WorldWideScience

Sample records for term southwest corner

  1. Vegetation productivity responses to drought on tribal lands in the four corners region of the Southwest USA

    El-Vilaly, Mohamed Abd Salam; Didan, Kamel; Marsh, Stuart E.; van Leeuwen, Willem J. D.; Crimmins, Michael A.; Munoz, Armando Barreto

    2018-03-01

    For more than a decade, the Four Corners Region has faced extensive and persistent drought conditions that have impacted vegetation communities and local water resources while exacerbating soil erosion. These persistent droughts threaten ecosystem services, agriculture, and livestock activities, and expose the hypersensitivity of this region to inter-annual climate variability and change. Much of the intermountainWestern United States has sparse climate and vegetation monitoring stations, making fine-scale drought assessments difficult. Remote sensing data offers the opportunity to assess the impacts of the recent droughts on vegetation productivity across these areas. Here, we propose a drought assessment approach that integrates climate and topographical data with remote sensing vegetation index time series. Multisensor Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) time series data from 1989 to 2010 at 5.6 km were analyzed to characterize the vegetation productivity changes and responses to the ongoing drought. A multi-linear regression was applied to metrics of vegetation productivity derived from the NDVI time series to detect vegetation productivity, an ecosystem service proxy, and changes. The results show that around 60.13% of the study area is observing a general decline of greenness ( pchallenges to the region's already stressed ecosystems. Whereas the results provide additional insights into this isolated and vulnerable region, the drought assessment approach used in this study may be adapted for application in other regions where surface-based climate and vegetation monitoring record is spatially and temporally limited.

  2. Data recovery of North American directional archaeomagnetic records for the development of a robust reference curve for the "Four Corners" region of the American Southwest

    Jones-Cervantes, S. A.; Tauxe, L.; Blinman, E.

    2017-12-01

    Since 1964, an academic lineage, including Robert Dubois and three of his students, has been collecting nearly 6000 directional archaeomagnetic samples from sites all over the world with about 4000 samples coming from within the "Four Corners" region of the American Southwest (NM, AZ, UT, CO). Only a small fraction of the results have been published and, when published, typically only at the sample average level within hard-to-access archaeological reports. Fortunately, nearly all the stepwise alternating field measurement data and oriented specimens still exist within four collections. The goal of this data recovery project is to digitize, reanalyze using principle component analysis (where possible), complete the demagnetization where appropriate and publish the results, using the MagIC data base to archive measurement-level results. Additionally, three secular variation (SV) models for the "Four Corners" region have been developed using small and differently selected subsets of the 4000 samples. The details of these models do not agree with each other, but have a few first order similarities. The differing approaches to selection results in ambiguity in their reliability. As such, the final goal of this project is to develop a new, robust, SV model for the region using only the highest quality data with independent geochronology. As of yet, all the measurement-level data for the samples within the Dubois collection have been scanned. Efforts are ongoing to digitize the scanned printouts and handwritten logs into a usable format. Currently, all of the location and geochronological data and about half of the measurement-level magnetic data have been digitized. The combined data from two of the four data collections have been analyzed and subjected to quality thresholds using PmagGUI (Tauxe et al. 2016). The resulting interpretations have been sorted into three bins based on quality. 1) Samples that meet all the quality thresholds. 2) Samples that do not meet the

  3. Long-term change of activity of very low-frequency earthquakes in southwest Japan

    Baba, S.; Takeo, A.; Obara, K.; Kato, A.; Maeda, T.; Matsuzawa, T.

    2017-12-01

    On plate interface near seismogenic zone of megathrust earthquakes, various types of slow earthquakes were detected including non-volcanic tremors, slow slip events (SSEs) and very low-frequency earthquakes (VLFEs). VLFEs are classified into deep VLFEs, which occur in the downdip side of the seismogenic zone, and shallow VLFEs, occur in the updip side, i.e. several kilometers in depth in southwest Japan. As a member of slow earthquake family, VLFE activity is expected to be a proxy of inter-plate slipping because VLFEs have the same mechanisms as inter-plate slipping and are detected during Episodic tremor and slip (ETS). However, long-term change of the VLFE seismicity has not been well constrained compared to deep low-frequency tremor. We thus studied long-term changes in the activity of VLFEs in southwest Japan where ETS and long-term SSEs have been most intensive. We used continuous seismograms of F-net broadband seismometers operated by NIED from April 2004 to March 2017. After applying the band-pass filter with a frequency range of 0.02—0.05 Hz, we adopted the matched-filter technique in detecting VLFEs. We prepared templates by calculating synthetic waveforms for each hypocenter grid assuming typical focal mechanisms of VLFEs. The correlation coefficients between templates and continuous F-net seismograms were calculated at each grid every 1s in all components. The grid interval is 0.1 degree for both longitude and latitude. Each VLFE was detected as an event if the average of correlation coefficients exceeds the threshold. We defined the detection threshold as eight times as large as the median absolute deviation of the distribution. At grids in the Bungo channel, where long-term SSEs occurred frequently, the cumulative number of detected VLFEs increases rapidly in 2010 and 2014, which were modulated by stress loading from the long-term SSEs. At inland grids near the Bungo channel, the cumulative number increases steeply every half a year. This stepwise

  4. Finiteness of corner vortices

    Kalita, Jiten C.; Biswas, Sougata; Panda, Swapnendu

    2018-04-01

    Till date, the sequence of vortices present in the solid corners of steady internal viscous incompressible flows was thought to be infinite. However, the already existing and most recent geometric theories on incompressible viscous flows that express vortical structures in terms of critical points in bounded domains indicate a strong opposition to this notion of infiniteness. In this study, we endeavor to bridge the gap between the two opposing stream of thoughts by diagnosing the assumptions of the existing theorems on such vortices. We provide our own set of proofs for establishing the finiteness of the sequence of corner vortices by making use of the continuum hypothesis and Kolmogorov scale, which guarantee a nonzero scale for the smallest vortex structure possible in incompressible viscous flows. We point out that the notion of infiniteness resulting from discrete self-similarity of the vortex structures is not physically feasible. Making use of some elementary concepts of mathematical analysis and our own construction of diametric disks, we conclude that the sequence of corner vortices is finite.

  5. Long-term trends of native and non-native fish faunas in the American Southwest

    Olden, J. D.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Environmental degradation and the proliferation of non-native fish species threaten the endemic, and highly unique fish faunas of the American Southwest. The present study examines long-term trends (> 160 years of fish species distributions in the Lower Colorado River Basin and identifies those native species (n = 28 exhibiting the greatest rates of decline and those non-native species (n = 48 exhibiting the highest rates of spread. Among the fastest expanding invaders in the basin are red shiner (Cyprinella lutrensis, fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas, green sunfish (Lepomis cyanellus, largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides, western mosquitofish (Gambussia affinis and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus; species considered to be the most invasive in terms of their negative impacts on native fish communities. Interestingly, non-native species that have been recently introduced (1950+ have generally spread at substantially lower rates as compared to species introduced prior to this time (especially from 1920 to 1950, likely reflecting reductions in human-aided spread of species. We found general agreement between patterns of species decline and extant distribution sizes and official listing status under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. ‘Endangered’ species have generally experienced greater declines and have smaller present-day distributions compared to ‘threatened’ species, which in turn have shown greater declines and smaller distributions than those species not currently listed. A number of notable exceptions did exist, however, and these may provide critical information to help guide the future listing of species (i.e., identification of candidates and the upgrading or downgrading of current listed species that are endemic to the Lower Colorado River Basin. The strong correlation between probability estimates of local extirpation and patterns of native species decline and present-day distributions suggest a possible proactive

  6. Core shroud corner joints

    Gilmore, Charles B.; Forsyth, David R.

    2013-09-10

    A core shroud is provided, which includes a number of planar members, a number of unitary corners, and a number of subassemblies each comprising a combination of the planar members and the unitary corners. Each unitary corner comprises a unitary extrusion including a first planar portion and a second planar portion disposed perpendicularly with respect to the first planar portion. At least one of the subassemblies comprises a plurality of the unitary corners disposed side-by-side in an alternating opposing relationship. A plurality of the subassemblies can be combined to form a quarter perimeter segment of the core shroud. Four quarter perimeter segments join together to form the core shroud.

  7. Teaching corner: raising the bar: ethical considerations of medical student preparation for short-term immersion experiences.

    Kittle, Nathan; McCarthy, Virginia

    2015-03-01

    Short-term international medical outreach experiences are becoming more popular among medical students. As the popularity of these trips grows, participants, scholars, and institutions have become more aware of the potential pitfalls of such experiences. Loyola University Chicago Stritch School of Medicine (SSOM) has an approximately 20-year international service immersion (ISI) program that has sent more than 1,400 participants to more than 30 countries. Recently, ISI programming has been adjusted to provide students more formal sessions exploring the ethics of the ISI trips. Students are required to attend both pre- and post-trip educational sessions covering a wide range of relevant global health topics as well as participating in in-country reflections and post-trip debriefings. This recent adjustment has evolved further to become the foundation for the SSOM's four-year Global Health Honors program that not only encourages an ethical foundation for the student's ISI experience but also hopes to provide a foundation for students as they look toward a future career in global health.

  8. The short-term impacts of a cyclone on seagrass communities in Southwest Madagascar

    Côté-Laurin, Marie-Claude; Benbow, Sophie; Erzini, Karim

    2017-04-01

    Cyclones are large-scale disturbances with highly destructive potential in coastal ecosystems. On February 22, 2013, a powerful tropical cyclone made landfall on the southwest coast of Madagascar, a region which is infrequently hit by such extreme weather events coming from the Mozambique Channel. Seagrass ecosystems, which provide valuable ecosystems services to local communities, are especially vulnerable because they thrive in shallow waters. The impact of Cyclone Haruna on seagrass diversity, height and coverage and associated fish diversity, abundance and biomass was assessed in 3 sites near Andavadoaka (22°07‧S, 43°23‧E) before and after the event using fish underwater visual census, video-transects, and seagrass quadrats. The cyclone caused a significant loss in seagrass cover at all 3 sites. Thalassia hemprichii and Syringodium isoetifolium were the most affected species. Andavadoaka beach, the most exposed site, which was also subject to human use and was most fragmented, suffered the largest negative effects of the cyclone. Cyclone Haruna was not found to significantly affect fish assemblages, which are highly mobile organisms able to use a diversity of niches and adjacent habitats after seagrass fragmentation. Extensive sampling and longer time-scale studies would be needed to fully evaluate the cyclone impact on communities of seagrass and fish, and track potential recovery in seagrass coverage. The intensity and destructive potential of cyclones is expected to increase with global warming, which is of concern for developing countries that encompass most of the world's seagrass beds. This study provided a unique and key opportunity to monitor immediate impacts of an extreme disturbance in a region where cyclones rarely hit coastal ecosystems and where local populations remain highly dependent on seagrass meadows.

  9. Long and Short-Term Effects of Fire on Soil Charcoal of a Conifer Forest in Southwest Oregon

    Brett Morrissette

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In 2002, the Biscuit Wildfire burned a portion of the previously established, replicated conifer unthinned and thinned experimental units of the Siskiyou Long-Term Ecosystem Productivity (LTEP experiment, southwest Oregon. Charcoal C in pre and post-fire O horizon and mineral soil was quantified by physical separation and a peroxide-acid digestion method. The abrupt, short-term fire event caused O horizon charcoal C to increase by a factor of ten to >200 kg C ha−1. The thinned wildfire treatment produced less charcoal C than unthinned wildfire and thinned prescribed fire treatments. The charcoal formation rate was 1 to 8% of woody fuels consumed, and this percentage was negatively related to woody fuels consumed, resulting in less charcoal formation with greater fire severity. Charcoal C averaged 2000 kg ha−1 in 0–3 cm mineral soil and may have decreased as a result of fire, coincident with convective or erosive loss of mineral soil. Charcoal C in 3–15 cm mineral soil was stable at 5500 kg C ha−1. Long-term soil C sequestration in the Siskiyou LTEP soils is greatly influenced by the contribution of charcoal C, which makes up 20% of mineral soil organic C. This research reiterates the importance of fire to soil C in a southwestern Oregon coniferous forest ecosystem.

  10. Paleoearthquakes and long-term seismic regime in the Longmenshan fault zone, Southwest China

    Liu, J.; Rodina, S. N.; Rogozhin, E. A.

    2017-11-01

    The collected paleoseismological data about the ancient earthquakes are analyzed for the zone of the Wenchuan earthquake. Four earthquakes with magnitude M = 8.0 occurred over a period of 10000 years and two earthquakes with magnitude 7.5 occurred over 1200 years. The obtained data allowed us to reconstruct the long-term seismic regime within the studied territory by constructing the frequency-magnitude relationship based on the instrumental, historical, and paleoseismological data.

  11. Ombuds' Corner: Social exclusion

    Vincent Vuillemin

    2012-01-01

    In this special video edition of the Ombuds' Corner, Vincent Vuillemin takes a look at a social exclusion at CERN. Please note that the characters and situations appearing in this work are fictitious, and any resemblance to real persons or events is purely coincidental.   Contact the Ombuds Early!

  12. Prediction of long-term erosion from landfill covers in the southwest

    Anderson, C.E.; Stormont, J.C.

    1997-01-01

    Erosion is a primary stressor of landfill covers, especially for climates with high intensity storms and low native plant density. Rills and gullies formed by discrete events can damage barrier layers and induce failure. Geomorphologic, empirical and physical modeling procedures are available to provide estimates of surface erosion, but numerical modeling requires accurate representation of the severe rainfall events that generate erosion. The National Weather Service precipitation frequency data and estimates of 5, 10, 15, 30 and 60-minute intensity can be statistically combined in a numerical model to obtain long-term erosion estimates. Physically based numerical models using the KINEROS and AHYMO programs have been utilized to predict the erosion from a southwestern landfill or waste containment site with 0.03, 0.05 and 0.08 meter per meter surface slopes. Results of AHYMO modeling were within 15 percent of average annual values computed with the empirical Universal Soil Loss Equation. However, the estimation of rill and gully formation that primarily degrades cover systems requires quantifying single events. For Southwestern conditions, a single 10-year storm can produce erosion quantifies equal to three times the average annual erosion and a 100-year storm can produce five times the average annual erosion

  13. Ombud's Corner: holiday time!

    Sudeshna Datta-Cockerill

    2014-01-01

    In July and August, the Ombud’s Corner articles will be taking a holiday. They will resume in September. Meanwhile, the respect@CERN campaign continues so please keep on sending us your suggestions.   As announced in the last Bulletin, "We want these initiatives to belong to you. For this reason, we would like to ask you to suggest the messages you would like to see included in the posters. What does a “respectful workplace” mean for you? Send your suggestions to respect@cern.ch – and of course we will reward the authors with exclusively designed Respect@CERN-branded items. So, whether it's respect in relation to interpersonal interactions, noise, safety, the environment or anything else, we look forward to receiving your ideas. Do not hesitate – send that e-mail now!" As a reminder, all previous Ombud's Corners can be accessed in the Ombud's blog.

  14. Spacer grid corner gusset

    Larson, J.G.

    1984-01-01

    There is provided a spacer grid for a bundle of longitudinally extending rods in spaced generally parallel relationship comprising spacing means for holding the rods in spaced generally parallel relationship; the spacing means includes at least one exterior grid strip circumscribing the bundle of rods along the periphery thereof; with at least one exterior grid strip having a first edge defining the boundary of the strip in one longitudinal direction and a second edge defining the boundary of the strip in the other longitudinal direction; with at least one exterior grid strip having at least one band formed therein parallel to the longitudinal direction; a plurality of corner gussets truncating each of a plurality of corners formed by at least one band and the first edge and the second edge

  15. Long-term change of potential evapotranspiration over Southwest China and teleconnections with large-scale climate anomalies

    Liu, B.; Chen, X.; Li, Y.; Chen, Z.

    2017-12-01

    bstract: Potential evapotranspiration (PET) is a sensitive factor for atmospheric and ecological systems over Southwest China which is characterized by intensive karst geomorphology and fragile environment. Based on daily meteorological data of 94 stations during 1961-2013, the spatiotemporal characteristics of PET are analyzed. The changing characteristics of local meteorological factors and large-scale climatic features are also investigated to explain the potential reasons for changing PET. Study results are as follows: (1) The high-value center of PET with a mean value of 1097 mm/a locates in the south mainly resulted from the regional climatic features of higher air temperature (TEM), sunshine duration (SSD) and lower relative humidity (RHU); and the low-value center of PET with a mean value of 831 mm/a is in the northeast primarily attributed to higher RHU and weaker SSD. (2) Annual PET decreases at -10.04 mm decade-1 before the year 2000 but increases at 50.65 mm decade-1 thereafter; and the dominant factors of PET change are SSD, RHU and wind speed (WIN), with the relative contributions of 33.29%, 25.42% and 22.16%, respectively. (3) The abrupt change of PET in 2000 is strongly dominated by large-scale climatic anomalies. The strengthened 850hPa geostrophic wind (0.51 ms-1 decade-1), weakened total cloud cover (-2.25 % decade-1) and 500hPa water vapor flux (-2.85 % decade-1) have provided advantageous dynamic, thermal and dry conditions for PET over Southwest China since the 21st century.

  16. External corners as heat bridges

    Berber, J.

    1984-08-01

    The maximum additional heat loss in vertical external corners depending on wall thickness is determined. In order to amire at a low k-value, a much smaller wall thickness is required in externally insulated walls than in monolithic constructions; the greater loss of heat bridge with external insulation stands in contrast to a higher loss in thick, monolithic walls. In relation to total losses, the additional losses through external corners are practically negligible.

  17. Corner diffraction coefficients for the quarter plane

    Hansen, Thorkild B.

    1991-01-01

    that the corner current for the right-angled corner, illuminated from a forward direction, consists mainly of two edge waves propagating along the edges forming the corner. Analytical expressions for these edge wave currents are constructed from the numerical results. A corner diffracted field is calculated...

  18. Corners in M-theory

    Sati, Hisham

    2011-06-01

    M-theory can be defined on closed manifolds as well as on manifolds with boundary. As an extension, we show that manifolds with corners appear naturally in M-theory. We illustrate this with four situations: the lift to bounding 12 dimensions of M-theory on anti-de Sitter spaces, ten-dimensional heterotic string theory in relation to 12 dimensions, and the two M-branes within M-theory in the presence of a boundary. The M2-brane is taken with (or as) a boundary and the worldvolume of the M5-brane is viewed as a tubular neighborhood. We then concentrate on the (variant) of the heterotic theory as a corner and explore analytical and geometric consequences. In particular, we formulate and study the phase of the partition function in this setting and identify the corrections due to the corner(s). The analysis involves considering M-theory on disconnected manifolds and makes use of the extension of the Atiyah-Patodi-Singer index theorem to manifolds with corners and the b-calculus of Melrose.

  19. Corners in M-theory

    Sati, Hisham

    2011-01-01

    M-theory can be defined on closed manifolds as well as on manifolds with boundary. As an extension, we show that manifolds with corners appear naturally in M-theory. We illustrate this with four situations: the lift to bounding 12 dimensions of M-theory on anti-de Sitter spaces, ten-dimensional heterotic string theory in relation to 12 dimensions, and the two M-branes within M-theory in the presence of a boundary. The M2-brane is taken with (or as) a boundary and the worldvolume of the M5-brane is viewed as a tubular neighborhood. We then concentrate on the (variant) of the heterotic theory as a corner and explore analytical and geometric consequences. In particular, we formulate and study the phase of the partition function in this setting and identify the corrections due to the corner(s). The analysis involves considering M-theory on disconnected manifolds and makes use of the extension of the Atiyah-Patodi-Singer index theorem to manifolds with corners and the b-calculus of Melrose.

  20. Mines in the Four Corners anticipate growth

    Buchsbaum, L.

    2008-02-15

    Productive mines in the southwest deplete reserves, while the government drags its heels on new power projects. Production in Arizona and New Mexico has fallen 18% over the last four years to 34.1 million tons. With Chevron Mining's McKinley mine rapidly depleting its reserves the industry will continue to contract. In the last three years at least three large mines in the Four Corners have terminated operations. Three others remain captive operations: BHP Billiton's San Juan Underground and Navajo Surface operations and Peabody Energy's Kayenta surface mine. In 2006 the Black Mesa mine stopped producing coal. These four mines are isolated from the national railways. Peabody's new El Segundo surface mine near Grants, NM is increasing production. If the planned $3 billion Desert Rock coal-fired power plant is built this will present a new market for the Navajo mine. The article gives details about the state of the aforementioned mines and of the new King II coal mine on the northern periphery of the San Juan basin and discusses the state of plans for the Desert Rock Energy Project. 5 photos.

  1. Ombud's Corner: Respect @ CERN

    Sudeshna Datta-Cockerill

    2014-01-01

    Since 2010 CERN has been a member of the Geneva-based association "Le respect, ça change la vie". Four years later and in conjunction with CERN’s celebration of its 60 years of ‘science for peace’, it is time to launch a new respectful workplace awareness campaign under the auspices of the Ombud.   Mutual respect is a basic pillar of peace. At CERN, we pride ourselves on our history, which started when a handful of Europe’s visionary scientists saw the opportunity that an international laboratory for fundamental research would present in bringing nations together. That idea has worked very well and, today, our success can be measured not only in terms of unprecedented scientific achievements but also in terms of training and education, and exemplary collaboration across borders, cultures and an extensive range of differences. In order for history to continue along these positive lines, and coming back to the awareness campai...

  2. VT NAD27 Orthophoto Boundaries - corner points

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) RF 5000 scale orthophoto edge lines (4000 x 4000 meter grid cells) were generated automatically from the known corner locations. These corners...

  3. Ombuds’ corner: Confidentiality

    Vincent Vuillemin

    2011-01-01

    In this series, the Bulletin aims to explain the role of the Ombuds at CERN by presenting practical examples of misunderstandings that could have been resolved by the Ombuds if he had been contacted earlier. Please note that, in all the situations we present, the names are fictitious and used only to improve clarity.    Jane* came to the Ombuds to share her concerns about the actions of Mike*, one of her senior colleague supervisors, and insisted on the absolute confidentiality. The Ombuds promised to keep the information confidential following the terms of his mandate. During the discussion it appeared that the whole group was affected by the situation, spending a lot of time discussing how to resolve the problem instead of focusing on their main responsibilities. The risks for the Organization seemed very high and could possibly endanger the safety of the operations.  On one side, the Ombuds believed that it was essential to bring this matter to the attention of senior managem...

  4. Superconductivity in domains with corners

    Bonnaillie-Noel, Virginie; Fournais, Søren

    2007-01-01

    We study the two-dimensional Ginzburg-Landau functional in a domain with corners for exterior magnetic field strengths near the critical field where the transition from the superconducting to the normal state occurs. We discuss and clarify the definition of this field and obtain a complete...... asymptotic expansion for it in the large $\\kappa$ regime. Furthermore, we discuss nucleation of superconductivity at the boundary....

  5. Nearest Neighbour Corner Points Matching Detection Algorithm

    Zhang Changlong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate detection towards the corners plays an important part in camera calibration. To deal with the instability and inaccuracies of present corner detection algorithm, the nearest neighbour corners match-ing detection algorithms was brought forward. First, it dilates the binary image of the photographed pictures, searches and reserves quadrilateral outline of the image. Second, the blocks which accord with chess-board-corners are classified into a class. If too many blocks in class, it will be deleted; if not, it will be added, and then let the midpoint of the two vertex coordinates be the rough position of corner. At last, it precisely locates the position of the corners. The Experimental results have shown that the algorithm has obvious advantages on accuracy and validity in corner detection, and it can give security for camera calibration in traffic accident measurement.

  6. Long-term changes of euphausiids in shelf and oceanic habitats southwest, south and southeast of Iceland

    Silva, Teresa; Gislason, A.; Licandro, P.

    2014-01-01

    by the Marine Research Institute (MRI) on a transect south of Iceland during spring (1990–2011) and the other by the Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR) survey (1958–2007) in the oceanic waters south of Iceland covering all months. Due to limitations of the sampling gears used, the results mainly reflect...... of euphausiid abundance in the west, whereas in the east temperature appears to be most important. In addition, the onset of the spring bloom also affected the long-term changes in euphausiid abundance. For the oceanic areas, it is concluded that a weakened temporal synchrony between the development of young...... in numbers of larvae during spring 1990–2011 for the shelf south of Iceland. Single variable-based GAMs indicated that phytoplankton biomass was generally the main environmental factor regulating euphausiid abundance. Multiple variable-based GAMs showed that phytoplankton biomass was the strongest predictor...

  7. Steady-state propagation of interface corner crack

    Veluri, Badrinath; Jensen, Henrik Myhre

    2013-01-01

    Steady-state propagation of interface cracks close to three-dimensional corners has been analyzed. Attention was focused on modeling the shape of the interface crack front and calculating the critical stress for steady-state propagation of the crack. The crack propagation was investigated...... on the finite element method with iterative adjustment of the crack front to estimate the critical delamination stresses as a function of the fracture criterion and corner angles. The implication of the results on the delamination is discussed in terms of crack front profiles and the critical stresses...... for propagation and the angle of intersection of the crack front with the free edge....

  8. Corner stores: the perspective of urban youth.

    Sherman, Sandra; Grode, Gabrielle; McCoy, Tara; Vander Veur, Stephanie S; Wojtanowski, Alexis; Sandoval, Brianna Almaguer; Foster, Gary D

    2015-02-01

    We examined the perspectives of low-income, urban youth about the corner store experience to inform the development of corner store interventions. Focus groups were conducted to understand youth perceptions regarding their early shopping experiences, the process of store selection, reasons for shopping in a corner store, parental guidance about corner stores, and what their ideal, or "dream corner store" would look like. Thematic analysis was employed to identify themes using ATLAS.ti (version 6.1, 2010, ATLAS.ti GmbH) and Excel (version 2010, Microsoft Corp). Focus groups were conducted in nine kindergarten-through-grade 8 (K-8) public schools in low-income neighborhoods with 40 fourth- to sixth-graders with a mean age of 10.9±0.8 years. Youth report going to corner stores with family members at an early age. By second and third grades, a growing number of youth reported shopping unaccompanied by an older sibling or adult. Youth reported that the products sold in stores were the key reason they choose a specific store. A small number of youth said their parents offered guidance on their corner store purchases. When youth were asked what their dream corner store would look like, they mentioned wanting a combination of healthy and less-healthy foods. These data suggest that, among low-income, urban youth, corner store shopping starts at a very young age and that product, price, and location are key factors that affect corner store selection. The data also suggest that few parents offer guidance about corner store purchases, and youth are receptive to having healthier items in corner stores. Corner store intervention efforts should target young children and their parents/caregivers and aim to increase the availability of affordable, healthier products. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Internal and external axial corner flows

    Kutler, P.; Shankar, V.; Anderson, D. A.; Sorenson, R. L.

    1975-01-01

    The inviscid, internal, and external axial corner flows generated by two intersecting wedges traveling supersonically are obtained by use of a second-order shock-capturing, finite-difference approach. The governing equations are solved iteratively in conical coordinates to yield the complicated wave structure of the internal corner and the simple peripheral shock of the external corner. The numerical results for the internal flows compare favorably with existing experimental data.

  10. Detecting corner points from digital curves

    Sarfraz, M.

    2011-01-01

    Corners in digital images give important clues for shape representation, recognition, and analysis. Since dominant information regarding shape is usually available at the corners, they provide important features for various real life applications in the disciplines like computer vision, pattern recognition, computer graphics. Corners are the robust features in the sense that they provide important information regarding objects under translation, rotation and scale change. They are also important from the view point of understanding human perception of objects. They play crucial role in decomposing or describing the digital curves. They are also used in scale space theory, image representation, stereo vision, motion tracking, image matching, building mosaics and font designing systems. If the corner points are identified properly, a shape can be represented in an efficient and compact way with sufficient accuracy. Corner detection schemes, based on their applications, can be broadly divided into two categories: binary (suitable for binary images) and gray level (suitable for gray level images). Corner detection approaches for binary images usually involve segmenting the image into regions and extracting boundaries from those regions that contain them. The techniques for gray level images can be categorized into two classes: (a) Template based and (b) gradient based. The template based techniques utilize correlation between a sub-image and a template of a given angle. A corner point is selected by finding the maximum of the correlation output. Gradient based techniques require computing curvature of an edge that passes through a neighborhood in a gray level image. Many corner detection algorithms have been proposed in the literature which can be broadly divided into two parts. One is to detect corner points from grayscale images and other relates to boundary based corner detection. This contribution mainly deals with techniques adopted for later approach

  11. Sharp corners as sources of spiral pairs

    Biton, Y.; Rabinovitch, A.; Braunstein, D.; Friedman, M.; Aviram, I.

    2010-01-01

    It is demonstrated that using the FitzHugh-Nagumo model, stimulation of excitable media inside a region possessing sharp corners, can lead to the appearance of sources of spiral-pairs of sustained activity. The two conditions for such source creation are: The corners should be less than 120 deg. and the range of stimulating amplitudes should be small, occurring just above the threshold value and decreasing with the corner angle. The basic mechanisms driving the phenomenon are discussed. These include: A. If the corner angle is below 120 deg., the wave generated inside cannot emerge at the corner tip, resulting in the creation of two free edges which start spiraling towards each other. B. Spiraling must be strong enough; otherwise annihilation of the rotating arms would occur too soon to create a viable source. C. The intricacies of the different radii involved are elucidated. Possible applications in heart stimulation and in chemical reactions are considered.

  12. Development of a Long-term Sampling Network to Monitor Restoration Success in the Southwest Coastal Everglades: Vegetation, Hydrology, and Sediments

    Smith, Thomas J.

    2004-01-01

    Introduction and History Hurricane Andrew, a Category 5 storm, crossed the southern Florida peninsula on the morning of August 24, 1992 (Fig. 1). Following the storm, the National Park Service conducted an environmental damage assessment to gauge the storm's impacts on the natural resources of south Florida Park Service holdings (Pimm et al., 1994). Although hurricanes have impacted Park Service lands such as the Everglades in the past (Houston and Powell, 2003), no systematic, permanent sampling scheme has been established to monitor long-term recovery (or lack thereof) following disturbance. In October 1992, vegetation monitoring plots were established in heavily damaged areas of mangrove forest on the southwest coast of the Everlgades, along the Lostmans and Broad Rivers (Smith et al., 1994, see Fig. 2). As the permanent plot network was being established, funding was awarded for the South Florida Global Climate Change project (SOFL-GCC). This led to the establishment of a network of hydrological monitoring stations (Anderson and Smith, 2004). Finally, sediment elevation tables (SETs) were installed at many locations. SETs provide the means to measure very small changes (2 mm) in the sediment surface elevation accurately over time (Cahoon et al., 2002). We also set up marker horizons to measure accretion of sediment at each site (Smith and Cahoon, 2003). Sampling sites were located along three transects extending from upstream freshwater wetlands to downstream saltwater wetlands along the Shark, Lostmans and Chatham Rivers in Everglades National Park (Fig. 2). While we were developing our sampling network for basic scientific research needs, concern mounted over the health of the Greater Everglades Ecosystem and in particular over the influence of decreased freshwater flows (Smith et al., 1989). Ecosystem restoration planning was begun, resulting in the multi-agency, $8 billion Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP). Our co-located sampling networks

  13. 3Corners of the World / Joosep Sang

    Sang, Joosep

    2009-01-01

    Arvustused : Robert Jürjendal, Petri Kuljuntausta, David Rothenberg. 3Corners of the World. [Tallinn] : Terra Nova Music, 2008. Nadia ja Fragile. Uhke ali. [Tallinn] : Nadia & Fragile, 2008. UMA. Civitas Soli. [Tallinn] : Elwood, 2008. Uutest heliplaatidest

  14. VT NAD83 Orthophoto Boundaries - corner points

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) RF 5000 NAD83 orthophoto edge lines (4000 x 4000 meter grid cells) were generated automatically from the known corner locations (generated by Gary...

  15. South and Southwest HSRC

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Hazardous Substance Research Center/South and Southwest is a competitively awarded, peer-reviewed research consortium led by Louisiana State University with the...

  16. Nutrition environments in corner stores in Philadelphia.

    Cavanaugh, Erica; Mallya, Giridhar; Brensinger, Colleen; Tierney, Ann; Glanz, Karen

    2013-02-01

    To examine the availability, quality, and price of key types of healthy and less-healthy foods found in corner stores in low-income urban neighborhoods and the associations between store characteristics and store food environments. A sample of 246 corner stores was selected from all corner stores participating in the Philadelphia Healthy Corner Store Initiative (HCSI). The Nutrition Environment Measures Survey for Corner Stores (NEMS-CS) was used to assess the availability, quality, and price of foods and beverages in 11 common categories between February and May, 2011. NEMS-CS measures were completed in 233 stores, 94.7% of the 246 stores approached. The healthier options were significantly less available in all food categories and often more expensive. Baked goods, bread, chips and cereals were sold at nearly all stores, with significantly fewer offering low-fat baked goods (5.7%, pbread (56.2%, pfood environment and dietary choices among low-income urban populations. Availability of certain healthier foods could be improved. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Southwest University's No-Fee Teacher-Training Model

    Chen, Shijian; Yang, Shuhan; Li, Linyuan

    2013-01-01

    The training model for Southwest University's no-fee teacher education program has taken shape over several years. Based on a review of the documentation and interviews with administrators and no-fee preservice students from different specialties, this article analyzes Southwest University's no-fee teacher-training model in terms of three main…

  18. Heat transfer at a beam port corner

    Krinsky, S.

    Along the general run of the vacuum chamber synchrotron radiation strikes the wall at a glancing angle of about 5.6 0 . The heat source is well-approximated by a ribbon of uniform power density having a small vertical height and an infinite azimuthal length. The heat transfer problem reduces to one in two-dimensions and it has been considered in a previous note. At the corner of a beam port the angle of incidence becomes 90 0 , so the temperature rises much higher than elsewhere. Since the power density at the corner is not uniform in its azimuthal dependence, but is strongly peaked at the point of normal incidence, two-dimensional heat flow is not a good approximation. The rectangular 3d problem is considered. This is easily solved and yields a good first estimate of the temperature rise at the corner

  19. Tunable Majorana corner states in a two-dimensional second-order topological superconductor induced by magnetic fields

    Zhu, Xiaoyu

    2018-05-01

    A two-dimensional second-order topological superconductor exhibits a finite gap in both bulk and edges, with the nontrivial topology manifesting itself through Majorana zero modes localized at the corners, i.e., Majorana corner states. We investigate a time-reversal-invariant topological superconductor in two dimensions and demonstrate that an in-plane magnetic field could transform it into a second-order topological superconductor. A detailed analysis reveals that the magnetic field gives rise to mass terms which take distinct values among the edges, and Majorana corner states naturally emerge at the intersection of two adjacent edges with opposite masses. With the rotation of the magnetic field, Majorana corner states localized around the boundary may hop from one corner to a neighboring one and eventually make a full circle around the system when the field rotates by 2 π . In the end, we briefly discuss physical realizations of this system.

  20. Domain wall kinetics of lithium niobate single crystals near the hexagonal corner

    Choi, Ju Won [Department of Physics and Photon Science, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), 1 Oryong-dong, Buk-gu, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Do-Kyeong [Department of Physics and Photon Science, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), 1 Oryong-dong, Buk-gu, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Advanced Photonics Research Institute, GIST, 1 Oryong-dong, Buk-gu, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Yu, Nan Ei, E-mail: neyu@gist.ac.kr, E-mail: jhro@pnu.edu [Advanced Photonics Research Institute, GIST, 1 Oryong-dong, Buk-gu, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Kitamura, Kenji [National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Ro, Jung Hoon, E-mail: neyu@gist.ac.kr, E-mail: jhro@pnu.edu [Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Medicine, Pusan National University, Busan 602-739 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-03-09

    A mesospheric approach based on a simple microscopic 2D Ising model in a hexagonal lattice plane is proposed to explain macroscopic “asymmetric in-out domain wall motion” observation in the (0001) plane of MgO-doped stoichiometric lithium niobate. Under application of an electric field that was higher than the conventional coercive field (E{sub c}) to the ferroelectric crystal, a natural hexagonal domain was obtained with walls that were parallel to the Y-axis of the crystal. When a fraction of the coercive field of around 0.1E{sub c} is applied in the reverse direction, this hexagonal domain is shrunk (moved inward) from the corner site into a shape with a corner angle of around 150° and 15° wall slopes to the Y-axis. A flipped electric field of 0.15E{sub c} is then applied to recover the natural hexagonal shape, and the 150° corner shape changes into a flat wall with 30° slope (moved outward). The differences in corner domain shapes between inward and outward domain motion were analyzed theoretically in terms of corner and wall site energies, which are described using the domain corner angle and wall slope with respect to the crystal Y-axis, respectively. In the inward domain wall motion case, the energy levels of the evolving 150° domain corner and 15° slope walls are most competitive, and could co-exist. In the outward case, the energy levels of corners with angles >180° are highly stable when compared with the possible domain walls; only a flat wall with 30° slope to the Y-axis is possible during outward motion.

  1. Epidemiologic features and intervention effect of fall injury among rural school-aged children in southwest China: a short-term cohort study.

    Shi, Xiuquan; Wang, Tao; Nie, Chan; Wang, Haiyan; Luo, Lirong; Qi, Yonghong; Jiang, Zhixia

    2018-05-24

    Falls are the top one type in all unintentional injuries. In this study, we aim to explore the epidemiological characteristics of falls and assess the intervention effect. Our research had interviewed 2854 rural children in southwest China. Then, we used School-Family-Individual (SFI) comprehensive education model to conduct an intervention among 1506 children and follow up them for one year. The changes in injury knowledge and incidence rate before and after intervention were compared. We found the fall injury was 37.32% (178/477) and ranked top one in the total injuries. After intervention, the children's fall-injuries-related knowledge was significantly increased by 15.29 percent (P < 0.001). While falls incidence significantly decreased after- intervention (6.24% vs. 3.93%; P < 0.001). From the results we concluded that the falls rate was high and was the prior reason of all injuries. SFI intervention model can effectively reduce the incidence of the fall injury.

  2. FNS Research Corner: Summary of Research

    Gola, Alice Ann H.; Burdg, Jinee

    2018-01-01

    The FNS Research Corner provides a continuing series to summarize recently completed and current research conducted by the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Food and Nutrition Service (FNS) in the area of child nutrition. Summaries of recently completed research projects and in-progress research are provided in this article.

  3. Delamination of Compressed Thin Layers at Corners

    Sørensen, Kim D.; Jensen, Henrik Myhre; Clausen, Johan

    2008-01-01

    An analysis of delamination for a thin elastic layer under compression, attached to a substrate at a corner is carried out. The analysis is performed by combining results from interface fracture mechanics and the theory of thin shells. In contrast with earlier results for delamination on a flat...

  4. A map between corner and link operators in lattice gauge theories

    Bars, I.

    1979-01-01

    A completely local gauge-invariant lattice gauge theory is formulated in terms of a new set of variables introduced earlier in the continuum. This theory uses local 'corner' variables defined on lattice sites only, as opposed to the conventional 'link' variables. It is shown via a map that the formulation gives identical results to the usual lattice gauge theory. The properties of the quantum commutators in the continuum limit is also discussed and contrasted for the two lattice approaches. In terms of the corner operators the quantized lattice theory is seen to be closely related to continuum QCD. (Auth.)

  5. Desert basins of the Southwest

    Leake, Stanley A.; Konieczki, Alice D.; Rees, Julie A.H.

    2000-01-01

    Ground water is among the Nation’s most important natural resources. It provides drinking water to urban and rural communities, supports irrigation and industry, sustains the flow of streams and rivers, and maintains riparian and wetland ecosystems. In many areas of the Nation, the future sustainability of ground-water resources is at risk from overuse and contamination. Because ground-water systems typically respond slowly to human actions, a long-term perspective is needed to manage this valuable resource. This publication is one in a series of fact sheets that describe ground-water-resource issues across the United States, as well as some of the activities of the U.S. Geological Survey that provide information to help others develop, manage, and protect ground-water resources in a sustainable manner. Ground-water resources in the Southwest are among the most overused in the United States. Natural recharge to aquifers is low and pumping in many areas has resulted in lowering of water tables. The consequences of large-scale removal of water from storage are becoming increasingly evident. These consequences include land subsidence; loss of springs, streams, wetlands and associated habitat; and degradation of water quality. Water managers are now seeking better ways of managing ground-water resources while looking for supplemental sources of water. This fact sheet reviews basic information on ground water in the desert basins of the Southwest. Also described are some activities of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) that are providing scientific information for sustainable management of ground-water resources in the Southwest. Ground-water sustainability is defined as developing and using ground water in a way that can be maintained for an indefinite time without causing unacceptable environmental, economic, or social consequences.

  6. Stress and Friction Distribution around Slab Corner in Continuous Casting Mold with Different Corner Structures

    Yu, Sheng; Long, Mujun; Chen, Huabiao; Chen, Dengfu; Liu, Tao; Duan, Huamei; Cao, Junsheng

    2018-06-01

    The non-uniform friction and thermal stress in the mold are important as causes of the transverse cracks around strand corner. To analyze the stress distribution features around strand corner, a three-dimensional thermo-elastoplastic finite-element mold model with different corner structures (right-angle, big-chamfer, multi-chamfer, and fillet) was established. The temperature field in the mold was indirectly coupled through a three-dimensional fluid flow and heat transfer model. In addition, the non-uniform mold friction stress loaded on the strand surface was calculated through a friction model. The results show that the stress distribution on the shell is similar to the temperature distribution. The stress concentration appears in the strand corner and the lower part of wide face. The friction stress enhances the corner stress around the edge of the air-gap. For chamfered molds, the stress around the corner between the wide face and chamfer face is larger than that between the narrow face and chamfer face. Around the corner region, both the stress peak and the area of the large stress zone of the right-angle strand are the largest, while those of big-chamfered, multi-chamfered, and fillet strands decrease in that order. The stress peak position of the chamfered strands is closer to the mold exit than that of the right-angle strand. Compared with the use of the right-angle mold, the application of chamfered molds is able to reduce the stress concentration around the strand corner.

  7. Stress and Friction Distribution around Slab Corner in Continuous Casting Mold with Different Corner Structures

    Yu, Sheng; Long, Mujun; Chen, Huabiao; Chen, Dengfu; Liu, Tao; Duan, Huamei; Cao, Junsheng

    2018-02-01

    The non-uniform friction and thermal stress in the mold are important as causes of the transverse cracks around strand corner. To analyze the stress distribution features around strand corner, a three-dimensional thermo-elastoplastic finite-element mold model with different corner structures (right-angle, big-chamfer, multi-chamfer, and fillet) was established. The temperature field in the mold was indirectly coupled through a three-dimensional fluid flow and heat transfer model. In addition, the non-uniform mold friction stress loaded on the strand surface was calculated through a friction model. The results show that the stress distribution on the shell is similar to the temperature distribution. The stress concentration appears in the strand corner and the lower part of wide face. The friction stress enhances the corner stress around the edge of the air-gap. For chamfered molds, the stress around the corner between the wide face and chamfer face is larger than that between the narrow face and chamfer face. Around the corner region, both the stress peak and the area of the large stress zone of the right-angle strand are the largest, while those of big-chamfered, multi-chamfered, and fillet strands decrease in that order. The stress peak position of the chamfered strands is closer to the mold exit than that of the right-angle strand. Compared with the use of the right-angle mold, the application of chamfered molds is able to reduce the stress concentration around the strand corner.

  8. Phytomass in southwest Alaska.

    Bert R. Mead

    2000-01-01

    Phytomass tables are presented for southwest Alaska. The methods used to estimate plant weight and occurrence in the river basin are described and discussed. Average weight is shown for each sampled species of tree, shrub, grass, forb, lichen, and moss in 19 forest and 48 nonforest vegetation types. Species frequency of occurrence and species constancy within the type...

  9. The topoligical relations of corner buildings in the street fabric

    Herriott, Richard

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers the role of the corner and corner buildings in the architectural relations of the street. Referring to affordance, legibility and Weber´s (1995) psychological approach to perceived architectural space, the paper discusses the value of clearly articulated corner constructions...

  10. Ombuds' corner: Management or leadership?

    Vincent Vuillemin

    2012-01-01

    In this series, the Bulletin aims to explain the role of the Ombuds at CERN by presenting practical examples of misunderstandings that could have been resolved by the Ombuds if he had been contacted earlier. Please note that, in all the situations we present, the names are fictitious and used only to improve clarity.   Management is quite adequate and most important for projects, budgets, milestones, and scheduling, for instance. However, when we are talking about people, about how to communicate and interact with them, how to motivate them so they are enthusiastic and give their best, and how to drive them to be fully responsible and accountable for their mission, one would then prefer to use the term leadership than management. What is the difference? In short, leaders lead people, and managers manage tasks. Managers have subordinates, leaders have followers. The biggest difference between managers and leaders is the way they motivate the people who work with them or follow them, and this s...

  11. Ombuds’ corner: Fear of retaliation?

    Vincent Vuillemin

    2011-01-01

    In this series, the Bulletin aims to explain the role of the Ombuds at CERN by presenting practical examples of misunderstandings that could have been resolved by the Ombuds if he had been contacted earlier. Please note that, in all the situations we present, the names are fictitious and used only to improve clarity.   Val* joined CERN a few years ago on a limited duration contract. He is now entering his fourth year at CERN and hopes - given his excellent results, his important technical responsibilities and his good periodical assessments - to be granted a long-term contract. The position he holds is considered essential in his Department and must be filled either by someone on an indefinite contract or by rotating personnel with limited duration contracts. Given his capacities and experience, Val considers his chances of getting an indefinite contract for the position quite high, should such an opportunity arise. Recently, while giving a presentation in front of a large audience, his superviso...

  12. Delamination of Compressed Thin Layers at Corners

    Sørensen, Kim D.; Jensen, Henrik Myhre; Clausen, Johan

    2008-01-01

    An analysis of delamination for a thin elastic layer under compression, attached to a substrate at a corner is carried out. The analysis is performed by combining results from interface fracture mechanics and the theory of thin shells. In contrast with earlier results for delamination on a flat s...... layers, Fracture mechanics, Crack closure, Steady state crack propagation.......An analysis of delamination for a thin elastic layer under compression, attached to a substrate at a corner is carried out. The analysis is performed by combining results from interface fracture mechanics and the theory of thin shells. In contrast with earlier results for delamination on a flat...... results for the fracture mechanical properties have been obtained, and these are applied in a study of the effect of contacting crack faces. Special attention has been given to analyse conditions under which steady state propagation of buckling driven delamination takes place. Keywords: Delamination, Thin...

  13. Brilliant Corners: Approaches to Jazz and Comics

    Nicolas Pillai

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The call for papers Brilliant Corners: Approaches to Jazz and Comics was published on 30 July 2015. In it, the editors made a public invitation for scholarship that proposed meeting points between the disciplines of jazz studies and comics studies. This editorial discusses the motivations for the collection, the editorial methodology, and the research articles included. Finally, the editors suggest some areas in which jazz studies and comics scholarship might address under-researched and fertile topics.

  14. Near-field diffraction of laser light by dielectric corner step

    Stafeev, S.; Kotlyar, V.; Kovalev, A.

    2014-01-01

    The diffraction of a linearly polarized plane wave by a corner dielectric microstep of height equals of two incident wavelengths was studied using finite-difference time domain method and near-field scanning optical microscopy. It was shown that the corner step generates an elongated region of enhanced intensity, termed as a curved laser microjet. The curved laser microjet has a length of about DOF = 9.5λ and the smallest diameter FWHM = (1.94+/-0.15)λ at distance z = 5.5λ.

  15. Around the Corner to Better Health: A Milwaukee Corner Store Initiative.

    Young, Staci; DeNomie, Melissa; Sabir, JoAnne; Gass, Eric; Tobin, Jessie

    2017-01-01

    To discuss successes and challenges of a collaborative pilot project to increase healthy food availability in corner stores in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. The Lindsay Heights Healthy Corner Store Initiative aimed to help corner stores sell high-quality produce by increasing supply of healthy foods and funding minor store upgrades to facilitate change. Evaluation research. Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Corner stores; youth and adult community members. (1) Supporting businesses in purchasing equipment to stock fresh produce, (2) connecting stores with produce sources, and (3) community outreach and marketing. Partnership capacity, youth engagement in food justice, and community members' usage of corner stores. Qualitative analysis; descriptive statistics. Storeowners reported more sold produce items per week and increased noticeable fresh produce upon entrance into the store. There was increased or improved store redesign, fresh produce signage, in-store cooking demonstrations, and small business development resources. Youth learned about new vegetables, increased kitchen skills and proper food storage, and the effects of obesity on overall health. Similar interventions must address infrastructure costs, cooperation with property owners, and local policies and regulations affecting business practices.

  16. The visual system prioritizes locations near corners of surfaces (not just locations near a corner).

    Bertamini, Marco; Helmy, Mai; Bates, Daniel

    2013-11-01

    When a new visual object appears, attention is directed toward it. However, some locations along the outline of the new object may receive more resources, perhaps as a consequence of their relative importance in describing its shape. Evidence suggests that corners receive enhanced processing, relative to the straight edges of an outline (corner enhancement effect). Using a technique similar to that in an original study in which observers had to respond to a probe presented near a contour (Cole et al. in Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 27:1356-1368, 2001), we confirmed this effect. When figure-ground relations were manipulated using shaded surfaces (Exps. 1 and 2) and stereograms (Exps. 3 and 4), two novel aspects of the phenomenon emerged: We found no difference between corners perceived as being convex or concave, and we found that the enhancement was stronger when the probe was perceived as being a feature of the surface that the corner belonged to. Therefore, the enhancement is not based on spatial aspects of the regions in the image, but critically depends on figure-ground stratification, supporting the link between the prioritization of corners and the representation of surface layout.

  17. Ant System-Corner Insertion Sequence: An Efficient VLSI Hard Module Placer

    HOO, C.-S.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Placement is important in VLSI physical design as it determines the time-to-market and chip's reliability. In this paper, a new floorplan representation which couples with Ant System, namely Corner Insertion Sequence (CIS is proposed. Though CIS's search complexity is smaller than the state-of-the-art representation Corner Sequence (CS, CIS adopts a preset boundary on the placement and hence, leading to search bound similar to CS. This enables the previous unutilized corner edges to become viable. Also, the redundancy of CS representation is eliminated in CIS leads to a lower search complexity of CIS. Experimental results on Microelectronics Center of North Carolina (MCNC hard block benchmark circuits show that the proposed algorithm performs comparably in terms of area yet at least two times faster than CS.

  18. A quantized microwave quadrupole insulator with topologically protected corner states

    Peterson, Christopher W.; Benalcazar, Wladimir A.; Hughes, Taylor L.; Bahl, Gaurav

    2018-03-01

    The theory of electric polarization in crystals defines the dipole moment of an insulator in terms of a Berry phase (geometric phase) associated with its electronic ground state. This concept not only solves the long-standing puzzle of how to calculate dipole moments in crystals, but also explains topological band structures in insulators and superconductors, including the quantum anomalous Hall insulator and the quantum spin Hall insulator, as well as quantized adiabatic pumping processes. A recent theoretical study has extended the Berry phase framework to also account for higher electric multipole moments, revealing the existence of higher-order topological phases that have not previously been observed. Here we demonstrate experimentally a member of this predicted class of materials—a quantized quadrupole topological insulator—produced using a gigahertz-frequency reconfigurable microwave circuit. We confirm the non-trivial topological phase using spectroscopic measurements and by identifying corner states that result from the bulk topology. In addition, we test the critical prediction that these corner states are protected by the topology of the bulk, and are not due to surface artefacts, by deforming the edges of the crystal lattice from the topological to the trivial regime. Our results provide conclusive evidence of a unique form of robustness against disorder and deformation, which is characteristic of higher-order topological insulators.

  19. Interface fracture in laminates at three-dimensional corners

    Myhre Jensen, H.; Veluri, B. [Aarhus Univ.. Aarhus School of Engineering, Aarhus (Denmark)

    2012-07-01

    Interface failure close to corners has been observed in laminated layered structures. A fracture mechanics based approach focused on modelling the shape of such interface cracks and calculating the critical stress for steady-state propagation has been developed. The crack propagation is investigated by estimating the fracture mechanics parameters including the energy release rate and the three-dimensional mode-mixity along the crack front allowing determining the shape of the crack front profiles. A numerical approach is applied for coupling the far field solutions utilizing the capability of the Finite Element Method to the near field solutions at the crack front based on the J-integral. The developed two-dimensional numerical approach for the calculation of fracture mechanical properties has been validated with three-dimensional models for varying crack front shapes. In this study, a quantitative approach was formulated based on the finite element method with iterative adjustment of the crack front to estimate the critical delamination stress as a function of the fracture criterion and corner angles. The implication of the results on the delamination is discussed in terms of crack front profiles and the critical stresses. (Author)

  20. Composition: Around Corners (2006-08)

    Bergstrøm-Nielsen, Carl

    2010-01-01

    Around Corners is an open composition to be realised by improvising musicians. See more about my composition practise in the entry "Composition - General Introduction". Caution: streaming the sound/video files will in some cases only provide a few minutes' sample, or the visuals will not appear...... at all. Please DOWNLOAD them to see/hear them in full length! This work is licensed under a Creative Commons "by-nc" License. You may for non-commercial purposes use and distribute it, performance instructions as well as specially designated recordings, as long as the author(s) is (are) mentioned. Please...

  1. A Mixed Methods Comparison of Urban and Rural Retail Corner Stores

    Jared T McGuirt

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Efforts to transform corner stores to better meet community dietary needs have mostly occurred in urban areas but are also needed in rural areas. Given important contextual differences between urban and rural areas, it is important to increase our understanding of the elements that might translate successfully to similar interventions involving stores in more rural areas. Thus, an in-depth examination and comparison of corner stores in each setting is needed. A mixed methods approach, including windshield tours, spatial visualization with analysis of frequency distribution, and spatial regression techniques were used to compare a rural North Carolina and large urban (Los Angeles food environment. Important similarities and differences were seen between the two settings in regards to food environment context, spatial distribution of stores, food products available, and the factors predicting corner store density. Urban stores were more likely to have fresh fruits (Pearson chi2 = 27.0423; p < 0.001 and vegetables (Pearson chi2 = 27.0423; p < 0.001. In the urban setting, corner stores in high income areas were more likely to have fresh fruit (Pearson chi2 = 6.00; p = 0.014, while in the rural setting, there was no difference between high and low income area in terms of fresh fruit availability. For the urban area, total population, no vehicle and Hispanic population were significantly positively associated (p < 0.05, and median household income (p < 0.001 and Percent Minority (p < 0.05 were significantly negatively associated with corner store count. For the rural area, total population (p < 0.05 and supermarket count were positively associated (p < 0.001, and median household income negatively associated (P < 0.001, with corner store count. Translational efforts should be informed by these findings, which might influence the success of future interventions and policies in both rural and urban contexts.

  2. Water and Solute Mass Transport in Soils Developed on glacial Drift: A Br Tracer Investigation Using Instrumented Soil Monoliths at an Agricultural Long Term Ecological Research Site (Kellogg Biological Station, Hickory Corners, Southern Michigan)

    Jin, L.; Hamilton, S. K.; Walter, L. M.

    2004-12-01

    Hydrologic processes control the residence time of water in the soil column. This is of central importance in understanding mineral weathering rates in terms of reaction kinetics and solute transport. In order to better quantify the coupling between water and solute mass transport and to better define controls on carbonate and aluminosilicates weathering rates, we have conducted bromide-tracer introduction experiments at four replicate soil monoliths (4 m3 volume) instrumented and managed by the KBS-LTER. Monolith soils are developed on the pitted outwash plain of the morainic system left by the last retreat of the Wisconsin glaciation, around 12,000 years ago. Soil profiles from the monolith sections extend to 200 cm and they were sampled and characterized texturally and mineralogically. Quartz and feldspar are dominant throughout the soil profile, while carbonates and hornblende occur only in deeper soil horizons. The four replicate monoliths are instrumented with gas and soil water sampling devices (Prenart tension lysimeters) at various depths. The monoliths also have a large capacity tray at the bottom, which permits collection of water for weight and chemical determinations. A bromide tracer solution (as lithium bromide) was applied to coincide as closely as possible with a major snowmelt event (2/27/04). The saturated and unsaturated transport of bromide through the four monoliths was followed as a function of time and soil profile depth for the duration of the snowmelt as well as intermittent rain events. Because the soil was saturated at the time of bromide application, the bromide solution is expected to move rapidly through macropores, followed by slower movement into micropores. The unsaturated transport of bromide is largely controlled by the intensity and duration of the rains if it is dominated by piston flow as opposed to preferential channel flow. In general, the tracer moved through the shallow soils very quickly, which is shown by early sharp

  3. Novel Mutation in the ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter A3 (ABCA3) Encoding Gene Causes Respiratory Distress Syndrome in A Term Newborn in Southwest Iran

    Rezaei, Farideh; Shafiei, Mohammad; Shariati, Gholamreza; Dehdashtian, Ali; Mohebbi, Maryam; Galehdari, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Introduction ABCA3 glycoprotein belongs to the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily of transporters, which utilize the energy derived from hydrolysis of ATP for the translocation of a wide variety of substrates across the plasma membrane. Mutations in the ABCA3 gene are knowingly causative for fatal surfactant deficiency, particularly respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) in term babies. Case Presentation In this study, Sanger sequencing of the whole ABCA3 gene (NCBI NM_001089) was performed in a neonatal boy with severe RDS. A homozygous mutation has been identified in the patient. Parents were heterozygous for the same missense mutation GGA > AGA at position 202 in exon 6 of the ABCA3 gene (c.604G > A; p.G202R). Furthermore, 70 normal individuals have been analyzed for the mentioned change with negative results. Conclusions Regarding Human Genome Mutation Database (HGMD) and other literature recherche, the detected change is a novel mutation and has not been reported before. Bioinformatics mutation predicting tools prefer it as pathogenic. PMID:27437095

  4. Comparative study of mental health and quality of life in long term refugees and host populations in Oru-Ijebu, Southwest Nigeria

    2012-01-01

    Background Refugees as “People Living in Highly Stressful Situation” are particularly vulnerable to mental ill-health as a result of the trauma experienced pre- and post-migration. The lack of information on the mental health disparities of refugees and non-refugees in West Africa is what this study aimed to bridge. A cross-sectional study design was employed using a cluster sampling technique. Interviewer-administered structured questionnaires consisting of the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), WHO quality of life (WHOQOL-BREF) and the Community Quality of Life (CQoL) were used for data collection. Data were analyzed with SPSS version 17. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the predictors of mental health status and QoL. Results Respondents consisted of 444(45.7%) refugees and 527(54.3%) non-refugees. Two-thirds 292 (66%) of the refugees were Liberians. Mean age: refugees - 34.8 ± 12.8 years versus non-refugees - 33.3 ± 8.1 years (p refugees were married, most 468(88.8%) of the native population were not (p refugees had polygamous marriages, lived in poorer type of accommodation and had no formal education compared to the non-refugees (p refugees (p Refugees were three times more likely than non-refugees to have poor mental health [OR: 3.43; 95%CI: 1.83-6.40]. Overall, being currently ill tripled the odds of mental ill health [OR: 2.73; 95%CI: 1.98-3.77]. Unskilled workers [OR: 2.78; 95%CI: 1.68-4.60], skilled workers [OR: 2.98; 95%CI: 2.03-4.38] and the unemployed [OR: 1.94; 95%CI: 1.29-2.92] had two or more times the odds of poor mental health compared to professionals. Conclusions QoL and occupational status were the major threats to the mental health of the refugees. Results of this study point to the need for continued attention to not only the healthcare needs but the welfare, housing, employment and overall QoL to support the long-term mental health of refugees and non-refugee populations alike

  5. Comparative study of mental health and quality of life in long-term refugees and host populations in Oru-Ijebu, Southwest Nigeria.

    Akinyemi, Oluwaseun O; Owoaje, Eme T; Ige, Olusimbo K; Popoola, Oluwafemi A

    2012-07-31

    Refugees as "People Living in Highly Stressful Situation" are particularly vulnerable to mental ill-health as a result of the trauma experienced pre- and post-migration. The lack of information on the mental health disparities of refugees and non-refugees in West Africa is what this study aimed to bridge. A cross-sectional study design was employed using a cluster sampling technique. Interviewer-administered structured questionnaires consisting of the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), WHO quality of life (WHOQOL-BREF) and the Community Quality of Life (CQoL) were used for data collection. Data were analyzed with SPSS version 17. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the predictors of mental health status and QoL. Respondents consisted of 444(45.7%) refugees and 527(54.3%) non-refugees. Two-thirds 292 (66%) of the refugees were Liberians. Mean age: refugees--34.8 ± 12.8 years versus non-refugees--33.3 ± 8.1 years (p refugees were married, most 468(88.8%) of the native population were not (p refugees had polygamous marriages, lived in poorer type of accommodation and had no formal education compared to the non-refugees (p refugees (p Refugees were three times more likely than non-refugees to have poor mental health [OR: 3.43; 95% CI: 1.83-6.40]. Overall, being currently ill tripled the odds of mental ill health [OR: 2.73; 95% CI: 1.98-3.77]. Unskilled workers [OR: 2.78; 95% CI: 1.68-4.60], skilled workers [OR: 2.98; 95% CI: 2.03-4.38] and the unemployed [OR: 1.94; 95% CI: 1.29-2.92] had two or more times the odds of poor mental health compared to professionals. QoL and occupational status were the major threats to the mental health of the refugees. Results of this study point to the need for continued attention to not only the healthcare needs but the welfare, housing, employment and overall QoL to support the long-term mental health of refugees and non-refugee populations alike.

  6. Airborne methane remote measurements reveal heavy-tail flux distribution in Four Corners region.

    Frankenberg, C.

    2016-12-01

    Methane (CH4) impacts climate as the second strongest anthropogenic greenhouse gas and air quality by influencing tropospheric ozone levels. Space-based observations have identified the Four Corners region in the Southwest United States as an area of large CH4 enhancements. We conducted an airborne campaign in Four Corners during April 2015 with the next-generation Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (near-infrared) and Hyperspectral Thermal Emission Spectrometer (thermal infrared) imaging spectrometers to better understand the source of methane by measuring methane plumes at 1- to 3-m spatial resolution. Our analysis detected more than 250 individual methane plumes from fossil fuel harvesting, processing, and distributing infrastructures, spanning an emission range from the detection limit ˜ 2 kg/h to 5 kg/h through ˜ 5,000 kg/h. Observed sources include gas processing facilities, storage tanks, pipeline leaks, natural seeps and well pads, as well as a coal mine venting shaft. Overall, plume enhancements and inferred fluxes follow a lognormal distribution, with the top 10% emitters contributing 49 to 66% to the inferred total point source flux of 0.23 Tg/y to 0.39 Tg/y. We will summarize the campaign results and provide an overview of how airborne remote sensing can be used to detect and infer methane fluxes over widespread geographic areas and how new instrumentation could be used to perform similar observations from space.

  7. Southwest Asia assessment.

    Devendra, T

    1984-06-01

    Southwest Asia, which support 1/3 of the world's population, is acutely aware of the consequences of rapid and excessive population growth. No other region has consciously devoted so much of its resources to stemming excessive population growth. India, with a population of 684 million, formulated a policy of population limitation in the 1950s. The 1980 government rededicated itself to voluntary family planning and rebuilt the broad coalition of an excellent infrastructure of government institutions, voluntary organizations, and international agencies. Government support for family planning clinics began in Bangladesh in the 1960s. A strong institutional structure has been established under the supervision of the National Population Council. Innovative approaches to family planning service delivery have been initiated by an admirable array of institutions. Pakistan's Population Welfare Plan provides substantial funds and an administrative structure to make maternal/child helath care and family planning services available in rural areas. Another welfare program encourages smaller families through projects to enhance the status of women by improving literacy, establishing rural industries, and advocating late marriage. Nepal has had to struggle with a poor administrative structure, grossly insufficient medical services, and an inadequate database for policy formulation. Family planning services are now a component of the overall health program. The family planning services of the pioneer Afghan Family Guidance Association, established in 1968, have been incorported into the national maternal/child health program. The present government of Iran views foreign assistance as an unacceptable form of persuasion and has phased out all international funded family planning programs. Sri Lanka is the only country in the region to have made the demographic transition to fertility decline. An impressive health infrastructure delivers family planning services at every level using

  8. Intervjuu James Corneriga = Interview with James Corner / James Corner ; interv. Andres Sevtshuk

    Corner, James

    2006-01-01

    Büroo Field Operations maastikuarhitekt ning Pennsylvania Ülikooli maastikuarhitektuuri osakonna juhataja James Corner oma büroost, maastikust kui "instrumendist", postindustriaalsete aladega seotud projektidest (New Yorgi High Line'i muutmine pargiks ja promenaadiks), tööst suuremahuliste maastikega (Fresh Kills'i soo, endise prügila muutmine pargialaks), maastikuarhitektuurist ja linnakujundusest (maastiku urbanism), õpetamise tähtsusest oma töös ja maastikuarhitektuuri ideede arendamisel. Bibl. lk. 24

  9. Finite element model study of the effect of corner rounding on detectability of corner cracks using bolt hole eddy current

    Underhill, P. R.; Krause, T. W.

    2017-02-01

    Recent work has shown that the detectability of corner cracks in bolt-holes is compromised when rounding of corners arises, as might occur during bolt-hole removal. Probability of Detection (POD) studies normally require a large number of samples of both fatigue cracks and electric discharge machined notches. In the particular instance of rounding of bolt-hole corners the generation of such a large set of samples representing the full spectrum of potential rounding would be prohibitive. In this paper, the application of Finite Element Method (FEM) modeling is used to supplement the study of detection of cracks forming at the rounded corners of bolt-holes. FEM models show that rounding of the corner of the bolt-hole reduces the size of the response to a corner crack to a greater extent than can be accounted for by loss of crack area. This reduced sensitivity can be ascribed to a lower concentration of eddy currents at the rounded corner surface and greater lift-off of pick-up coils relative to that of a straight-edge corner. A rounding with a radius of 0.4 mm (.016 inch) showed a 20% reduction in the strength of the crack signal. Assuming linearity of the crack signal with crack size, this would suggest an increase in the minimum detectable size by 25%.

  10. Drug problem in southeast and southwest Asia.

    Kulsudjarit, Kongpetch

    2004-10-01

    In 2002, the drug problem in Southeast and Southwest Asia was serious, particularly in the production of opium and heroin in Afghanistan, Myanmar, and Laos, the three largest producers of illicit opium in the world. The increasing illicit manufacture of ATS, particularly methamphetamine, in Southeast Asia, mainly in China and Myanmar, was also a major concern. Some reports indicated that ephedrine, used for illicitly producing methamphetamine in Southeast Asia, is diverted and smuggled out of China and India, whereas caffeine, the adulterant used for producing methamphetamine tablets, is mainly smuggled into Myanmar through its border with Thailand. Seizure data showed a dramatic increase in trafficking in MDMA through Southeast Asia. In terms of the drug epidemic, in 2002, cannabis remained overall the main drug of abuse in all of the countries of Southeast and Southwest Asia. Opiates, mainly opium and heroin, were also the drugs of choice except in Thailand, where opiate abuse declined, but ATS was the main drug of abuse due to its low cost and availability. A significant increase in ATS abuse, amphetamine, methamphetamine, and MDMA among the youth who smoked, sniffed, and inhaled them was reported in Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Laos, Myanmar, the Philippines, and Thailand. Injecting drug use among opiate abusers has been identified as the prime cause of the rapid spread of HIV/AIDS in Southeast and Southwest Asia.

  11. Holocene reef accretion: southwest Molokai, Hawaii, U.S.A.

    Engels, Mary S.; Fletcher, Charles H.; Field, Michael E.; Storlazzi, Curt D.; Grossman, Eric E.; Rooney, John J.B.; Conger, Christopher L.; Glenn, Craig

    2004-01-01

    Two reef systems off south Molokai, Hale O Lono and Hikauhi (separated by only 10 km), show strong and fundamental differences in modern ecosystem structure and Holocene accretion history that reflect the influence of wave-induced near-bed shear stresses on reef development in Hawaii. Both sites are exposed to similar impacts from south, Kona, and trade-wind swell. However, the Hale O Lono site is exposed to north swell and the Hikuahi site is not. As a result, the reef at Hale O Lono records no late Holocene net accretion while the reef at Hikauhi records consistent and robust accretion over late Holocene time. Analysis and dating of 24 cores from Hale O Lono and Hikauhi reveal the presence of five major lithofacies that reflect paleo-environmental conditions. In order of decreasing depositional energy they are: (1) coral-algal bindstone; (2) mixed skeletal rudstone; (3) massive coral framestone; (4) unconsolidated floatstone; and (5) branching coral framestone-bafflestone. At Hale O Lono, 10 cores document a backstepping reef ranging from ∼ 8,100 cal yr BP (offshore) to ∼ 4,800 cal yr BP (nearshore). A depauperate community of modern coral diminishes shoreward and seaward of ∼ 15 m depth due to wave energy, disrupted recruitment activities, and physical abrasion. Evidence suggests a change from conditions conducive to accretion during the early Holocene to conditions detrimental to accretion in the late Holocene. Reef structure at Hikauhi, reconstructed from 14 cores, reveals a thick, rapidly accreting and young reef (maximum age ∼ 900 cal yr BP). Living coral cover on this reef increases seaward with distance from the reef crest but terminates at a depth of ∼ 20 m where the reef ends in a large sand field. The primary limitation on vertical reef growth is accommodation space under wave base, not recruitment activities or energy conditions. Interpretations of cored lithofacies suggest that modern reef growth on the southwest corner of Molokai, and by

  12. Thales SESO's hollow and massive corner cube solutions

    Fappani, Denis; Dahan, Déborah; Costes, Vincent; Luitot, Clément

    2017-11-01

    For Space Activities, more and more Corner Cubes, used as solution for retro reflection of light (telemetry and positioning), are emerging worldwide in different projects. Depending on the application, they can be massive or hollow Corner Cubes. For corners as well as for any kind of space optics, it usual that use of light/lightened components is always a baseline for purpose of mass reduction payloads. But other parameters, such as the system stability under severe environment, are also major issues, especially for the corner cube systems which require generally very tight angular accuracies. For the particular case of the hollow corner cube, an alternative solution to the usual cementing of the 3 reflective surfaces, has been developed with success in collaboration with CNES to guarantee a better stability and fulfill the weight requirements.. Another important parameter is the dihedral angles that have a great influence on the wavefront error. Two technologies can be considered, either a Corner Cubes array assembled in a very stable housing, or the irreversible adherence technology used for assembling the three parts of a cube. This latter technology enables in particular not having to use cement. The poster will point out the conceptual design, the manufacturing and control key-aspects of such corner cube assemblies as well as the technologies used for their assembling.

  13. Hiding Techniques for Dynamic Encryption Text based on Corner Point

    Abdullatif, Firas A.; Abdullatif, Alaa A.; al-Saffar, Amna

    2018-05-01

    Hiding technique for dynamic encryption text using encoding table and symmetric encryption method (AES algorithm) is presented in this paper. The encoding table is generated dynamically from MSB of the cover image points that used as the first phase of encryption. The Harris corner point algorithm is applied on cover image to generate the corner points which are used to generate dynamic AES key to second phase of text encryption. The embedded process in the LSB for the image pixels except the Harris corner points for more robust. Experimental results have demonstrated that the proposed scheme have embedding quality, error-free text recovery, and high value in PSNR.

  14. Modeling Delamination of Interfacial Corner Cracks in Multilayered Structures

    Veluri, Badrinath (Badri); Jensen, Henrik Myhre

    2013-01-01

    Multilayered electronic components, typically of heterogeneous materials, delaminate under thermal and mechanical loading. A phenomenological model focused on modeling the shape of such interface cracks close to corners in layered interconnect structures for calculating the critical stress...

  15. Communities Putting Prevention to Work: The Healthy Corner Store Initiative

    This podcast is an interview with Dr. Stephanie Jilcott Pitts, Associate Professor in the Department of Public Health at East Carolina University. Dr. Pitts answers questions about her study involving a healthy corner store initiative in North Carolina.

  16. Numerical Study of Natural Convection within a Wavy Enclosure Using Meshfree Approach: Effect of Corner Heating

    Sonam Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a numerical study of natural convection within a wavy enclosure heated via corner heating. The considered enclosure is a square enclosure with left wavy side wall. The vertical wavy wall of the enclosure and both of the corner heaters are maintained at constant temperature, Tc and Th, respectively, with Th>Tc while the remaining horizontal, bottom, top and side walls are insulated. A penalty element-free Galerkin approach with reduced gauss integration scheme for penalty terms is used to solve momentum and energy equations over the complex domain with wide range of parameters, namely, Rayleigh number (Ra, Prandtl number (Pr, and range of heaters in the x- and y-direction. Numerical results are represented in terms of isotherms, streamlines, and Nusselt number. It is observed that the rate of heat transfer depends to a great extent on the Rayleigh number, Prandtl number, length of the corner heaters and the shape of the heat transfer surface. The consistent performance of the adopted numerical procedure is verified by comparison of the results obtained through the present meshless technique with those existing in the literature.

  17. Four-Corner Arthrodesis Versus Proximal Row Carpectomy. A Retrospective Study With a Mean Follow-Up of 17 Years

    Berkhout, M.J.L.; Bachour, Y.; Zheng, K.H.; Mullender, M.G.; Strackee, S.D.; Ritt, M.J.P.F.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To compare the long-term outcomes of proximal row carpectomy (PRC) and 4-corner arthrodesis (FCA) in a consecutive series of patients surgically treated between 1989 and 1998 in a single teaching hospital. Methods We included 12 patients (14 wrists) in the PRC group and 8 patients (8 wrists)

  18. Modelling the response of quasi-optical corner cube mixers

    Kelly, W.M.; Eivers, J.G.; Gans, M.J.

    1986-01-01

    A three-dimensional modeling technique is developed to analyze and predict the optical performance of Schottky-diode corner-cube/wire-antenna devices for submm-astronomy applications. The model determines the antenna efficiency for the case of Gaussian input beams, and simulations of performance in a variety of configurations can be used to optimize instrument designs. Corner-to-whisker spacing and antenna/beam orientation are found to be the most important coupling parameters. 12 references

  19. Searching for the corner seismic moment in worldwide data

    Felgueiras, Miguel; Santos, Rui; Martins, João Paulo

    2015-01-01

    In this paper the existence of the corner frequency value for the seismic moment distribution is investigated, analysing worldwide data. Pareto based distributions, usually considered as the most suitable to this type of data, are fitted to the most recent data, available in a global earthquake catalog. Despite the undeniable finite nature of the seismic moment data, we conclude that no corner frequency can be established considering the available data set

  20. Characterization of microchannel anechoic corners formed by surface acoustic waves

    Destgeer, Ghulam; Alam, Ashar; Ahmed, Husnain; Park, Jinsoo; Jung, Jin Ho; Park, Kwangseok; Sung, Hyung Jin

    2018-02-01

    Surface acoustic waves (SAWs) generated in a piezoelectric substrate couple with a liquid according to Snell's law such that a compressional acoustic wave propagates obliquely at a Rayleigh angle ( θ t) inside the microchannel to form a region devoid of a direct acoustic field, which is termed a microchannel anechoic corner (MAC). In the present study, we used microchannels with various heights and widths to characterize the width of the MAC region formed by a single travelling SAW. The attenuation of high-frequency SAWs produced a strong acoustic streaming flow that moved the particles in and out of the MAC region, whereas reflections of the acoustic waves within the microchannel resulted in standing acoustic waves that trapped particles at acoustic pressure nodes located within or outside of the MAC region. A range of actuation frequencies and particle diameters were used to investigate the effects of the acoustic streaming flow and the direct acoustic radiation forces by the travelling as well as standing waves on the particle motion with respect to the MAC region. The width of the MAC ( w c), measured experimentally by tracing the particles, increased with the height of the microchannel ( h m) according to a simple trigonometric equation w c = h m × tan ( θ t ).

  1. Four Corners project experience - Applications to next generation FGD

    Wild, R.L.; Grimes, R.L.; Wiggins, D.S.

    1990-01-01

    In June 1984, Arizona Public Service Company started up the flue gas desulfurization system installed on Units 4 and 5 at the Four Corners Power Station. At the time, this represented the largest emissions control retrofit in the industry, and consisted of two 800 MWe units. These units burn a low sulfur subbituminous coal from the adjacent Navajo mine. The FGD system was designed for 72% overall removal, with partial bypass. The SO 2 absorbers were designed for 90% removal. This FGD system is considered to be a second generation design. At the time, it represented state-of-the-art of FGD technology, in terms of both process considerations and materials of construction. In the six years since startup, several modifications have been made in the areas of process chemistry, equipment configuration, and materials of construction. These modifications are applicable to the next generation of FGD systems which will be designed in response to Acid Rain Legislation. This paper presents the original plant design basis, summarizes the operating experience to date, and identifies the modifications and improvements which have been made since startup. In addition, recommendations for new installations are offered

  2. Southwest University's Innovative No-Fee Teacher Education Internships

    Zhang, Huirong; Xiong, Jianjie; Song, Naiqing

    2013-01-01

    This article describes Southwest University's no-fee teacher education internship models in terms of their organization, content, requirements, and quality assurance. It further introduces the quality assurance system, which comprises building a teaching internship system, establishing internship sites, guiding teacher training, and processing…

  3. Low-Re flow past an isolated cylinder with rounded corners

    Zhang, Wei

    2016-06-29

    Direct numerical simulation is performed for flow past an isolated cylinder at Re=1,000. The corners of the cylinder are rounded at different radii, with the non-dimensional radius of curvature varying from R+=R/D=0.000 (square cylinder with sharp corners) to 0.500 (circular cylinder), in which R is the corner radius and D is the cylinder diameter. Our objective is to investigate the effect of the rounded corners on the development of the separated and transitional flow past the cylinder in terms of time-averaged statistics, time-dependent behavior, turbulent statistics and three-dimensional flow patterns. Numerical results reveal that the rounding of the corners significantly reduces the time-averaged drag and the force fluctuations. The wake flow downstream of the square cylinder recovers the slowest and has the largest wake width. However, the statistical quantities do not monotonically vary with the corner radius, but exhibit drastic variations between the cases of square cylinder and partially rounded cylinders, and between the latter and the circular cylinder. The free shear layer separated from the R+=0.125 cylinder is the most stable in which the first roll up of the wake vortex occurs furthest from the cylinder and results in the largest recirculation bubble, whose size reduces as R+ further increases. The coherent and incoherent Reynolds stresses are most pronounced in the near-wake close to the reattachment point, while also being noticeable in the shear layer for the square and R+=0.125 cylinders. The wake vortices translate in the streamwise direction with a convection velocity that is almost constant at approximately 80% of the incoming flow velocity. These vortices exhibit nearly the same trajectory for the rounded cylinders and are furthest away from the wake centerline for the square one. The flow past the square cylinder is strongly three-dimensional as indicated by the significant primary and secondary enstrophy, while it is dominated by the

  4. Southwest Airlines: lessons in loyalty.

    D'Aurizio, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    Southwest Airlines continues to garner accolades in the areas of customer service, workforce management, and profitability. Since both the health care and airlines industries deal with a service rather than a product, the customer experience depends on the people who deliver that experience. Employees' commitment or "loyalty" to their customers, their employer, and their work translates into millions of dollars of revenue. What employee wants to work for "the worst employer in town?" Nine loyalty lessons from Southwest can be carried over to the health care setting for the benefit of employees and patients.

  5. Compact corner-pumped Nd:YAG/YAG composite slab 1319 nm/1338 nm laser

    Liu, H; Gong, M; Wushouer, X; Gao, S

    2010-01-01

    A corner-pumped type is a new pumping type in the diode-pumped solid-state lasers, which has the advantages of high pump efficiency and favorable pump uniformity. A corner-pumped Nd:YAG/YAG composite slab continuous-wave 1319 nm/1338 nm dual-wavelength laser is first demonstrated in this paper. When the cavity length is 25 mm, the maximal output power is up to 7.62 W with a slope efficiency of 16.6% and an optical-to-optical conversion efficiency of 17%. The corresponding spectral line widths of 1319 nm laser and 1338 nm laser are 0.11 and 0.1 nm, respectively. The short-term instability of the output power is better than 1% when the pumping power is 39.5 W. The experimental results show that a corner-pumped type is a kind of feasible schedules in the design of diode-pumped solid-state 1.3 μm lasers with low or medium output powers

  6. Cultural Arts in the Southwest.

    Cross, Kate

    1998-01-01

    Presents a pottery project for eighth-grade students based on a study of ancient and modern forms of Pueblo Indian pottery of the Southwest United States. Details the process for creating either carved, red clay, or painted white clay pottery typical of these cultural groups. Relates student reactions to the project. (DSK)

  7. Ballistic rectification of vortex domain wall chirality at nanowire corners

    Omari, K.; Bradley, R. C.; Broomhall, T. J.; Hodges, M. P. P.; Hayward, T. J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Rosamond, M. C.; Linfield, E. H. [School of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Im, M.-Y. [Center for X-Ray Optics, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology, Daegu 711-873 (Korea, Republic of); Fischer, P. [Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Cruz, California 94056 (United States)

    2015-11-30

    The interactions of vortex domain walls with corners in planar magnetic nanowires are probed using magnetic soft X-ray transmission microscopy. We show that when the domain walls are propagated into sharp corners using applied magnetic fields above a critical value, their chiralities are rectified to either clockwise or anticlockwise circulation depending on whether the corners turn left or right. Single-shot focused magneto-optic Kerr effect measurements are then used to demonstrate how, when combined with modes of domain propagation that conserve vortex chirality, this allows us to dramatically reduce the stochasticity of domain pinning at artificial defect sites. Our results provide a tool for controlling domain wall chirality and pinning behavior both in further experimental studies and in future domain wall-based memory, logic and sensor technologies.

  8. A Modified Harris Corner Detection for Breast IR Image

    Chia-Yen Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Harris corner detectors, which depend on strong invariance and a local autocorrelation function, display poor detection performance for infrared (IR images with low contrast and nonobvious edges. In addition, feature points detected by Harris corner detectors are clustered due to the numerous nonlocal maxima. This paper proposes a modified Harris corner detector that includes two unique steps for processing IR images in order to overcome the aforementioned problems. Image contrast enhancement based on a generalized form of histogram equalization (HE combined with adjusting the intensity resolution causes false contours on IR images to acquire obvious edges. Adaptive nonmaximal suppression based on eliminating neighboring pixels avoids the clustered features. Preliminary results show that the proposed method can solve the clustering problem and successfully identify the representative feature points of IR breast images.

  9. Coherence between interannual variability of sea level with some surface met-ocean parameters at Cochin, southwest coast of India

    Srinivas, K.

    for Cochin (southwest coast of India) using long term time series data. Among the parameters, SST, relative density and sea level showed statistically significant long term trends. All the parameters, when smoothed, showed statistically significant...

  10. Four Corners Television History: Gallipoli and the Fall of Singapore

    Kevin Blackburn

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses how the Australian current affairs programme, Four Corners, which follows a style modelled on the BBC programme Panorama, has represented Australian military history in two of its programmes, Gallipoli: The Fatal Shore and No Prisoners on Australian deserters at the fall of Singapore. Chris Masters was the reporter on both programmes. These historical documentaries claim to investigate Australian Anzac mythology. Four Corners is noted for its rigorous pursuit of issues in current affairs. Programmes construct argument that the journalists steadfastly pursue in order to ‘expose the truth’. Rather than neutrally representing both sides of a debate, the programmes tend to take the side that the journalists perceive to be in the public interest. Examining how Four Corners has applied its own style of investigative journalism to the Anzac mythology is explored by outlining whether the programmes follow Ken Burn’s ideas of documentary-makers as ‘tribal story-teller’ crafting stories that uphold national identity or Bill Nichols’ view that documentary is an argument that is representative of reality rather than reflects reality. Examining the history of Gallipoli and the fall of Singapore in the Four Corners programmes tends suggest that the journalists working on the programmes preferred to reaffirm the assumptions of the Anzac legend, but attack or ignore historians and evidence that questions it. The programmes appear to be a mixture of Burns’s and Nichols’ ideas of documentary making.

  11. Contour tracking and corner detection in a logic programming environment

    Bell, Benjamin; Pau, L. F.

    1990-01-01

    The added functionality such as contour tracking and corner detection which logic programming lends to standard image operators is described. An environment for implementing low-level imaging operations with Prolog predicates is considered. Within this environment, higher-level image predicates (...

  12. Comparison of test protocols for standard room/corner tests

    R. H. White; M. A. Dietenberger; H. Tran; O. Grexa; L. Richardson; K. Sumathipala; M. Janssens

    1998-01-01

    As part of international efforts to evaluate alternative reaction-to-fire tests, several series of room/comer tests have been conducted. This paper reviews the overall results of related projects in which different test protocols for standard room/corner tests were used. Differences in the test protocols involved two options for the ignition burner scenario and whether...

  13. Silicon Nanowire Fabrication Using Edge and Corner Lithography

    Yagubizade, H.; Berenschot, Johan W.; Jansen, Henricus V.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt; Tas, Niels Roelof

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a wafer scale fabrication method of single-crystalline silicon nanowires (SiNWs) bound by <111> planes using a combination of edge and corner lithography. These are methods of unconventional nanolithography for wafer scale nano-patterning which determine the size of nano-features

  14. The Four Corners timber harvest and forest products industry, 2012

    Colin B. Sorenson; Steven W. Hayes; Todd A. Morgan; Eric A. Simmons; Micah G. Scudder; Chelsea P. McIver; Mike T. Thompson

    2016-01-01

    This report traces the flow of timber harvested in the "Four Corners" States (Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, and Utah) during calendar year 2012, describes the composition and operations of the region’s primary forest products industry, and quantifies volumes and uses of wood fiber. Recent changes in the wood products industry are discussed, as well as trends...

  15. The Four Corners timber harvest and forest products industry, 2007

    Steven W. Hayes; Todd A. Morgan; Erik C. Berg; Jean M. Daniels; Mike Thompson

    2012-01-01

    This report traces the flow of timber harvested in the "Four Corners" States (Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, and Utah) during calendar year 2007, describes the composition and operations of the region's primary forest products industry, and quantifies volumes and uses of wood fiber. Historical wood products industry changes are discussed, as well as...

  16. Analytical expression for sheath edge around corner cathodes

    Sheridan, T E

    2009-01-01

    A simple analytical expression for the position of the sheath edge around a two-dimensional corner cathode with included angle θ c has been discovered. This expression is valid for weakly collisional sheaths in the Child-Langmuir regime φ c >> kT e /e, where -φ c e is the electron temperature. In polar coordinates (r, θ), the sheath edge is given by (r/s 0 )sin[πθ/(2π - θ c )] = [π/(2π - θ c )] where s 0 is the planar sheath width far from the vertex of the corner. This result is verified by comparison with previous numerical solutions (Watterson P A 1989 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 22 1300) for the knife edge (θ c = 0) and convex square corner (θ c = π/2). The observed agreement suggests that this expression gives the sheath edge for all corner angles, both concave and convex. The utility of this result is demonstrated by computing the full sheath solution for a knife-edge cathode with φ c = 100kT e /e.

  17. Corner-point criterion for assessing nonlinear image processing imagers

    Landeau, Stéphane; Pigois, Laurent; Foing, Jean-Paul; Deshors, Gilles; Swiathy, Greggory

    2017-10-01

    Range performance modeling of optronics imagers attempts to characterize the ability to resolve details in the image. Today, digital image processing is systematically used in conjunction with the optoelectronic system to correct its defects or to exploit tiny detection signals to increase performance. In order to characterize these processing having adaptive and non-linear properties, it becomes necessary to stimulate the imagers with test patterns whose properties are similar to the actual scene image ones, in terms of dynamic range, contours, texture and singular points. This paper presents an approach based on a Corner-Point (CP) resolution criterion, derived from the Probability of Correct Resolution (PCR) of binary fractal patterns. The fundamental principle lies in the respectful perception of the CP direction of one pixel minority value among the majority value of a 2×2 pixels block. The evaluation procedure considers the actual image as its multi-resolution CP transformation, taking the role of Ground Truth (GT). After a spatial registration between the degraded image and the original one, the degradation is statistically measured by comparing the GT with the degraded image CP transformation, in terms of localized PCR at the region of interest. The paper defines this CP criterion and presents the developed evaluation techniques, such as the measurement of the number of CP resolved on the target, the transformation CP and its inverse transform that make it possible to reconstruct an image of the perceived CPs. Then, this criterion is compared with the standard Johnson criterion, in the case of a linear blur and noise degradation. The evaluation of an imaging system integrating an image display and a visual perception is considered, by proposing an analysis scheme combining two methods: a CP measurement for the highly non-linear part (imaging) with real signature test target and conventional methods for the more linear part (displaying). The application to

  18. Coexistence of Two Singularities in Dewetting Flows: Regularizing the Corner Tip

    Peters, I.R.; Snoeijer, Jacobus Hendrikus; Daerr, Adrian; Limat, Laurent

    2009-01-01

    Entrainment in wetting and dewetting flows often occurs through the formation of a corner with a very sharp tip. This corner singularity comes on top of the divergence of viscous stress near the contact line, which is only regularized at molecular scales. We investigate the fine structure of corners

  19. 40 CFR 81.121 - Four Corners Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Four Corners Interstate Air Quality Control Region. 81.121 Section 81.121 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Quality Control Regions § 81.121 Four Corners Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Four Corners...

  20. Models, modules and abelian groups in memory of A.L.S.Corner

    Goldsmith, Brendan

    2008-01-01

    This is a memorial volume dedicated to A. L. S. Corner, previously Professor in Oxford, who published important results on algebra, especially on the connections of modules with endomorphism algebras. The volume contains refereed contributions which are related to the work of Corner.It contains also an unpublished extended paper of Corner himself. A memorial volume with important contributions related to algebra.

  1. IMPROVED REAL-TIME SCAN MATCHING USING CORNER FEATURES

    H. A. Mohamed

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The automation of unmanned vehicle operation has gained a lot of research attention, in the last few years, because of its numerous applications. The vehicle localization is more challenging in indoor environments where absolute positioning measurements (e.g. GPS are typically unavailable. Laser range finders are among the most widely used sensors that help the unmanned vehicles to localize themselves in indoor environments. Typically, automatic real-time matching of the successive scans is performed either explicitly or implicitly by any localization approach that utilizes laser range finders. Many accustomed approaches such as Iterative Closest Point (ICP, Iterative Matching Range Point (IMRP, Iterative Dual Correspondence (IDC, and Polar Scan Matching (PSM handles the scan matching problem in an iterative fashion which significantly affects the time consumption. Furthermore, the solution convergence is not guaranteed especially in cases of sharp maneuvers or fast movement. This paper proposes an automated real-time scan matching algorithm where the matching process is initialized using the detected corners. This initialization step aims to increase the convergence probability and to limit the number of iterations needed to reach convergence. The corner detection is preceded by line extraction from the laser scans. To evaluate the probability of line availability in indoor environments, various data sets, offered by different research groups, have been tested and the mean numbers of extracted lines per scan for these data sets are ranging from 4.10 to 8.86 lines of more than 7 points. The set of all intersections between extracted lines are detected as corners regardless of the physical intersection of these line segments in the scan. To account for the uncertainties of the detected corners, the covariance of the corners is estimated using the extracted lines variances. The detected corners are used to estimate the transformation parameters

  2. Cornering the Market: Lessons from Industry about Shaping Public Opinion

    2008-03-24

    100 By 1984, Coke had barely a three percent market share advantage over Pepsi , even while outspending them in advertising by $100 million and having...increase market share over Pepsi . There was much more that went wrong, however. Most significant was that the company didn’t grasp the factors involved...position of the Department of the Army, Department of Defense, or the U.S. Government. CORNERING THE MARKET : LESSONS FROM INDUSTRY ABOUT SHAPING PUBLIC

  3. Communities Putting Prevention to Work: The Healthy Corner Store Initiative

    2013-07-18

    This podcast is an interview with Dr. Stephanie Jilcott Pitts, Associate Professor in the Department of Public Health at East Carolina University. Dr. Pitts answers questions about her study involving a healthy corner store initiative in North Carolina.  Created: 7/18/2013 by Preventing Chronic Disease (PCD), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 7/18/2013.

  4. Aluminium-rich corner in Al-Cu-La system

    Yunusov, I.; Ganiev, I.N.

    1990-01-01

    Aluminium corner of Al-Cu-La system are investigated by means of microstructural and differential thermal analysis. Existence of LaCu 2 Al 10 and LaCu 0.5 Al 3.5 ternary compounds in the system is confirmed and it is shown, as well, both compounds are in two-phase equilibrium with aluminium solid solution and form with it and between each other eutectic type state diagrams. State diagrams for quasibinary sections are plotted

  5. Wall and corner fire tests on selected wood products

    H. C. Tran; M. L. Janssens

    1991-01-01

    As part of a fire growth program to develop and validate a compartment fire model, several bench-scale and full-scale tests were conducted. This paper reports the full-scale wall and corner test results of step 2 of this study. A room fire test following the ASTM proposed standard specifications was used for these full-scale tests. In step 1, we investigated the...

  6. Three-dimensional fluid flow phenomena in the blade end wall corner region

    Hazarika, B. K.; Raj, R.; Boldman, D. R.

    1986-01-01

    Flow visualization, static and total pressure measurements, and mean velocity profile measurements with a single-sensor inclined hot wire probe, are used in a study of three-dimensional flow at a turbine blade end wall corner region for six critical axial stations along the blade chord. Three vortices are identified: (1) a horseshoe vortex near the leading edge; (2) a corner eddy between the horseshoe vortex and the corner; and (3) a vortex at the rear portion of the corner due to the corner eddy's secondary flow. Attention is given to the relative size and rate-of-spread of the vortices in the streamwise direction.

  7. Calibrating cellular automaton models for pedestrians walking through corners

    Dias, Charitha; Lovreglio, Ruggiero

    2018-05-01

    Cellular Automata (CA) based pedestrian simulation models have gained remarkable popularity as they are simpler and easier to implement compared to other microscopic modeling approaches. However, incorporating traditional floor field representations in CA models to simulate pedestrian corner navigation behavior could result in unrealistic behaviors. Even though several previous studies have attempted to enhance CA models to realistically simulate pedestrian maneuvers around bends, such modifications have not been calibrated or validated against empirical data. In this study, two static floor field (SFF) representations, namely 'discrete representation' and 'continuous representation', are calibrated for CA-models to represent pedestrians' walking behavior around 90° bends. Trajectory data collected through a controlled experiment are used to calibrate these model representations. Calibration results indicate that although both floor field representations can represent pedestrians' corner navigation behavior, the 'continuous' representation fits the data better. Output of this study could be beneficial for enhancing the reliability of existing CA-based models by representing pedestrians' corner navigation behaviors more realistically.

  8. The Role of Figure-Ground in the Corner Enhancement Effect

    Mai Mohamed Helmy

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The appearance of a new object in the visual field captures visual attention. Moreover, detection is faster for a probe presented in a region adjacent to the corner of a stimulus, compared to a probe adjacent to the straight edge. This corner enhancement effect is believed to show that probes near corners receive enhanced processing (Cole et al 2007, Attention, Perception and Psychophysics 69, 400–412. We tested the corner effect for convex and concave corners for surfaces arranged in depth. We used coloured regions with cast shadows to specify foreground and background and a square stimulus that could be perceived as either an object or a hole (a figure-ground reversal. The probe was a small red line that could appear near a corner or a straight edge 100 msec after the stimulus onset. We asked the participants to discriminate the orientation of the probe (horizontal or vertical. The corner effect was found for both convex (Experiment 1 and concave (Experiment 2 vertices but only when the probe was near the corner of the foreground surface (the pattern reversed for objects and holes. In Experiment 3 we tested a situation in which the probe was perceived as a small object not located on any surface—ie, a floating probe. The corner effect disappeared when the probe was not attached to any specific surface. In summary, the corner enhancement effect was present only when the probe was on the surface that owned the corner.

  9. Persepsi Pemustaka Terhadap Layanan America Corner di Perpustakaan Pusat Universitas Hasanuddin Makassar

    Ayu Trysnawati

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available American Corner merupakan salah satu bentuk layanan yang ada di Perpustakaan UNHAS. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui persepsi pemustaka terhadap layanan American Corner di Perpustakaan UNHAS. Jenis penelitian ini merupakan jenis penelitian deskriptif kualitatif. Sumber data dalam penelitian ini adalah pemustaka layanan American Corner. Teknik pengumpulan data dilakukan melalui: (1 wawancara, (2 observasi, (3 dokumentasi. Teknik analisis data dalam bentuk reduksi data, penyajian data (data display, dan menarik kesimpulan/verifikasi untuk memperoleh hasil akhir.Berdasarkan hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa: (1 Persepsi pemustaka terhadap pelayanan American Corner di Perpustakaan UNHAS  sangat baik, layanan yang terdapat pada American Corner membuat pemustaka nyaman berkunjung. (2 Persepsi pemustaka terhadap koleksi American Corner di Perpustakaan Pusat Universitas Hasanuddin Makassar ditanggapi baik oleh pemustaka. Segala hal yang berkaitan dengan koleksi American Corner membuat pemustaka senang berkunjung.

  10. Comparison of Corner-Butt 45 (Cb-45 and Corner-Lap (Cl joints in friction stir welding

    Setiawan Widia

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The 10 mm thick Aluminum 6061 plates have been corner joined using varied design and those were 45° Corner Butt and Corner Lap Joints (CB-45 & CL. Friction tool was hardened EMS 45. True experimental method was used with independent parameters is feed rate which varied at 10 mm/min, 15 mm/min and 30 mm/min respectively. Other parameter such as rotating speed was kept constant. Experiment results show that, CB-45 yields better properties than CL. The tensile strength of CB-45 reaches 163.7 MPa for 10 mm/min feed rate. Whilst CL produces joint with tensile strength equal 120 MPa for equal parameters. Microstructure observation showed that CB-45 produces fine and homogenous appearance of MgO compared to CL. This phenomenon is caused by the pin of CB-45 joint which fully penetrates the nugget zone which is not found in CL design. This microstructure in turn promotes higher tensile strength of CB-45.

  11. ¡Salud! Southwest Tour

    Joanna Mae Mae Souers

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available During this summer of 2009, 12 American medical students from the Escuela Latinoamericana de Medicina (ELAM – Latin American School of Medicine in Havana, Cuba will board a Recreational Vehicle (RV to travel across the Southwest region of the United States visiting a number of tribal settlements of American Indian Nations, community colleges and universities. While at the various sites the students will share their personal experiences of what it’s like to study at ELAM while promoting the availability of full scholarships for students, volunteer their services while learning about some of the more significant health concerns affecting American Indian populations and to build personal and professional relationships with health care practitioners and members of Native American communities.

  12. Technology Corner: Dating of Electronic Hardware for Prior Art Investigations

    Sellam Ismail

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In many legal matters, specifically patent litigation, determining and authenticating the date of computer hardware or other electronic products or components is often key to establishing the item as legitimate evidence of prior art. Such evidence can be used to buttress claims of technologies available or of events transpiring by or at a particular date.In 1945, the Electronics Industry Association published a standard, EIA 476-A, standardized in the reference Source and Date Code Marking (Electronic Industries Association, 1988.(see PDF for full tech corner

  13. Constructing an optimal decision tree for FAST corner point detection

    Alkhalid, Abdulaziz; Chikalov, Igor; Moshkov, Mikhail

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we consider a problem that is originated in computer vision: determining an optimal testing strategy for the corner point detection problem that is a part of FAST algorithm [11,12]. The problem can be formulated as building a decision tree with the minimum average depth for a decision table with all discrete attributes. We experimentally compare performance of an exact algorithm based on dynamic programming and several greedy algorithms that differ in the attribute selection criterion. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  14. A physical model for extreme drought over southwest Asia: Chapter 17

    Hoell, Andrew; Funk, Chris; Barlow, Mathew; Cannon, Forrest

    2017-01-01

    The socioeconomic difficulties of southwest Asia, defined as the area bound by the domain 25°N–40°N and 40°E–70°E, are exacerbated by extreme precipitation deficits during the November–April rainy season. The precipitation deficits during many southwest Asia droughts have been examined in terms of the forcing by climate variability originating over the Pacific Ocean as a result of the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Pacific decadal variability (PDV), and the long-term warming of Pacific (LT) sea surface temperatures (SST). Here we examine how the most extreme November–April southwest Asia droughts relate to global SSTs and the associated large-scale atmospheric circulation anomalies and analyze the specific atmospheric forcing mechanisms responsible for changes in regional southwest Asian precipitation. The driest November–April seasons during 1948–2012 over southwest Asia are forced by subsidence and reductions of moisture fluxes as a result of the interaction of the mean flow with anomalous zonally symmetric high pressure throughout the Northern Hemisphere. The anomalous zonally symmetric high pressure throughout the Northern Hemisphere occurs simultaneously with cool central and eastern Pacific SST anomalies associated with La Niña and the negative phase of PDV and a warm west Pacific Ocean caused in part by the long-term warming of the west Pacific Ocean.

  15. Southwest Florida Shelf Ecosystems Analysis Study

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Southwest Florida Shelf Ecosystems Analysis Study produced grain size analyses in the historic 073 format for 299 sea floor samples collected from October 25,...

  16. Timber resource statistics for southwest Washington.

    Patricia M. Bassett; Daniel D. Oswald

    1981-01-01

    This report summarizes a 1978 timber-resource inventory of six counties in southwest Washington: Clark, Cowlitz, Lewis, Pacific, Skamania, and Wahkiakum. Detailed tables of forest area, timber volume, growth, mortality, and harvest are presented.

  17. Southwest Energy Efficiency Project (SWEEP) Final Report

    Geller, Howard [Southwest Energy Efficiency Project (SWEEP), Boulder, CO (United States); Meyers, Jim [Southwest Energy Efficiency Project (SWEEP), Boulder, CO (United States)

    2018-01-29

    SWEEP worked with Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) programs to foster greater energy efficiency throughout the Southwest. SWEEP accomplished this through a combination of analysis and support; preparation and distribution of materials on best practice technologies, policies and programs; and technical assistance and information dissemination to states and municipalities in the southwest supporting BTO, AMO, OWIP for advancement of efficiency in products and practices. These efforts were accomplished during the period 2012 through 2017.

  18. In-gap corner states in core-shell polygonal quantum rings.

    Sitek, Anna; Ţolea, Mugurel; Niţă, Marian; Serra, Llorenç; Gudmundsson, Vidar; Manolescu, Andrei

    2017-01-10

    We study Coulomb interacting electrons confined in polygonal quantum rings. We focus on the interplay of localization at the polygon corners and Coulomb repulsion. Remarkably, the Coulomb repulsion allows the formation of in-gap states, i.e., corner-localized states of electron pairs or clusters shifted to energies that were forbidden for non-interacting electrons, but below the energies of corner-side-localized states. We specify conditions allowing optical excitation to those states.

  19. In-gap corner states in core-shell polygonal quantum rings

    Sitek, Anna; Ţolea, Mugurel; Niţă, Marian; Serra, Llorenç; Gudmundsson, Vidar; Manolescu, Andrei

    2017-01-01

    We study Coulomb interacting electrons confined in polygonal quantum rings. We focus on the interplay of localization at the polygon corners and Coulomb repulsion. Remarkably, the Coulomb repulsion allows the formation of in-gap states, i.e., corner-localized states of electron pairs or clusters shifted to energies that were forbidden for non-interacting electrons, but below the energies of corner-side-localized states. We specify conditions allowing optical excitation to those states.

  20. Substantial improvements not seen in health behaviors following corner store conversions in two Latino food swamps

    Ortega, Alexander N.; Albert, Stephanie L.; Chan-Golston, Alec M.; Langellier, Brent A.; Glik, Deborah C.; Belin, Thomas R.; Garcia, Rosa Elena; Brookmeyer, Ron; Sharif, Mienah Z.; Prelip, Michael L.

    2016-01-01

    Background The effectiveness of food retail interventions is largely undetermined, yet substantial investments have been made to improve access to healthy foods in food deserts and swamps via grocery and corner store interventions. This study evaluated the effects of corner store conversions in East Los Angeles and Boyle Heights, California on perceived accessibility of healthy foods, perceptions of corner stores, store patronage, food purchasing, and eating behaviors. Methods Household data ...

  1. Southwest ballot measures affecting healthcare

    Robbins RA

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after 150 words. Modern Healthcare (1 has published an article summarizing ballot measures affecting healthcare. Those from the Southwest are listed below: States: Arizona: 1. Recreational marijuana. Proposition 205: Legalizes recreational marijuana use for people 21 and older. Opponents of the measure include the Arizona Health and Hospital Association and Insys Therapeutics, a company that makes a cannabis-based pain medication. California : 1. Medi-Cal hospital fee program. Proposition 52: Requires the legislature to get voter approval to use fee revenue for purposes other than generating federal matching funds and funding enhanced Medicaid payments and grants for hospitals. The initiative, which was written by the California Hospital Association and is supported by most state lawmakers, would also make the program permanent, requiring a supermajority in the legislature to end it. 2. Tobacco tax. Proposition 56: Increases the state's cigarette tax by $2 a pack and impose an "equivalent increase on other tobacco products and ...

  2. Strength analysis of welded corners of PVC window profiles

    Postawa, P.; Stachowiak, T.; Gnatowski, A.

    2017-08-01

    The article presents the results of researches which main purpose was to define the influence of welding parameters on strength of welded corners of PVC window profile. PVC profiles of a branded name GENEO® produced by Rehau Company were used for this research. The profiles were made by using a co-extrusion method. The surface of the profile was made of PVC mixture with no additives. Its main task was to get a smooth surface resistant to a smudge. The use of an unfilled polyester provides an aesthetic look and improves the resistance of extrudate to water getting into inner layers. The profile's inner layers have been filled up with glass fibre in order to improve its stiffness and mechanical properties. Window frames with cut corners used for this research, were produced on technological line of EUROCOLOR Company based in Pyskowice (Poland). The main goal of this analysis was to evaluate the influence of the main welding parameter (temperature upsetting) on hardness of welds we received in whole process. A universal testing machine was used for the research.

  3. Integrated study of basins in the Four Corners region

    Fagbola, Olamide Olawumi

    2007-12-01

    This dissertation is an integrated study of basins in the four corners area of the central part of the Colorado Plateau. The Colorado Plateau is a structurally unique part of the Rocky Mountain region because it has only been moderately deformed when compared to the more intensely deformed areas around it. The Colorado Plateau covers a portion of Utah, Colorado, New Mexico and Arizona. The study area extends from latitude 34°N-40°N to longitude 106°W-111W° encompassing a series of major basins and uplifts: the San Juan, Black Mesa, Paradox, and the Blanding basins; and the Zuni, Defiance, Four Corners, Monument uplifts and the San Juan dome and volcanic field. An analysis of gravity anomalies, basement and crustal structure for basins in the four corners region was carried out. This involved using gravity, magnetic, well, outcrop, seismic estimates of crustal thickness, and geologic data in an integrated fashion. Six filtered gravity and three filtered magnetic maps were generated to aid in the interpretation of the gravity and magnetic anomalies in the study area. A detailed comparison of these maps was carried out. The results show a deep seated mafic structure in the basement acting as a crustal boundary separating the high gravity anomalies from the low. These maps also show that the sources of these anomalies are quite shallow resulting from the upper crust in the study area. The structures in the study area are characterized by northwest and northeast trends which correspond to the Precambrian and the Late Paleozoic structures, respectively. A crustal thickness map of the area was also constructed from seismic estimates of crustal thickness. A comparison was done between the crustal thickness map and the 45 km upward continuation Bouguer anomaly map. The result of this comparison shows that areas of thicker ix crust corresponded to low gravity while areas of thinner crust means mantle material is closer to the surface, thereby producing a high gravity

  4. Effects of corner radius on periodic nanoantenna for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    Chao, Bo-Kai; Lin, Shih-Che; Nien, Li-Wei; Hsueh, Chun-Hway; Li, Jia-Han

    2015-01-01

    Corner radius is a concept to approximate the fabrication limitation due to the effective beam broadening at the corner in using electron-beam lithography. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the effects of corner radius on the electromagnetic field enhancement and resonance wavelength for three periodic polygon dimers of bowtie, twin square, and twin pentagon. The enhancement factor of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy due to the localized surface plasmon resonances in fabricated gold bowtie nanostructures was investigated using both Raman spectroscopy and finite-difference time-domain simulations. The simulated enhancement factor versus corner radius relation was in agreement with measurements and it could be fitted by a power-law relation. In addition, the resonance wavelength showed blue shift with the increasing corner radius because of the distribution of concentrated charges in a larger area. For different polygons, the corner radius instead of the tip angle is the dominant factor of the electromagnetic field enhancement because the surface charges tend to localize at the corner. Greater enhancements can be obtained by having both the smaller gap and sharper corner although the corner radius effect on intensity enhancement is less than the gap size effect. (paper)

  5. The influence of chamfering and corner radiusing on the discharge coefficient of rotating axial orifices

    Idris, A; Pullen, K

    2013-01-01

    The effects of chamfering and corner radiusing on the discharge coefficient of rotating axial orifices are presented in this paper. Both experimental and CFD results show that chamfering and corner radiusing improve the discharge coefficient of rotating orifices. For non-inclined rotating orifices, the discharge coefficient reduces with increasing speed, but chamfered and radiused orifices manage to have higher discharge coefficient (C d ) than the straight edge orifices. Comparing between chamfering and corner radiusing, the radiused corner orifice has the highest C d at every rotational speed. This is because the inlet radius helps guiding the flow into the orifice and avoiding flow separation at the inlet.

  6. Spacecraft computer technology at Southwest Research Institute

    Shirley, D. J.

    1993-01-01

    Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) has developed and delivered spacecraft computers for a number of different near-Earth-orbit spacecraft including shuttle experiments and SDIO free-flyer experiments. We describe the evolution of the basic SwRI spacecraft computer design from those weighing in at 20 to 25 lb and using 20 to 30 W to newer models weighing less than 5 lb and using only about 5 W, yet delivering twice the processing throughput. Because of their reduced size, weight, and power, these newer designs are especially applicable to planetary instrument requirements. The basis of our design evolution has been the availability of more powerful processor chip sets and the development of higher density packaging technology, coupled with more aggressive design strategies in incorporating high-density FPGA technology and use of high-density memory chips. In addition to reductions in size, weight, and power, the newer designs also address the necessity of survival in the harsh radiation environment of space. Spurred by participation in such programs as MSTI, LACE, RME, Delta 181, Delta Star, and RADARSAT, our designs have evolved in response to program demands to be small, low-powered units, radiation tolerant enough to be suitable for both Earth-orbit microsats and for planetary instruments. Present designs already include MIL-STD-1750 and Multi-Chip Module (MCM) technology with near-term plans to include RISC processors and higher-density MCM's. Long term plans include development of whole-core processors on one or two MCM's.

  7. Subsidence detection by TerraSAR-X interferometry on a network of natural persistent scatterers and artificial corner reflectors

    Yu, Bing; Liu, Guoxiang; Li, Zhilin; Zhang, Rui; Jia, Hongguo; Wang, Xiaowen; Cai, Guolin

    2013-08-01

    The German satellite TerraSAR-X (TSX) is able to provide high-resolution synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images for mapping surface deformation by the persistent scatterer interferometry (PSI) technique. To extend the application of PSI in detecting subsidence in areas with frequent surface changes, this paper presents a method of TSX PSI on a network of natural persistent scatterers (NPSs) and artificial corner reflectors (CRs) deployed on site. We select a suburban area of southwest Tianjin (China) as the testing site where 16 CRs and 10 leveling points (LPs) are deployed, and utilize 13 TSX images collected over this area between 2009 and 2010 to extract subsidence by the method proposed. Two types of CRs are set around the fishponds and crop parcels. 6 CRs are the conventional ones, i.e., fixed CRs (FCRs), while 10 CRs are the newly-designed ones, i.e., so-called portable CRs (PCRs) with capability of repeatable installation. The numerical analysis shows that the PCRs have the higher temporal stability of radar backscattering than the FCRs, and both of them are better than the NPSs in performance of radar reflectivity. The comparison with the leveling data at the CRs and LPs indicates that the subsidence measurements derived by the TSX PSI method can reach up to a millimeter level accuracy. This demonstrates that the TSX PSI method based on a network of NPSs and CRs is useful for detecting land subsidence in cultivated lands.

  8. The Dynamic Features of Lip Corners in Genuine and Posed Smiles

    Hui Guo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The smile is a frequently expressed facial expression that typically conveys a positive emotional state and friendly intent. However, human beings have also learned how to fake smiles, typically by controlling the mouth to provide a genuine-looking expression. This is often accompanied by inaccuracies that can allow others to determine that the smile is false. Mouth movement is one of the most striking features of the smile, yet our understanding of its dynamic elements is still limited. The present study analyzes the dynamic features of lip corners, and considers how they differ between genuine and posed smiles. Employing computer vision techniques, we investigated elements such as the duration, intensity, speed, symmetry of the lip corners, and certain irregularities in genuine and posed smiles obtained from the UvA-NEMO Smile Database. After utilizing the facial analysis tool OpenFace, we further propose a new approach to segmenting the onset, apex, and offset phases of smiles, as well as a means of measuring irregularities and symmetry in facial expressions. We extracted these features according to 2D and 3D coordinates, and conducted an analysis. The results reveal that genuine smiles have higher values for onset, offset, apex, and total durations, as well as offset displacement, and a variable we termed Irregularity-b (the SD of the apex phase than do posed smiles. Conversely, values tended to be lower for onset and offset Speeds, and Irregularity-a (the rate of peaks, Symmetry-a (the correlation between left and right facial movements, and Symmetry-d (differences in onset frame numbers between the left and right faces. The findings from the present study have been compared to those of previous research, and certain speculations are made.

  9. Posterolateral Corner of the Knee:Current Concepts

    Jorge Chahla

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Injuries to the posterolateral corner (PLC comprise a significant portion of knee ligament injuries. A high index of suspicion is necessary when evaluating the injured knee to detect these sometimes occult injuries. Moreover, a thorough physical examination and a comprehensive review of radiographic studies are necessary to identify these injuries. In this sense, stress radiographs can help to objectively determine the extent of these lesions. Non-operative and operative treatment options have been reported depending on the extent of the injury. Complete PLC lesions rarely heal with non-operative treatment, and are therefore most often treated surgically. The purpose of this article was to review the anatomy and clinically relevant biomechanics, diagnosis algorithms, treatment and rehabilitation protocols for PLC injuries.

  10. Exact results for corner contributions to the entanglement entropy and Rényi entropies of free bosons and fermions in 3d

    Henriette Elvang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In the presence of a sharp corner in the boundary of the entanglement region, the entanglement entropy (EE and Rényi entropies for 3d CFTs have a logarithmic term whose coefficient, the corner function, is scheme-independent. In the limit where the corner becomes smooth, the corner function vanishes quadratically with coefficient σ for the EE and σn for the Rényi entropies. For a free real scalar and a free Dirac fermion, we evaluate analytically the integral expressions of Casini, Huerta, and Leitao to derive exact results for σ and σn for all n=2,3,… . The results for σ agree with a recent universality conjecture of Bueno, Myers, and Witczak-Krempa that σ/CT=π2/24 in all 3d CFTs, where CT is the central charge. For the Rényi entropies, the ratios σn/CT do not indicate similar universality. However, in the limit n→∞, the asymptotic values satisfy a simple relationship and equal 1/(4π2 times the asymptotic values of the free energy of free scalars/fermions on the n-covered 3-sphere.

  11. What's New in the Children's Corner in OF (Oslo Fengsel [Prison])?

    Haagensli, Anne Berte

    This paper examines two themes pertaining to children of incarcerated parents in Norway. The first is the visiting room of a Norwegian prison. The paper briefly describes conditions in and provides photographs of the children's corner of the visiting room at Norway's Oslo Fengsel Prison. The corner was established in 1998 with toys and fresh paint…

  12. Conformal coating by photoresist of sharp corners of anisotropically etched through-holes in silicon

    Heschel, Matthias; Bouwstra, Siebe

    1997-01-01

    The authors describe a photoresist treatment yielding conformal coating of three-dimensional silicon structures. This even includes the sharp corners of through-holes obtained by anisotropic etching in (100)-silicon. Resist reflow from these corners is avoided by replacing the common baking...

  13. The Science, Engineering and Technology Career Library Corner. Final report, February 1, 1995--January 31, 1996

    Cole, P.R.

    1996-03-01

    A grant was made to install and pilot-test the Science, Engineering and Technology (SET) Career Library Corner at the New York Hall of Science. The SET Career Library Corner is located in a multi-media library setting where visitors can explore careers in a quiet, uninterrupted environment, in contrast to the original installation designed as a museum floor exhibit.

  14. Corner Store Inventories, Purchases, and Strategies for Intervention: A Review of the Literature.

    Langellier, Brent A; Garza, Jeremiah R; Prelip, Michael L; Glik, Deborah; Brookmeyer, Ron; Ortega, Alexander N

    2013-01-01

    An increasingly popular strategy to improving the food retail environment and promoting healthy eating in low-income and minority communities is the corner store conversion. This approach involves partnering with small 'corner' food stores to expand access to high-quality fruits, vegetables, and other healthy foods. We conducted a structured review of the literature to assess inventories and sales in corner stores, as well as to identify intervention strategies employed by corner store conversions. Our review returned eight descriptive studies that discussed corner store inventories and sales, as well as ten intervention studies discussing six unique corner store conversion interventions in the United States, the Marshall Islands, and Canada. Common intervention strategies included: 1) partnering with an existing store, 2) stocking healthy foods, and 3) social marketing and nutrition education. We summarize each strategy and review the effectiveness of overall corner store conversions at changing peoples' food purchasing, preparation, and consumption behaviors. Consumption of fresh, healthy, affordable foods could be improved by supporting existing retailers to expand their selection of healthy foods and promoting healthy eating at the neighborhood level. Additional corner store conversions should be conducted to determine the effectiveness and importance of specific intervention strategies.

  15. SOUTHWEST REGIONAL PARTNERSHIP ON CARBON SEQUESTRATION

    Brian McPherson; Rick Allis; Barry Biediger; Joel Brown; Jim Cappa; George Guthrie; Richard Hughes; Eugene Kim; Robert Lee; Dennis Leppin; Charles Mankin; Orman Paananen; Rajesh Pawar; Tarla Peterson; Steve Rauzi; Jerry Stuth; Genevieve Young

    2004-11-01

    The Southwest Partnership Region includes six whole states, including Arizona, Colorado, Kansas, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Utah, roughly one-third of Texas, and significant portions of adjacent states. The Partnership comprises a large, diverse group of expert organizations and individuals specializing in carbon sequestration science and engineering, as well as public policy and outreach. The main objective of the Southwest Partnership project is to achieve an 18% reduction in carbon intensity by 2012. The Partnership made great progress in this first year. Action plans for possible Phase II carbon sequestration pilot tests in the region are almost finished, including both technical and non-technical aspects necessary for developing and carrying out these pilot tests. All partners in the Partnership are taking an active role in evaluating and ranking optimum sites and technologies for capture and storage of CO{sub 2} in the Southwest Region. We are identifying potential gaps in all aspects of potential sequestration deployment issues.

  16. Accurate Analysis of Target Characteristic in Bistatic SAR Images: A Dihedral Corner Reflectors Case.

    Ao, Dongyang; Li, Yuanhao; Hu, Cheng; Tian, Weiming

    2017-12-22

    The dihedral corner reflectors are the basic geometric structure of many targets and are the main contributions of radar cross section (RCS) in the synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images. In stealth technologies, the elaborate design of the dihedral corners with different opening angles is a useful approach to reduce the high RCS generated by multiple reflections. As bistatic synthetic aperture sensors have flexible geometric configurations and are sensitive to the dihedral corners with different opening angles, they specially fit for the stealth target detections. In this paper, the scattering characteristic of dihedral corner reflectors is accurately analyzed in bistatic synthetic aperture images. The variation of RCS with the changing opening angle is formulated and the method to design a proper bistatic radar for maximizing the detection capability is provided. Both the results of the theoretical analysis and the experiments show the bistatic SAR could detect the dihedral corners, under a certain bistatic angle which is related to the geometry of target structures.

  17. The corner rounding modeling technique in SPICE simulations for deeply scaled MOSFETs

    Sun Wei; Yang Dake

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel poly (PC) and active (RX) corner rounding modeling approach to SPICE simulations. A set of specially designed structures was used for measurement data collection. PC and RX corner rounding equations have been derived based on an assumption that the corner rounding area is a fragment of a circle. The equations were modified to reflect the gouging effect of physical silicon wafers. The modified general equations were implemented in the SPICE model to enable the model to describe the corner rounding effect. The good fittings between the SPICE model simulation results and the silicon data demonstrated in this paper proved that the designed corner rounding model is practical and accurate. (semiconductor devices)

  18. Southwest Direct Express Bus Demonstration in Orlando, FL

    1988-04-01

    In August 1983, the Orange-Seminole-Osceola Transit Authority (OSOTA) initiated six express bus routes in the southwest corridor of Orlando (known collectively as the Southwest Direct) as an UMTA-funded demonstration project. While one objective of t...

  19. 2005 Southwest Florida Water Management District (SWFWMD) Lidar: Manatee District

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) LAS dataset is a survey of select areas within Southwest Florida. These data were produced for the Southwest Florida Water...

  20. Sonographic assessment of predictors of depth of the corner pocket for ultrasound-guided supraclavicular brachial plexus block

    Naveen Yadav

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Prescanning of supraclavicular region for estimating depth of corner pocket should be done before choosing an appropriate size needle. Furthermore, the needle should not be advanced more than the predicted corner pocket depth.

  1. Southwest British Columbia natural gas supply and deliverability: Discussion paper

    1994-02-01

    A review is presented of energy in British Columbia, the role of natural gas, and options available to enhance gas supply security in the province's most densely populated area, the southwest. British Columbia has abundant natural gas supplies, and production exceeds domestic demand. In 1992, natural gas supplied ca 25% of total provincial end-use energy requirements, but this share is expected to rise to 30% by 2015. Although some say that the province's natural gas production and transmission system should serve only domestic needs, this would have significant negative impacts. Domestic gas supply policy allows gas consumers to contract their own supplies, but contract security is required. Provincial guidelines allow demand-side programs to compete with supply sources to ensure that the resource profile is achieved at least cost. In the southwest, natural gas demand is projected to increase from 189 PJ in 1991 to 262 PJ by 2005. Most gas supplied to this region comes from northeast British Columbia through pipelines that are generally fully contracted. Short-term deliverability can be a problem, especially in peak winter demand periods. The gas industry's contingency plans for shortages are outlined and alternatives to enhance deliverability to the southwest are assessed, including storage, expansion of the pipeline system, supply curtailment, and peaking supply contracts. Aspects of provincial natural gas planning are discussed, including security of supply and deliverability, economic and environmental impacts, consumer costs, safety, and the public interest. A least-cost option for enhancing deliverability (underground storage and an additional liquefied natural gas plant) is estimated to cost consumers $3.69/GJ over 20 years. 9 figs., 1 tab

  2. Storing Empty Calories and Chronic Disease Risk: Snack-Food Products, Nutritive Content, and Manufacturers in Philadelphia Corner Stores

    Lucan, Sean C.; Karpyn, Allison; Sherman, Sandy

    2010-01-01

    Corner stores are part of the urban food environment that may contribute to obesity and diet-related diseases, particularly for low-income and minority children. The snack foods available in corner stores may be a particularly important aspect of an urban child’s food environment. Unfortunately, there is little data on exactly what snack foods corner stores stock, or where these foods come from. We evaluated snack foods in 17 Philadelphia corner stores, located in three ethnically distinct, l...

  3. Mexican-Americans in the Southwest.

    Galarza, Ernesto; And Others

    With findings as presented in this 1969 book, a 2-year field study conducted by a 3-member team analyzed the economic, cultural, political, and educational conditions of Mexican Americans in the Southwest (California, Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado, and Texas) with some reference to braceros and the situation in Mexico. An overview of 8 geographic…

  4. Southwest Energy Innovation Forum: Summary Report

    Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation, Arizona State University (ASU), and U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy (ARPA-E) co-convened a conference on Energy Innovation in the Southwest region of the United States that included participation by entrepreneurs, state government officials, representatives of academia,…

  5. An investigation of the flow characteristics in the blade endwall corner region

    Hazarika, Birinchi K.; Raj, Rishi S.

    1987-01-01

    Studies were undertaken to determine the structure of the flow in the blade end wall corner region simulated by attaching two uncambered airfoils on either side of a flat plate with a semicircular leading edge. Detailed measurements of the corner flow were obtained with conventional pressure probes, hot wire anemometry, and flow visualization. The mean velocity profiles and six components of the Reynolds stress tensor were obtained with an inclined single sensor hot wire probe whereas power spectra were obtained with a single sensor oriented normal to the flow. Three streamwise vortices were identified based on the surface streamlines, distortion of total pressure profiles, and variation of mean velocity components in the corner. A horseshoe vortex formed near the leading edge of the airfoil. Within a short distance downstream, a corner vortex was detected between the horseshoe vortex and the surfaces forming the corner. A third vortex was formed at the rear portion of the corner between the corner vortex and the surface of the flat plate. Turbulent shear stress and production of turbulence are negligibly small. A region of negative turbulent shear stress was also observed near the region of low turbulence intensity from the vicinity of the flat plate.

  6. Turning the corner : taking action to fight climate change

    2008-03-01

    Climate change is an international problem that necessitates global solutions. Previous governments in Canada had established ambitious goals for reducing greenhouse gases, yet emissions continued to increase. Canada's greenhouse gas emissions are significantly higher than they were in 1990, and also significantly above its Kyoto target. The Canadian government is committed to stopping the increase of Canada's greenhouse gas emissions and drastically reducing them through a high-level framework entitled 'Turning the Corner: action plan for reducing emissions'. This brochure outlined the Canadian government's action plan to ensure Canada is on a responsible path to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to address the global threat of climate change. The brochure discussed how Canada is getting tough on industry's emissions and discussed regulations that will apply to 16 sectors. Actions to lower emissions from vehicles and buildings were also presented, including mandatory renewable fuel content in gasoline, diesel and heating oil; tough new fuel consumption standards for cars, light trucks, and sport utility vehicles; and implementing new national performance standards that will ban inefficient incandescent lightbulbs. 3 figs

  7. Physics from the four corners of the world

    2005-01-01

    The field of particle physics is well-known for being a world without frontiers, bringing together researchers of all nationalitie who in spite of their linguistic and cultural differences, work together in the shared pursuit of a fundamental understanding of the universe. On 2nd December, this reality was demonstrated on the internet with a webcast called 'Beyond Einstein', organised by CERN, which for 12 hours brought together physics communities from the four corners of the world. The event, the first of its kind organised on this scale, attracted 30,000 spectators on the Web and in numerous studios. Furthermore, Pakistani national television broadcast all 12 hours of programming, an Italian channel also provided coverage, and many more people tuned in on satellite television. The site of the webcast during the programme from Imperial Colllege London presented by Gareth Mitchell.At Fermilab near Chicago in the US, Nobel-Prize winner Leon Lederman hosted a show called The Late Show with Leon Lederman, feat...

  8. Corner-transport-upwind lattice Boltzmann model for bubble cavitation

    Sofonea, V.; Biciuşcǎ, T.; Busuioc, S.; Ambruş, Victor E.; Gonnella, G.; Lamura, A.

    2018-02-01

    Aiming to study the bubble cavitation problem in quiescent and sheared liquids, a third-order isothermal lattice Boltzmann model that describes a two-dimensional (2D) fluid obeying the van der Waals equation of state, is introduced. The evolution equations for the distribution functions in this off-lattice model with 16 velocities are solved using the corner-transport-upwind (CTU) numerical scheme on large square lattices (up to 6144 ×6144 nodes). The numerical viscosity and the regularization of the model are discussed for first- and second-order CTU schemes finding that the latter choice allows to obtain a very accurate phase diagram of a nonideal fluid. In a quiescent liquid, the present model allows us to recover the solution of the 2D Rayleigh-Plesset equation for a growing vapor bubble. In a sheared liquid, we investigated the evolution of the total bubble area, the bubble deformation, and the bubble tilt angle, for various values of the shear rate. A linear relation between the dimensionless deformation coefficient D and the capillary number Ca is found at small Ca but with a different factor than in equilibrium liquids. A nonlinear regime is observed for Ca≳0.2 .

  9. Cracking at nozzle corners in the nuclear pressure vessel industry

    Smith, C.W.

    1986-01-01

    Cracks in nozzle corners at the pressure boundary of nuclear reactors have been frequently observed in service. These cracks tend to form with radial orientations with respect to the nozzle central axis and are believed to be initiated by thermal shock. However, their growth is believed to be primarily due to a steady plus a fluctuating internal pressure. Due to the impracticality of fracture testing of full-scale models, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory instituted the use of an intermediate test vessel (ITV) for use in fracture testing which had the same wall thickness and nozzle size as the prototype but significantly reduced overall length and diameter. In order to determine whether or not these ITVs could provide realistic data for full-scale reactor vessels, laboratory models of full-scale boiling water reactors and ITVs were constructed and tested. After briefly reviewing the laboratory testing and correlating results with service experience, results obtained will be used to draw some general conclusions regarding the stable growth of nonplanar cracks with curved crack fronts which are the most common precursors to fracture of pressure vessel components near junctures. Use of linear elastic fracture mechanics is made in determining stress-intensity distribution along the crack fronts

  10. MR imaging of the posterolateral corner of the knee

    Bolog, Nicolae [Emergency Hospital, Department of Radiology, Bucharest (Romania); Hodler, Juerg [Orthopaedic University Hospital Balgrist, Department of Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2007-08-15

    The posterolateral corner (PLC) is a complex functional unit, consisting of several structures, which is responsible for posterolateral stabilization. The PLC is not consistently defined in the literature. However, most descriptions include the popliteal tendon (PT), the lateral collateral ligament (LCL), the popliteofibular ligament (PFL) and the posterolateral capsule, which is reinforced by the arcuate ligament (AL) and the fabellofibular ligament (FFL). Knowledge of PLC anatomy, including its variations, and understanding of the biomechanics is important for correct diagnosis of PLC injuries. An overlooked PLC injury can result in chronic instability, chronic pain, and, eventually, in secondary osteoarthritis. Damage to the PLC also has an adverse effect on the outcome of cruciate ligament repair. Isolated lesions of the PLC are rare. PLC lesions are typically associated with injuries of the cruciate ligaments, the menisci, bone and soft tissue. In the acute phase, clinical findings can be difficult to interpret due to pain and swelling. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging potentially demonstrates the entire spectrum of PLC injuries and associated lesions of the knee, including those that may be overlooked during clinical examination or arthroscopy. (orig.)

  11. Injuries to posterolateral corner of the knee: a comprehensive review from anatomy to surgical treatment☆

    Crespo, Bernardo; James, Evan W.; Metsavaht, Leonardo; LaPrade, Robert F.

    2014-01-01

    Although injuries to the posterolateral corner of the knee were previously considered to be a rare condition, they have been shown to be present in almost 16% of all knee injuries and are responsible for sustained instability and failure of concomitant reconstructions if not properly recognized. Although also once considered to be the “dark side of the knee”, increased knowledge of the posterolateral corner anatomy and biomechanics has led to improved diagnostic ability with better understanding of physical and imaging examinations. The management of posterolateral corner injuries has also evolved and good outcomes have been reported after operative treatment following anatomical reconstruction principles. PMID:26401495

  12. Centroid stabilization for laser alignment to corner cubes: designing a matched filter

    Awwal, Abdul A. S.; Bliss, Erlan; Brunton, Gordon; Kamm, Victoria Miller; Leach, Richard R.; Lowe-Webb, Roger; Roberts, Randy; Wilhelmsen, Karl

    2016-11-08

    Automation of image-based alignment of National Ignition Facility high energy laser beams is providing the capability of executing multiple target shots per day. One important alignment is beam centration through the second and third harmonic generating crystals in the final optics assembly (FOA), which employs two retroreflecting corner cubes as centering references for each beam. Beam-to-beam variations and systematic beam changes over time in the FOA corner cube images can lead to a reduction in accuracy as well as increased convergence durations for the template-based position detector. A systematic approach is described that maintains FOA corner cube templates and guarantees stable position estimation.

  13. 4-corner arthrodesis and proximal row carpectomy: a biomechanical comparison of wrist motion and tendon forces.

    Debottis, Daniel P; Werner, Frederick W; Sutton, Levi G; Harley, Brian J

    2013-05-01

    Controversy exists as to whether a proximal row carpectomy (PRC) is a better procedure than scaphoid excision with 4-corner arthrodesis for preserving motion in the painful posttraumatic arthritic wrist. The purpose of this study was to determine how the kinematics and tendon forces of the wrist are altered after PRC and 4-corner arthrodesis. We tested 6 fresh cadaver forearms for the extremes of wrist motion and then used a wrist simulator to move them through 4 cyclic dynamic wrist motions, during which time we continuously recorded the tendon forces. We repeated the extremes of wrist motion measurements and the dynamic motions after scaphoid excision with 4-corner arthrodesis, and then again after PRC. We analyzed extremes of wrist motion and the peak tendon forces required for each dynamic motion using a repeated measures analysis of variance. Wrist extremes of motion significantly decreased after both the PRC and 4-corner arthrodesis compared with the intact wrist. Wrist flexion decreased on average 13° after 4-corner arthrodesis and 12° after PRC. Extension decreased 20° after 4-corner arthrodesis and 12° after PRC. Four-corner arthrodesis significantly decreased wrist ulnar deviation from the intact wrist. Four-corner arthrodesis allowed more radial deviation but less ulnar deviation than the PRC. The average peak tendon force was significantly greater after 4-corner arthrodesis than after PRC for the extensor carpi ulnaris during wrist flexion-extension, circumduction, and dart throw motions. The peak forces were significantly greater after 4-corner arthrodesis than in the intact wrist for the extensor carpi ulnaris during the dart throw motion and for the flexor carpi ulnaris during the circumduction motion. The peak extensor carpi radialis brevis force after PRC was significantly less than in the intact wrist. The measured wrist extremes of motion decreased after both 4-corner arthrodesis and PRC. Larger peak tendon forces were required to achieve

  14. Brain medical image diagnosis based on corners with importance-values.

    Gao, Linlin; Pan, Haiwei; Li, Qing; Xie, Xiaoqin; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Han, Jinming; Zhai, Xiao

    2017-11-21

    Brain disorders are one of the top causes of human death. Generally, neurologists analyze brain medical images for diagnosis. In the image analysis field, corners are one of the most important features, which makes corner detection and matching studies essential. However, existing corner detection studies do not consider the domain information of brain. This leads to many useless corners and the loss of significant information. Regarding corner matching, the uncertainty and structure of brain are not employed in existing methods. Moreover, most corner matching studies are used for 3D image registration. They are inapplicable for 2D brain image diagnosis because of the different mechanisms. To address these problems, we propose a novel corner-based brain medical image classification method. Specifically, we automatically extract multilayer texture images (MTIs) which embody diagnostic information from neurologists. Moreover, we present a corner matching method utilizing the uncertainty and structure of brain medical images and a bipartite graph model. Finally, we propose a similarity calculation method for diagnosis. Brain CT and MRI image sets are utilized to evaluate the proposed method. First, classifiers are trained in N-fold cross-validation analysis to produce the best θ and K. Then independent brain image sets are tested to evaluate the classifiers. Moreover, the classifiers are also compared with advanced brain image classification studies. For the brain CT image set, the proposed classifier outperforms the comparison methods by at least 8% on accuracy and 2.4% on F1-score. Regarding the brain MRI image set, the proposed classifier is superior to the comparison methods by more than 7.3% on accuracy and 4.9% on F1-score. Results also demonstrate that the proposed method is robust to different intensity ranges of brain medical image. In this study, we develop a robust corner-based brain medical image classifier. Specifically, we propose a corner detection

  15. Which currency exchange regime for emerging markets?: Corner solutions under question

    Allegret Jean-Pierre

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available During the 90s, recurrent exchange rate crises in emerging markets have shown the extreme fragility of soft pegs, the so-called intermediate exchange rate regimes. As a result, numerous academic economists but also International institutions have promoted a new consensus: domestic authorities have to choose their exchange rate regime between only two solutions called corner solutions or extreme regimes: hard pegs or independent floating. This paper questions de relevance of this consensus. We stress the main advantages and costs of each corner solution. We conclude by stressing that intermediate regimes associated to an inflation targeting framework seem a better solution for emerging countries than corner solutions.

  16. Upscaling Ameriflux observations to assess drought impacts on gross primary productivity across the Southwest

    Barnes, M.; Moore, D. J.; Scott, R. L.; MacBean, N.; Ponce-Campos, G. E.; Breshears, D. D.

    2017-12-01

    Both satellite observations and eddy covariance estimates provide crucial information about the Earth's carbon, water and energy cycles. Continuous measurements from flux towers facilitate exploration of the exchange of carbon dioxide, water and energy between the land surface and the atmosphere at fine temporal and spatial scales, while satellite observations can fill in the large spatial gaps of in-situ measurements and provide long-term temporal continuity. The Southwest (Southwest United States and Northwest Mexico) and other semi-arid regions represent a key uncertainty in interannual variability in carbon uptake. Comparisons of existing global upscaled gross primary production (GPP) products with flux tower data at sites across the Southwest show widespread mischaracterization of seasonality in vegetation carbon uptake, resulting in large (up to 200%) errors in annual carbon uptake estimates. Here, remotely sensed and distributed meteorological inputs are used to upscale GPP estimates from 25 Ameriflux towers across the Southwest to the regional scale using a machine learning approach. Our random forest model incorporates two novel features that improve the spatial and temporal variability in GPP. First, we incorporate a multi-scalar drought index at multiple timescales to account for differential seasonality between ecosystem types. Second, our machine learning algorithm was trained on twenty five ecologically diverse sites to optimize both the monthly variability in and the seasonal cycle of GPP. The product and its components will be used to examine drought impacts on terrestrial carbon cycling across the Southwest including the effects of drought seasonality and on carbon uptake. Our spatially and temporally continuous upscaled GPP product drawing from both ground and satellite data over the Southwest region helps us understand linkages between the carbon and water cycles in semi-arid ecosystems and informs predictions of vegetation response to future

  17. Generalized transmissibilities for corner point rids in reservoir simulation; Transmissibilidades generalizadas em malhas corner point na simulacao de reservatorios

    Tada, Mauricio P.; Silva, Antonio Fabio C. da; Maliska, Clovis R. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Lab. de Simulacao Numerica em Mecanica dos Fluidos e Transferencia de Calor (SINMEC)

    2008-07-01

    It is common to use five points schemes in reservoir simulation, since it simplifies the computational implementation and takes the linear resultant system simplest to be solved, giving more process velocity and robust to simulator. However, the use of these schemes may introduce significant errors solutions as function of volume's non orthogonality and medium anisotropy. These errors do not disappear with grid refinement since they are not truncate errors, it is a flux calculus approximation in the control volume faces. In order to get a correct solution and with no errors of these kind, it must be used a nine point scheme based on the correct flux calculus. The objective of this work is to present a new methodology to calculate the transmissibility on simulation reservoir that use a five and nine points scheme with corner-points grids. This mode considers full tensor anisotropy and the heterogeneity. The transmissibility presented are derivative of the discrete flux expression through control volume faces, where a generalized curvilinear coordinate system, located inner to the control volume, it is adopted. The transmissibility is then written on vector form and may to be used for any coordinate system. (author)

  18. Southwest Regional Partnership on Carbon Sequestration

    Brian McPherson

    2006-03-31

    The Southwest Partnership on Carbon Sequestration completed its Phase I program in December 2005. The main objective of the Southwest Partnership Phase I project was to evaluate and demonstrate the means for achieving an 18% reduction in carbon intensity by 2012. Many other goals were accomplished on the way to this objective, including (1) analysis of CO{sub 2} storage options in the region, including characterization of storage capacities and transportation options, (2) analysis and summary of CO{sub 2} sources, (3) analysis and summary of CO{sub 2} separation and capture technologies employed in the region, (4) evaluation and ranking of the most appropriate sequestration technologies for capture and storage of CO{sub 2} in the Southwest Region, (5) dissemination of existing regulatory/permitting requirements, and (6) assessing and initiating public knowledge and acceptance of possible sequestration approaches. Results of the Southwest Partnership's Phase I evaluation suggested that the most convenient and practical ''first opportunities'' for sequestration would lie along existing CO{sub 2} pipelines in the region. Action plans for six Phase II validation tests in the region were developed, with a portfolio that includes four geologic pilot tests distributed among Utah, New Mexico, and Texas. The Partnership will also conduct a regional terrestrial sequestration pilot program focusing on improved terrestrial MMV methods and reporting approaches specific for the Southwest region. The sixth and final validation test consists of a local-scale terrestrial pilot involving restoration of riparian lands for sequestration purposes. The validation test will use desalinated waters produced from one of the geologic pilot tests. The Southwest Regional Partnership comprises a large, diverse group of expert organizations and individuals specializing in carbon sequestration science and engineering, as well as public policy and outreach. These partners

  19. Vehicle kinematics in turns and the role of cornering lamps in driver vision.

    2010-11-01

    "SAE Recommended Practice J852 and ECE Regulations 119 and 48 for cornering lamps : were compared. Photometric points described in each specification were then compared : to naturalistic low-speed turn trajectories produced by 87 drivers. Future loca...

  20. Stress intensity factors of corner cracks in two nozzle-cylinder intersections

    Kobayashi, A.S.; Polvanich, N.; Emery, A.F.; Love, W.J.

    1977-01-01

    In a recent paper, the authors presented the stress-intensity-magnification factors of a quarter-elliptical surface crack in a quarter-infinite solid and a circular crack approaching a reentry corner in a three-quarter infinite solid. These stress-intensity-magnification factors were used together with a curvature-correction factor to estimate the stress-intensity factor of a corner crack at a nozzle-cylinder intersection. Through appropriate superposition of the above stress-intensity-magnification factors, stress-intensity factors for hypothetical corner cracks at a nozzle-cylinder intersection subjected to internal pressure and transient thermal-stress loadings can be obtained. A description of a computer code based on this procedure as well as its applications in analyzing two corner-crack problems at a nozzle-cylinder intersection are discussed in this paper

  1. Stress intensity factors of corner cracks in two nozzle-cylinder interactions

    Kobayashi, A.S.; Polvanich, N.; Emery, A.F.; Love, W.J.

    1977-01-01

    In a recent paper, the authors presented the stress-intensity-magnification factors of a quarter-elliptical surface crack in a quarter-infinite solid and a circular crack approaching a reentry corner in a three-quarter infinite solid. These stress-intensity-magnification factors were used together with a curvature-correction factor to estimate the stress-intensity factor of a corner crack at a nozzle-cylinder interaction. Through appropriate superposition of the above stress-intensity-magnification factors, stress-intensity factors for hypothetical corner cracks at a nozzle-cylinder intersection subjected to internal pressure and transient thermal-stress loadings can be obtained. A description of a computer code based on this procedure as well as its applications in analyzing two corner-crack probems at a nozzle-cylinder intersection are discussed in this paper. (Auth.)

  2. Transformation of the corner: A shield cloak and a planar retro-reflector

    Yang, R.; Lei, Z. Y.; Fan, J.; Gao, D. X.; Wang, Z. X.; Xie, Y. J.

    2013-10-01

    A metallic sheet, coated with a few blocks of all-dielectric isotropic materials, is presented for creating an illusion or an image of a corner based on quasi-conformal transformation optics. On the one hand, our design is able to generate cloaking effects to conceal objects hiding inside a corner. On the other hand, we propose to use such a planar transformation device to represent a corner reflector that reflects light directly back to its source. The full wave simulation shows our device is capable of operating considerably well in a broad frequency range, and presents only the appearance of a bare corner functioning as a shield cloak or a planar retro-reflector.

  3. November 2007 Multibeam Mapping of South West corner of Pulley Ridge

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This disk or set of disks contain high-resolution multibeam and backscatter maps of the south-western corner of the Pulley Ridge Area, near the Tortugas, in the Gulf...

  4. Modeling and calculation of impact friction caused by corner contact in gear transmission

    Zhou, Changjiang; Chen, Siyu

    2014-09-01

    Corner contact in gear pair causes vibration and noise, which has attracted many attentions. However, teeth errors and deformation make it difficulty to determine the point situated at corner contact and study the mechanism of teeth impact friction in the current researches. Based on the mechanism of corner contact, the process of corner contact is divided into two stages of impact and scratch, and the calculation model including gear equivalent error—combined deformation is established along the line of action. According to the distributive law, gear equivalent error is synthesized by base pitch error, normal backlash and tooth profile modification on the line of action. The combined tooth compliance of the first point lying in corner contact before the normal path is inversed along the line of action, on basis of the theory of engagement and the curve of tooth synthetic compliance & load-history. Combined secondarily the equivalent error with the combined deflection, the position standard of the point situated at corner contact is probed. Then the impact positions and forces, from the beginning to the end during corner contact before the normal path, are calculated accurately. Due to the above results, the lash model during corner contact is founded, and the impact force and frictional coefficient are quantified. A numerical example is performed and the averaged impact friction coefficient based on the presented calculation method is validated. This research obtains the results which could be referenced to understand the complex mechanism of teeth impact friction and quantitative calculation of the friction force and coefficient, and to gear exact design for tribology.

  5. Three-Dimensional Elasto-Plastic Calculations Using Yield Surfaces with Corner Discontinuities

    Clausen, Johan; Andersen, Lars; Damkilde, Lars

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a simple and efficient way of dealing with the corners found in many yield surfaces, especially in geotechnical engineering. The efficiency of the method is demonstrated through three-dimensional computational examples.......This paper presents a simple and efficient way of dealing with the corners found in many yield surfaces, especially in geotechnical engineering. The efficiency of the method is demonstrated through three-dimensional computational examples....

  6. Euler-Vector Clustering of GPS Velocities Defines Microplate Geometry in Southwest Japan

    Savage, J. C.

    2018-02-01

    I have used Euler-vector clustering to assign 469 GEONET stations in southwest Japan to k clusters (k = 2, 3,..., 9) so that, for any k, the velocities of stations within each cluster are most consistent with rigid-block motion on a sphere. That is, I attempt to explain the raw (i.e., uncorrected for strain accumulation), 1996-2006 velocities of those 469 Global Positioning System stations by rigid motion of k clusters on the surface of a spherical Earth. Because block geometry is maintained as strain accumulates, Euler-vector clustering may better approximate the block geometry than the values of the associated Euler vectors. The microplate solution for each k is constructed by merging contiguous clusters that have closely similar Euler vectors. The best solution consists of three microplates arranged along the Nankaido Trough-Ryukyu Trench between the Amurian and Philippine Sea Plates. One of these microplates, the South Kyushu Microplate (an extension of the Ryukyu forearc into the southeast corner of Kyushu), had previously been identified from paleomagnetic rotations. Relative to ITRF2000 the three microplates rotate at different rates about neighboring poles located close to the northwest corner of Shikoku. The microplate model is identical to that proposed in the block model of Wallace et al. (2009, https://doi.org/10.1130/G2522A.1) except in southernmost Kyushu. On Shikoku and Honshu, but not Kyushu, the microplate model is consistent with that proposed in the block models of Nishimura and Hashimoto (2006, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tecto.2006.04.017) and Loveless and Meade (2010, https://doi.org/10.1029/2008JB006248) without the low-slip-rate boundaries proposed in the latter.

  7. Distribution majorization of corner points by reinforcement learning for moving object detection

    Wu, Hao; Yu, Hao; Zhou, Dongxiang; Cheng, Yongqiang

    2018-04-01

    Corner points play an important role in moving object detection, especially in the case of free-moving camera. Corner points provide more accurate information than other pixels and reduce the computation which is unnecessary. Previous works only use intensity information to locate the corner points, however, the information that former and the last frames provided also can be used. We utilize the information to focus on more valuable area and ignore the invaluable area. The proposed algorithm is based on reinforcement learning, which regards the detection of corner points as a Markov process. In the Markov model, the video to be detected is regarded as environment, the selections of blocks for one corner point are regarded as actions and the performance of detection is regarded as state. Corner points are assigned to be the blocks which are seperated from original whole image. Experimentally, we select a conventional method which uses marching and Random Sample Consensus algorithm to obtain objects as the main framework and utilize our algorithm to improve the result. The comparison between the conventional method and the same one with our algorithm show that our algorithm reduce 70% of the false detection.

  8. Investigation of corner shock boundary layer interactions to understand inlet unstart

    Funderburk, Morgan

    2015-11-01

    Inlet unstart is a detrimental phenomenon in dual-mode ramjet/scramjet engines that causes severe loss of thrust, large transient structural load, and potentially a loss of the aircraft. In order to analyze the effects that the corner shock boundary layer interaction (SBLI) has on initiating and perpetuating inlet unstart, a qualitative and quantitative investigation into mean and dynamic features of corner SBLI at various Mach numbers is made. Surface streakline visualization showed that the corner SBLI is highly three-dimensional with a dominant presence of corner separation vortex. Further, the peak r.m.s. pressure was located at the periphery of corner separation vortex, suggesting that the unsteady loading is caused by the corner vortex. Power spectral densities of wall-pressure fluctuations in the peak r.m.s. location were analyzed in order to characterize the dominant frequencies of oscillation of the flow structures and to unravel the dynamic interactions between them in order to expand the operating margin of future hypersonic air breathing vehicles.

  9. Numerical study of corner separation in a linear compressor cascade using various turbulence models

    Liu Yangwei

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional corner separation is a common phenomenon that significantly affects compressor performance. Turbulence model is still a weakness for RANS method on predicting corner separation flow accurately. In the present study, numerical study of corner separation in a linear highly loaded prescribed velocity distribution (PVD compressor cascade has been investigated using seven frequently used turbulence models. The seven turbulence models include Spalart–Allmaras model, standard k–ɛ model, realizable k–ɛ model, standard k–ω model, shear stress transport k–ω model, v2–f model and Reynolds stress model. The results of these turbulence models have been compared and analyzed in detail with available experimental data. It is found the standard k–ɛ model, realizable k–ɛ model, v2–f model and Reynolds stress model can provide reasonable results for predicting three dimensional corner separation in the compressor cascade. The Spalart–Allmaras model, standard k–ω model and shear stress transport k–ω model overestimate corner separation region at incidence of 0°. The turbulence characteristics are discussed and turbulence anisotropy is observed to be stronger in the corner separating region.

  10. Contour-Based Corner Detection and Classification by Using Mean Projection Transform

    Seyed Mostafa Mousavi Kahaki

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Image corner detection is a fundamental task in computer vision. Many applications require reliable detectors to accurately detect corner points, commonly achieved by using image contour information. The curvature definition is sensitive to local variation and edge aliasing, and available smoothing methods are not sufficient to address these problems properly. Hence, we propose Mean Projection Transform (MPT as a corner classifier and parabolic fit approximation to form a robust detector. The first step is to extract corner candidates using MPT based on the integral properties of the local contours in both the horizontal and vertical directions. Then, an approximation of the parabolic fit is calculated to localize the candidate corner points. The proposed method presents fewer false-positive (FP and false-negative (FN points compared with recent standard corner detection techniques, especially in comparison with curvature scale space (CSS methods. Moreover, a new evaluation metric, called accuracy of repeatability (AR, is introduced. AR combines repeatability and the localization error (Le for finding the probability of correct detection in the target image. The output results exhibit better repeatability, localization, and AR for the detected points compared with the criteria in original and transformed images.

  11. Real Time Corner Detection for Miniaturized Electro-Optical Sensors Onboard Small Unmanned Aerial Systems

    Antonio Moccia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the target detection algorithm for the image processor of a vision-based system that is installed onboard an unmanned helicopter. It has been developed in the framework of a project of the French national aerospace research center Office National d’Etudes et de Recherches Aérospatiales (ONERA which aims at developing an air-to-ground target tracking mission in an unknown urban environment. In particular, the image processor must detect targets and estimate ground motion in proximity of the detected target position. Concerning the target detection function, the analysis has dealt with realizing a corner detection algorithm and selecting the best choices in terms of edge detection methods, filtering size and type and the more suitable criterion of detection of the points of interest in order to obtain a very fast algorithm which fulfills the computation load requirements. The compared criteria are the Harris-Stephen and the Shi-Tomasi, ones, which are the most widely used in literature among those based on intensity. Experimental results which illustrate the performance of the developed algorithm and demonstrate that the detection time is fully compliant with the requirements of the real-time system are discussed.

  12. Male and Female Social Actor Representation in Four Corners 4: A Critical Discourse Perspective

    Ali Roohani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at investigating the linguistic representation of male and female social actors in the Four Corners 4 textbook, drawing on CDA. More specifically, van Leeuwen’s (1996 framework, which highlights the connection of linguistic and social practices, is used as the analytical framework to examine gendered social actors in this English language teaching (ELT textbook. To this end, content analysis was done to explore the frequency and proportion of each social actor. Quantitative and qualitative data analysis showed that there were some differences, though not statistically significant, between males and females regarding substitution, individualization, and activation. Males, in contrast with females, were included more as active and famous actors in social circumstances and they were more individualized. In addition, they were more activated through circumstantialization and participation. On the other hand, the case of formalization was mostly observed for males. Moreover, males and females were distributed equally in the textbook in terms of classification, genericization, and collectivization. The results reveal that the gender bias still exists, though to a small degree, in this ELT textbook, which is taught as a substitution for the previous ELT textbooks in many language schools in Iran.

  13. Earthquake-triggered landslides in southwest China

    X. L. Chen; Q. Zhou; H. Ran; R. Dong

    2012-01-01

    Southwest China is located in the southeastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau and it is a region of high seismic activity. Historically, strong earthquakes that occurred here usually generated lots of landslides and brought destructive damages. This paper introduces several earthquake-triggered landslide events in this region and describes their characteristics. Also, the historical data of earthquakes with a magnitude of 7.0 or greater, having occurred in this region, is col...

  14. Southwest Regional Clean Energy Incubation Initiative (SRCEII)

    Webber, Michael [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    2017-10-31

    The Austin Technology Incubator’s (ATI’s) Clean Energy Incubator at the University of Texas at Austin (ATI-CEI) utilized the National Incubator Initiative for Clean Energy (NIICE) funding to establish the Southwest Regional Clean Energy Incubation Initiative, composed of clean energy incubators from The University of Texas at Austin (UT-Austin), The University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP), The University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA), and Texas A&M University (TAMU).

  15. Discriminating the biophysical impacts of coastal upwelling and mud banks along the southwest coast of India

    Karnan, C.; Jyothibabu, R.; Arunpandi, N.; Jagadeesan, L.; Muraleedharan, K. R.; Pratihari, A. K.; Balachandran, K. K.; Naqvi, S. W. A.

    2017-08-01

    Coastal upwelling and mud banks are two oceanographic processes concurrently operating along certain stretches of the southwest (Kerala) coast of India during the Southwest Monsoon period (June-September), facilitating significant enhancement in plankton biomass. Mud banks have scientific and societal attention from time immemorial, predominantly due to the large fisheries associated with them. In this paper, for the first time, the specific biophysical roles of these oceanographic processes have been discriminated, based on a focused 18 weekly/fortnightly time-series study (April to September 2014) in a mud bank-upwelling area (off Alappuzha, southwest coast of India). In conjunction with standard hydrographical and satellite remote sensing data, we utilised a FlowCAM to track the biophysical linkage in terms of plankton composition abundance and size structure at three locations (M1, M2 and M3) in the study area. During the Pre-Southwest Monsoon (April-May), the entire study area was warmer with low nitrate concentration in the surface waters, which caused lower biomass of autotrophs compared to the Southwest Monsoon (June-September). By the onset of the Southwest Monsoon (June), drastic hydrographical transformations took place in the study domain due to the Coastal upwelling, reflected as the surfacing of significantly cool, high nutrient and hypoxic waters. Concurrently, mud bank formed at location M2 due to the presence of relatively high-suspended sediments in the region, creating a localised calm environment conducive for fishing activities. In response to the hydrographical transformations in the entire study area during the Southwest Monsoon, the autotrophic plankton biomass and size structure experienced significant change. The micro-autotrophs biomass that was low during the Pre-Southwest Monsoon (av. 0.33 ± 0.2 mgC L- 1 at surface and av. 0.07 ± 0.04 mgC L- 1 at subsurface) noticeably increased during the Southwest Monsoon (av. 1.6 ± 0.4 mgC L- 1 at

  16. 2012 Southwest Florida Water Management District (SWFWMD) Lidar: Lake Manatee

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Geographic Information System (GIS). Southwest Florida Water Management District (SWFWMD) regularly uses digital topographic information to support regulatory, land...

  17. 75 FR 61790 - Capital Southwest Corporation; Notice of Application

    2010-10-06

    ... makes available significant managerial assistance with respect to the issuers of such securities. 2... Accounting Standards Board for operating companies. In addition, Capital Southwest will comply with the...

  18. JIATF-SWB: Building an Operational Bridge for the Southwest Border

    2011-04-12

    mexican_cartels_integr.htm. (accessed 20 March 2011). 4 Office of the President. “Obtener la base de datos de Fallecimientos ocurridos por presunta rivalidad...Obtener la base de datos de Fallecimientos ocurridos por presunta rivalidad delincuencial en el periodo diciembre 2006 a diciembre 2010... basing , technical, intelligence, and training support to JIATF-SWB. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Mexico, Southwest Border, USNORTHCOM, Interagency, 16

  19. Changes in food and beverage environments after an urban corner store intervention.

    Cavanaugh, Erica; Green, Sarah; Mallya, Giridhar; Tierney, Ann; Brensinger, Colleen; Glanz, Karen

    2014-08-01

    In response to the obesity epidemic, interventions to improve the food environment in corner stores have gained attention. This study evaluated the availability, quality, and price of foods in Philadelphia corner stores before and after a healthy corner store intervention with two levels of intervention intensity ("basic" and "conversion"). Observational measures of the food environment were completed in 2011 and again in 2012 in corner stores participating in the intervention, using the Nutrition Environment Measures Survey for Corner Stores (NEMS-CS). Main analyses included the 211 stores evaluated at both time-points. A time-by-treatment interaction analysis was used to evaluate the changes in NEMS-CS scores by intervention level over time. Availability of fresh fruit increased significantly in conversion stores over time. Specifically, there were significant increases in the availability of apples, oranges, grapes, and broccoli in conversion stores over time. Conversion stores showed a trend toward a significantly larger increase in the availability score compared to basic stores over time. Interventions aimed at increasing healthy food availability are associated with improvements in the availability of low-fat milk, fruits, and some vegetables, especially when infrastructure changes, such as refrigeration and shelving enhancements, are offered. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Charging induced emission of neutral atoms from NaCl nanocube corners

    Ceresoli, Davide; Zykova-Timan, Tatyana; Tosatti, Erio

    2008-01-01

    Detachment of neutral cations/anions from solid alkali halides can in principle be provoked by donating/subtracting electrons to the surface of alkali halide crystals, but generally constitutes a very endothermic process. However, the amount of energy required for emission is smaller for atoms located in less favorable positions, such as surface steps and kinks. For a corner ion in an alkali halide cube the binding is the weakest, so it should be easier to remove that atom, once it is neutralized. We carried out first principles density functional calculations and simulations of neutral and charged NaCl nanocubes, to establish the energetics of extraction of neutralized corner ions. Following hole donation (electron removal) we find that detachment of neutral Cl corner atoms will require a limited energy of about 0.8 eV. Conversely, following the donation of an excess electron to the cube, a neutral Na atom is extractable from the corner at the lower cost of about 0.6 eV. Since the cube electron affinity level (close to that a NaCl(100) surface state, which we also determine) is estimated to lie about 1.8 eV below vacuum, the overall energy balance upon donation to the nanocube of a zero-energy electron from vacuum will be exothermic. The atomic and electronic structure of the NaCl(100) surface, and of the nanocube Na and Cl corner vacancies are obtained and analyzed as a byproduct

  1. Baseline ambient gaseous ammonia concentrations in the Four Corners area and eastern Oklahoma, USA.

    Sather, Mark E; Mathew, Johnson; Nguyen, Nghia; Lay, John; Golod, George; Vet, Robert; Cotie, Joseph; Hertel, Terry; Aaboe, Erik; Callison, Ryan; Adam, Jacque; Keese, Danielle; Freise, Jeremy; Hathcoat, April; Sakizzie, Brenda; King, Michael; Lee, Chris; Oliva, Sylvia; San Miguel, George; Crow, Leon; Geasland, Frank

    2008-11-01

    Ambient ammonia monitoring using Ogawa passive samplers was conducted in the Four Corners area and eastern Oklahoma, USA during 2007. The resulting data will be useful in the multipollutant management of ozone, nitrogen oxides, and visibility (atmospheric regional haze) in the Four Corners area, an area with growing oil/gas production and increasing coal-based power plant construction. The passive monitoring data also add new ambient ammonia concentration information for the U.S. and will be useful to scientists involved in present and future visibility modeling exercises. Three week integrated passive ammonia samples were taken at five sites in the Four Corners area and two sites in eastern Oklahoma from December, 2006 through December, 2007 (January, 2008 for two sites). Results show significantly higher regional background ammonia concentrations in eastern Oklahoma (1.8 parts per billion (ppb) arithmetic mean) compared to the Four Corners area (0.2 ppb arithmetic mean). Annual mean ammonia concentrations for all Four Corners area sites for the 2007 study ranged from 0.2 ppb to 1.5 ppb. Peak ambient ammonia concentrations occurred in the spring and summer in both areas. The passive samplers deployed at the Stilwell, Oklahoma site compared favorably with other passive samplers and a continuous ammonia monitoring instrument.

  2. Accurate Analysis of Target Characteristic in Bistatic SAR Images: A Dihedral Corner Reflectors Case

    Dongyang Ao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The dihedral corner reflectors are the basic geometric structure of many targets and are the main contributions of radar cross section (RCS in the synthetic aperture radar (SAR images. In stealth technologies, the elaborate design of the dihedral corners with different opening angles is a useful approach to reduce the high RCS generated by multiple reflections. As bistatic synthetic aperture sensors have flexible geometric configurations and are sensitive to the dihedral corners with different opening angles, they specially fit for the stealth target detections. In this paper, the scattering characteristic of dihedral corner reflectors is accurately analyzed in bistatic synthetic aperture images. The variation of RCS with the changing opening angle is formulated and the method to design a proper bistatic radar for maximizing the detection capability is provided. Both the results of the theoretical analysis and the experiments show the bistatic SAR could detect the dihedral corners, under a certain bistatic angle which is related to the geometry of target structures.

  3. Accurate Analysis of Target Characteristic in Bistatic SAR Images: A Dihedral Corner Reflectors Case

    Ao, Dongyang; Hu, Cheng; Tian, Weiming

    2017-01-01

    The dihedral corner reflectors are the basic geometric structure of many targets and are the main contributions of radar cross section (RCS) in the synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images. In stealth technologies, the elaborate design of the dihedral corners with different opening angles is a useful approach to reduce the high RCS generated by multiple reflections. As bistatic synthetic aperture sensors have flexible geometric configurations and are sensitive to the dihedral corners with different opening angles, they specially fit for the stealth target detections. In this paper, the scattering characteristic of dihedral corner reflectors is accurately analyzed in bistatic synthetic aperture images. The variation of RCS with the changing opening angle is formulated and the method to design a proper bistatic radar for maximizing the detection capability is provided. Both the results of the theoretical analysis and the experiments show the bistatic SAR could detect the dihedral corners, under a certain bistatic angle which is related to the geometry of target structures. PMID:29271917

  4. A new numerical approach for uniquely solvable exterior Riemann-Hilbert problem on region with corners

    Zamzamir, Zamzana; Murid, Ali H. M.; Ismail, Munira

    2014-06-01

    Numerical solution for uniquely solvable exterior Riemann-Hilbert problem on region with corners at offcorner points has been explored by discretizing the related integral equation using Picard iteration method without any modifications to the left-hand side (LHS) and right-hand side (RHS) of the integral equation. Numerical errors for all iterations are converge to the required solution. However, for certain problems, it gives lower accuracy. Hence, this paper presents a new numerical approach for the problem by treating the generalized Neumann kernel at LHS and the function at RHS of the integral equation. Due to the existence of the corner points, Gaussian quadrature is employed which avoids the corner points during numerical integration. Numerical example on a test region is presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of this formulation.

  5. Computation of stress intensity factors for nozzle corner cracks by various finite element procedures

    Broekhoven, M.J.G.

    1975-01-01

    The present study aims at deriving accurate K-factors for a series of 5 elliptical nozzle corner cracks of increasing size by various finite element procedures, using a three-level recursive substructuring scheme to perform the computations in an economic way on an intermediate size computer (IBM 360/65 system). A nozzle on a flat plate has been selected for subsequent experimental verification, this configuration being considered an adequate simulation of a nozzle on a shallow shell. The computations have been performed with the ASKA finite element system using mainly HEXEC-27 (incomplete quartic) elements. The geometry has been subdivided into 5 subnets with a total of 3515 nodal points and 6250 unknowns, two main nets and one hyper net. Each crack front is described by 11 nodal points and all crack front nodes are inserted in the hyper net, which allows for the realization of the successive crack geometries by changing only a relatively small hyper net (615 to 725 unknowns). Output data have been interpreted in terms of K-factors by the global energy method, the displacement method and the stress method. Besides, a stiffness derivative procedure, recently developed at Brown University, which takes full advantage of the finite element formulation to calculate local K-factors, has been applied. Finally it has been investigated whether sufficiently accurate results can be obtained by analyzing a considerably smaller part than one half of the geometry (as strictly required by symmetry considerations), using fixed boundary conditions derived from a far cheaper analysis of the uncracked structure

  6. 7 CFR 1126.2 - Southwest marketing area.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Southwest marketing area. 1126.2 Section 1126.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE SOUTHWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating...

  7. Southwest Ecological Restoration Institutes (SWERI) Biophysical Monitoring Workshop Report

    Joseph Seidenberg; Judy Springer; Tessa Nicolet; Mike Battaglia; Christina Vothja

    2009-01-01

    On October 15-16, 2009, the Southwest Ecological Restoration Institutes (SWERI) hosted a workshop in which the participants would 1) build a common understanding of the types of monitoring that are occurring in forested ecosystems of the Southwest; 2) analyze and agree on an efficient, yet robust set of biophysical variables that can be used by land mangers and...

  8. Popular Public Discourse at Speakers' Corner: Negotiating Cultural Identities in Interaction

    McIlvenny, Paul

    1996-01-01

    In this paper I examine how cultural identities are actively negotiated in popular debate at a multicultural public setting in London. Speakers at Speakers' Corner manage the local construction of group affiliation, audience response and argument in and through talk, within the context of ethnic...... in which participant 'citizens' in the public sphere can actively struggle over cultural representation and identities. Using transcribed examples of video data recorded at Speakers' Corner my paper will examine how cultural identity is invoked in the management of active participation. Audiences...... and their affiliations are regulated and made accountable through the routines of membership categorisation and the policing of cultural identities and their imaginary borders....

  9. Exact and approximate interior corner problem in neutron diffusion by integral transform methods

    Bareiss, E.H.; Chang, K.S.J.; Constatinescu, D.A.

    1976-09-01

    The mathematical solution of the neutron diffusion equation exhibits singularities in its derivatives at material corners. A mathematical treatment of the nature of these singularities and its impact on coarse network approximation methods in computational work is presented. The mathematical behavior is deduced from Green's functions, based on a generalized theory for two space dimensions, and the resulting systems of integral equations, as well as from the Kontorovich--Lebedev Transform. The effect on numerical calculations is demonstrated for finite difference and finite element methods for a two-region corner problem

  10. Theoretical evidence for unexpected O-rich phases at corners of MgO surfaces

    Bhattacharya, Saswata; Berger, Daniel; Reuter, Karsten; Ghiringhelli, Luca M.; Levchenko, Sergey V.

    2017-12-01

    Realistic oxide materials are often semiconductors, in particular at elevated temperatures, and their surfaces contain undercoordinated atoms at structural defects such as steps and corners. Using hybrid density-functional theory and ab initio atomistic thermodynamics, we investigate the interplay of bond-making, bond-breaking, and charge-carrier trapping at the corner defects at the (100) surface of a p -doped MgO in thermodynamic equilibrium with an O2 atmosphere. We show that by manipulating the coordination of surface atoms, one can drastically change and even reverse the order of stability of reduced versus oxidized surface sites.

  11. USGS Southwest Repeat Photography Collection: Kanab Creek, southern Utah and northern Arizona, 1872-2010

    Department of the Interior — The USGS Southwest Repeat Photography Collection (‘Collection’), formerly named the Desert Laboratory Repeat Photography Collection, is now housed by the Southwest...

  12. Experimental Study of Fillets to Reduce Corner Effects in an Oblique Shock-Wave/Boundary Layer Interaction

    Hirt, Stefanie M.

    2015-01-01

    A test was conducted in the 15 cm x 15 cm supersonic wind tunnel at NASA Glenn Research Center that focused on corner effects of an oblique shock-wave/boundary-layer interaction. In an attempt to control the interaction in the corner region, eight corner fillet configurations were tested. Three parameters were considered for the fillet configurations: the radius, the fillet length, and the taper length from the square corner to the fillet radius. Fillets effectively reduced the boundary-layer thickness in the corner; however, there was an associated penalty in the form of increased boundary-layer thickness at the tunnel centerline. Larger fillet radii caused greater reductions in boundary-layer thickness along the corner bisector. To a lesser, but measureable, extent, shorter fillet lengths resulted in thinner corner boundary layers. Overall, of the configurations tested, the largest radius resulted in the best combination of control in the corner, evidenced by a reduction in boundary-layer thickness, coupled with minimal impacts at the tunnel centerline.

  13. In Defense of Education's "Wild West": Charter Schools Thrive in the Four Corners States

    Ladner, Matthew

    2018-01-01

    The point at which the corners of Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, and Utah meet is the only spot in the United States where the borders of four states converge. Beyond geography, the Four Corners states share a similar approach to charter schooling. All four states have adopted relatively freewheeling authorization policies, and charter schools…

  14. Dramatic Demand Reduction In The Desert Southwest

    Boehm, Robert [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Hsieh, Sean [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Lee, Joon [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Baghzouz, Yahia [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Cross, Andrew [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Chatterjee, Sarah [NV Energy, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2015-07-06

    This report summarizes a project that was funded to the University of Nevada Las Vegas (UNLV), with subcontractors Pulte Homes and NV Energy. The project was motivated by the fact that locations in the Desert Southwest portion of the US demonstrate very high peak electrical demands, typically in the late afternoons in the summer. These high demands often require high priced power to supply the needs, and the large loads can cause grid supply problems. An approach was proposed through this contact that would reduce the peak electrical demands to an anticipated 65% of what code-built houses of the similar size would have. It was proposed to achieve energy reduction through four approaches applied to a development of 185 homes in northwest part of Las Vegas named Villa Trieste. First, the homes would all be highly energy efficient. Secondly, each house would have a PV array installed on it. Third, an advanced demand response technique would be developed to allow the resident to have some control over the energy used. Finally, some type of battery storage would be used in the project. Pulte Homes designed the houses. The company considered initial cost vs. long-term savings and chose options that had relatively short paybacks. HERS (Home Energy Rating Service) ratings for the homes are approximately 43 on this scale. On this scale, code-built homes rate at 100, zero energy homes rate a 0, and Energy Star homes are 85. In addition a 1.764 Wp (peak Watt) rated PV array was used on each house. This was made up of solar shakes that were in visual harmony with the roofing material used. A demand response tool was developed to control the amount of electricity used during times of peak demand. While demand response techniques have been used in the utility industry for some time, this particular approach is designed to allow the customer to decide the degree of participation in the response activity. The temperature change in the residence can be decided by the residents by

  15. Early Cambrian sipunculan worms from southwest China.

    Huang, Di-Ying; Chen, Jun-Yuan; Vannier, Jean; Saiz Salinas, J I

    2004-08-22

    We report the discovery of sipunculan worms from the Lower Cambrian Maotianshan Shale, near Kunming (southwest China). Their sipunculan identity is evidenced by the general morphology of the animals (sausage-shaped body with a slender retractable introvert and a wider trunk) and by other features, both external (e.g. perioral crown of tentacles, and hooks, papillae and wrinkle rings on the body surface) and internal (U-shaped gut, and the anus opening near the introvert-trunk junction). The three fossil forms (Archaeogolfingia caudata gen. et sp. nov., Cambrosipunculus tentaculatus gen. et sp. nov. and Cambrosipunculus sp.) have striking similarities to modern sipunculans, especially the Golfingiidae to which their evolutionary relationships are discussed. This study suggests that most typical features of extant sipunculans have undergone only limited changes since the Early Cambrian, thus indicating a possible evolutionary stasis over the past 520 Myr.

  16. Delayed diagnosis of an isolated posterolateral corner injury: a case report.

    Welsh, Patrick; DeGraauw, Christopher; Whitty, David

    2016-12-01

    Isolated injuries to the posterolateral corner of the knee are a rare and commonly missed injury associated with athletic trauma, motor vehicle accidents, and falls. Delayed or missed diagnoses can negatively impact patient prognosis, contributing to residual instability, chronic pain, and failure of surgical repair to other ligaments. A 44-year-old male CrossFit athlete presented with a history of two non-contact hyperextension injuries to his left knee while walking on ice. The only positive finding was the Dial Test at 30 degrees of knee flexion, indicative of an isolated posterolateral corner injury. After a delay in diagnosis, the patient underwent a reconstruction of the posterolateral corner and subsequent rehabilitation. Early recognition of this injury is important as this can affect the prognosis and activities of daily living of the patient. This case will discuss the clinical presentation, diagnostic procedures, and management of an isolated posterolateral corner injury and highlight the importance of early recognition and referrals from primary contact healthcare practitioners.

  17. Substantial improvements not seen in health behaviors following corner store conversions in two Latino food swamps

    Alexander N. Ortega

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effectiveness of food retail interventions is largely undetermined, yet substantial investments have been made to improve access to healthy foods in food deserts and swamps via grocery and corner store interventions. This study evaluated the effects of corner store conversions in East Los Angeles and Boyle Heights, California on perceived accessibility of healthy foods, perceptions of corner stores, store patronage, food purchasing, and eating behaviors. Methods Household data (n = 1686 were collected at baseline and 12- to 24-months post-intervention among residents surrounding eight stores, three of which implemented a multi-faceted intervention and five of which were comparisons. Bivariate analyses and logistic and linear regressions were employed to assess differences in time, treatment, and the interaction between time and treatment to determine the effectiveness of this intervention. Results Improvements were found in perceived healthy food accessibility and perceptions of corner stores. No changes were found, however, in store patronage, purchasing, or consumption of fruits and vegetables. Conclusions Results suggest limited effectiveness of food retail interventions on improving health behaviors. Future research should focus on other strategies to reduce community-level obesity.

  18. Do Worlds Have Corners? When Children's Picture Books Invite Philosophical Questions

    Maagero, Eva; Ostbye, Guri Lorentzen

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we want to present and analyse the picture book "The World has no Corners" (2006/1999) by the Norwegian author and illustrator Svein Nyhus. The book represents a new trend in Norwegian picture books for children by inviting the readers into a world of thinking and wondering about existential topics such as life and death, growing…

  19. Simulating wall and corner fire tests on wood products with the OSU room fire model

    H. C. Tran

    1994-01-01

    This work demonstrates the complexity of modeling wall and corner fires in a compartment. The model chosen for this purpose is the Ohio State University (OSU) room fire model. This model was designed to simulate fire growth on walls in a compartment and therefore lends itself to direct comparison with standard room test results. The model input were bench-scale data...

  20. LX-17 and ufTATB Data for Corner-Turning, Failure and Detonation

    Souers, P C; Lauderbach, L; Garza, R; Vitello, P; Hare, D E

    2010-02-03

    Data is presented for the size (diameter) effect for ambient and cold confined LX-17, unconfined ambient LX-17, and confined ambient ultrafine TATB. Ambient, cold and hot double cylinder corner-turning data for LX-17, PBX 9502 and ufTATB is presented. Transverse air gap crossing in ambient LX-17 is studied with time delays given for detonations that cross.

  1. Manufacturability: from design to SPC limits through "corner-lot" characterization

    Hogan, Timothy J.; Baker, James C.; Wesneski, Lisa; Black, Robert S.; Rothenbury, Dave

    2005-01-01

    Texas Instruments" Digital Micro-mirror Device, is used in a wide variety of optical display applications ranging from fixed and portable projectors to high-definition television (HDTV) to digital cinema projection systems. A new DMD pixel architecture, called "FTP", was designed and qualified by Texas Instruments DLPTMTM Group in 2003 to meet increased performance objectives for brightness and contrast ratio. Coordination between design, test and fabrication groups was required to balance pixel performance requirements and manufacturing capability. "Corner Lot" designed experiments (DOE) were used to verify "fabrication space" available for the pixel design. The corner lot technique allows confirmation of manufacturability projections early in the design/qualification cycle. Through careful design and analysis of the corner-lot DOE, a balance of critical dimension (cd) "budgets" is possible so that specification and process control limits can be established that meet both customer and factory requirements. The application of corner-lot DOE is illustrated in a case history of the DMD "FTP" pixel. The process for balancing test parameter requirements with multiple critical dimension budgets is shown. MEMS/MOEMS device design and fabrication can use similar techniques to achieve agressive design-to-qualification goals.

  2. Higher acid-chlorite reactivity of cell corner middle lamella lignin in black spruce

    Umesh P. Agarwal

    2007-01-01

    To determine if there was a delignification behavior difference between secondary wall (S2) and middle lamella (cell corner or CC) lignin, black spruce cross-sections were acid-chlorite delignified and the tissue was evaluated in-situ by Raman imaging. Lignin concentration in S2 and CC was determined in numerous latewood cell areas in the two hour delignified cross...

  3. Popular Public Discourse at Speakers' Corner: Negotiating Cultural Identities in Interaction

    McIlvenny, Paul

    1996-01-01

    , religious and general topical 'soap-box' oration. However, audiences are not passive receivers of rhetorical messages. They are active negotiators of interpretations and alignments that may conflict with the speaker's and other audience members' orientations to prior talk. Speakers' Corner is a space...

  4. Effects of the office environment on health and productivity 1: Effects of coffee corner position

    Vink, P.; Korte, E.de; Blok, M.; Groenesteijn, L.

    2007-01-01

    New technology will make it possible to have access to information everywhere. As a result "face to face" communication with colleagues could reduce and creativity and health could be influenced negatively. In this paper a coffee corner is changed and the effect on communication is tested by

  5. Individual and Familial Characteristics of Youths Involved in Street Corner Gangs in Singapore.

    Kee, C.; Sim, K.; Teoh, J.; Tian, C. S.; Ng, K. H.

    2003-01-01

    Study compares 36 youths involved in street corner gangs in Singapore with 91 age-matched controls on measures of self-esteem, aggression, dysfunctional parenting and parent-adolescent communication. Results revealed that gang youths had lower self-esteem and higher levels of aggression than controls. Findings diverge from anticipated familial…

  6. Phase relationships in Cu-rich corner of the Cu-Cr-Zr phase diagram

    Zeng, K.J.; Haemaelaeinen, M.; Lilius, K.

    1995-01-01

    In the available experimental information on the Cu-Cr-Zr ternary system, there exist different opinions concerning the phase relationships in the Cu-rich corner of Cu-Cr-Zr phase diagram. Glazov et al. and Zakharov et al. investigated the Cu-rich corner of the Cu-Cr-Zr phase diagram within the composition range up to 3.5 Cr and 3.5 Zr (wt. %). A quasi-eutectic reaction L → (Cu) + αCr 2 Zr was observed to occur at 1,020 C and several isothermal sections were constructed within the temperature range from 600 to 1,000 C to show the (Cu)-αCr 2 Zr two phase equilibrium. Therefore, a pseudobinary Cu-Cr 2 Zr system was supposed. Afterwards, Dawakatsu et al, Fedorov et al, and Kuznetsov et al studied the cu-rich corner of the phase diagram in a wider composition range up to 5 Cr and 20 Zr (at.%). Contrary to Glazov et al. and Zakharov et al., they found no Cr 2 Zr phase in their samples. Hence, the pseudobinary Cu-Cr 2 Zr system does not exist. In this study an experimental investigation is presented on the phase relationships in Cu-rich corner of the Cu-Cr-Zr phase diagram at 940 C in order to clear up the confusion

  7. A Müntz type theorem for a family of corner cutting schemes

    Ait-Haddou, Rachid; Sakane, Yusuke; Nomura, Taishin

    2013-01-01

    Dimension elevation process of Gelfond–Bézier curves generates a family of control polygons obtained through a sequence of corner cuttings. We give a Müntz type condition for the convergence of the generated control polygons to the underlying curve

  8. Using Digital Technology to See Angles from Different Angles. Part 1: Corners

    Host, Erin; Baynham, Emily; McMaster, Heather

    2014-01-01

    In Part 1 of their article, Erin Host, Emily Baynham and Heather McMaster use a combination of digital technology and concrete materials to explore the concept of "corners". They provide a practical, easy to follow sequence of activities that builds on students' understandings. [For "Using Digital Technology to See Angles from…

  9. Two-dimensional geometrical corner singularities in neutron diffusion. Part 2: Application to the SNR-300 benchmark

    Cacuci, D.G.; Univ. of Karlsruhe; Kiefhaber, E.; Stehle, B.

    1998-01-01

    The explicit solution developed by Cacuci for the multigroup neutron diffusion equation at interior corners in two-dimensional two-region domains has been applied to the SNR-300 fast reactor prototype design to obtain the exact behavior of the multigroup fluxes at and around typical corners arising between absorber/fuel and follower/fuel assemblies. The calculations have been performed in hexagonal geometry using four energy groups, and the results clearly show that the multigroup fluxes are finite but not analytical at interior corners. In particular, already the first-order spatial derivatives of the multigroup fluxes become unbounded at the corners between follower and fuel assemblies. These results highlight the need to treat properly the influence of corners, both for the direct calculation and for the reconstruction of pointwise neutron flux and power distributions in heterogeneous reactor cores

  10. Multi-Scale Science Framework for Attributing and Tracking Greenhouse Gas Fluxes at LANL's Four Corners New Mexico Test Bed

    Costigan, K. R.; Dubey, M. K.; Chylek, P.; Love, S. P.; Henderson, B. G.; Flowers, B. A.; Reisner, J. M.; Rahn, T.; Quick, C. R.

    2010-12-01

    /gas wells. All of this makes the site an ideal test-bed. Our approach is to execute a systematic and coordinated observational, satellite validation and modeling program. We are instrumenting the Four Corners ground site with an array of state-of-the art, in situ and remote sensors, including LANL’s solar FTS and in situ sensors for continuous long term monitoring. Satellite measurements are also analyzed and have revealed that recent environmental upgrades have reduced NOx emissions, verifying bottom up inventories. A coordinated field campaign is planned, which will interrogate the power plant plume and regional dynamics and chemistry. Modeling using the plants’ reported emissions will be compared with observations to test the veracity of our approach. Early modeling, satellite analyses and measurements will be presented.

  11. An introduction to the healthy corner store intervention model in Canada.

    Mah, Catherine L; Minaker, Leia M; Jameson, Kristie; Rappaport, Lissie; Taylor, Krystal; Graham, Marketa; Moody, Natalie; Cook, Brian

    2017-09-14

    The majority of Canadians' food acquisition occurs in retail stores. Retail science has become increasingly sophisticated in demonstrating how consumer environments influence population-level diet quality and health status. The retail food environment literature is new but growing rapidly in Canada, and there is a relative paucity of evidence from intervention research implemented in Canada. The healthy corner store model is a comprehensive complex population health intervention in small retail stores, intended to transform an existing business model to a health-promoting one through intersectoral collaboration. Healthy corner store interventions typically involve conversions of existing stores with the participation of health, community, and business sector partners, addressing business fundamentals, merchandising, and consumer demand. This article introduces pioneering experiences with the healthy corner store intervention in Canada. First, we offer a brief overview of the state of evidence within and outside Canada. Second, we discuss three urban and one rural healthy corner store initiatives, led through partnerships among community food security organizations, public health units, academics, and business partners, in Manitoba, Ontario, and Newfoundland and Labrador. Third, we synthesize the promising practices from these local examples, including aspects of both intervention science (e.g., refinements in measuring the food environment) and community-based practice (e.g., dealing with unhealthy food items and economic impact for the retailer). This article will synthesize practical experiences with healthy corner stores in Canada. It offers a baseline assessment of promising aspects of this intervention for health and health equity, and identifies opportunities to strengthen both science and practice in this area of retail food environment work.

  12. Prevalence of parasitic contamination in fast food salads in Ahvaz, southwest of Iran

    Anahita Razavi Piranshahi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of parasitic contamination in fast food salads in Ahvaz city, southwest of Iran, in 2016. Methods: In the current study, 150 samples were randomly collected from 150 fast food shops in Ahvaz City, southwest of Iran. The samples were collected in a clean bucket containing deionized water and detergent. After three times washing, the resultant precipitate was examined in terms of parasites using physiological saline as well as the acid fast and the trichrome staining methods. Results: Of 150 samples, 17 (11.33% positive cases were observed, among which 8 (5.34%, 4 (2.66%, 2 (1.34%, 1 (0.67% and 2 (1.34% were observed positive for Entamoeba coli (E. coli, Cryptosporidium, Giardia lambelia, immature oocyst of Coccidia and mites, respectively. Conclusions: The results showed a relatively high prevalence of parasitic infections especially E. coli in fast food salads in Ahvaz, southwest of Iran. Since the parasitic infections can cause malabsorption, severe diarrhea, intestinal obstruction, cholecystitis, liver inflammation, pulmonary and renal complications, health authorities must pay more attention to the health of fast food shops.

  13. Quantification of caffeic acid content in 4 species of mullein (Verbascum sp. ecotypes from southwest Iran

    F. Jamshidi kia

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: The Verbascum genus is the largest genus of Scrophulariaceae family which has extensive natural habitat in southwest of Iran. Phenolic acids are one of the most important chemical compounds that have different biological activities including anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antiviral, anti-tumor and antioxidant. Therefore, this study was conducted with the aim of caffeic acid quantification of 4 species of Verbascum sp. ecotypes from southwest Iran. Methods: Nine ecotypes of the 4 species (V. macrophyllus, V. pseudo- digitalis, V. sinatum, V. songaricum were collected from the southwest of Iran. Quantification of caffeic acid contentusing reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC with UV PDA 2800 detector, a C18 column with dimensions of 250×4.6 mm was performed. Results: The results showed that Verbascum sp. contained caffeic acid compound and there was a difference among species and ecotypes. The results showed the highest and lowest content of caffeic acid obtained from the V. sinatum species and ecotype Sepidan (7.76 μg/mg extract and V. songaricum species and ecotype Farokhshahr (0.54 μg/mg extract, respectively. Conclusion: The results revealed a high level of variation in caffeic acid among Verbascum sp. which was affected by habitat and climatic. The pattern of habitats of suitable ecotypes superior in terms of composition to should be selected and used for breeding and cropping mullein.

  14. Ombud’s corner: Do you believe in ghosts?

    Sudeshna Datta-Cockerill

    2014-01-01

    “Ghosting” is the common term used to describe situations when a piece of work is done by somebody but credited to somebody else. Ghosting often occurs in creative fields, such as writing texts, music, developing graphic charters or translating. Let’s celebrate Halloween this year by acknowledging the contributions of all the CERN ghosts who work tirelessly behind the scenes in all areas of the Organization.   “Ghosting” is a recognised job with international professional associations, particularly in the field of text writing. The role requires strict anonymity, good reciprocal trust and understanding between the people involved, and the professional flexibility to be able to adapt to different situations and different styles of expression as needed. At CERN there are many ghosts: you can find them in the Translation and Minute-writing service, whose members also provide valuable editing and proof-reading skills; in the Communications group w...

  15. The Southwest Configuration for the Next Generation Very Large Array

    Irwin Kellermann, Kenneth; Carilli, Chris; Condon, James; Cotton, William; Murphy, Eric Joseph; Nyland, Kristina

    2018-01-01

    We discuss the planned array configuration for the Next Generation Very Large Array (ngVLA). The configuration, termed the "Southwest Array," consists of 214 antennas each 18 m in diameter, distributed over the Southwest United States and Northern Mexico. The antenna locations have been set applying rough real-world constraints, such as road, fiber, and power access. The antenna locations will be fixed, with roughly 50% of the antennas in a "core" of 2 km diameter, located at the site of the JVLA. Another 30% of the antennas will be distributed over the Plains of San Augustin to a diameter of 30 km, possibly along, or near, the current JVLA arms. The remaining 20% of the antennas will be distributed in a rough two-arm spiral pattern to the South and East, out to a maximum distance of 500 km, into Texas, Arizona, and Chihuahua. Years of experience with the VLA up to 50 GHz, plus intensive antenna testing up to 250 GHz for the ALMA prototype antennas, verify the VLA site as having very good observing conditions (opacity, phase stability), up to 115 GHz (ngVLA Memo No. 1). Using a suite of tools implemented in CASA, we have made extensive imaging simulations with this configuration. We find that good imaging performance can be obtained through appropriate weighting of the visibilities, for resolutions ranging from that of the core of the array (1" at 30 GHz), out to the longest baselines (10 mas at 30 GHz), with a loss of roughly a factor of two in sensitivity relative to natural weighting (ngVLA Memo No. 16). The off-set core, located on the northern edge of the long baseline configuration, provides excellent sensitivity even on the longest baselines. We are considering, in addition, a compact configuration of 16 close-packed 6 m antennas to obtain uv-coverage down to baselines ~ 10 m for imaging large scale structure, as well as a configuration including 9 stations distributed to continental scales.

  16. Benthic fauna of southwest and southeast coasts of India

    Devi, K.S.; Sheba, P.; Balasubramanian; Venugopal, P.; Sankaranarayanan, V.N.

    Benthos, sediments characteristics and organic matter content were studied along southwest and southeast coasts of India. Number of groups/species varied with the stations and also with the depths. Population density was very low in southeast coast...

  17. Shallow-Water Benthic Habitats of Southwest Puerto Rico

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Shallow-water (<30m) benthic habitat maps of the nearshore marine environment of two areas in Southwest Puerto Rico (PR), including the Guanica Bay/La Parguera...

  18. Marketing and distribution of Garcinia kola ( Bitter kola ) in southwest ...

    Marketing and distribution of Garcinia kola ( Bitter kola ) in southwest Nigeria: opportunity ... The study evaluates the different marketing of Bitter kola (Garcinia kola) starting from the point of ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  19. 2006 Southwest Florida Water Management District (SWFWMD) Lidar: North District

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is one component of a digital terrain model (DTM) for the Southwest Florida Water Management District's FY2006 Digital Orthophoto (B089) and LiDAR...

  20. Damage spreading at the corner-filling transition in the two-dimensional Ising model

    Rubio Puzzo, M Leticia; Albano, Ezequiel V

    2007-01-01

    The propagation of damage on the square Ising lattice with a corner geometry is studied by means of Monte Carlo simulations. By imposing free boundary conditions at which competing boundary magnetic fields ± h are applied, the system undergoes a filling transition at a temperature T f (h) lower than the Onsager critical temperature T C . The competing fields cause the formation of two magnetic domains with opposite orientation of the magnetization, separated by an interface that for T larger than T f (h) (but T C ) runs along the diagonal of the sample that connects the corners where the magnetic fields of different orientation meet. Also, for T f (h) this interface is localized either close to the corner where the magnetic field is positive or close to the opposite one, with the same probability. It is found that, just at T = T f (h), the damage initially propagates along the interface of the competing domains, according to a power law given by D(t) ∝ t η . The value obtained for the dynamic exponent (η* = 0.89(1)) is in agreement with that corresponding to the wetting transition in the slit geometry (Abraham model) given by η WT = 0.91(1). However, for later times the propagation crosses to a new regime such as η** = 0.40(2), which is due to the propagation of the damage into the bulk of the magnetic domains. This result can be understood as being due to the constraints imposed on the propagation of damage by the corner geometry of the system that cause healing at the corners where the interface is attached. The critical points for the damage-spreading transition (T D (h)) are evaluated by extrapolation to the thermodynamic limit by using a finite-size scaling approach. Considering error bars, an overlap between the filling and the damage-spreading transitions is found, such that T f (h) = T D (h). The probability distribution of the damage average position P(l 0 D ) and that of the interface between magnetic domains of different orientation P(l 0 ) are

  1. Fiscal Year 2013 Comprehensive Oversight Plan for Southwest Asia

    2012-09-26

    exclusively a Southwest Asia country. Source: International Organization for Standardization, ISO 3166-1-Alpha-2 Country Codes. FY 2013 COPSWA...the Continental U.S. Other/Multiple = Not exclusively a Southwest Asia country. Source: International Organization for Standardization, ISO 3166-1...rolling stock  R4D of equipment and supplies  R4D of medical equipment and supplies (including hazmat and pharmacy items)  Readiness of the Army

  2. Materials of conference: Hydrogeological Problems of South-West Poland

    1996-01-01

    Hydrogeological problems of South-west Poland is the collection of conference papers held in Szklarska Poreba on 20-22 June 1996. The materials have been gathered in three topical groups: water quality problems in hydrological cycle, regional hydrogeology of South-west Poland, theoretical problems and research methods in hydrogeology. More of performed articles have a interdisciplinary character taking into account the precipitation and surface water quality and their influence on ground water features

  3. Ombuds’ corner: Two striking features from last year

    Vincent Vuillemin

    2012-01-01

    In this series, the Bulletin aims to explain the role of the Ombuds at CERN by presenting practical examples of misunderstandings that could have been resolved by the Ombuds if he had been contacted earlier. Please note that, in all the situations we present, the names are fictitious and used only to improve clarity.   Happy New Year 2012 to all! At the beginning of this New Year, I would like to draw your attention to two important features that appeared from the statistics on the numbers and classes of visitors who came to the Ombuds during the first year of operations. The number of women was by far superior to the number of men who visited the Ombuds, when compared to the actual CERN percentage in such categories. The number of people visiting the Ombuds holding a Limited Duration contract was surprisingly lower than the number of visitors with an Indefinite appointment. In terms of pure number of visitors, the Ombuds met around the same number of men and women. However these numbers sh...

  4. Ombuds’ corner: Is our respectful workplace strategy working?

    Vincent Vuillemin

    2012-01-01

    “I hope that the Code of Conduct will be a valuable tool in the maintenance and development of a workplace marked by mutual respect and understanding. We should familiarize ourselves with it, and incorporate it into our daily life at CERN.”*   “The Organization does not tolerate harassment, which can result in administrative and/or disciplinary action.”** Our Code of Conduct (“the Code”) sets the basic standards of ethical behaviour that we must first all set for ourselves. In addition, we are also entitled to expect our workplace colleagues to respect these standards. In biblical terms, if I may, the Code is an incentive for us to notice the beam obstructing our eyes and not focus on the speck in the eyes of our colleagues. In short, we should first look to ourselves to apply the Code. Managers, whatever their position, should be accountable for their team being aware of the Code and are acting according to its values - just as they...

  5. TAP Report - Southwest Idaho Juniper Working Group

    Gresham, Garold Linn [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-01

    There is explicit need for characterization of the materials for possible commercialization as little characterization data exists. Pinyon-juniper woodlands are a major ecosystem type found in the Southwest and the Intermountain West regions of the United States including Nevada, Idaho and Oregon. These widespread ecosystems are characterized by the presence of several different species of pinyon and juniper as the dominant plant cover. Since the 1800s, pinyon-juniper woodlands have rapidly expanded their range at the expense of existing ecosystems. Additionally, existing woodlands have become denser, progressively creating potential fire hazards as seen in the Soda Fire, which burned more than 400 sq. miles. Land managers responsible for these areas often desire to reduce pinyon-juniper coverage on their lands for a variety of reasons, as stated in the Working Group objectives. However, the cost of clearing thinning pinyon-juniper stands can be prohibitive. One reason for this is the lack of utilization options for the resulting biomass that could help recover some of the cost of pinyon-juniper stand management. The goal of this TAP effort was to assess the feedstock characteristics of biomass from a juniper harvested from Owyhee County to evaluate possible fuel and conversion utilization options.

  6. Geometrical optics analysis of the structural imperfection of retroreflection corner cubes with a nonlinear conjugate gradient method.

    Kim, Hwi; Min, Sung-Wook; Lee, Byoungho

    2008-12-01

    Geometrical optics analysis of the structural imperfection of retroreflection corner cubes is described. In the analysis, a geometrical optics model of six-beam reflection patterns generated by an imperfect retroreflection corner cube is developed, and its structural error extraction is formulated as a nonlinear optimization problem. The nonlinear conjugate gradient method is employed for solving the nonlinear optimization problem, and its detailed implementation is described. The proposed method of analysis is a mathematical basis for the nondestructive optical inspection of imperfectly fabricated retroreflection corner cubes.

  7. A vehicle-to-infrastructure channel model for blind corner scattering environments

    Chelli, Ali

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, we derive a new geometrical blind corner scattering model for vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) communications. The proposed model takes into account single-bounce and double-bounce scattering stemming from fixed scatterers located on both sides of the curved street. Starting from the geometrical blind corner model, the exact expression of the angle of departure (AOD) is derived. Based on this expression, the probability density function (PDF) of the AOD and the Doppler power spectrum are determined. Analytical expressions for the channel gain and the temporal autocorrelation function (ACF) are provided under non-line-of-sight (NLOS) conditions. Moreover, we investigate the impact of the position of transmitting vehicle relatively to the receiving road-side unit on the channel statistics. The proposed channel model is useful for the design and analysis of future V2I communication systems. Copyright © 2013 by the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, Inc.

  8. Single-Frequency Nd:YAG Ring Lasers with Corner Cube Prism

    Wu, Ke-Ying; Yang, Su-Hui; Zhao, Chang-Ming; Wei, Guang-Hui

    2000-10-01

    We put forward another form of the non-planar ring lasers, in which the corner cube prism is the key element and the Nd:YAG crystal is used as a Porro prism to enclose the ring resonator. The phase shift due to the total internal reflections of the three differently orientated reflection planes of the corner cube prism, Faraday rotation in the Nd:YAG crystal placed in a magnetic field and the different output coupling in S and P polarization form an optical diode and enforce the single-frequency generating power. A round trip analysis of the polarization properties of the resonator is made by the evaluation of Jones matrix.

  9. Effect of corner radius in stabilizing the low-Re flow past a cylinder

    Zhang, Wei; Samtaney, Ravindra

    2017-01-01

    We perform global linear stability analysis on low-Re flow past an isolated cylinder with rounded corners. The objective of the present work is to investigate the effect of the cylinder geometry (corner radius) on the stability characteristics of the flow. Our investigation sheds light on new physics that the flow can be stabilized by partially rounding the cylinder in the critical and weakly super-critical flow regimes. The flow is first stabilized and then gradually destabilized as the cylinder varies from square to circular geometry. The sensitivity analysis reveals that the variation of stability is attributed to the different spatial variation trends of the backflow velocity in the near- and far-wake regions for various cylinder geometries. The results from the stability analysis are also verified with those of the direct simulations and very good agreement is achieved.

  10. Detection of honeycomb cell walls from measurement data based on Harris corner detection algorithm

    Qin, Yan; Dong, Zhigang; Kang, Renke; Yang, Jie; Ayinde, Babajide O.

    2018-06-01

    A honeycomb core is a discontinuous material with a thin-wall structure—a characteristic that makes accurate surface measurement difficult. This paper presents a cell wall detection method based on the Harris corner detection algorithm using laser measurement data. The vertexes of honeycomb cores are recognized with two different methods: one method is the reduction of data density, and the other is the optimization of the threshold of the Harris corner detection algorithm. Each cell wall is then identified in accordance with the neighboring relationships of its vertexes. Experiments were carried out for different types and surface shapes of honeycomb cores, where the proposed method was proved effective in dealing with noise due to burrs and/or deformation of cell walls.

  11. Effect of corner radius in stabilizing the low-Re flow past a cylinder

    Zhang, Wei

    2017-08-03

    We perform global linear stability analysis on low-Re flow past an isolated cylinder with rounded corners. The objective of the present work is to investigate the effect of the cylinder geometry (corner radius) on the stability characteristics of the flow. Our investigation sheds light on new physics that the flow can be stabilized by partially rounding the cylinder in the critical and weakly super-critical flow regimes. The flow is first stabilized and then gradually destabilized as the cylinder varies from square to circular geometry. The sensitivity analysis reveals that the variation of stability is attributed to the different spatial variation trends of the backflow velocity in the near- and far-wake regions for various cylinder geometries. The results from the stability analysis are also verified with those of the direct simulations and very good agreement is achieved.

  12. Posteromedial corner of the knee: MR imaging with gross anatomic correlation

    Loredo, R. (Texas Univ., San Antonio, TX (United States). Dept. of Radiology); Hodler, J. (Department of Radiology, Univ. of Zurich (Switzerland)); Pedowitz, R. (Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Veterans Administration Medical Center (VAMC), San Diego, CA (United States)); Yeh, L.-R.; Trudell, D.; Resnick, D. (Department of Radiology, Veterans Administration Medical Center (VAMC), 3350 La Jolla Village Drive, San Diego, CA 92161 (United States))

    1999-06-01

    Objective. The objective of this study was to illustrate the magnetic resonance (MR) image appearance of the structures of the posteromedial ''corner'' of the knee with particular emphasis on the anatomy and differentiation between the medial collateral ligament and the posterior oblique ligament.Design. Six cadaveric knee specimens underwent MR imaging, before and following instillation of intra-articular contrast material. The knees were sectioned in the axial, coronal, and coronal oblique planes and the gross morphology of the posteromedial corner and surrounding structures was studied and correlated with the MR images.Patients. The human cadaveric specimens were from two female and four male patients (age at death, 72-86 years; average, 78 years).Results and conclusions. The contrast-enhanced sequences and the coronal oblique images allowed for improved visualization of the structures. (orig.) With 8 figs., 7 refs.

  13. Effects of Ag Nanocubes with Different Corner Shape on the Absorption Enhancement in Organic Solar Cells

    Feng Shan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of corner shape of silver (Ag nanocubes (NCs on optical absorptions of organic solar cells (OSCs are theoretically investigated by finite element method (FEM calculations. The absorption of sun light in the active layer is calculated. Significant absorption enhancements have been demonstrated in metallic region with different shapes of Ag NCs, among them corner radius (R is zero result in the best light absorption performance of up to 55% enhancement with respect to bare OSCs. The origins of increased absorption are believed to be the effects of the huge electric field enhancement and increased scattering upon the excitation of localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR. Apart from using R=0, we show that R=3, 6, and 11.29 of Ag NCs in metallic region of active layer may also result in the maximum comparable absorption enhancement of 49%, 41%, and 28%, respectively. In addition, a significant effect of the period of NCs is observed.

  14. Urban corners and refuges in the literature of João Antônio

    Elena Pajaro Peres

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Through writer João Antônio's unsettled characters one can understand the history of urban transformation of São Paulo beginning in the 1950s. They are migrants, mixed people, rascals, informal workers, workers, children who appear and disappear into the corners of his literature and the city, drawing a route of affectivity and shared experiences that can be followed by the historian who seeks to study the culture under a non canonical view

  15. A corner store intervention to improve access to fruits and vegetables in two Latino communities.

    Albert, Stephanie L; Langellier, Brent A; Sharif, Mienah Z; Chan-Golston, Alec M; Prelip, Michael L; Elena Garcia, Rosa; Glik, Deborah C; Belin, Thomas R; Brookmeyer, Ron; Ortega, Alexander N

    2017-08-01

    Investments have been made to alter the food environment of neighbourhoods that have a disproportionate number of unhealthy food venues. Corner store conversions are one strategy to increase access to fruits and vegetables (F&V). Although the literature shows modest success, the effectiveness of these interventions remains equivocal. The present paper reports on the evaluation of Proyecto MercadoFRESCO, a corner store conversion intervention in two Latino communities. A repeated cross-sectional design was employed. Data were stratified by intervention arm and bivariate tests assessed changes over time. Logistic and multiple regression models with intervention arm, time and the interaction of intervention and time were conducted. Supplementary analyses account for clustering of patrons within stores and staggering of store conversions. Three stores were converted and five stores served as comparisons in East Los Angeles and Boyle Heights, California, USA. Store patrons were interviewed before (n550) and after (n407) the intervention. Relative to patrons of comparison stores, patrons of intervention stores demonstrated more favourable perceptions of corner stores and increased purchasing of F&V during that store visit. Changes were not detected in store patronage, percentage of weekly dollars spent on food for F&V or daily consumption of F&V. Consistent with some extant food environment literature, findings demonstrate limited effects. Investments should be made in multilevel, comprehensive interventions that target a variety retail food outlets rather than focusing on corner stores exclusively. Complementary policies limiting the availability, affordability and marketing of energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods should also be pursued.

  16. Analysis of ICPP fuel storage rack inner tie and corner tie substructures

    Nitzel, M.E.; Rahl, R.G.

    1996-01-01

    Finite element models were developed and analyses performed for the tie plate, inner tie block assembly, and corner tie block assembly of a 25 port fuel rack assembly designed for installation in Pool 1 of Building 666 at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. These models were specifically developed to investigate the adequacy of certain welds joining components of the fuel storage rack assembly. The work scope for the task was limited to an investigation of the stress levels in the subject subassemblies when subjected to seismic loads. Structural acceptance criteria used for the elastic calculations performed were as found in the overall rack design report as issued by the rack`s designer, Holtec International. Structural acceptance criteria used for the plastic calculations performed as part of this effort were as defined in Subsection NF and Appendix F of the ASME Boiler & Pressure Vessel Code. The results of the analyses will also apply to the 30 port fuel storage rack design that is also scheduled for installation in Pool 1 of ICPP 666. The results obtained from the analyses performed for this task indicate that the welds joining the inner tie block and corner tie block to the surrounding rack structure meet the acceptance criteria. Further, the structural members (plates and blocks) were also found to be within the allowable stress limits established by the acceptance criteria. The separate analysis performed on the inner tie plate confirmed the structural adequacy for both the inner tie plate, corner tie plate, and tie block bolts. The analysis results verified that the inner tie and corner tie block should be capable of transferring the expected seismic load without structural failure.

  17. Technology Corner: Calculating the Number of Android Lock Patterns: An Unfinished Study in Number Theory

    Gary Kessler

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Although one is unlikely to ever want to brute-force an Android lock pattern, many do wonder about the relative strength of the lock pattern versus a multi-digit personal identification number (PIN. It becomes obvious pretty quickly that there are many more lock patterns than the 10,000 possible four-digit PINs.(see PDF for full technology corner

  18. Application of Local Injection of Botulinum Toxin A in Cosmetic Patients with Congenital Drooping Mouth Corner.

    Qian, Wei; Zhang, Yan-Kun; Lv, Wei; Hou, Ying; Cao, Qian; Fan, Ju-Feng

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the clinical application and efficacy of local injection of botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) at the depressor anguli oris in patients with congenital drooping mouth corner. From September 2013 to March 2015, 36 cosmetic patients received local injections of botulinum toxin A at the depressor anguli oris, with 1-3 injection sites in the moving region of the depressor anguli oris on each side. At each injection site, 2-4 U of BTX-A was injected, and the total dose for any unilateral treatment did not exceed 8 U. The change in the degree of drooping of the mouth corner before and after the injection was analyzed using statistical methods. The clinical efficacy, preservation time, and adverse reactions were observed. The degree of drooping of the mouth corners of the cosmetic patients before the treatment was compared with that at 1 month after using a paired t test, and the difference was statistically significant, with P injection. The local injection of BTX-A at the depressor anguli oris can effectively lift a drooping mouth corner, thereby improving the depressed, stern, and aged appearance of the face. The performance of this treatment is simple, safe, and easy to perform in clinical applications. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  19. A Müntz type theorem for a family of corner cutting schemes

    Ait-Haddou, Rachid

    2013-02-01

    Dimension elevation process of Gelfond–Bézier curves generates a family of control polygons obtained through a sequence of corner cuttings. We give a Müntz type condition for the convergence of the generated control polygons to the underlying curve. The surprising emergence of the Müntz condition in the problem raises the question of a possible connection between the density questions of nested Chebyshev spaces and the convergence of the corresponding dimension elevation algorithms.

  20. Single shot imaging through turbid medium and around corner using coherent light

    Li, Guowei; Li, Dayan; Situ, Guohai

    2018-01-01

    Optical imaging through turbid media and around corner is a difficult challenge. Even a very thin layer of a turbid media, which randomly scatters the probe light, can appear opaque and hide any objects behind it. Despite many recent advances, no current method can image the object behind turbid media with single record using coherent laser illumination. Here we report a method that allows non-invasive single-shot optical imaging through turbid media and around corner via speckle correlation. Instead of being as an obstacle in forming diffractionlimited images, speckle actually can be a carrier that encodes sufficient information to imaging through visually opaque layers. Optical imaging through turbid media and around corner is experimentally demonstrated using traditional imaging system with the aid of iterative phase retrieval algorithm. Our method require neither scan of illumination nor two-arm interferometry or long-time exposure in acquisition, which has new implications in optical sensing through common obscurants such as fog, smoke and haze.

  1. Healthy bodegas: increasing and promoting healthy foods at corner stores in New York City.

    Dannefer, Rachel; Williams, Donya A; Baronberg, Sabrina; Silver, Lynn

    2012-10-01

    We assessed the effectiveness of an initiative to increase the stock and promotion of healthy foods in 55 corner stores in underserved neighborhoods. We evaluated the intervention through in-store observations and preintervention and postintervention surveys of all 55 store owners as well as surveys with customers at a subset of stores. We observed an average of 4 changes on a 15-point criteria scale. The most common were placing refrigerated water at eye level, stocking canned fruit with no sugar added, offering a healthy sandwich, and identifying healthier items. Forty-six (84%) store owners completed both surveys. Owners reported increased sales of healthier items, but identified barriers including consumer demand and lack of space and refrigeration. The percentage of customers surveyed who purchased items for which we promoted a healthier option (low-sodium canned goods, low-fat milk, whole-grain bread, healthier snacks and sandwiches) increased from 5% to 16%. Corner stores are important vehicles for access to healthy foods. The approach described here achieved improvements in participating corner stores and in some consumer purchases and may be a useful model for other locales.

  2. Revisit the faster-is-slower effect for an exit at a corner

    Chen, Jun Min; Lin, Peng; Wu, Fan Yu; Li Gao, Dong; Wang, Guo Yuan

    2018-02-01

    The faster-is-slower effect (FIS), which means that crowd at a high enough velocity could significantly increase the evacuation time to escape through an exit, is an interesting phenomenon in pedestrian dynamics. Such phenomenon had been studied widely and has been experimentally verified in different systems of discrete particles flowing through a centre exit. To experimentally validate this phenomenon by using people under high pressure is difficult due to ethical issues. A mouse, similar to a human, is a kind of self-driven and soft body creature with competitive behaviour under stressed conditions. Therefore, mice are used to escape through an exit at a corner. A number of repeated tests are conducted and the average escape time per mouse at different levels of stimulus are analysed. The escape times do not increase obviously with the level of stimulus for the corner exit, which is contrary to the experiment with the center exit. The experimental results show that the FIS effect is not necessary a universal law for any discrete system. The observation could help the design of buildings by relocating their exits to the corner in rooms to avoid the formation of FIS effect.

  3. Elastic-plastic Fracture Mechanics Assessment of nozzle corners submitted to thermal shock loading

    Chapuliot, S.; Marie, S.

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on the development of a simplified analytical scheme for the elastic-plastic Fracture Mechanics Assessment of large nozzle corners. Within that frame, following the specific numerical effort performed for the definition of a Stress Intensity Factor compendium, complementary elastic-plastic developments are proposed here for the consideration of the thermal shock loading in the elastic-plastic domain: this type of loading is a major loading for massive structures such as nozzle corners of large components. Thus, an important numerical was performed in order to extend the applicability domain of existing analytical schemes to those complex geometries. The final formulation is a simple one, applicable to a large variety of materials and geometrical configurations as long as the structure is large and the defect remains small in comparison to the internal radius of the nozzle. - Highlights: • Fracture Mechanics Assessment of large nozzle corners. • Elastic-plastic Stress Intensity Factor determination under thermal shock loading. • Semi-analytical schemes for J calculation.

  4. Risk in daily newspaper coverage of red tide blooms in Southwest Florida.

    Li, Zongchao; Garrison, Bruce; Ullmann, Steven G; Kirkpatrick, Barbara; Fleming, Lora E; Hoagland, Porter

    This study investigated newspaper coverage of Florida red tide blooms in four metropolitan areas of Southwest Florida during a 25-year period, 1987-2012. We focused on how journalists framed red tide stories with respect to environmental risk, health risk, and economic risk. We determined risk to be a key factor in this news coverage, being an aspect of coverage of red tide itself in terms of environmental risk, tourism risk, and public health risk. The study found that red tide news coverage is most often framed as an environmental story.

  5. Healing Through States of Consciousness: Animal Sacrifice and Christian Prayer Among the Kachin in Southwest China.

    Zhang, Wenyi

    2016-01-01

    Healing rituals can be understood in terms of configurations of two states of consciousness-a culturally elaborated everyday waking consciousness, and an enhanced and culturally elaborated state of consciousness. Two healing rituals performed by the ethnic Kachin in Southwest China differentiate these two states of consciousness in their theories of life and death. The first ritual, animal sacrifice, employs the ordinary consciousness, including will and expectation, of participants through the enhanced state of consciousness of the ritual officiant. The second, Christian prayer, utilizes the enhanced consciousness of Christian Congregation to achieve psychic transformation. These two rituals maneuver different configurations of the two states of consciousness in achieving healing efficacy.

  6. A study on the formation of the sharp corner on the cutting of Inconel 718 sheet using CW Nd:YAG laser

    Ahn, Dong Gyu; Byun, Kyung Won; Yoo, Young Tae [Chosun Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this paper is to investigate into the formation of the sharp corner according to process parameters and corner angles in the cutting of Inconel 718 sheet using CW Nd:YAG laser. In order to examine the effects of corner angles and the size of loop on the melted area in the sharp corner, several angular and loop cutting experiments were performed using a six-axis controlled automatic robot cutting system. The results of angular cutting experiments showed that the melted area is minimized at 90 .deg. of the corner angle. In addition, the results of the loop cutting experiments showed that the melted area rapidly decreases to nearly zero when the corner angle is greater than 3 mm and the corner angle is 90 .deg.

  7. Investigation of the Si(111)7 multiplication 7 surface near corner pots by tunneling microscope with various tips

    Bulavenko, S Y; Nakhodkyin, M G

    2002-01-01

    A change of the local density of electronic states (LDOS) of Si(111)7 multiplication 7 atoms under hydrogen adsorption in corner pits is studied with a scanning tunneling microscope. Hydrogen adsorption in a corner pit is found to result in increase of LDOS of neighbor adatoms on the unfaulted halves of 7 multiplication 7 unit cells. The change of LDOS is observed with both Bi/W and usual tips. Application of the phenomenon of the change of LDOS of adatoms on the unfaulted halves as an indicator of hydrogen adsorption in corner pits in STM-investigations with usual tips is offered. Use of such an indicator is suggested to be appropriate for the investigation of the adsorption of other adsorbates in corner pits.

  8. PENGARUH PENGETAHUAN WAJIB PAJAK, KESADARAN WAJIB PAJAK, DAN PROGRAM SAMSAT CORNER TERHADAP KEPATUHAN WAJIB PAJAK KENDARAAN BERMOTOR

    Dewi Kusuma Wardani

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the effect of knowledge of the taxpayer, the taxpayer awareness, and Program SAMSAT Corner on tax compliance in the Motor Vehicle Galeria Mall. The data used in this study are primary data from the results of questionnaires. Respondents in this study Motor Vehicle Taxpayers who make tax payments in SAMSAT Corner Galeria Mall Yogyakarta. The questionnaire was distributed to 108 respondents and data that can be processed as many as 105 questionnaires. The sampling method using Accidental Sampling. Data analysis techniques in this study using multiple linear regression techniques. Results of regression analysis showed that awareness of the taxpayer and Corner Program SAMSAT positive effect on tax compliance while the Motor Vehicle Tax Payer knowledge no significant effect on motor vehicle tax compliance. Keywords: Taxpayer Knowledge, Consciousness Taxpayer, SAMSAT Corner and Compliance Program Compulsory Motor Vehicle Tax

  9. Effect of the configuration of the corner in a narrow rectangular channel on flow and heat transfer

    Xu Jianjun; Chen Bingde; Wang Xiaojun

    2009-01-01

    In order to further understand the effect of the configuration of the corner in a narrow rectangular channel on flow and heat transfer, flow field and temperature field in a narrow rectangular channel were numerical simulated by using CFD code CFX10.0. The results show under the condition of equal quantity of heat of solid which is obtained by decreasing the solid of the corner, the distributions of inside wall temperature for the orthogonal and circular type configurations of the corner are almost the same as that of the archetypal configuration, and those can simulate heat transfer of the archetypal con- figuration. Under the condition of equal Re, secondary flow and friction pressure of the orthogonal type configuration are almost the same as those of the circular type configuration, which shows that the circular type configuration of the corner in a narrow channel can substituted for the archetypal configuration to simulate flow and heat transfer in a narrow rectangular channel. (authors)

  10. Impact of rounded electrode corners on breakdown characteristics of AlGaN/GaN high-electron mobility transistors

    Yamazaki, Taisei; Asubar, Joel T.; Tokuda, Hirokuni; Kuzuhara, Masaaki

    2018-05-01

    We investigated the impact of rounded electrode corners on the breakdown characteristics of AlGaN/GaN high-electron mobility transistors. For standard reference devices, catastrophic breakdown occurred predominantly near the sharp electrode corners. By introducing a rounded-electrode architecture, premature breakdown at the corners was mitigated. Moreover, the rate of breakdown voltage (V BR) degradation with an increasing gate width (W G) was significantly lower for devices with rounded corners. When W G was increased from 100 µm to 10 mm, the V BR of the reference device dropped drastically, from 1,200 to 300 V, whereas that of the rounded-electrode device only decreased to a respectable value of 730 V.

  11. Theoretical investigation of active sites at the corners of Mgcl 2 crystallites in supported ziegler-natta catalysts

    Correa, Andrea; Credendino, Raffaele; Pater, Jochem T M; Morini, Giampiero; Cavallo, Luigi

    2012-01-01

    We present a theoretical study on possible models of catalytic active species corresponding to Ti-chloride species adsorbed at the corners of MgCl 2 crystallites. First we focused our efforts on the interaction between prototypes of three

  12. Auditory ossicles from southwest Asian Mousterian sites.

    Quam, Rolf; Rak, Yoel

    2008-03-01

    The present study describes and analyzes new Neandertal and early modern human auditory ossicles from the sites of Qafzeh and Amud in southwest Asia. Some methodological issues in the measurement of these bones are considered, and a set of standardized measurement protocols is proposed. Evidence of erosive pathological processes, most likely attributed to otitis media, is present on the ossicles of Qafzeh 12 and Amud 7 but none can be detected in the other Qafzeh specimens. Qafzeh 12 and 15 extend the known range of variation in the fossil H. sapiens sample in some metric variables, but morphologically, the new specimens do not differ in any meaningful way from living humans. In most metric dimensions, the Amud 7 incus falls within our modern human range of variation, but the more closed angle between the short and long processes stands out. Morphologically, all the Neandertal incudi described to date show a very straight long process. Several tentative hypotheses can be suggested regarding the evolution of the ear ossicles in the genus Homo. First, the degree of metric and morphological variation seems greater among the fossil H. sapiens sample than in Neandertals. Second, there is a real difference in the size of the malleus between Neandertals and fossil H. sapiens, with Neandertals showing larger values in most dimensions. Third, the wider malleus head implies a larger articular facet in the Neandertals, and this also appears to be reflected in the larger (taller) incus articular facet. Fourth, there is limited evidence for a potential temporal trend toward reduction of the long process within the Neandertal lineage. Fifth, a combination of features in the malleus, incus, and stapes may indicate a slightly different relative positioning of either the tip of the incus long process or stapes footplate within the tympanic cavity in the Neandertal lineage.

  13. The experimental investigation of phase equilibria in the Al-rich corner within the ternary Al–Mn–Be system

    Zupanič, Franc, E-mail: franc.zupanic@um.si [University of Maribor, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Smetanova ulica 17, SI-2000 Maribor (Slovenia); Markoli, Boštjan; Naglič, Iztok [University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Technologies, Askerceva 12, Ljubljana SI-1000 (Slovenia); Bončina, Tonica [University of Maribor, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Smetanova ulica 17, SI-2000 Maribor (Slovenia)

    2013-09-05

    Highlights: •We investigated the constitution of the Al-rich corner of the Al–Mn–Be system. •Be{sub 4}AlMn is a thermodynamically stable phase in the Al-corner of the Al–Mn–Be system. •The T-phase (Al{sub 15}Mn{sub 3}Be{sub 2}) is not a stable phase in the Al-corner at 600 °C. •The λ-Al{sub 4}Mn phase is a stable phase in the Al-corner at 600 °C. •T-phase is a stable phase at 750 °C. -- Abstract: This work investigated the constitution of the Al-rich corner within the ternary Al–Mn–Be phase diagram using SEM + EDS, AES, XRD and DSC. With respect to the results, an isothermal cross-section at 600 °C was established, as well as a prediction of the apparent liquidus projection in the Al-corner. Be{sub 4}AlMn is a thermodynamically stable phase in the Al-rich corner of the ternary phase diagram. The other ternary T-phase, usually designated as Al{sub 15}Mn{sub 3}Be{sub 2}, formed during solidification in alloys with Be:Mn atomic ratios of less than 4:1, and having more than 1.5 at.% Mn. This phase is not a stable phase in the Al-rich corner at 600 °C. In contrast, the λ-Al{sub 4}Mn phase is a stable one. The T-phase is stable over a rather large part of the phase diagram at least within a temperature range close to 750 °C, where it is in equilibrium with the Al-rich liquid phase, and Be{sub 4}AlMn.

  14. Healthy versus Unhealthy Suppliers in Food Desert Neighborhoods: A Network Analysis of Corner Stores’ Food Supplier Networks

    Yeeli Mui

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Products in corner stores may be affected by the network of suppliers from which storeowners procure food and beverages. To date, this supplier network has not been well characterized. Methods: Using network analysis, we examined the connections between corner stores (n = 24 in food deserts of Baltimore City (MD, USA and their food/beverage suppliers (n = 42, to determine how different store and supplier characteristics correlated. Results: Food and beverage suppliers fell into two categories: Those providing primarily healthy foods/beverages (n = 15 in the healthy supplier network (HSN and those providing primarily unhealthy food/beverages (n = 41 in the unhealthy supplier network (UHSN. Corner store connections to suppliers in the UHSN were nearly two times greater (t = 5.23, p < 0.001, and key suppliers in the UHSN core were more diverse, compared to the HSN. The UHSN was significantly more cohesive and densely connected, with corner stores sharing a greater number of the same unhealthy suppliers, compared to HSN, which was less cohesive and sparsely connected (t = 5.82; p < 0.001. Compared to African Americans, Asian and Hispanic corner storeowners had on average −1.53 (p < 0.001 fewer connections to suppliers in the HSN (p < 0.001. Conclusions: Our findings indicate clear differences between corner stores’ HSN and UHSN. Addressing ethnic/cultural differences of storeowners may also be important to consider.

  15. Investigation of Corner Effect and Identification of Tunneling Regimes in L-Shaped Tunnel Field-Effect-Transistor.

    Najam, Faraz; Yu, Yun Seop

    2018-09-01

    Corner-effect existing in L-shaped tunnel field-effect-transistor (LTFET) was investigated using numerical simulations and band diagram analysis. It was found that the corner-effect is caused by the convergence of electric field in the sharp source corner present in an LTFET, thereby increasing the electric field in the sharp source corner region. It was found that in the corner-effect region tunneling starts early, as a function of applied bias, as compared to the rest of the channel not affected by corner-effect. Further, different tunneling regimes as a function of applied bias were identified in the LTFET including source to channel and channel to channel tunneling regimes. Presence of different tunneling regimes in LTFET was analytically justified with a set of equations developed to model source to channel, and channel to channel tunneling currents. Drain-current-gate-voltage (Ids-Vgs) characteristics obtained from the equations is in reasonable qualitative agreement with numerical simulation.

  16. What happens along the flank and corner of a continental indenter? Insights from the easternmost Himalayan orogen and constraints on the models of the India-Asia collision

    Haproff, P. J.; Yin, A.; Zuza, A. V.

    2017-12-01

    Investigations of continental collisions often focus on thrust belts oriented perpendicular to the plate-convergence direction and exclude belts that bound the flanks of a continental indenter despite being crucial to understanding the collisional process. Research of the Himalayan orogen, for example, has mostly centered on the east-trending thrust belt between the eastern and western syntaxes, resulting in inadequate examination of the north-trending Indo-Burma Ranges located along the eastern margin of India. To better understand the development of the entire Himalayan orogenic system, we conducted field mapping across the Northern Indo-Burma Range (NIBR), situated at the intersection of the eastern Himalaya and Indo-Burma Ranges. Our research shows that major lithologic units and thrust faults of the Himalaya extend to the NIBR, suggesting a shared geologic evolution. The structural framework of the NIBR consists of a southwest-directed thrust belt cored by a hinterland-dipping duplex, like the Himalaya. However, the Northern Indo-Burma orogen is distinct based on (1) the absence of the Tethyan Himalayan Sequence and southern Gangdese batholith, (2) the absence of the South Tibetan detachment, (3) crustal shortening greater than 80%, (4) an incredibly narrow orogen width of 7-33 km, (5) exposure of an ophiolitic mélange complex as a klippe, (6) and right-slip shear along the active range-bounding thrust fault. Furthermore, lithospheric deformation along the flank and northeast corner of India is characterized by right-slip transpression partitioned between the thrust belt and right-slip faults. Such a regime is interpreted to accommodate both contraction and clockwise rotation of Tibetan lithosphere around India, consistent with existing continuum deformation and rotation models.

  17. Investigation on the corner effect of L-shaped tunneling field-effect transistors and their fabrication method.

    Kim, Sang Wan; Choi, Woo Young; Sun, Min-Chul; Park, Byung-Gook

    2013-09-01

    In this work, electrical characteristics of L-shaped tunneling field-effect transistors (TFETs) have been studied and optimized by a commercial device simulator: Synopsys Sentaurus. Unlike our previous study performed by using Silvaco Atlas, there exists a kink phenomenon in a transfer curve which degrades the subthreshold swing (SS) and on-current (lon) of TFETs. According to simulation results, the kink results from abrupt source doping. Rounding the source junction edge with gradual doping profile is helpful to alleviate it. Based on those results, a novel fabrication flow has been proposed to suppress the kink effect induced by source corners. It is predicted that the performance of L-shaped TFETs is improved in terms of SS and Ion under the optimized process condition. Furthremore, the effect of high-k gate dielectric and narrow band gap material on device performance has been examined. Using 2-nm-thick HfO2 for gate dielectric and Si0.7Ge0.3 for intrinsic tunneling region, gate controllability to the channel and tunneling probability have been enhanced. As a result, its threshold voltage (Vth), SS and Ion have been improved by 0.13 V, 16 mV/dec, and 3.62 microA/microm, respectively.

  18. Poetry corner.

    Charles, Eric P

    2018-05-01

    Presents a piece of poetry by A. A. Milne who is now best known as the author of the Winnie the Pooh (1926) book but was quite well reputed before its publication for his plays and his poetry, including collections such as When We Were Very Young (1924). The style of "Veridical Perception" will be familiar to any who have read his work. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. PS Corner.

    Woods, D. R.

    1984-01-01

    Reviews articles and books which focus on topics and strategies related to problem-solving. Also describes the Kepner-Tregoe industrial training program. This program contains many problem-solving ideas and strategies appropriate for the college level. (JN)

  20. Kitchen Corner

    Campbell, Sharon

    2004-01-01

    This brief article describes one third-grade classroom's experience engaging in a lesson plan inspired by Larry Yanez's "Cocina Jaiteca" and images of the cheerful kitchen. In the lesson, the students were to draw their own kitchens based on their observations of the many details in Yanez's kitchen example, such as the calendar on the wall,…

  1. Corrections corner

    Miller, Arthur I.; Shanklin, Jon

    2015-09-01

    In your otherwise informative article on “Curing the Curie complex” (Features, August pp25-28), you wrote “Albert Einstein was awarded a Nobel prize for his discovery of the photoelectric effect”.

  2. Educational Corner

    Mohammad Saad Zaghloul Salem

    2012-02-04

    Feb 4, 2012 ... Received 12 June 2010; accepted 13 July 2010. Available online 4 ..... Fibroblast growth factor receptor mutations cause all of the following ... D. Zellweger syndrome ... Which of the following statements about DiGeorge syn-.

  3. The Corner

    David Giblin; Daniel C Dey; Dick Burhans; John Kabrick; Brian Root; Jennifer Grabner; Mike Gold

    2001-01-01

    This past March the membership was asked for the first time ever to vote on an advocacy issue instance the issue was a petition initiated by the California Native Plant Society supporting the equal protection of plants under the Federal Endangered Species Act. A total of 34 votes were cast, with an overwhelming majority of the votes in favor of MOSCB becoming a...

  4. Sulfide geochronlogy along the Southwest Indian Ridge

    Yang, W.; Tao, C.; Li, H.; Liang, J.; Liao, S.

    2017-12-01

    Dragon Flag and Duanqiao hydrothermal field is located between the Indomed and Gallieni fracture zones in the ultraslow-spreading Southwest Indian Ridge (SWIR). Ten subsamples from active and inactive vents of Dragon Flag hydrothermal field and twenty-eight subsamples from Duanqiao hydrothermal field were dated using the 230Th/238U method. Four main episodes of hydrothermal activity of Duanqiao were determined according to the restricted results: 68.9-84.3, 43.9-48.4, 25.3-34.8, and 0.7-17.3 kyrs. Hydrothermal activity of Duanqiao probably started about 84.3 (±0.5) kyrs ago and ceased about 0.737 (±0.023) kyrs ago. And sulfide samples from the nearby Dragon Flag filed at the same time and the results show that the ages of most sulfides from Dragon Flag field range from 1.496(±0.176) to 5.416 (±0.116) kyrs with the oldest age estimated at 15.997 (±0.155) kyrs Münch et al. (2001) reconstructed the evolution history of Mt. Jourdanne hydrothermal field. The age dating results indicate activity in two episodes, at 70-40 and 27-13 kyrs. The hydrothermal activity in Dragon Flag field is much more recent than that of Duanqiao or Mt. Jourdanne fields. The massive sulfides are younger than the sulfides from other hydrothermal fields such as Rainbow, Sonne and Ashadze-2. All these results suggest that hydrothermal activity of Dragon Flag field is much more recent than that of Duanqiao or Mt. Jourdanne fields. Mt. Jourdanne is situated on an axial volcanic ridge which has both volcanic and tectonic activity. This is necessary to develop the heat source and pathways for the fluid convection, which enables the hydrothermal circulation. Hydrothermal activity in Dragon Flag Field is located next to the detachment fault termination. The detachment fault system provides a pathway for hydrothermal convection. Such style of heat source can contribute to continuous hydrothermal activity for over 1000 years. Duanqiao field is located near the central volcano and there is a hot

  5. A Corner-Point-Grid-Based Voxelization Method for Complex Geological Structure Model with Folds

    Chen, Qiyu; Mariethoz, Gregoire; Liu, Gang

    2017-04-01

    3D voxelization is the foundation of geological property modeling, and is also an effective approach to realize the 3D visualization of the heterogeneous attributes in geological structures. The corner-point grid is a representative data model among all voxel models, and is a structured grid type that is widely applied at present. When carrying out subdivision for complex geological structure model with folds, we should fully consider its structural morphology and bedding features to make the generated voxels keep its original morphology. And on the basis of which, they can depict the detailed bedding features and the spatial heterogeneity of the internal attributes. In order to solve the shortage of the existing technologies, this work puts forward a corner-point-grid-based voxelization method for complex geological structure model with folds. We have realized the fast conversion from the 3D geological structure model to the fine voxel model according to the rule of isocline in Ramsay's fold classification. In addition, the voxel model conforms to the spatial features of folds, pinch-out and other complex geological structures, and the voxels of the laminas inside a fold accords with the result of geological sedimentation and tectonic movement. This will provide a carrier and model foundation for the subsequent attribute assignment as well as the quantitative analysis and evaluation based on the spatial voxels. Ultimately, we use examples and the contrastive analysis between the examples and the Ramsay's description of isoclines to discuss the effectiveness and advantages of the method proposed in this work when dealing with the voxelization of 3D geologic structural model with folds based on corner-point grids.

  6. 2005/2006 Southwest Florida Water Management District (SWFWMD) Lidar: Peace River South (including Carter Creek)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) LAS dataset is a survey of select areas within Southwest Florida. These data were produced for the Southwest Florida Water...

  7. 2005 Southwest Florida Water Management District (SWFWMD) Lidar: Little Manatee District

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) LAS dataset is a survey of select areas within Southwest Florida. These data were produced for the Southwest Florida Water...

  8. E3 Success Story - E3 Southwest Virginia: Economy, Energy and the Environment

    E3 Southwest Virginia supports sustainable manufacturing in 17 counties in southwest Virginia. The MTC provides manufacturers with assessments of production processes to reduce their energy consumption and drive innovation.

  9. Discriminating the biophysical impacts of coastal upwelling and mud banks along the southwest coast of India

    Karnan, C.; Jyothibabu, R.; Arunpandi, N.; Jagadeesan, L.; Muraleedharan, K.R.; Pratihary, A.K.; Balachandran, K.K.; Naqvi, S.W.A.

    Coastal upwelling and mud banks are two oceanographic processes concurrently operating along certain stretches of the southwest (Kerala) coast of India during the Southwest Monsoon period (June-September), facilitating significant enhancement...

  10. Does subterranean flow initiate mud banks off the southwest coast of India?

    Balachandran, K.K.

    Coastal waters off the southwest coast of India draw special attention because of the occurrence of mud banks at certain locations during southwest monsoon period. The present study puts forward a hypothesis of a subterranean flow, which could be a...

  11. Measurement of RF propagation around corners in underground mines and tunnels.

    Jacksha, R; Zhou, C

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports measurement results for radio frequency (RF) propagation around 90° corners in tunnels and underground mines, for vertically, horizontally and longitudinally polarized signals. Measurements of signal power attenuation from a main entry into a crosscut were performed at four frequencies - 455, 915, 2450 and 5800 MHz - that are common to underground radio communication systems. From the measurement data, signal power loss was determined as a function of signal coupling from the main entry into the crosscut. The resultant power loss data show there are many factors that contribute to power attenuation from a main entry into a crosscut, including frequency, antenna polarization and cross-sectional entry dimensions.

  12. Silicon microneedle formation using modified mask designs based on convex corner undercut

    Wilke, N.; Morrissey, A.

    2007-02-01

    In this work, we present microneedle fabrication using the mechanism of silicon convex corner undercutting for modified etch masks in aqueous KOH solution (29% KOH, 79 °C). The presented modified mask designs include three different shapes, as well as different compensation structures applied to a square mask shape. We have found that square mask shapes present an optimum needle structure in contrast to circular or diamond shapes. The use of compensation structures facilitates an increase in needle density of 33-50% over that otherwise achieved.

  13. Retail Demand Response in Southwest Power Pool

    Bharvirkar, Ranjit; Heffner, Grayson; Goldman, Charles

    2009-01-30

    In 2007, the Southwest Power Pool (SPP) formed the Customer Response Task Force (CRTF) to identify barriers to deploying demand response (DR) resources in wholesale markets and develop policies to overcome these barriers. One of the initiatives of this Task Force was to develop more detailed information on existing retail DR programs and dynamic pricing tariffs, program rules, and utility operating practices. This report describes the results of a comprehensive survey conducted by LBNL in support of the Customer Response Task Force and discusses policy implications for integrating legacy retail DR programs and dynamic pricing tariffs into wholesale markets in the SPP region. LBNL conducted a detailed survey of existing DR programs and dynamic pricing tariffs administered by SPP's member utilities. Survey respondents were asked to provide information on advance notice requirements to customers, operational triggers used to call events (e.g. system emergencies, market conditions, local emergencies), use of these DR resources to meet planning reserves requirements, DR resource availability (e.g. seasonal, annual), participant incentive structures, and monitoring and verification (M&V) protocols. Nearly all of the 30 load-serving entities in SPP responded to the survey. Of this group, fourteen SPP member utilities administer 36 DR programs, five dynamic pricing tariffs, and six voluntary customer response initiatives. These existing DR programs and dynamic pricing tariffs have a peak demand reduction potential of 1,552 MW. Other major findings of this study are: o About 81percent of available DR is from interruptible rate tariffs offered to large commercial and industrial customers, while direct load control (DLC) programs account for ~;;14percent. o Arkansas accounts for ~;;50percent of the DR resources in the SPP footprint; these DR resources are primarily managed by cooperatives. o Publicly-owned cooperatives accounted for 54percent of the existing DR resources

  14. 76 FR 8730 - Desert Southwest Customer Service Region-Rate Order No. WAPA-151

    2011-02-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Western Area Power Administration Desert Southwest Customer Service Region.... Jack Murray, Rates Manager, Desert Southwest Customer Service Region, Western Area Power Administration... ancillary service rates for the Desert Southwest Customer Service Region in accordance with section 302 of...

  15. Spinner dolphins Stenella longirostris off south-west Mauritius ...

    Spinner dolphins Stenella longirostris longirostris off the south-west coast of Mauritius are subject to ongoing anthropogenic disturbance in the form of daily dolphin tourism, which has intensified since 1998. Abundance of this species was estimated using photo-identification data and mark-recapture analysis. Between April ...

  16. Exploring maize-legume intercropping systems in Southwest Mexico

    Flores-Sanchez, D.; Pastor, A.V.; Lantinga, E.A.; Rossing, W.A.H.; Kropff, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Maize yields in continuous maize production systems of smallholders in the Costa Chica, a region in Southwest Mexico, are low despite consistent inputs of fertilizers and herbicides. This study was aimed at investigating the prospects of intercropping maize (Zea mays L.) and maize-roselle (Hibiscus

  17. Relationships between the forest dwelling people of South-West ...

    A brief study was carried out in South-West Mau region of the Mau Forest Complex in March 1993. The primary aim was to assess the importance of the tree hyrax, Dendrohyrax arboreus (A. Smith, 1827), to the local forest-dwelling people as a source of food and medicine and in their spiritual traditions, while investigating ...

  18. Mobile Phone Use for Agribusiness by Farmers in Southwest Nigeria

    This study investigated how farmers in Southwest Nigeria use mobile phones for agribusiness, the benefits of the use of mobile phones, and the challenges farmers face using the device. Driven by theory of information and communication technology for development, this study adopted survey and focus group discussion ...

  19. Assessing Crop Vulnerability to Climate Change: A Southwest Perspective

    The USDA Southwest Regional Climate Hub is one of ten Climate Hubs and Sub-hubs established in 2014. The Hub region includes Arizona, California (partnering with the California Sub-Hub), Nevada, New Mexico and Utah.  Beyond the mainland States, the SW hub also serves Hawaii and the US affiliated Pac...

  20. Chemical Compositions of Soils in Parts of Edo State, Southwest ...

    MICHAEL HORSFALL

    www.bioline.org.br/ja. Chemical Compositions of Soils in Parts of Edo State, Southwest Nigeria and their ... the soil in agriculture and engineering (Imasuen et al. 1989b). Clay mineral ..... Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, The. University of Western ...

  1. Nontuberculous mycobacteria: incidence in Southwest Ireland from 1987 to 2000.

    Kennedy, M P

    2012-02-03

    SETTING: The Southwest of Ireland (Counties Cork and Kerry) 1987-2000, average population 549,500. OBJECTIVE: Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) cause significant morbidity worldwide and the study of epidemiology and characteristics helps in their prevention and treatment. This study was performed to determine the incidence of NTM disease in comparison to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) and Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) in Southwest Ireland, over the above time period. DESIGN: A retrospective study was carried out in all human isolates of NTM, M. tuberculosis and M. bovis between 1987 and 2000, in the Southwest Region of Ireland. RESULTS: The mean incidence of NTM (0.4\\/100,000 population) has risen since 1995, principally of pulmonary Mycobacterium avium intracellulare complex (MAC). The annual incidence of M. tuberculosis in humans over 14 years in the same region was 971\\/100,000 population with a significant reduction since 1994 and M. bovis remained constant at 0.5\\/100,000 population. CONCLUSION: The increasing incidence of disease causing NTM noted in Southwest Ireland reflects global data and is surmised to be due to an ageing population, increased incidence related to chronic fibrotic lung disease, and environmental mycobacterial factors.

  2. Perception of physiotherapy educators in southwest Nigeria on ...

    The aim of this study was to seek opinions regarding the perceived advantages and disadvantages of the models of clinical education used in south-west, Nigeria. Seventy- four (45 males, 29 females) physiotherapy educators participated in this cross-sectional population-based survey. They were recruited from the three ...

  3. Reducing the burden of diarrhea among children under five years old: lessons learned from oral rehydration therapy corner program implementation in Northern Nigeria.

    Charyeva, Zulfiya; Cannon, Molly; Oguntunde, Olugbenga; Garba, Aminu Magashi; Sambisa, William; Bassi, Amos Paul; Ibrahim, Mohammed Auwal; Danladi, Saba'atu Elizabeth; Lawal, Nurudeen

    2015-05-01

    In Nigeria, diarrhea remains one of the leading causes of death among children under five years old. Oral Rehydration Therapy (ORT) corners were introduced to health facilities in Bauchi and Sokoto states to serve as points of treatment for sick children and equip caregivers with necessary skills in case management of diarrhea and diarrhea prevention. The operations research study examined the effect of facility-based ORT corners on caregivers' knowledge and skills in management of simple and moderate diarrhea at home, as well as caregivers' and service providers' perceived facilitators and barriers to utilization and delivering of ORT corner services. It also examined whether ORT activities were conducted according to the established protocols. This quantitative study relied on multiple sources of information to provide a complete picture of the current status of ORT corner services, namely surveys with ORT corner providers (N = 21), health facility providers (N = 23) and caregivers (N = 229), as well as a review of service statistics and health facility observations. Frequency distribution and binary analysis were conducted. The study revealed that ORT corner users were more knowledgeable in diarrhea prevention and management and demonstrated better skills for managing diarrhea at home than ORT corner non-users. However, the percentage of knowledgeable ORT users is not optimal, and providers need to continue to work toward improving such knowledge. ORT corner providers identified a lack of supplies as the major barrier for providing services. Furthermore, the study revealed a lack of information, education and communication materials, supportive supervision, and protocols and guidelines for delivering ORT corner services, as well as inadequate documentation of services provided at ORT corners. Recommendations for ORT corners program planners and implementers include ensuring all ORT corners have oral rehydration salt (ORS) packages and salt, sugar

  4. Micromagnetic simulation of exploratory magnetic logic device with missing corner defect

    Yang, Xiaokuo, E-mail: yangxk0123@163.com; Cai, Li; Zhang, Bin; Cui, Huanqing; Zhang, Mingliang

    2015-11-15

    Magnetic film nanostructures are attractive components of nonvolatile magnetoresistive memories and nanomagnet logic circuits. Recently, we studied switching properties (i.e., null logic preserving) of rectangle shape nanomagnet subjected to fabrication imperfections. Specifically, we presented typical missing corner material-related imperfections and adopted an isosceles triangle to model this defect for nanomagnets. Micromagnetic simulation shows that this kind of imperfections modeling method agrees well with previous experimental observations. Using the proposed defect modeling scheme, we investigate in detail the switching characteristics of different defective stand-alone and coupled nanomagnets. The results suggest that the state transition of defective nanomagnet element highly depends on defect type and device’s aspect ratio, and the defect type B{sub d} needs the largest coercive field, while the defect type D requires the largest null field for switching. These findings can provide key technical parameters and guides for nanomagnet logic circuit design. - Highlights: • We have modeled missing corner defect issue for nanomagnet logic device. • The logic state of defective NML element highly depends on defect type and AR. • The NML device with defect type B{sub d} needs the largest coercive field to reverse state. • The defect type D in the NML devices requires the largest null field to switch.

  5. Exact solution of corner-modified banded block-Toeplitz eigensystems

    Cobanera, Emilio; Alase, Abhijeet; Viola, Lorenza; Ortiz, Gerardo

    2017-01-01

    Motivated by the challenge of seeking a rigorous foundation for the bulk-boundary correspondence for free fermions, we introduce an algorithm for determining exactly the spectrum and a generalized-eigenvector basis of a class of banded block quasi-Toeplitz matrices that we call corner-modified . Corner modifications of otherwise arbitrary banded block-Toeplitz matrices capture the effect of boundary conditions and the associated breakdown of translational invariance. Our algorithm leverages the interplay between a non-standard, projector-based method of kernel determination (physically, a bulk-boundary separation) and families of linear representations of the algebra of matrix Laurent polynomials. Thanks to the fact that these representations act on infinite-dimensional carrier spaces in which translation symmetry is restored, it becomes possible to determine the eigensystem of an auxiliary projected block-Laurent matrix. This results in an analytic eigenvector Ansatz , independent of the system size, which we prove is guaranteed to contain the full solution of the original finite-dimensional problem. The actual solution is then obtained by imposing compatibility with a boundary matrix , whose shape is also independent of system size. As an application, we show analytically that eigenvectors of short-ranged fermionic tight-binding models may display power-law corrections to exponential behavior, and demonstrate the phenomenon for the paradigmatic Majorana chain of Kitaev. (paper)

  6. An adaptive clustering algorithm for image matching based on corner feature

    Wang, Zhe; Dong, Min; Mu, Xiaomin; Wang, Song

    2018-04-01

    The traditional image matching algorithm always can not balance the real-time and accuracy better, to solve the problem, an adaptive clustering algorithm for image matching based on corner feature is proposed in this paper. The method is based on the similarity of the matching pairs of vector pairs, and the adaptive clustering is performed on the matching point pairs. Harris corner detection is carried out first, the feature points of the reference image and the perceived image are extracted, and the feature points of the two images are first matched by Normalized Cross Correlation (NCC) function. Then, using the improved algorithm proposed in this paper, the matching results are clustered to reduce the ineffective operation and improve the matching speed and robustness. Finally, the Random Sample Consensus (RANSAC) algorithm is used to match the matching points after clustering. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can effectively eliminate the most wrong matching points while the correct matching points are retained, and improve the accuracy of RANSAC matching, reduce the computation load of whole matching process at the same time.

  7. Effect of epoxy resin on bending momentum in L type corner joins

    Mehmet Nuri Yıldırım

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In the furniture industry, the joining points of frame and box construction furniture according to the loads to be affected by the use place is important for the security of the user and service life of the furniture element. In this direction, it is aimed to determine the diagonal compression and diagonal tensile moment values of "L" type corner joints of box framed construction furniture prepared from solid wood materials. The Pinus Nigra, Fagus Orientalis L and Populus Nigra were used as solid wood materials. Wood-based biscuit joining elements were used in corner joints of the test construction and epoxy resin was used as glue for materials. The static loads were applied to construction according to ASTM-D1037. The results show that, the highest tensile and compression values were obtained from Fagus Orientalis L and the lowest values were obtained from Populus Nigra specimens. In the statistical study, the difference between the tensile and compressive bending moment values of the biscuit connection element was found to be statistically significant. This study indicates that, it is suggested to use of L type joints prepared from Fagus Orientalis L by using epoxy resin and wood based biscuit joining element in frame constructions.

  8. Fabry-Pérot Oscillation and Room Temperature Lasing in Perovskite Cube-Corner Pyramid Cavities

    Mi, Yang; Liu, Zhixiong; Shang, Qiuyu; Niu, Xinxiang; Shi, Jia; Zhang, Shuai; Chen, Jie; Du, Wenna; Wu, Zhiyong; Wang, Rui; Qiu, Xiaohui; Hu, Xiaoyong; Zhang, Qing; Wu, Tao; Liu, Xinfeng

    2018-01-01

    Recently, organometal halide perovskite-based optoelectronics, particularly lasers, have attracted intensive attentions because of its outstanding spectral coherence, low threshold, and wideband tunability. In this work, high-quality CH3 NH3 PbBr3 single crystals with a unique shape of cube-corner pyramids are synthesized on mica substrates using chemical vapor deposition method. These micropyramids naturally form cube-corner cavities, which are eminent candidates for small-sized resonators and retroreflectors. The as-grown perovskites show strong emission ≈530 nm in the vertical direction at room temperature. A special Fabry-Pérot (F-P) mode is employed to interpret the light confinement in the cavity. Lasing from the perovskite pyramids is observed from 80 to 200 K, with threshold ranging from ≈92 µJ cm-2 to 2.2 mJ cm-2 , yielding a characteristic temperature of T0 = 35 K. By coating a thin layer of Ag film, the threshold is reduced from ≈92 to 26 µJ cm-2 , which is accompanied by room temperature lasing with a threshold of ≈75 µJ cm-2 . This work advocates the prospect of shape-engineered perovskite crystals toward developing micro-sized optoelectronic devices and potentially investigating light-matter coupling in quantum optics.

  9. Setup and commissioning of the first corner of the electrostatic cryogenic storage ring CSR

    Fellenberger, Florian

    2012-01-01

    In the context of this thesis the first corner of the electrostatic cryogenic storage ring CSR was designed, built and characterized. Starting with the theoretical analysis of the utilized ion optical elements and hence resulting operational parameters and ion trajectories simulations major steps in design and manufacturing were carried out. Detailed calculations concerning the possible heat transport mechanism at the CSR were performed. This resulted in values for the expected heat load of the various components. Furthermore this calculations enabled the optimization of critical assemblies. In addition the components of the high-voltage system were tested intensively and optimized to guarantee the high-voltage stability required for the ion beam storage. During a first cooldown process major tests of the ion optical elements concerning their positions and alignment stabilities could be successfully performed. After this the first corner of the CSR was cooled down a second time to check the prior calculations on the expected heat loads and the achievable low-end temperatures. Almost all demands resulting from the experimental design parameters could be fullfilled directly during this thesis. The few exceptions missed the demands only close and will be fullfilled by appropriate modifications.

  10. Corner Separation Control by Boundary Layer Suction Applied to a Highly Loaded Axial Compressor Cascade

    Yangwei Liu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Control of corner separation has attracted much interest due to its improvement of performance and energy utilization in turbomachinery. Numerical studies have been performed under both design and off-design flow conditions to investigate the effects of boundary layer suction (BLS on corner separation in a highly loaded compressor cascade. Two new BLS slot configurations are proposed and a total of five suction slot configurations were studied and compared. Averaged static pressure rise, exit loss coefficient, passage blockage and flow turning angle have been given and compared systematically over a range of operation incidence angles. Distributions of significant loss removal, blade loading, exit deviation and total pressure loss at 3 degree and 7 degree incidence have also been studied. Under the same suction mass flows of 0.7% of the inlet mass flows, the pitchwise suction slot on the endwall shows a better optimal performance over the whole operation incidence among single suction slots. By using of the new proposed compound slot configuration with one spanwise slot on the blade suction side and one pitchwise slot on the endwall, the maximum reduction of total pressure loss at 7 degree incidence can be 39.4%.

  11. Fabry-Pérot Oscillation and Room Temperature Lasing in Perovskite Cube-Corner Pyramid Cavities

    Mi, Yang

    2018-01-10

    Recently, organometal halide perovskite-based optoelectronics, particularly lasers, have attracted intensive attentions because of its outstanding spectral coherence, low threshold, and wideband tunability. In this work, high-quality CH3 NH3 PbBr3 single crystals with a unique shape of cube-corner pyramids are synthesized on mica substrates using chemical vapor deposition method. These micropyramids naturally form cube-corner cavities, which are eminent candidates for small-sized resonators and retroreflectors. The as-grown perovskites show strong emission ≈530 nm in the vertical direction at room temperature. A special Fabry-Pérot (F-P) mode is employed to interpret the light confinement in the cavity. Lasing from the perovskite pyramids is observed from 80 to 200 K, with threshold ranging from ≈92 µJ cm-2 to 2.2 mJ cm-2 , yielding a characteristic temperature of T0 = 35 K. By coating a thin layer of Ag film, the threshold is reduced from ≈92 to 26 µJ cm-2 , which is accompanied by room temperature lasing with a threshold of ≈75 µJ cm-2 . This work advocates the prospect of shape-engineered perovskite crystals toward developing micro-sized optoelectronic devices and potentially investigating light-matter coupling in quantum optics.

  12. Ring Fusion of Fisheye Images Based on Corner Detection Algorithm for Around View Monitoring System of Intelligent Driving

    Jianhui Zhao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the visual effect of the around view monitor (AVM, we propose a novel ring fusion method to reduce the brightness difference among fisheye images and achieve a smooth transition around stitching seam. Firstly, an integrated corner detection is proposed to automatically detect corner points for image registration. Then, we use equalization processing to reduce the brightness among images. And we match the color of images according to the ring fusion method. Finally, we use distance weight to blend images around stitching seam. Through this algorithm, we have made a Matlab toolbox for image blending. 100% of the required corner is accurately and fully automatically detected. The transition around the stitching seam is very smooth, with no obvious stitching trace.

  13. Analytical model based on cohesive energy to indicate the edge and corner effects on melting temperature of metallic nanoparticles

    Shidpour, Reza; Hamid, Delavari H.; Vossoughi, M.

    2010-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The effect of edge and corner atoms of nanoparticle (solid line) cause melting temperature drops more compared to considering them as same as only surface atoms (dash line). This reduction is significant especially when the size of nanoparticle is below 10 nm. - Abstract: An analytical model based on cohesive energy has been conducted to study the effects of edge, corner, and inward surface relaxation as varying parameters on melting temperature of nanoparticles. It is shown that taking into account the edge and corner (EC) atoms of nanoparticle, causes to drop melting temperature more, when compared to consider them the same as only surface atoms. This reduction is significant especially when the size of nanoparticle is below 10 nm. The results are supported by available experimental results of tin, lead and gold melting temperature (T m ). Finally, it is shown that inward relaxation increases melting temperature slightly.

  14. Use of Long-Term Lysimeter Data in Support of Shallow Land Waste Disposal Cover Design

    Desotell, L.T.; Hudson, D.B.; Yucel, V.; Carilli, J.T.

    2006-01-01

    Water balance studies using two precision weighing lysimeters have been conducted at the Nevada Test Site in support of low-level radioactive waste disposal since 1994. The lysimeters are located in northern Frenchman Flat approximately 400 meters (m) from the southwest corner of the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site. Frenchman Flat is in the northern Mojave Desert and has an average annual precipitation of 125 millimeters (mm). Each lysimeter consists of a 2 m by 4 m by 2 m deep steel tank filled with native alluvium, supported on a sensitive scale. The scale is instrumented with an electronic load-cell and data-logger for continuous measurement of total soil water storage with a precision of approximately ±800 grams or ±0.1 mm of soil water storage. Data-loggers are linked to cell phone modems for remote data acquisition. One lysimeter is vegetated with native creosote bush, four wing salt bush, and annual grass at the approximate density of the surrounding landscape while the other is maintained as bare soil. Since no drainage has been observed from the bottom of the lysimeters and run-on/run-off is precluded, the change in soil-water storage is equal to precipitation minus evaporation/evapotranspiration. After equilibration, the bare lysimeter contains approximately 20.2 centimeters (cm) of water (10.1 % volumetric water content) and the vegetated lysimeter contains approximately 11.6 cm of water (5.8 % volumetric water content). The finite difference code UNSAT-H was used to simulate the continuous water balance of the lysimeters. Calibrated one-dimensional model simulations were generally in agreement with field data. 30-year model simulations were conducted to evaluate long-term potential transport of radionuclides via the soil water migration pathway. A 30-year climate record was generated by repeating the existing data record. Simulations indicate a 2 m thick closure cover, in conjunction with native vegetation, will essentially eliminate drainage

  15. Identification of brome grass infestations in southwest Oklahoma using multi-temporal Landsat imagery

    Yan, D.; de Beurs, K.

    2013-12-01

    The extensive infestation of brome grasses (Cheatgrass, Rye brome and Japanese brome) in southwest Oklahoma imposes negative impacts on local economy and ecosystem in terms of decreasing crop and forage production and increasing fire risk. Previously proposed methodologies on brome grass detection are found ill-suitable for southwest Oklahoma as a result of similar responses of background vegetation to inter-annual variability of rainfall. In this study, we aim to identify brome grass infestations by detecting senescent brome grasses using the 2011 Cultivated Land Cover Data Sets and the difference Normalized Difference Infrared Index (NDII) derived from multi-temporal Landsat imagery. Landsat imageries acquired on May 18th and June 10th 2013 by Operational Land Imager and Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus were used. The imagery acquisition dates correspond to the peak growth and senescent time of brome grasses, respectively. The difference NDII was calculated by subtracting the NDII image acquired in May from the June NDII image. Our hypotheses is that senescent brome grasses and crop/pasture fields harvested between the two image acquisition dates can be distinguished from background land cover classes because of their increases in NDII due to decreased water absorption by senescent vegetation in the shortwave infrared region. The Cultivated Land Cover Data Sets were used to further separate senescent brome grass patches from newly harvested crop/pasture fields. Ground truth data collected during field trips in June, July and August of 2013 were used to validate the detection results.

  16. From Pleistocene to Holocene: the prehistory of southwest Asia in evolutionary context.

    Watkins, Trevor

    2017-08-14

    In this paper I seek to show how cultural niche construction theory offers the potential to extend the human evolutionary story beyond the Pleistocene, through the Neolithic, towards the kind of very large-scale societies in which we live today. The study of the human past has been compartmentalised, each compartment using different analytical vocabularies, so that their accounts are written in mutually incompatible languages. In recent years social, cognitive and cultural evolutionary theories, building on a growing body of archaeological evidence, have made substantial sense of the social and cultural evolution of the genus Homo. However, specialists in this field of studies have found it difficult to extend their kind of analysis into the Holocene human world. Within southwest Asia the three or four millennia of the Neolithic period at the beginning of the Holocene represents a pivotal point, which saw the transformation of human society in the emergence of the first large-scale, permanent communities, the domestication of plants and animals, and the establishment of effective farming economies. Following the Neolithic, the pace of human social, economic and cultural evolution continued to increase. By 5000 years ago, in parts of southwest Asia and northeast Africa there were very large-scale urban societies, and the first large-scale states (kingdoms). An extension of cultural niche construction theory enables us to extend the evolutionary narrative of the Pleistocene into the Holocene, opening the way to developing a single, long-term, evolutionary account of human history.

  17. Assessing the risk of nitrogen deposition to natural resources in the Four Corners area

    Reed, Sasha C.; Belnap, Jayne; Floyd-Hanna, Lisa; Crews, Tim; Herring, Jack; Hanna, Dave; Miller, Mark E.; Duniway, Michael C.; Roybal, Carla M.

    2013-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) deposition in the western U.S. is on the rise and is already dramatically affecting terrestrial ecosystems. For example, N deposition has repeatedly been shown to lower air and water quality, increase greenhouse gas emissions, alter plant community composition, and significantly modify fire regimes. Accordingly, the effects of N deposition represent one of our largest environmental challenges and make difficult the National Park Service’s (NPS) important mission to “preserve the scenery and the natural and historic objects and the wildlife… unimpaired for the enjoyment of future generations”. Due to increased population growth and energy development (e.g., natural gas wells), the Four Corners region has become a notable ‘hotspot’ for N deposition. However, our understanding of how increased N deposition will affect these unique ecosystems, as well as how much deposition is actually occurring, remains notably poor. Here we used a multi-disciplinary approach to gathering information in an effort to help NPS safeguard the Four Corners national parks, both now and into the future. We applied modeling, field, and laboratory techniques to clarify current N deposition gradients and to help elucidate the ecosystem consequences of N deposition to the national parks of the Four Corners area. Our results suggest that NOx deposition does indeed represent a significant source of N to Mesa Verde National Park and, as expected, N deposition significantly affects coupled biogeochemical cycling (N, carbon, and phosphorus) of these landscapes. We also found some surprising results. For example, perhaps due to the low nutrient availability in these (and other) dryland ecosystems, although most other research suggests that adding N reduces N fixation rates, N additions did not consistently reduce natural N inputs via biological N2 fixation at our dryland sites. While the timeline of this pilot project is too brief to elucidate all the potential insight from

  18. Experiment research of slag renovation in the corner-fired boiler

    Gong, Zhijun; Wu, Wenfei [Inner Mongolia Univ. of Science and Technology, Baotou (China). School of Energy and Environment

    2013-07-01

    Aiming at serious slag on the water wall around the burner of corner-fired boiler with low-ash-fusion-point coal, cold experimental model has been established. In this experiment, particle image velocimetry (PIV) has been employed to accurately measure aerodynamic field of burner region, and the experimental research of furnace slag renovation has been conducted through changing the burner jet arrangement. The experiment results show that it has significantly effect on aerodynamic field in the furnace by changing burner jet deflection angle. A reasonable actual tangential circle diameter can be formed through adjusting the burner jet deflection angle, to prevent primary air attacking the wall, and further more, to effectively prevent serious slag on the water wall around the burner.

  19. Ombuds' Corner: MARS interviews, a two-way street to mutual understanding (Part 2)

    Sudeshna Datta-Cockerill

    2014-01-01

    With the annual MARS exercise approaching, now is an ideal time to consider how to carry out a successful interview. In this issue of the Bulletin, I promised to look at how you, as a supervisee, can use the time to share your specific experience and consolidate an on-going dialogue with your supervisor.   "The MARS interviews are not a productive use of time." "My supervisee cannot handle any constructive criticism." “I am really nervous about my interview”. These are the sorts of complaints heard in the Ombuds Office and around CERN during this time. But the right approach can turn the experience into much more than a formality.  In my last Ombuds Corner, I reminded supervisors of the importance of ‘seeking first to understand’ during the MARS interviews they conducted. While this is essential for supervisors, it is also equally relevant for supervisees. Your supervisors are looking for acknowledgement and ...

  20. New diffusion-sythetic acceleration methods for the SN equations with corner balance spatial differencing

    Wareing, T.A.

    1993-01-01

    New methods are presented for diffusion-synthetic accelerating the S N equations in slab and x-y geometries with the corner balance spatial differencing scheme. With the standard diffusion-synthetic acceleration method, the discretized diffusion problem is derived from the discretized S N problem to insure stability through consistent differencing. The major difference between our new methods and standard diffusion-synthetic acceleration is that the discretized diffusion problem is derived from a discretization of the P 1 equations, independently of the discretized S N problem. We present theoretical and numerical results to show that these new methods are unconditionally efficient in slab and x-y geometries with rectangular spatial meshes and isotropic scattering. (orig.)

  1. Posterolateral Corner Injury Associated with a Schatzker Type 2 Tibial Plateau Fracture

    Boris A. Zelle

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Isolated posterolateral corner (PLC injuries are rarely seen with tibial plateau fractures and can be missed during the initial assessment. The objective of this paper is to present a case of a Schatzker type 2 tibial plateau fracture with associated isolated PLC injury and give a discussion on physical exam, diagnostic studies, and treatment options. A twenty-five-year-old female sustained a concomitant Schatzker type 2 fracture and PLC injury. Magnetic Resonance Imaging showed an isolated PLC disruption. Open reduction-internal fixation was performed with subsequent PLC repair. At sixteen months postoperatively, the patient had full range of motion and strength of her knee and no signs of laxity. This case emphasizes the importance of physical exam and appropriate imaging modalities in order to diagnose and treat this significant injury in a prompt fashion. In this case, surgical fracture fixation and subsequent repair of the PLC provided a good clinical outcome.

  2. High speed corner and gap-seal computations using an LU-SGS scheme

    Coirier, William J.

    1989-01-01

    The hybrid Lower-Upper Symmetric Gauss-Seidel (LU-SGS) algorithm was added to a widely used series of 2D/3D Euler/Navier-Stokes solvers and was demonstrated for a particular class of high-speed flows. A limited study was conducted to compare the hybrid LU-SGS for approximate Newton iteration and diagonalized Beam-Warming (DBW) schemes on a work and convergence history basis. The hybrid LU-SGS algorithm is more efficient and easier to implement than the DBW scheme originally present in the code for the cases considered. The code was validated for the hypersonic flow through two mutually perpendicular flat plates and then used to investigate the flow field in and around a simplified scramjet module gap seal configuration. Due to the similarities, the gap seal flow was compared to hypersonic corner flow at the same freestream conditions and Reynolds number.

  3. Determination of K-factors for arbitrarily shaped flaws at pressure vessel nozzle corners

    Bryson, J.W.

    1979-01-01

    Photoelastic and finite element studies are being conducted to determine Mode I stress intensity factor distributions along arbitrarily shaped flaw fronts at pressure vessel nozzle corners. Comparisons of results from NOZ-FLAW, BIGIF, and the photoelastic studies showed that (1) good agreement was obtained between NOZ-FLAW and the photoelastically determined K 1 's for the deep flaw in an ITV model, (2) good agreement was obtained between NOZ-FLAW BIGIF for shallow and moderately deep flaws in a BWR model, and (3) less satisfactory agreement was obtained between NOZ- FLAW and the photoelastic results for the BWR models, particularly for moderately deep to deep flaws. Attempts are presently being made at understanding and explaining the discrepancies between the two

  4. Laser radar range and detection performance for MEMS corner cube retroreflector arrays

    Grasso, Robert J.; Odhner, Jefferson E.; Stewart, Hamilton; McDaniel, Robert V.

    2004-12-01

    BAE SYSTEMS reports on a program to characterize the performance of MEMS corner cube retroreflector arrays under laser illumination. These arrays have significant military and commercial application in the areas of: 1) target identification; 2) target tracking; 3) target location; 4) identification friend-or-foe (IFF); 5) parcel tracking, and; 6) search and rescue assistance. BAE SYSTEMS has theoretically determined the feasibility of these devices to learn if sufficient signal-to-noise performance exists to permit a cooperative laser radar sensor to be considered for device location and interrogation. Results indicate that modest power-apertures are required to achieve SNR performance consistent with high probability of detection and low false alarm rates.

  5. A feature extraction algorithm based on corner and spots in self-driving vehicles

    Yupeng FENG

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available To solve the poor real-time performance problem of the visual odometry based on embedded system with limited computing resources, an image matching method based on Harris and SIFT is proposed, namely the Harris-SIFT algorithm. On the basis of the review of SIFT algorithm, the principle of Harris-SIFT algorithm is provided. First, Harris algorithm is used to extract the corners of the image as candidate feature points, and scale invariant feature transform (SIFT features are extracted from those candidate feature points. At last, through an example, the algorithm is simulated by Matlab, then the complexity and other performance of the algorithm are analyzed. The experimental results show that the proposed method reduces the computational complexity and improves the speed of feature extraction. Harris-SIFT algorithm can be used in the real-time vision odometer system, and will bring about a wide application of visual odometry in embedded navigation system.

  6. Numerical study of damage evolution and failure in an electromagnetic corner fill operation

    Imbert, J.M.; Winkler, S.L.; Worswick, M.J.; Oliveira, D.A.; Golovashchenko, S.

    2004-01-01

    A numerical study of an electromagnetic corner fill operation using AA5754 aluminum alloy sheet was performed. Conical parts with side angles of 40 and 45 deg. (included angles of 100 and 90 deg.) were modeled. The numerical calculations were performed with an explicit dynamic finite element structural code, using an analytical electromagnetic pressure distribution. Damage evolution was predicted using a damage subroutine based on the Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman constitutive model. Experiments were performed to validate the numerical results. Damage measurements were made using optical microscopy to determine the actual damage produced by the forming operations. Predicted final shape, failure and damage levels are presented and compared with experimental results. The numerical models were able to accurately predict damage trends. Failure was predicted in general agreement with the experiments

  7. An examination of Southwest Pacific explosive cyclones, 1989 to 2009

    Black, M T; Pezza, A B; Kreft, P

    2010-01-01

    This study has assembled a climatology of Southwest Pacific explosively developing cyclones, based on the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts' ERA-Interim reanalysis data, over the 21-year period from 1989 to 2009. The recently developed 'combined explosive' expression, a refinement of the 'relative explosive' criterion, was used to identify cyclones deemed explosive with respect to both the drop in central pressure and the climatological pressure gradient. Over the period of analysis, 47 explosive cyclones were identified within the Southwest Pacific, equating to an average of 2.2 explosive events per year. Seasonally, explosive cyclones are most frequent during the winter months, while least frequent during the summer. Two case explosive systems are briefly considered, with their corresponding measures of intensity and scale placed into climatological perspective.

  8. Celestial Seasonings: Astronomy and Rock Art in the American Southwest

    Krupp, E. C.

    1994-12-01

    Astronomical interpretations of prehistoric rock art have played a significant part in the development of modern archaeoastronomy since 1975, when interest was renewed in the possibility that the Crab supernova explosion of 1054 A.D. was represented in rock art of the American Southwest. (This hypothesis was actually first formulated in 1955.) In the last two decades, a variety of astronomical functions for rock art have been proposed and investigated. These include representation of specific historical celestial events, symbolic representation of elements of celestial myths, star maps, markers for astronomical observing stations markers for celestially tempered shrines, images intended to invoke and exploit cosmo-magical power, seasonally significant light-and-shadow displays. Examples of astronomical connotations in prehistoric rock art from the Southwest and California illustrate the necessity of understanding the culture in any attempt to understand its astronomy.

  9. Uncovering a New Current: The Southwest MAdagascar Coastal Current

    Ramanantsoa, Juliano D.; Penven, P.; Krug, M.; Gula, J.; Rouault, M.

    2018-02-01

    Cruise data sets, satellite remote sensing observations, and model data analyses are combined to highlight the existence of a coastal surface poleward flow in the southwest of Madagascar: the Southwest MAdagascar Coastal Current (SMACC). The SMACC is a relatively shallow (water surface signature of the SMACC extends from 22°S (upstream) to 26.4°S (downstream). The SMACC exhibits a seasonal variability: more intense in summer and reduced in winter. The average volume transport of its core is about 1.3 Sv with a mean summer maximum of 2.1 Sv. It is forced by a strong cyclonic wind stress curl associated with the bending of the trade winds along the southern tip of Madagascar. The SMACC directly influences the coastal upwelling regions south of Madagascar. Its existence is likely to influence local fisheries and larval transport patterns, as well as the connectivity with the Agulhas Current, affecting the returning branch of the global overturning circulation.

  10. Echinococcus granulosus Prevalence in Dogs in Southwest Nigeria

    Oyeduntan Adejoju Adediran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Echinococcosis is a public health parasitic disease that is cosmopolitan (Echinococcus granulosus in its distribution. Domestic dogs (Canis familiaris have been recognised as the definitive host of the parasite. The present study was carried out to determine the prevalence of canine echinococcosis in Southwest Nigeria using direct enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA to detect sera antigen. Two hundred and seventy-three (273 canine sera were tested for the presence of Echinococcus antigen. Purpose of keeping (hunting or companion, age (young or adult, and sex of each dog were considered during sampling. Total prevalence recorded was 12.45% (34/273. There was significant difference (P0.05 between young and adult dogs. There was no association between sex and prevalence of canine echinococcosis. The result of this study established the presence of canine echinococcosis in Southwest Nigeria; thus there is the possibility of occurrence of zoonotic form of the disease (human cystic hydatid diseases in the region.

  11. Geothermal development in southwest Idaho: the socioeconomic data base

    Spencer, S.G.; Russell, B.F.

    1979-09-01

    This report inventories, analyzes, and appraises the exiting socioeconomic data base for the ten counties in southwest Idaho that would be impacted by any significant geothermal development. The inventory describes key sociological demographic, and economic characteristics, and presents spatial boundaries, housing data, and projections of population and economic activity for the counties. The inventory identifies the significant gaps in the existing data base and makes recommendations for future research.

  12. Migmatitic rocks southwest of the Barberton greenstone belt

    Robb, L.J.; Anhaeusser, C.R.

    1981-01-01

    A geologic survey was done on the migmatitic rocks southwest of the Barberton greenstone belt. A table is given on the chemical analyses of components from migmatic outcrops in this area, as well as on the chemical analyses of some selected rock types found in greenstone xenoliths, together with leuco-biotite tomalite/tronomjemite gneisses in the area surrounding the Boesmanskop syenite pluton. Isotope dating was also used in the survey

  13. Ethnopharmacology of Medicinal Plants in the Southwest of Mond Mountain

    2017-01-01

    Background:Ethnopharmacology has been seen as a multidisciplinary approach for novel drug discovery by providing valuable data about medicinal plants in different cultures. The aim of this ethnopharmacological study was to identify medicinal plants in the Southwest of Mond Mountain in the North of Persian Gulf. MaterialsandMethods:The medical uses of medicinal plants were gathered from 20 local informants by face to face interviews. The relative frequency of citation (FRC) and cultural imp...

  14. Geothermal development in southwest Idaho: the socioeconomic data base

    Spencer,S.G.; Russell, B.F. (eds.)

    1979-09-01

    This report inventories, analyzes, and appraises the existing socioeconomic data base for the ten counties in southwest Idaho that would be impacted by any significant geothermal development. The inventory describes key sociological demographic, and economic characteristics, and presents spatial boundaries, housing data, and projections of population and economic activity for the counties. The inventory identifies the significant gaps in the existing data base and makes recommendations for future research.

  15. Many southwest hosptials will receive decreased CMS reimbursement

    Robbins RA

    2013-01-01

    No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. More hospitals are receiving penalties than bonuses in the second year of the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services’ (CMS) quality incentive program, and the average penalty is steeper than last year according to a report from Jordan Rau in Kaiser Health News (1). Southwest hospitals reflect that trend with New Mexico and Arizona exceeding the US average both in percentage of hospitals receiving penalties and the average size of the ...

  16. Butterflies and Dragon-Eagles: Processing Epics from Southwest China

    Mark Bender

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In the mountains of southwest China, epic narratives are part of the traditional performance-scapes of many ethnic minority cultures. In some cases locals participate in the preservation of oral or oral-connected epics from their respective areas. This article discusses the dynamics of acquiring and translating texts from two major ethnic minority groups in cooperation with local tradition-bearers, poets, and scholars.

  17. Gaseous Oxidized Mercury Dry Deposition Measurements in the FourCorners Area and Eastern Oklahoma, U.S.A.

    Gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM) dry deposition measurements using surrogate surface passive samplers were collected in the Four Corners area and eastern Oklahoma from August, 2009–August, 2011. Using data from a six site area network, a characterization of the magnitude and spatia...

  18. Multi-Objective Sliding Mode Control on Vehicle Cornering Stability with Variable Gear Ratio Actuator-Based Active Front Steering Systems

    Ma, Xinbo; Wong, Pak Kin; Zhao, Jing; Xie, Zhengchao

    2016-01-01

    Active front steering (AFS) is an emerging technology to improve the vehicle cornering stability by introducing an additional small steering angle to the driver’s input. This paper proposes an AFS system with a variable gear ratio steering (VGRS) actuator which is controlled by using the sliding mode control (SMC) strategy to improve the cornering stability of vehicles. In the design of an AFS system, different sensors are considered to measure the vehicle state, and the mechanism of the AFS system is also modelled in detail. Moreover, in order to improve the cornering stability of vehicles, two dependent objectives, namely sideslip angle and yaw rate, are considered together in the design of SMC strategy. By evaluating the cornering performance, Sine with Dwell and accident avoidance tests are conducted, and the simulation results indicate that the proposed SMC strategy is capable of improving the cornering stability of vehicles in practice. PMID:28036037

  19. Accuracy Assessment in Determining the Location of Corners of Building Structures Using a Combination of Various Measurement Methods

    Krzyżek, Robert; Przewięźlikowska, Anna

    2017-12-01

    When surveys of corners of building structures are carried out, surveyors frequently use a compilation of two surveying methods. The first one involves the determination of several corners with reference to a geodetic control using classical methods of surveying field details. The second method relates to the remaining corner points of a structure, which are determined in sequence from distance-distance intersection, using control linear values of the wall faces of the building, the so-called tie distances. This paper assesses the accuracy of coordinates of corner points of a building structure, determined using the method of distance-distance intersection, based on the corners which had previously been determined by the conducted surveys tied to a geodetic control. It should be noted, however, that such a method of surveying the corners of building structures from linear measures is based on the details of the first-order accuracy, while the regulations explicitly allow such measurement only for the details of the second- and third-order accuracy. Therefore, a question arises whether this legal provision is unfounded, or whether surveyors are acting not only against the applicable standards but also without due diligence while performing surveys? This study provides answers to the formulated problem. The main purpose of the study was to verify whether the actual method which is used in practice for surveying building structures allows to obtain the required accuracy of coordinates of the points being determined, or whether it should be strictly forbidden. The results of the conducted studies clearly demonstrate that the problem is definitely more complex. Eventually, however, it might be assumed that assessment of the accuracy in determining a location of corners of a building using a combination of two different surveying methods will meet the requirements of the regulation [MIA, 2011), subject to compliance with relevant baseline criteria, which have been

  20. Leveraging Citizen Science for Healthier Food Environments: A Pilot Study to Evaluate Corner Stores in Camden, New Jersey

    Benjamin W. Chrisinger

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the last 6 years, a coordinated “healthy corner store” network has helped an increasing number of local storeowners stock healthy, affordable foods in Camden, New Jersey, a city with high rates of poverty and unemployment, and where most residents have little or no access to large food retailers. The initiative’s funders and stakeholders wanted to directly engage Camden residents in evaluating this effort to increase healthy food access. In a departure from traditional survey- or focus group-based evaluations, we used an evidence-based community-engaged citizen science research model (called Our Voice that has been deployed in a variety of neighborhood settings to assess how different features of the built environment both affect community health and wellbeing, and empower participants to create change. Employing the Our Voice model, participants documented neighborhood features in and around Camden corner stores through geo-located photos and audio narratives. Eight adult participants who lived and/or worked in a predefined neighborhood of Camden were recruited by convenience sample and visited two corner stores participating in the healthy corner store initiative (one highly-engaged in the initiative and the other less-engaged, as well as an optional third corner store of their choosing. Facilitators then helped participants use their collected data (in total, 134 images and 96 audio recordings to identify and prioritize issues as a group, and brainstorm and advocate for potential solutions. Three priority themes were selected by participants from the full theme list (n = 9 based on perceived importance and feasibility: healthy product selection and display, store environment, and store outdoor appearance and cleanliness. Participants devised and presented a set of action steps to community leaders, and stakeholders have begun to incorporate these ideas into plans for the future of the healthy corner store network. Key

  1. Leveraging Citizen Science for Healthier Food Environments: A Pilot Study to Evaluate Corner Stores in Camden, New Jersey.

    Chrisinger, Benjamin W; Ramos, Ana; Shaykis, Fred; Martinez, Tanya; Banchoff, Ann W; Winter, Sandra J; King, Abby C

    2018-01-01

    Over the last 6 years, a coordinated "healthy corner store" network has helped an increasing number of local storeowners stock healthy, affordable foods in Camden, New Jersey, a city with high rates of poverty and unemployment, and where most residents have little or no access to large food retailers. The initiative's funders and stakeholders wanted to directly engage Camden residents in evaluating this effort to increase healthy food access. In a departure from traditional survey- or focus group-based evaluations, we used an evidence-based community-engaged citizen science research model (called Our Voice ) that has been deployed in a variety of neighborhood settings to assess how different features of the built environment both affect community health and wellbeing, and empower participants to create change. Employing the Our Voice model, participants documented neighborhood features in and around Camden corner stores through geo-located photos and audio narratives. Eight adult participants who lived and/or worked in a predefined neighborhood of Camden were recruited by convenience sample and visited two corner stores participating in the healthy corner store initiative (one highly-engaged in the initiative and the other less-engaged), as well as an optional third corner store of their choosing. Facilitators then helped participants use their collected data (in total, 134 images and 96 audio recordings) to identify and prioritize issues as a group, and brainstorm and advocate for potential solutions. Three priority themes were selected by participants from the full theme list ( n  = 9) based on perceived importance and feasibility: healthy product selection and display, store environment, and store outdoor appearance and cleanliness. Participants devised and presented a set of action steps to community leaders, and stakeholders have begun to incorporate these ideas into plans for the future of the healthy corner store network. Key elements of healthy corner

  2. Bulk deposition of organic and inorganic nitrogen in southwest China from 2008 to 2013

    Song, Ling; Kuang, Fuhong; Skiba, Ute; Zhu, Bo; Liu, Xuejun; Levy, Peter; Dore, Anthony; Fowler, David

    2017-01-01

    China is regarded as one of the nitrogen deposition hotspots in the world. Measurements to-date have focused mainly on the North China Plain, ignoring the fact that atmospheric chemical and physical properties vary across the country and that there may be other hotspots regions that should be investigated. For this reason we have conducted a six year study, measuring the bulk deposition of reduced (NH 4 -N), oxidized (NO 3 -N), and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) at three contrasting sites in the Sichuan province, southwest China. The study sites were a high altitude forest in the Gongga Mountains (GG), an agriculture dominated region in Yanting (YT) and an urban site in the mega city Chengdu (CD). The annual average bulk deposition fluxes of total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) were 7.4, 23.1 and 36.6 kg N ha −1 yr −1 at GG, YT and CD sites, respectively, during the study period 2008 to 2013. The contributions of NH 4 -N, NO 3 -N and DON to the TDN were in the range of 48.4–57.8%, 28.8–43.7%, and 8.0–15.6%, respectively. DON bulk deposition was mainly dominated by agricultural activities. TDN bulk deposition fluxes showed increasing trends at the agricultural and urban sites from 2008 to 2013, but there was little change at the remote forest (GG) site. While reduced N dominated bulk N deposition at all the three sites, its contribution showed a decreasing trend, suggesting a gradual increase in the importance of oxidized N. These results reveal the value of long term monitoring in detecting changes in the atmospheric chemical composition of this rapidly changing region, and their inclusion in the policy debate regarding which sources should be controlled in order to reduce the long term impacts of N deposition, especially for southwest China, where there are few measurements of N deposition. - Highlights: • A region in southwest China was identified as a nitrogen deposition hotspot. • Agriculture was identified as the main source of organic nitrogen

  3. Bulk deposition of organic and inorganic nitrogen in southwest China from 2008 to 2013.

    Song, Ling; Kuang, Fuhong; Skiba, Ute; Zhu, Bo; Liu, Xuejun; Levy, Peter; Dore, Anthony; Fowler, David

    2017-08-01

    China is regarded as one of the nitrogen deposition hotspots in the world. Measurements to-date have focused mainly on the North China Plain, ignoring the fact that atmospheric chemical and physical properties vary across the country and that there may be other hotspots regions that should be investigated. For this reason we have conducted a six year study, measuring the bulk deposition of reduced (NH 4 -N), oxidized (NO 3 -N), and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) at three contrasting sites in the Sichuan province, southwest China. The study sites were a high altitude forest in the Gongga Mountains (GG), an agriculture dominated region in Yanting (YT) and an urban site in the mega city Chengdu (CD). The annual average bulk deposition fluxes of total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) were 7.4, 23.1 and 36.6 kg N ha -1 yr -1 at GG, YT and CD sites, respectively, during the study period 2008 to 2013. The contributions of NH 4 -N, NO 3 -N and DON to the TDN were in the range of 48.4-57.8%, 28.8-43.7%, and 8.0-15.6%, respectively. DON bulk deposition was mainly dominated by agricultural activities. TDN bulk deposition fluxes showed increasing trends at the agricultural and urban sites from 2008 to 2013, but there was little change at the remote forest (GG) site. While reduced N dominated bulk N deposition at all the three sites, its contribution showed a decreasing trend, suggesting a gradual increase in the importance of oxidized N. These results reveal the value of long term monitoring in detecting changes in the atmospheric chemical composition of this rapidly changing region, and their inclusion in the policy debate regarding which sources should be controlled in order to reduce the long term impacts of N deposition, especially for southwest China, where there are few measurements of N deposition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Storing empty calories and chronic disease risk: snack-food products, nutritive content, and manufacturers in Philadelphia corner stores.

    Lucan, Sean C; Karpyn, Allison; Sherman, Sandy

    2010-05-01

    Corner stores are part of the urban food environment that may contribute to obesity and diet-related diseases, particularly for low-income and minority children. The snack foods available in corner stores may be a particularly important aspect of an urban child's food environment. Unfortunately, there is little data on exactly what snack foods corner stores stock, or where these foods come from. We evaluated snack foods in 17 Philadelphia corner stores, located in three ethnically distinct, low-income school neighborhoods. We recorded the manufacturer, calories, fat, sugar, and sodium for all snack items, excluding candy and prepared foods. We then compared the nutritive content of assessed snack items to established dietary recommendations and a school nutrition standard. In total, stores stocked 452 kinds of snacks, with only 15% of items common between all three neighborhoods. Total and unique snacks and snack food manufacturers varied by neighborhood, but distributions in snack type varied negligibly: overall, there were no fruit snacks, no vegetable snacks, and only 3.6% of all snacks (by liberal definition) were whole grain. The remainder (96.4% of snacks) was highly processed foods. Five of 65 manufacturers supplied 73.4% of all kinds of snack foods. Depending on serving size definition, 80.0-91.5% of snack foods were "unhealthy" (by the school nutrition standard), including seven of 11 wholegrain products. A single snack item could supply 6-14% of a day's recommended calories, fat, sugar, and sodium on average (or 56-169% at the extreme) for a "typical" child. We conclude that corner store snack food inventories are almost entirely unhealthful, and we discuss possible implications and next steps for research and intervention.

  5. Study of the Effect of Mold Corner Shape on the Initial Solidification Behavior of Molten Steel Using Mold Simulator

    Lyu, Peisheng; Wang, Wanlin; Long, Xukai; Zhang, Kaixuan; Gao, Erzhuo; Qin, Rongshan

    2018-02-01

    The chamfered mold with a typical corner shape (angle between the chamfered face and hot face is 45 deg) was applied to the mold simulator study in this paper, and the results were compared with the previous results from a well-developed right-angle mold simulator system. The results suggested that the designed chamfered structure would increase the thermal resistance and weaken the two-dimensional heat transfer around the mold corner, causing the homogeneity of the mold surface temperatures and heat fluxes. In addition, the chamfered structure can decrease the fluctuation of the steel level and the liquid slag flow around the meniscus at mold corner. The cooling intensities at different longitudinal sections of shell are close to each other due to the similar time-average solidification factors, which are 2.392 mm/s1/2 (section A-A: chamfered center), 2.372 mm/s1/2 (section B-B: 135 deg corner), and 2.380 mm/s1/2 (section D-D: face), respectively. For the same oscillation mark (OM), the heights of OM roots at different positions (profile L1 (face), profile L2 (135 deg corner), and profile L3 (chamfered center)) are very close to each other. The average value of height difference (HD) between two OMs roots for L1 and L2 is 0.22 mm, and for L2 and L3 is 0.38 mm. Finally, with the help of metallographic examination, the shapes of different hooks were also discussed.

  6. [Water and environment in the Southwest of Madagascar].

    Razanamparany, L

    1993-04-01

    The dry and arid southwest region of Madagascar is not a desert but resembles the Sahel region of West Africa. The chronic water deficit is aggravated by the heat and constant winds that accelerate evapotranspiration on the permeable soils. The dryness occurs because the southwest region lies outside the main pluviogenic systems. Erosion occurs at all seasons. In the winter the sun and winds are the main causes, while the rare storms are more conducive to run-off and to erosion than to absorption. The acute water shortage in the southwest has prompted hydrogeologic research and well-drilling, but the high salt content of the water and other impurities will be a limiting factor for development of the area. The population of the southwest is extremely mobile. Human settlements are concentrated in the valleys and depressions and along major roads. Customary rights to land under the control of the traditional chiefs regulate tenure in most areas. But especially in the river bottoms, the coming of cash crops cultivated with modern equipment has resulted in significant erosion which has aggravated ecological problems. Accelerating soil degradation has led peasants to extend their lands under cultivation to the detriment of forest cover. Cattle herding remains the principal economic activity in the southwest. Herding has progressed from nomadism to pastoralism, but it remains a sign of power and wealth. Transhumance is the strategy of herders faced with shortages of water and pasturage, demographic pressure, and environmental degradation. Raising of sheep and goats constitutes a supplemental food source, medium of exchange, and form of savings. But angora goats graze on everything in their path, devastating their surrounds. Fear of cattle thefts militates against efforts to improve the quality of the stock. The various problems together have prompted a wasteful exploitation of the forest resources. Development strategies for the area explored by the government have all

  7. Variability in measured current structure on the southwest continental shelf of India

    DineshKumar, P.K.; Srinivas, K.

    -1 Variability in Measured Current Structure on the Southwest Continental Shelf of India P.K. Dinesh Kumar and K. Srinivas National Institute of Oceanography, Regional Centre P.O.Box 1913, Cochin - 682018,India Email: dineshku@niokochi.org ABSTRACT... WORDS: Direct current measurements, tidal currents, southwest coast of India. INTRODUCTION The circulation pattern of the eastern Arabian Sea over the southwest continental shelf of India (inferred...

  8. 2003 Southwest Florida Water Management District (SWFWMD) LiDAR: Marion County

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Merrick and Company produced one foot contours, spot elevations, and obscured areas for the Southwest Florida Water Management District.

  9. Analysis of Fleet Readiness Center Southwest Concept Integration: New-Employee Orientation and Communication Processes

    Clemmons, Francini R; Falconieri, Holly M

    2007-01-01

    Fleet Readiness Center Southwest has embraced integration of personnel and processes from Aircraft Intermediate Maintenance Departments and Naval Aviation Depots supporting Naval Aviation Maintenance...

  10. Late Pliocene Depositional History and Paleoclimate Reconstructions of the Southwest Pacific

    Royce, B.; Patterson, M. O.; Pietras, J.

    2017-12-01

    Drift deposits off the eastern margin of New Zealand are important archives for the paleoclimate and paleoceanographic history of the southwest Pacific. Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 1123 is located on the North Chatham rise drift just North of the westerly wind driven Subtropical Front (STF) and provides a record of near continuous sediment deposition since the Miocene along the southwest Pacific deep western boundary current (DWBC). While the Miocene and Late Pleistocene portion of this record have been well studied, the Late Pliocene record is less well developed. Southern Ocean geological records demonstrate that Late Pliocene cooling is the transient time bracketing the warmer than present Early Pliocene and bipolar glaciation at 2.7 Ma. A newly developed, robust, and astronomically tuned long-term record of benthic δ13C from ODP Site 1123 spanning the Early to Late Pliocene implies a reduction in Southern Ocean ventilation and lowering of preformed values from waters sourced along the Antarctic margin during the Late Pliocene. Thus, Late Pliocene Southern Hemisphere cooling and sea ice expansion may have drastically reduced outgassing and increased the burial of heat into the deep ocean. South Atlantic records off the west coast of Africa demonstrate an increase in the flux of iron to the open ocean during this time potentially enhancing surface ocean productivity and providing an additional cooling mechanism. Currently, atmospheric transport of dust to the Southern Ocean is dominated by persistent mid-latitude circumpolar westerly winds; this is particularly relevant for dust sourced from New Zealand. The Late Pliocene to Early Pleistocene uplift of the North Island axial ranges and South Island southern alps potentially provided a greater amount of not only sediment to the deep ocean, but also wind blow dust to the Pacific sector of the Southern Ocean. We will present a detailed high-resolution sedimentological study on the development of the Chatham

  11. On the Design of Radar Corner Reflectors for Deformation Monitoring in Multi-Frequency InSAR

    Matthew C. Garthwaite

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Trihedral corner reflectors are being increasingly used as point targets in deformation monitoring studies using interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR techniques. The frequency and size dependence of the corner reflector Radar Cross Section (RCS means that no single design can perform equally in all the possible imaging modes and radar frequencies available on the currently orbiting Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR satellites. Therefore, either a corner reflector design tailored to a specific data type or a compromise design for multiple data types is required. In this paper, I outline the practical and theoretical considerations that need to be made when designing appropriate radar targets, with a focus on supporting multi-frequency SAR data. These considerations are tested by performing field experiments on targets of different size using SAR images from TerraSAR-X, COSMO-SkyMed and RADARSAT-2. Phase noise behaviour in SAR images can be estimated by measuring the Signal-to-Clutter ratio (SCR in individual SAR images. The measured SCR of a point target is dependent on its RCS performance and the influence of clutter near to the deployed target. The SCR is used as a metric to estimate the expected InSAR displacement error incurred by the design of each target and to validate these observations against theoretical expectations. I find that triangular trihedral corner reflectors as small as 1 m in dimension can achieve a displacement error magnitude of a tenth of a millimetre or less in medium-resolution X-band data. Much larger corner reflectors (2.5 m or greater are required to achieve the same displacement error magnitude in medium-resolution C-band data. Compromise designs should aim to satisfy the requirements of the lowest SAR frequency to be used, providing that these targets will not saturate the sensor of the highest frequency to be used. Finally, accurate boresight alignment of the corner reflector can be critical to the overall

  12. Satellite-Observed Black Water Events off Southwest Florida: Implications for Coral Reef Health in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary

    Zhao, Jun; Hu, Chuanmin; Lapointe, Brian; Melo, Nelson; Johns, Elizabeth; Smith, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    A “black water” event, as observed from satellites, occurred off southwest Florida in 2012. Satellite observations suggested that the event started in early January and ended in mid-April 2012. The black water patch formed off central west Florida and advected southward towards Florida Bay and the Florida Keys with the shelf circulation, which was confirmed by satellite-tracked surface drifter trajectories. Compared with a previous black water event in 2002, the 2012 event was weaker in terms...

  13. Phylogeographic study of Apodemus ilex (Rodentia: Muridae in Southwest China.

    Qi Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Mountains of southwest China have complex river systems and a profoundly complex topography and are among the most important biodiversity hotspots in the world. However, only a few studies have shed light on how the mountains and river valleys promote genetic diversity. Apodemus ilex is a fine model for investigating this subject. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To assess the genetic diversity and biogeographic patterns of Apodemus ilex, the complete cytochrome b gene sequences (1,140 bp were determined from 203 samples of A. draco/ilex that were collected from southwest China. The results obtained suggested that A. ilex and A. draco are sistergroups and diverged from each other approximately 2.25 million years ago. A. ilex could be divided into Eastern and Western phylogroups, each containing two sub-groups and being widespread in different geographical regions of the southern Hengduan Mountains and the western Yunnan - Guizhou Plateau. The population expansions of A. ilex were roughly from 0.089 Mya to 0.023 Mya. CONCLUSIONS: Our result suggested that A. ilex is a valid species rather than synonym of A. draco. As a middle-high elevation inhabitant, the phylogenetic pattern of A. ilex was strongly related to the complex geographical structures in southwest China, particularly the existence of deep river valley systems, such as the Mekong and Salween rivers. Also, it appears that the evolutionary history of A. ilex, such as lineage divergences and population expansions were strongly affected by climate fluctuation in the Late Pleistocene.

  14. Rocky desertification in Southwest China: Impacts, causes, and restoration

    Jiang, Zhongcheng; Lian, Yanqing; Qin, Xiaoqun

    2014-05-01

    Rocky desertification, which is relatively less well known than desertification, refers to the processes and human activities that transform a karst area covered by vegetation and soil into a rocky landscape. It has occurred in various countries and regions, including the European Mediterranean and Dinaric Karst regions of the Balkan Peninsula, Southwest China on a large scale, and alarmingly, even in tropical rainforests such as Haiti and Barbados, and has had tremendous negative impacts to the environment and social and economic conditions at local and regional scales. The goal of this paper is to provide a thorough review of the impacts, causes, and restoration measures of rocky desertification based on decades of studies in the southwest karst area of China and reviews of studies in Europe and other parts of the world. The low soil formation rate and high permeability of carbonate rocks create a fragile and vulnerable environment that is susceptible to deforestation and soil erosion. Other natural processes related to hydrology and ecology could exacerbate rocky desertification. However, disturbances from a wide variety of human activities are ultimately responsible for rocky desertification wherever it has occurred. This review shows that reforestation can be successful in Southwest China and even in the Dinaric Karst region when the land, people, water, and other resources are managed cohesively. However, new challenges may arise as more frequent droughts and extreme floods induced by global climate change and variability may slow the recovery process or even expand rocky desertification. This review is intended to bring attention to this challenging issue and provide information needed to advance research and engineering practices to combat rocky desertification and to aid in sustainable development.

  15. Numerical investigation of tube hyroforming of TWT using Corner Fill Test

    Zribi, Temim; Khalfallah, Ali

    2018-05-01

    Tube hydroforming presents a very good alternative to conventional forming processes for obtaining good quality mechanical parts used in several industrial fields, such as the automotive and aerospace sectors. Research in the field of tube hydroforming is aimed at improving the formability, stiffness and weight reduction of manufactured parts using this process. In recent years, a new method of hydroforming appears; it consists of deforming parts made from welded tubes and having different thicknesses. This technique which contributes to the weight reduction of the hydroformed tubes is a good alternative to the conventional tube hydroforming. This technique makes it possible to build rigid and light structures with a reduced cost. However, it is possible to improve the weight reduction by using dissimilar tailor welded tubes (TWT). This paper is a first attempt to analyze by numerical simulation the behavior of TWT hydroformed in square cross section dies, commonly called (Corner Fill Test). Considered tubes are composed of two materials assembled by butt welding. The present analysis will focus on the effect of loading paths on the formability of the structure by determining the change in thickness in several sections of the part. A comparison between the results obtained by hydroforming the butt joint of tubes made of dissimilar materials and those obtained using single-material tube is achieved. Numerical calculations show that the bi-material welded tube has better thinning resistance and a more even thickness distribution in the circumferential directions when compared to the single-material tube.

  16. Air Gaps, Size Effect, and Corner-Turning in Ambient LX-17

    Souers, P C; Hernandez, A; Cabacungan, C; Fried, L; Garza, R; Glaesemann, K; Lauderbach, L; Liao, S; Vitello, P

    2008-02-05

    Various ambient measurements are presented for LX-17. The size (diameter) effect has been measured with copper and Lucite confinement, where the failure radii are 4.0 and 6.5 mm, respectively. The air well corner-turn has been measured with an LX-07 booster, and the dead-zone results are comparable to the previous TATB-boosted work. Four double cylinders have been fired, and dead zones appear in all cases. The steel-backed samples are faster than the Lucite-backed samples by 0.6 {micro}s. Bare LX-07 and LX-17 of 12.7 mm-radius were fired with air gaps. Long acceptor regions were used to truly determine if detonation occurred or not. The LX-07 crossed at 10 mm with a slight time delay. Steady state LX-17 crossed at 3.5 mm gap but failed to cross at 4.0 mm. LX-17 with a 12.7 mm run after the booster crossed a 1.5 mm gap but failed to cross 2.5 mm. Timing delays were measured where the detonation crossed the gaps. The Tarantula model is introduced as embedded in 0 reactive flow JWL++ and Linked Cheetah V4, mostly at 4 zones/mm. Tarantula has four pressure regions: off, initiation, failure and detonation. The physical basis of the input parameters is considered.

  17. TEM in situ cube-corner indentation analysis using ViBe motion detection algorithm

    Yano, K. H.; Thomas, S.; Swenson, M. J.; Lu, Y.; Wharry, J. P.

    2018-04-01

    Transmission electron microscopic (TEM) in situ mechanical testing is a promising method for understanding plasticity in shallow ion irradiated layers and other volume-limited materials. One of the simplest TEM in situ experiments is cube-corner indentation of a lamella, but the subsequent analysis and interpretation of the experiment is challenging, especially in engineering materials with complex microstructures. In this work, we: (a) develop MicroViBE, a motion detection and background subtraction-based post-processing approach, and (b) demonstrate the ability of MicroViBe, in combination with post-mortem TEM imaging, to carry out an unbiased qualitative interpretation of TEM indentation videos. We focus this work around a Fe-9%Cr oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloy, irradiated with Fe2+ ions to 3 dpa at 500 °C. MicroViBe identifies changes in Laue contrast that are induced by the indentation; these changes accumulate throughout the mechanical loading to generate a "heatmap" of features in the original TEM video that change the most during the loading. Dislocation loops with b = ½ identified by post-mortem scanning TEM (STEM) imaging correspond to hotspots on the heatmap, whereas positions of dislocation loops with b = do not correspond to hotspots. Further, MicroViBe enables consistent, objective quantitative approximation of the b = ½ dislocation loop number density.

  18. The effects of location, thermal stress, and residual stress on corner cracks in nozzles with cladding

    Besuner, P.M.; Cohen, L.M.; McLean, J.L.

    1977-01-01

    The stress intensity factors (Ksub(I)) for corner cracks in a boiling water reactor feedwater nozzle with stainless steel cladding are obtained for loading by internal pressure, and a fluid quench in the nozzle. Conditions with and without residual stress in the component are considered. The residual stress is simulated by means of a reference temperature change. The stress distribution for the uncracked structure is obtained from a three-dimensional finite element model. A three-dimensional influence function (IF) method, in conjunction with the boundary-integral equation method for structural analysis is employed to compute Ksub(I) values from the uncracked structure's stress distribution. It is concluded that the effects on Ksub(I) of location, thermal stresses, and residual stresses are significant and generally too complex to evaluate without advanced numerical procedures. The ulilized combination of finite element analysis of the uncracked structure and three-dimensional influence function analysis of the cracked structure is demonstrated and endorsed. (Auth.)

  19. Counting the corners of a random walk and its application to traffic flow

    Knorr, Florian; Schreckenberg, Michael

    2012-01-01

    We study a system with two types of interacting particles on a one-dimensional lattice. Particles of the first type, which we call ‘active’, are able to detect particles of the second type (called ‘passive’). By relating the problem to a discrete random walk in one dimension with a fixed number of steps we determine the fraction of active and detected particles for both open and periodic boundary conditions as well as for the case where passive particles interact with both or only one neighbors. In the random walk picture, where the two particles types stand for steps in opposite directions, passive particles are detected whenever the resulting path has a corner. For open boundary conditions, it turns out that a simple mean field approximation reproduces the exact result if the particles interact with one neighbor only. A practical application of this problem is heterogeneous traffic flow with communicating and non-communicating vehicles. In this context communicating vehicles can be thought of as active particles which can by front (and rear) sensors detect the vehicle ahead (and behind) although these vehicles do not actively share information. Therefore, we also present simulation results which show the validity of our analysis for real traffic flow. (paper)

  20. Wall-corner classification using sonar: a new approach based on geometric features.

    Martínez, Milagros; Benet, Ginés

    2010-01-01

    Ultrasonic signals coming from rotary sonar sensors in a robot gives us several features about the environment. This enables us to locate and classify the objects in the scenario of the robot. Each object and reflector produces a series of peaks in the amplitude of the signal. The radial and angular position of the sonar sensor gives information about location and their amplitudes offer information about the nature of the surface. Early works showed that the amplitude can be modeled and used to classify objects with very good results at short distances-80% average success in classifying both walls and corners at distances less than 1.5 m. In this paper, a new set of geometric features derived from the amplitude analysis of the echo is presented. These features constitute a set of characteristics that can be used to improve the results of classification at distances from 1.5 m to 4 m. Also, a comparative study on classification algorithms widely used in pattern recognition techniques has been carried out for sensor distances ranging between 0.5 to 4 m, and with incidence angles ranging between 20° to 70°. Experimental results show an enhancement on the success in classification rates when these geometric features are considered.

  1. Double-Row Suture Anchor Repair of Posterolateral Corner Avulsion Fractures.

    Gilmer, Brian B

    2017-08-01

    Posterolateral corner avulsion fractures are a rare variant of ligamentous knee injury primarily described in the skeletally immature population. Injury is often related to a direct varus moment placed on the knee during sporting activities. Various treatment strategies have been discussed ranging from nonoperative management, to excision of the bony fragment, to primary repair with screws or suture. The described technique is a means for achieving fixation of the bony avulsion using principles familiar to double-row transosseous equivalent rotator cuff repair. Proximal anchors are placed in the epiphysis, and sutures are passed in horizontal mattress fashion. Once tied, the limbs of these same sutures are then passed to more distal anchors. Remaining eyelet sutures can be used to manage peripheral tissue. The final repair provides anatomic reduction and compression of the fragment to its bony bed with minimal extracortical hardware prominence and no violation of the physis. Risks include potential for physeal injury or chondral damage to the lateral femoral condyle through aberrant anchor placement. Postoperative care includes toe-touch weight-bearing restrictions and range of motion restrictions of 0°-90° in a hinged brace for 6 weeks followed by gradual return to activity.

  2. MRI of the posterolateral corner of the knee, please have a look

    Mahmoud Agha

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The knee PLC injuries are frequently seen, with other major knee injuries, such as ACL and PCL. Objective: This article aimed to clarify PLC injuries that could be diagnosed by MRI, and may have an impact on the management of the associated major knee injuries. Patient and methods: It was conducted through retrospective MRI revision of 1000 patients who were presented with post-traumatic knee complaints, from January 2011 to March 2016. Results: ITB band injuries were seen in 113 patients (11.3%, biceps tendon injury in 59 patients (5.9%, FCL injuries in 223 patients (22.3%, popliteus muscle injury in 53 patients (5.3%, PFL in 17 (1.7%, arcuate ligament injury in 38 patients (3.8% and arcuate bone fracture (fibular styloid fracture in 22 patients (2.2%. Overall PLC injuries recorded 283 patients, either as separate or combined PLC items. Of these 283 patients, 96 patients had associated ACL tear (33.9%, 19 had PCL tear (6.7%, 73 had medial corner injury (25.7%, 55 combined injuries (19.4% and 40 isolated PLC injuries (14.1%. Conclusion: Different types of PLC injuries may occur in association with other major knee sectorial injuries that may require repair before the associated injured major sector correction, in an attempt to avoid early ACL or PCL graft failure.

  3. Data report for the Southwest Residential Experiment Station, January 1982

    Lieberman, M.; Hai, O. Y.; Hocking, G.; Whitaker, C.

    1982-02-23

    Physical performance data obtained from the photovoltaic energy systems under test at the Southwest Residential Experiment Station in Las Cruces, New Mexico are tabulated and graphed for the month of January, 1982. Data drawn from the Residential Data System (RDS) appears in several formats. A one-page summary is provided as well as a more detailed hour-by-hour tabulation for an average day of the month. Energy histograms are provided, based on RDS data and recording kilowatt hour meters. The histograms also present horizontal and plane-of-array insolation data as well as comments that explain data and/or energy production anomalies. (LEW)

  4. Millipedes (Diplopoda of twelve caves in Western Mecsek, Southwest Hungary

    Angyal, D.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Twelve caves of Western Mecsek, Southwest Hungary were examined between September 2010 and April 2013from the millipede (Diplopoda faunistical point of view. Ten species were found in eight caves, which consistedeutroglophile and troglobiont elements as well. The cave with the most diverse fauna was the Törökpince Sinkhole, while thetwo previously also investigated caves, the Abaligeti Cave and the Mánfai-kőlyuk Cave provided less species, which couldbe related to their advanced touristic and industrial utilization.

  5. Integrating Sacred Knowledge for Conservation: Cultures and Landscapes in Southwest China

    Jianchu Xu

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available China is undergoing economic growth and expansion to a free market economy at a scale and pace that are unprecedented in human history. This is placing great pressure on the country's environment and cultural diversity. This paper examines a number of case histories in China, focusing on the culturally varied and ecologically diverse southwest region of the country. We show how developments in recent Chinese history have devalued and in some cases eliminated indigenous knowledge and practices in the quest to strengthen the centralized state. Despite these changes, more than 30 ethnic minorities live in southwest China. For generations these peoples have maintained landscapes through traditional land use and cultural practices. This indigenous knowledge places a high value on protecting forests, landscapes, and water catchments while preserving biodiversity. These values are maintained through religious beliefs, hunting taboos, and the protection of sacred sites. We advocate a conservation policy for China that includes the indigenous knowledge and values needed to maintain the environment and the traditional cultures themselves. There are seminal signs that the government is beginning to support indigenous cultures in China. The Organic Law of 1998 granted villages the legal right to self-government and gave indigenous communities greater responsibility for land and resource use. Traditional and indigenous cultural products have also developed a market and an economic value within a growing tourism industry. In many cases, however, indigenous people remain isolated from major land-use and conservation decisions that are the result of centrally planned policy. Meanwhile, frequent oscillations in forest policy and land tenure insecurity since the 1950s have led to the erosion of many local institutions and the loss of indigenous knowledge. We suggest that the long-term viability of the environment requires an interactive approach that involves

  6. Patterns and drivers of fish extirpations in rivers of the American Southwest and Southeast.

    Kominoski, John S; Ruhí, Albert; Hagler, Megan M; Petersen, Kelly; Sabo, John L; Sinha, Tushar; Sankarasubramanian, Arumugam; Olden, Julian D

    2018-03-01

    Effective conservation of freshwater biodiversity requires spatially explicit investigations of how dams and hydroclimatic alterations among climate regions may interact to drive species to extinction. We investigated how dams and hydroclimatic alterations interact with species ecological and life history traits to influence past extirpation probabilities of native freshwater fishes in the Upper and Lower Colorado River (CR), Alabama-Coosa-Tallapoosa (ACT), and Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint (ACF) basins. Using long-term discharge data for continuously gaged streams and rivers, we quantified streamflow anomalies (i.e., departure "expected" streamflow) at the sub-basin scale over the past half-century. Next, we related extirpation probabilities of native fishes in both regions to streamflow anomalies, river basin characteristics, species traits, and non-native species richness using binomial logistic regression. Sub-basin extirpations in the Southwest (n = 95 Upper CR, n = 130 Lower CR) were highest in lowland mainstem rivers impacted by large dams and in desert springs. Dampened flow seasonality, increased longevity (i.e., delayed reproduction), and decreased fish egg sizes (i.e., lower parental care) were related to elevated fish extirpation probability in the Southwest. Sub-basin extirpations in the Southeast (ACT n = 46, ACF n = 22) were most prevalent in upland rivers, with flow dependency, greater age and length at maturity, isolation by dams, and greater distance upstream. Our results confirm that dams are an overriding driver of native fish species losses, irrespective of basin-wide differences in native or non-native species richness. Dams and hydrologic alterations interact with species traits to influence community disassembly, and very high extirpation risks in the Southeast are due to interactions between high dam density and species restricted ranges. Given global surges in dam building and retrofitting, increased extirpation risks should be

  7. The economic burden of type 2 diabetes mellitus in rural southwest China.

    Le, Cai; Lin, Li; Jun, Dong; Jianhui, He; Keying, Zhao; Wenlong, Cui; Ying, Song; Tao, Wei

    2013-05-10

    This study was conducted in order to estimate the economic burden of diabetes in a given year in rural Yunnan province of China, including direct, indirect and intangible costs. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in rural southwest China in early 2011 among 9396 consenting individuals aged ≥ 18 years. Information on participants' demographic characteristics, and economic consequences and related aspects of diabetes were obtained using a standard questionnaire. Fasting blood sugar level was also measured for each individual. Years of life lost (YLL) due to diabetes was estimated using medical death certificates. A prevalence-based cost-of-illness method was used to estimate the economic burden of diabetes. The overall prevalence and YLL of diabetes was 6.5% and 1168.1 years in the study population, respectively. Total cost of illness related to diabetes was estimated to be $46.8 million. Mean unit direct medical costs, direct non-medical costs, morbidity costs, mortality costs, intangible costs, and cost of illness were $863.2, $44.6, $59.7, $7797.7, $936.2, and $9686.6, respectively. Direct costs accounted for the largest proportion of the economic costs of diabetes. Age was positively associated with direct costs whereas negatively associated with indirect costs. Patients aged 45-59 years incurred the highest intangible costs. Both indirect and intangible costs increased with level of education. Diabetes is a major public health problem in terms of morbidity and economic burden in rural southwest China. The region should increase investment in the further control of diabetes, and improvement of patient quality of life. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. An Ecohydrological Approach to Riparian Restoration Planning in the American Southwest

    Leverich, G. T.; Orr, B.; Diggory, Z.; Dudley, T.; Hatten, J.; Hultine, K. R.; Johnson, M. P.; Orr, D.

    2014-12-01

    Riparian systems across the American southwest region are under threat from a growing and intertwined cast of natural and anthropogenic stressors, including flooding, drought, invasion by non-native plants, wildfire, urban encroachment, and land- and water-use practices. In relatively remote and unregulated systems like the upper Gila River in Arizona, riparian habitat value has persisted reasonably well despite much of it being densely infested with non-native tamarisk (salt cedar). A new concern in the watershed, however, is the eventual arrival of the tamarisk leaf beetle that is expected to soon colonize the tamarisk-infested riparian corridor as the beetle continues to spread across the southwest region. While there are numerous potential benefits to tamarisk suppression (e.g., groundwater conservation, riparian habitat recovery, fire-risk reduction), short-term negative consequences are also possible, such as altered channel hydraulics and canopy defoliation during bird nesting season (e.g., the endangered southwestern willow flycatcher). In preparation for anticipated impacts following beetle colonization, we developed a holistic restoration framework to promote recovery of native riparian habitat and subsequent local increases in avian population. Pivotal to this process was an ecohydrological assessment that identified sustainable restoration sites based on consideration of natural and anthropogenic factors that, together, influence restoration opportunities—flood-scour dynamics, vegetation community structure and resilience, surface- and groundwater availability, soil texture and salinity, wildfire potential, and land-use activities. Data collected included high-resolution remote-sensing products, GIS-based delineation of geomorphic activity, and vegetation field mapping. These data along with other information generated, including pre-biocontrol vegetation monitoring and flycatcher-habitat modeling, were synthesized to produce a comprehensive

  9. Three-Dimensional Steady Supersonic Euler Flow Past a Concave Cornered Wedge with Lower Pressure at the Downstream

    Qu, Aifang; Xiang, Wei

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we study the stability of the three-dimensional jet created by a supersonic flow past a concave cornered wedge with the lower pressure at the downstream. The gas beyond the jet boundary is assumed to be static. It can be formulated as a nonlinear hyperbolic free boundary problem in a cornered domain with two characteristic free boundaries of different types: one is the rarefaction wave, while the other one is the contact discontinuity, which can be either a vortex sheet or an entropy wave. A more delicate argument is developed to establish the existence and stability of the square jet structure under the perturbation of the supersonic incoming flow and the pressure at the downstream. The methods and techniques developed here are also helpful for other problems involving similar difficulties.

  10. Fabrication of corner cube array retro-reflective structure with DLP-based 3D printing technology

    Riahi, Mohammadreza

    2016-06-01

    In this article, the fabrication of a corner cube array retro-reflective structure is presented by using DLP-based 3D printing technology. In this additive manufacturing technology a pattern of a cube corner array is designed in a computer and sliced with specific software. The image of each slice is then projected from the bottom side of a reservoir, containing UV cure resin, utilizing a DLP video projector. The projected area is cured and attached to a base plate. This process is repeated until the entire part is made. The best orientation of the printing process and the effect of layer thicknesses on the surface finish of the cube has been investigated. The thermal reflow surface finishing and replication with soft molding has also been presented in this article.

  11. New fuel air control strategy for reducing NOx emissions from corner-fired utility boilers at medium-low loads

    Zhao, Sinan; Fang, Qingyan; Yin, Chungen

    2017-01-01

    Due to the rapidly growing renewable power, the fossil fuel power plants have to be increasingly operated under large and rapid load change conditions, which can induce various challenges. This work aims to reduce NOx emissions of large-scale corner-fired boilers operated at medium–low loads....... The combustion characteristics and NOx emissions from a 1000 MWe corner-fired tower boiler under different loads are investigated experimentally and numerically. A new control strategy for the annular fuel air is proposed and implemented in the boiler, in which the secondary air admitted to the furnace through...... the air annulus around each coal nozzle tip is controlled by the boiler load, instead of being controlled by the output of the connected mill as commonly used in this kind of power plant. Both the experimental and simulation results show that the new control strategy reduces NOx emissions at the entrance...

  12. Contribution of corner reflections from oriented ice crystals to backscattering and depolarization characteristics for off-zenith lidar profiling

    Borovoi, Anatoli G.; Konoshonkin, Alexander V.; Kustova, Natalia V.; Veselovskii, Igor A.

    2018-06-01

    Backscattering Mueller matrix and the depolarization and color ratios for quasi-horizontally oriented hexagonal ice plates have been calculated within the framework of the physical optics approximation. In the case of a tilted lidar, the dependence of the color and depolarization ratios on polarization of the incident light has been analyzed. It is shown that the corner reflection effect inherent to the pristine hexagonal ice crystals results in sharp peaks of both the backscattering cross section and depolarization ratio at the lidar tilts of about 30° off zenith. The experimental results obtained recently by Veselovskii et al. [13] at the lidar tilt of 43° have been interpreted as a partial manifestation of the corner reflection effect. The retrieval of the vertical profile of the ice crystal fraction consisting of quasi-horizontally oriented hexagonal plates has been demonstrated.

  13. Top-down constraints on methane and non-methane hydrocarbon emissions in the US Four Corners

    Petron, G.; Miller, B. R.; Vaughn, B. H.; Kofler, J.; Mielke-Maday, I.; Sherwood, O.; Schwietzke, S.; Conley, S.; Sweeney, C.; Dlugokencky, E. J.; White, A. B.; Tans, P. P.; Schnell, R. C.

    2017-12-01

    A NASA and NOAA supported field campaign took place in the US Four Corners in April 2015 to further investigate a regional "methane hotspot" detected from space. The Four Corners region is home to the fossil fuel rich San Juan Basin, which extends between SE Colorado and NE New Mexico. The area has been extracting coal, oil and natural gas for decades. Degassing from the Fruitland coal outcrop on the Colorado side has also been reported. Instrumented aircraft, vans and ground based wind profilers were deployed for the campaign with the goal to quantify and attribute methane and non-methane hydrocarbon emissions in the region. A new comprehensive analysis of the campaign data sets will be presented and top-down emission estimates for methane and ozone precursors will be compared with available bottom-up estimates.

  14. Comparative study of various pixel photodiodes for digital radiography: Junction structure, corner shape and noble window opening

    Kang, Dong-Uk; Cho, Minsik; Lee, Dae Hee; Yoo, Hyunjun; Kim, Myung Soo; Bae, Jun Hyung; Kim, Hyoungtaek; Kim, Jongyul; Kim, Hyunduk; Cho, Gyuseong

    2012-05-01

    Recently, large-size 3-transistors (3-Tr) active pixel complementary metal-oxide silicon (CMOS) image sensors have been being used for medium-size digital X-ray radiography, such as dental computed tomography (CT), mammography and nondestructive testing (NDT) for consumer products. We designed and fabricated 50 µm × 50 µm 3-Tr test pixels having a pixel photodiode with various structures and shapes by using the TSMC 0.25-m standard CMOS process to compare their optical characteristics. The pixel photodiode output was continuously sampled while a test pixel was continuously illuminated by using 550-nm light at a constant intensity. The measurement was repeated 300 times for each test pixel to obtain reliable results on the mean and the variance of the pixel output at each sampling time. The sampling rate was 50 kHz, and the reset period was 200 msec. To estimate the conversion gain, we used the mean-variance method. From the measured results, the n-well/p-substrate photodiode, among 3 photodiode structures available in a standard CMOS process, showed the best performance at a low illumination equivalent to the typical X-ray signal range. The quantum efficiencies of the n+/p-well, n-well/p-substrate, and n+/p-substrate photodiodes were 18.5%, 62.1%, and 51.5%, respectively. From a comparison of pixels with rounded and rectangular corners, we found that a rounded corner structure could reduce the dark current in large-size pixels. A pixel with four rounded corners showed a reduced dark current of about 200fA compared to a pixel with four rectangular corners in our pixel sample size. Photodiodes with round p-implant openings showed about 5% higher dark current, but about 34% higher sensitivities, than the conventional photodiodes.

  15. Comparative study of various pixel photodiodes for digital radiography: junction structure, corner shape and noble window opening

    Kang, Dong-Uk; Cho, Min-Sik; Lee, Dae-Hee; Yoo, Hyun-Jun; Kim, Myung-Soo; Bae, Jun-Hyung; Kim, Hyoung-Taek; Kim, Jong-Yul; Kim, Hyun-Duk; Cho, Gyu-Seong [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    Recently, large-size 3-transistors (3-Tr) active pixel complementary metal-oxide silicon (CMOS) image sensors have been being used for medium-size digital X-ray radiography, such as dental computed tomography (CT), mammography and nondestructive testing (NDT) for consumer products. We designed and fabricated 50 μm x 50 μm 3-Tr test pixels having a pixel photodiode with various structures and shapes by using the TSMC 0.25-m standard CMOS process to compare their optical characteristics. The pixel photodiode output was continuously sampled while a test pixel was continuously illuminated by using 550-nm light at a constant intensity. The measurement was repeated 300 times for each test pixel to obtain reliable results on the mean and the variance of the pixel output at each sampling time. The sampling rate was 50 kHz, and the reset period was 200 msec. To estimate the conversion gain, we used the mean-variance method. From the measured results, the n-well/p-substrate photodiode, among 3 photodiode structures available in a standard CMOS process, showed the best performance at a low illumination equivalent to the typical X-ray signal range. The quantum efficiencies of the n+/p-well, n-well/p-substrate, and n+/p-substrate photodiodes were 18.5%, 62.1%, and 51.5%, respectively. From a comparison of pixels with rounded and rectangular corners, we found that a rounded corner structure could reduce the dark current in large-size pixels. A pixel with four rounded corners showed a reduced dark current of about 200 fA compared to a pixel with four rectangular corners in our pixel sample size. Photodiodes with round p-implant openings showed about 5% higher dark current, but about 34% higher sensitivities, than the conventional photodiodes.

  16. Exploring sales data during a healthy corner store intervention in Toronto: the Food Retail Environments Shaping Health (FRESH) project

    Leia M. Minaker; Meghan Lynch; Brian E. Cook; Catherine L. Mah

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Population health interventions in the retail food environment, such as corner store interventions, aim to influence the kind of cues consumers receive so that they are more often directed toward healthier options. Research that addresses financial aspects of retail interventions, particularly using outcome measures such as store sales that are central to retail decision making, is limited. This study explored store sales over time and across product categories during a healthy ...

  17. Reaction-to-Fire of Wood Products and Other Building Materials: Part 1, Room/Corner Test Performance

    Ondrej Grexa; Mark A. Dietenberger; Robert H. White

    2012-01-01

    This project researched the assessment of reaction-to-fire of common materials using the full-scale room/corner test (ISO 9705) protocol and the predictions of time to flashover using results from the bench-scale cone calorimeter test (ISO 5660-1). Using a burner protocol of 100 kW for 10 min, followed by 300 kW for 10 min and the test materials on the walls only, we...

  18. Theoretical investigation of active sites at the corners of Mgcl 2 crystallites in supported ziegler-natta catalysts

    Correa, Andrea

    2012-05-08

    We present a theoretical study on possible models of catalytic active species corresponding to Ti-chloride species adsorbed at the corners of MgCl 2 crystallites. First we focused our efforts on the interaction between prototypes of three industrially relevant Lewis bases used as internal donors (1,3-diethers, alkoxysilanes and succinates) and MgCl 2 units at the corner of a MgCl 2 crystallite. Our calculations show that the energetic cost to extract MgCl 2 units at the corner of (104) edged MgCl 2 crystallites is not prohibitive, and that Lewis bases added during catalyst preparation make this process easier. After removal of one MgCl 2 unit, a short (110) stretch joining the (104) edges is formed. Adsorption of TiCl 4 on the generated vacancy originates a Ti-active species. In the second part of this manuscript, we report on the stereo- and regioselective behavior of this model of active species in the absence as well as in the presence of the three Lewis bases indicated above. Surface reconstruction due to the additional adsorption of an extra MgCl 2 layer is also considered. We show that, according to experimental data, Lewis bases coordinated in the proximity of the active Ti center confer a remarkable stereoselectivity. Moreover, surface reconstruction as well as donor coordination would improve regioselectivity by disfavoring secondary propene insertion. While still models of possible active species, our results indicate that defects, corners and surface reconstruction should be considered as possible anchoring sites for the catalytically active Ti-species. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  19. The constitution of alloys in the Al-rich corner of the Al-Si-Sm ternary system

    Markoli, B.; Spaic, S.; Zupanic, F.

    2001-01-01

    The constitution of alloys and the liquidus surface in the Al-rich corner of the Al-Si-Sm ternary system were determined by the examination of controlled heated and cooled specimens, as well as heat-treated specimens by means of optical and scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, differential thermal analysis and X-ray diffraction. The Al-rich corner of the Al-Si-Sm ternary system comprises five regions of primary crystallisation (α Al , β Si , Al 3 Sm, Al 2 Si 2 Sm and AlSiSm) with following characteristic invariant reaction sequences: ternary eutectic reaction L → α Al + β Si + Al 2 Si 2 Sm, and two liquidus transition reactions, i. e., L + Al 3 Sm → α Al + AlSiSm, and L + AlSiSm → α Al + Al 2 Si 2 Sm. Along with the position of ternary eutectic and both interstitial points in the Al-rich corner of the Al-Si-Sm ternary system, the temperatures for each reaction were determined. (orig.)

  20. The constitution of alloys in the Al-rich corner of the Al-Si-Sm ternary system

    Markoli, B.; Spaic, S. [Ljubljana Univ. (Slovenia). Faculty of Natural Science and Engineering; Zupanic, F. [Maribor Univ. (Slovenia). Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

    2001-09-01

    The constitution of alloys and the liquidus surface in the Al-rich corner of the Al-Si-Sm ternary system were determined by the examination of controlled heated and cooled specimens, as well as heat-treated specimens by means of optical and scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, differential thermal analysis and X-ray diffraction. The Al-rich corner of the Al-Si-Sm ternary system comprises five regions of primary crystallisation ({alpha}{sub Al}, {beta}{sub Si}, Al{sub 3}Sm, Al{sub 2}Si{sub 2}Sm and AlSiSm) with following characteristic invariant reaction sequences: ternary eutectic reaction L {yields} {alpha}{sub Al} + {beta}{sub Si} + Al{sub 2}Si{sub 2}Sm, and two liquidus transition reactions, i. e., L + Al{sub 3}Sm {yields} {alpha}{sub Al} + AlSiSm, and L + AlSiSm {yields} {alpha}{sub Al} + Al{sub 2}Si{sub 2}Sm. Along with the position of ternary eutectic and both interstitial points in the Al-rich corner of the Al-Si-Sm ternary system, the temperatures for each reaction were determined. (orig.)

  1. Semi-Automatic Registration of Airborne and Terrestrial Laser Scanning Data Using Building Corner Matching with Boundaries as Reliability Check

    Liang Cheng

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Data registration is a prerequisite for the integration of multi-platform laser scanning in various applications. A new approach is proposed for the semi-automatic registration of airborne and terrestrial laser scanning data with buildings without eaves. Firstly, an automatic calculation procedure for thresholds in density of projected points (DoPP method is introduced to extract boundary segments from terrestrial laser scanning data. A new algorithm, using a self-extending procedure, is developed to recover the extracted boundary segments, which then intersect to form the corners of buildings. The building corners extracted from airborne and terrestrial laser scanning are reliably matched through an automatic iterative process in which boundaries from two datasets are compared for the reliability check. The experimental results illustrate that the proposed approach provides both high reliability and high geometric accuracy (average error of 0.44 m/0.15 m in horizontal/vertical direction for corresponding building corners for the final registration of airborne laser scanning (ALS and tripod mounted terrestrial laser scanning (TLS data.

  2. Essential Development of Streamwise Vortical/Secondary Flows in All Ducts with Corners or Slope Discontinuities in Perimeter

    Nagib, Hassan; Vidal, Alvaro; Vinuesa, Ricardo; Schlatter, Philipp

    2017-11-01

    Direct numerical simulations of fully-developed turbulent flow through various straight ducts with sharp or rounded corners of various radii were performed to study influence of corner geometry on secondary flows. Unexpectedly, increased rounding of corners in rectangular ducts does not lead to monotonic trend towards pipe case. Instead, secondary vortices relocate close to regions of wall-curvature change. This behavior is connected to inhomogeneous interaction between near-wall bursting events, which are further characterized in this work with definition of their local preferential direction, and vorticity fluxes. Although these motions are relatively weak compared to streamwise velocity their effect on turbulence statistics and shear-stress distribution is very important and has not been sufficiently documented or fully understood. Flow through spanwise-periodic channels, with sinusoidal function to define the geometry of wall, yw = +/- h + A cos(ωz) , was also studied as model flow that is parametrically changed using A and ω, while taking advantage of many resulting symmetries. Consequences on experimental facilities and comparisons between experiments and various numerical and theoretical models are discussed revealing the uniqueness of pipe flow.

  3. 40 CFR 81.97 - Southwest Florida Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.97 Section 81.97 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.97 Southwest Florida Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Southwest Florida Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by the...

  4. 40 CFR 81.118 - Southwest Missouri Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.118 Section 81.118 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.118 Southwest Missouri Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Southwest Missouri Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by the...

  5. 40 CFR 81.23 - Southwest Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.23 Section 81.23 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.23 Southwest Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Southwest Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality Control Region is redesignated to consist of the territorial...

  6. 76 FR 28767 - Desert Southwest Customer Service Region-Rate Order No. WAPA-152

    2011-05-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Western Area Power Administration Desert Southwest Customer Service Region..., Desert Southwest Customer Service Region, Western Area Power Administration, P.O. Box 6457, Phoenix, AZ... Customer Service Region, Western Area Power Administration, P.O. Box 6457, Phoenix, AZ 85005-6457, (602...

  7. 77 FR 33560 - Southwest Pennsylvania Railroad Company-Acquisition Exemption-Laurel Hill Development Corporation

    2012-06-06

    ... Pennsylvania Railroad Company--Acquisition Exemption-- Laurel Hill Development Corporation Southwest... 49 CFR 1150.41 to acquire a 0.66-mile line of railroad owned by Laurel Hill Development Corporation... rail line. Most recently, in Southwest Pennsylvania Railroad Company--Acquisition Exemption--Laurel...

  8. 77 FR 2128 - Southwest Pennsylvania Railroad Company-Acquisition Exemption-Laurel Hill Development Corporation

    2012-01-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board [Docket No. FD 35584] Southwest Pennsylvania Railroad Company--Acquisition Exemption-- Laurel Hill Development Corporation Southwest... 49 CFR 1150.41 to acquire a number of rail lines now owned by Laurel Hill Development Corporation...

  9. Community Policing in South-West Nigeria: Finding a Nexus between the Police and the People

    Olusegun, Omowunmi J.

    2016-01-01

    The joint efforts of the police and the communities in south-west Nigeria to tackle the alarming rates of crime in various societies has over the year been adopted as a strategic way of curbing crime in Nigeria. This paper examines the divergent views of community policing in south-west Nigeria. The paper is empirical in nature though related…

  10. Granitoids of South Korea and Southwest Japan. Trace element evidence regarding their differentiation

    Tsusue, Akio; Mizuta, Toshio; Tamai, Tadaharu.

    1994-01-01

    Although we have already published our trace element data for granitoids of South Korea and Southwest Japan, and we have interpreted REE patterns and Ba, Rb and Sr relationships of the granitoids (Tsusue et al., 1986, 1987a, 1987b, 1988), we intend to review briefly the trace element data of South Korea and Southwest Japan in this report. (J.P.N.)

  11. U.S. Border Patrol Fiscal Year Statistics Southwest border sector deaths - FY 1998 through FY 2013

    Department of Homeland Security — Southwest Border Sectors include: Del Rio, El Centro, El Paso, Laredo, Rio Grande Valley, San Diego, Tucson, Yuma Southwest Border Deaths By Fiscal Year (Oct. 1st...

  12. OMI/Aura Global Ground Pixel Corners 1-Orbit L2 Swath 13x24km V003 (OMPIXCOR) at GES DISC

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Version-3 Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) Pixel Corner Product, OMPIXCOR, is now available from the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information...

  13. OMI/Aura Zoom-in Ground Pixel Corners 1-Orbit L2 Swath 13x12km V003 (OMPIXCORZ) at GES DISC

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Version-3 Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) Pixel Corner Product in zoom-in mode, OMPIXCORZ, is now available from the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and...

  14. Between hermeneutics and datascapes: a critical appreciation of emergent landscape design theory and praxis through the writings of James Corner 1990-2000(Part One

    Richard Weller

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available This two-part essay examines the theoretical work of James Corner across the 1990s. Part one begins with a polemical analysis of Corner's originating notion of a hermeneutic practice of design as published in Landscape Journal in 1991. The essay necessarily broaches themes of ecology, critical regionalism and the broader panoramas of landscape planning as they are encountered in Corner's writings. Part one identifies an emergent dialectic between landscape architecture as scenography or infrastructure in his writings. In order to appreciate Corner's work, part one establishes and discusses the philosophical grounding of his position. Part one is concerned with theory, part two with praxis. Part two, following Corner's lead, summarises and comments upon some emerging design methods and specific design projects so as to situate the issues raised in part one. Part two begins with the unbuilt Parc de la Villette of 1982 by Rem Koolhaas and discusses its ramifications. Part two revolves around arguments put forward by Corner in the late 1990s for the agency of landscape design as structuring development rather than symbolising culture and nature, arguments tor what landscape design does not only what it means. To facilitate this, the writings of Bart Lootsma and Alex Wall who, along with Corner, presented the most pertinent and provocative themes in Corner's latest book Recovering Landscape: Essays in Contemporary Landscape Architecture, are considered in some detail. Part two concludes with thoughts on datascaping - a new design methodology synonymous with current trends in Dutch urbanism and one that impresses Corner with its capacity to manage and manipulate complex design programmes. Taken as a whole the essay offers neither a set of findings nor feigns conclusion; rather, it goes to the co-ordinates Corner has set out and explores the field they demarcate. The essay does, however, seek to qualify the claim that James Corner is articulating a

  15. Air Gaps, Size Effect, and Corner-Turning in Ambient LX-17

    Souers, P C; Hernandez, A; Cabacungen, C; Fried, L; Garza, R; Glaesemann, K; Lauderbach, L; Liao, S; Vitello, P

    2007-05-30

    Various ambient measurements are presented for LX-17. The size (diameter) effect has been measured with copper and Lucite confinement, where the failure radii are 4.0 and 6.5 mm, respectively. The air well corner-turn has been measured with an LX-07 booster, and the dead-zone results are comparable to the previous TATB-boosted work. Four double cylinders have been fired, and dead zones appear in all cases. The steel-backed samples are faster than the Lucite-backed samples by 0.6 {micro}s. Bare LX-07 and LX-17 of 12.7 mm-radius were fired with air gaps. Long acceptor regions were used to truly determine if detonation occurred or not. The LX-07 crossed at 10 mm with a slight time delay. Steady state LX-17 crossed at 3.5 mm gap but failed to cross at 4.0 mm. LX-17 with a 12.7 mm run after the booster crossed a 1.5 mm gap but failed to cross 2.5 mm. Timing delays were measured where the detonation crossed the gaps. The Tarantula model is introduced as embedded in the Linked Cheetah V4.0 reactive flow code at 4 zones/mm. Tarantula has four pressure regions: off, initiation, failure and detonation. A report card of 25 tests run with the same settings on LX-17 is shown, possibly the most extensive simultaneous calibration yet tried with an explosive. The physical basis of some of the input parameters is considered.

  16. Effects of location, thermal stress and residual stress on corner cracks in nozzles with cladding

    McLean, J.L.; Cohen, L.M.; Besuner, P.M.

    1979-01-01

    The stress intensity factors (K 1 ) for corner cracks in a boiling water reactor feedwater nozzle with stainless steel cladding are obtained for loading by internal pressure and a fluid quench in the nozzle. Conditions both with and without residual stress in the component are considered. The residual stress is simulated by means of a reference temperature change. The stress distribution for the uncracked structure is obtained from a three-dimensional finite element model. A three-dimensional influence function (IF) method, in conjunction with the boundary-integral equation method for structural analysis, is employed to compute K 1 values from the uncracked stress distribution. For each type of loading K 1 values are given for cracks at 15 nozzle locations and for 6 crack depths. Reasonable agreement is noted between calculated and previously published pressure-induced K 1 values. Comparisons are made to determine the effect on K 1 of crack location, thermal stress and residual stress, as compared with pressure stress. For the thermal transient it is shown that K 1 for small crack depths is maximised early in the transient, while K 1 for large cracks is maximised later under steady state conditions. Computation should, therefore, be made for several transient time points and the maximum K 1 for a given crack depth should be used for design analysis. It is concluded that the effects on K 1 of location, thermal stresses and residual stresses are significant and generally too complex to evaluate without advanced numerical procedures. The utilised combination of finite element analysis of the uncracked structure and three-dimensional influence function analysis of the cracked structure is demonstrated and endorsed. (author)

  17. The effects of location, thermal stress, and residual stress on corner cracks in nozzles with cladding

    Besuner, P.M.; Cohen, L.M.; McLean, J.L.

    1977-01-01

    The stress intensity factors (Ksub(I)) for corner cracks in a boiling water reactor feedwater nozzle with stainless steel cladding are obtained for loading by internal pressure, and a fluid quench in the nozzle. Conditions with and without residual stress in the component are considered. The residual stress is simulated by means of a reference temperature change. The stress distribution for the uncracked structure is obtained from a three-dimensional finite element model. A three-dimensional influence function (IF) method, in conjunction with the boundary-integral equation method for structural analysis, is employed to compute Ksub(I) values from the uncracked structure's stress distribution. For each type of loading Ksub(I) values are given for cracks at 15 nozzle locations and for six crack depths. Reasonable agreement is noted between calculated and previously published pressure-induced Ksub(I) values. Comparisons are made to determine the effect on Ksub(I) of crack location, thermal stress, and residual stress as compared to pressure stress. For the thermal transient it is shown that Ksub(I) for small crack depths is maximized early in the transient while Ksub(I) for large cracks is maximized later, under steady state conditions. Ksub(I) computations should, therefore, be made for several transient time points and the maximum Ksub(I) for a given crack depth should be used for design analysis. It is concluded that the effects on Ksub(I) of location, thermal stresses, and residual stresses are significant and generally too complex to evalute without advanced numerical procedures. The utilized combination of finite element analysis of the uncracked structure and three-dimensional influence function analysis of the cracked structure is demonstrated

  18. Facile Synthesis of Silver Nanocubes with Sharp Corners and Edges in an Aqueous Solution.

    Zhou, Shan; Li, Jianhua; Gilroy, Kyle D; Tao, Jing; Zhu, Chunlei; Yang, Xuan; Sun, Xiaojun; Xia, Younan

    2016-11-22

    It remains a challenge to synthesize Ag nanocubes in an aqueous system, although the polyol process was successfully adopted more than one decade ago. Here, we report an aqueous method for the synthesis of Ag nanocubes with an average edge length of 35-95 nm. It involves the formation of AgCl octahedra by mixing CF 3 COOAg with cetyltrimethylammonium chloride, followed by the nucleation and growth of Ag nanocrystals in the presence of ascorbic acid (AA) and FeCl 3 . The Fe 3+ /Fe 2+ redox pair is responsible for the removal of multiply twinned seeds through oxidative etching. The Cl - ions play two critical roles in the nucleation and growth of Ag nanocubes with a single-crystal structure. First, the Cl - ions react with Ag + ions to generate nanometer-sized AgCl octahedra in the initial stage of a synthesis. In the presence of room light and a proper reducing agent such as AA, the AgCl can be reduced to generate Ag n nuclei followed by their evolution into single-crystal seeds and then Ag nanocrystals. Second, the Cl - ions can act as a specific capping agent toward the Ag(100) surface, enabling the formation of Ag nanocubes with sharp corners and edges. Based on the results from a set of time-lapse studies and control experiments, we formulate a plausible mechanism to account for the formation of Ag nanocubes that resembles the formation and development of latent image centers in silver halide grains in the photographic process.

  19. Novel Coupled Thermochronometric and Geochemical Investigation of Blind Geothermal Resources in Fault-Controlled Dilational Corners

    Stockli, Daniel [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    2017-02-17

    Geothermal plays in extensional and transtensional tectonic environments have long been a major target in the exploration of geothermal resources and the Dixie Valley area has served as a classic natural laboratory for this type of geothermal plays. In recent years, the interactions between normal faults and strike-slip faults, acting either as strain relay zones have attracted significant interest in geothermal exploration as they commonly result in fault-controlled dilational corners with enhanced fracture permeability and thus have the potential to host blind geothermal prospects. Structural ambiguity, complications in fault linkage, etc. often make the selection for geothermal exploration drilling targets complicated and risky. Though simplistic, the three main ingredients of a viable utility-grade geothermal resource are heat, fluids, and permeability. Our new geological mapping and fault kinematic analysis derived a structural model suggest a two-stage structural evolution with (a) middle Miocene N -S trending normal faults (faults cutting across the modern range), - and tiling Olio-Miocene volcanic and sedimentary sequences (similar in style to East Range and S Stillwater Range). NE-trending range-front normal faulting initiated during the Pliocene and are both truncating N-S trending normal faults and reactivating some former normal faults in a right-lateral fashion. Thus the two main fundamental differences to previous structural models are (1) N-S trending faults are pre-existing middle Miocene normal faults and (2) these faults are reactivated in a right-later fashion (NOT left-lateral) and kinematically linked to the younger NE-trending range-bounding normal faults (Pliocene in age). More importantly, this study provides the first constraints on transient fluid flow through the novel application of apatite (U-Th)/He (AHe) and 4He/3He thermochronometry in the geothermally active Dixie Valley area in Nevada.

  20. Food and beverage purchases in corner stores, gas-marts, pharmacies and dollar stores.

    Caspi, Caitlin E; Lenk, Kathleen; Pelletier, Jennifer E; Barnes, Timothy L; Harnack, Lisa; Erickson, Darin J; Laska, Melissa N

    2017-10-01

    Little is known about customer purchases of foods and beverages from small and non-traditional food retailers (i.e. corner stores, gas-marts, dollar stores and pharmacies). The present study aimed to: (i) describe customer characteristics, shopping frequency and reasons for shopping at small and non-traditional food retailers; and (ii) describe food/beverage purchases and their nutritional quality, including differences across store type. Data were collected through customer intercept interviews. Nutritional quality of food/beverage purchases was analysed; a Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010) score for purchases was created by aggregating participant purchases at each store. Small and non-traditional food stores that were not WIC-authorized in Minneapolis and St. Paul, MN, USA. Customers (n 661) from 105 food retailers. Among participants, 29 % shopped at the store at least once daily; an additional 44 % shopped there at least once weekly. Most participants (74 %) cited convenient location as the primary draw to the store. Customers purchased a median of 2262 kJ (540 kcal), which varied by store type (P=0·04). The amount of added sugar far surpassed national dietary recommendations. At dollar stores, participants purchased a median of 5302 kJ (1266 kcal) for a median value of $US 2·89. Sugar-sweetened beverages were the most common purchase. The mean HEI-2010 score across all stores was 36·4. Small and non-traditional food stores contribute to the urban food environment. Given the poor nutritional quality of purchases, findings support the need for interventions that address customer decision making in these stores.

  1. Benthic foraminifera (Protista) as indicators of metal pollution in areas of historic mining: examples from southwest England

    Hart, Malcolm; Smart, Christopher

    2016-04-01

    Southwest England has been, from Roman times, an important mining area supplying a range of important metals, including copper, tin, tungsten, arsenic, zinc, silver, etc. This mining activity virtually disappeared in the twentieth century, although one tungsten mine near Plymouth has recently re-opened. Large areas of Cornwall and West Devon are now inscribed as the 'Cornish Mining World Heritage Site' on the cultural list of UNESCO. Many of the old mines with their spoil heaps and tailings dams are now protected and, together with the mineral-rich local geology, provide many catchments with on-going metal pollution. In January 1992, after a period of prolonged, heavy rainfall Wheal Jane mine flooded and discharged heavily polluted, acidic, water into Restonguet Creek and the Fal Estuary. This event provided the setting for a detailed investigation of the immediate impact of the pollution and the resulting environmental improvements caused by engineering interventions and natural re-adjustment. Benthic foraminifera disappeared from Restronguet Creek for a number of years and while there is now an abundant, though low diversity, estuarine assemblage of foraminifera living in the creek there are still high levels (pollution can be used to compare with the test deformity data. In other estuarine systems in southwest England, such as the River Fowey and the River Tamar, levels of deformity are less, though still significant for areas no longer being actively mined. This demonstrates that polluted sediments in all these estuaries, which can be disturbed during floods or times of stormy weather, and the background levels of metal elements in the catchments that supply these estuaries, are sufficient to maintain these levels of deformity in the long term. OLUGBODE, O.I., HART, M.B. & STUBBLES, S.J. 2005. Foraminifera from Restronguet Creek: monitoring recovery from the Wheal Jane pollution incident. Geoscience in south-west England, 11, 82-92.

  2. The progressive aridification of southwest North America: The what, the why, the when and the how (Invited)

    Seager, R.; Liu, H.; Henderson, N.; Kushnir, Y.; Ting, M.; Cook, B.; Nakamura, J.

    2013-12-01

    The latest generation of global coupled climate models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Five (CMIP5), much anticipated after the prior CMIP3 models projected the southwest of North America to transition in the near term to a more arid climate, turned out to be a case of deja-vu all over again. While suggesting that northern California might get more midwinter precipitation, overall the CMIP5 models, like their CMIP3 precursors, project that the interior southwest of the U.S., most of Mexico, Texas and the southern Plains, will progressively transition to a more arid climate with reduced precipitation and increased potential evapotranspiration driving a reduction in soil moisture and streamflow. An about 10% reduction of Colorado River flow for the 2021-2040 period relative to the last half of the 20th Century appears a good ball park number to motivate adaptation efforts. Here we will present new detailed analyses of Reanalysis and CMIP5 model moisture budgets to determine the causes of the projected aridification. The role of moisture convergences by the mean and transient flows will be addressed as well as the dynamical causes of the shifts in atmospheric circulation that contribute to drying or locally offset it. The hydroclimate history of the West for the past few decades will also be examined for evidence that model projected aridification is in progress or cannot currently be detected amidst the large natural variability of hydroclimate in the region. But it will be cautioned that waiting for statistical significance might be as fruitful as Waiting for Godot while, during the wait, the southwest will already have transitioned into a troublingly drier climate with serious impacts on people, societies, ecosystems and agriculture.

  3. The necessity of clinical application of tibial reduction for detection of underestimated posterolateral rotatory instability in combined posterior cruciate ligament and posterolateral corner deficient knee.

    Lee, Han-Jun; Park, Yong-Beom; Ko, Young-Bong; Kim, Seong-Hwan; Kwon, Hyeok-Bin; Yu, Dong-Seok; Jung, Young-Bok

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of tibial reduction during dial test for clinical detection of underestimated posterolateral rotatory instability (PLRI) in combined posterior cruciate ligament (PCL)-posterolateral corner (PLC) deficient knee in terms of external rotation laxity and clinical outcomes. Twenty-one patients who classified as grade I PLRI using dial test with subluxated tibia, but classified as grade II with tibial reduction evaluated retrospectively. The mean follow-up was 39.3 months (range 24-61 months). Each patient was evaluated by the following variables: posterior translation and varus laxity on radiograph, KT-1000 arthrometer, dial test (reduced and subluxated position), International Knee Documentation Committee, Orthopädische Arbeitsgruppe Knie scoring system and Tegner activity scale. There were significant improvements in posterior tibial translation (8.6 ± 2.0 to 2.1 ± 1.0 mm; P application of reduction of posteriorly subluxated tibia during the dial test was essential for an appropriate treatment of underestimated PLRI in combined PCL-PLC deficient knee. Retrospective case series, Level IV.

  4. Land use influences on acidification and recovery of freshwaters in Galloway, south-west Scotland

    R. C. Helliwell

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The long term response of surface waters to changes in sulphur deposition and afforestation is investigated for three upland river systems in the Galloway region of south-west Scotland. From 1984-1999, these rivers exhibited a statistically significant decline in non-marine sulphate concentrations in response to reduced acid deposition. This reduction in non-marine sulphate was, however, insufficient to induce a pH recovery over the period. A statistically significant increase in river pH was observed between 1956-1970 (0.05 yr-1 when subsidised agricultural lime payments were at a maximum. In 1976, this subsidy ceased and surface waters have progressively acidified. In addition, climatic change is found to influence long-term trends in pH. Mean annual pH was greatest during a dry period between 1969-1973 when total annual discharge was low. Thereafter, pH declined gradually in response to higher rainfall and increased total annual discharge. Overall, surface waters draining the afforested catchments of the Rivers Cree and Bladnoch are more acid than those draining the moorland catchment of the Luce. These results indicate that in afforested catchments, current reductions in sulphur emissions have not led to an observed improvement in the acid status of surface waters. Forestry, therefore, represents a confounding factor with regard to chemical recovery from acidification in this region. Keywords: acidification, afforestation, deposition, rivers, lochs, non-marine sulphate, pH

  5. Long-term forest watershed studies in the Southwest: recycled for wildfire and prescribed fire

    Daniel G. Neary; Gerald J. Gottfried; Peter F. Ffolliott; Boris Poff

    2012-01-01

    A hydrologic research network was established in Arizona in the 1950s and 1960s called the Arizona Watershed Program (Baker et al. 1999). It consisted of a number of public agencies and private groups interested in obtaining more water for future economic growth while maintaining the State's watersheds in good condition. As part of the Program. paired watershed...

  6. Short-term results after arthroscopic resection of synovial plicae in the radiohumeral joint

    Brahe Pedersen, Jens; Kristensen, Pia Kjær; Mønsted, Peter

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Painful Synovial Plicae (SP) in the posterolateral corner of the radiohumeral joint may be confused with lateral epicondylitis. The SP may impinge between the radial head and the humeral capitellum causing pain and snapping. The aim of this study was to evaluate the short-term results...

  7. Light-induced bird strikes on vessels in Southwest Greenland

    Merkel, Flemming Ravn; Johansen, Kasper Lambert

    2011-01-01

    Light-induced bird strikes are known to occur when vessels navigate during darkness in icy waters using powerful searchlight. In Southwest Greenland, which is important internationally for wintering seabirds, we collected reports of incidents of bird strikes over 2–3 winters (2006–2009) from navy...... vessels, cargo vessels and trawlers (total n = 19). Forty-one incidents were reported: mainly close to land (birds were reported killed in a single incident. All occurred between 5 p.m. and 6 a.m. and significantly more birds were involved when...... visibility was poor (snow) rather than moderate or good. Among five seabird species reported, the common eider (Somateria mollissima) accounted for 95% of the bird casualties. Based on spatial analyses of data on vessel traffic intensity and common eider density we are able to predict areas with high risk...

  8. Gravity and magnetic data of Midway Valley, southwest Nevada

    Ponce, D.A.; Langenheim, V.E.; Sikora, R.F.

    1993-01-01

    Detailed gravity and ground magnetic data collected along five traverses across Midway Valley on the eastern flank of Yucca Mountain in southwest Nevada are described. These data were collected as part of an effort to evaluate faulting in the vicinity of proposed surface facilities for a potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. Geophysical data show that Midway Valley is bounded by large gravity and magnetic anomalies associated with the Bow Ridge and Paintbrush Canyon faults, on the west side of Exile Hill and on the west flank of Fran Ridge, respectively. In addition, Midway Valley itself is characterized by a number of small-amplitude anomalies that probably reflect small-scale faulting beneath Midway Valley

  9. The Network for Astronomy in Education in Southwest New Mexico

    Neely, B.

    1998-12-01

    The Network for Astronomy in Education was organized to use astronomy as a motivational tool to teach science methods and principles in the public schools. NFO is a small private research observatory, associated with the local University, Western New Mexico. We started our program in 1996 with an IDEA grant by introducing local teachers to the Internet, funding a portable planetarium (Starlab) for the students, and upgrading our local radio linked computer network. Grant County is a rural mining and ranching county in Southwest New Mexico. It is ethnically diverse and has a large portion of the population below the poverty line. It's dryness and 6000' foot elevation, along with dark skies, suite it to the appreciation of astronomy. We now have 8 local schools involved in astronomy at some level. Our main programs are the Starlab and Project Astro, and we will soon install a Sidewalk Solar System in the center of Silver City.

  10. HIV testing behaviors among female sex workers in Southwest China.

    Hong, Yan; Zhang, Chen; Li, Xiaoming; Fang, Xiaoyi; Lin, Xiuyun; Zhou, Yuejiao; Liu, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Despite the recognized importance of HIV testing in prevention, care and treatment, HIV testing remains low in China. Millions of female sex workers (FSW) play a critical role in China's escalating HIV epidemic. Limited data are available regarding HIV testing behavior among this at-risk population. This study, based on a cross-sectional survey of 1,022 FSW recruited from communities in Southwest China, attempted to address the literature gap. Our data revealed that 48% of FSW ever took HIV testing; older age, less education, working in higher-income commercial sex venues and better HIV knowledge were associated with HIV testing. Those who never took HIV testing were more likely to engage in high-risk behaviors including inconsistent condom use with clients and stable partners. A number of psychological and structural barriers to testing were also reported. We call for culturally appropriate interventions to reduce HIV risks and promote HIV testing for vulnerable FSW in China.

  11. Gravity and magnetic study of Yucca Wash, southwest Nevada

    Langenheim, V.E.; Ponce, D.A.; Oliver, H.W.; Sikora, R.F.

    1993-01-01

    Gravity and ground magnetic data were collected along five traverses across and one traverse along Yucca Wash in the southwest quadrant of the Nevada Test Site. Two additional ground magnetic profiles were collected approximately 100 m to either side of the longitudinal profile. These data do not indicate major vertical offsets greater than 100 m using a density contrast of 0.2 to 0.3 g/cm 3 along the proposed Yucca Wash fault. A broad magnetic high coincides with the location of the hydrologic gradient. Density profiling, a technique used to determine the average density of small topographic features, suggests that the density of near-surface material in the vicinity of Yucca Wash is about 2.0 g/cm 3

  12. Turtle riders: remoras on marine turtles in Southwest Atlantic

    Ivan Sazima

    Full Text Available An overview is presented for a poorly documented relationship between reef vertebrates in Southwest Atlantic: remoras (Echeneidae associated with marine turtles. Two remora species (Echeneis naucrates and Remora remora and four turtle species (Caretta caretta, Chelonia mydas, Eretmochelys imbricata, and Dermochelys coriacea are here recorded in symbiotic associations in the SW Atlantic. Echeneis naucrates was recorded both on the coast and on oceanic islands, whereas R. remora was recorded only at oceanic islands and in the open sea. The remora-turtle association is usually regarded as an instance of phoresis (hitchhiking, albeit feeding by the fish is also involved in this symbiosis type. This association seems to be rare in SW Atlantic.

  13. Reservoir characterization of the Smackover Formation in southwest Alabama

    Kopaska-Merkel, D.C.; Hall, D.R.; Mann, S.D.; Tew, B.H.

    1993-02-01

    The Upper Jurassic Smackover Formation is found in an arcuate belt in the subsurface from south Texas to panhandle Florida. The Smackover is the most prolific hydrocarbon-producing formation in Alabama and is an important hydrocarbon reservoir from Florida to Texas. In this report Smackover hydrocarbon reservoirs in southwest Alabama are described. Also, the nine enhanced- and improved-recovery projects that have been undertaken in the Smackover of Alabama are evaluated. The report concludes with recommendations about potential future enhanced- and improved-recovery projects in Smackover reservoirs in Alabama and an estimate of the potential volume of liquid hydrocarbons recoverable by enhanced- and improved-recovery methods from the Smackover of Alabama.

  14. Health assessment of the Arab American community in southwest Brooklyn.

    Sarsour, Linda; Tong, Virginia S; Jaber, Omar; Talbi, Mohammed; Julliard, Kell

    2010-12-01

    Data on Arab American health is lacking nationwide. This survey of the Arab American community in southwest Brooklyn assessed perceptions of health status, needs, behaviors, and access to services. Bilingual interviewers administered a structured survey to community members in public gathering places. Of 353 surveyed, 43% were men and 57% women, most spoke Arabic and were Muslim, and most had moved to the U.S. after 1990. One quarter were unemployed. Over 50% reported household incomes below federal poverty level. Nearly 30% had no health insurance. 58% reported choosing their health care venue based on language considerations. 43% reported problems in getting health care, including ability to pay, language barriers, and immigration. 42% of men, and 8% of women reported current smoking. Almost half of respondents never exercised. Rates of poverty, lack of health insurance, and smoking in men are cause for concern and were high even for immigrant groups.

  15. Future aerosols of the southwest - Implications for fundamental aerosol research

    Friedlander, S.K.

    1980-01-01

    It is shown that substantial increases in the use of coal in the U.S. will lead to substantial increases in emissions of particulate matter, SO/sub x/, and NO/sub x/ in the part of the U.S. west of the Mississippi. A shift in the primary particulate emissions from coarse to submicron particles is predicted. Attention is given to the nature of the submicron aerosol in the southwest, the distribution of sulfur with respect to particle size, the formation of new particles in the atmosphere, and the ammonium nitrate equilibrium. It is concluded that increased coal use will result in a 50% increase in SO/sub x/ emissions and a doubling of NO/sub x/ emissions in the western U.S. by the year 2000, that ambient levels of aerosol sulfates and nitrates will increase, and that a large increase in submicron aerosol mass is likely

  16. A lightning climatology of the South-West Indian Ocean

    C. Bovalo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN data have been used to perform a lightning climatology in the South-West Indian Ocean (SWIO region from 2005 to 2011. Maxima of lightning activity were found in the Maritime Continent and southwest of Sri Lanka (>50 fl km−2 yr−1 but also over Madagascar and above the Great Lakes of East Africa (>10–20 fl km−2 yr−1. Lightning flashes within tropical storms and tropical cyclones represent 50 % to 100 % of the total lightning activity in some oceanic areas of the SWIO (between 10° S and 20° S.

    The SWIO is characterized by a wet season (November to April and a dry season (May to October. As one could expect, lightning activity is more intense during the wet season as the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ is present over all the basin. Flash density is higher over land in November–December–January with values reaching 3–4 fl km−2 yr−1 over Madagascar. During the dry season, lightning activity is quite rare between 10° S and 25° S. The Mascarene anticyclone has more influence on the SWIO resulting in shallower convection. Lightning activity is concentrated over ocean, east of South Africa and Madagascar.

    A statistical analysis has shown that El Niño–Southern Oscillation mainly modulates the lightning activity up to 56.8% in the SWIO. The Indian Ocean Dipole has a significant contribution since ~49% of the variability is explained by this forcing in some regions. The Madden–Julian Oscillation did not show significative impact on the lightning activity in our study.

  17. A Typology for Charting Socioeconomic Mortality Gradients: "Go Southwest".

    Blakely, Tony; Disney, George; Atkinson, June; Teng, Andrea; Mackenbach, Johan P

    2017-07-01

    Holistic depiction of time-trends in average mortality rates, and absolute and relative inequalities, is challenging. We outline a typology for situations with falling average mortality rates (m↓; e.g., cardiovascular disease), rates stable over time (m-; e.g., some cancers), and increasing average mortality rates (m↑; e.g., suicide in some contexts). If we consider inequality trends on both the absolute (a) and relative (r) scales, there are 13 possible combination of m, a, and r trends over time. They can be mapped to graphs with relative inequality (log relative index of inequality [RII]; r) on the y axis, log average mortality rate on the x axis (m), and absolute inequality (slope index of inequality; SII; a) as contour lines. We illustrate this by plotting adult mortality trends: (1) by household income from 1981 to 2011 for New Zealand, and (2) by education for European countries. Types range from the "best" m↓a↓r↓ (average, absolute, and relative inequalities all decreasing; southwest movement in graphs) to the "worst" m↑a↑r↑ (northeast). Mortality typologies in New Zealand (all-cause, cardiovascular disease, nonlung cancer, and unintentional injury) were all m↓r↑ (northwest), but variable with respect to absolute inequality. Most European typologies were m↓r↑ types (northwest; e.g., Finland), but with notable exceptions of m-a↑r↑ (north; e.g., Hungary) and "best" or southwest m↓a↓r↓ for Spain (Barcelona) females. Our typology and corresponding graphs provide a convenient way to summarize and understand past trends in inequalities in mortality, and hold potential for projecting future trends and target setting.

  18. Stable Isotopic Variations in Precipitation in Southwest China

    2006-01-01

    This study analyzes the relationships of stable isotopes in precipitation with temperature, air pressure and humidity at different altitudes, and the potential influencing mechanisms of control factors on the stable isotopes in precipitation in Southwest China. There appear marked negative correlations of the δ18O in precipitation with precipitation amount, vapor pressure and atmospheric precipitable water (PW)at the Mengzi, Simao and Tengchong stations on the synoptic timescale; the marked negative correlations between the δ18O in precipitation and the diurnal mean temperature at 400 hPa, 500 hPa, 700 hPa and 850hPa are different from the temperature effect in middle-high-latitude inland areas. In addition, the notable positive correlation between the δ18O in precipitation and the dew-point deficit △Td at different altitudes is found at the three stations. Precipitation is not the only factor generating an amount effect. Probably,the amount effect is related to the variations of atmospheric circulation and vapor origins. On the annual timescale, the annual precipitation amount weighted-mean δ18O displays negative correlations not only with annual precipitation but also with annual mean temperature at 500 hPa. It can be deduced that, in the years with an abnormally strong summer monsoon, more warm and wet air from low-latitude oceans is transported northward along the vapor channel located in Southwest China and generates abnormally strong rainfall on the way. Meanwhile, the abnormally strong condensation process will release more condensed latent heat in the atmosphere, and this will lead to a rise of atmospheric temperature during rainfall but a decline of δ18O in the precipitation. On the other hand, in the years with an abnormally weak summer monsoon, the precipitation and the atmospheric temperature during rainfalls decrease abnormally but the δ18O in precipitation increases.

  19. Analysis on Climatic Characteristics of the Precipitation Anomaly in Southwest China in Recent 60 Years

    ZHANG; Rong; PANG; Jing; QIN; Jun

    2012-01-01

    [Objective]The research aimed to analyze temporal-spatial distribution characteristics of the precipitation anomaly in southwest China from 1951 to 2010. [Method] Based on monthly precipitation data at 44 stations of southwest China and 160 stations of China from 1951 to 2010, by using EOF analysis, wavelet analysis and composite analysis, monthly and seasonal change rules of the precipitation in southwest China were analyzed. Corresponding spatial-temporal distribution characteristics of the precipitation in drought and flood years were studied. Temporal-spatial distribution characteristics of the precipitation anomaly in southwest China in recent 60 years were revealed. [Result]Seasonal distribution of the precipitation in southwest China was uneven and was typical single-peak type. Precipitation concentrated from May to September, and peak appeared in July. In recent years, rainfall in autumn significantly became less, while that in other seasons had no obvious change. Precipitation in summer had the cycle of 14 years, another for 6 years and 3-4 years of periodic oscillations. In wet years, precipitation in southwest China had same phase with that in southern China, and anti-phase with that in the junction of Qinghai, Gansu, Xinjiang and Tibet. In dry years, precipitation in southwest China had same phase with that in the eastern part of northwest China and northern China. [Conclusion]The research provided reference basis for prediction and pre-warning of the precipitation in the zone.

  20. Preliminary Evaluation of GAOFEN-3 Polarimetric and Radiometric Accuracy by Corner Reflectors in Inner Mongolia

    Shi, L.; Ding, X.; Li, P.; Yang, J.; Zhao, L.; Yang, L.; Chang, Y.; Yan, L.

    2018-04-01

    On August 10, 2016, China launched its first C-band full polarimetric radar satellite, named Gaofen-3 (GF-3), for urban and agriculture monitoring, landslide detection, ocean applications, etc. According to the design specification, GF-3 is expected to work at -35 dB crosstalk and 0.5 dB channel imbalance, with less than 10 degree error. The absolute radiometric bias is expected to be less than 1.5 dB in a single scene and 2.0 dB when operating for a long time. To complete the calibration and evaluation, the Institute of Electronics, Chinese Academy Sciences (IECAS) built a test site at Inner Mongolia, and deployed active reflectors (ARs) and trihedral corner reflectors (CRs) to solve and evaluate the hardware distortion. To the best of the authors' knowledge, the product accuracy of GF-3 has not been comprehensively evaluated in any open publication. The remote sensing community urgently requires a detailed report about the product accuracy and stability, before any subsequent application. From June to August of 2017, IECAS begun its second round ground campaign and deployed 10 CRs to evaluate product distortions. In this paper, we exploit Inner Mongolia CRs to investigate polarimetric and radiometric accuracy of QPSI I Stripmap. Although some CRs found fall into AR side lobe, the rest CRs enable us to preliminarily evaluate the accuracy of some special imaging beams. In the experimental part, the image of July 6, 2017 was checked by 5 trihedral CRs and the integration estimation method demonstrated the crosstalk varying from -42.65 to -32.74 dB, and the channel imbalance varying from -0.21 to 0.47 with phase error from -2.4 to 0.2 degree. Comparing with the theoretical radar cross-section of 1.235 m trihedral CR, i.e. 35 dB, the radiometric error varies about 0.20 ± 0.29 dB in HH channel and 0.40 ± 0.20 dB in VV channel.

  1. The effect of comprehensive sexual education program on sexual health knowledge and sexual attitude among college students in Southwest China.

    Chi, Xinli; Hawk, Skyler T; Winter, Sam; Meeus, Wim

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether a comprehensive sexual education program for college students in Southwest China (a) improved sexual health knowledge in reproduction, contraception, condom use, sexually transmitted diseases, and HIV; (b) increased accepting attitudes toward lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transsexual individuals; and (c) altered participants' attitudes toward premarital sex and monogamy. The program used diverse teaching methods, providing 6 sessions over a period of 9 weeks about sexual health knowledge and sexual attitudes to college students (age 18-26 years) in Southwest China. Sexual health knowledge and sexual attitudes of 80 comprehensive sexual education class students (education group) and 92 general mental health education class students (control group) were measured at baseline, the end of course (posttest), and 3 weeks after the end of course (follow-up). There were significant effects of the program on (a) sexual health knowledge, including reproductive health, contraception, condom use, and HIV/AIDS and (b) positive attitudes toward sexual minorities, although these changes may require further reinforcement. In contrast, the program did not alter students' attitudes about premarital sex or monogamy. The results are discussed in terms of recommendations of sex education in China and future directions for research. © 2013 APJPH.

  2. Target Transformation Constrained Sparse Unmixing (ttcsu) Algorithm for Retrieving Hydrous Minerals on Mars: Application to Southwest Melas Chasma

    Lin, H.; Zhang, X.; Wu, X.; Tarnas, J. D.; Mustard, J. F.

    2018-04-01

    Quantitative analysis of hydrated minerals from hyperspectral remote sensing data is fundamental for understanding Martian geologic process. Because of the difficulties for selecting endmembers from hyperspectral images, a sparse unmixing algorithm has been proposed to be applied to CRISM data on Mars. However, it's challenge when the endmember library increases dramatically. Here, we proposed a new methodology termed Target Transformation Constrained Sparse Unmixing (TTCSU) to accurately detect hydrous minerals on Mars. A new version of target transformation technique proposed in our recent work was used to obtain the potential detections from CRISM data. Sparse unmixing constrained with these detections as prior information was applied to CRISM single-scattering albedo images, which were calculated using a Hapke radiative transfer model. This methodology increases success rate of the automatic endmember selection of sparse unmixing and could get more accurate abundances. CRISM images with well analyzed in Southwest Melas Chasma was used to validate our methodology in this study. The sulfates jarosite was detected from Southwest Melas Chasma, the distribution is consistent with previous work and the abundance is comparable. More validations will be done in our future work.

  3. Present condition of uranium exploration and the prospecting direction in southwest China

    Ni Shijun; Zhang Chengjiang; Xu Zhengqi; Chen Youliang

    2012-01-01

    Southwest China is one of the important areas where uranium is distributed. After exploration and research of 50 years, the metallogenic conditions for uranium deposits in Southwest China have been studied more deeply. It is found that uranium ore in Southwest China has more complete types, less deposits and more mineral occurrences, and the amount of uranium resources is disproportionate to the area of Southwest China. Researches of years show that Southwest China is characterized by thick crust. thick sedimentary cover, weak crust-mantle interaction, weak deep flu id activity in shallow strata, strong dynamic formation in shallow strata and obvious deep geologic process on block mar- gins. In this paper, the control of deep geologic process and evolution in uranium metallogenesis in Southwest China is studied by employing new theories and thoughts on the fundamental concept that deep geologic process and evolution has important control on super-large scale deposits. The study focuses on the crust-mantle structure and evolution with uranium metallogenesis, structural and magmatic activity and deep fluid activity with uranium metallogenesis, and ore-con- trolling role of penetrating faults on block edges and inside the blocks. To offer theoretic basis for large-scale uranium deposit prospecting in Southwest China, the key research on uranium deposit in Southwest China in future should be on the deep geologic evolution and uranium metallogenesis in Western Qinling Region, the uranium metallogenesis of iron oxide copper gold deposits on Kangdian axis, the uranium metallogenesis in Yunnan-Guizhou contiguous area, the hydrothermal uranium metallogenesis in Eastern Tibet and Western Sichuan, and the connection between sandstone type uranium deposit and magmatic activity. Meanwhile, the above regions are also the key ones for uranium deposit prospecting in Southwest China in a rather long period in future. (authors)

  4. A generalization of the double-corner-frequency source spectral model and its use in the SCEC BBP validation exercise

    Boore, David M.; Di Alessandro, Carola; Abrahamson, Norman A.

    2014-01-01

    The stochastic method of simulating ground motions requires the specification of the shape and scaling with magnitude of the source spectrum. The spectral models commonly used are either single-corner-frequency or double-corner-frequency models, but the latter have no flexibility to vary the high-frequency spectral levels for a specified seismic moment. Two generalized double-corner-frequency ω2 source spectral models are introduced, one in which two spectra are multiplied together, and another where they are added. Both models have a low-frequency dependence controlled by the seismic moment, and a high-frequency spectral level controlled by the seismic moment and a stress parameter. A wide range of spectral shapes can be obtained from these generalized spectral models, which makes them suitable for inversions of data to obtain spectral models that can be used in ground-motion simulations in situations where adequate data are not available for purely empirical determinations of ground motions, as in stable continental regions. As an example of the use of the generalized source spectral models, data from up to 40 stations from seven events, plus response spectra at two distances and two magnitudes from recent ground-motion prediction equations, were inverted to obtain the parameters controlling the spectral shapes, as well as a finite-fault factor that is used in point-source, stochastic-method simulations of ground motion. The fits to the data are comparable to or even better than those from finite-fault simulations, even for sites close to large earthquakes.

  5. Politics-Administration Interface and Sustenance of Public Service Ethos in South-West Nigeria

    Salami Issa Afegbua

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This work examined politics-administration interface and the sustenance of public service ethos in Southwest Nigeria. Public servants and political functionaries in Southwest Nigeria are constantly in a struggle to fix each other in their pre-conceived mould of mental judgment which invariably breeds mutual suspicion, apprehension and setting the stage for conflict which is likely to impact negatively on the performance of public servants in Southwest Nigeria. The article identified the factors influencing the interface of public servants and political office holders in Southwest Nigeria. It also determined the influence of the interface between on public service ethos and finally examined the efforts made towards sustaining public service ethos in Southwest Nigeria. In carrying out this work, primary and secondary data were used. In the case of primary data, survey was carried out and questionnaire was used to elicit information from respondents in the Southwest geo-political zone of the country. Purposive random sampling techniques were adopted to determine the target respondents. The study has a sample of five hundred and thirty-five (535, which constitute 50 percent of the total population figure of 1070.  The findings revealed amongst others, that the synergy between political functionaries and public office holders is often characterized by both conflict and cooperation. In addition, there are certain factors influencing the interface of public servants and political office holders in Southwest Nigeria, these factors include: contract awards, consideration in the appointment of top civil servants etc. The study therefore, recommends the need for Southwest Nigeria to strengthen politics-administration interface in such a way that the public services in that region will be more productive. There is also the need for government in the Southwest to clarify the respective roles of political office holders and public servants. The principles

  6. Southwest Center for Environmental Excellence and Opportunity Year End Report (Final Deliverable)

    None

    1998-11-09

    The Southwest Center for Environmental Excellence and Opportunity (Southwest CEEO) has been in existence since October 1996 at Albuquerque Technical Vocational Institute's (TVI) South Valley Campus. The Special Project was comprised of three objectives: (1) Increasing the number of Hispanics in careers related to the environment by improving education and job training opportunities; (2) Strengthening the infrastructure of Hispanic businesses and building their capacity to participate in environmental clean-up activities and potential technology commercialization; and (3) Increasing the Hispanic community's understanding of and participation in environmental protection through improved access to information and outreach activities, paying attention to cultural and linguistic issues. The Southwest CEEO has been successful in each of the above objective areas and continues to provide valuable services to TVI and the community. The Southwest CEEO has developed a scholarship/mentorship program involving business and industry, community organizations, and TVI faculty that will be replicated by other student mentorship programs. The Southwest CEEO has awarded approximately $50,000 over the two-year program funded by the U.S. Department of Energy Oakland Operations Office. The Southwest CEEO has also developed a K-12 partnership with Albuquerque Public Schools (APS) to enhance environmental education for students and professional development for teachers. Incorporated into these student activities are experimental learning opportunities and curriculum development and/or enhancement. The Southwest CEEO has worked closely with the TVI Small Business Development Center (SBDC) to support Hispanic businesses in technology partnership activities. The Southwest CEEO in partnership the TVI SBDC has provided a large business forum and business workshops. In addition, the Southwest CEEO has developed a Technology Transfer Model that will be expanded in the future to a

  7. Effects of the shape of the foil corners on the irradiation performance of U10Mo alloy based monolithic mini-plates

    Ozaltun, Hakan [Idaho National Laboratory; Medvedev, Pavel G [Idaho National Laboratory

    2015-06-01

    Monolithic plate-type fuel is a fuel form being developed for high performance research and test reactors to minimize the use of enriched material. These fuel elements are comprised of a high density, low enrichment, U-Mo alloy based fuel foil, sandwiched between Zirconium liners and encapsulated in Aluminum cladding. The use of a high density fuel in a foil form presents a number of fabrication and operational concerns, such as: foil centering, flatness of the foil, fuel thickness variation, geometrical tilting, foil corner shape etc. To benchmark this new design, effects of various geometrical and operational variables on irradiation performance have been evaluated. As a part of these series of sensitivity studies, the shape of the foil corners were studied. To understand the effects of the corner shapes of the foil on thermo-mechanical performance of the plates, a behavioral model was developed for a selected plate from RERTR-12 experiments (Plate L1P785). Both fabrication and irradiation processes were simulated. Once the thermo-mechanical behavior the plate is understood for the nominal case, the simulations were repeated for two additional corner shapes to observe the changes in temperature, displacement and stress-strain fields. The results from the fabrication simulations indicated that the foil corners do not alter the post-fabrication stress-strain magnitudes. Furthermore, the irradiation simulations revealed that post-fabrication stresses of the foil would be relieved very quickly in operation. While, foils with chamfered and filleted corners yielded stresses with comparable magnitudes, they are slightly lower in magnitudes, and provided a more favorable mechanical response compared with the foil with sharp corners.

  8. Improvement of vehicle stability in cornering on uneven road; Akuro senkaiji ni okeru sharyo no anzensei kojo

    Tobimatsu, K; Harada, M; Harada, H [National Defense Academy, Kanagawa (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    The active control of vehicle suspensions and rear wheel steering systems in turning on uneven roads is analyzed by means of LQR control theory, assuming that cornering forces depend on tire normal loads in addition to tire slip angles. The authors quantitatively investigated the effectiveness of the integrated control of the active suspension and the rear wheel steering, comparing the contributions of each individual system. Furthermore, in this paper, the role of the chassis control and driver control are studied in order to improve the stability of vehicle motion disturbed by the road surface. 4 refs., 9 figs.

  9. Study of wire electrical discharge machined folded-up corner cube retroreflector with a tunable cantilever beam

    Chen, Yu-Fan; Wang, Yen-Hung; Tsai, Jui-che

    2018-03-01

    This work has developed an approach to construct a corner cube retroreflector (CCR). A two-dimensional cutout pattern is first fabricated with wire electrical discharge machining process. It is then folded up into a three-dimensional CCR suspended on a cantilever beam. The folded-up CCR may be driven through external actuators for optical modulation; it can also mechanically respond to perturbation, acceleration, etc., to function as a sensor. Mechanical (static and dynamic modeling) and optical (ray tracing) analyses are also performed.

  10. A corner transfer matrix renormalization group investigation of the vertex-interacting self-avoiding walk model

    Foster, D P; Pinettes, C [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique et Modelisation (CNRS UMR 8089), Universite de Cergy-Pontoise, 5 Mail Gay-Lussac 95031, Cergy-Pontoise Cedex (France)

    2003-10-17

    A recently introduced extension of the corner transfer matrix renormalization group method useful for the study of self-avoiding walk-type models is presented in detail and applied to a class of interacting self-avoiding walks due to Bloete and Nienhuis. This model displays two different types of collapse transition depending on model parameters. One is the standard {theta}-point transition. The other is found to give rise to a first-order collapse transition despite being known to be in other respects critical.

  11. S-Wave Velocity Structure beneath Southwest North America from Seismogram Comparisons of the Mexico Earthquake on 22 June 1997

    Bagus Jaya Santosa

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This research investigates earth structure beneath the Southwest North America landmass, especially between Mexico and California. Models based on S wave velocities for this area were obtained by carrying out seismogram fitting in time domain and three Cartesian components simultaneously. The data used is from an event, coded as C052297B that occurred in the state of Guerrero, Mexico and it was fitted to synthetic data computed with the GEMINI program at TS network stations. Earth model IASPEI91 and SPREM were used as input to create the synthetic data. Real and synthetic seismograms were subjected to a low-pass filter with a frequency corner of 20 mHz.Waveform analysis results show very unsystematic and strong deviations in the waveform, arrival times, amount of oscillation and the height of the wave amplitude. Discrepancies are met on S, Love, Rayleigh and ScS waves, where the stations epicentral distances are below 300. Deviation in analysis waveform because of the usage of model 1-D of SPREM and IASPEI91, because the 1-D was a kind of average value an elastic property at one particular depth of global earth. With the method of waveform analysis we can see how sensitive waveform is to structures within the layers of the Earth.To explain the discrepancies, a correction to the earth structure is essential. The corrections account for the thickness of the crust, speed gradient of bh, the coefficient for the bh and bv in the upper mantle for surface wave fitting, a small variation of the S speed structure at a layer under the upper mantle above 771 km for S wave fitting, and a small variation at the base the mantle layers for ScS wave fitting. At some stations, a correction for S speed structure have yielded P wave fitting. Results of this research indicate that the 1-D earth model obtained through seismogram fitting at every hypocenter-observation station pair is unique. The S-wave velocity on the upper mantle has strong negative anomalies. This

  12. Monitoring Litter Inputs from the Adour River (Southwest France to the Marine Environment

    Antoine Bruge

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Rivers are major pathways for litter to enter the ocean, especially plastic debris. Yet, further research is needed to improve knowledge on rivers contribution, increase data availability, refine litter origins, and develop relevant solutions to limit riverine litter inputs. This study presents the results of three years of aquatic litter monitoring on the Adour river catchment (southwest of France. Litter monitoring consisted of collecting all litter stranded on river banks or stuck in the riparian vegetation in defined areas identified from cartographic and hydromorphological analyses, and with the support of local stakeholders. Litter samples were then sorted and counted according to a list of items containing 130 categories. Since 2014, 278 litter samplings were carried out, and 120,632 litter items were collected, sorted, and counted. 41% of litter could not be identified due to high degradation. Food and beverage packaging, smoking-related items, sewage related debris, fishery and mariculture gear, and common household items represented around 70% of identifiable items. Overall, the present study contributes to our knowledge of litter sources and pathways, with the target of reducing the amounts entering the ocean. The long-term application of this monitoring is a way forward to measure societal changes as well as assess effectiveness of measures.

  13. INDIVIDUALISM VERSUS COLLECTIVISM IN ECONOMIC ORGANIZATIONS FROM SOUTH-WEST OLTENIA REGION

    PhD Mirela SIRBU

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the major impact the organizational culture exerts over long-term performance of organizations and on the competitive advantage, in the theory and practice of management the concerns for understanding its multiple facets have intensified worldwide. This is highlighted by the numerous intercultural studies that emphasize the "invisible force" of each nation's culture and each organization's culture, which constitutes irrefutable arguments for enhancing the knowledge in this area. In this context, this study highlights how the cultural dimension "individualism-collectivism" influences the behavior of employees, in general, but especially that of managers from South-West Oltenia Region. The study results are based on the responses of 1086 respondents from 70 organizations in various fields of economic activity, whose opinions were investigated in two perspectives: current practice and desired practice. This paper presents some of the findings resulted from the research COMOR- Managerial Behavior in the Organizations in Romania, initiated and carried out throughout the country since 2009 by the Management Scientific Society of Romania (SSMAR in collaboration with the Association of Faculties of Economics in Romania (AFER.

  14. Small is beautiful: Marine small-scale fisheries catches from the South-West Maluku Regency

    Hutubessy, BG; Mosse, JW; Hayward, P.

    2017-10-01

    The fisheries data supplied by fisheries agency have served as the primary tool for regional fisheries statistics. However, it is recognized these data are incomplete and often underestimate actual catches, particularly for small-scale fisheries. There is no widely accepted definition of small-scale fisheries or global data on number of small-scale fishers and their catches. This study reconstructed total marine catches from 1980 to 2015 for South-west Maluku (MBD) regency, by applying an established catch construction approach utilizing all available quantitative and qualitative data, combined with assumption-based estimations and interpolations. As newly established regency since 2009, there is lack of fisheries data available which is needed for fisheries management. Fishers’ knowledge is important information taken from to construct long-term fisheries data. Estimated total fish withdrawal from MBD waters was 86,849.66 tonnes during 1980 - 2015, dominated by pelagic fishes. Consistency of estimated total removal and total landings at MBD regency play important role in small-scale fisheries management and this method of visualizing the history of fishery from poor-data condition might be an optimistic effort.

  15. A nuclear-free zone for the Southwest Pacific: prospects and significance

    Fry, G.

    1983-01-01

    The Australian Government is currently seeking to promote the concept of a nuclear-free zone for the Southwest Pacific. This paper explores three fundamental questions concerning the Australian proposal. Firstly, what would be the boundaries of such a zone and what does 'nuclear-free' mean in this context Secondly, what are the prospects for agreement on the establishment of a zone. Could regional states and nuclear powers agree to what is being proposed. And finally, what would be the significance, in arms control terms, were such an agreement to be signed. Would it, in fact, achieve anything. In an approach to these questions, the author surveys the strategic situation in the region, the level and pattern of nuclear involvement, past experience with zone proposals, and the current positions of various regional states and nuclear weapons powers on this question. He concludes that the necessary basis for agreement does exist and that modest arms control objectives could be served by the establishment of such a zone

  16. Karstic water storage response to the recent droughts in Southwest China estimated from satellite gravimetry

    Yao, Chaolong; Luo, Zhicai

    2015-12-01

    The water resources crisis is intensifying in Southwest China (SWC), which includes the world's largest continuous coverage of karst landforms, due to recent severe drought events. However, because of the special properties of karstic water system, such as strong heterogeneity, monitoring the variation of karstic water resources at large scales remains still difficult. Satellite gravimetry has emerged as an effective tool for investigating the global and regional water cycles. In this study, we used GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) data from January 2003 to January 2013 to investigate karstic water storage variability over the karst region of SWC. We assessed the impacts of the recent severe droughts on karst water resources, including two heavy droughts in September 2010 to May 2010 and August 2011 to January 2012. Results show a slightly water increase tend during the studied period, but these two severe droughts have resulted in significant water depletion in the studied karst region. The latter drought during 2011 and 2012 caused more water deficits than that of the drought in 2010. Strong correlation between the variations of GRACE-based total water storage and precipitation suggests that climate change is the main driving force for the significant water absent over the studied karst region. As the world's largest continuous coverage karst aquifer, the karst region of SWC offers an example of GRACE applications to a karst system incisively and will benefit for water management from a long-term perspective in karst systems throughout the world.

  17. Microbial Community Structure of Deep-sea Hydrothermal Vents on the Ultraslow Spreading Southwest Indian Ridge

    Jian Ding

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Southwest Indian Ridge (SWIR is a typical oceanic ultraslow spreading ridge with intensive hydrothermal activities. The microbial communities in hydrothermal fields including primary producers to support the entire ecosystem by utilizing geochemical energy generated from rock-seawater interactions. Here we have examined the microbial community structures on four hydrothermal vents from SWIR, representing distinct characteristics in terms of temperature, pH and metal compositions, by using Illumina sequencing of the 16S small subunit ribosomal RNA (rRNA genes, to correlate bacterial and archaeal populations with the nature of the vents influenced by ultraslow spreading features. Epsilon-, Gamma-, Alpha-, and Deltaproteobacteria and members of the phylum Bacteroidetes and Planctomycetes, as well as Thaumarchaeota, Woesearchaeota, and Euryarchaeota were dominant in all the samples. Both bacterial and archaeal community structures showed distinguished patterns compared to those in the fast-spreading East Pacific Ridge or the slow-spreading Mid-Atlantic Ridge as previously reported. Furthermore, within SWIR, the microbial communities are highly correlated with the local temperatures. For example, the sulfur-oxidizing bacteria were dominant within bacteria from low-temperature vents, but were not represented as the dominating group recovered from high temperature (over 300°C venting chimneys in SWIR. Meanwhile, Thaumarchaeota, the ammonium oxidizing archaea, only showed high relative abundance of amplicons in the vents with high-temperature in SWIR. These findings provide insights on the microbial community in ultraslow spreading hydrothermal fields, and therefore assist us in the understanding of geochemical cycling therein.

  18. The terrestrial distribution of artificial radioactivity in south-west Scotland

    McDonald, Paul; Cook, G.T.; Baxter, M.S.; Thompson, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    This investigation extends the data base on dispersion of Sella-field-derived radionuclides to the northern Solway coastal zone of south-west Scotland. Results of 10x10 km grid soil survey indicate that the predominant source of 239+240 Pu to the area has been weapons fallout, Chernobyl fallout having greatly modified 134 Cs and 137 Cs inventories. Inland transects reveal little evidence of airborne sea-to-land transfer of Sellafield-derived radionuclides, but riverine systems exhibit regions of significant on-land input from Sellafield via tidal inundation and deposition of particles. Sequential chemical leaching of soil and sediment samples suggests a change in chemical association of plutonium between marine and terrestrial systems. In radiological terms, airborne on-land transfer of Sellafield radionuclides is of negligible significance. Radionuclide inventories in Solway soils are generally well below the limiting values implied by the recommended generalised derived limits (GDL). In some tidally inundated riverbank areas however, 137 Cs, Puα and 241 Am levels occasionally exceed 25% of the appropriate GDL values. (author). 40 refs.; 8 figs.; 7 tabs

  19. Temporal and Spatial Variability of Droughts in Southwest China from 1961 to 2012

    Yaohuan Huang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Southwest China (SC has suffered a series of super extreme droughts in the last decade. This study analyzed the temporal and spatial variations of drought in SC from 1961 to 2012. Based on precipitation anomaly index (PAI that was derived from 1 km gridded precipitation data, three time scales (month, year and decade for the drought frequency (DF and drought area were applied to estimate the spatio-temporal structure of droughts. A time-series analysis showed that winter droughts and spring droughts occurred frequently for almost half of the year from November to March. Summer droughts occasionally occurred in severe drought decades: the 1960s, 1980s and 2000s. During the period of observation, the percent of drought area in SC increased from the 1960s (<5% to the 2000s (>25%. A total of 57% of the area was affected by drought in 2011, when the area experienced its most severe drought both in terms of area and severity. The spatial analysis, which benefitted from the gridded data, detailed that all of SC is at drought risk except for the central Sichuan Basin. The area at high risk for severe and extreme droughts was localized in the mountains of the junction of Sichuan and Yunnan. The temporal and spatial variability can be prerequisites for drought resistance planning and drought risk management of SC.

  20. Bird migration patterns in the arid southwest-Final report

    Ruth, Janet M.; Felix, Rodney K.; Dieh, Robert H.

    2010-01-01

    To ensure full life-cycle conservation, we need to understand migrant behavior en route and how migrating species use stopover and migration aerohabitats. In the Southwest, birds traverse arid and mountainous landscapes in migration. Migrants are known to use riparian stopover habitats; we know less about how migrant density varies across the Southwest seasonally and annually, and how migrants use other habitat types during migratory stopover. Furthermore, we lack information about migrant flight altitudes, speeds, and directions of travel, and how these patterns vary seasonally and annually across the Southwest. Using weather surveillance radar data, we identified targets likely dominated by nocturnally migrating birds and determined their flight altitudes, speeds, directions over ground, and variations in abundance. Migrating or foraging bats likely are present across the region in some of these data, particularly in central Texas. We found that migrants flew at significantly lower altitudes and significantly higher speeds in spring than in fall. In all seasons migrants maintained seasonally appropriate directions of movement. We detected significant differences in vertical structure of migrant densities that varied both geographically within seasons and seasonally within sites. We also found that in fall there was a greater and more variable passage of migrants through the central part of the borderlands (New Mexico and west Texas); in spring there was some suggestion of greater and more variable passage of migrants in the eastern borderlands (central and south Texas). Such patterns are consistent with the existence of at least two migration systems through western North America and the use of different migration routes in spring and fall for at least some species. Using radar data and satellite land cover data, we determined the habitats with which migrants are associated during migration stopover. There were significant differences in bird densities among

  1. Dark ice dynamics of the south-west Greenland Ice Sheet

    Tedstone, Andrew J.; Bamber, Jonathan L.; Cook, Joseph M.; Williamson, Christopher J.; Fettweis, Xavier; Hodson, Andrew J.; Tranter, Martyn

    2017-11-01

    Runoff from the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) has increased in recent years due largely to changes in atmospheric circulation and atmospheric warming. Albedo reductions resulting from these changes have amplified surface melting. Some of the largest declines in GrIS albedo have occurred in the ablation zone of the south-west sector and are associated with the development of dark ice surfaces. Field observations at local scales reveal that a variety of light-absorbing impurities (LAIs) can be present on the surface, ranging from inorganic particulates to cryoconite materials and ice algae. Meanwhile, satellite observations show that the areal extent of dark ice has varied significantly between recent successive melt seasons. However, the processes that drive such large interannual variability in dark ice extent remain essentially unconstrained. At present we are therefore unable to project how the albedo of bare ice sectors of the GrIS will evolve in the future, causing uncertainty in the projected sea level contribution from the GrIS over the coming decades. Here we use MODIS satellite imagery to examine dark ice dynamics on the south-west GrIS each year from 2000 to 2016. We quantify dark ice in terms of its annual extent, duration, intensity and timing of first appearance. Not only does dark ice extent vary significantly between years but so too does its duration (from 0 to > 80 % of June-July-August, JJA), intensity and the timing of its first appearance. Comparison of dark ice dynamics with potential meteorological drivers from the regional climate model MAR reveals that the JJA sensible heat flux, the number of positive minimum-air-temperature days and the timing of bare ice appearance are significant interannual synoptic controls. We use these findings to identify the surface processes which are most likely to explain recent dark ice dynamics. We suggest that whilst the spatial distribution of dark ice is best explained by outcropping of particulates from

  2. A Legendre-pseudospectral method for computing travelling waves with corners (slope discontinuities) in one space dimension with application to Whitham's equation family

    Boyd, John P.

    2003-01-01

    If the dispersion in a nonlinear hyperbolic wave equation is weak in the sense that the frequency ω(k) of cos(kx) is bounded as k→∞, it is common that (i) travelling waves exist up to a limiting amplitude with wave-breaking for higher amplitudes, and (ii) the limiting wave has a corner, that is, a discontinuity in slope. Because 'corner' waves are not smooth, standard numerical methods converge poorly as the number of grid points is increased. However, the corner wave is important because, at least in some systems, it is the attractor for all large amplitude initial conditions. Here we devise a Legendre-pseudospectral method which is uncorrupted by the singularity. The symmetric (u(X)=u(-X)) wave can be computed on an interval spanning only half the spatial period; since u is smooth on this domain which does not include the corner except as an endpoint, all numerical difficulties are avoided. A key step is to derive an extra boundary condition which uniquely identifies the corner wave. With both the grid point values of u(x) and phase speed c as unknowns, the discretized equations, imposing three boundary conditions on a second order differential equation, are solved by a Newton-Raphson iteration. Although our method is illustrated by the so-called 'Whitham's equation', u t +uu x =∫Du dx ' where D is a very general linear operator, the ideas are widely applicable

  3. A corner store intervention in a low-income urban community is associated with increased availability and sales of some healthy foods.

    Song, Hee-Jung; Gittelsohn, Joel; Kim, Miyong; Suratkar, Sonali; Sharma, Sangita; Anliker, Jean

    2009-11-01

    While corner store-based nutrition interventions have emerged as a potential strategy to increase healthy food availability in low-income communities, few evaluation studies exist. We present the results of a trial in Baltimore City to increase the availability and sales of healthier food options in local stores. Quasi-experimental study. Corner stores owned by Korean-Americans and supermarkets located in East and West Baltimore. Seven corner stores and two supermarkets in East Baltimore received a 10-month intervention and six corner stores and two supermarkets in West Baltimore served as comparison. During and post-intervention, stocking of healthy foods and weekly reported sales of some promoted foods increased significantly in intervention stores compared with comparison stores. Also, intervention storeowners showed significantly higher self-efficacy for stocking some healthy foods in comparison to West Baltimore storeowners. Findings of the study demonstrated that increases in the stocking and promotion of healthy foods can result in increased sales. Working in small corner stores may be a feasible means of improving the availability of healthy foods and their sales in a low-income urban community.

  4. Proyecto MercadoFRESCO: a multi-level, community-engaged corner store intervention in East Los Angeles and Boyle Heights.

    Ortega, Alexander N; Albert, Stephanie L; Sharif, Mienah Z; Langellier, Brent A; Garcia, Rosa Elena; Glik, Deborah C; Brookmeyer, Ron; Chan-Golston, Alec M; Friedlander, Scott; Prelip, Michael L

    2015-04-01

    Urban food swamps are typically situated in low-income, minority communities and contribute to overweight and obesity. Changing the food landscape in low income and underserved communities is one strategy to combat the negative health consequences associated with the lack of access to healthy food resources and an abundance of unhealthy food venues. In this paper, we describe Proyecto MercadoFRESCO (Fresh Market Project), a corner store intervention project in East Los Angeles and Boyle Heights in California that used a multi-level approach with a broad range of community, business, and academic partners. These are two neighboring, predominantly Latino communities that have high rates of overweight and obesity. Located in these two communities are approximately 150 corner stores. The project used a community-engaged approach to select, recruit, and convert four corner stores, so that they could become healthy community assets in order to improve residents' access to and awareness of fresh and affordable fruits and vegetables in their immediate neighborhoods. We describe the study framework for the multi-level intervention, which includes having multiple stakeholders, expertise in corner store operations, community and youth engagement strategies, and social marketing campaigns. We also describe the evaluation and survey methodology to determine community and patron impact of the intervention. This paper provides a framework useful to a variety of public health stakeholders for implementing a community-engaged corner store conversion, particularly in an urban food swamp.

  5. Mid- to late-Holocene coastal environmental changes in southwest Florida, USA

    Soelen, E.E. van; Brooks, G.R.; Larson, R.A.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Reichart, G.-J.

    2012-01-01

    During the Holocene, Florida experienced major changes in precipitation and runoff. To better understand these processes, shallow marine sediment cores from Charlotte Harbor (southwest Florida) were studied, covering approximately the past 9000 years. Whole core XRF scanning was applied to

  6. Shallow-Water Benthic Habitats of Southwest Puerto Rico: Accuracy Assessment Site Locations

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Shallow-water (<30m) benthic habitat maps of the nearshore marine environment of two areas in Southwest Puerto Rico (PR), including the Guanica Bay/La Parguera...

  7. National Status and Trends: Bioeffects Program - Southwest Puerto Rico Chemical Contaminant Assessment Summary

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The purpose of the project was to characterize the extent and magnitude of chemical contamination in southwest Puerto Rico, as part of a larger effort to link coral...

  8. USGS Southwest Repeat Photography Collection: Kanab Creek, southern Utah and northern Arizona, 1872-2010

    Department of the Interior — The USGS Southwest Repeat Photography Collection (‘Collection’), formerly named the Desert Laboratory Repeat Photography Collection, is now housed by the...

  9. 2007 Southwest Florida Water Management District (SWFWMD) LiDAR: Hernando County

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is one component of a digital terrain model (DTM) for the Southwest Florida Water Management Districts FY2006 Digital Orthophoto (B089) and LiDAR...

  10. Upper ocean stratification and circulation in the northern Bay of Bengal during southwest monsoon of 1991

    Gopalakrishna, V. V.; Murty, V. S. N.; Sengupta, D.; Shenoy, Shrikant; Araligidad, Nilesh

    2002-03-01

    During the southwest monsoon (July) of 1991 a large plume (300×250 km 2) of warm (>29°C) and less saline (Continental Shelf Research 19 (1999) 1437, Journal of Geophysical Research 106 (C1) (2001) 1067).

  11. Spatial distribution and epidemiological features of cutaneous leishmaniasis in southwest of Iran

    S. Khademvatan

    2017-03-01

    Conclusions: Regarding high incidence of CL in southwest of Iran, special programs related to vector and reservoir control should be adopted and implemented. Traffic control of immigrants and travelers from neighboring endemic countries, also can be helpful.

  12. Shallow-Water Benthic Habitats of Southwest Puerto Rico: Ground Validation Site Locations

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Shallow-water (<30m) benthic habitat maps of the nearshore marine environment of two areas in Southwest Puerto Rico (PR), including the Guanica Bay/La Parguera...

  13. Shallow-Water Benthic Habitats of Southwest Puerto Rico: GeoEye Image po_502736_PS

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Shallow-water (<30m) benthic habitat maps of the nearshore marine environment of two areas in Southwest Puerto Rico (PR), including the Guanica Bay/La Parguera...

  14. Shallow-Water Benthic Habitats of Southwest Puerto Rico: GeoEye Image po_483895_PS

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Shallow-water (<30m) benthic habitat maps of the nearshore marine environment of two areas in Southwest Puerto Rico (PR), including the Guanica Bay/La Parguera...

  15. Resource Assessment for Microalgal/Emergent Aquatic Biomass Systems in the Arid Southwest: Final Report

    Vigon, B. W.; Arthur, M. F.; Taft, L. G.; Wagner, C. K.; Lipinsky, E. S.; Litchfield, J. H.; McCandlish, C. D.; Clark, R.

    1982-12-23

    This research project has been designed to facilitate the eventual selection of biomass production systems using aquatic species (microalgal and emergent aquatic plant species (MEAP) which effectively exploit the potentially available resources of the Southwest.

  16. EPA Pacific Southwest Enforcement Division Inspected Tax Map Key Polygons, Hawaii, 2017, US EPA Region 9

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This feature class contains the 64 tax map key polygons across the state of Hawaii that have been inspected by US EPA Pacific Southwest Enforcement Division as of...

  17. 78 FR 19649 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Southwest Region Permit Family of Forms

    2013-04-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Southwest Region Permit Family of Forms AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Commerce, as part of its continuing...

  18. Scienza under 18 isontina: a teachers association at the extreme northern corner of the Mediterranean

    Gallo, Maria Teresa; Realdon, Giulia; Candussio, Giuliana; Fabris, Sandra; Bianchet, Livia; Manià, Marinella

    2017-04-01

    How we are born: history of the group and of the project Scienza under 18 Isontina originated from a group of teachers working in a national science education project (from kindergarten to high school) run by the Italian Ministry of Education (2006-2013). In 2009 we started the first science school festival open to different school grades. In 2010 we established the association Scienza under 18 Isontina aimed at promoting science communication for the schools of our province and outside schools for citizens and other stakeholders interested in science education. Who we are We are a group of teachers and principals working with students aged 3-19 years and with their teachers. We are part of the National Scienza under 18 Association. We live and work in Monfalcone and in the nearby towns of the province of Gorizia. Monfalcone, in particular, is situated in the extreme northern corner of the Mediterranean. This town's coastal area is characterized by different business linked to the sea (a world known shipyard - Fincantieri - an important harbour, a power plant and a number of marinas), but also by coastal protected areas. Since 2010 we have built a science communication network involving local authorities (municipalities, province), institutions (universities), other NGOs and private companies. What we do  Every year we run a festival at the end of the school year (in May): in the festival students showcase their science projects in a fair or through on-stage performances. In addition, Scienza under 18 Isontina organizes exhibitions about science related topics, practical labs and workshops for classes, maths games and theatrical performances.  During the school year we organize "special events": o M'illumino di Meno (a one-day national initiative on energy saving) o Pi Day (maths games for students and teacher training in the international Pi Day) o Sustainability Week (promoted by UNESCO) o Science Cafè (informal science happenings run by high school

  19. Hydrothermal plume anomalies over the southwest Indian ridge: magmatic control

    Yue, X.; Li, H.; Tao, C.; Ren, J.; Zhou, J.; Chen, J.; Chen, S.; Wang, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Here we firstly reported the extensive survey results of the hydrothermal activity along the ultra-slow spreading southwest Indian ridge (SWIR). The study area is located at segment 27, between the Indomed and Gallieni transform faults, SWIR. The seismic crustal thickness reaches 9.5km in this segment (Li et al., 2015), which is much thicker than normal crustal. The anomaly thickened crust could be affected by the Crozet hotspot or highly focused melt delivery from the mantle. The Duanqiao hydrothermal field was reported at the ridge valley of the segment by Tao et al (2009). The Deep-towed Hydrothermal Detection System (DHDS) was used to collect information related with hydrothermal activity, like temperature, turbidity, oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) and seabed types. There are 15 survey lines at the interval of 2 to 3 km which are occupied about 1300 km2 in segment 27. After processing the raw data, including wiping out random noise points, 5-points moving average processing and subtracting the ambient, we got anomalous Nephelometric Turbidity Units values (ΔNTU). And dE/dt was used to identify the ORP anomalous as the raw data is easily influenced by electrode potentials drifting (Baker et al., 2016). According to the results of water column turbidity and ORP distributions, we confirmed three hydrothermal anomaly fields named A1, A2 and A3. The three fields are all located in the western part of the segment. The A1 field lies on the ridge valley, west side of Duanqiao field. The A2 and A3 field lie on the northern and southern of the ridge valley, respectively. We propose that recent magmatic activity probably focus on the western part of segment 27.And the extensive distribution of hydrothermal plume in the segment is the result of the discrete magma intrusion. References Baker E T, et al. How many vent fields? New estimates of vent field populations on ocean ridges from precise mapping of hydrothermal discharge locations. EPSL, 2016, 449:186-196. Li J

  20. Aging in Place within Elderly People in the Southwest Iran

    Laleh Fani Saberi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Iran and its aged society are facing some issues that significantly impact the current social structures in Iran. It will continue to do so on their growing as elderly with negative impacts on communal relations and unjust distribution of resources based on a gender basis that will affect the aging in place (AiP. The study aims to investigate the AiP within aged people and modifying role of the gender variables within it. Methods: This study describes the current AiP of the aged people in Ahwaz city in the southwest Iran from a gender perspective. The population available for the study was citizens 60 years of age and older (N=51594 in Ahwaz city. Sampling method was cluster-ratio based on municipal zones, ethnicity, and gender with sample size 382 (195 male and 187 female. The data were analysed by descriptive statistics, F-test and geographical information system. Results: Economically poor situation of the aged samples especially aged women, and their health status was moderated by low quality of nutrition and high prevalence of chronic conditions. For example, Arabs, Persian and Lor received low mean scores of 59.41, (SD= 7.332, 58.09 (SD= 11.963, and 57.02, (SD= 7.963 respectively in the health status. AiP characteristics are poor and discrimination was especially significantly prominent among elderly females. Multiple regression were found to modify AiP at the first step. The GLM reported that gender-ethnic discrimination directly affected AiP and high prevalent amongst elderly minority females. Conclusion: The current urban environment, in the southwest Iran, seems is unable to meet healthy needs of aged people. It needs to adjust upon gender and other relevant characteristics to monitor equality of outcomes for aged and minorities. The future research needs to focus on effect of ethnicity and gender-related issues on AiP, especially in developing countries like Iran. sure activities and mental health, provides evidence for

  1. Extinction cross-section cancellation of a cylindrical radiating active source near a rigid corner and acoustic invisibility

    Mitri, F. G.

    2017-11-01

    Active cloaking in its basic form requires that the extinction cross-section (or energy efficiency) from a radiating body vanishes. In this analysis, this physical effect is demonstrated for an active cylindrically radiating acoustic source in a non-viscous fluid, undergoing periodic axisymmetric harmonic vibrations near a rigid corner (i.e., quarter-space). The rigorous multipole expansion method in cylindrical coordinates, the method of images, and the addition theorem of cylindrical wave functions are used to derive closed-form mathematical expressions for the radiating, amplification, and extinction cross-sections of the active source. Numerical computations are performed assuming monopole and dipole modal oscillations of the circular source. The results reveal some of the situations where the extinction energy efficiency factor of the active source vanishes depending on its size and location with respect to the rigid corner, thus, achieving total invisibility. Moreover, the extinction energy efficiency factor varies between positive or negative values. These effects also occur for higher-order modal oscillations of the active source. The results find potential applications in the development of acoustic cloaking devices and invisibility in underwater acoustics or other areas.

  2. FEATURE RECOGNITION BERBASIS CORNER DETECTION DENGAN METODE FAST, SURF DAN FLANN TREE UNTUK IDENTIFIKASI LOGO PADA AUGMENTED REALITY MOBILE SYSTEM

    Rastri Prathivi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Logo is a graphical symbol that is the identity of an organization, institution, or company. Logo is generally used to introduce to the public the existence of an organization, institution, or company. Through the existence of an agency logo can be seen by the public. Feature recognition is one of the processes that exist within an augmented reality system. One of uses augmented reality is able to recognize the identity of the logo through a camera.The first step to make a process of feature recognition is through the corner detection. Incorporation of several method such as FAST, SURF, and FLANN TREE for the feature detection process based corner detection feature matching up process, will have the better ability to detect the presence of a logo. Additionally when running the feature extraction process there are several issues that arise as scale invariant feature and rotation invariant feature. In this study the research object in the form of logo to the priority to make the process of feature recognition. FAST, SURF, and FLANN TREE method will detection logo with scale invariant feature and rotation invariant feature conditions. Obtained from this study will demonstration the accuracy from FAST, SURF, and FLANN TREE methods to solve the scale invariant and rotation invariant feature problems.

  3. Using a model based fourth-corner analysis to explain vegetation change following an extraordinary fire disturbance.

    Venn, S E; Pickering, C M; Butler, S A; Letten, A D

    2016-11-01

    In ecosystems where large-scale disturbances are infrequent, the mode of succession may be difficult to discern and floristic surveys alone cannot be used determine the underlying processes causing vegetation change. To determine the causes of vegetation change in response to a large-scale fire event, we combined traditional floristic survey data, plant functional traits and environmental variables in a model-based solution to the fourth-corner problem. This approach allowed us to describe the trait-environment relationship and provides an intuitive matrix of environment by trait interaction coefficients. We could then quantify the strength and direction of associations between plant traits, species life-forms and environmental factors in two alpine plant communities over nine years post-fire. Initially, the fire drastically reduced vegetation cover and species density to very low levels. The fourth-corner analysis interaction coefficients indicated that over the course of the nine-year study a high abundance of graminoids, a low abundance of shrubs, tall species and those with high leaf dry matter content had the strongest associations with the two plant communities. We also found evidence for functional homogenisation between these two communities using this novel technique. Analysing plant traits and species responses post-fire in this manner can be used to infer the ecological processes driving shifts in vegetation.

  4. Stress intensity factors for deep cracks emanating from the corner formed by a hole intersecting a plate surface

    Mcgowan, J. J.; Smith, C. W.

    1976-01-01

    The stress intensity factors (SIFs) at the end points of flaws emanating from the corner formed by the intersection of a plate with a hole were determined using stress freezing photoelasticity and a numerical technique known as the Taylor series correction method to extract the SIF values from the photoelastic data. The geometries studied were crack depth to thickness ratios of about 0.2, 0.5, and 0.75; crack depth to crack length ratios of about 1.0 to 2.0; and crack length to hole radius ratios of about 0.5 to 2.0. The SIFs were determined at the intersection of the flaw border with the plate surface (KS) and with the edge of the hole (KH). It is shown that extension of a crack emanating from a corner of intersection of a hole with a plate under monotonically increasing load is not self-similar and that as the flaw depth increases, KH decreases and KS increases. Existing theories and design criteria significantly overestimate the SIF at both the hole and the surface except for shallow flaws at the hole and deep flaws at the surface.

  5. Exploring sales data during a healthy corner store intervention in Toronto: the Food Retail Environments Shaping Health (FRESH) project.

    Minaker, Leia M; Lynch, Meghan; Cook, Brian E; Mah, Catherine L

    2017-10-01

    Population health interventions in the retail food environment, such as corner store interventions, aim to influence the kind of cues consumers receive so that they are more often directed toward healthier options. Research that addresses financial aspects of retail interventions, particularly using outcome measures such as store sales that are central to retail decision making, is limited. This study explored store sales over time and across product categories during a healthy corner store intervention in a lowincome neighbourhood in Toronto, Ontario. Sales data (from August 2014 to April 2015) were aggregated by product category and by day. We used Microsoft Excel pivot tables to summarize and visually present sales data. We conducted t-tests to examine differences in product category sales by "peak" versus "nonpeak" sales days. Overall store sales peaked on the days at the end of each month, aligned with the issuing of social assistance payments. Revenue spikes on peak sales days were driven predominantly by transit pass sales. On peak sales days, mean sales of nonnutritious snacks and cigarettes were marginally higher than on other days of the month. Finally, creative strategies to increase sales of fresh vegetables and fruits seemed to substantially increase revenue from these product categories. Store sales data is an important store-level metric of food environment intervention success. Furthermore, data-driven decision making by retailers can be important for tailoring interventions. Future interventions and research should consider partnerships and additional success metrics for retail food environment interventions in diverse Canadian contexts.

  6. A New FPGA Architecture of FAST and BRIEF Algorithm for On-Board Corner Detection and Matching

    Jingjin Huang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Although some researchers have proposed the Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA architectures of Feature From Accelerated Segment Test (FAST and Binary Robust Independent Elementary Features (BRIEF algorithm, there is no consideration of image data storage in these traditional architectures that will result in no image data that can be reused by the follow-up algorithms. This paper proposes a new FPGA architecture that considers the reuse of sub-image data. In the proposed architecture, a remainder-based method is firstly designed for reading the sub-image, a FAST detector and a BRIEF descriptor are combined for corner detection and matching. Six pairs of satellite images with different textures, which are located in the Mentougou district, Beijing, China, are used to evaluate the performance of the proposed architecture. The Modelsim simulation results found that: (i the proposed architecture is effective for sub-image reading from DDR3 at a minimum cost; (ii the FPGA implementation is corrected and efficient for corner detection and matching, such as the average value of matching rate of natural areas and artificial areas are approximately 67% and 83%, respectively, which are close to PC’s and the processing speed by FPGA is approximately 31 and 2.5 times faster than those by PC processing and by GPU processing, respectively.

  7. A New FPGA Architecture of FAST and BRIEF Algorithm for On-Board Corner Detection and Matching.

    Huang, Jingjin; Zhou, Guoqing; Zhou, Xiang; Zhang, Rongting

    2018-03-28

    Although some researchers have proposed the Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) architectures of Feature From Accelerated Segment Test (FAST) and Binary Robust Independent Elementary Features (BRIEF) algorithm, there is no consideration of image data storage in these traditional architectures that will result in no image data that can be reused by the follow-up algorithms. This paper proposes a new FPGA architecture that considers the reuse of sub-image data. In the proposed architecture, a remainder-based method is firstly designed for reading the sub-image, a FAST detector and a BRIEF descriptor are combined for corner detection and matching. Six pairs of satellite images with different textures, which are located in the Mentougou district, Beijing, China, are used to evaluate the performance of the proposed architecture. The Modelsim simulation results found that: (i) the proposed architecture is effective for sub-image reading from DDR3 at a minimum cost; (ii) the FPGA implementation is corrected and efficient for corner detection and matching, such as the average value of matching rate of natural areas and artificial areas are approximately 67% and 83%, respectively, which are close to PC's and the processing speed by FPGA is approximately 31 and 2.5 times faster than those by PC processing and by GPU processing, respectively.

  8. Experimental investigation of the velocity distribution of the attached plane jet after impingement with the corner in a high room

    Cao, Guangyu [Department of Energy Technology, Helsinki University of Technology, Otakaari 4, 02150 Espoo (Finland); Ruponen, Mika [Halton Oy, Haltonintie 1-3, 47400 Kausala (Finland); Kurnitski, Jarek [Finnish Innovation Fund, Itaemerentori 2, 00181 Helsinki (Finland)

    2010-06-15

    Supplying air into rooms properly without causing a sensation of draught is a challenging task. Airflow patterns and the air velocity of attached plane jets should be predicted and designed accurately before the airflow enters an occupied zone in different applications. The objective of this study is to identify the airflow patterns of attached plane jets and set up an efficient model to predict the maximum jet velocity decay of an attached plane jet after its impingement with the corner in a high room. A full-scale test chamber was used to measure the jet velocity with a plane jet supply device. The attached plane jet is bounded initially by the ceiling and the insulated wall after being discharged from the jet slot. Three velocities from the slot, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 m/s, are used as the initial jet velocities with three Reynolds numbers, 1000, 2000, and 4000, respectively. The results show that the behaviours of the attached plane jet differ from earlier studies carried out in a relatively low room. The virtual origin model setup in this study can be used to predict the maximum jet velocity decay for jet flow design with impingement in the corners of rooms. (author)

  9. [The velocity of HCV subtype 6a transmission in southwest China].

    Hong, Guo-hu; Tan, Zhao-xia; Guo, Yan; Mao, Qing

    2011-07-01

    To estimate the velocity of HCV subtype 6a transmission in Southwest China. The HCV CE1 region from 61 patients infected with HCV genotype 6 were amplificated by RT-PCR and sequenced. The subtypes were identified, and the period of HCV 6a strains originated in southwest china was estimated by using molecular clock phylogenetic analysis. The velocity of HCV subtype 6a transmission in southwest China was estimated by BEAST v1.6.1 and Tracer v1.5 software theoretically. Most of HCV 6a strains distributed in Southwest China origine around the year 1968 and at last 4 epidemic strains existed. The earlier origine strains could be isolated both in intravenous drug users (IDU) and non-IDU patients. After 1997, the HCV 6a strains transmission in southwest China accelerated and the trend intensified in 2007. HCV 6a strains spread fastly both in IDU and non-IDU patients, which might be the main HCV subtype distributed in Southwest China in the future.

  10. Perinatal outcomes and unconventional natural gas operations in Southwest Pennsylvania.

    Shaina L Stacy

    Full Text Available Unconventional gas drilling (UGD has enabled extraordinarily rapid growth in the extraction of natural gas. Despite frequently expressed public concern, human health studies have not kept pace. We investigated the association of proximity to UGD in the Marcellus Shale formation and perinatal outcomes in a retrospective cohort study of 15,451 live births in Southwest Pennsylvania from 2007-2010. Mothers were categorized into exposure quartiles based on inverse distance weighted (IDW well count; least exposed mothers (first quartile had an IDW well count less than 0.87 wells per mile, while the most exposed (fourth quartile had 6.00 wells or greater per mile. Multivariate linear (birth weight or logistical (small for gestational age (SGA and prematurity regression analyses, accounting for differences in maternal and child risk factors, were performed. There was no significant association of proximity and density of UGD with prematurity. Comparison of the most to least exposed, however, revealed lower birth weight (3323 ± 558 vs 3344 ± 544 g and a higher incidence of SGA (6.5 vs 4.8%, respectively; odds ratio: 1.34; 95% confidence interval: 1.10-1.63. While the clinical significance of the differences in birth weight among the exposure groups is unclear, the present findings further emphasize the need for larger studies, in regio-specific fashion, with more precise characterization of exposure over an extended period of time to evaluate the potential public health significance of UGD.

  11. Contraceptive use among hairdressers in South-west Nigeria.

    Omokhodion, F O; Onadeko, M O; Balogun, O O

    2007-08-01

    Hairdressers and their apprentices are mostly women in their reproductive years. The social environment in hairdressing salons provides the opportunity to discuss sexual exploits among peers and may influence decisions on sexual behavior. This study was designed to assess the knowledge and use of contraceptives among hairdressers. A structured questionnaire was used to collect information on demographic characteristics and knowledge and use of contraceptive methods among hairdressers in Ibadan, South-west Nigeria. A total of 355 hairdressers were interviewed: 60 apprentices (17%) and 295 qualified hairdressers (83%); 110 (31%) single and 240 (67%) married. They were females aged 15 - 49 years (mean 29 +/- 6.9 years). Some 70% of single women had regular sexual partners. A total of 24 single women (21%) had been pregnant and 20 (18%) had abortions. Some 121 (34%) of the study population were currently using contraceptives: 27 single and 94 married respondents. The prevalence of contraceptive use among sexually active single women was 34%. The condom was the most known and used contraceptive method. The major reasons for non-use of contraceptives were fear of side-effects (23%); need for more children (16%); or respondents were not engaged in sexual activity (12%). Contraceptive use among sexually active single hairdressers is lower than the national average. Workplace educational intervention is needed to prevent unwanted pregnancies and sexually transmitted infections among these young women.

  12. The relict forests of Northwest Peru and Southwest Ecuador

    Maximilian Weigend

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The forest fragments or relict forests on the Western slopes of the Andes in northwest Peru and in south-west Ecuador are fragile ecosystems, which were largely continuous at some stage in the past. The importance and uniqueness of these forests as «refuges» and stable habitats roots partly in their complex diversity and their high levels of endemicity. These in turn are the outcome of a complex topography and ecology. In this introductory chapter 12 studies are analysed, which were presented at the Taller sobre Bosques Relictos de la Vertiente Occidental Andina del Norte del Perú y Sur del Ecuador in May 2004 at the X CONABOT, Trujillo-Perú. This helps to consolidate and update our knowledge on these over 20 forests fragments in northern Peru and two previously unknown fragments are presented for the first time: Bosque La Oscurana (Cajamarca and Kañaris (Lambayeque. Some ideas are exposed on the the relationships between the relict forests, how to analyse their dynamics, how to characterize their structure and how their conservation may be achieved. It is proposed that crucial elements in a conservation of these forests are a urgently inventorizing them to demonstrate their high diversity b emphasizing their economic potential with respect to the abundance of phytogenetic ressources c evaluating their role as catchment areas for the rivers which are the primary source of water for agriculture and urban life on the coast.

  13. Creation of security engineering programs by the Southwest Surety Institute

    Romero, Van D.; Rogers, Bradley; Winfree, Tim; Walsh, Dan; Garcia, Mary Lynn

    1998-12-01

    The Southwest Surety Institute includes Arizona State University (ASU), Louisiana State University (LSU), New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology (NM Tech), New Mexico State University (NMSU), and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The universities currently offer a full spectrum of post-secondary programs in security system design and evaluation, including an undergraduate minor, a graduate program, and continuing education programs. The programs are based on the methodology developed at Sandia National Laboratories over the past 25 years to protect critical nuclear assets. The programs combine basic concepts and principles from business, criminal justice, and technology to create an integrated performance-based approach to security system design and analysis. Existing university capabilities in criminal justice (NMSU), explosives testing and technology (NM Tech and LSU), and engineering technology (ASU) are leveraged to provide unique science-based programs that will emphasize the use of performance measures and computer analysis tools to prove the effectiveness of proposed systems in the design phase. Facility managers may then balance increased protection against the cost of implementation and risk mitigation, thereby enabling effective business decisions. Applications expected to benefit from these programs include corrections, law enforcement, counter-terrorism, critical infrastructure protection, financial and medical care fraud, industrial security, and border security.

  14. Perinatal outcomes and unconventional natural gas operations in Southwest Pennsylvania.

    Stacy, Shaina L; Brink, LuAnn L; Larkin, Jacob C; Sadovsky, Yoel; Goldstein, Bernard D; Pitt, Bruce R; Talbott, Evelyn O

    2015-01-01

    Unconventional gas drilling (UGD) has enabled extraordinarily rapid growth in the extraction of natural gas. Despite frequently expressed public concern, human health studies have not kept pace. We investigated the association of proximity to UGD in the Marcellus Shale formation and perinatal outcomes in a retrospective cohort study of 15,451 live births in Southwest Pennsylvania from 2007-2010. Mothers were categorized into exposure quartiles based on inverse distance weighted (IDW) well count; least exposed mothers (first quartile) had an IDW well count less than 0.87 wells per mile, while the most exposed (fourth quartile) had 6.00 wells or greater per mile. Multivariate linear (birth weight) or logistical (small for gestational age (SGA) and prematurity) regression analyses, accounting for differences in maternal and child risk factors, were performed. There was no significant association of proximity and density of UGD with prematurity. Comparison of the most to least exposed, however, revealed lower birth weight (3323 ± 558 vs 3344 ± 544 g) and a higher incidence of SGA (6.5 vs 4.8%, respectively; odds ratio: 1.34; 95% confidence interval: 1.10-1.63). While the clinical significance of the differences in birth weight among the exposure groups is unclear, the present findings further emphasize the need for larger studies, in regio-specific fashion, with more precise characterization of exposure over an extended period of time to evaluate the potential public health significance of UGD.

  15. Many southwest hosptials will receive decreased CMS reimbursement

    Robbins RA

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. More hospitals are receiving penalties than bonuses in the second year of the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services’ (CMS quality incentive program, and the average penalty is steeper than last year according to a report from Jordan Rau in Kaiser Health News (1. Southwest hospitals reflect that trend with New Mexico and Arizona exceeding the US average both in percentage of hospitals receiving penalties and the average size of the penalty (Table 1. Colorado approximated the national averages (Table 1. Most hospitals are gaining or losing <0.2% but in some instances the penalties are substantial. Gallup Indian Medical Center in New Mexico, a federal government hospital on the border of the Navajo Reservation, will be paid 1.14 percent less for each patient and New Mexico’s average of a -0.31% decline in reimbursement are the largest changes nationally. “This program is driving what we want in health care,” said Dr. …

  16. Election results of Southwest ballot measures affecting healthcare

    Robbins RA

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after 150 words. Earlier this week an article was posted listing Southwest ballot measures that affect healthcare. Below are the results obtained from various internet sources. States: Arizona: 1. Recreational marijuana. Proposition 205: Legalizes recreational marijuana use for people 21 and older. Opponents of the measure include the Arizona Health and Hospital Association and Insys Therapeutics, a company that makes a cannabis-based pain medication. Defeated: Yes 929,518 (48% No 1,011,836 (52%. California 1.Medi-Cal hospital fee program. Proposition 52: Requires the legislature to get voter approval to use fee revenue for purposes other than generating federal matching funds and funding enhanced Medicaid payments and grants for hospitals. The initiative, which was written by the California Hospital Association and is supported by most state lawmakers, would also make the program permanent, requiring a supermajority in the legislature to end it. Passed: Yes 5,950,642 (70% No 2,599,764 (30%. 2. Tobacco tax. Proposition 56: Increases the ...

  17. Factors Controlling Methane in Arctic Lakes of Southwest Greenland.

    Northington, Robert M; Saros, Jasmine E

    2016-01-01

    We surveyed 15 lakes during the growing season of 2014 in Arctic lakes of southwest Greenland to determine which factors influence methane concentrations in these systems. Methane averaged 2.5 μmol L-1 in lakes, but varied a great deal across the landscape with lakes on older landscapes farther from the ice sheet margin having some of the highest values of methane reported in lakes in the northern hemisphere (125 μmol L-1). The most important factors influencing methane in Greenland lakes included ionic composition (SO4, Na, Cl) and chlorophyll a in the water column. DOC concentrations were also related to methane, but the short length of the study likely underestimated the influence and timing of DOC on methane concentrations in the region. Atmospheric methane concentrations are increasing globally, with freshwater ecosystems in northern latitudes continuing to serve as potentially large sources in the future. Much less is known about how freshwater lakes in Greenland fit in the global methane budget compared to other, more well-studied areas of the Arctic, hence our work provides essential data for a more complete view of this rapidly changing region.

  18. Curvilinear ridges and related features in southwest Cydonia Mensae, Mars

    Parker, Timothy J.; Schneeberger, Dale M.; Pieri, David C.; Saunders, R. Stephen

    1987-01-01

    Examined is a region on Mars in southwest Cydonia Mensae (32 deg lat., 17 deg long.) just northwest of the lowland/upland boundary escarpment. The dominant morphological features in this region are the clusters of large massifs and plateau outliers (PI), knobby material (K), and smooth lowland plains (Ps). Surrounding the clusters and linking many isolated knobs is a system of curvilinear ridges and arcuate terrain boundaries which tend to separate the massifs and knobs from the smooth plains. Curvilinear ridges are arcuate to nearly linear and smoother in plan than wrinkle ridges and show no apparent correlation with regional structural grain. They are typically 5 to 10 km long but can range from as little as 2 or 3 km to greater than 50 km long. The widths vary from about 100 m to as much as 2 km. Curvilinear ridges are most numerous within 100 km of the lowland/upland boundary escarpment and are associated with massifs and knobby terrain. Arcuate terrain boundaries appear between units of different apparent albedo or arcuate breaks in slope.

  19. Mesoscale eddies in the Subantarctic Front-Southwest Atlantic

    Pablo D. Glorioso

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Satellite and ship observations in the southern southwest Atlantic (SSWA reveal an intense eddy field and highlight the potential for using continuous real-time satellite altimetry to detect and monitor mesoscale phenomena with a view to understanding the regional circulation. The examples presented suggest that mesoscale eddies are a dominant feature of the circulation and play a fundamental role in the transport of properties along and across the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC. The main ocean current in the SSWA, the Falkland-Malvinas Current (FMC, exhibits numerous embedded eddies south of 50°S which may contribute to the patchiness, transport and mixing of passive scalars by this strong, turbulent current. Large eddies associated with meanders are observed in the ACC fronts, some of them remaining stationary for long periods. Two particular cases are examined using a satellite altimeter in combination with in situ observations, suggesting that cross-frontal eddy transport and strong meandering occur where the ACC flow intensifies along the sub-Antarctic Front (SAF and the Southern ACC Front (SACCF.

  20. Variability of the subtropical mode water in the Southwest Pacific

    Fernandez, Denise; Sutton, Philip; Bowen, Melissa

    2017-09-01

    The variability of Subtropical Mode Water (STMW) in the Southwest Pacific is investigated using a 28 year-long time series (1986-2014) of high-resolution expendable bathythermograph data north of New Zealand (PX06) and a shorter time series, the Roemmich-Gilson monthly Argo optimal interpolation for the 2004-2014 period. The variability in STMW inventories is compared to the variability in air-sea heat fluxes, mixed layer depths and transport of the East Auckland Current (EAUC) to assess both the atmospheric and oceanic roles influencing the formation and decay of STMW. The STMW north of New Zealand has a short lifespan with little persistence of the water mass from 1 year to the next one. Deeper mixed layers and negative anomalies in surface heat fluxes are correlated with increased formation of STMW. The heat content of the STMW layer is anticorrelated with inventories, particularly during the El Niño years. This suggests that large volumes of STMW are coincident with cooler conditions in the prior winter and less oceanic heat storage. There is significant seasonal and interannual variability in STMW inventories, however there are no trends in STMW properties, including its core layer temperature over the last decade. The variability of the winter EAUC transport is highly correlated with the STMW inventories and thermocline depth in the following spring, suggesting ocean dynamics deepen the thermocline and precondition for deeper mixed layers.

  1. Detailed magnetic survey at Dahshour archeological sites Southwest Cairo, Egypt

    Mekkawi, Mahmoud; Arafa-Hamed, Tarek; Abdellatif, Tareq

    2013-06-01

    Dahshour area has recently shown a great potential of archeological findings. This was remarkable from the latest discovery of the causeway and the mortuary temple of the Pyramid of Amenemhat III using geophysical data. The main objective of the present work is to locate the buried archeological remains in the area of Dahshour, Southwest Cairo using magnetic survey for shallow investigations. Land magnetic data is acquired using proton magnetometer (two sensors) with a sensor separation of 0.8 m; i.e. gradiometer survey. The study area is located nearby the two known pyramids of Dahshour. The field data is processed and analyzed using Oasis Montaj Geosoft™ software. The processed data is presented in order to delineate the hidden artifacts causing the magnetic anomalies. The results indicated a distribution of the buried archeological features within the study area. These archeological features are detected according to the magnetic contrast between the magnetic archeological sources (such as mud bricks, basalt and granite) and the surroundings; mainly sandy soil. The delineated archeological features at Dahshour are probably dated back to the old kingdom having a depth reach up to 3.0 m. Consequently it is highly recommended to carry out excavation to precisely classify them and high light their nature and value.

  2. Far-ultraviolet Bidirectional Photometry of Apollo Soil 10084: New Results from The Southwest Ultraviolet Reflectance Chamber (SwURC).

    Raut, U.

    2017-12-01

    We report new measurements of the far-ultraviolet (115-180 nm) bidirectional reflectance of Apollo soil 10084 in the Southwest Ultraviolet Reflectance Chamber (SwURC). We find the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) to be featureless in this wavelength region, though with a small blue slope. The angular distribution of the BRDF at Ly-α and 160 nm shows that this mature mare soil, containing nanophase Fe and enriched in Ti, anisotropically scatters light in the forward direction. The phase angle dependence of the BRDF is fitted with Hapke's photometric model with an additional diffuse-directional term. Future plans include measurements of mare and highland soils of differing maturity index (Is/FeO), water ice frost and lunar soil-ice aggregates. Such measurements will help constrain the abundance and distribution of the water ice on the illuminated lunar surface and dark permanently shadowed regions of the moon, as reported by LRO-LAMP.

  3. Study on the performances of handling and stability influenced by the differential terms in the state variables; Soansei ni okeru jotai hensunai no bibun yoso ga seino ni oyobosu eikyo no kento

    Sugasawa, F [Tamagawa University, Tokyo (Japan); Mori, H [Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    The analysis method using the system matrix for state variables can not be applied to the analysis for the system has Complex Cornering Stiffness. The reason is there are differential terms in the state variables. It is found that the differential terms m the state variables can be changed to the constant terms in another state variables. 4 refs., 9 figs.

  4. Developmental coxa vara associated with spondylometaphyseal dysplasia (DCV/SMD): ''SMD-Corner Fracture Type'' (DCV/SMD-CF) demonstrated in most reported cases

    Currarino, G.; Birch, J.G.; Herring, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    Background. This paper reports three children with short stature: developmental coxa vara unilateral in the first case and bilateral in the other two; somewhat squared and ''ovoid'' vertebral bodies in the first patient, and normal to slightly tall vertebral bodies in the third; metaphyseal changes in some long tubular bones including bone fragments similar to the corner fractures seen in child abuse in all three patients. Materials and methods. The first and second patients were sisters; their mother, also quite short, had surgical procedures in early life for bilateral ''coxa vara''; their brother, also of short stature, had bilateral coxa valga with otherwise normal femoral heads and necks, and mild metaphyseal changes associated with two minute ''corner fractures'' in the proximal metaphysis of the left tibia. Results. A review of reported cases of developmental coxa vara associated with spondylometaphyseal dysplasia revealed that simulated corner fractures were present in most instances. (orig.)

  5. Study of mixed phase clouds over west Africa: Ice-crystal corner reflection effects observed with a two-wavelength polarization lidar

    Veselovskii Igor

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Lidar sounding is used for the analysis of possible contribution of the corner reflection (CR effect to the total backscattering in case of ice crystals. Our study is based on observations of mixed phase clouds performed during the SHADOW campaign in Senegal. Mie-Raman lidar allows measurements at 355 nm and 532 nm at 43 dg. off-zenith angle, so the extinction and backscattering Ångström exponents can be evaluated. In some measurements we observed the positive values of backscattering Ångström exponent, which can be attributed to the corner reflection by horizontally oriented ice plates.

  6. Polydactyly in the Southwest: art or anatomy-a photo essay.

    Hirthler, Maureen A; Hutchison, Richard L

    2012-12-01

    Rock art in the Four Corners area often includes pictures of hands and feet, which may be representational or symbolic. There is correlation between actual metatarsal bones and carvings of polydactyl feet. No duplicated hand bones have been found, but we postulate petroglyphs of polydactyl hands are a reflection of a real congenital difference.

  7. The forcing of monthly precipitation variability over Southwest Asia during the Boreal cold season

    Hoell, Andrew; Shukla, Shraddhanand; Barlow, Mathew; Cannon, Forest; Kelley, Colin; Funk, Christopher C.

    2015-01-01

    Southwest Asia, deemed as the region containing the countries of Afghanistan, Iran, Iraq and Pakistan, is water scarce and receives nearly 75% of its annual rainfall during8 the boreal cold season of November-April. The forcing of Southwest Asia precipitation has been previously examined for the entire boreal cold season from the perspective of climate variability originating over the Atlantic and tropical Indo-Pacific Oceans. Here, we examine the inter-monthly differences in precipitation variability over Southwest Asia and the atmospheric conditions directly responsible in forcing monthly November-April precipitation. Seasonally averaged November-April precipitation over Southwest Asia is significantly correlated with sea surface temperature (SST) patterns consistent with Pacific Decadal Variability (PDV), the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the warming trend of SST (Trend). On the contrary, the precipitation variability during individual months of November-April are unrelated and are correlated with SST signatures that include PDV, ENSO and Trend in different combinations. Despite strong inter-monthly differences in precipitation variability during November- April over Southwest Asia, similar atmospheric circulations, highlighted by a stationary equivalent barotropic Rossby wave centered over Iraq, force the monthly spatial distributions of precipitation. Tropospheric waves on the eastern side of the equivalent barotropic Rossby wave modifies the flux of moisture and advects the mean temperature gradient, resulting in temperature advection that is balanced by vertical motions over Southwest Asia. The forcing of monthly Southwest Asia precipitation by equivalent barotropic Rossby waves is different than the forcing by baroclinic Rossby waves associated with tropically-forced-only modes of climate variability.

  8. Geological investigation of uranium deposits at southwest of Chungju area

    Kim, J.H.; Park, J.W.; Kim, J.T.; Kim, D.E.; Im, H.C.

    1982-01-01

    A geologic investigation has been carried out at the southwest of Chungju area for the exploration of uranium ore deposit. A trace element geochemistry was supplemented to study the genesis of uranium ore deposit. The uraniferous black slate is interbedded with meta-argillaceous rock formation correlative to the Munjuri formation of Ogcheon group. The uranium rich carbonaceous slate is distributed discontinuously in three places. The discontinuity of the slate is probably due to the deformation of Daebo Orogeny. The grade of the ore bodies is 396-495 ppm U 3 O 8 , Vanadium 1.47-0.48%V 2 O 5 and fixed carbon 18.16-8.54%. The width of outcrop is 10.3m-2.5m. The semiquantitative spectrographic analysis of 4 samples in the above ore zone revealed that the average of minor elements contents are Ba 3025, Be 1.5, Cd 131, Cu53, Co 12, Cr 155, Ga<10, Mo 83, Pb 66, Ni 183, Sr 22, and Zr 196 in ppm. Analysed the 33 major and trace elements in 20 samples including above are samples from drill-cores and trenched rocks from Ogcheon black slate indicates that the uranium has positive correlation with Fe(0.47), Mo (0.45) and Ba(0.38). In the uranium deposits of Ogcheon black slate, we can accept the theory of syngenitic origin where uranium occurs with unusually high content of minor elements in black slate. The elements were introduced at the same time with the mud deposition without significant later addition. Mechanism of emplacement might be fixation of living organisms and absorption of decaying organic matter from sea water. An intensive study is necessary for futher understanding of redistribution and recrystallization of uranium by metamorphism. (Author)

  9. Economic Burden of Cardiovascular Disease in the Southwest of Iran

    Sara Emamgholipour

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: CVDs are the first cause of death globally. About 50% of annual deaths are related to this group of diseases in Iran; however, the economic cost of CVD on Iranian society has not been conducted. Objectives: The aim of this study was to estimate the economic burden of CVDs in the southwest of Iran in 2016 from the social perspective. Materials and Methods: This study is a cross-sectional descriptive-analytic study conducted using the cost of illness (COI framework. The prevalence top-down method was used to quantify the annual cardiovascular costs. Productivity losses were estimated using the human capital approach and the friction cost method, with the discount rate of 3% to convert all future lifetime earnings into the present value. Results: In 2016, the average total cost per patient was $1881.4 and the total costs resulted in 1159.62 $million. Direct costs accounted for 60% and indirect costs for 40% of the total costs. The results were robust to a 20% change in the average unit price of all medical and non- medical direct costs and to discount rate of 2% and 10%. Conclusions: The total cardiovascular disease costs in 2016 represented approximately 6.7% of the Iran gross domestic product. The results of this study would be of special help for policymakers to evaluate the cost-effectiveness and outcomes of health care programs to allocate health care resources efficiently. Primordial Prevention of CVD including lifestyle modifications and dietary interventions resulted in substantial financial savings and is strongly recommended.

  10. Nitrogen cycling in young mine soils in southwest Virginia

    Li, Rensheng.

    1991-01-01

    This investigation was conducted to study the nature of N form and dynamics in southwest Virginia mine soils. Fresh mine spoils contained a large amount of indigenous N, ranging from 650 to 2,500 mg/kg soil, which complicated N studies. Most of the indigenous N was geologic N which was unavailable to plants. The geologic N came from either 2:1 silicate minerals or coal fragments. Active N, consisting of hydrolyzable organic N and exchangeable N, comprised the minor fraction of indigenous N available to plants. With mine soil development, N accumulated mainly in the surface layer of mine soils via symbiotic fixation. Based on this fact, a simple, accurate method for measuring N accumulation which is corrected for indigenous N (Corr-N) has been developed. Corr-N is obtained by subtracting soil total N at 10-20 cm from soil total N at 0-5 cm. Under natural conditions the annual rate of N accumulation estimated by this method was 26 kg N/ha. Careful management enhanced N accumulation, and thus reduced the time required to build up soil N and to establish a vigorous, self-sustaining vegetative community in mine soils. Selecting proper overburn materials as a topsoil substitute, planting suitable legume species, and adding sewage sludge are effective methods for stimulating quick N accumulation and successful reclamation. For example, in experimental plots containing birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus) the accumulation rate was more than 150 kg N/ha per year. This work also showed that about 43%-63% of litter N was released during one year's decomposition, and about 2.3%-11.6% of litter N was subsequently taken up by plants depending on the plant species and soil N level. This indicates that N will effectively cycle through the plant-litter-soil system once a vegetative community is established on the young mine soil

  11. Comb-like optical transmission spectrum resulting from a four-cornered two-waveguide-connected network

    Yang, Xiangbo, E-mail: xbyang@scnu.edu.cn [MOE Key Laboratory of Laser Life Science and Institute of Laser Life Science, College of Biophotonics, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631 (China); School of Physical Education and Sports Science, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Song, Huanhuan [MOE Key Laboratory of Laser Life Science and Institute of Laser Life Science, College of Biophotonics, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631 (China); Liu, Timon Chengyi [School of Physical Education and Sports Science, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2013-12-06

    In this Letter a four-cornered two-waveguide-connected network (FCTWCN) is proposed to generate comb-like optical transmission spectrum, where nearest-neighbor nodes are connected by two segments of one-dimensional waveguides. We investigate the band structure and transmission spectrum of electromagnetic waves propagating through FCTWCNs and find that the transmission through a FCTWCN exhibits periodic comb-like characteristic and the range, number and width of continuous equidistant frequency bands can be controlled by adjusting the lengths of the two types of segments. The comb-like frequency bands may be useful for the designing of optical switches, optical narrowband filters, high capacity telecommunications, and multichannel filters, etc.

  12. Routing Corners of Building Structures - by the Method of Vector Addition - Measured with RTN GNSS Surveying Technology

    Krzyżek, Robert

    2015-12-01

    The paper deals with the problem of surveying buildings in the RTN GNSS mode using modernized indirect methods of measurement. As a result of the classical realtime measurements using indirect methods (intersection of straight lines or a point on a straight line), we obtain a building structure (a building) which is largely deformed. This distortion is due to the inconsistency of the actual dimensions of the building (tie distances) relative to the obtained measurement results. In order to eliminate these discrepancies, and thus to ensure full consistency of the building geometric structure, an innovative solution was applied - the method of vector addition - to modify the linear values (tie distances) of the external face of the building walls. A separate research problem tackled in the article, although not yet fully solved, is the issue of coordinates of corners of a building obtained after the application of the method of vector addition.

  13. Climate change in the four corners and adjacent regions: Implications for environmental restoration and land-use planning

    Waugh, W.J. [ed.

    1995-09-01

    This document contains the workshop proceedings on Climate Change in the Four Corners and Adjacent Regions: Implications for Environmental Restoration and Land-Use Planning which took place September 12-14, 1994 in Grand Junction, Colorado. The workshop addressed three ways we can use paleoenvironmental data to gain a better understanding of climate change and its effects. (1) To serve as a retrospective baseline for interpreting past and projecting future climate-induced environmental change, (2) To differentiate the influences of climate and humans on past environmental change, and (3) To improve ecosystem management and restoration practices in the future. The papers presented at this workshop contained information on the following subjects: Paleoclimatic data from the Pleistocene and Holocene epochs, climate change and past cultures, and ecological resources and environmental restoration. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  14. "In Our Corner": A Qualitative Descriptive Study of Patient Engagement in a Community-Based Care Coordination Program.

    Sefcik, Justine S; Petrovsky, Darina; Streur, Megan; Toles, Mark; O'Connor, Melissa; Ulrich, Connie M; Marcantonio, Sherry; Coburn, Ken; Naylor, Mary D; Moriarty, Helene

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore participants' experience in the Health Quality Partners (HQP) Care Coordination Program that contributed to their continued engagement. Older adults with multiple chronic conditions often have limited engagement in health care services and face fragmented health care delivery. This can lead to increased risk for disability, mortality, poor quality of life, and increased health care utilization. A qualitative descriptive design with two focus groups was conducted with a total of 20 older adults enrolled in HQP's Care Coordination Program. Conventional content analysis was the analytical technique. The overarching theme resulting from the analysis was "in our corner," with subthemes "opportunities to learn and socialize" and "dedicated nurses," suggesting that these are the primary contributing factors to engagement in HQP's Care Coordination Program. Study findings suggest that nurses play an integral role in patient engagement among older adults enrolled in a care coordination program.

  15. Numerical simulation of residual stresses at holes near edges and corners in tempered glass: A parametric study

    Pourmoghaddam, Navid; Nielsen, Jens Henrik; Schneider, Jens

    2016-01-01

    This work presents 3D results of the thermal tempering simulation by the Finite Element Method in order to calculate the residual stresses in the area of the holes near edges and corners of a tem-pered glass plate. A viscoelastic material behavior of the glass is considered for the tempering...... process. The structural relaxation is taken into account using Narayanaswamy’s model. The motiva-tion for this work is to study the effect of the reduction of the hole and edge minimum distances, which are defined according to EN 12150-1. It is the objective of the paper to demonstrate and elucidate...... the influence of the hole and edge distances on the minimal residual compressive stress-es at holes after the tempering process. The residual stresses in the area of the holes are calculat-ed varying the following parameters: the hole diameter, the plate thickness and the interaction between holes and edges...

  16. Exploring sales data during a healthy corner store intervention in Toronto: the Food Retail Environments Shaping Health (FRESH) project

    Leia M., Minaker; Meghan, Lynch; Brian E., Cook; Catherine L., Mah

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Population health interventions in the retail food environment, such as corner store interventions, aim to influence the kind of cues consumers receive so that they are more often directed toward healthier options. Research that addresses financial aspects of retail interventions, particularly using outcome measures such as store sales that are central to retail decision making, is limited. This study explored store sales over time and across product categories during a healthy corner store intervention in a lowincome neighbourhood in Toronto, Ontario. Methods: Sales data (from August 2014 to April 2015) were aggregated by product category and by day. We used Microsoft Excel pivot tables to summarize and visually present sales data. We conducted t-tests to examine differences in product category sales by “peak” versus “nonpeak” sales days. Results: Overall store sales peaked on the days at the end of each month, aligned with the issuing of social assistance payments. Revenue spikes on peak sales days were driven predominantly by transit pass sales. On peak sales days, mean sales of nonnutritious snacks and cigarettes were marginally higher than on other days of the month. Finally, creative strategies to increase sales of fresh vegetables and fruits seemed to substantially increase revenue from these product categories. Conclusion: Store sales data is an important store-level metric of food environment intervention success. Furthermore, data-driven decision making by retailers can be important for tailoring interventions. Future interventions and research should consider partnerships and additional success metrics for retail food environment interventions in diverse Canadian contexts. PMID:29043761

  17. Uncertainty Assessments of 2D and Axisymmetric Hypersonic Shock Wave - Turbulent Boundary Layer Interaction Simulations at Compression Corners

    Gnoffo, Peter A.; Berry, Scott A.; VanNorman, John W.

    2011-01-01

    This paper is one of a series of five papers in a special session organized by the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program that addresses uncertainty assessments for CFD simulations in hypersonic flow. Simulations of a shock emanating from a compression corner and interacting with a fully developed turbulent boundary layer are evaluated herein. Mission relevant conditions at Mach 7 and Mach 14 are defined for a pre-compression ramp of a scramjet powered vehicle. Three compression angles are defined, the smallest to avoid separation losses and the largest to force a separated flow engaging more complicated flow physics. The Baldwin-Lomax and the Cebeci-Smith algebraic models, the one-equation Spalart-Allmaras model with the Catrix-Aupoix compressibility modification and two-equation models including Menter SST, Wilcox k-omega 98, and Wilcox k-omega 06 turbulence models are evaluated. Each model is fully defined herein to preclude any ambiguity regarding model implementation. Comparisons are made to existing experimental data and Van Driest theory to provide preliminary assessment of model form uncertainty. A set of coarse grained uncertainty metrics are defined to capture essential differences among turbulence models. Except for the inability of algebraic models to converge for some separated flows there is no clearly superior model as judged by these metrics. A preliminary metric for the numerical component of uncertainty in shock-turbulent-boundary-layer interactions at compression corners sufficiently steep to cause separation is defined as 55%. This value is a median of differences with experimental data averaged for peak pressure and heating and for extent of separation captured in new, grid-converged solutions presented here. This value is consistent with existing results in a literature review of hypersonic shock-turbulent-boundary-layer interactions by Roy and Blottner and with more recent computations of MacLean.

  18. Exploring sales data during a healthy corner store intervention in Toronto: the Food Retail Environments Shaping Health (FRESH project

    Leia M. Minaker

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Population health interventions in the retail food environment, such as corner store interventions, aim to influence the kind of cues consumers receive so that they are more often directed toward healthier options. Research that addresses financial aspects of retail interventions, particularly using outcome measures such as store sales that are central to retail decision making, is limited. This study explored store sales over time and across product categories during a healthy corner store intervention in a lowincome neighbourhood in Toronto, Ontario. Methods: Sales data (from August 2014 to April 2015 were aggregated by product category and by day. We used Microsoft Excel pivot tables to summarize and visually present sales data. We conducted t-tests to examine differences in product category sales by "peak" versus "nonpeak" sales days. Results: Overall store sales peaked on the days at the end of each month, aligned with the issuing of social assistance payments. Revenue spikes on peak sales days were driven predominantly by transit pass sales. On peak sales days, mean sales of nonnutritious snacks and cigarettes were marginally higher than on other days of the month. Finally, creative strategies to increase sales of fresh vegetables and fruits seemed to substantially increase revenue from these product categories. Conclusion: Store sales data is an important store-level metric of food environment intervention success. Furthermore, data-driven decision making by retailers can be important for tailoring interventions. Future interventions and research should consider partnerships and additional success metrics for retail food environment interventions in diverse Canadian contexts.

  19. A tale of two storms: Surges and sediment deposition from Hurricanes Andrew and Wilma in Florida’s southwest coast mangrove forests: Chapter 6G in Science and the storms-the USGS response to the hurricanes of 2005

    Smith, Thomas J.; Anderson, Gordon H.; Tiling, Ginger

    2007-01-01

    Hurricanes can be very different from each other. Here we examine the impacts that two hurricanes, Andrew and Wilma, had in terms of storm surge and sediment deposition on the southwest coast of Florida. Although Wilma was the weaker storm, it had the greater impact. Wilma had the higher storm surge over a larger area and deposited more sediment than did Andrew. This effect was most likely due to the size of Wilma's eye, which was four times larger than that of Andrew.

  20. Major geological events and uranium metallogenesis in South-west China

    Zhang Chengjiang; Xu Zhengqi; Ni Shijun; Chen Youliang

    2012-01-01

    Uranium is widely distributed in South-west China, with all types but on a not-so-large scale. South-west China is located on the combining site of several large tectonic elements and every tectonic movement has different effects on different regions. To study and clarify the correlation between the major geological events in South-west China and the Uranium metallogenesis, comprehensive research and field investigation are made besides collecting a lot of materials. Through analysis and research on the major geological events in South-west China, the evolution of those e vents is basically clarified and the events closely related with uranium mineralization are determined. It is discovered that there are several ore-forming geologic events in the geological history of South-west China; almost every major tectonic movement cycle is accompanied with uranium metallogenesis, from Jinning Movement to Chengjiang Movement, to Hercynian Movement, to Indosinian Movement. to Yanshan Movement. to Himalayan movement. Even though every major tectonic cycle is accompanied with uranium mineralization, three major geological events are generally obviously related with uranium metallogenesis, i.e. the Rodinian supercontinent breakup even in Jinning-Chengjiang Period, Yanshan Movement and Himalayan movement, in which the first one is the process of uranium pre-enrichment and provides the source of uranium. Yanshan Movement and Himalayan movement are the important processes for mineralization, mainly the hydrothermal superimposed mineralization. (authors)

  1. ASPECTS ON THE ACTUAL LEVEL OF EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT AT THE SOUTH-WEST REGION OLTENIA

    CHIRCULESCU MARIA FELICIA

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Due to the complexity of the educational sector, the work is topical, even though over time there have been many concerns regarding its education and development and the correlation between the level of educational development and the level of economic development. The aim of the paper is to analyze the educational development at the level of the South-West Oltenia region over the period 2010-2015, thus using the statistical series for the mentioned timeframe we analyzed the evolution of the number of educational units in the South-West Oltenia region And the evolution of the school population in the South-West Oltenia region. Thus, the objective of the paper is enshrined in the overall objective of Romania, namely to reduce the economic and social development disparities between Romania and other EU Member States. The results of the analysis carried out by the two indicators, the number of educational units in the South-West Oltenia region and the number of the school population at the level of the South-West Oltenia region indicate that the number of educational units in the period 2010-2015 decreased by 4.28% And the number of the school population by 14.67%.

  2. Improvement of Statistical Typhoon Rainfall Forecasting with ANN-Based Southwest Monsoon Enhancement

    Tsung-Yi Pan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Typhoon Morakot 2009, with significant southwest monsoon flow, produced a record-breaking rainfall of 2361 mm in 48 hours. This study hopes to improve a statistical typhoon rainfall forecasting method used over the mountain region of Taiwan via an artificial neural network based southwest monsoon enhancement (ANNSME model. Rainfall data collected at two mountain weather stations, ALiShan and YuShan, are analyzed to establish the relation to the southwest monsoon moisture flux which is calculated at a designated sea area southwest of Taiwan. The results show that the moisture flux, with southwest monsoon flow, transported water vapor during the landfall periods of Typhoons Mindulle, Bilis, Fungwong, Kalmaegi, Haitaing and Morakot. Based on the moisture flux, a linear regression is used to identify an effective value of moisture flux as the threshold flux which can enhance mountain rainfall in southwestern Taiwan. In particular, a feedforward neural network (FNN is applied to estimate the residuals from the linear model to the differences between simulated rainfalls by a typhoon rainfall climatology model (TRCM and observations. Consequently, the ANNSME model integrates the effective moisture flux, linear rainfall model and the FNN for residuals. Even with very limited training cases, our results indicate that the ANNSME model is robust and suitable for improvement of TRCM rainfall prediction. The improved prediction of the total rainfall and of the multiple rainfall peaks is important for emergency operation.

  3. Fast-tracked Rehabilitation and Return to Sport of an Elite Rugby Player with a Complicated Posterolateral Corner Injury and Associated Peroneal Paralysis

    Paget, L. D. A.; Kuijer, P. P. F. M.; Maas, M.; Kerkhoffs, G. M. M. J.

    2017-01-01

    Acute posterolateral corner injuries of the knee with associated hamstring avulsions and peroneal paralysis are rare in rugby. Regain of motor function following a complete paralysis is documented to be 38%. To our knowledge, only one case describes return to preinjury level of competitive sport

  4. Assessment of Information and Communication Technology for Selective Dissemination of Information and Current Awareness Services: A Case Study of University Libraries in the South-West Zone of Nigeria

    Saturday U. Omeluzor

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective – To assess the use of information and communication technology (ICT for selective dissemination of information (SDI and current awareness services (CAS in university libraries in the South-West zone of Nigeria. Methods – A descriptive research design was adopted. The instrument used for data collection was a structured questionnaire administered to a population consisting of 379 librarians, with 353 usable questionnaires retrieved. Results – Findings revealed that most university libraries in the South-West zone of Nigeria do not use ICT in delivery of SDI and CAS. It is evident in this study that despite the known positive effects of ICT in library services, traditional methods were predominantly used for SDI and CAS to the library users. The study revealed that erratic Internet services, insufficient training, inadequate ICT skills, and low support for ICT were hindrances towards ICT use for SDI and CAS. Conclusions – The integration of ICT features in library services for the delivery of CAS and SDI has been a challenge in university libraries in South-West Nigeria. Only a few libraries and a low percentage of librarians had adopted the use of ICT in the delivery of CAS and SDI, while a larger number of libraries resorted to the use of traditional methods. The level of ICT literacy among the librarians in this study is low, as a higher percentage of librarians did not have adequate ICT skill to use available online resources on the Internet and other ICT tools to deliver SDI and CAS in South-West, Nigeria. This is not unconnected to the fact that the training and technical support received by the librarians is inadequate, and the level of support that academic libraries received from their university managements in South-West Nigeria in terms of funding for ICT development is inadequate, which led to low Internet services.

  5. The response of the southwest Western Australian wave climate to Indian Ocean climate variability

    Wandres, Moritz; Pattiaratchi, Charitha; Hetzel, Yasha; Wijeratne, E. M. S.

    2018-03-01

    Knowledge of regional wave climates is critical for coastal planning, management, and protection. In order to develop a regional wave climate, it is important to understand the atmospheric systems responsible for wave generation. This study examines the variability of the southwest Western Australian (SWWA) shelf and nearshore wind wave climate and its relationship to southern hemisphere climate variability represented by various atmospheric indices: the southern oscillation index (SOI), the Southern Annular Mode (SAM), the Indian Ocean Dipole Mode Index (DMI), the Indian Ocean Subtropical Dipole (IOSD), the latitudinal position of the subtropical high-pressure ridge (STRP), and the corresponding intensity of the subtropical ridge (STRI). A 21-year wave hindcast (1994-2014) of the SWWA continental shelf was created using the third generation wave model Simulating WAves Nearshore (SWAN), to analyse the seasonal and inter-annual wave climate variability and its relationship to the atmospheric regime. Strong relationships between wave heights and the STRP and the STRI, a moderate correlation between the wave climate and the SAM, and no significant correlation between SOI, DMI, and IOSD and the wave climate were found. Strong spatial, seasonal, and inter-annual variability, as well as seasonal longer-term trends in the mean wave climate were studied and linked to the latitudinal changes in the subtropical high-pressure ridge and the Southern Ocean storm belt. As the Southern Ocean storm belt and the subtropical high-pressure ridge shifted southward (northward) wave heights on the SWWA shelf region decreased (increased). The wave height anomalies appear to be driven by the same atmospheric conditions that influence rainfall variability in SWWA.

  6. Impacts and responses to environmental change in coastal livelihoods of south-west Bangladesh.

    Hossain, Mostafa A R; Ahmed, Munir; Ojea, Elena; Fernandes, Jose A

    2018-05-12

    Aquatic ecosystems are of global importance for maintaining high levels of biodiversity and ecosystem services, and for the number of livelihoods dependent on them. In Bangladesh, coastal and delta communities rely on these systems for a livelihood, and the sustainability of the productivity is seriously threatened by both climate change and unsustainable management. These multiple drivers of change shape the livelihood dependence and adaptation responses, where a better understanding is needed to achieve sustainable management in these systems, while maintaining and improving dependent livelihoods. This need has been addressed in this study in the region of Satkhira, in the southwest coast of Bangladesh, where livelihoods are highly dependent on aquatic systems for food supply and income. Traditional wild fish harvest in the rivers and aquaculture systems, including ghers, ponds, and crab points have been changing in terms of the uses and intensity of management, and suffering from climate change impacts as well. By means of six focus groups with 50 participants total, and validated by expert consultations, we conduct an analysis to understand the main perceived impacts from climate and human activities; and the adaptation responses from the aquatic system livelihoods. We find that biodiversity has decreased drastically, while farmed species have increased and shrimp gher farming turned more intensive becoming the main source of income. All these changes have important implications for food supply in the region and environmental sustainability. Dramatic responses taken in the communities include exit the fisheries and migration, and more adaptive responses include species diversification, crab fattening and working more on the pond and gher infrastructure. This study evidences the results of the combination of multiple stressors in productive systems and the barriers to adaptation in aquatic ecosystem dependent communities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All

  7. A pilot study of the Earthquake Precursors in the Southwest Peloponnes, Greece

    Velez, A. P.; Tsinganos, K.; Karastathis, V. K.; Kafatos, M.; Ouzounov, D.; Papadopoulos, G. A.; Tselentis, A.; Eleftheriou, G.; Mouzakiotis, E.; Gika, F.; Aspiotis, T.; Liakopoulos, S.; Voulgaris, N.

    2016-12-01

    A seismic array of the most contemporary technology has been recently installed in the area of Southwest Peloponnese, Greece, an area well known for its high seismic activity. The tectonic regime of the Hellenic arc was the reason for many lethal earthquakes with considerable damage to the broader area of East Mediterranean sea. The seismic array is based on nine 32-bit stations with broadband borehole seismometers. The seismogenic region, monitored by the array, is offshore. At this place the earthquake location suffers by poor azimuthal coverage and the stations of the national seismic network are very distant to this area. Therefore, the existing network cannot effectively monitor the microseismicity. The new array achieved a detailed monitoring of the small events dropping considerably the magnitude of completeness. The detectability of the microearthquakes has been drastically improved permitting so the statistical assessment of earthquake sequences in the area. In parallel the monitored seismicity is directly related with Radon measurement in the soil, taken at three stations in the area.. Radon measurements are performed indirectly by means γ-ray spectrometry of its radioactive progenies 214Pb and 214Bi (emitted at 351 keV and 609 keV, respectively). NaI(Tl) detectors have been installed at 1 m depth, at sites in vicinity of faults providing continuous real time data. Local meteorological records for atmospheric corrections are also continuously recorded. According to the Lithosphere-Atmosphere-Ionosphere Coupling (LAIC) model atmospheric thermal anomalies observed before strong events can be attributed to increased radon concentration. This is also supported by the statistical analysis of AVHRR/NOAA-18 satellite thermal infrared (TIR) daily records. A combined study of precursor's signals is expected to provide a reliable assessment of their ability on short-term forecasting.

  8. Co-producing simulation models to inform resource management: a case study from southwest South Dakota

    Miller, Brian W.; Symstad, Amy J.; Frid, Leonardo; Fisichelli, Nicholas A.; Schuurman, Gregor W.

    2017-01-01

    Simulation models can represent complexities of the real world and serve as virtual laboratories for asking “what if…?” questions about how systems might respond to different scenarios. However, simulation models have limited relevance to real-world applications when designed without input from people who could use the simulated scenarios to inform their decisions. Here, we report on a state-and-transition simulation model of vegetation dynamics that was coupled to a scenario planning process and co-produced by researchers, resource managers, local subject-matter experts, and climate change adaptation specialists to explore potential effects of climate scenarios and management alternatives on key resources in southwest South Dakota. Input from management partners and local experts was critical for representing key vegetation types, bison and cattle grazing, exotic plants, fire, and the effects of climate change and management on rangeland productivity and composition given the paucity of published data on many of these topics. By simulating multiple land management jurisdictions, climate scenarios, and management alternatives, the model highlighted important tradeoffs between grazer density and vegetation composition, as well as between the short- and long-term costs of invasive species management. It also pointed to impactful uncertainties related to the effects of fire and grazing on vegetation. More broadly, a scenario-based approach to model co-production bracketed the uncertainty associated with climate change and ensured that the most important (and impactful) uncertainties related to resource management were addressed. This cooperative study demonstrates six opportunities for scientists to engage users throughout the modeling process to improve model utility and relevance: (1) identifying focal dynamics and variables, (2) developing conceptual model(s), (3) parameterizing the simulation, (4) identifying relevant climate scenarios and management

  9. Molecular phylogeography and evolutionary history of Poropuntius huangchuchieni (Cyprinidae in Southwest China.

    Xiaoyun Wu

    Full Text Available The evolution of the Yunnan Plateau's drainages network during the Pleistocene was dominated by the intense uplifts of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. In the present study, we investigated the association between the evolutionary histories of three main drainage systems and the geographic patterns of genetic differentiation of Poropuntius huangchuchieni.We sequenced the complete sequences of mitochondrial control region for 304 specimens and the sequences of Cytochrome b gene for 15 specimens of the species P. huangchuchieni and 5 specimens of Poropuntius opisthoptera. Phylogenetic analysis identified five major lineages, of which lineages MK-A and MK-B constrained to the Mekong River System, lineages RL and LX to the Red River System, and lineage SW to the Salween River System. The genetic distance and network analysis detected significant divergences among these lineages. Mismatch distribution analysis implied that the population of P. huangchuchieni underwent demographic stability and the lineage MK-B, sublineages MK-A1 and LX-1 underwent a recent population expansion. The divergence of the 5 major lineages was dated back to 0.73-1.57 MYA.Our results suggest that P. opisthoptera was a paraphyletic group of P. huangchuchieni. The phylogenetic pattern of P. huangchuchieni was mostly associated with the drainage's structures and the geomorphological history of the Southwest Yunnan Plateau. Also the differentiation of the major lineages among the three drainages systems coincides with the Kunlun-Yellow River Movement (1.10-0.60 MYA. The genetic differentiation within river basins and recent demographical expansions that occurred in some lineages and sublineages are consistent with the palaeoclimatic oscillations during the Pleistocene. Additionally, our results also suggest that the populations of P. huangchuchieni had keep long term large effective population sizes and demographic stability in the recent evolutionary history, which may be

  10. Economic Significance of Fasciolosis at Mettu Municipal Abattoir, Southwest Ethiopia

    Manyazewal Anberber Zeleke

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to determine the prevalence and economic significance of fasciolosis in cattle slaughtered at Mettu town municipal abattoir, Southwest Ethiopia. A total of 663 animals were randomly selected from the indigenous zebu cattle brought to the abattoir during October 2008-May 2009. Retrospective assessment, Ante-mortem examinations, body condition scoring and Post-mortem inspections were performed to collect data. Out of the total examined animals 47.1% (312/663 were found positive for Fasciola parasites. Two species of Fasciola: Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica were detected with prevalences of 26.9% (178/663 and 11.8% (78/663, respectively, mixed infections by both species were 4.8% (32/663 and immature (unidentified flukes were 3.5% (24/663 of the total infections. The difference in prevalence of Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica was found to be significant (P=0.000. Prevalence of the disease was also determined in relation to body condition score of the sample animals whereby 319 and 344 animals were categorized under Good and Medium body condition score sub-groups, respectively. It was found that 41.7% (133/319 of the Good score animals and 52% (179/344 of the medium score animals were positive for Fasciola parasites, and the difference in prevalence between the two sub-groups was statistically significant (P=0.008. The annual direct economic loss due to liver condemnation and the annual indirect economic loss due to carcass weight reduction were estimated to be 4,757.00 USD (47,570.00 birr and 46,615.00 USD (466,150.00 birr, respectively; hence, the total economic loss due to fasciolosis in cattle slaughtered at Mettu municipal abattoir was estimated to be 51,372.00 USD (513,720.00 birr. In conclusion, bovine fasciolosis due to Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica was observed to be an economically important disease in Mettu and its surrounding districts. Further studies on small ruminant species and

  11. Recovery from acidification of lochs in Galloway, south-west Scotland, UK: 1979-1998

    R. C. Ferrier

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The Galloway region of south-west Scotland has historically been subject to long-term deposition of acidic precipitation which has resulted in acidification of soils and surface waters and subsequent damage to aquatic ecology. Since the end of the 1970s, however, acidic deposition has decreased substantially. The general pattern is for a rapid decline in non-marine sulphate in rainwater over the period 1978-1988 followed by stable concentrations to the mid-1990s. Concentrations of nitrate and ammonium in deposition have remained constant between 1980 and 1998. Seven water quality surveys of 48 lochs in the Galloway region have been conducted between 1979 and 1998. During the first 10 years, from 1979, there was a major decline in regional sulphate concentrations in the lochs, which was expected to have produced a decline in base cations and an increase in the acid neutralising capacity. But sea-salt levels (as indicated by chloride concentrations were approximately 25% higher in 1988 than in 1979 and thus short-term acidification due to sea-salts offset much of the long-term recovery trend expected in the lochs. During the next 10 years, however, the chloride concentrations returned to 1979 levels and the lochs showed large increases in acid neutralising capacity despite little change in sulphate concentrations. From the observed decline in sulphate deposition and concentrations of sulphate in the lochs, it appears that approximately 75% of the possible improvement in acid neutralising capacity has already occurred over the 20-year period (1979-1998. The role of acid deposition as a driving factor for change in water chemistry in the Galloway lochs is confounded by concurrent changes in other driving variables, most notably, factors related to episodic and year-to-year variations in climate. In addition to inputs of sea-salts, climate probably also influences other chemical signals such as peaks in regional nitrate concentrations and the sharp

  12. The Navy’s Environmental Program and Opportunities in the Southwest

    2013-08-27

    Achieve RIP for all High Priority IRP Sites FY14 •Achieve RC for 90% of IRP + MRP Sites FY18 •Achieve RC for 95% of IRP + MRP Sites FY21 9 NAVFAC Southwest...8/21/2013 ER,N IRP vs. MRP ($M) NAVFAC SW 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 FY 13 FY 14 FY 15 FY 16 FY 17 FY 18 FY 19 FY 20 FY 21 4 4 7 7 7 43 54 42 51...50 57 58 58 51 18 15 11 9 MRP IRP 10 NAVFAC Southwest Southwest ER,N Requirements Overall CTC: $766M ~54% IRP; ~46% MRP IRP , $411 MRP

  13. The Major Qualitative Characteristics of Olive (Olea europaea L.) Cultivated in Southwest China.

    Cheng, Zizhang; Zhan, Mingming; Yang, Zeshen; Zumstein, Kristina; Chen, Huaping; Huang, Qianming

    2017-01-01

    Olive trees, originated from Mediterranean, have been cultivated in China for decades and show great adaption to local environment. However, research on this topic is limited. In this study, the major qualitative characteristics and changes of olive grown in southwest China were investigated. The results showed that oil accumulated during fruit development and reached its maximum value when fruit had fully ripened. Phenolic and flavonoid contents increase rapidly in the early growth stage (0-90 DAFB) and then begin to decrease as fruit ripens. Compared with olive from the Mediterranean, olive from China has special characteristics: higher moisture content in the fruit combined with lower percentages of unsaturated fatty acids and oil content. This is due to southwest China's climate which is wetter and cooler compared to the Mediterranean. Our study suggests that southwest China's higher annual rainfall might contribute to higher fruit moisture content while its low temperatures would be conducive to higher unsaturated fatty acid levels in the fruit.

  14. Technological choice and change in the Southwest Bath in the Athenian Agora

    Artz, James

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available During its five architectural phases, the Southwest bath in the Athenian Agora changes from a Greek-style bath into a Roman-style bath. This article will focus on the first two phases, when Roman elements begin to be incorporated into the traditional forms of Greek bath architecture – particularly, a hypocaust floor system and a concrete vaulted ceiling built into a traditional Greek tholos bath. After describing these architectural features and analyzing the techniques used in their construction, I will examine possible sources of influence on the design and construction of the Southwest baths. The Roman army, citizenry, and workmen could all have potentially affected the incorporation of Roman bathing technologies and building techniques into the Southwest bath. The available evidence, however, indicates that the most likely source of influence is Roman workmen, who were employed in large numbers for the numerous building projects underway in Augustan Athens.

  15. Assessment of the biomass energy potentials and environmental benefits of Jatropha curcas L. in Southwest China

    Liu, Lei; Zhuang, Dafang; Jiang, Dong; Fu, Jingying

    2013-01-01

    Jatropha curcas L. (JCL) is believed to be the most promising tree species used to produce biodiesel in China. Due to its abundant marginal land resource and good meteorological conditions, Southwest China is the major region to develop JCL. With Southwest China being taken as the study area in this paper, multi-factor comprehensive analysis is used to identify marginal land resources suitable to JCL plantation and make suitability assessment, thus obtaining their spatial distribution, suitability degree and total amount. With life cycle analysis (LCA), the life cycle net energy and greenhouse gas emission reduction capacity of marginal land resources with different suitability degrees used to produce biodiesel are investigated. Based on the research results, the life cycle model is expanded to obtain the potentiality of total net energy production and greenhouse gas emission reduction of large-scale plantation of JCL in southwest China. The results show that the area of land resources suitable and moderately suitable for JCL plantation is 1.99 × 10 6 ha and 5.57 × 10 6 ha, respectively. If all of these land resources are put into use, the maximum net production potential of biodiesel from JCL would be 1.51 × 10 8 GJ/a, and the total greenhouse gas emission reduction capacity 1.59 × 10 7 t/a in Southwest China. -- Highlights: •A LCA based approach for assessing net energy potential of Jatropha curcas L. was presented. •The net production potential of biodiesel from JCL is 1.51 × 10 8 GJ/a in Southwest China. •The total GHG emission reduction capacity from JCL is 1.59 × 10 7 t/a in Southwest China

  16. The 5-year incidence of male breast cancer in Southwest of China from 2007 to 2011

    Liangbin Jin; Hua Tang; Deqiang Mao; Linjie Lu; Lingquan Kong; Yang Bai; Zixiang Yao; Guangyan Ji; Shengchun Liu; Guosheng Ren; Kainan Wu

    2013-01-01

    Objective:Male breast cancer is a rare disease with an incidence of about 1%of breast cancers in USA, but relatively lack of the information of male breast cancer in China, especial y in Southwest of China, led us to study its incidence trends. Methods:Chongqing is one of the biggest and the most important areas that is located in Southwest of China. There are around 31.4 mil ion people who live in approximate 82 402.95 km2 area of Chongqing. Data about breast cancer patients registered in the Center for Disease Prevention and Control of Chongqing (China) were statistical y col ected from 187 hospi-tals, about 58 hospitals in city and 129 hospitals in country, and over 6.2 mil ion people were studied every year. It was tried to represent al the people in vil ages and cities in Chongqing, China. Results:The incidence of male breast cancer in Southwest of China ranged from 0.34/100 000 to 1.45/100 000 between 2007 and 2011, while the incidence of female breast cancer ranged from 15.40/100000 to 21.66/100000 at the same time. The rate of male breast cancer to female breast cancer ranged from 0.02:1 to 0.07:1, male breast cancer accounted for 1.96%to 6.5%(with the mean value of 2.9%) of breast cancers in Southwest of China from 2007 to 2010. Conclusion:In Southwest of China male breast cancer accounts for about 2.9%of breast cancers which is higher than that in United States. It is important for policy makers and health manager to seriously consider breast cancer in future plan in Southwest of China.

  17. Fresh water influence on nutrient stoichiometry in a tropical estuary, Southwest coast of India

    Martin, G.D.; Vijay, J.G.; Laluraj, C.M.; Madhu, N.V.; Joseph, T.; Nair, M.; Gupta, G.V.M.; Balachandran, K.K.

    et al.: Fresh water influence on nutrient stoichiometry in a tropical estuary, Southwest coast of India - 57 - APPLIED ECOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH 6(1): 57-64. http://www.ecology.uni-corvinus.hu ● ISSN 1589 1623  2008, Penkala Bt... estuary, Southwest coast of India - 58 - APPLIED ECOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH 6(1): 57-64. http://www.ecology.uni-corvinus.hu ● ISSN 1589 1623  2008, Penkala Bt., Budapest, Hungary natural and anthropogenic factors influencing the geochemistry...

  18. 76 FR 59682 - Desert Southwest Customer Service Region-Western Area Lower Colorado Balancing Authority-Rate...

    2011-09-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Western Area Power Administration Desert Southwest Customer Service Region... CONTACT: Mr. Jack Murray, Rates Manager, Desert Southwest Customer Service Region, Western Area Power... Customer Service Region Network Integration Transmission Service Rate Schedules PD-NTS3 and INT-NTS3 for P...

  19. 76 FR 2369 - Notice of Staff Attendance at Southwest Power Pool Markets and Operation Policy Committee and...

    2011-01-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Staff Attendance at Southwest Power Pool Markets and Operation Policy Committee and Strategic Planning Committee Meetings January 5... the meetings of the Southwest Power Pool, Inc. (SPP) Markets and Operations Policy Committee (MOPC...

  20. Tree- and Stand-Level Thinning Effects on Growth of European Beech (Fagus sylvatica L. on a Northeast- and a Southwest-Facing Slope in Southwest Germany

    Daniela Diaconu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Anticipated changes in climate and research findings on the drought sensitivity of beech have triggered controversial discussions about the future of European beech. We investigated the growth response of beech on the tree- and stand-level in mature stands to three different thinning intensities (no thinning, strong thinning, very strong thinning on a northeast- and southwest-facing slope in Southwest Germany. Linear mixed-effects models were formulated to describe effects on growth parameters on the tree- and stand-level (diameter, height, basal area, volume. At the stand-level, the stand basal area increment and stand volume increment were lower on the thinned plots. At the tree-level, the basal area increment significantly increased with increasing thinning intensity. The growth of individual trees was also influenced by initial tree size, the size-related rank of the tree within a stand, and by the aspect of the site. Our data indicate that growth of European beech is impaired on the southwest-facing slope with a warmer and drier climate and that a very strong thinning regime applied at advanced age can accelerate growth of European beech trees even on the warmer and drier site. Our findings, therefore, imply that in a warmer climate intensive thinning may also represent an important adaptive forest management measure in European beech stands.