features captured attention when presented in isolation during a secondary task that was completely unrelated to the shapes. These findings suggest that long-term memory enables a durable and automatic type of memory-based attentional control. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Dynamic Analysis and Circuit Design of a Novel Hyperchaotic System with Fractional-Order Terms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abir Lassoued

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel hyperchaotic system with fractional-order (FO terms is designed. Its highly complex dynamics are investigated in terms of equilibrium points, Lyapunov spectrum, and attractor forms. It will be shown that the proposed system exhibits larger Lyapunov exponents than related hyperchaotic systems. Finally, to enhance its potential application, a related circuit is designed by using the MultiSIM Software. Simulation results verify the effectiveness of the suggested circuit.

  5. Get the gist? The effects of processing depth on false recognition in short-term and long-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flegal, Kristin E; Reuter-Lorenz, Patricia A

    2014-07-01

    Gist-based processing has been proposed to account for robust false memories in the converging-associates task. The deep-encoding processes known to enhance verbatim memory also strengthen gist memory and increase distortions of long-term memory (LTM). Recent research has demonstrated that compelling false memory illusions are relatively delay-invariant, also occurring under canonical short-term memory (STM) conditions. To investigate the contributions of gist to false memory at short and long delays, processing depth was manipulated as participants encoded lists of four semantically related words and were probed immediately, following a filled 3- to 4-s retention interval, or approximately 20 min later, in a surprise recognition test. In two experiments, the encoding manipulation dissociated STM and LTM on the frequency, but not the phenomenology, of false memory. Deep encoding at STM increases false recognition rates at LTM, but confidence ratings and remember/know judgments are similar across delays and do not differ as a function of processing depth. These results suggest that some shared and some unique processes underlie false memory illusions at short and long delays.

  6. Personality and psychological distress among older adult, long-term cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deimling, Gary T; Albitz, Casey; Monnin, Kara; Renzhofer Pappada, Holly T; Nalepa, Elizabeth; Boehm, Melinda Laroco; Mitchell, Claire

    2017-01-01

    This research examines a model of how personality (Five-Factor Model) is related to adjustment to cancer in later life in terms of the presence of continuing cancer-related worry and depression among older adult, long-term cancer survivors. Data from an NCI-funded study with 275 older adult (age 60+), long-term (5+ years) survivors of breast, prostate, and colorectal cancer were examined. Regression analyses identified neuroticism as the strongest predictor of cancer-related worry along with continuing cancer-related symptoms. For depression, three personality dimensions (neuroticism, conscientiousness, and agreeableness) were significant predictors. Findings suggest the importance of considering the central role that survivors' personality characteristics play in understanding cancer-related worries and depression. Understanding these dispositional characteristics is key for social workers and health-care practitioners in counseling survivors experiencing these common mental health effects.

  7. Order recall in verbal short-term memory: The role of semantic networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, Marie; Saint-Aubin, Jean; Mair, Ali; Tehan, Gerry; Tolan, Anne

    2015-04-01

    In their recent article, Acheson, MacDonald, and Postle (Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 37:44-59, 2011) made an important but controversial suggestion: They hypothesized that (a) semantic information has an effect on order information in short-term memory (STM) and (b) order recall in STM is based on the level of activation of items within the relevant lexico-semantic long-term memory (LTM) network. However, verbal STM research has typically led to the conclusion that factors such as semantic category have a large effect on the number of correctly recalled items, but little or no impact on order recall (Poirier & Saint-Aubin, Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 48A:384-404, 1995; Saint-Aubin, Ouellette, & Poirier, Psychonomic Bulletin & Review 12:171-177, 2005; Tse, Memory 17:874-891, 2009). Moreover, most formal models of short-term order memory currently suggest a separate mechanism for order coding-that is, one that is separate from item representation and not associated with LTM lexico-semantic networks. Both of the experiments reported here tested the predictions that we derived from Acheson et al. The findings show that, as predicted, manipulations aiming to affect the activation of item representations significantly impacted order memory.

  8. Child maltreatment: pathway to chronic and long-term conditions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Julie; Bradbury-Jones, Caroline; Lazenbatt, Anne; Soliman, Francesca

    2016-09-01

    The manifesto Start Well, Live Better by the UK Faculty of Public Health (Start Well, Live Better-A Manifesto for the Public's Health. London: UK Faculty of Public Health, 2014) sets out 12 compelling priorities for the protection of people's health. The focus of this document is preventative, calling for a comprehensive strategy to target a wide-ranging set of challenges to public health; however, it fails to mention child maltreatment and its negative impact on long-term health outcomes. In this article, we explore the long-term negative consequences of child maltreatment and how these can be conceptually aligned with four different characteristics of long-term health conditions. We suggest that situating child maltreatment within a long-term conditions framework could have significant advantages and implications for practice, policy and research, by strengthening a commitment across disciplines to apply evidence-based principles linked with policy and evaluation and recognizing the chronic effects of maltreatment to concentrate public, professional and government awareness of the extent and impact of the issue. We argue that a public health approach is the most effective way of focusing preventative efforts on the long-term sequelae of child maltreatment and to foster cooperation in promoting children's rights to grow and develop in a safe and caring environment free from violence and abuse. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Integration and segregation of large-scale brain networks during short-term task automatization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Holger; Wolfensteller, Uta; Betzel, Richard F; Mišić, Bratislav; Sporns, Olaf; Richiardi, Jonas; Ruge, Hannes

    2016-11-03

    The human brain is organized into large-scale functional networks that can flexibly reconfigure their connectivity patterns, supporting both rapid adaptive control and long-term learning processes. However, it has remained unclear how short-term network dynamics support the rapid transformation of instructions into fluent behaviour. Comparing fMRI data of a learning sample (N=70) with a control sample (N=67), we find that increasingly efficient task processing during short-term practice is associated with a reorganization of large-scale network interactions. Practice-related efficiency gains are facilitated by enhanced coupling between the cingulo-opercular network and the dorsal attention network. Simultaneously, short-term task automatization is accompanied by decreasing activation of the fronto-parietal network, indicating a release of high-level cognitive control, and a segregation of the default mode network from task-related networks. These findings suggest that short-term task automatization is enabled by the brain's ability to rapidly reconfigure its large-scale network organization involving complementary integration and segregation processes.

  10. Temporal information processing in short- and long-term memory of patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landgraf, Steffen; Steingen, Joerg; Eppert, Yvonne; Niedermeyer, Ulrich; van der Meer, Elke; Krueger, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive deficits of patients with schizophrenia have been largely recognized as core symptoms of the disorder. One neglected factor that contributes to these deficits is the comprehension of time. In the present study, we assessed temporal information processing and manipulation from short- and long-term memory in 34 patients with chronic schizophrenia and 34 matched healthy controls. On the short-term memory temporal-order reconstruction task, an incidental or intentional learning strategy was deployed. Patients showed worse overall performance than healthy controls. The intentional learning strategy led to dissociable performance improvement in both groups. Whereas healthy controls improved on a performance measure (serial organization), patients improved on an error measure (inappropriate semantic clustering) when using the intentional instead of the incidental learning strategy. On the long-term memory script-generation task, routine and non-routine events of everyday activities (e.g., buying groceries) had to be generated in either chronological or inverted temporal order. Patients were slower than controls at generating events in the chronological routine condition only. They also committed more sequencing and boundary errors in the inverted conditions. The number of irrelevant events was higher in patients in the chronological, non-routine condition. These results suggest that patients with schizophrenia imprecisely access temporal information from short- and long-term memory. In short-term memory, processing of temporal information led to a reduction in errors rather than, as was the case in healthy controls, to an improvement in temporal-order recall. When accessing temporal information from long-term memory, patients were slower and committed more sequencing, boundary, and intrusion errors. Together, these results suggest that time information can be accessed and processed only imprecisely by patients who provide evidence for impaired time comprehension

  11. Non-stationarity driven by long-term change in catchment storage: possibilities and implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. D. Hughes

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available "Non-stationarity" with reference to hydrology is a term applied to many situations (Milly et al., 2008. While climate change non-stationarity is often examined, these effects can provide a test for assumptions of runoff generation process impliedin rainfall–runoff (RR models. Observations from South-western Australia (SWA over the past 40 years show a decline in rainfall and reductions in runoff. Runoff and rainfall relationships in SWA show a significant shift over the past 40 years suggesting a change in runoff generation and catchment state. This has challenged the nature of assumed runoff generation process in SWA as well as the veracity of conceptual RR model structure. We expand on some of the lessons learned from SWA and discuss the climatic and geomorphic conditions that may make reasonable predictions of runoff very difficult with RR models calibrated in traditional ways. Catchment storage has a significant interaction with runoff generation and we examine the situations where these may change in the longer term. We suggest some strategies in terms of model structure and calibration that may improve predictive performance in such situations.

  12. What are the differences between long-term, short-term, and working memory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Nelson

    2008-01-01

    In the recent literature there has been considerable confusion about the three types of memory: long-term, short-term, and working memory. This chapter strives to reduce that confusion and makes up-to-date assessments of these types of memory. Long- and short-term memory could differ in two fundamental ways, with only short-term memory demonstrating (1) temporal decay and (2) chunk capacity limits. Both properties of short-term memory are still controversial but the current literature is rather encouraging regarding the existence of both decay and capacity limits. Working memory has been conceived and defined in three different, slightly discrepant ways: as short-term memory applied to cognitive tasks, as a multi-component system that holds and manipulates information in short-term memory, and as the use of attention to manage short-term memory. Regardless of the definition, there are some measures of memory in the short term that seem routine and do not correlate well with cognitive aptitudes and other measures (those usually identified with the term "working memory") that seem more attention demanding and do correlate well with these aptitudes. The evidence is evaluated and placed within a theoretical framework depicted in Fig. 1.

  13. Women with Chronic Physical Disabilities: Correlates of Their Long-Term Psychosocial Adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dangoor, Nira; Florian, Victor

    1994-01-01

    This study examined the effects of demographic factors, disability status, and individual internal resources to the long-term psychosocial adjustment of 88 married women with orthopedic, neurological, and internal chronic diseases. Results suggest that sense of coherence and socioeconomic status, rather than disability status variables, accounted…

  14. Bayesian assignment of gene ontology terms to gene expression experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykacek, P.

    2012-01-01

    Motivation: Gene expression assays allow for genome scale analyses of molecular biological mechanisms. State-of-the-art data analysis provides lists of involved genes, either by calculating significance levels of mRNA abundance or by Bayesian assessments of gene activity. A common problem of such approaches is the difficulty of interpreting the biological implication of the resulting gene lists. This lead to an increased interest in methods for inferring high-level biological information. A common approach for representing high level information is by inferring gene ontology (GO) terms which may be attributed to the expression data experiment. Results: This article proposes a probabilistic model for GO term inference. Modelling assumes that gene annotations to GO terms are available and gene involvement in an experiment is represented by a posterior probabilities over gene-specific indicator variables. Such probability measures result from many Bayesian approaches for expression data analysis. The proposed model combines these indicator probabilities in a probabilistic fashion and provides a probabilistic GO term assignment as a result. Experiments on synthetic and microarray data suggest that advantages of the proposed probabilistic GO term inference over statistical test-based approaches are in particular evident for sparsely annotated GO terms and in situations of large uncertainty about gene activity. Provided that appropriate annotations exist, the proposed approach is easily applied to inferring other high level assignments like pathways. Availability: Source code under GPL license is available from the author. Contact: peter.sykacek@boku.ac.at PMID:22962488

  15. Bayesian assignment of gene ontology terms to gene expression experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykacek, P

    2012-09-15

    Gene expression assays allow for genome scale analyses of molecular biological mechanisms. State-of-the-art data analysis provides lists of involved genes, either by calculating significance levels of mRNA abundance or by Bayesian assessments of gene activity. A common problem of such approaches is the difficulty of interpreting the biological implication of the resulting gene lists. This lead to an increased interest in methods for inferring high-level biological information. A common approach for representing high level information is by inferring gene ontology (GO) terms which may be attributed to the expression data experiment. This article proposes a probabilistic model for GO term inference. Modelling assumes that gene annotations to GO terms are available and gene involvement in an experiment is represented by a posterior probabilities over gene-specific indicator variables. Such probability measures result from many Bayesian approaches for expression data analysis. The proposed model combines these indicator probabilities in a probabilistic fashion and provides a probabilistic GO term assignment as a result. Experiments on synthetic and microarray data suggest that advantages of the proposed probabilistic GO term inference over statistical test-based approaches are in particular evident for sparsely annotated GO terms and in situations of large uncertainty about gene activity. Provided that appropriate annotations exist, the proposed approach is easily applied to inferring other high level assignments like pathways. Source code under GPL license is available from the author. peter.sykacek@boku.ac.at.

  16. Genomic analysis identifies masqueraders of full-term cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takezawa, Yusuke; Kikuchi, Atsuo; Haginoya, Kazuhiro; Niihori, Tetsuya; Numata-Uematsu, Yurika; Inui, Takehiko; Yamamura-Suzuki, Saeko; Miyabayashi, Takuya; Anzai, Mai; Suzuki-Muromoto, Sato; Okubo, Yukimune; Endo, Wakaba; Togashi, Noriko; Kobayashi, Yasuko; Onuma, Akira; Funayama, Ryo; Shirota, Matsuyuki; Nakayama, Keiko; Aoki, Yoko; Kure, Shigeo

    2018-05-01

    Cerebral palsy is a common, heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorder that causes movement and postural disabilities. Recent studies have suggested genetic diseases can be misdiagnosed as cerebral palsy. We hypothesized that two simple criteria, that is, full-term births and nonspecific brain MRI findings, are keys to extracting masqueraders among cerebral palsy cases due to the following: (1) preterm infants are susceptible to multiple environmental factors and therefore demonstrate an increased risk of cerebral palsy and (2) brain MRI assessment is essential for excluding environmental causes and other particular disorders. A total of 107 patients-all full-term births-without specific findings on brain MRI were identified among 897 patients diagnosed with cerebral palsy who were followed at our center. DNA samples were available for 17 of the 107 cases for trio whole-exome sequencing and array comparative genomic hybridization. We prioritized variants in genes known to be relevant in neurodevelopmental diseases and evaluated their pathogenicity according to the American College of Medical Genetics guidelines. Pathogenic/likely pathogenic candidate variants were identified in 9 of 17 cases (52.9%) within eight genes: CTNNB1 , CYP2U1 , SPAST , GNAO1 , CACNA1A , AMPD2 , STXBP1 , and SCN2A . Five identified variants had previously been reported. No pathogenic copy number variations were identified. The AMPD2 missense variant and the splice-site variants in CTNNB1 and AMPD2 were validated by in vitro functional experiments. The high rate of detecting causative genetic variants (52.9%) suggests that patients diagnosed with cerebral palsy in full-term births without specific MRI findings may include genetic diseases masquerading as cerebral palsy.

  17. Abdominal pain in long-term spinal cord injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnerup, Nanna Brix; Faaborg, Pia Møller; Krogh, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    Objectives:To describe the prevalence and character of chronic abdominal pain in a group of patients with long-term spinal cord injury (SCI) and to assess predictors of abdominal pain.Study design:Postal survey.Setting:Members of the Danish Paraplegic Association.Methods:We mailed a questionnaire...... to 284 members of the Danish Paraplegic Association who met the inclusion criteria (member for at least 10 years). The questionnaire contained questions about cause and level of spinal injury, colorectal function and pain/discomfort.Results:Seventy percent returned the questionnaire (133 men and 70 women....../discomfort. There was no relation of abdominal pain to other types of pain.Conclusion:Chronic pain located in the abdomen is frequent in patients with long-term SCI. The delayed onset following SCI and the relation to constipation suggest that constipation plays an important role for this type of pain in the spinal cord injured....

  18. Abdominal pain in long-term spinal cord injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnerup, Nanna Brix; Faaborg, Pia Møller; Krogh, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    Objectives:To describe the prevalence and character of chronic abdominal pain in a group of patients with long-term spinal cord injury (SCI) and to assess predictors of abdominal pain.Study design:Postal survey.Setting:Members of the Danish Paraplegic Association.Methods:We mailed a questionnaire....../discomfort. There was no relation of abdominal pain to other types of pain.Conclusion:Chronic pain located in the abdomen is frequent in patients with long-term SCI. The delayed onset following SCI and the relation to constipation suggest that constipation plays an important role for this type of pain in the spinal cord injured....... to 284 members of the Danish Paraplegic Association who met the inclusion criteria (member for at least 10 years). The questionnaire contained questions about cause and level of spinal injury, colorectal function and pain/discomfort.Results:Seventy percent returned the questionnaire (133 men and 70 women...

  19. A Critical Role for the Nucleus Reuniens in Long-Term, But Not Short-Term Associative Recognition Memory Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Gareth R I; Warburton, Elizabeth Clea

    2018-03-28

    Recognition memory for single items requires the perirhinal cortex (PRH), whereas recognition of an item and its associated location requires a functional interaction among the PRH, hippocampus (HPC), and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Although the precise mechanisms through which these interactions are effected are unknown, the nucleus reuniens (NRe) has bidirectional connections with each regions and thus may play a role in recognition memory. Here we investigated, in male rats, whether specific manipulations of NRe function affected performance of recognition memory for single items, object location, or object-in-place associations. Permanent lesions in the NRe significantly impaired long-term, but not short-term, object-in-place associative recognition memory, whereas single item recognition memory and object location memory were unaffected. Temporary inactivation of the NRe during distinct phases of the object-in-place task revealed its importance in both the encoding and retrieval stages of long-term associative recognition memory. Infusions of specific receptor antagonists showed that encoding was dependent on muscarinic and nicotinic cholinergic neurotransmission, whereas NMDA receptor neurotransmission was not required. Finally, we found that long-term object-in-place memory required protein synthesis within the NRe. These data reveal a specific role for the NRe in long-term associative recognition memory through its interactions with the HPC and mPFC, but not the PRH. The delay-dependent involvement of the NRe suggests that it is not a simple relay station between brain regions, but, rather, during high mnemonic demand, facilitates interactions between the mPFC and HPC, a process that requires both cholinergic neurotransmission and protein synthesis. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Recognizing an object and its associated location, which is fundamental to our everyday memory, requires specific hippocampal-cortical interactions, potentially facilitated by the

  20. Novel kinetic spectrophotometric method for estimation of certain biologically active phenolic sympathomimetic drugs in their bulk powders and different pharmaceutical formulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Mahmoud A.; Badr El-Din, Khalid M.; Salem, Hesham; Abdelmageed, Osama H.

    2018-03-01

    A simple, selective and sensitive kinetic spectrophotometric method was described for estimation of four phenolic sympathomimetic drugs namely; terbutaline sulfate, fenoterol hydrobromide, isoxsuprine hydrochloride and etilefrine hydrochloride. This method is depended on the oxidation of the phenolic drugs with Folin-Ciocalteu reagent in presence of sodium carbonate. The rate of color development at 747-760 nm was measured spectrophotometrically. The experimental parameters controlling the color development were fully studied and optimized. The reaction mechanism for color development was proposed. The calibration graphs for both the initial rate and fixed time methods were constructed, where linear correlations were found in the general concentration ranges of 3.65 × 10- 6-2.19 × 10- 5 mol L- 1 and 2-24.0 μg mL- 1 with correlation coefficients in the following range 0.9992-0.9999, 0.9991-0.9998 respectively. The limits of detection and quantitation for the initial rate and fixed time methods were found to be in general concentration range 0.109-0.273, 0.363-0.910 and 0.210-0.483, 0.700-1.611 μg mL- 1 respectively. The developed method was validated according to ICH and USP 30 -NF 25 guidelines. The suggested method was successfully implemented to the estimation of these drugs in their commercial pharmaceutical formulations and the recovery percentages obtained were ranged from 97.63% ± 1.37 to 100.17% ± 0.95 and 97.29% ± 0.74 to 100.14 ± 0.81 for initial rate and fixed time methods respectively. The data obtained from the analysis of dosage forms were compared with those obtained by reported methods. Statistical analysis of these results indicated no significant variation in the accuracy and precision of both the proposed and reported methods.

  1. Evaluation of the improvement suggestion system in a nuclear facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carnaval, Joao Paulo Rodrigues; Moraes, Geice Almeida

    2017-01-01

    This work evaluated methods for processing improvement suggestions of a nuclear factory, with the intention to verify those which best fits to the company purposes. Two methods for processing improvement suggestions were applied in the studied organization. The first one was guided to the processing suggestions by specific independent sectors of the company and the second one was conducted to the processing of suggestions by a multidisciplinary team. It has been concluded that a multidisciplinary team focused on research and development would be the best option to the implementation of improvement suggestions and technological innovation on this facility, instead of multi sector processing which revealed to be excessive bureaucratic before the expected goals. This study can be used by nuclear facilities to optimize an existing system of improvements analysis or even guide them for the implantation of a new one. It is more significant for the companies certified on ISO and OHSAS standards for the quality management, environmental and safety and occupational health systems which requires that the continuous improvement must exist and to be demonstrated. But it is also relevant for nuclear plants aiming to implement an Integrated Management System certified on ISO Standards. (author)

  2. Evaluation of the improvement suggestion system in a nuclear facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carnaval, Joao Paulo Rodrigues; Moraes, Geice Almeida, E-mail: joaocarnaval@inb.gov.br, E-mail: geice@inb.gov.br [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil S.A (INB), Resende, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-11-01

    This work evaluated methods for processing improvement suggestions of a nuclear factory, with the intention to verify those which best fits to the company purposes. Two methods for processing improvement suggestions were applied in the studied organization. The first one was guided to the processing suggestions by specific independent sectors of the company and the second one was conducted to the processing of suggestions by a multidisciplinary team. It has been concluded that a multidisciplinary team focused on research and development would be the best option to the implementation of improvement suggestions and technological innovation on this facility, instead of multi sector processing which revealed to be excessive bureaucratic before the expected goals. This study can be used by nuclear facilities to optimize an existing system of improvements analysis or even guide them for the implantation of a new one. It is more significant for the companies certified on ISO and OHSAS standards for the quality management, environmental and safety and occupational health systems which requires that the continuous improvement must exist and to be demonstrated. But it is also relevant for nuclear plants aiming to implement an Integrated Management System certified on ISO Standards. (author)

  3. Measurements of Dune Parameters on Titan Suggest Differences in Sand Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Brigitte W.; Radebaugh, Jani

    2014-11-01

    The equatorial region of Saturn’s moon Titan has five large sand seas with dunes similar to large linear dunes on Earth. Cassini Radar SAR swaths have high enough resolution (300 m) to measure dune parameters such as width and spacing, which helps inform us about formation conditions and long-term evolution of the sand dunes. Previous measurements in locations scattered across Titan have revealed an average width of 1.3 km and spacing of 2.7 km, with variations by location. We have taken over 1200 new measurements of dune width and spacing in the T8 swath, a region on the leading hemisphere of Titan in the Belet Sand Sea, between -5 and -9 degrees latitude. We have also taken over 500 measurements in the T44 swath, located on the anti-Saturn hemisphere in the Shangri-La Sand Sea, between 0 and 20 degrees latitude. We correlated each group of 50 measurements with the average distance from the edge of the dune field to obtain an estimate of how position within a dune field affects dune parameters. We found that in general, the width and spacing of dunes decreases with distance from the edge of the dune field, consistent with similar measurements in sand seas on Earth. We suggest that this correlation is due to the lesser availability of sand at the edges of dune fields. These measurements and correlations could be helpful in determining differences in sand availability across different dune fields, and along the entire equatorial region of Titan.

  4. Communication on energy: who pays for the long-term costs of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffery, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    The question in the title arises in making a fair comparison between a coal-fired station, which has no long-term costs, and a nuclear station, whose large long-term costs are discounted into insignificance by the present method of calculation. This problem was raised by the present author in his evidence to the Sizewell Inquiry, and has recently been discussed by the House of Commons Select Committee on Energy, who expressed grave disquiet that 'the costs of decommissioning become almost irrelevant to the current economics of nuclear power'. The present article analyses the bizarre effects of long-term discounting, and suggests a method of making a fair and symmetrical comparison between coal-fired and nuclear stations. (author)

  5. The Influence of Auditory Short-Term Memory on Behavior Problem Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Justin; Keith, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine the influence of two subcomponents of auditory short-term memory on the developmental trajectories of behavior problems. The sample included 7,058 children from the NLSY79--Children and Young Adult survey between the ages 5 and 14 years. Results suggested that anxious/depressed behavior increases…

  6. The phonological neighbourhood effect on short-term memory for order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarkson, L; Roodenrys, S; Miller, L M; Hulme, C

    2017-03-01

    There is a growing body of literature that suggests that long-term memory (LTM) and short-term memory (STM) structures that were once thought to be distinct are actually co-dependent, and that LTM can aid retrieval from STM. The mechanism behind this effect is commonly argued to act on item memory but not on order memory. The aim of the current study was to examine whether LTM could exert an influence on STM for order by examining an effect attributed to LTM, the phonological neighbourhood effect, in a task that reduced the requirement to retain item information. In Experiment 1, 18 participants completed a serial reconstruction task where neighbourhood density alternated within the lists. In Experiment 2, 22 participants completed a serial reconstruction task using pure lists of dense and sparse neighbourhood words. In Experiment 3, 22 participants completed a reconstruction task with both mixed and pure lists. There was a significant effect of neighbourhood density with better recall for dense than sparse neighbourhood words in pure lists but not in mixed lists. Results suggest that LTM exerts an influence prior to that proposed by many models of memory for order.

  7. Short term and medium term power distribution load forecasting by neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yalcinoz, T.; Eminoglu, U.

    2005-01-01

    Load forecasting is an important subject for power distribution systems and has been studied from different points of view. In general, load forecasts should be performed over a broad spectrum of time intervals, which could be classified into short term, medium term and long term forecasts. Several research groups have proposed various techniques for either short term load forecasting or medium term load forecasting or long term load forecasting. This paper presents a neural network (NN) model for short term peak load forecasting, short term total load forecasting and medium term monthly load forecasting in power distribution systems. The NN is used to learn the relationships among past, current and future temperatures and loads. The neural network was trained to recognize the peak load of the day, total load of the day and monthly electricity consumption. The suitability of the proposed approach is illustrated through an application to real load shapes from the Turkish Electricity Distribution Corporation (TEDAS) in Nigde. The data represents the daily and monthly electricity consumption in Nigde, Turkey

  8. Reply to Wagstaff: "Hypnosis and the relationship between trance, suggestion, expectancy, and depth: some semantic and conceptual issues".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekala, Ronald J

    2011-01-01

    Wagstaff (2010) reviews and comments on two recent papers by Pekala et al. (2010a, 2010b), concluding that "many of the problems relating to the definition and conceptualization of terms associated with hypnosis... may stem from insufficient attention to the role of suggestion and expectancies in producing hypnotic phenomena, and an over-reliance on the role of the procedures and mechanics of the induction process" (p. 47). Although I agree with his semantic and conceptual focus, I believe that a number of these problems are due to not operationally defining terms such as hypnosis, hypnotic state, or trance in a comprehensive phenomenological manner. By using the PCI (Phenomenology of Consciousness Inventory) via retrospective phenomenological assessment, and using a phenomenological state instrument like the PCI-HAP (Phenomenology of Consciousness Inventory - Hypnotic Assessment Procedure) to obtain a state measure of hypnotic responsiveness, a means is available to define and empirically address some of these issues in a way that can significantly further our understanding of the nature of hypnotism. Such an approach might also address Kallio and Revonsuo's (2005) admonition concerning the need to develop "an internally coherent and widely shared theoretical vocabulary" (p. 51) to better understand consciousness, altered states of consciousness, and related phenomena, such as hypnosis/hypnotism.

  9. DIPNECH: when to suggest this diagnosis on CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chassagnon, G.; Favelle, O.; Marchand-Adam, S.; De Muret, A.; Revel, M.P.

    2015-01-01

    Diffuse idiopathic pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia (DIPNECH) is an under-recognized disease characterized by proliferation of neuroendocrine cells in the bronchial wall. It is considered a pre-invasive lesion for lung carcinoid tumours and is found in 5.4% of patients undergoing surgical resection for lung carcinoid tumours. Other manifestations of DIPNECH include bronchial obstruction and formation of tumorlets. DIPNECH preferentially affects middle-aged women. Patients are either asymptomatic or present with long-standing dyspnoea due to obstructive syndrome that can be mistaken for asthma. At CT, mosaic attenuation with multiple small nodules is very suggestive of DIPNECH. The aim of this review is to describe DIPNECH-related CT features and correlate them with histology, in order to help radiologists suggest this diagnosis and distinguish DIPNECH from other causes of mosaic perfusion

  10. Study on mid and long-term strategic plan formulation for newly-constructed NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Lin

    2014-01-01

    Mid and Long-term strategic plan plays a key role for the management of a newly constructed nuclear power company. Among others, process, goals, and risk management, are the primary concerns during plan preparing. The article analyzed these three areas for Fuqing NPP, including the formulating process for the plan, the mid and long-term goal setting of the company, the major risk analysis and countermeasure selection therefore. Through that solutions and suggestions for strategic plan formulation were concluded for newly-constructed NPP. (author)

  11. Individual Decision Making in the Non-Purchase of Long-Term Care Insurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Leslie A.; Robison, Julie; Shugrue, Noreen; Keenan, Patricia; Kapp, Marshall B.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Although prior research suggests that economic, behavioral, and psychosocial factors influence decisions not to purchase long-term care insurance, few studies have examined the interplay among these factors in depth and from the consumer's point of view. This study was intended to further illuminate these considerations, generate…

  12. Mitochondrial genomes suggest rapid evolution of dwarf California Channel Islands foxes (Urocyon littoralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofman, Courtney A; Rick, Torben C; Hawkins, Melissa T R; Funk, W Chris; Ralls, Katherine; Boser, Christina L; Collins, Paul W; Coonan, Tim; King, Julie L; Morrison, Scott A; Newsome, Seth D; Sillett, T Scott; Fleischer, Robert C; Maldonado, Jesus E

    2015-01-01

    Island endemics are typically differentiated from their mainland progenitors in behavior, morphology, and genetics, often resulting from long-term evolutionary change. To examine mechanisms for the origins of island endemism, we present a phylogeographic analysis of whole mitochondrial genomes from the endangered island fox (Urocyon littoralis), endemic to California's Channel Islands, and mainland gray foxes (U. cinereoargenteus). Previous genetic studies suggested that foxes first appeared on the islands >16,000 years ago, before human arrival (~13,000 cal BP), while archaeological and paleontological data supported a colonization >7000 cal BP. Our results are consistent with initial fox colonization of the northern islands probably by rafting or human introduction ~9200-7100 years ago, followed quickly by human translocation of foxes from the northern to southern Channel Islands. Mitogenomes indicate that island foxes are monophyletic and most closely related to gray foxes from northern California that likely experienced a Holocene climate-induced range shift. Our data document rapid morphological evolution of island foxes (in ~2000 years or less). Despite evidence for bottlenecks, island foxes have generated and maintained multiple mitochondrial haplotypes. This study highlights the intertwined evolutionary history of island foxes and humans, and illustrates a new approach for investigating the evolutionary histories of other island endemics.

  13. Children's Suggestibility in Relation to Their Understanding about Sources of Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, E. J.; Whitcombe, E. L.

    2003-01-01

    Examined preschoolers' suggestibility when initial beliefs about an object's identity were contradicted by experimenter's suggestion. Found that subjects were good at accepting the suggestion only when the experimenter was better informed than they. Children were least accurate at reporting whether their final belief was based on what they were…

  14. Application for Suggesting Restaurants Using Clustering Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulia Alexandra IANCU

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to present an application whose purpose is to make suggestions of restaurants to users. The application uses as input the descriptions of restaurants, reviews, user reviews available on the specialized Internet sites and blogs. In the application there are used processing techniques of natural language implemented using parsers, clustering algorithms and techniques for data collection from the Internet through web crawlers.

  15. A Latent Variable Analysis of Working Memory Capacity, Short-Term Memory Capacity, Processing Speed, and General Fluid Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Andrew R. A.; Cowan, Nelsin; Bunting, Michael F.; Therriault, David J.; Minkoff, Scott R. B.

    2002-01-01

    Studied the interrelationships among general fluid intelligence, short-term memory capacity, working memory capacity, and processing speed in 120 young adults and used structural equation modeling to determine the best predictor of general fluid intelligence. Results suggest that working memory capacity, but not short-term memory capacity or…

  16. Language differences in verbal short-term memory do not exclusively originate in the process of subvocal rehearsal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorn, A S; Gathercole, S E

    2001-06-01

    Language differences in verbal short-term memory were investigated in two experiments. In Experiment 1, bilinguals with high competence in English and French and monolingual English adults with extremely limited knowledge of French were assessed on their serial recall of words and nonwords in both languages. In all cases recall accuracy was superior in the language with which individuals were most familiar, a first-language advantage that remained when variation due to differential rates of articulation in the two languages was taken into account. In Experiment 2, bilinguals recalled lists of English and French words with and without concurrent articulatory suppression. First-language superiority persisted under suppression, suggesting that the language differences in recall accuracy were not attributable to slower rates of subvocal rehearsal in the less familiar language. The findings indicate that language-specific differences in verbal short-term memory do not exclusively originate in the subvocal rehearsal process. It is suggested that one source of language-specific variation might relate to the use of long-term knowledge to support short-term memory performance.

  17. Perceived service quality, perceived value, overall satisfaction and happiness of outlook for long-term care institution residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jesun; Hsiao, Chih-Tung; Glen, Robert; Pai, Jar-Yuan; Zeng, Sin-Huei

    2014-06-01

    To investigate the psychometric properties and relationships of perceived service quality, perceived value and overall satisfaction for residents with respect to their long-term care institutions. The five-point Likert scale questionnaire administered through facetoface interviews. Fourteen long-term care institutions located in central and southern Taiwan stratified according to services and accommodation population. One hundred and eighty long-term institutional care residents. Perceived service quality (the SERVPERF model), perceived value and overall satisfaction (models based on the literature on perceived value and satisfaction). Student's t-test on institutional location shows a significant difference between overall satisfaction for central and southern institution long-term care recipients. The correlation test revealed that the higher a resident's level of education, the higher the scores for perceived value. The factor loading results of confirmation factor analysis show acceptable levels of reliability and index-of-model fits for perceived service, perceived value and overall satisfaction. In addition, the results suggest that an additional construct, a positive attitude (happiness of outlook) towards long-term care institutions, is also an important factor in residents' overall satisfaction. The primary goal of long-term institutional care policy in Taiwan, as in other countries, is to provide residents with practical, cost-effective but high-quality care. On the basis of the results of in-depth interviews with long-term institutional care residents, this study suggests long-term care institutions arrange more family visit days to increase the accessibility and interaction of family and residents and thereby increase the happiness of outlook of the residents. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Confidence Judgments in Children's and Adults' Event Recall and Suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roebers, Claudia M.

    2002-01-01

    Three studies investigated the role of 8- and 10-year-olds' and adults' metacognitive monitoring and control processes for unbiased event recall tasks and suggestibility. Findings suggested strong tendencies to overestimate confidence regardless of age and question format. Children did not lack principal metacognitive competencies when questions…

  19. Perinatal pathology: practice suggestions for limited-resource settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Drucilla J

    2013-06-01

    The practice of perinatal pathology in much of the world suffers, as do all subspecialties of anatomic pathology, from inadequate resources (equipment, consumables, and both professional and technical personnel), from lack of education (not only of the pathologist but also of the clinicians responsible for sending the specimens, and the technicians processing the specimens), and from lack of appropriate government sector support. Perinatal pathology has significant public health-related utility and should be championing its service by providing maternal and fetal/infant mortality and morbidity data to governmental health ministries. It is with this pathologic data that informed decisions can be made on health-related courses of action and allocation of resources. These perinatal pathology data are needed to develop appropriate public health initiatives, specifically toward achieving the Millennium Developmental Goals as the best way to effectively decrease infant and maternal deaths and to determine causes of perinatal mortality and morbidity. The following overview will focus on the utility of perinatal pathology specifically as related to its public health function and will suggest methods to improve its service in resource-poor settings. This article is offered not as a critique of the current practice that most pathologists find themselves working in globally, but to provide suggestions for improving perinatal pathology services, which could be implemented with the limited available resources and manpower most pathology departments currently have. In addition, we offer suggestions for graded improvements ("ramping up") over time.

  20. Spatial patterns of goose grubbing suggest elevated grubbing in dry habitats linked to early snowmelt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Åshild Ø. Pedersen

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The western Palaearctic tundra is a breeding habitat for large populations of European geese. After their arrival in spring, pink-footed geese (Anser brachyrhynchus forage extensively on below-ground plant parts, using a feeding technique called grubbing that has substantial impact on the tundra vegetation. Previous studies have shown a high frequency of grubbing in lowland fen vegetation. In the present study, we examined the occurrence of grubbing in other habitat types on Spitsbergen, in the Arctic archipelago of Svalbard. Goose grubbing was surveyed along 19 altitudinal transects, going from the valley bottom to altitudes dominated by scree. Grubbing was more frequent in the wet habitat type at low altitudes compared to the drier habitat type at higher altitudes. For the dry habitat type, a higher frequency of grubbing was found in study plots with a south-east facing exposure where snowmelt is expected to be early. This suggests that pink-footed geese primarily use dry vegetation types for grubbing when they are snow-free in early spring and the availability of snow-free patches of the preferred wet vegetation types in the lowlands is limited. Dry vegetation types have poorer recovery rates from disturbance than wet ones. Sites with early snowmelt and dry vegetation types may therefore be at greater risk of long-term habitat degradation. We conclude that the high growth rate of the Svalbard-breeding pink-footed goose population suggests that increasing impacts of grubbing can be expected and argue that a responsible monitoring of the effects on the tundra ecosystem is crucial.

  1. What are the differences between long-term, short-term, and working memory?

    OpenAIRE

    Cowan, Nelson

    2008-01-01

    In the recent literature there has been considerable confusion about the three types of memory: long-term, short-term, and working memory. This chapter strives to reduce that confusion and makes up-to-date assessments of these types of memory. Long- and short-term memory could differ in two fundamental ways, with only short-term memory demonstrating (1) temporal decay and (2) chunk capacity limits. Both properties of short-term memory are still controversial but the current literature is rath...

  2. Long-term training modifies the modular structure and organization of walking balance control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawers, Andrew; Allen, Jessica L; Ting, Lena H

    2015-12-01

    How does long-term training affect the neural control of movements? Here we tested the hypothesis that long-term training leading to skilled motor performance alters muscle coordination during challenging, as well as nominal everyday motor behaviors. Using motor module (a.k.a., muscle synergy) analyses, we identified differences in muscle coordination patterns between professionally trained ballet dancers (experts) and untrained novices that accompanied differences in walking balance proficiency assessed using a challenging beam-walking test. During beam walking, we found that experts recruited more motor modules than novices, suggesting an increase in motor repertoire size. Motor modules in experts had less muscle coactivity and were more consistent than in novices, reflecting greater efficiency in muscle output. Moreover, the pool of motor modules shared between beam and overground walking was larger in experts compared with novices, suggesting greater generalization of motor module function across multiple behaviors. These differences in motor output between experts and novices could not be explained by differences in kinematics, suggesting that they likely reflect differences in the neural control of movement following years of training rather than biomechanical constraints imposed by the activity or musculoskeletal structure and function. Our results suggest that to learn challenging new behaviors, we may take advantage of existing motor modules used for related behaviors and sculpt them to meet the demands of a new behavior. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Persistent Web References – Best Practices and New Suggestions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zierau, Eld; Nyvang, Caroline; Kromann, Thomas Hvid

    In this paper, we suggest adjustments to best practices for persistent web referencing; adjustments that aim at preservation and long time accessibility of web referenced resources in general, but with focus on web references in web archives. Web referencing is highly relevant and crucial...... refer to archive URLs which depends on the web archives access implementations. A major part of the suggested adjustments is a new web reference standard for archived web references (called wPID), which is a supplement to the current practices. The purpose of the standard is to support general, global...

  4. Suggested guidelines for gas emission monitoring at danish landfills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Peter; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Landfill gas is produced on waste disposal sites receiving organic waste resulting in emission of methane. Regulation requires that the landfill gas is managed in order to reduce emissions, but very few suggestions exist to how the landfill gas management activities are monitored, what requirements...... to the ability of the landfill gas management to reduce the emission should be set up, and how criteria are developed for when the monitoring activities can be terminated. Monitoring procedures are suggested centred on a robust method for measuring the total methane emission from the site, and quantitative...

  5. Exposure to suggestion and creation of false auditory memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, B; Nelson, E

    2000-02-01

    The experiment investigated the possibility of creating false auditory memory through exposure to suggestion. Research by Loftus and others has indicated that, through suggestion, false memories can be created. Participants viewed a short film and were given a 9-item questionnaire. Eight questions were used as filler while one question asked respondents to recall a phrase one character had said. Although the character actually said nothing, 23 of 30 respondents recalled having heard him speak and specifically recalled his words. This statistically significant result shows that auditory memories can also be created.

  6. Suggestion-Induced Modulation of Semantic Priming during Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Martin; Kiefer, Markus; Bongartz, Walter; Grön, Georg; Hoenig, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Using functional magnetic resonance imaging during a primed visual lexical decision task, we investigated the neural and functional mechanisms underlying modulations of semantic word processing through hypnotic suggestions aimed at altering lexical processing of primes. The priming task was to discriminate between target words and pseudowords presented 200 ms after the prime word which was semantically related or unrelated to the target. In a counterbalanced study design, each participant performed the task once at normal wakefulness and once after the administration of hypnotic suggestions to perceive the prime as a meaningless symbol of a foreign language. Neural correlates of priming were defined as significantly lower activations upon semantically related compared to unrelated trials. We found significant suggestive treatment-induced reductions in neural priming, albeit irrespective of the degree of suggestibility. Neural priming was attenuated upon suggestive treatment compared with normal wakefulness in brain regions supporting automatic (fusiform gyrus) and controlled semantic processing (superior and middle temporal gyri, pre- and postcentral gyri, and supplementary motor area). Hence, suggestions reduced semantic word processing by conjointly dampening both automatic and strategic semantic processes. PMID:25923740

  7. Suggestion-Induced Modulation of Semantic Priming during Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Ulrich

    Full Text Available Using functional magnetic resonance imaging during a primed visual lexical decision task, we investigated the neural and functional mechanisms underlying modulations of semantic word processing through hypnotic suggestions aimed at altering lexical processing of primes. The priming task was to discriminate between target words and pseudowords presented 200 ms after the prime word which was semantically related or unrelated to the target. In a counterbalanced study design, each participant performed the task once at normal wakefulness and once after the administration of hypnotic suggestions to perceive the prime as a meaningless symbol of a foreign language. Neural correlates of priming were defined as significantly lower activations upon semantically related compared to unrelated trials. We found significant suggestive treatment-induced reductions in neural priming, albeit irrespective of the degree of suggestibility. Neural priming was attenuated upon suggestive treatment compared with normal wakefulness in brain regions supporting automatic (fusiform gyrus and controlled semantic processing (superior and middle temporal gyri, pre- and postcentral gyri, and supplementary motor area. Hence, suggestions reduced semantic word processing by conjointly dampening both automatic and strategic semantic processes.

  8. Contrasting contributions of phonological short-term memory and long-term knowledge to vocabulary learning in a foreign language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoura, Elvira V; Gathercole, Susan E

    2005-01-01

    The contributions of phonological short-term memory and existing foreign vocabulary knowledge to the learning of new words in a second language were compared in a sample of 40 Greek children studying English at school. The children's speed of learning new English words in a paired-associate learning task was strongly influenced by their current English vocabulary, but was independent of phonological memory skill, indexed by nonword repetition ability. However, phonological memory performance was closely linked to English vocabulary scores. The findings suggest that in learners with considerable familiarity with a second language, foreign vocabulary acquisition is mediated largely by use of existing knowledge representations.

  9. Long term conservation of sexual functions after prostate brachytherapy by permanents implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pena, P.C.; Hijal, T.; Pierrat, N.; Pontvert, D.; Cosset, J.M.; Thiounn, N.; Flam, T.; Chauveinc, L.

    2009-01-01

    These series suggest that the preservation of sexual abilities after prostate brachytherapy would be in relation with the previous performances and age. So, in patients aged over seventy years and with an satisfying initial IIEF5 score, the conservation rate at long term appears to go over the 50%. (N.C.)

  10. Long-term impact of interferon beta-1b in patients with CIS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edan, G; Kappos, L; Montalbán, X

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the long-term impact of early treatment initiation of interferon beta-1b (IFNB1b, Betaferon/Betaseron) in patients with a first event suggestive of multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS: In the original placebo-controlled phase of BENEFIT, patients were randomised to IFNB1b 250 μg...

  11. Pyrophoricity of uranium in long-term storage environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solbrig, C.W.; Krsul, J.R.; Olsen, D.N.

    1994-01-01

    A corrosion cycle for uranium is postulated which can be used to assess whether a given storage situation might produce fire hazards and/or continual uranium corrosion. A significant reaction rate of uranium and moisture occurs at room temperature which produces uranium oxide and hydrogen. If the hydrogen cannot escape, it will react slowly with uranium to form uranium hydride. The hydride is pyrophoric at room temperature when exposed to air. Either the hydrogen or the hydride can produce a dangerous situation as demonstrated by two different incidents described here. Long-term corrosion will occur even if the normal precautions are taken as is demonstrated by the long-term storage of stainless steel clad uranium fuel plates. The major initiator of these problems is attributed to any moisture condensed on the metal or any brought in by the cover gas. The postulated corrosion cycle is used to suggest ways to circumvent these problems

  12. Morphological processing with deficient phonological short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavé, Gitit; Ze'ev, Hagit Bar; Lev, Anita

    2007-07-01

    This paper investigates the processing of Hebrew derivational morphology in an individual (S.E.) with deficient phonological short-term memory. In comparison to 10 age- and education-matched men, S.E. was impaired on digit span tasks and demonstrated no recency effect in word list recall. S.E. had low word retention span, but he exhibited phonological similarity and word length effects. His ability to make lexical decisions was intact. In a paired-associate test S.E. successfully learned semantically and morphologically related pairs but not phonologically related pairs, and his learning of nonwords was facilitated by the presence of Hebrew consonant roots. Semantic and morphological similarity enhanced immediate word recall. Results show that S.E. is capable of conducting morphological decomposition of Hebrew-derived words despite his phonological deficit, suggesting that transient maintenance of morphological constituents is independent of temporary storage and rehearsal of phonological codes, and that each is processed separately within short-term memory.

  13. Wnt Signaling Is Required for Long-Term Memory Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Tan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Wnt signaling regulates synaptic plasticity and neurogenesis in the adult nervous system, suggesting a potential role in behavioral processes. Here, we probed the requirement for Wnt signaling during olfactory memory formation in Drosophila using an inducible RNAi approach. Interfering with β-catenin expression in adult mushroom body neurons specifically impaired long-term memory (LTM without altering short-term memory. The impairment was reversible, being rescued by expression of a wild-type β-catenin transgene, and correlated with disruption of a cellular LTM trace. Inhibition of wingless, a Wnt ligand, and arrow, a Wnt coreceptor, also impaired LTM. Wingless expression in wild-type flies was transiently elevated in the brain after LTM conditioning. Thus, inhibiting three key components of the Wnt signaling pathway in adult mushroom bodies impairs LTM, indicating that this pathway mechanistically underlies this specific form of memory.

  14. Short term memory may be the depletion of the readily releasable pool of presynaptic neurotransmitter vesicles of a metastable long term memory trace pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarnow, Eugen

    2009-09-01

    The Tagging/Retagging model of short term memory was introduced earlier (Tarnow in Cogn Neurodyn 2(4):347-353, 2008) to explain the linear relationship between response time and correct response probability for word recall and recognition: At the initial stimulus presentation the words displayed tag the corresponding long term memory locations. The tagging process is linear in time and takes about one second to reach a tagging level of 100%. After stimulus presentation the tagging level decays logarithmically with time to 50% after 14 s and to 20% after 220 s. If a probe word is reintroduced the tagging level has to return to 100% for the word to be properly identified, which leads to a delay in response time. This delay is proportional to the tagging loss. The tagging level is directly related to the probability of correct word recall and recognition. Evidence presented suggests that the tagging level is the level of depletion of the Readily Releasable Pool (RRP) of neurotransmitter vesicles at presynaptic terminals. The evidence includes the initial linear relationship between tagging level and time as well as the subsequent logarithmic decay of the tagging level. The activation of a short term memory may thus be the depletion of RRP (exocytosis) and short term memory decay may be the ensuing recycling of the neurotransmitter vesicles (endocytosis). The pattern of depleted presynaptic terminals corresponds to the long term memory trace.

  15. Ideas and suggestions for marketing natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldammer, D [Thyssengas G.m.b.H., Duisburg (Germany, F.R.)

    1980-04-01

    The changes in the situation on the world energy market have also affected the gas supply business. This led to a re-examination of the marketing concept for natural gas. The impetus to this came from the procurement situation, the rational use of energy, the appearance of new technologies and the need to arrive at a pricing policy in line with the market. All this required a great deal of PR work and more extensive cooperation. Clarification of some points will require a market analysis to show how long-term plans will have to be established. Sales promotion activities for natural gas will have to show that the aim is to use natural gas as a substitute in high-efficiency applications rather than to increase the consumption of energy. The various activities must be closely coordinated.

  16. Gauging the Purported Costs of Public Data Archiving for Long-Term Population Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Simon Robin

    2016-04-01

    It was recently proposed that long-term population studies be exempted from the expectation that authors publicly archive the primary data underlying published articles. Such studies are valuable to many areas of ecological and evolutionary biological research, and multiple risks to their viability were anticipated as a result of public data archiving (PDA), ultimately all stemming from independent reuse of archived data. However, empirical assessment was missing, making it difficult to determine whether such fears are realistic. I addressed this by surveying data packages from long-term population studies archived in the Dryad Digital Repository. I found no evidence that PDA results in reuse of data by independent parties, suggesting the purported costs of PDA for long-term population studies have been overstated.

  17. Epigenetics as a mechanism linking developmental exposures to long-term toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barouki, R; Melén, E; Herceg, Z; Beckers, J; Chen, J; Karagas, M; Puga, A; Xia, Y; Chadwick, L; Yan, W; Audouze, K; Slama, R; Heindel, J; Grandjean, P; Kawamoto, T; Nohara, K

    2018-05-01

    A variety of experimental and epidemiological studies lend support to the Developmental Origin of Health and Disease (DOHaD) concept. Yet, the actual mechanisms accounting for mid- and long-term effects of early-life exposures remain unclear. Epigenetic alterations such as changes in DNA methylation, histone modifications and the expression of certain RNAs have been suggested as possible mediators of long-term health effects of environmental stressors. This report captures discussions and conclusions debated during the last Prenatal Programming and Toxicity meeting held in Japan. Its first aim is to propose a number of criteria that are critical to support the primary contribution of epigenetics in DOHaD and intergenerational transmission of environmental stressors effects. The main criteria are the full characterization of the stressors, the actual window of exposure, the target tissue and function, the specificity of the epigenetic changes and the biological plausibility of the linkage between those changes and health outcomes. The second aim is to discuss long-term effects of a number of stressors such as smoking, air pollution and endocrine disruptors in order to identify the arguments supporting the involvement of an epigenetic mechanism. Based on the developed criteria, missing evidence and suggestions for future research will be identified. The third aim is to critically analyze the evidence supporting the involvement of epigenetic mechanisms in intergenerational and transgenerational effects of environmental exposure and to particularly discuss the role of placenta and sperm. While the article is not a systematic review and is not meant to be exhaustive, it critically assesses the contribution of epigenetics in the long-term effects of environmental exposures as well as provides insight for future research. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Prostitution advertisements suggest association of transvestism and masochism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chivers, M; Blanchard, R

    1996-01-01

    Previous research and clinical observation have suggested that the sexual interest of many transvestites include involvement in sadomasochistic sexual acts. Through data gathered via prostitution advertisements in print media, we tested the hypothesis that prostitutes welcoming cross-dressing client would be primarily those describing themselves as dominant. The specialty of the prostitute was recorded by coding the advertisements for the presence or absence of the features of dominance, submissiveness, acceptance of cross-dressing clients, and whether the prostitute was a biological male presenting as a woman or quasi-woman. The findings showed that 20% of prostitutes describing themselves as dominant welcomed cross-dressing clients, whereas none of the other subgroups of prostitutes mentioned cross-dressing clients in their advertisements. These findings reinforce other lines of indirect evidence suggesting that, in heterosexual men, the presence of masochism increases the likelihood of transvestism, and vice versa.

  19. Short- and Long-Term Feedbacks on Vegetation Water Use: Unifying Evidence from Observations and Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, D. S.

    2001-05-01

    Recent efforts to measure and model the interacting influences of climate, soil, and vegetation on soil water and nutrient dynamics have identified numerous important feedbacks that produce nonlinear responses. In particular, plant physiological factors that control rates of transpiration respond to soil water deficits and vapor pressure deficits (VPD) in the short-term, and to climate, nutrient cycling and disturbance in the long-term. The starting point of this presentation is the observation that in many systems, in particular forest ecosystems, conservative water use emerges as a result of short-term closure of stomata in response to high evaporative demand, and long-term vegetative canopy development under nutrient limiting conditions. Evidence for important short-term controls is presented from sap flux measurements of stand transpiration, remote sensing, and modeling of transpiration through a combination of physically-based modeling and Monte Carlo analysis. A common result is a strong association between stomatal conductance (gs) and the negative evaporative gain (∂ gs/∂ VPD) associated with the sensitivity of stomatal closure to rates of water loss. The importance of this association from the standpoint of modeling transpiration depends on the degree of canopy-atmosphere coupling. This suggests possible simplifications to future canopy component models for use in watershed and larger-scale hydrologic models for short-term processes. However, further results are presented from theoretical modeling, which suggest that feedbacks between hydrology and vegetation in current long-term (inter-annual to century) models may be too simple, as they do not capture the spatially variable nature of slow nutrient cycling in response to soil water dynamics and site history. Memory effects in the soil nutrient pools can leave lasting effects on more rapid processes associated with soil, vegetation, atmosphere coupling.

  20. Women's Suggestions for Improving Midwifery Care in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baas, Carien I; Erwich, Jan Jaap H M; Wiegers, Therese A; de Cock, T Paul; Hutton, Eileen K

    2015-12-01

    The experience of the care a woman receives during pregnancy and childbirth has an immediate and long-lasting effect on her well being. The involvement of patients and clients in health care has increased over the last decades. The Dutch maternity care system offers an excellent opportunity to explore and involve women's suggestions for the improvement of midwifery care in the current maternity care model. This qualitative study is part of the "DELIVER" study. Clients were recruited from 20 midwifery practices. Purposive sampling was used to select the practices. The clients received up to three questionnaires, in which they could respond to the question; "Do you have any suggestions on how your midwife could improve his/her provision of care?" The answers were analyzed with a qualitative thematic content analysis, using the software program MAXQDA. Altogether, 3,499 answers were provided. One overarching concept emerged: clients' desire for individualized care. Within this concept, suggestions could be clustered around 1) provider characteristics: interpersonal skills, communication, and competence, and 2) service characteristics: content and quantity of care, guidance and support, continuity of care provider, continuity of care, information, and coordination of care. Informed by the suggestions of women, care to women and their families could be improved by the following: 1) more continuity of the care provider during the prenatal, natal, and postnatal periods, 2) more information and information specifically tailored for the person, 3) client-centered communication, and 4) a personal approach with 5) enough time spent per client. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Long term preservation of scientific data: Lessons from jet and other domains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Layne, R.; Capel, A.; Cook, N.; Wheatley, M.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Data from a fusion experiment must be preserved for decades, and will be required beyond the lifetime of the experiment. ► General principles of long-term data preservation have been identified in domains outside fusion. ► Key challenges are media obsolescence, data organisation, and file format obsolescence. ► Data from JET has to date been preserved for almost three decades: the steps taken to achieve this are discussed. ► Recommendations for new devices in planning for the long-term preservation of their data are made. - Abstract: All fusion devices generate large amounts of data, which must remain accessible throughout and beyond the lifetime of the device. This need for long-term data preservation creates major software and hardware challenges. Issues surrounding long-term data preservation will be discussed, and the main challenges in data curation will be outlined. The paper will then review the approaches taken at JET to ensure accessibility of all of JET's data over almost three decades. Using the JET experience and the wider context, the paper will then suggest how new experiments should plan for the long-term preservation of their data.

  2. Coping with loneliness: what do older adults suggest?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoenmakers, E.; van Tilburg, T.; Fokkema, C.M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: A limited amount of information is available on how older adults cope with loneliness. Two ways of coping are distinguished here, i.e., active coping by improving relationships and regulative coping by lowering expectations about relationships. We explore how often older adults suggest

  3. Two suggestions to improve the utilization of ISABELLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorndike, A.

    1976-01-01

    Two suggestions are outlined which are aimed at improving the efficiency of work in experimental areas by improving the information available to experimenters. The ideas relate to: (1) communications between the experimental hall and the data acquisition room; and (2) beam information via computer

  4. Some risks related to the short-term trading of natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazighi, Ahmed El Hachemi

    2004-01-01

    Traditionally guided by long-term contracts, the international natural gas trade is experiencing new methods of operating, based on the short term and more flexibility. Today, indeed, the existence of uncommitted quantities of natural gas, combined with gas price discrepancies among different regions of the world, gives room for the expansion of the spot-trading of gas. The main objective of this paper is to discuss three fundamental risks related to the short-term trading of natural gas: volume risk, price risk and infrastructure risk. The defenders of globalisation argue that the transition from the long-term to the short-term trading of natural gas is mainly a question of access to gas reserves, decreasing costs of gas liquefaction, the building of liquefied natural gas (LNG) fleets and regasification facilities and third-party access to the infrastructure. This process needs to be as short as possible, so that the risks related to the transition process will disappear rapidly. On the other hand, the detractors of globalisation put the emphasis on the complexity of the gas value chain and on the fact that eliminating long-term contracts increases the risks inherent to the international natural gas business. In this paper, we try to untangle and assess the risks related to the short-term trading of natural gas. Our main conclusions are: the short-term trading of gas is far from riskless; volume risk requires stock-building in both consuming and producing countries; price risk, through the high volatility for gas, induces an increase in options prices; there is no evidence to suggest that money-lenders' appetite for financing gas infrastructure projects will continue in a short-term trading system. This would be a threat to consumers' security of supply. (Author)

  5. Longer-Term Mental and Behavioral Health Effects of the Deepwater Horizon Gulf Oil Spill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonya Cross Hansel

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Mental health issues are a significant concern after technological disasters such as the 2010 Gulf Oil Spill; however, there is limited knowledge about the long-term effects of oil spills. The study was part of a larger research effort to improve understanding of the mental and behavioral health effects of the Deepwater Horizon Gulf Oil Spill. Data were collected immediately following the spill and the same individuals were resampled again after the second anniversary (n = 314. The results show that mental health symptoms of depression, serious mental illness and posttraumatic stress have not statistically decreased, and anxiety symptoms were statistically equivalent to immediate symptoms. Results also showed that the greatest effect on anxiety is related to the extent of disruption to participants’ lives, work, family, and social engagement. This study supports lessons learned following the Exxon Valdez spill suggesting that mental health effects are long term and recovery is slow. Elevated symptoms indicate the continued need for mental health services, especially for individuals with high levels of disruption resulting in increased anxiety. Findings also suggest that the longer-term recovery trajectories following the Deepwater Horizon Gulf Oil Spill do not fall within traditional disaster recovery timelines.

  6. Complex sound processing during human REM sleep by recovering information from long-term memory as revealed by the mismatch negativity (MMN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atienza, M; Cantero, J L

    2001-05-18

    Perceptual learning is thought to be the result of neural changes that take place over a period of several hours or days, allowing information to be transferred to long-term memory. Evidence suggests that contents of long-term memory may improve attentive and pre-attentive sensory processing. Therefore, it is plausible to hypothesize that learning-induced neural changes that develop during wakefulness could improve automatic information processing during human REM sleep. The MMN, an objective measure of the automatic change detection in auditory cortex, was used to evaluate long-term learning effects on pre-attentive processing during wakefulness and REM sleep. When subjects learned to discriminate two complex auditory patterns in wakefulness, an increase in the MMN was obtained in both wake and REM states. The automatic detection of the infrequent complex auditory pattern may therefore be improved in both brain states by reactivating information from long-term memory. These findings suggest that long-term learning-related neural changes are accessible during REM sleep as well.

  7. A Literature Review on the Experience of Long-Term Mental Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Elizabeth; Grant, Maria J

    2018-06-01

    To illuminate long-term experiences of mental illness from both research and autobiographical accounts. A literature review of English-language papers, 1950-2014, relating to the experience of long-term mental illness indexed in AgeInfo, AMED, ASSIA, British Nursing Index (BNI), CINAHL, MEDLINE, PsycEXTRA, and PsychINFO. Twenty-five research papers and nine autobiographic accounts met the review criteria. Thematic analysis revealed nine themes: fear, explanation seeking, stigma, disability, coping strategies, control, support, change and learning, and life history. Specific gaps of note relate to age differences, acknowledgement of longevity of mental illnesses, and different cultural perspectives. Research Implications: There is an absence of longitudinal studies focused on experiences of long-term mental illness. The considerable length-of-time implicated in the experiences suggests that more individual life experience rather than illness focused studies are needed, enabling a holistic understanding. This includes studies from cultures other than the Western world. Greater transparency is needed in justifying age inclusions or passive exclusion of older peoples' perspectives. Knowledge of long-term mental illness experiences is of great importance to mental health practitioners. Evidence-based services cannot be provided if we do not have an holistic understanding of long-term mental illness. Social Implications: This review questions our ability to provide effective support for those experiencing long-term mental illness, in particular older people and different cultural perspectives. There appear to be no literature reviews that focus on the individual experience of long-term mental illness. It highlights the surprisingly small number of research studies available to inform mental health practitioners.

  8. Long-term exposure to indoor air pollution and wheezing symptoms in infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raaschou-Nielsen, O.; Hermansen, M.N.; Loland, L.

    2010-01-01

    Long-term exposure to air pollution is suspected to cause recurrent wheeze in infants. The few previous studies have had ambiguous results. The objective of this study was to estimate the impact of measured long-term exposure to indoor air pollution on wheezing symptoms in infants. We monitored......-point 'any symptom-day' (yes/no) and by standard linear regression with the end-point 'number of symptom-days'. The results showed no systematic association between risk for wheezing symptoms and the levels of these air pollutants with various indoor and outdoor sources. In conclusion, we found no evidence...... of an association between long-term exposure to indoor air pollution and wheezing symptoms in infants, suggesting that indoor air pollution is not causally related to the underlying disease. Practical Implications Nitrogen oxides, formaldehyde and fine particles were measured in the air in infants' bedrooms...

  9. Suggestions for Improving Ugandan Higher Education to Produce ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Every country invests in formal education to develop and empower its citizens with the capacity needed to practically work and transform their surrounding environmental resources into productive employment after graduation. The high and growing rate of graduate unemployment in Uganda suggests however, that most of ...

  10. Overview of the TREC 2014 Contextual Suggestion Track

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    into Washington on the metro to see the National Mall . The primary goal of this track is to develop evaluation methodologies for such systems. This...activities, restaurant, shopping , and nightlife). The number of venues in the top 50 suggestions from each category is determined by this probability

  11. World oil market fundamentals - Part One: The near term outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwarkin, J.; Morton, K.; Datta, R.

    1998-03-01

    Potential implications of a number of uncertainties currently affecting the world oil market are assessed. The influence of the interplay of geopolitical events on demand and supply, inventories, prices and price trends are reviewed. Reference prices which industry and governments can use for investment and policy evaluations are provided. In this volume, the emphasis is on near term developments, with a review of the uncertainties surrounding these projections. Three different scenarios are postulated for the near term, each one taking into account different levels of Iraqi exports during the period which would effect available inventories, and hence price. Depending on which of the three scenarios actually comes to pass, unless refiners are prepared to build up inventories well beyond seasonal norms, or producers shut in, the prevailing view is that oil prices will be under severe pressure during most of 1998 and 1999. Over the longer term, however, the analysis suggests that an average real value of US$18.00 - $18.50 per barrel remains a reasonable expectation as a sustainable price. 34 refs., tabs., figs

  12. Patterns of bacteria-host associations suggest different ecological strategies between two reef building cold-water coral species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meistertzheim, Anne.-Leila; Lartaud, Franck; Arnaud-Haond, Sophie; Kalenitchenko, Dimitri; Bessalam, Manon; Le Bris, Nadine; Galand, Pierre E.

    2016-08-01

    Cold-water corals (CWC) are main ecosystem engineers of the deep sea, and their reefs constitute hot-spots of biodiversity. However, their ecology remains poorly understood, particularly, the nature of the holobiont formed by corals with their associated bacterial communities. Here, we analyzed Madrepora oculata and Lophelia pertusa samples, collected from one location in a Mediterranean canyon in two different seasons (autumn and spring), in order to test for species specificity and temporal stability of the host-bacteria associations. The 16S rRNA sequencing revealed host-specific patterns of bacterial communities associated with L. pertusa and M. oculata, both in terms of community composition and diversity. All analyzed M. oculata polyps exhibited temporally and spatially similar bacterial communities dominated by haplotypes homologous to the known cnidarians-associated genus Endozoicomonas. In contrast, the bacterial communities associated with L. pertusa varied among polyps from the same colony, as well as among distinct colonies and between seasons. While the resilient consortium formed by M. oculata and its bacterial community fit the definition of holobiont, the versatility of the L. pertusa microbiome suggests that this association is more influenced by the environmental conditions or nutritional status. Our results thus highlight distinct host/microbes association strategies for these two closely related Scleractinians sharing the same habitat, suggesting distinct sensitivity to environmental change.

  13. Cardioprotective Signature of Short-Term Caloric Restriction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Noyan

    Full Text Available To understand the molecular pathways underlying the cardiac preconditioning effect of short-term caloric restriction (CR.Lifelong CR has been suggested to reduce the incidence of cardiovascular disease through a variety of mechanisms. However, prolonged adherence to a CR life-style is difficult. Here we reveal the pathways that are modulated by short-term CR, which are associated with protection of the mouse heart from ischemia.Male 10-12 wk old C57bl/6 mice were randomly assigned to an ad libitum (AL diet with free access to regular chow, or CR, receiving 30% less food for 7 days (d, prior to myocardial infarction (MI via permanent coronary ligation. At d8, the left ventricles (LV of AL and CR mice were collected for Western blot, mRNA and microRNA (miR analyses to identify cardioprotective gene expression signatures. In separate groups, infarct size, cardiac hemodynamics and protein abundance of caspase 3 was measured at d2 post-MI.This short-term model of CR was associated with cardio-protection, as evidenced by decreased infarct size (18.5±2.4% vs. 26.6±1.7%, N=10/group; P=0.01. mRNA and miR profiles pre-MI (N=5/group identified genes modulated by short-term CR to be associated with circadian clock, oxidative stress, immune function, apoptosis, metabolism, angiogenesis, cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix (ECM. Western blots pre-MI revealed CR-associated increases in phosphorylated Akt and GSK3ß, reduced levels of phosphorylated AMPK and mitochondrial related proteins PGC-1α, cytochrome C and cyclooxygenase (COX IV, with no differences in the levels of phosphorylated eNOS or MAPK (ERK1/2; p38. CR regimen was also associated with reduced protein abundance of cleaved caspase 3 in the infarcted heart and improved cardiac function.

  14. Lexical neutrality in environmental health research: Reflections on the term walkability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajna, Samantha; Ross, Nancy A; Griffin, Simon J; Dasgupta, Kaberi

    2017-12-08

    Neighbourhood environments have important implications for human health. In this piece, we reflect on the environments and health literature and argue that precise use of language is critical for acknowledging the complex and multifaceted influence that neighbourhood environments may have on physical activity and physical activity-related outcomes. Specifically, we argue that the term "neighbourhood walkability", commonly used in the neighbourhoods and health literature, constrains recognition of the breadth of influence that neighbourhood environments might have on a variety of physical activity behaviours. The term draws attention to a single type of physical activity and implies that a universal association exists when in fact the literature is quite mixed. To maintain neutrality in this area of research, we suggest that researchers adopt the term "neighbourhood physical activity environments" for collective measures of neighbourhood attributes that they wish to study in relation to physical activity behaviours or physical activity-related health outcomes.

  15. Anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria gain antibiotic resistance during long-term acclimatization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zheng-Zhe; Zhang, Qian-Qian; Guo, Qiong; Chen, Qian-Qian; Jiang, Xiao-Yan; Jin, Ren-Cun

    2015-09-01

    Three broad-spectrum antibiotics, amoxicillin (AMX), florfenicol (FF) and sulfamethazine (SMZ), that inhibit bacteria via different target sites, were selected to evaluate the acute toxicity and long-term effects on anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) granules. The specific anammox activity (SAA) levels reduced by approximately half within the first 3 days in the presence of antibiotics but no nitrite accumulation was observed in continuous-flow experiments. However, the SAA levels and heme c content gradually recovered as the antibiotic concentrations increased. Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) analysis suggested that anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria gradually developed a better survival strategy during long-term acclimatization, which reduced the antibiotic stress via increased EPS secretion that provided a protective 'cocoon.' In terms of nitrogen removal efficiency, anammox granules could resist 60 mg-AMX L(-1), 10 mg-FF L(-1) and 100 mg-SMZ L(-1). This study supported the feasibility of using anammox granules to treat antibiotic-containing wastewater. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Dictionary of machine terms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-06-01

    This book has introduction of dictionary of machine terms, and a compilation committee and introductory remarks. It gives descriptions of the machine terms in alphabetical order from a to Z and also includes abbreviation of machine terms and symbol table, way to read mathematical symbols and abbreviation and terms of drawings.

  17. Long-term management of GERD in the elderly with pantoprazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Calabrese

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Carlo Calabrese, Anna Fabbri, Giulio Di FeboDepartment of Internal Medicine and Gastroenterology, University of Bologna, ItalyAbstract: The prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD increases with age and elderly are more likely to develop severe disease. Older patients often complain of less severe or frequent heartburn than younger patients and they may present with atypical symptoms such as dysphagia, weight loss, or extraesophageal symptoms. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs are central in the management of GERD and are unchallenged with regards to their efficacy. They are considered safe and more effective than histamine receptor antagonists for healing esophagitis and for preventing its recurrence using a long term maintenance treatment. PPI have minimal side effects and few slight drug interactions and are considered safe for long term treatment. Pantoprazole is significantly effective both for acute and long-term treatment with excellent control of relapse and symptoms. It is well tolerated even for long-term therapy and its tolerability is optimal. Pantoprazole shows to have minimal interactions with other drugs because of a lower affinity for cytocrome P450 than older PPIs. Although the majority of elderly has concomitant illnesses and receive other drugs, this does not adversely effect the efficacy of pantoprazole because of its pharmacokinetics, which are independent of patient age. Clinical practice suggests that a low dose maintenance of PPIs should be used in older patients with GERD.Keywords: GERD, long-term management, pantoprazole, safety, efficacy, tolerability

  18. Short-term memory in the service of executive control functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshad Alizadeh Mansouri

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Short-term memory is a crucial cognitive function for supporting on-going and upcoming behaviours, allowing storage of information across delay periods. The content of this memory may typically include tangible information about features such as the shape, colour or texture of an object, its location and motion relative to the body, or phonological information. The neural correlate of these short-term memories has been found in different brain areas involved in organizing perceptual or motor functions. In particular, neuronal activity in different prefrontal areas encodes task-related information corresponding to short-term memory across delay periods, and lesions in the prefrontal cortex severely affect the ability to hold this type of memory. Recent studies have further expanded the scope and possible role of short-term memory by showing that information of abstract entities such as a behaviour-guiding rule, or the occurrence of a conflict in information processing; can also be maintained in short-term memory and used for adjusting the allocation of executive control in dynamic environments. It has also been shown that neuronal activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal and orbitofrontal cortices encodes information about such abstract entities. These findings suggest that the prefrontal cortex plays crucial roles in organizing goal-directed behaviour by supporting various mnemonic processes that maintain a wide range of information in the service of executive control of on-going or upcoming behaviour.

  19. Epistemological Suggestions in „Entropy Low and Economic Process”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Dinga

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper is aimed to derive, on criticism basis (following, especially, the critic rationalism, as method, epistemological suggestions from the crucial work of Nicholas Georgescu-Roegen, “The Entropy Law and the Economic Process”, in order to these suggestions or challenges constitute going points for further logical assessments or polemical debates. By this way, four basic epistemological suggestions are identified: a inconsistency between the analytical description of the economic process and its evolutionist nature (that implies qualitative changes; b logical and epistemological bases for the possibility of a theoretical economic science (i.e. of a theory of the economic science; c impact of the qualitative changes of the economic process on the non-linearity of the economic models for prognosis; d logics, based on the entropy law, to pass off the rationality of optimality and to enter the rationality of sustainability. Each of these suggestions (explicit or implicit mentioned in the evocated work plays as rational, for the authors, to formulate epistemological assessments, critics or proposals for solutions aimed at to pass over the arisen epistemological or methodological problems. The authors believe that the entropic paradigm proposed by Nicholas Georgescu-Roegen for the economic epistemology and methodology is one of the most interesting, from the philosophic and logic points of view, having abundant resources to open a re-conceptualization of the logical bases of the economic science, to rethink the theoreticity of the sciences that study fields where evolutive processes are going, and to think, with more maturity, to the way in which the human rationality could answer the challenges the entropy law arises.

  20. Epistemological Suggestions in „Entropy Low and Economic Process”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Dinga

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper is aimed to derive, on criticism basis (following, especially, the critic rationalism, as method, epistemological suggestions from the crucial work of Nicholas Georgescu-Roegen, “The Entropy Law and the Economic Process”, in order to these suggestions or challenges constitute going points for further logical assessments or polemical debates. By this way, four basic epistemological suggestions are identified: a inconsistency between the analytical description of the economic process and its evolutionist nature (that implies qualitative changes; b logical and epistemological bases for the possibility of a theoretical economic science (i.e. of a theory of the economic science; c impact of the qualitative changes of the economic process on the non-linearity of the economic models for prognosis; d logics, based on the entropy law, to pass off the rationality of optimality and to enter the rationality of sustainability. Each of these suggestions (explicit or implicit mentioned in the evocated work plays as rational, for the authors, to formulate epistemological assessments, critics or proposals for solutions aimed at to pass over the arisen epistemological or methodological problems. The authors believe that the entropic paradigm proposed by Nicholas Georgescu-Roegen for the economic epistemology and methodology is one of the most interesting, from the philosophic and logic points of view, having abundant resources to open a re-conceptualization of the logical bases of the economic science, to rethink the theoreticity of the sciences that study fields where evolutive processes are going, and to think, with more maturity, to the way in which the human rationality could answer the challenges the entropy law arises.

  1. Splitting Attention across the Two Visual Fields in Visual Short-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delvenne, Jean-Francois; Holt, Jessica L.

    2012-01-01

    Humans have the ability to attentionally select the most relevant visual information from their extrapersonal world and to retain it in a temporary buffer, known as visual short-term memory (VSTM). Research suggests that at least two non-contiguous items can be selected simultaneously when they are distributed across the two visual hemifields. In…

  2. Very-long-term and short-term chromatic adaptation: are their influences cumulative?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmore, Suzanne C; Shevell, Steven K

    2011-02-09

    Very-long-term (VLT) chromatic adaptation results from exposure to an altered chromatic environment for days or weeks. Color shifts from VLT adaptation are observed hours or days after leaving the altered environment. Short-term chromatic adaptation, on the other hand, results from exposure for a few minutes or less, with color shifts measured within seconds or a few minutes after the adapting light is extinguished; recovery to the pre-adapted state is complete in less than an hour. Here, both types of adaptation were combined. All adaptation was to reddish-appearing long-wavelength light. Shifts in unique yellow were measured following adaptation. Previous studies demonstrate shifts in unique yellow due to VLT chromatic adaptation, but shifts from short-term chromatic adaptation to comparable adapting light can be far greater than from VLT adaptation. The question considered here is whether the color shifts from VLT adaptation are cumulative with large shifts from short-term adaptation or, alternatively, does simultaneous short-term adaptation eliminate color shifts caused by VLT adaptation. The results show the color shifts from VLT and short-term adaptation together are cumulative, which indicates that both short-term and very-long-term chromatic adaptation affect color perception during natural viewing. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Long-term care in Israel: challenges and reform options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernichovsky, Dov; Koreh, Michal; Soffer, Sharon; Avrami, Shirley

    2010-08-01

    This paper has two objectives. The first is to examine the Israeli long-term care (LTC) system that is marked by rapidly increasing demands, and a multitude of public and private LTC arrangements. The second is to propose a reform to improve the system's efficiency and equity. The paper studies the LTC services in Israel, and the private-public composition in funding, fund holding, and provision of LTC. It focuses on structural deficiencies in the organization of each of these functions separately, and in combination. In many countries LTC has evolved in a patchwork fashion that at some point in time needs rethinking and rationalization. Israel is a case in point. In spite of numerous LTC arrangements supported by the state, in the absence of a comprehensive strategy, these have not generated a coherent system that can deal efficiently and equitably with existing and fast growing LTC needs, on the one hand, and the resources available to it, on the other. The current system is fragmented. It provides limited coverage and insufficient benefits in a troublesome fashion to public. The findings suggest that Israel can achieve at least in the short term, universal entitlement to LTC at lower financial and social cost, than the current costs of the system. In the medium and long term, the country will need to consider the trade between the burden of direct care on households or the tax burden of publicly supported and organized care. To remedy the situation the paper suggests a two-planked reform. The first is integration of the current fragmented publicly supported system while deciding on LTC either as a "social endeavor" under a separate authority responsible for implementing the public LTC budget, or as a "medical endeavor", putting this responsibility under the Israeli sickness funds. The second plank, building on the first, comprises extension of universal entitlement to LTC. Such an extension would increase public spending in the long term; simultaneously, it

  4. Treatment experience of surgical repair for long-term skull defect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shou-cheng FAN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Retrospective analysis was performed on 30 patients of skull defect who underwent surgical repair. Intraoperative and postoperative curative effect was evaluated on those patients, and the results showed that the incidence rate of intraoperative dura mater defect (P = 0.001, early postoperative complications [new epilepsy (P = 0.035 and effusion (P = 0.021] and late postoperative complications [foreign body sensation (P = 0.035 and dizziness and headache (P = 0.050] in long-term skull defect group were all higher than those in control group. In conclusion, surgical repair of long-term skull defect incurring high risk and various complications will not be an ideal management. Therefore, early surgical treatment for skull defect is suggested. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.12.016

  5. Does long-term coffee intake reduce type 2 diabetes mellitus risk?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pimentel Gustavo D

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This review reports the evidence for a relation between long-term coffee intake and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Numerous epidemiological studies have evaluated this association and, at this moment, at least fourteen out of eighteen cohort studies revealed a substantially lower risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus with frequent coffee intake. Moderate coffee intake (≥4 cups of coffee/d of 150 mL or ≥400 mg of caffeine/d has generally been associated with a decrease in the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Besides, results of most studies suggest a dose-response relation, with greater reductions in type 2 diabetes mellitus risk with higher levels of coffee consumption. Several mechanisms underlying this protective effect, as well as the coffee components responsible for this association are suggested. Despite positive findings, it is still premature to recommend an increase in coffee consumption as a public health strategy to prevent type 2 diabetes mellitus. More population-based surveys are necessary to clarify the long-term effects of decaffeinated and caffeinated coffee intake on the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  6. An investigation into the effects of nicotine gum on short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, S; Fox, P

    1998-12-01

    Using a between-subjects 2x2x2 factorial design, 60 smokers and 60 non-smokers (equal number of males and females) performed a short-term memory task requiring delayed free recall of a visually presented supraspan word list. Using a double-blind procedure, half the subjects chewed nicotine gum and the other half chewed placebo gum prior to performing the memory task. Results support previous research findings which show that nicotine significantly improves short-term memory. Sex differences were also investigated, but findings showed no significant differences between male and female subjects. Methodological considerations are discussed and directions for future research are suggested.

  7. ESSENTIALS OF MERCHANDISING, A SUGGESTED ADULT DISTRIBUTIVE EDUCATION COURSE OUTLINE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MARKMAN, STANLEY

    THIS OUTLINE FOR A COURSE IN THE ESSENTIALS OF MERCHANDISING IS DESIGNED FOR THE INEXPERIENCED RETAIL EMPLOYEE. THE COURSE IS PLANNED FOR SIX 2-HOUR SESSIONS ON (1) FUNDAMENTALS OF MERCHANDISING, (2) TERMINOLOGY AND MATHEMATICS OF MERCHANDISING, (3) BUYING POLICIES AND PRACTICES, (4) MARKET REPRESENTATIVES, (5) TERMS OF PURCHASE, INCLUDING…

  8. New dynamic system suggested for earth expansion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzpatrick, J [Asuncion Nacional Univ. (Paraguay). Inst. de Ciencias

    1972-01-01

    It is here suggested that there may have been much more radioactive materials in the deep interior of the earth than bitherto supposed. Trapped heat being generated in the interior would provide a mechanism for earth expansion. An assumption of heat generation in the deep interior of the earth of the order of 0,5 X 10-13 calories per second, per cubic centimeter, would provide sufficient thermal expansion to account for approximately 0.1 mm. change in the radius of the earth per year.

  9. Short-term use of antiepileptic drugs is neurotoxic to the immature brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that the long-term use of antiepileptic drugs can cause nervous system damage. However, short-term antiepileptic drug treatment is frequently given to infants, especially neonates, to control seizure. Whether the short-term use of antiepileptic drugs is neurotoxic remains unclear. In the present study, immature rats, 3-21 days of age, were intraperitoneally injected with phenobarbital and/or topiramate for 3 consecutive days. Hematoxylin-eosin and immunohistochemical staining revealed that phenobarbital and topiramate, individually or in combination, were cytotoxic to hippocampal CA1 neurons and inhibited the expression of GluR1 and NR2B, excitatory glutamate receptor subunits. Furthermore, the combination of the two drugs caused greater damage than either drug alone. The results demonstrate that the short-term use of antiepileptic drugs damages neurons in the immature brain and that the combined use of antiepileptic drugs exacerbates damage. Our findings suggest that clinicians should consider the potential neurotoxic risk associated with the combined use of antiepileptic drugs in the treatment of seizure.

  10. The role of reduced aerosol precursor emissions in driving near-term warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillett, Nathan P; Von Salzen, Knut

    2013-01-01

    The representative concentration pathway (RCP) scenarios all assume stringent emissions controls on aerosols and their precursors, and hence include progressive decreases in aerosol and aerosol precursor emissions through the 21st century. Recent studies have suggested that the resultant decrease in aerosols could drive rapid near-term warming, which could dominate the effects of greenhouse gas (GHG) increases in the coming decades. In CanESM2 simulations, we find that under the RCP 2.6 scenario, which includes the fastest decrease in aerosol and aerosol precursor emissions, the contribution of aerosol reductions to warming between 2000 and 2040 is around 30%. Moreover, the rate of warming in the RCP 2.6 simulations declines gradually from its present-day value as GHG emissions decrease. Thus, while aerosol emission reductions contribute to gradual warming through the 21st century, we find no evidence that aerosol emission reductions drive particularly rapid near-term warming in this scenario. In the near-term, as in the long-term, GHG increases are the dominant driver of warming. (letter)

  11. Surface coal mine land reclamation using a dry flue gas desulfurization product: Short-term and long-term water responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liming; Stehouwer, Richard; Tong, Xiaogang; Kost, Dave; Bigham, Jerry M; Dick, Warren A

    2015-09-01

    Abandoned coal-mined lands are a worldwide concern due to their potential negative environmental impacts, including erosion and development of acid mine drainage. A field study investigated the use of a dry flue gas desulfurization product for reclamation of abandoned coal mined land in USA. Treatments included flue gas desulfurization product at a rate of 280 Mg ha(-1) (FGD), FGD at the same rate plus 112 Mg ha(-1) yard waste compost (FGD/C), and conventional reclamation that included 20 cm of re-soil material plus 157 Mg ha(-1) of agricultural limestone (SOIL). A grass-legume sward was planted after treatment applications. Chemical properties of surface runoff and tile water (collected from a depth of 1.2m below the ground surface) were measured over both short-term (1-4 yr) and long-term (14-20 yr) periods following reclamation. The pH of surface runoff water was increased from approximately 3, and then sustained at 7 or higher by all treatments for up to 20 yr, and the pH of tile flow water was also increased and sustained above 5 for 20 yr. Compared with SOIL, concentrations of Ca, S and B in surface runoff and tile flow water were generally increased by the treatments with FGD product in both short- and long-term measurements and concentrations of the trace elements were generally not statistically increased in surface runoff and tile flow water over the 20-yr period. However, concentrations of As, Ba, Cr and Hg were occasionally elevated. These results suggest the use of FGD product for remediating acidic surface coal mined sites can provide effective, long-term reclamation. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Forever Young(er: Potential Age-defying Effects of Long-term Meditation on Gray Matter Atrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eileen eLuders

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available While overall life expectancy has been increasing, the human brain still begins deteriorating after the first two decades of life and continues degrading further with increasing age. Thus, techniques that diminish the negative impact of aging on the brain are desirable. Existing research, although scarce, suggests meditation to be an attractive candidate in the quest for an accessible and inexpensive, efficacious remedy. Here, we examined the link between age and cerebral gray matter re-analyzing a large sample (n=100 of long-term meditators and control subjects aged between 24 and 77 years. When correlating global and local gray matter with age, we detected negative correlations within both controls and meditators, suggesting a decline over time. However, the slopes of the regression lines were steeper and the correlation coefficients were stronger in controls than in meditators. Moreover, the age-affected brain regions were much more extended in controls than in meditators, with significant group-by-age interactions in numerous clusters throughout the brain. Altogether, these findings seem to suggest less age-related gray matter atrophy in long-term meditation practitioners.

  13. Forever Young(er): potential age-defying effects of long-term meditation on gray matter atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luders, Eileen; Cherbuin, Nicolas; Kurth, Florian

    2015-01-01

    While overall life expectancy has been increasing, the human brain still begins deteriorating after the first two decades of life and continues degrading further with increasing age. Thus, techniques that diminish the negative impact of aging on the brain are desirable. Existing research, although scarce, suggests meditation to be an attractive candidate in the quest for an accessible and inexpensive, efficacious remedy. Here, we examined the link between age and cerebral gray matter re-analyzing a large sample (n = 100) of long-term meditators and control subjects aged between 24 and 77 years. When correlating global and local gray matter with age, we detected negative correlations within both controls and meditators, suggesting a decline over time. However, the slopes of the regression lines were steeper and the correlation coefficients were stronger in controls than in meditators. Moreover, the age-affected brain regions were much more extended in controls than in meditators, with significant group-by-age interactions in numerous clusters throughout the brain. Altogether, these findings seem to suggest less age-related gray matter atrophy in long-term meditation practitioners. PMID:25653628

  14. Explicit grammar teaching in EAL classrooms: Suggestions from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The development of the subject English Additional Language (EAL) to serve as a strong support subject in explicitly teaching learners the grammar of English is suggested as an interim solution to the effects of the non-implementation of the 1997 South African Language in Education Policy. To identify specific grammatical ...

  15. Long-term health effects on the next generation of Ramadan fasting during pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ewijk, R.

    2009-01-01

    Each year, many pregnant women fast from dawn to sunset during the Islamic holy month of Ramadan. Medical theory suggests that this may have negative long-term health effects on their offspring. Building upon the work of Almond and Mazumder (2008), and using Indonesian crosssectional data, I show

  16. Simple suggestions for including vertical physics in oil spill models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Asaro, Eric; University of Washington, Seatle, WA

    2001-01-01

    Current models of oil spills include no vertical physics. They neglect the effect of vertical water motions on the transport and concentration of floating oil. Some simple ways to introduce vertical physics are suggested here. The major suggestion is to routinely measure the density stratification of the upper ocean during oil spills in order to develop a database on the effect of stratification. (Author)

  17. Short-term memory and long-term memory are still different.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Dennis

    2017-09-01

    A commonly expressed view is that short-term memory (STM) is nothing more than activated long-term memory. If true, this would overturn a central tenet of cognitive psychology-the idea that there are functionally and neurobiologically distinct short- and long-term stores. Here I present an updated case for a separation between short- and long-term stores, focusing on the computational demands placed on any STM system. STM must support memory for previously unencountered information, the storage of multiple tokens of the same type, and variable binding. None of these can be achieved simply by activating long-term memory. For example, even a simple sequence of digits such as "1, 3, 1" where there are 2 tokens of the digit "1" cannot be stored in the correct order simply by activating the representations of the digits "1" and "3" in LTM. I also review recent neuroimaging data that has been presented as evidence that STM is activated LTM and show that these data are exactly what one would expect to see based on a conventional 2-store view. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Short-term and long-term sick-leave in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blank, N; Diderichsen, Finn

    1995-01-01

    The primary aim of the study was to analyse similarities and differences between repeated spells of short-term sick-leave (more than 3 spells of less than 7 days' duration in a 12-month period) and long-term absence through sickness (at least 1 spell of more than 59 days' duration in a 12-month p...

  19. Differences in health status between long-term and short-term benzodiazepine users.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zandstra, S.M.; Furer, J.W.; Lisdonk, E.H. van de; Bor, J.H.J.; Zitman, F.G.; Weel, C. van

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite generally accepted advice to keep treatment short, benzodiazepines are often prescibed for more than six months. Prevention of long-term benzodiazepine use could be facilitated by the utilisation of risk indicators for long-term use. However, the characteristics of long-term

  20. Hotel Employees' Japanese Language Experiences: Implications and Suggestions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makita-Discekici, Yasuko

    1998-01-01

    Analyzes the Japanese language learning experiences of 13 hotel employees in Guam. Results of the study present implications and suggestions for a Japanese language program for the hotel industry. The project began as a result of hotel employees frustrations when they were unable to communicate effectively with their Japanese guests. (Auth/JL)