WorldWideScience

Sample records for term shortening procedure

  1. Teaching of distal radius shortening osteotomy: three-dimensional procedural simulator versus bone procedural simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naroura, Ismaël; Hidalgo Diaz, Juan José; Xavier, Fred; Baldairon, Florent; Favreau, Henri; Clavert, Philippe; Liverneaux, Philippe

    2018-01-01

    In order to facilitate the learning of distal radius shortening osteotomy by junior surgeons, the main assumption was that using a three-dimensional procedural simulator was better than a bone procedural simulator. After viewing a video, ten junior surgeons performed a distal radius shortening osteotomy: five with a bone procedural simulator (Group 1) and five with a three-dimensional procedural simulator (Group 2). All subsequently performed the same surgery on fresh cadaveric bones. The duration of the procedure, shortening of the radius, and the level of osteotomy were significantly better in Group 2. The three-dimensional procedural simulator seems to teach distal radius osteotomy better than a bone model and could be useful in teaching and learning bone surgery of the wrist.

  2. Long-Term Outcome of Step-Cut Ulnar Shortening Osteotomy for Ulnar Impaction Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papatheodorou, Loukia K; Baratz, Mark E; Bougioukli, Sofia; Ruby, Tyler; Weiser, Robert W; Sotereanos, Dean G

    2016-11-02

    Extra-articular ulnar shortening osteotomy is a common procedure for the surgical treatment of ulnar impaction syndrome. Several techniques for this osteotomy have been developed to avoid the morbidity associated with a standard transverse osteotomy. However, these techniques require special instrumentation and are expensive. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcome of step-cut ulnar shortening osteotomy without special jigs for ulnar impaction syndrome. A retrospective study of 164 consecutive patients who underwent step-cut ulnar shortening osteotomy between 2000 and 2010 was performed. The long arm of the step-cut osteotomy was oriented in the coronal plane parallel to the long axis of the ulna. The short arms of the osteotomy were perpendicular to the long axis in the axial plane. Fixation was performed with a palmar 3.5-mm standard neutralization plate and a lag screw. The goal of the osteotomy was to reduce ulnar variance, which was assessed in all patients with pronated grip-view radiographs preoperatively and postoperatively. Preoperative ulnar variance ranged from +1 to +6 mm. All patients were followed for at least 24 months. Union of the osteotomy site was achieved at a mean of 8.2 weeks. The union rate was 98.8%. There were 2 cases of nonunion, which required additional surgery. The mean postoperative ulnar variance was +0.2 mm (range, -1 to +1.5 mm) after a mean overall ulnar shortening of 2.5 mm. All patients returned to their previous work, in a mean of 4 months. The plate was removed from 12 patients because of plate-related symptoms. No other complications were encountered. The step-cut ulnar shortening osteotomy provides ample bone-to-bone contact and simplifies control of rotation. Stable internal fixation with standard techniques allowed an early return to functional activities. Palmar placement of the plate diminishes the need for plate removal. This is a simple and less expensive technique for ulnar shortening that does not

  3. Mid-term clinical outcome of radial shortening for kienbock disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad H Ebrahimzadeh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To evaluate the intermediate-term outcomes of radius shortening as a treatment for Kienbock′s disease. Materials and Methods: In a historical cohort, 16 skeletally mature patients (9 men and 7 women with Kienbock disease, who were treated with radial shortening osteotomy between 2002 and 2012, were reviewed in our study. The mean age of our patients was 30 (range 18-43 years old. According to Litchman staging, there were 7 wrists at stage II and 9 wrists at stage III (6 at stage IIIA and 3 at stage IIIB. The data of grip strength, pain (visual analog scale (VAS score, wrist range of motion (ROM, ulnar variance (according to Palmer method, and the Lichtman stage were gathered before and after surgery. We evaluated overall wrist function using the Mayo Wrist score and disabilities of the arm shoulder and hand (DASH score before surgery and at the last follow-up. Results: The average of follow-up was 7 years (range from 5 to 9 years. Preoperative ulnar variance was -1.3 mm (range from 2.5 to 1 preoperatively. The mean postoperative ulnar variance was 1 mm positive (range from 0.5 to 1.5. The VAS pain score, the mean arc of wrist flexion and extension, and grip strength improved significantly preoperatively compared to after recovery from surgery. The Lichtman stage was unchanged in nine patients, one grade worse in six patients, and one grade better in one patient. The mean DASH and Mayo scores improved significantly postoperatively compare with preoperation. Comparing preoperative positive, neuter, and negative ulnar variance, there was no significant difference in terms of VAS, DASH, and Mayo scores as well as ROM and grip strength. Conclusion: Our study shows that radius shortening surgery improves pain and disability regardless of ulnar variance.

  4. Procedures: Source Term Measurement Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyer, N.C.; Keller, J.H.; Nieschmidt, E.B.; Motes, B.J.

    1977-10-01

    The report contains procedures for the Source Term Measurement Project being performed by Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This work is being conducted for the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research in support of requirements of the Effluent Treatment Systems Branch of the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation. This project is designed to obtain source term information at operating light water reactors to update the parameters used in NRC calculational models (GALE codes). Detailed procedures and methods used for collection and analysis of samples are presented. This provides a reference base to supplement a series of reports to be issued by the Source Term Measurements Project which will present data obtained from measurements in specific nuclear power stations. Reference to appropriate parts of these procedures will be made as required

  5. Humeral lengthening in patients with achondroplasia and in patients with post-septic shortening: comparison of procedure efficiency and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadi, Milud; Musielak, Bartosz; Koczewski, Paweł; Janusz, Piotr

    2018-02-01

    Although humeral lengthening in patients with achondroplasia is an accepted procedure for improving functional status, there is still a paucity of information about the effectiveness of the method. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of humeral lengthening using monolateral fixators in patients with achondroplasia and unilateral shortening. Twenty-one patients (31 humeri) were included in this study. The study group consisted of eight patients with achondroplasia (16 segments). The control group consisted of 13 patients with post-septic shortening of the humerus (15 segments). All subjects underwent distraction osteogenesis with the use of a monolateral fixator. The mean lengthening in the patients with achondroplasia was 8.29 cm, whereas in the control group it was 7.34 cm (p = 0.1677). The mean lengthening percentage in the patients with achondroplasia (50% of the initial length of the humerus) was significantly greater than in the control group (33% of the initial length of the humerus) (p = 0.0007). The mean healing index was 24.8 days/cm in the patients with achondroplasia and 28.56 days/cm in the control group (p = 0.1832). The overall complication rates for the achondroplastic and post-septic patients were, respectively, 175% and 160% (p = 0.1420). Humeral lengthening with use of monolateral fixators in patients with achondroplasia is an efficient method. Although the segment lengthening percentage is significantly greater in patients with achondroplasia than in patients with post-septic shortening of the humerus, the safety of this procedure is comparable.

  6. Long-Term Results of Total Hip Arthroplasty With Shortening Subtrochanteric Osteotomy in Crowe IV Developmental Dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollivier, Matthieu; Abdel, Matthew P; Krych, Aaron J; Trousdale, Robert T; Berry, Daniel J

    2016-08-01

    Numerous series have documented short-term successes with cementless total hip arthroplasty (THA) and subtrochanteric shortening osteotomy for Crowe IV developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH). However, data are lacking regarding long-term implant fixation and patient function. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the 10-year results of cementless THA with simultaneous subtrochanteric shortening osteotomy for Crowe IV DDH. We retrospectively reviewed 28 consecutive primaries cementless THAs performed in 24 patients with Crowe IV DDH between 1992 and 2005. Evaluation was performed through Harris Hip Scores, physical examination, and radiographic analysis. At mean follow-up 10 years, 5 hips were revised, and 3 patients had died leaving 20 hips for clinical analysis. Harris Hip Score was significantly improved compared to preoperative values (43 vs 87 P hip dislocation secondary to dysplasia was associated with high rates of successful implant fixation and stable clinical improvement. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Long-Term Results of Cementless Total Hip Arthroplasty With Subtrochanteric Shortening Osteotomy in Crowe Type IV Developmental Dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Duan; Li, Ling-Li; Wang, Hao-Yang; Pei, Fu-Xing; Zhou, Zong-Ke

    2017-04-01

    When surgeons reconstruct hips with a high dislocation related to severe developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) in total hip arthroplasty (THA), archiving long-term stable implant fixation and improving patient function and satisfaction remain challenging. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the 10-year outcomes of transverse subtrochanteric shortening osteotomy in cementless, modular THA in Crowe type IV-Hartofilakidis type III DDH. We reviewed 62 patients (76 hips) who underwent cementless THA with transverse subtrochanteric shortening osteotomy from 2002-2010. There were 49 women and 13 men with a mean age of 38.8 years, all of whom had Crowe type IV DDH. Mean follow-up period was 10 years. The acetabular cup was implanted in placement of the anatomical hip center in all hips. The mean Harris Hip Score significantly improved from 38.8 points to 86.1 points. Similarly, modified Merle d'Aubigne and Postel Hip Score, Hip dysfunction and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score, and SF-12 also significantly improved. The mean limb length discrepancy was reduced from 4.3 cm to 1.0 cm. At mean follow-up of 10 years, there were 3 cases of postoperative dislocation, 2 cases of transient nerve palsy, 1 case of nonunion, and 4 cases of intraoperative fracture. Revision surgery was performed in 2 patients due to isolated loosening of acetabular component and femoral stem, respectively. Our data demonstrated that the cementless, modular THA combined with transverse subtrochanteric shortening osteotomy was an effective and reliable technique with high rates of successful fixation of the implants and satisfactory clinical outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Long-term follow-up indicates unimpaired oral health-related quality of life for people having shortened dental arches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen, A.E.; Witter, D.J.; Creugers, N.H.J.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess and analyse OHRQoL of people with shortened dental arches (SDA) in a long-term cohort study. METHODS: All participants of a long-term cohort study on SDA who were still attending the university dental clinic and still had an SDA (SDA group) with 3-5 posterior occluding pairs

  9. Reduction in surgical fog with a warm humidified gas management protocol significantly shortens procedure time in pediatric robot-assisted laparoscopic procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meenakshi-Sundaram, B; Furr, J R; Malm-Buatsi, E; Boklage, B; Nguyen, E; Frimberger, D; Palmer, B W

    2017-10-01

    The adoption of robot-assisted laparoscopic (RAL) procedures in the field of urology has occurred rapidly, but is, to date, without pediatric-specific instrumentation. Surgical fog is a significant barrier to safe and efficient laparoscopy. This appears to be a significant challenge when adapting three-dimensional 8.5-mm scopes to use in pediatric RAL surgery. The objective of the present study was to compare matched controls from a prospectively collected database to procedures that were performed utilizing special equipment and a protocol to minimize surgical fog in pediatric RAL procedures. A prospectively collected database of all patients who underwent RAL pediatric urology procedures was used to compare: procedure, age, sex, American Society of Anesthesiologists score, weight, console time, number of times the camera was removed to clean the lens during a procedure, length of hospital stay, and morphine equivalents required in the postoperative period. A uniquely developed protocol was used, it consisted of humidified (95% relative humidity) and warmed CO 2 gas (95 °F) insufflation via Insuflow® on a working trocar, with active smoke evacuation via PneuVIEW®XE on the opposite working trocar with a gas pass through of 3.5-5 l/min. The outcomes were compared with matched controls (Summary Fig). The novel gas protocol was utilized in 13 procedures (five pyeloplasties, two revision pyeloplasties, three ureteroureterostomies (UU), three nephrectomies) and compared with 13 procedures (six pyeloplasties, one revision pyeloplasty, three UU, three nephrectomies) prior to the protocol development. There was no statistical difference in age (P = 0.78), sex (P = 0.11), ASA score (P = 1.00) or weight (P = 0.69). There were no open conversions, ≥Grade 2 Clavien complications, or readmissions within 30 days in either group. This novel gas protocol yielded a statistically significant reduction in procedure time, by decreasing the number of times the camera was

  10. Leg lengthening and shortening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002965.htm Leg lengthening and shortening To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Leg lengthening and shortening are types of surgery to ...

  11. Long-term follow-up after tibialis anterior tendon shortening in combination with Achilles tendon lengthening in spastic equinus in cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kläusler, Michèle; Speth, Bernhard Maria; Brunner, Reinald; Tirosh, Oren; Camathias, Carlo; Rutz, Erich

    2017-10-01

    Using Tibialis Anterior Shortening (TATS) in combination with Achilles Tendon Lengthening (TAL) to treat spastic equinus in children with cerebral palsy (CP) was described in 2011. Short-term results have indicated a good outcome, especially an improvement of the drop foot in swing phase and the correction of equinus in stance phase. The aim of this study was to analyse the results of the long-term follow-up and to determine the relapse rate of TATS and TAL. The kinematics of the sagittal, frontal and transversal planes were measured by using instrumented 3D gait analysis at three defined time points and then described using the Gait Profile Score (GPS) and Movement Analysis Profile (MAP). The data was exported into Gaitabase and then the preoperative (T0), short- term (T1) and long-term (T2) follow-up data was statistically compared. 23 patients (mean age at index-surgery=14.9years) were included, there was a mean follow-up time of 5.8 years. 3 children (13%) have shown a relapse. The data of 12 children with spastic hemiplegia (12 legs), as well as 8 children with spastic diplegia (10 legs) has been analysed. There has been a significant (pchildren with CP. Postoperatively all subjects were able to walk without an AFO. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Rapid blood clearance and lack of long-term renal toxicity of 177Lu-DOTATATE enables shortening of renoprotective amino acid infusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashyap, Raghava; Eu, Peter; Jackson, Price; Hofman, Michael S.; Hicks, Rodney J.; Beauregard, Jean-Mathieu; Zannino, Diana

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the feasibility of shortening the recommended 4-h renoprotective amino acid infusion in patients receiving peptide receptor chemoradionuclide therapy (PRCRT) using radiosensitizing 5-fluorouracil. We evaluated the clearance of radiopeptide from the blood, long-term nephrotoxicity in patients undergoing PRCRT with the conventional 4-h amino acid infusion and renal uptake in patients receiving an abbreviated infusion. The whole-blood clearance of 177 Lu-DOTA-octreotate (LuTate) was measured in 13 patients receiving PRCRT. A retrospective analysis of short-term and long-term changes in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in 96 consecutive patients receiving a 4-h infusion was performed. Renal LuTate retention estimated using quantitative SPECT/CT in 22 cycles delivered with a 2.5-h amino acid infusion was compared with that in 72 cycles with the 4-h infusion. LuTate demonstrated biexponential blood clearance with an initial clearance half-time of 21 min. Approximately 88 % of blood activity was cleared within 2 h. With the 4-h protocol, there was no significant change in GFR (1.2 ml/min mean increase from baseline; 95 % CI -6.9 to 4.4 ml/min) and no grade 3 or 4 nephrotoxicity at the end of induction PRCRT. The long-term decline in GFR after a median follow up of 22 months was 2.2 ml/min per year. There was no significant difference in the renal LuTate retention measured in patients receiving a 2.5-h amino acid infusion compared to those who had a 4-h infusion. The greatest renal exposure to circulating radiopeptide occurs in the first 1 - 2 h after injection. This, combined with the safety of LuTate PRCRT, allows consideration of an abbreviated amino acid infusion, increasing patient convenience and reducing human resource allocation. (orig.)

  13. Rapid blood clearance and lack of long-term renal toxicity of {sup 177}Lu-DOTATATE enables shortening of renoprotective amino acid infusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashyap, Raghava; Eu, Peter [Centre for Cancer Imaging, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne (Australia); Jackson, Price [Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Department of Physical Sciences, Melbourne (Australia); Hofman, Michael S.; Hicks, Rodney J. [Centre for Cancer Imaging, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne (Australia); The University of Melbourne, Departments of Medicine and Radiology, Melbourne (Australia); Beauregard, Jean-Mathieu [Universite Laval, Department of Radiology, Quebec City (Canada); Zannino, Diana [Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Department of Biostatistics and Clinical Trials, Melbourne (Australia)

    2013-12-15

    The aim of the study was to investigate the feasibility of shortening the recommended 4-h renoprotective amino acid infusion in patients receiving peptide receptor chemoradionuclide therapy (PRCRT) using radiosensitizing 5-fluorouracil. We evaluated the clearance of radiopeptide from the blood, long-term nephrotoxicity in patients undergoing PRCRT with the conventional 4-h amino acid infusion and renal uptake in patients receiving an abbreviated infusion. The whole-blood clearance of {sup 177}Lu-DOTA-octreotate (LuTate) was measured in 13 patients receiving PRCRT. A retrospective analysis of short-term and long-term changes in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in 96 consecutive patients receiving a 4-h infusion was performed. Renal LuTate retention estimated using quantitative SPECT/CT in 22 cycles delivered with a 2.5-h amino acid infusion was compared with that in 72 cycles with the 4-h infusion. LuTate demonstrated biexponential blood clearance with an initial clearance half-time of 21 min. Approximately 88 % of blood activity was cleared within 2 h. With the 4-h protocol, there was no significant change in GFR (1.2 ml/min mean increase from baseline; 95 % CI -6.9 to 4.4 ml/min) and no grade 3 or 4 nephrotoxicity at the end of induction PRCRT. The long-term decline in GFR after a median follow up of 22 months was 2.2 ml/min per year. There was no significant difference in the renal LuTate retention measured in patients receiving a 2.5-h amino acid infusion compared to those who had a 4-h infusion. The greatest renal exposure to circulating radiopeptide occurs in the first 1 - 2 h after injection. This, combined with the safety of LuTate PRCRT, allows consideration of an abbreviated amino acid infusion, increasing patient convenience and reducing human resource allocation. (orig.)

  14. Shortening Oblique Osteotomy with Screw Fixation for Correction of the Lesser Metatarsophalangeal Joints of Rheumatoid Forefoot

    OpenAIRE

    Nishida, Keiichiro; Machida, Takahiro; Horita, Masahiro; Hashizume, Kenzo; Nakahara, Ryuichi; Nasu, Yoshihisa; Ohashi, Hideki; Saiga, Kenta; Ozaki, Toshifumi

    2016-01-01

    The metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joints are often and predominantly affected in rheumatoid arthritis. The aim of the current study was to describe surgical techniques of shortening oblique osteotomy for lesser metatarsal bone with screw fixation at the osteotomy site, and to investigate the short-term clinical outcomes of our procedure. Twenty-seven feet (78 toes) of 24 RA patients underwent the shortening oblique osteotomy for the correction of deformity at the lesser MTP joints. The average Ja...

  15. Radiation-induced life shortening. Annex K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this Annex is to review the cumulative evidence in the field of non-neoplastic long-term effects of whole-body irradiation. In particular, the existence and extent of life-span shortening in irradiated animals and man, and the relationships of life shortening to the physical and biological variables which may influence this effect of radiation are examined.

  16. SPECIAL RULES OF MITIGATION OF PUNISHMENT IN CASE OF THE CONCLUSION OF THE PRE-TRIAL COOPERATION AGREEMENT, AT THE SPECIAL PROCEDURE OF FOR THE TRIAL AND AT THE SHORTENED ORDER OF INQUIRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Nepomnyashchaya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject. The article analyzes the rules for the appointment of punishment in the case of a pre-trial cooperation agreement, with a special procedure for the trial and with a shortened procedure of conducting inquiry, regulated by art. 62 of the RF Criminal Code “Turning out a Sentence when Mitigating Circumstances Exist”. The authors give an answer to two questions: 1 Does the legal nature of these institutions correspond to the legal nature of mitigating circumstances; 2 Is it advisable to consolidate in a one article of the law different legal regulations.Methodology. Authors use such researching methods as analysis and synthesis, formally legal, comparative legal.Results. Rules for the appointment of punishment in the conclusion of a pre-trial cooperation agreement, stipulated by the pt. 2, 4 of art. 62 of the RF Criminal Code, regulate not the order of accounting for mitigating circumstances, but the legal consequences associated with the promotion of a person, which concluded and executed a pre-trial cooperation agreement, that does not correspond to the legal nature of the pt. 1, 3 of art. 62 of the RF Criminal Code.The legal nature of the rules for the appointment of punishment, established in pt. 5 of art. 62 of the RF Criminal Code, also does not correspond to the legal nature of the rules for the imposition of punishment in the presence of mitigating circumstances, because mitigation of punishment occurs on criminal procedural grounds, which are not mitigating circumstances.Conclusions. In authors opinion, fastening in art. 62 of the RF Criminal Code of three independent rules for the imposition of punishment, namely, the rules for the imposition of punishment in the presence of mitigating circumstances (pt. 1, 3 of art. 62 of the Criminal Code, at the conclusion of a pre-trial cooperation agreement (pt. 2, 4 of art. 62 of the Crim-inal Code, with a special order of the trial and a shortened procedure for conducting an inquiry

  17. Compatibility of selected plant-based shortening as lard substitute: microstructure, polymorphic forms and textural properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A.M. Yanty

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to determine the compatibility of three plant-based shortening mixtures to lard shortening (LD in terms of microstructure, polymorphic forms, and textural properties. The shortenings of binary, ternary, and quaternary fat mixtures were prepared according to a standard procedure by blending mee fat (MF with palm stearin (PS in a 99:1 (w/w ratio; avocado fat (Avo with PS and cocoa butter (CB in a 84:7:9 (w/w ratio; palm oil (PO with PS, soybean oil (SBO and CB in a 38:5:52:5 (w/w ratio, respectively. The triacylglycerol composition, polymorphic forms, crystal morphology, and textural properties of the shortening were evaluated. This study found that all three plant-based shortenings and LD shortening were similar with respect to their consistency, hardness and compression and adhesiveness values. However, all plant-based shortening was found to be dissimilar to LD shortening with respect to microstructure.

  18. Compatibility of selected plant-based shortening as lard substitute: microstructure, polymorphic forms and textural properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanty, N.A.M.; Marikkar, J.M.N.; Miskandar, M.S.; Bockstaele, F. Van; Dewettinck, K.; Nusantoro, B.P.

    2017-01-01

    A study was carried out to determine the compatibility of three plant-based shortening mixtures to lard shortening (LD) in terms of microstructure, polymorphic forms, and textural properties. The shortenings of binary, ternary, and quaternary fat mixtures were prepared according to a standard procedure by blending mee fat (MF) with palm stearin (PS) in a 99:1 (w/w) ratio; avocado fat (Avo) with PS and cocoa butter (CB) in a 84:7:9 (w/w) ratio; palm oil (PO) with PS, soybean oil (SBO) and CB in a 38:5:52:5 (w/w) ratio, respectively. The triacylglycerol composition, polymorphic forms, crystal morphology, and textural properties of the shortening were evaluated. This study found that all three plant-based shortenings and LD shortening were similar with respect to their consistency, hardness and compression and adhesiveness values. However, all plant-based shortening was found to be dissimilar to LD shortening with respect to microstructure. [es

  19. Occlusal stability in shortened dental arches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witter, D J; Creugers, N H; Kreulen, C M; de Haan, A F

    2001-02-01

    Shortened dental arches consisting of anterior and premolar teeth have been shown to meet oral functional demands. However, the occlusal stability may be at risk as a result of tooth migration. The aim of this nine-year study was to investigate occlusal stability in shortened dental arches as a function over time. Occlusal stability indicators were: 'interdental spacing', 'occlusal contacts of anterior teeth in Intercuspal Position', 'overbite', 'occlusal tooth wear', and 'alveolar bone support'. Subjects with shortened dental arches (n = 74) were compared with subjects with complete dental arches (controls, n = 72). Repeated-measurement regression analyses were applied to assess age-dependent variables in the controls and to relate the occlusal changes to the period of time since the treatment that led to the shortened dental arches. Compared with complete dental arches, shortened dental arches had similar overbite and occlusal tooth wear. They showed more interdental spacing in the premolar regions, more anterior teeth in occlusal contact, and lower alveolar bone scores. Since the differences remained constant over time, we conclude that shortened dental arches can provide long-term occlusal stability. Occlusal changes were self-limiting, indicating a new occlusal equilibrium.

  20. Validation of Short-Term Noise Assessment Procedures: FY16 Summary of Procedures, Progress, and Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    summary of the work performed in fiscal year 2016 for the Environment, Safety and Occupational Health Short-Term Noise Assessment Procedure Demonstration...Validation project. This report describes the procedure used to generate the noise models output dataset, and then it compares that dataset to the...algorithm is continuing in FY17. Updates to the noise assessment tools are identified. Throughout this document, procedures used for calculations and analysis are included.

  1. Shortening Oblique Osteotomy with Screw Fixation for Correction of the Lesser Metatarsophalangeal Joints of Rheumatoid Forefoot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Keiichiro; Machida, Takahiro; Horita, Masahiro; Hashizume, Kenzo; Nakahara, Ryuichi; Nasu, Yoshihisa; Ohashi, Hideki; Saiga, Kenta; Ozaki, Toshifumi

    2016-12-01

    The metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joints are often and predominantly affected in rheumatoid arthritis. The aim of the current study was to describe surgical techniques of shortening oblique osteotomy for lesser metatarsal bone with screw fixation at the osteotomy site, and to investigate the short-term clinical outcomes of our procedure. Twenty-seven feet (78 toes) of 24 RA patients underwent the shortening oblique osteotomy for the correction of deformity at the lesser MTP joints. The average Japanese Society of Surgery of the Foot (JSSF) standard rating system for the RA foot and ankle scale improved significantly from 59.6 points preoperatively to 88.3 points postoperatively (p<0.001). Twenty-four feet (89% ) were free from metatarsalgia and symptomatic callosities at the lesser MTP joint after surgery. Our present findings showed satisfactory early clinical outcomes of the shortening oblique osteotomy of the metatarsal bone with screw fixation for RA forefoot.

  2. Service order execution procedure (in terms of labour law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana VIDAT

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available From the perspective of labor law, it is understood that the execution of the order of service, the essence of labor discipline, has in principle lawful purpose and, consequently, can not attract liability. It requires, however, the regulation mechanism by which theoretical assertions regarding order execution service materializes from a procedural standpoint.

  3. Ulnar shortening osteotomy for distal radius malunion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Robin N; Leversedge, Fraser J

    2014-08-01

    Background Malunion is a common complication of distal radius fractures. Ulnar shortening osteotomy (USO) may be an effective treatment for distal radius malunion when appropriate indications are observed. Methods The use of USO for treatment of distal radius fracture malunion is described for older patients (typically patients >50 years) with dorsal or volar tilt less than 20 degrees and no carpal malalignment or intercarpal or distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) arthritis. Description of Technique Preoperative radiographs are examined to ensure there are no contraindications to ulnar shortening osteotomy. The neutral posteroanterior (PA) radiograph is used to measure ulnar variance and to estimate the amount of ulnar shortening required. An ulnar, mid-sagittal incision is used and the dorsal sensory branch of the ulnar nerve is preserved. An USO-specific plating system with cutting jig is used to create parallel oblique osteotomies to facilitate shortening. Intraoperative fluoroscopy and clinical range of motion are checked to ensure adequate shortening and congruous reduction of the ulnar head within the sigmoid notch. Results Previous outcomes evaluation of USO has demonstrated improvement in functional activities, including average flexion-extension and pronosupination motions, and patient reported outcomes. Conclusion The concept and technique of USO are reviewed for the treatment of distal radius malunion when specific indications are observed. Careful attention to detail related to surgical indications and to surgical technique typically will improve range of motion, pain scores, and patient-reported outcomes and will reduce the inherent risks of the procedure, such as ulnar nonunion or the symptoms related to unrecognized joint arthritis.  Level IV.

  4. Legal Terms in General Dictionaries of English: The Civil Procedure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... as well as terms from other subject fields in general dictionaries. This would also satisfy the needs of users. Keywords: Lexicography, information tools, corpora, corpus lexicography, culture-dependent domains, knowledge, lemmatization, legal language, dictionary functions, communicative functions, decoding, encoding ...

  5. Incrust technology. Procedure for production of animal feeds encapsulated in a digestible shell. Phase 3.0. Shortening device; Incrust Technology. Fremgangsmaede for produktion af foder indkapslet i en fordoejelig skal. Fase 3.0. Afkorter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-09-01

    More than 120 million tons animal feeds are produced within the European Union a year Denmark alone produces more than 6 million tons. Current industrial production of animal feeds implies different problems. This project aims at reducing or removing the following problems: Odour nuisances; Bacterium, especially salmonella; Nutrition, especially preservation of the animal feeds' natural elements; Energy, especially reduction of carbon dioxide emission; Independence of raw materials composition; Improved hygienic storage of the finished product. During the project a new method for production of animal feeds encapsulated in a digestible shell (feeding blocks) has been developed. Extruded feeding stuff is lead from an extruder to a common die, in which a shell pipe is formed vertically. Shape, diameter, and pipe thickness can be changed by adjustment of a set of nozzles. The shell pipe is lead to a cutter that shortens and closes one end. The shell pipe is now filled with the core product (feed mixture) from a feeder with a dosing screw. The quantity can be adjusted to the size of the feeding block by changing the number of the dosing screw's revolutions and the rotation speed. When the core product has been dosed into the shell pipe a shortening device shortens and closes the open end of the feeding block. The shortening device can be regulated so that make the feeding block form a line that is broken later in the process. If necessary a conveyor belt with condensate ventilation takes a number of feeding blocks in a line to a marker. Marks on the feeding blocks can be made with either a laser printer or an ink jet printer. (BA)

  6. 14 CFR 97.3 - Symbols and terms used in procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Symbols and terms used in procedures. 97.3 Section 97.3 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES STANDARD INSTRUMENT PROCEDURES General § 97.3 Symbols and...

  7. Bone shortening of clavicular fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsmark, A. H.; Muhareb Udby, P.; Ban, I.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The indication for operative treatment of clavicular fractures with bone shortening over 2 cm is much debated. Correct measurement of clavicular length is essential, and reliable measures of clavicular length are therefore highly requested by clinical decision-makers. The aim of this ......Background: The indication for operative treatment of clavicular fractures with bone shortening over 2 cm is much debated. Correct measurement of clavicular length is essential, and reliable measures of clavicular length are therefore highly requested by clinical decision-makers. The aim...... of this study was to investigate if three commonly scientifically used measurement methods were interchangeable to each other. Methods: A retrospective study using radiographs collected as part of a previous study on clavicular fractures. Two independent raters measured clavicle shortening on 60 patients using......, Weir's protocol for Standard error of measurement (SEM) and minimal detectable change (MDC), and Bland-Altman plots. Results: None of the methods were directly interchangeable. The side difference method by Lazarides et al. was the most reliable of the three methods, but had a high proportion of post-fracture...

  8. The role of nonlinear viscoelasticity on the functionality of laminating shortenings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macias-Rodriguez, Braulio A.; Peyronel, Fernanda; Marangoni, Alejandro G.

    2017-11-01

    The rheology of fats is essential for the development of homogeneous and continuous layered structures of doughs. Here, we define laminating shortenings in terms of rheological behavior displayed during linear-to-nonlinear shear deformations, investigated by large amplitude oscillatory shear rheology. Likewise, we associate the rheological behavior of the shortenings with structural length scales elucidated by ultra-small angle x-ray scattering and cryo-electron microscopy. Shortenings exhibited solid-like viscoelastic and viscoelastoplastic behaviors in the linear and nonlinear regimes respectively. In the nonlinear region, laminating shortenings dissipated more viscous energy (larger normalized dynamic viscosities) than a cake bakery shortening. The fat solid-like network of laminating shortening displayed a three-hierarchy structure and layered crystal aggregates, in comparison to two-hierarchy structure and spherical-like crystal aggregates of a cake shortening. We argue that the observed rheology, correlated to the structural network, is crucial for optimal laminating performance of shortenings.

  9. Handgrip strength, quadriceps muscle power, and optimal shortening velocity roles in maintaining functional abilities in older adults living in a long-term care home: a 1-year follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozicka I

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Izabela Kozicka, Tomasz Kostka Department of Geriatrics, Medical University of Lodz, Lodz, Poland Purpose: To assess the relative role of handgrip strength (HGS, quadriceps muscle power (Pmax, and optimal shortening velocity (υopt in maintaining functional abilities (FAs in older adults living in a long-term care home over a 1-year follow-up. Subjects and methods: Forty-one inactive older institutionalized adults aged 69.8±9.0 years participated in this study. HGS, Pmax, υopt, cognitive function using the Mini-Mental State Examination, depressive symptoms using the Geriatric Depression Scale, nutritional status using the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA, and physical activity (PA using the Seven-Day Physical Activity Recall Questionnaire were assessed at baseline and at 1-year follow-up. FAs were assessed with activities of daily living (ADL, instrumental ADL, and Timed Up & Go test. Results: Both at baseline and at follow-up, FAs were related to age, HGS, Pmax/kg, υopt, MNA, and PA. These associations were generally similar in both sexes. As revealed in multiple regression analysis, υopt was the strongest predictor of FA, followed by Pmax/kg, PA, and MNA. FA deteriorated after 1 year as measured by ADL and Timed Up & Go test. Pmax and υopt, but not HGS, also decreased significantly after 1 year. Nevertheless, 1-year changes in FAs were not related to changes in HGS, Pmax, υopt, or PA. Conclusion: The 1-year period of physical inactivity among older institutionalized adults was found to have a negative effect on their FAs, Pmax, and υopt. The present study demonstrates that Pmax and, especially, υopt correlated with FAs of older adults more than HGS, both at baseline and at follow-up. Despite this, 1-year natural fluctuations of PA, Pmax, and υopt are not significant enough to influence FAs in inactive institutionalized older adults. Keywords: aging, handgrip strength, institutionalization, functional status, physical activity

  10. Long-term results of the Latarjet procedure for anterior instability of the shoulder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Naoko; Denard, Patrick J; Raiss, Patric; Melis, Barbara; Walch, Gilles

    2014-11-01

    The Latarjet procedure is effective in managing anterior glenohumeral instability in the short term, but there is concern for postoperative arthritis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term functional outcome after the Latarjet procedure and to assess the prevalence of and risk factors for glenohumeral arthritis after this procedure. A retrospective review was conducted of 68 Latarjet procedures at a mean of 20 years postoperatively. The mean age at surgery was 29.4 years. Functional outcome was determined by the Rowe score, subjective shoulder value, and recurrence of instability. Preoperative arthritis and postoperative radiographs were reviewed to evaluate the development or progression of arthritis. The mean Rowe score increased from 37.9 preoperatively to 89.6 at final follow-up (P Latarjet procedure provides excellent long-term outcomes in the treatment of recurrent anterior glenohumeral instability. Twenty years after the Latarjet procedure, arthritis may develop or progress in 23.5% of cases, but the majority of arthritis is mild. Copyright © 2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Neonatal paracetamol treatment reduces long-term nociceptive behaviour after neonatal procedural pain in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Hoogen, N J; Tibboel, D; Honig, W M M; Hermes, D; Patijn, J; Joosten, E A

    2016-09-01

    Pain from skin penetrating procedures (procedural pain) during infancy in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) may result in changes of nociceptive sensitivity in later life. This supports the need for pain management during such vulnerable periods in life. This study, therefore, analyses the short- and long-term consequences of neonatal paracetamol (acetaminophen) treatment on pain behaviour in an experimental rat model of neonatal procedural pain. A repetitive needle-prick model was used, in which neonatal rats received four needle pricks into the left hind paw per day from postnatal day 0 to day 7 (P0-P7). Paracetamol (50 mg/kg/day s.c.) was administered daily (P0-P7), and sensitivity to mechanical stimuli was compared with a needle-prick/saline-treated group and to a tactile control group. At 8 weeks of age, all animals underwent an ipsilateral paw-incision, modelling postoperative pain, and the duration of hypersensitivity was assessed. Neonatal paracetamol administration had no effect upon short-term mechanical hypersensitivity during the first postnatal week or upon long-term baseline sensitivity from 3 to 8 weeks. However, neonatal paracetamol administration significantly reduced the postoperative mechanical hypersensitivity in young adults, caused by repetitive needle pricking. Paracetamol administration during neonatal procedural pain does not alter short-term or long-term effects on mechanical sensitivity, but does reduce the duration of increased postoperative mechanical hypersensitivity in a clinically relevant neonatal procedural pain model. Paracetamol can be used safely in neonatal rats. Neonatal paracetamol treatment had no effect upon short-term mechanical hypersensitivity during the first postnatal week, nor upon long-term baseline sensitivity from 3 to 8 weeks. Paracetamol treatment during the first postnatal week significantly reduced the postoperative mechanical hypersensitivity in young adult rats. © 2016 European Pain Federation

  12. T2 shortening in childhood moyamoya disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takanashi, J.; Sugita, K.; Tanabe, Y.; Ito, C.; Date, H.; Niimi, H.

    1996-01-01

    We examined T2 shortening in six children with infarcts due to moyamoya disease to clarify whether there are characteristic patterns of T2 shortening in the deep grey and white matter. Profound T2 shortening in the deep grey and white matter was observed in the acute stage of infarct in two cases, which changed to high intensity in the chronic stage; in this stage no T2 shortening was demonstrated in any case. Neither haemorrhagic infarction nor calcification was seen on CT or MRI. There could be longitudinally different T2 shortening patterns between infarcts due to moyamoya disease and other disorders. (orig.). With 2 figs., 1 tab

  13. Intact Acquisition and Short-Term Retention of Non-Motor Procedural Learning in Parkinson's Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muriel T N Panouillères

    Full Text Available Procedural learning is a form of memory where people implicitly acquire a skill through repeated practice. People with Parkinson's disease (PD have been found to acquire motor adaptation, a form of motor procedural learning, similarly to healthy older adults but they have deficits in long-term retention. A similar pattern of normal learning on initial exposure with a deficit in retention seen on subsequent days has also been seen in mirror-reading, a form of non-motor procedural learning. It is a well-studied fact that disrupting sleep will impair the consolidation of procedural memories. Given the prevalence of sleep disturbances in PD, the lack of retention on following days seen in these studies could simply be a side effect of this well-known symptom of PD. Because of this, we wondered whether people with PD would present with deficits in the short-term retention of a non-motor procedural learning task, when the test of retention was done the same day as the initial exposure. The aim of the present study was then to investigate acquisition and retention in the immediate short term of cognitive procedural learning using the mirror-reading task in people with PD. This task involved two conditions: one where triads of mirror-inverted words were always new that allowed assessing the learning of mirror-reading skill and another one where some of the triads were presented repeatedly during the experiment that allowed assessing the word-specific learning. People with PD both ON and OFF their normal medication were compared to healthy older adults and young adults. Participants were re-tested 50 minutes break after initial exposure to probe for short-term retention. The results of this study show that all groups of participants acquired and retained the two skills (mirror-reading and word-specific similarly. These results suggest that neither healthy ageing nor the degeneration within the basal ganglia that occurs in PD does affect the mechanisms

  14. The effect of long-term disinfection procedures on hardness property of resin denture teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanha, Nara Hellen; Pavarina, Ana Cláudia; Jorge, Janaina Habib; Vergani, Carlos Eduardo; Machado, Ana Lucia; Giampaolo, Eunice Teresinha

    2012-06-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of long-term disinfection procedures on the Vickers hardness (VHN) of acrylic resin denture teeth. Five acrylic resin denture teeth (Vipi Dent Plus-V, Trilux-T, Biolux-B, Postaris-P and Artiplus-A) and one composite resin denture teeth (SR-Orthosit-O) were embedded in heat-polymerised acrylic resin within polyvinylchloride tubes. Specimens were stored in distilled water at 37°C for 48 h. Measurements of hardness were taken after the following disinfection procedures: immersion for 7 days in 4% chlorhexidine gluconate or in 1% sodium hypochlorite (CIm and HIm group, respectively) and seven daily cycles of microwave sterilisation at 650 W for 6 min (MwS group). In the WIm group, specimens were maintained in water during the time used to perform the disinfection procedures (7 days). Data were analysed with anova followed by the Bonferroni procedure (α = 0.01). Microwave disinfection decreased the hardness of all acrylic resin denture teeth (p acrylic resin denture teeth A (p disinfection procedures decrease the hardness of the composite resin denture teeth (p Disinfection procedures changed the hardness of resin denture teeth. © 2011 The Gerodontology Society and John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  15. Short and long-term outcomes for bidirectional glenn procedure performed with and without cardiopulmonary bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPar, Damien J; Mery, Carlos M; Peeler, Benjamin B; Kron, Irving L; Gangemi, James J

    2012-07-01

    The bidirectional Glenn (BDG) procedure is most commonly used as staged palliation for complex cyanotic congenital heart defects. The benefits of a BDG procedure without the use of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) remain mixed within reported series. The purpose of this study was to compare short- and long-term outcomes for performance of a BDG procedure with and without the use of CPB. From 2001 to 2010, 106 patients underwent a BDG procedure. Patients were stratified into CPB (n = 72; age = 202 days) and non-CPB (n = 34; age = 182 days) groups. Primary outcomes included operative mortality and postoperative complications as well as differences in long-term Kaplan-Meier survival. Median follow-up was 30 months. Preoperative patient characteristics were similar among patients despite the use of CPB. The most frequent indications for a BDG procedure were hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) (35.8%) and tricuspid atresia (TA) (17.9%). Median perfusion time was 73 minutes for CPB patients. Overall mortality was 0.9% and no deaths occurred among non-CPB patients (0.0% versus 1.4%; p > 0.99). Similarly, no significant differences existed between non-CPB patients and CPB patients with respect to overall complication rates (11.8% versus 18.1%; p = 0.57) or postoperative length of stay (7.0 [5.0-12.0] versus 7.0 [5.0-11.0] days; p = 0.38). Furthermore, 1-, 3-, and 5-year survival was high and similar between groups. The BDG procedure can be performed with no significant differences in operative mortality, morbidity, or use of resources, with or without CPB support. Long-term survival after the BDG procedure is high with both strategies. Performance of an off-pump BDG procedure should be considered a safe alternative to the conventional use of CPB for appropriately selected patients. Copyright © 2012 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Long-term outcomes of laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy as a primary bariatric procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boza, Camilo; Daroch, David; Barros, Diego; León, Felipe; Funke, Ricardo; Crovari, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) has been established as a reliable bariatric procedure, but questions have emerged regarding its long-term results. Our aim is to report the long-term outcomes of LSG as a primary bariatric procedure. Retrospective analysis of patients submitted to LSG between 2005 and 2007 in our institution. Long-term outcomes at 5 years were analyzed in terms of body mass index (BMI), excess weight loss (EWL) and co-morbidities resolution. Surgical success was defined as %EWL>50%. Also, we compared long-term results according to preoperative BMI, using Mann-Whitney test. A total of 161 LSG were analyzed, and 114 patients (70.8%) were women. The median age was 36 years old (range 16-65), median preoperative BMI was 34.9 kg/m(2) (interquartile range [IQR], 33.3-37.5). A total of 112 patients (70%) completed 5 years of follow-up. At the fifth year, median BMI and %EWL was 28.5 kg/m(2) (IQR: 25.8-31.9) and 62.9% (IQR: 45.3-89.6), respectively, with a surgical success of 73.2% of followed patients. According to preoperative BMI, surgical success was achieved in 80% of patients with BMI40 kg/m(2), with significant lower %EWL in patients with BMI>40 kg/m(2) (P = .001 and .004). Dyslipidemia and insulin resistance resolution was 80.7% and 84.7%, respectively. A total of 26.7% of patients reported new-onset gastroesophageal reflux symptoms at 5 years. LSG as a primary procedure is a reliable surgery. We observed positive long-term outcomes of %EWL and co-morbidities resolution. In our series, best results are seen in patients with preoperative BMI<40 kg/m(2). Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. [Analysis of short-term respiratory adverse events in 183 bronchial thermoplasty procedures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nong, Y; Lin, J T; Su, N; Chen, X; Zhao, Q; Han, C Y; Qiu, R F

    2017-03-12

    Objective: To analyze the short-term (3 weeks) adverse respiratory events after bronchial thermoplasty(BT) in patients with severe asthma. Methods: The China-Japan Friendship Hospital recruited 62 patients with severe asthma for BT treatment from March 2014 to July 2016, with a total of 183 BT procedures. The data of adverse respiratory events within 3 weeks after procedure were collected to analyze the factors that might potentially influence the occurrence of adverse events. Results: Forty-three patients (69.4%) experienced adverse respiratory events within 3 weeks after treatment. Totally 153 adverse respiratory events occurred after 87 procedures(47.5%). The main adverse events were cough (15 events, 8.20%), sputum production (37 events, 20.22%), temporary PEF reduction (37 events, 20.22%), chest distress (12 events, 6.56%), blood in sputum (11 events, 6.01%), asthma exacerbation (10 events, 5.46%), and pneumonia(6 events, 3.28%). Most events were relieved or resolved with standard therapy in 1 week. No severe adverse events including tracheal intubation, malignant arrhythmias or death occurred within 3 weeks after procedure. The baseline eosinophil percentage in induced sputum and blood, operation times, and preoperative FEV(1) (% predicted) might influence the occurrence of adverse events after treatment. Patients with preoperative FEV(1) (% predicted) ≥60% had lower risk of adverse events. Conclusion: BT showed a good security profile in treating patients with severe asthma within 3 weeks after procedure.

  18. Long-term results of the Ross procedure in a population-based follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallio, Merja; Pihkala, Jaana; Sairanen, Heikki; Mattila, Ilkka

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term outcomes of the Ross procedure in a nationwide follow-up. This retrospective study involved all children treated with the Ross procedure in Finland between 1994 and 2009. The clinical records were reviewed for demographic and anatomical characteristics, Ross operation data, surgical history and status at the latest follow-up. The median follow-up time was 11.5 (range 2.4-19.2) years. Fifty-one patients underwent either the Ross (n = 37) or the Ross-Konno (n = 14) procedure at a median age of 4.8 (range 0.02-16.3) years, including 13 infants (Ross procedure was aortic valve stenosis, regurgitation or both, which was observed in 29, 24 and 47% of patients, respectively. The early mortality (before hospital discharge) rate was 10% (31% in infants) and the late mortality rate 6% (15% in infants). Higher mortality was discovered in patients treated with the Ross-Konno procedure (P = 0.001). The most common cause for reintervention was pulmonary homograft stenosis. The rate of freedom from right ventricular outflow tract reintervention was 98% at 5 years, 83% at 10 years and 59% at 15 years. The rate of freedom from autograft reintervention was 98% at 5 and 10 years, and 81% at 15 years. At the latest follow-up visit, mild-to-moderate aortic root dilatation was reported in 52% of patients, and 4 patients had undergone autograft-related reinterventions. Trivial autograft valve regurgitation was commonly seen, but only 1 patient developed severe autograft regurgitation requiring mechanical valve replacement 15.9 years after the Ross operation. The most common reason for reintervention after the Ross procedure in children is homograft stenosis. Aortic root dilatation and autograft valve regurgitation are relatively common but rarely lead to reinterventions before adulthood. Intraoperative complications and complex cardiac anatomy are associated with high mortality in infants undergoing the Ross-Konno procedure. In our

  19. Early and medium term results of the sleeve valve-sparing procedure for aortic root ectasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamba, Amando; Tasca, Giordano; Giannico, Floriana; Lobiati, Elisabetta; Skouse, Douglas; Galanti, Andrea; Martino, Antonello Stefano; Triggiani, Michele

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate our experience of using a simplified aortic valve sleeve procedure to treat aortic root ectasia and aneurysms with or without aortic regurgitation. In experienced hands, 2 aortic valve-sparing procedures, ie, Yacoub and David, have yielded excellent long-term results in the treatment of aortic root aneurysms, with or without aortic regurgitation. However, these techniques are demanding and not widely used. Recently, a new and simplified valve-sparing technique, named "sleeve procedure," has been proposed, and has yielded encouraging early results. Ninety consecutive patients with aortic root aneurysms underwent sleeve procedures from October 2006 to October 2012. Follow-up data (clinical 100% complete and echocardiographic 93% complete) were acquired from our outpatient clinic or from the referring cardiologist. The mean age of the patients was 61.5 ± 12.5 years, 79% were male, 16 (18%) had a bicuspid valve, 3 had Marfan syndrome, and 2 had aortic dissection. Over a mean clinical follow-up of 34 ± 19 months, 2 patients died from noncardiac causes and 1 was reoperated on for the recurrence of aortic regurgitation. On follow-up echocardiography after a mean of 18 ± 9 months, aortic regurgitation was absent/negligible, mild or moderate in 62%, 37%, and 1% of patients, respectively, and the diameters of the annulus, Valsalva sinuses, and sinotubular junction were 27.3 + 2.2, 37.0 + 3.4, and 30.6 + 3.1 mm, respectively. Our encouraging early and medium term results suggest that the sleeve procedure is a safe and effective aortic valve-sparing technique for the treatment of aortic root ectasia and aneurysm. However, longer follow-up is needed in order to draw definitive conclusions. Copyright © 2015 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Occlusal stability in shortened dental arches.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witter, D.J.; Creugers, N.H.J.; Kreulen, C.M.; Haan, A. de

    2001-01-01

    Shortened dental arches consisting of anterior and premolar teeth have been shown to meet oral functional demands. However, the occlusal stability may be at risk as a result of tooth migration. The aim of this nine-year study was to investigate occlusal stability in shortened dental arches as a

  1. Bentall procedure using cryopreserved valved aortic homografts: mid- to long-term results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christenson, Jan T; Sierra, Jorge; Trindade, Pedro T; Dominique, Didier; Kalangos, Afksendiyos

    2004-01-01

    The Bentall procedure is the standard operation for patients who have lesions of the ascending aorta associated with aortic valve disease. In many cases, however, mechanical prosthetic conduits are not suitable. There are few reports in the English-language medical literature concerning the mid- to long-term outcome of Bentall operations with cryopreserved homografts. Therefore, we reviewed our experience with this procedure and valved homografts. From January 1997 through December 2002, 21 patients underwent a Bentall operation with cryopreserved homografts at our institution. There were 14 males and 7 females; the mean age was 36 +/- 21 years (range, 15-74 years). Eleven patients had undergone previous aortic valve surgery. All patients had aortic dilatation or aneurysms involving the ascending aorta. Indications for surgery included aortic valve stenosis or insufficiency, and aortic valve endocarditis (native valve or prosthetic). One patient had Takayasu's arteritis and 3 had Marfan syndrome. There was 1 hospital death (due to sepsis), but no other major postoperative complications. The mean hospital stay was 14 +/- 7 days. Follow-up echocardiographic and computed tomographic scans were performed yearly. The mean follow-up was 34 months (6-72 months). Follow-up imaging revealed no calcifications or degenerative processes related to the homograft. Four patients had minimal valve regurgitation. Two patients died during follow-up. The 3-year actuarial survival rate was 85.7%. Our data suggest that the Bentall procedure with a valved homograft conduit is a safe procedure with excellent mid- to long-term results, comparable to results reported with aortic valve replacement with a homograft.

  2. Long-term Evaluation of the Ross Procedure in Acute Infective Endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratschiller, Thomas; Sames-Dolzer, Eva; Paulus, Patrick; Schimetta, Wolfgang; Müller, Hannes; Zierer, Andreas F; Mair, Rudolf

    2017-10-05

    Optimal valve substitute for young patients with aortic valve endocarditis remains controversial. Given its better resistance to infection, the Ross procedure is an attractive alternative to prosthetic valve replacement or homograft implantation. The objective of this study was to assess long-term outcomes of the Ross procedure in this indication. From January 1991 to April 2017, 190 patients underwent a Ross procedure at our institution. Acute endocarditis was the indication for operation in 19 patients, including 6 patients with a bicuspid aortic valve. The pulmonary autograft was implanted as freestanding root replacement in all patients. The clinical follow-up is 100% complete, with a mean of 12.0 ± 5.7 years. The mean age of the study population was 35.9 ± 11.5 years. Moderate or severe aortic regurgitation was present in 84.2% of the patients. Systemic embolization had occurred in 36.8% of the patients. The mean aortic cross-clamp time was 126 ± 24 minutes. The median length of stay on the intensive care unit was 1 day. Mortality at 30 days was 5.3% (1 patient with gastrointestinal bleeding). Echocardiography at hospital discharge documented no or trivial aortic regurgitation in all patients. No case of recurrent endocarditis affecting the autograft occurred. One patient (0.4% per patient-year) was reoperated 1.8 years after the Ross procedure for homograft endocarditis. Three patients (15.8%) were reoperated for autograft aneurysm. The Ross procedure is a safe and effective alternative to prosthetic valve replacement or homograft implantation in selected young patients with acute endocarditis with a low rate of recurrent infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Rice bran oil an alternate bakery shortening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Amarjeet; Jassal, Vishaldeep; Thind, S S; Aggarwal, Poonam

    2012-02-01

    Studies were carried out to replace bakery shortening with refined rice bran oil in bread preparation. Physico-chemical properties of bakery shortening and rice bran oil were studied. Rice bran oil was found to have a higher content of essential fatty acid linoleic acid (34.98%) as compared to that of bakery shortening (5.14%). Chemical composition of wheat flour used was also evaluation. Bread samples were prepared by replacing bakery shortening with rice bran oil at 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% levels. Breads were examined for bread making quality i.e. loaf weight, loaf height, loaf volume and specific volume and organoleptic quality i.e. appearance, crust colour, crumb colour, aroma, texture, taste and overall acceptability on a 9 point hedonic scale. Statistical analysis regarding bread making quality and organoleptic quality of bread revealed that bread making and organoleptic quality of breads prepared after replacing bakery shortening with rice bran oil at 50% level varied significantly from that of control. Statistically significant variations were observed in the texture of breads prepared with shortening from that prepared after replacing bakery shortening with rice bran oil at 50% level.

  4. On convergence rates for iteratively regularized procedures with linear penalty terms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnova, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    The impact of this paper is twofold. First, we study convergence rates of the iteratively regularized Gauss–Newton (IRGN) algorithm with a linear penalty term under a generalized source assumption and show how the regularizing properties of new iterations depend on the solution smoothness. Secondly, we introduce an adaptive IRGN procedure, which is investigated under a relaxed smoothness condition. The introduction and analysis of a more general penalty term are of great importance since, apart from bringing stability to the numerical scheme designed for solving a large class of applied inverse problems, it allows us to incorporate various types of a priori information available on the model. Both a priori and a posteriori stopping rules are investigated. For the a priori stopping rule, optimal convergence rates are derived. A numerical example illustrating convergence rates is considered. (paper)

  5. Short-Term and Procedural Memory for Colours and Inferior Temporal Cortex Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Castro-Sierra

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Two children (male, 10 years, and female, 13 years one month with tumours of the inferior temporal (IT cortex of the brain were studied post-surgically for their abilities to carry out a short-term memory test. This involved: differences in colour, number and shape of small plastic objects; differences in receptacles where these objects should be placed and in ways in which this placement should be done; a procedural task involving differences either in colour or in size of wooden rings employed in the task. Their performances in these tests, and those of patients with tumours of other encephalic areas, were compared with the performances of normal controls. The subjects with IT tumours spent a significantly greater amount of time than normal subjects of their age in carrying out the procedural task involving differences in colour. One of the IT subjects also spent a significantly greater amount of time in the procedural task involving size differences. Other differences in the performances of patients with encephalic tumours and the performances of normal controls were not significant. Results are discussed in relation to findings of colour and size perception and memory localized to the inferior temporal and middle temporal cortices.

  6. Long-term results of modified Bentall procedure using flanged composite aortic prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Kiyoshi; Arai, Hirokuni; Kawaguchi, Satoru; Makita, Satoru; Miyagi, Naoto; Watanabe, Taiju; Fujiwara, Tatsuki

    2013-01-01

    We have been using the flanged composite aortic prosthesis and Carrel button technique to re-attach the coronary ostia in aortic root replacement procedures at our institution over the last twenty five years. Our objective was to evaluate the long-term results of aortic root replacement with this technique. A total of 73 patients from January 1984 to August 2010 were included in this study. The median age was 52.7 ± 14.4 years (range 28-80 years). There were 48 male and 25 female patients. 44 patients (60.3%) had annuloaortic ectasia, and 15 patients (20.5%) had acute type A aortic dissection. Marfan syndrome was recognized in 12 patients (16.5%). The early mortality rate was 5.5% (n = 4). Causes of death were multiple organ failures in two patients and sepsis in another two patients. The actuarial survival rate was 84.2% at 5 years, 64.3% at 15 years and 51.9% at 25 years. Only one patient with aortitis needed a reoperation because of coronary pseudoaneurysm after 23 years from the previous operation. This modified Bentall procedure is reliable and safe, with superior long-term survival and a low rate of aortic reoperation.

  7. [Long-term outcome of aortic valve sparing procedures in connective tissue disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Hiroshi; Ogino, H; Matsuda, H; Minatoya, K; Sasaki, N

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the long-term outcome of aortic valve sparing procedures for patients having connective tissue disorder. Between 1993 and 2008, the aortic valve sparing surgery was performed in 94 patients having aortic root dilatation. Eighty patients of them (37.2 +/- 13.4 years, 50 male) had cystic medial necrosis in the aortic wall, which was confirmed the pathological examination. We reviewed these patients. Sixty percent (48/80) had Marfan syndrome, 5% (4/80) had Loeyz-Dietz syndrome, 2% (2/80) had bicuspid aortic valve, and 11% (9/80) had aortic dissection. Our reimplantation procedure has been refined as followed: with a tube graft in 41, a tube graft with creation of neo-sinuses in 11, and a Valsalva graft in 14. Fourteen patients underwent the remodeling procedure. The follow-up rate was 100% with the duration of 3.7+/- 3.4 years. There were no operative death but six late deaths. Seventeen (21.3%) patients required aortic valve replacement, for recurrent aortic insufficiency in 13 and infection in 4. Freedom from reoperation was 80%, 43%, and freedom from moderate or severe aortic insufficiency was 80%, 54%, at 5 and 10 years, respectively. Pathological findings of the aortic valve obtained in the reoperations showed elongation and prolapse of the aortic valve due to myxomatous degeneration and fibrous thickening caused by aortic insufficiency. Even in connective tissue disorders, aortic valve sparing operation is associated with acceptable long-term durability, although cusp degeneration resulting in recurrent aortic insufficiency might be progressive.

  8. Comparison of vegetable shortening and cocoa butter as vehicles for cortisol manipulation in Salmo trutta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birnie-Gauvin, Kim; Peiman, K. S.; Larsen, M. H.

    2018-01-01

    This study demonstrates that vegetable shortening and cocoa butter are two effective vehicles for intraperitoneal cortisol implants in juvenile teleosts, specifically brown trout Salmo trutta, residing in north temperate freshwater environments. Each vehicle showed a different pattern of cortisol...... elevation. Vegetable shortening was found to be a more suitable vehicle for long-term cortisol elevation [elevated at 3, 6 and 9 days post treatment (dpt)], while cocoa butter may be better suited for short-term cortisol elevation (only elevated at 3 dpt). Additionally, plasma cortisol levels were higher...... with cortisol–vegetable shortening than with cortisol–cocoa butter implants. Plasma glucose levels were elevated 6 and 9 dpt for fishes injected with cortisol–vegetable shortening, but did not change relative to controls and shams in cortisol–cocoa butter fishes. In conclusion, vegetable shortening and cocoa...

  9. The open latarjet procedure is more reliable in terms of shoulder stability than arthroscopic bankart repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessière, Charles; Trojani, Christophe; Carles, Michel; Mehta, Saurabh S; Boileau, Pascal

    2014-08-01

    Arthroscopic Bankart repair and open Latarjet bone block procedure are widely considered mainstays for surgical treatment of recurrent anterior shoulder instability. The choice between these procedures depends mainly on surgeon preference or training rather than published evidence. We compared patients with recurrent posttraumatic anterior shoulder instability treated with arthroscopic Bankart or open Latarjet procedure in terms of (1) frequency and timing of recurrent instability, (2) risk factors for recurrent instability, and (3) patient-reported outcomes. In this retrospective comparative study, we paired 93 patients undergoing open Latarjet procedures with 93 patients undergoing arthroscopic Bankart repairs over the same period for posttraumatic anterior shoulder instability by one of four surgeons at the same center. Both groups were comparable except that patients in the Latarjet group had more glenoid lesions and more instability episodes preoperatively. Minimum followup was 4 years (mean, 6 years; range, 4-10 years). Patients were assessed with a questionnaire, including stability, Rowe score, and return to sports. Recurrent instability was defined as at least one episode of recurrent dislocation or subluxation. Return to sports was evaluated using a 0% to 100% scale that patients completed after recovery from surgery. Various risk factors for recurrent instability were also analyzed. At latest followup, 10% (nine of 93) in the Latarjet group and 22% (20 of 93) in the Bankart group demonstrated recurrent instability (p = 0.026; odds ratio, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.17-0.91). Ten recurrences in the Bankart group (50%) occurred after 2 years, compared to only one (11%) in the Latarjet group. Reoperation rate was 6% and 7% in the Bankart and Latarjet groups, respectively. In both groups, patients younger than 20 years had higher recurrence risk (p = 0.019). In the Bankart group, independent factors predictive for recurrence were practice of competitive sports and

  10. Understanding of Technical Terms and Contents of Informed Consent Forms for Sedative Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihnsook Jeong, RN, PhD

    2013-03-01

    Conclusion: The understanding of the terms and knowledge about the procedures were disappointing. Therefore, sufficient explanations should be provided to the patients. While the informed consent was taken by doctors, the level of understanding should be monitored by nurses. In particular, subjects who did not have any previous experience with endoscopy procedures showed relatively lower level of understanding. We recommend that medical terms should be replaced with more common and nontechnical words in consent forms.

  11. David I reimplantation procedure for aortic root replacement in Marfan patients: medium-term outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kari, Fabian A; Beyersdorf, Friedhelm; Rylski, Bartosz; Stephens, Elizabeth H; Russe, Maximilian; Siepe, Matthias

    2014-11-01

    Technical variations of the David reimplantation valve-sparing aortic root replacement (V-SARR) procedure have been proposed to be advantageous in patients with connective tissue disease, such as the Marfan syndrome (MFS). We report results of a Marfan cohort treated exclusively with the non-modified David I procedure. Forty-eight Marfan patients (25 males, mean age 33 ± 12 years, range 15-62 years) underwent the original variant of the David V-SARR (David I) between 1997 and 2013. Forty-two operations (88%) were performed as elective procedures for aortic root aneurysms and six for acute dissections (12%). Seventeen had aortic regurgitation (AR) grades ≥2+ preoperatively, and 3 had AR >2+. No patients with severe AR (4+) were selected for V-SARR. Three full or hemi-arch replacements were performed. Patients who were operated on using a variation of the David I or David II procedure were excluded. Mean prosthesis size was 28 ± 3 mm (18-30 mm). Mean clinical and echocardiographic follow-up (98% complete) was 3.8 ± 3.7 years with a cumulative follow-up of 178 patient-years. The early mortality rate was 2% (one hospital death). The survival rate was 98% (95% confidence 84-99%) at 4 years and 90% (57-98%) at 8 years with 5 patients at risk at 10 years. The rate of freedom from root or valve reoperation was 97% (79-99%) and 97% (79-99%) at 4 and 8 years, respectively. Only one patient required mechanical aortic valve replacement for progression of AR. Despite potential theoretical drawbacks of the David I V-SARR technique without neo-sinuses or a neo-sinotubular junction, it results in a favourable mid-term outcome in Marfan patients and compares well with reported results of different modifications of David V-SARR. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  12. Pacemaker replacement in nonagenarians: Procedural safety and long-term follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loirat, Aurélie; Fénéon, Damien; Behaghel, Albin; Behar, Nathalie; Le Helloco, Alain; Mabo, Philippe; Daubert, Jean-Claude; Leclercq, Christophe; Martins, Raphaël P

    2015-01-01

    The rate of pacemaker implantation is rising. Given that the life expectancy of the population is projected to increase, a large number of elderly patients are likely to be implanted in the future. As pacemaker batteries can last for 8-10years, an increasing number of pacemaker recipients will require replacement of their devices when they become nonagenarians. To analyse the short- and long-term outcomes after device replacement in nonagenarians. Patients aged≥90years referred to a tertiary centre for pacemaker replacement from January 2004 to July 2014 were included retrospectively. Clinical follow-up data were obtained from clinical visits or telephone interviews with patients or their families. The primary clinical endpoint was total mortality. Secondary endpoints included early and delayed procedure-related complications and predictive risk factors for total mortality. Sixty-two patients were included (mean age 93.3±2.9years at time of pacemaker replacement). Mean procedure duration was 35.7±17.2minutes. Mean hospital stay was 2.2±1.1days. One patient died from a perioperative complication. Thirty-seven patients (59.7%) died during a median follow-up of 22.1months (interquartile range, 11.8-39.8months). Survival rates were 84.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] 71.8-91.5%) at 1year, 66.9% (95% CI 51.8-78.2%) at 2years and 22.7% (95% CI 10.6-37.7%) at 5years. Atrial fibrillation (hazard ratio 2.47, 95% CI 1.1-5.6) and non-physiological pacing (i.e. VVI pacing in patients in sinus rhythm) (hazard ratio 2.20, 95% CI 1.0-4.9) were predictors of mortality. Pacemaker replacement in nonagenarians is a safe and straightforward procedure. These data suggest that procedures can be performed securely in this old and frail population, with patients living for a median of 30months afterwards. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Shortened duration ILRT's versus ILRT failure detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, C.L.; Renton, T.E.

    1984-01-01

    The shortened duration integrated leakage rate test, (ILRT) e.g., less than 24 hours, has always been of significant interest to the nuclear utility industry. Not surprisingly, this interest is due to the fact that most ILRT's are typically conducted on the critical path of an outage. The key requirement for a shortened impact on the critical path is a method to determine the minimum number of hours after stabilization that would accurately represent containment leakage. Compounding the issue of shortened duration test methodology is the existence of three different analytical techniques to reduce the data. These techniques are known as: point-to-point, total time, and mass point. The purpose of this paper is to present an argument favoring shortened duration testing and illustrating that the EPRI criteria (as contained in EPRI NP-3400) can be used to determine the duration of an ILRT. The essential element in the arguments presented is that performing a shortened duration ILRT does not prevent reliable ILRT failure detection

  14. Procedure for the delivering of personal short-term visitor dosimeters

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Update of the administrative procedure for delivering a personal short-term visitor dosimeter to associated members of CERN’s personnel.   Associated members of the CERN personnel may request a short term visitor dosimeter if working only in Supervised Radiation Areas and for a period of less than two months in a calendar year. Such a dosimeter is delivered without the need to provide the usual regular documents: radiation passport, certificate from the home institute or medical certificate. Periodic verification will ensure that holders of these personal dosimeters do not exceed the maximum allowed personal dose for this type of dosimeter, which is the same as the limit for members of the public at 1 mSv per year. From now on, the two-month period can be spread over a calendar year, offering greater flexibility to users coming to CERN for multiple short periods. Please return unused dosimeters Persons leaving CERN for a period of more than one month should return their dosimeter to the D...

  15. Long-term prediction test procedure for most ICs, based on linear response theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litovchenko, V.; Ivakhnenko, I.

    1991-01-01

    Experimentally, thermal annealing is known to be a factor which enables a number of different integrated circuits (IC's) to recover their operating characteristics after suffering radiation damage in the space radiation environment; thus, decreasing and limiting long term cumulative total-dose effects. This annealing is also known to be accelerated at elevated temperatures both during and after irradiation. Linear response theory (LRT) was applied, and a linear response function (LRF) to predict the radiation/annealing response of sensitive parameters of IC's for long term (several months or years) exposure to the space radiation environment were constructed. Compressing the annealing process from several years in orbit to just a few hours or days in the laboratory is achieved by subjecting the IC to elevated temperatures or by increasing the typical spaceflight dose rate by several orders of magnitude for simultaneous radiation/annealing only. The accomplishments are as follows: (1) the test procedure to make predictions of the radiation response was developed; (2) the calculation of the shift in the threshold potential due to the charge distribution in the oxide was written; (3) electron tunneling processes from the bulk Si to the oxide region in an MOS IC were estimated; (4) in order to connect the experimental annealing data to the theoretical model, constants of the model of the basic annealing process were established; (5) experimental data obtained at elevated temperatures were analyzed; (6) time compression and reliability of predictions for the long term region were shown; (7) a method to compress test time and to make predictions of response for the nonlinear region was proposed; and (8) nonlinearity of the LRF with respect to log(t) was calculated theoretically from a model.

  16. A Shortened versus Standard Matched Postpartum Magnesium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Magnesium sulphate is currently the most ideal drug for the treatment of eclampsia but its use in Nigeria is still limited due its cost and clinicians inexperience with the drug. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a shortened postpartum course of magnesium sulphate is as effective as the standard Pritchard ...

  17. Preventing and controlling human noroviruses in South Carolina long-term care facilities: An analysis of institutional policies and procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasekara, Lalani; Leone, Cortney M; Sharp, Julia; Fraser, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Long-term care (LTC) facilities are the number one setting for human norovirus (HuNoV) outbreaks in the United States (60%). We aimed to determine alignment of policies and procedures in LTC facilities in South Carolina with Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommendations and to determine readability based on Federal Plain Language Guidelines and Microsoft Word readability statistics. Most facilities (n = 21) had procedures for hand hygiene, but recommendations for handwashing events and duration varied greatly. Less than half (n = 11) had separate procedures devoted to HuNoV outbreak control. Fifteen required disinfection of bodily fluids. Seven had procedures for exclusion of sick staff during an outbreak. Both hand hygiene and bodily fluid cleanup procedures had low mean scores for readability. Mean Flesch Reading Ease and Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level for both procedures were in the range of difficult to understand. Most LTC policies and procedures were not consistent with CDC recommendations for HuNoV. Moreover, readability of all procedures is needed so LTC workers can easily understand and implement prevention and control procedures. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Mid-term results of different aortic valve-sparing procedures in Marfan syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidtke, Claudia; Karluss, Antje; Sier, Holger; Hüppe, Michael; Brauer, Kirk; Sievers, Hans-H

    2012-03-01

    Marfan patients with aortic root aneurysm are typically treated with the Bentall procedure, though aortic valve-sparing procedures (AVSPs) are also possible. The study aim was to compare the authors' experience with two such techniques performed at their institution, namely a reimplantation according to David (David I) and remodeling according to Yacoub. Between 1996 and 2009, a total of 37 Marfan patients underwent an AVSP at the authors' institution. Of these patients, 25 (mean age 32 +/- 14.9 years) underwent surgery according to David (group D), and 12 (mean age 35 +/- 10.9 years) according to Yacoub (group Y). The patients underwent both clinical and echocardiographic follow up examinations at a mean of 42.0 +/- 36.4 months after surgery. One patient from each group had moved abroad and was lost to follow up. The remaining 35 patients were alive at follow up, and none presented with any major neurological or bleeding complications. In addition, no significant differences were noted between the groups in terms of NYHA classification, left ventricular function, or left ventricular diameter. At follow up, aortic valve function was also comparable between groups, with a peak/mean gradient of 9.4 +/- 6.4/5.3 +/- 3.5 mmHg and 5.1 +/- 3.3/2.8 +/- 1.5 mmHg for groups D and Y, respectively (p = 0.081/0.058). The measured mean grades of aortic valve regurgitation were comparable in groups D and Y (0.6 +/- 0.7 and 1.1 +/- 0.6, respectively; p = 0.055). However, aortic root dimensions obtained via M-mode were smaller in group D patients (29.6 +/- 2.3 mm) than in group Y patients (36.1 +/- 6.6 mm) (p = 0.027). Only three patients from group Y required reoperation on the aortic valve due to valvular regurgitation (p = 0.028); two of these had presented with aortic dissection at the first operation. Both types of AVSP can be performed with comparably good interim clinical results, and also low mortality and morbidity, in patients with Marfan syndrome.

  19. Methods for Shortening and Extending the Carbon Chain in Carbohydrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monrad, Rune Nygaard

    2008-01-01

    in this thesis focuses on the development and application of transition metal mediated methods for shortening and extending the carbon chain in carbohydrates thereby providing access to lower and higher sugars.A new catalytic procedure for shortening unprotected sugars by one carbon atom has been developed....... The procedure has been employed as the key step in a short five-step synthesis of the unnatural sugar L-threose in 74% overall yield from D-glucose. A zinc-mediated one-pot fragmentation-allylation reaction has been used to elongate D-glucose and D-ribose by three carbon atoms thereby producing carbohydrate......-derived α,ω-dienes, which have been converted into the natural products calystegine A3 and gabosine A. The glycosidase inhibitor calystegine A3 was produced by two similar routes from commercially available methyl α-D-glucopyranoside in 13 and 14 steps with 8.3 and 5.3% overall yield, respectively...

  20. Shortening Scarf osteotomy for correction of severe hallux valgus. Does shortening affect the outcome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpe, Prasad; Killen, Marie C; Pollock, Raymond D; Limaye, Rajiv

    2016-12-01

    Translation and shortening of Scarf osteotomy allows correction of severe hallux valgus deformity. Shortening may result in transfer metatarsalgia. To evaluate outcome of patients undergoing shortening Scarf osteotomy for severe hallux valgus deformities. Fifteen patients (20feet, mean age 58 years) underwent shortening Scarf osteotomy for severe hallux valgus deformities. Outcomes were pre and postoperative AOFAS scores, IM and HV angles, patient satisfaction. Mean follow-up was 25 months (range 22-30). The IM angle improved from a median of 18.60 (range 13.4-26.20) preoperatively to 9.70 (range 8.0-13.70) postoperatively (8.9; 95% CI=7.6-10.3; phallux valgus deformities with no transfer metatarsalgia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Short- and long-term effects of clinical audits on compliance with procedures in CT scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveri, Antonio; Howarth, Nigel; Gevenois, Pierre Alain; Tack, Denis

    2016-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that quality clinical audits improve compliance with the procedures in computed tomography (CT) scanning. This retrospective study was conducted in two hospitals, based on 6950 examinations and four procedures, focusing on the acquisition length in lumbar spine CT, the default tube current applied in abdominal un-enhanced CT, the tube potential selection for portal phase abdominal CT and the use of a specific ''paediatric brain CT'' procedure. The first clinical audit reported compliance with these procedures. After presenting the results to the stakeholders, a second audit was conducted to measure the impact of this information on compliance and was repeated the next year. Comparisons of proportions were performed using the Chi-square Pearson test. Depending on the procedure, the compliance rate ranged from 27 to 88 % during the first audit. After presentation of the audit results to the stakeholders, the compliance rate ranged from 68 to 93 % and was significantly improved for all procedures (P ranging from <0.001 to 0.031) in both hospitals and remained unchanged during the third audit (P ranging from 0.114 to 0.999). Quality improvement through repeated compliance audits with CT procedures durably improves this compliance. (orig.)

  2. Legal terms in general dictionaries of English: The civil procedure mystery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2015-01-01

    Many general language dictionaries contain specialized terms, including legal terms relating to civil lawsuits. The existing literature provides general discussions of scientific and technical terms in ordinary dictionaries but does not specifically address the inclusion of legal terms. This study...... of the old terms but fail to include the new terms that have been in use for more than 15 years. Why this is the case is a mystery. However, some clues indicate that if they pay more attention to the link between dictionary functions, corpora and the data presented in dictionaries, lexicographers may be able...

  3. Long-Term Restoration of Anterior Shoulder Stability: A Retrospective Analysis of Arthroscopic Bankart Repair Versus Open Latarjet Procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Stefan M; Scheyerer, Max J; Farshad, Mazda; Catanzaro, Sabrina; Rahm, Stefan; Gerber, Christian

    2016-12-07

    Various operative techniques are used for treating recurrent anterior shoulder instability, and good mid-term results have been reported. The purpose of this study was to compare shoulder stability after treatment with the 2 commonly performed procedures, the arthroscopic Bankart soft-tissue repair and the open coracoid transfer according to Latarjet. A comparative, retrospective case-cohort analysis of 360 patients (364 shoulders) who had primary repair for recurrent anterior shoulder instability between 1998 and 2007 was performed. The minimum duration of follow-up was 6 years. Reoperations, overt recurrent instability (defined as recurrent dislocation or subluxation), apprehension, the subjective shoulder value (SSV), sports participation, and overall satisfaction were recorded. An open Latarjet procedure was performed in 93 shoulders, and an arthroscopic Bankart repair was done in 271 shoulders. Instability or apprehension persisted or recurred after 11% (10) of the 93 Latarjet procedures and after 41.7% (113) of the 271 arthroscopic Bankart procedures. Overt instability recurred after 3% of the Latarjet procedures and after 28.4% (77) of the Bankart procedures. In the Latarjet group, 3.2% of the patients were not satisfied with their result compared with 13.2% in the Bankart group (p = 0.007). Kaplan-Meier analysis of survivorship, with apprehension (p Latarjet procedure and the decreasing effectiveness of the arthroscopic Bankart repair over time. Twenty percent of the first recurrences after arthroscopic Bankart occurred no earlier than 91 months postoperatively, as opposed to the rare recurrences after osseous reconstruction, which occurred in the early postoperative period, with only rare late failures. In this retrospective cohort study, the arthroscopic Bankart procedure was inferior to the open Latarjet procedure for repair of recurrent anterior shoulder dislocation. The difference between the 2 procedures with respect to the quality of outcomes

  4. Limb shortening osteotomy in a patient with achondroplasia and leg length difference after total hip arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian L. Galata

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Achondroplasia is the most common reason for disproportionate short stature. Normally, orthopedic limb lengthening procedures must be discussed in the course of this genetic disorder and have been successful in numerous achondroplastic patients in the past. In some cases, the disease may lead to leg length differences with need for surgical correction. Case Report: We report a case of achondroplastic dysplastic coxarthrosis with symptomatic leg length difference after bilateral total hip arthroplasty in a 52-year-old female patient, in which a distal femoral shortening osteotomy was successfully performed. Conclusion: Femoral shortening osteotomy is very uncommon in patients with achondroplasia. We conclude, however, that in rare cases it can be indicated and provide the advantage of shorter operation time, less perioperative complications and faster recovery compared to leg lengthening procedures. Keywords: Achondroplasia, dysplastic coxarthrosis, limb shortening, distal femur osteotomy.

  5. Compression and Combining Based on Channel Shortening and Rank Reduction Technique for Cooperative Wireless Sensor Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Qasim Zeeshan

    2013-12-18

    This paper investigates and compares the performance of wireless sensor networks where sensors operate on the principles of cooperative communications. We consider a scenario where the source transmits signals to the destination with the help of L sensors. As the destination has the capacity of processing only U out of these L signals, the strongest U signals are selected while the remaining (L?U) signals are suppressed. A preprocessing block similar to channel-shortening is proposed in this contribution. However, this preprocessing block employs a rank-reduction technique instead of channel-shortening. By employing this preprocessing, we are able to decrease the computational complexity of the system without affecting the bit error rate (BER) performance. From our simulations, it can be shown that these schemes outperform the channel-shortening schemes in terms of computational complexity. In addition, the proposed schemes have a superior BER performance as compared to channel-shortening schemes when sensors employ fixed gain amplification. However, for sensors which employ variable gain amplification, a tradeoff exists in terms of BER performance between the channel-shortening and these schemes. These schemes outperform channel-shortening scheme for lower signal-to-noise ratio.

  6. Postoperative Urinary Retention is an Independent Predictor of Short-Term and Long-Term Future Bladder Outlet Procedure in Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, Robert H; Vedachalam, Srikanth; Shah, Arpeet S; Kothari, Anai N; Kuo, Paul C; Gupta, Gopal N; Turk, Thomas M T

    2017-11-01

    Postoperative urinary retention is a common complication across surgical specialties. To our knowledge no literature to date has examined postoperative urinary retention as a predictor of long-term receipt of surgery for bladder outlet obstruction. We retrospectively reviewed the records of inpatients who underwent nonurological surgery in California between 2008 and 2010. Postoperative urinary retention during the index admission was identified, as was receipt of a bladder outlet procedure (transurethral prostate resection, prostate photoselective vaporization or suprapubic prostatectomy) at a subsequent encounter. Patients were matched using propensity scoring of demographics, comorbidities and surgery type. Adjusted Kaplan-Meier analysis was performed to determine the cumulative incidence of subsequent bladder outlet procedures by patient group, including group 1-age 60 years or greater and postoperative urinary retention, group 2-age 60 years or greater and no postoperative urinary retention, group 3-age less than 60 years and postoperative urinary retention, and group 4-age less than 60 years and no postoperative urinary retention. Of 769,141 eligible male patients postoperative urinary retention developed in 8,051 (1.1%). Following hospital discharge 1,855 patients (0.24%) underwent a bladder outlet procedure. Those treated with a bladder outlet procedure were significantly more likely to have experienced postoperative urinary retention during the index admission (6.3% vs 1.0%, p outlet procedure rate at 3 years was 7.1%, 2.2%, 0.8% and 0.0% in groups 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively. In men 60 years old or older postoperative urinary retention identified those with an increased incidence of bladder outlet procedures within 3 years. Men younger than 60 years had a low rate of subsequent bladder outlet procedures regardless of a postoperative urinary retention diagnosis. Copyright © 2017 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by

  7. Long-Term Outcomes of the Ross Procedure Versus Mechanical Aortic Valve Replacement: Propensity-Matched Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazine, Amine; David, Tirone E; Rao, Vivek; Hickey, Edward J; Christie, Shakira; Manlhiot, Cedric; Ouzounian, Maral

    2016-08-23

    The ideal aortic valve substitute in young and middle-aged adults remains unknown. We sought to compare the long-term outcomes of patients undergoing the Ross procedure and those receiving a mechanical aortic valve replacement (AVR). From 1990 to 2014, 258 patients underwent a Ross procedure and 1444 had a mechanical AVR at a single institution. Patients were matched into 208 pairs through the use of a propensity score. Mean age was 37.2±10.2 years, and 63% were male. Mean follow-up was 14.2±6.5 years. Overall survival was equivalent (Ross versus AVR: hazard ratio, 0.91, 95% confidence interval, 0.38-2.16; P=0.83), although freedom from cardiac- and valve-related mortality was improved in the Ross group (Ross versus AVR: hazard ratio, 0.22; 95% confidence interval, 0.034-0.86; P=0.03). Freedom from reintervention was equivalent after both procedures (Ross versus AVR: hazard ratio, 1.86; 95% confidence interval, 0.76-4.94; P=0.18). Long-term freedom from stroke or major bleeding was superior after the Ross procedure (Ross versus AVR: hazard ratio, 0.09; 95% confidence interval, 0.02-0.31; PRoss procedure and mechanical AVR. However, the Ross procedure was associated with improved freedom from cardiac- and valve-related mortality and a significant reduction in the incidence of stroke and major bleeding. In specialized centers, the Ross procedure represents an excellent option and should be considered for young and middle-aged adults undergoing AVR. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. Renal failure induces telomere shortening in the rat heart

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wong, L. S.; Windt, W. A.; Roks, A. J.; van Dokkum, R. P.; Schoemaker, R. G.; de Zeeuw, D.; Henning, R. H.

    Background. Renal failure aggravates pathological cardiac remodelling induced by myocardial infarction (MI). Cardiac remodelling is associated with telomere shortening, a marker for biological ageing. We investigated whether mild and severe renal failure shorten cardiac telomeres and excessively

  9. Radial shortening osteotomy reduces radiocapitellar contact pressures while preserving valgus stability of the elbow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackl, Michael; Wegmann, Kilian; Kahmann, Stephanie L; Heinze, Nicolai; Staat, Manfred; Neiss, Wolfram F; Scaal, Martin; Müller, Lars P

    2017-07-01

    Shortening osteotomy of the proximal radius might represent a potential salvage procedure in symptomatic radiocapitellar osteoarthritis, which could decrease radiocapitellar load while preserving the native radial head. In an in-vitro biomechanical investigation, we sought to determine whether shortening osteotomy of the proximal radius (1) decreases the radiocapitellar joint pressure upon axial loading and (2) retains valgus stability of the elbow. In addition, the anatomic configuration of the lesser sigmoid notch was evaluated to assess possible contraindications. Axial loading (0-400 N) and valgus torque (7.5 N m) over the full range of motion were applied to 14 fresh-frozen specimens before and after shortening osteotomy of the proximal radius by 2.5 mm. Radiocapitellar and ulnohumeral load distribution during axial compression was evaluated using a digital pressure mapping sensor. Valgus displacement was analyzed with a 3D camera system. The inclination angle (α) of the lesser sigmoid notch was assessed via 50 CT scans. Up to axial loading of 250 N, shortening osteotomy caused a significant decrease in radiocapitellar contact pressures (p 20° (type III). Shortening osteotomy of the proximal radius can decrease radiocapitellar contact pressures during axial loading of up to 250 N. Primary valgus stability is not relevantly influenced by this procedure. In few patients, shortening osteotomy may cause radioulnar impingement of the radial head at the distal edge of the lesser sigmoid notch due to an inclination angle of >20°. Shortening osteotomy might be a promising treatment option to decrease pain levels in case of isolated radiocapitellar osteoarthritis.

  10. Patellar tendon shortening for flexed knee gait in spastic diplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sossai, Roberto; Vavken, Patrick; Brunner, Reinald; Camathias, Carlo; Graham, H Kerr; Rutz, Erich

    2015-02-01

    We evaluated the outcome of three different approaches to the management of flexed knee gait patients with spastic diplegia. The three surgical procedures were patellar tendon shortening (PTS), PTS combined with rotational osteotomies of the femur and/or tibia, and PTS combined with supracondylar extension osteotomy (SEO) of the distal femur. The primary outcome measure was gait kinematics. The knee gait variable score (GVS) and the gait profile score (GPS) were derived from gait kinematics. 24 patients (16 male and 8 female), mean age 16.1 years (SD 5.8 years), who had surgery between 2002 and 2008, were followed for a mean of 22 months. Knee extension during gait improved by a mean of 20° throughout the gait cycle, with an improvement in the knee GVS of 14° (pspastic diplegia is both feasible and appropriate. Level III. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Short-term Complications of the Arthroscopic Latarjet Procedure: A North American Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athwal, George S; Meislin, Robert; Getz, Charles; Weinstein, David; Favorito, Paul

    2016-10-01

    To report on the intraoperative and early postoperative (Latarjet procedure in patients with complex anterior shoulder instability. Between 2010 and 2014, 83 patients underwent an arthroscopic Latarjet procedure for recurrent post-traumatic anterior instability. The group's mean age was 28 ± 10 years and consisted of 76 (92%) male patients. A "problem" was defined as an unanticipated perioperative event that was not likely to affect the patient's final outcome. A "complication" was defined as an event that was likely to negatively affect outcome. At a mean follow-up of 17 months (range, 3 to 43 months), 20 (24%) patients sustained either a problem and/or a complication. The problem rate was 18% and the complication rate was 10%. The most commonly encountered adverse event was intraoperative fracture of the coracoid graft, which occurred in 6 patients (7%). In addition, 1 arthroscopic case was intraoperatively converted to open and 1 patient sustained a transient axillary nerve injury. A total of 7 cases underwent secondary operative procedures. The rate of problems and/or complications in primary cases was not significantly different than revision cases (P = .335). The rate of adverse events reported in this arthroscopic series is not insignificant and is similar to that reported with the traditional open Latarjet. With appropriate training, the arthroscopic Latarjet procedure can be effective for the management of patients with complex shoulder instability. Level IV, therapeutic case series. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Arthroscopic Latarjet procedure with double-button fixation: short-term complications and learning curve analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnevialle, Nicolas; Thélu, Charles Edouard; Bouju, Yves; Vogels, Jérôme; Agout, Charles; Duriez, Pauline; Azoulay, Vadim

    2018-01-12

    The arthroscopic Latarjet with double-button fixation is a guided procedure recently proposed to treat anterior shoulder instability with glenoid bone loss. The goal of this study was to report intraoperative and early postoperative complications and to analyze the learning curve. This was a prospective, nonrandomized study that included 88 patients. Intraoperative or postoperative complications as well as adverse events and operative time were recorded. Clinical outcomes were evaluated at 2 weeks, 1.5 months, and at the last follow-up. Radiologic analysis was based on an immediate postoperative computed tomography scan. The intraoperative complications or adverse events rate was 3.3%: 1 conversion to open surgery, 1 bone block fracture, and 1 instrumentation problem. The postoperative complication rate was 6.8%: 4 coracoid migrations, and 2 subluxations. None of these complications occurred beyond the 10th case performed. The average operative time significantly decreased with surgical experience (r = -0.8426; 95% confidence interval, -0.9074 to -0.7384; P Latarjet procedure with double-button fixation exhibited a low complication rate. Operative time significantly improved with surgical experience and was optimized after 30 cases. Early clinical results confirmed that this procedure can be safe and reliable. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Multiple procedures and cumulative individual radiation exposure in interventional cardiology: A long-term retrospective study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weltermann, Birgitta M.; Rock, Thomas; Berndt, Peter; Viehmann, Anja; Reinders, Sabrina; Gesenhues, Stefan [University of Duisburg-Essen, Institute for General Medicine, University Hospital, Essen (Germany); Brix, Gunnar; Schegerer, Alexander [Federal Office for Radiation Protection, Department of Radiation Protection and Health, Neuherberg (Germany)

    2015-09-15

    Various studies address discrepancies between guideline recommendations for coronary angiographies and clinical practice. While the issue of the appropriateness of recurrent angiographies was studied focusing on the role of the cardiologist, little is known about individual patients' histories and the associated radiation exposures. We analyzed all patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) in an academic teaching practice who underwent at least one angiography with or without intervention between 2004 and 2009. All performed angiographies in these patients were analyzed and rated by three physicians for appropriateness levels according to cardiology guidelines. Typical exposure data from the medical literature were used to estimate individual radiation exposure. In the cohort of 147 patients, a total of 441 procedures were analyzed: between 1981 and 2009, three procedures were performed per patient (range 1-19) on average. Appropriateness ratings were 'high/intermediate' in 71 %, 'low/no' in 27.6 % and data were insufficient for ratings in 1.4 %. Procedures with 'low/no' ratings were associated with potentially avoidable exposures of up to 186 mSv for single patients. Using retrospective data, we exemplify the potential benefit of guideline adherence to decrease patients' radiation exposures. (orig.)

  14. Pulmonary homograft stenosis in the Ross procedure: Incidence, clinical impact and predictors in long-term follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo González, Laura; Ruiz Ortiz, Martin; Delgado, Mónica; Mesa, Dolores; Villalba, Rafael; Rodriguez, Sara; Hidalgo, Francisco J; Alados, Pedro; Casares, Jaime; Suarez de Lezo, Jose

    2017-04-01

    The Ross procedure is used in the treatment of selected patients with aortic valve disease. Pulmonary graft stenosis can appear in the long-term follow-up after the Ross intervention, but the factors involved and its clinical implications are not fully known. To describe the incidence, clinical impact and predictors of homograft stenosis and reintervention after the Ross procedure in a prospective series in a tertiary referral hospital. From 1997 to 2009, 107 patients underwent the Ross procedure (mean age: 30±11 years; 69% men; 21 aged36mmHg) and surgical or percutaneous homograft reintervention. After 15 years of follow-up (median: 11 years), echocardiographic and clinical data were available in 91 (85%) and 104 (98%) patients, respectively: 26/91 (29%) patients developed homograft stenosis; 10/104 (10%) patients underwent 13 homograft reintervention procedures (three patients underwent surgical replacement, three received a percutaneous pulmonary valve and one needed stent implantation). The other three patients underwent two consecutive procedures in follow-up; one died because of a procedure-related myocardial infarction. Rates of survival free from homograft stenosis and reintervention at 1, 5 and 10 years were 96%, 82% and 75% and 99%, 94% and 91%, respectively. Paediatric patients had worse survival free from homograft stenosis (hazard ratio [HR] 3.50, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.56-7.90; P=0.002), although there were no significant differences regarding reintervention (HR: 2.01, 95% CI: 0.52-7.78; P=0.31). Younger age of homograft donor was also a stenosis predictor (HR: 0.97, 95% CI: 0.94-0.99; P=0.046). The probabilities of homograft stenosis and reintervention 10 years after the Ross procedure were 29% and 10%, respectively; only one patient had a reintervention-related death. Younger donor and recipient age were associated with a higher rate of stenosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Long-term outcome of laparoscopic Nissen, Toupet, and Thal antireflux procedures for neurologically normal children with gastroesophageal reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, C; Montupet, Ph; van Der Zee, D; Settimi, A; Paye-Jaouen, A; Centonze, A; Bax, N K M

    2006-06-01

    Nissen fundoplication is the most popular laparoscopic operation for the management of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Partial fundoplications seem to be associated with a lower incidence of postoperative dysphagia, and thus a better quality of life for patients. The aim of this study was to compare the long-term outcome in neurologically normal children who underwent laparoscopic Nissen, Toupet, or Thal procedures in three European centers with a large experience in laparoscopic antireflux procedures. This study retrospectively analyzed the data of 300 consecutive patients with GERD who underwent laparoscopic surgery. The first 100 cases were recorded for each team, with the first team using the Toupet, the second team using the Thal, and the third team using the Nissen procedure. The only exclusion criteria for this study was neurologic impairment. For this reason, 66 neurologically impaired children (52 Thal, 10 Nissen, 4 Toupet) were excluded from the study. This evaluation focuses on the data for the remaining 238 neurologically normal children. The patients varied in age from 5 months to 16 years (median, 58 months). The median weight was 20 kg. All the children underwent a complete preoperative workup, and all had well-documented GERD. The position of the trocars and the dissection phase were similar in all the procedures, as was the posterior approximation of the crura. The short gastric vessels were divided in only six patients (2.5%). The only difference in the surgical procedures was the type of antireflux valve created. The median duration of surgery was 70 min. There was no mortality and no conversion in this series. A total of 12 (5%) intraoperative complications (5 Nissen, 5 Toupet, 2 Thal) and 13 (5.4%) postoperative complications (3 Toupet, 4 Nissen, 6 Thal) were recorded. Only six (2.5%) redo procedures (2 Thal, 2 Toupet, 2 Nissen) were performed. After a minimum follow-up period of 5 years, all the children were free of symptoms except

  16. Early and mid-term cardiovascular outcomes following TAVI: impact of pre-procedural transvalvular gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amabile, Nicolas; Ramadan, Ramzi; Ghostine, Said; Cheng, Susan; Azmoun, Alexandre; Raoux, François; To, Ngoc-Tram; Haddouche, Yacine; Troussier, Xavier; Nottin, Remi; Caussin, Christophe

    2013-08-10

    To assess the relation of aortic transvalvular gradient with outcomes following transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). Relatively little is known about the predictors of adverse outcomes in patients with severe aortic stenosis following TAVI. We studied 126 consecutive patients (mean age 83.2 ± 6.3 years; 59% women) who underwent TAVI (23% transapical; 77% transfemoral) at our institution. All patients were followed for the incidence of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), including myocardial infarction, heart failure, stroke, and cardiovascular death. The acute procedural success rate was 98%; at 1 year, the cumulative incidence of MACE and cardiovascular death was 29% and 10%, respectively. In multivariable analyses adjusting for clinical and echocardiographic risk factors, presence of a baseline mean transvalvular gradient (MTG) <40 mmHg was a significant predictor of 30-day MACE in the total sample (OR 4.4, 95% CI 1.7-11.4; P=0.003) as well as in patients with an ejection fraction ≥ 50% (OR 10.3, 95% CI 3.0-33.4; P<0.001). In multivariable analyses, low MTG was also associated with 2-fold and 4-fold increased hazards for MACE (HR 4.2, 95% CI 2.0-8.9; P<0.001) and cardiovascular death (HR 4.2 95% CI 1.2-14.9; P=0.03), respectively, within 1 year following TAVI. Presence of a low MTG (<40 mmHg) prior to TAVI was associated with a greater risk of major adverse events, including cardiovascular death, up to 1 year following the procedure. Pre-procedural MTG could be used to identify patients at a high risk for adverse outcomes following TAVI. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Amsterdam Short-Term Memory test: a new procedure for the detection of feigned memory deficits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schagen, S.; Schmand, B.; de Sterke, S.; Lindeboom, J.

    1997-01-01

    The validity of two malingering tests, the newly developed Amsterdam Short-Term Memory (ASTM) test and the Distraction test (Baker, Hanley, Jackson, Kimmance, & Slade, 1993) was examined in a group of patients with closed-head injury (CHI), a normal control group, and a control group with

  18. The impact of structure on word meaning and fill-in-the-blank tests procedures on short-term and long-term retention of vocabulary items

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Hossein Fazeli

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of research described in the current study to investigate the impact of structure knowing on two types of test, i.e. word-meaning test and fill-in-the-blank test, their correlation and procedures on both short-term and long-term retention of vocabulary items. The importance of the present study, to test the condition that learners are not allowed to use guess strategy or randomly answer the tests and they should give reason semantically for their answer, otherwise their answer, even is correct, is not scored. The population for subject recruitment was all undergraduate students from second semester at large university in Iran (both male and female that study English as a compulsory paper. In Iran, English is taught as a foreign language.

  19. Mid-term Outcome of 100 Consecutive Ross Procedures: Excellent Survival, But Yet to Be a Cure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Corina; Attenhofer Jost, Christine; Prêtre, René; Mueller, Christoph; Greutmann, Matthias; Seifert, Burkhardt; Valsangiacomo Büchel, Emanuela; Kretschmar, Oliver; Dave, Hitendu Hasmukhlal; Weber, Roland

    2018-03-01

    The Ross procedure offers excellent short-term outcome but the long-term durability is under debate. Reinterventions and follow-up of 100 consecutive patients undergoing Ross Procedure at our centre (1993-2011) were analysed. Follow-up was available for 96 patients (97%) with a median duration of 5.3 (0.1-17.1) years. Median age of the patient cohort was 15.2 (0.04-58.4) years with 76 males. 93% had underlying congenital aortic stenosis. Root replacement technique was applied in all. The most common valved conduits used for reconstruction of the right ventricular outflow tract were homografts (66 patients) and bovine jugular vein (Contegra R ) graft (31 patients). Additional procedures included Ross-Konno procedure (14%), resection of subaortic stenosis/myectomy (11%) and reduction plasty of the ascending aorta (25%). One patient died within the first 30 days (1%). Late deaths occurred in 4 patients (4%) 0.5-4.5 years postoperatively: causes included pulmonary hypertension due to endocardial fibroelastosis (2), subarachnoid haemorrhage (1) and sudden cardiac death (1). Five-year survival was 93.6 (95% CI 88.1-99.1)%. Moderate or severe aortic (autograft) regurgitation needing reoperation occurred in 8 patients with a 5-year freedom from autograft reoperation of 98.5 (95.6-100)%. Five-year freedom from reintervention (surgery or catheter based) on the right ventricular outflow tract conduit was 91.5 (85.5-96.5)%. Univariate predictors of this reinterventions were smaller graft size (p = 0.03) and use of a Contegra R graft (p = 0.04). Ross procedure can be performed with low mortality and good survival in the long term. Most of the reinterventions are related to the neo-right ventricular outflow tract and may be partly attributed to the lack of growth. While the Ross Procedure remains an invaluable option for aortic valve disease in children, new solutions for the neo-pulmonary valve as well as for the less often occurring problems on the autograft are

  20. Long-term contextual memory in infant rats as evidenced by an ethanol conditioned tolerance procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelló, Stefanía; Molina, Juan Carlos; Arias, Carlos

    2017-08-14

    Conditioned tolerance can be conceptualized as a particular case of Pavlovian conditioning in which contextual cues play the role of the conditioned stimulus. Although the evidence is contradictory, it is frequently assumed that long-term contextual conditioning in pre-weanling rats is weak or even absent. This hypothesis comes from and is sustained mainly by behavioral studies that explored different contextual effects in 16-18day-old rats using a fear-conditioning paradigm, but their conclusions are stated in terms of an immature (hippocampal-dependent) declarative memory system. The main goal of the present manuscript was based on a recent antecedent from our laboratory, to analyze whether context-dependent tolerance induced by ethanol during the pre-weanling period persists over time. Results showed that the context was able to modulate ethanol-induced tolerance in 2- and 3-week-old rats. Interestingly, contextual conditioned tolerance was stronger (in terms of persistence) during the third than during the second postnatal week. When subjects were tested 8days after training, when the context presumably lost its influence over tolerance, the opposite effect emerged (sensitization). These results are important for the ethanol literature, adding new evidence of long-term retention of ethanol effects acquired during infancy, whilst also showing striking ontogenetic differences in the sensitivity to ethanol between the 2nd and 3rd postnatal weeks. Importantly, contextual information modulates the expression of these ethanol effects even eight days after training, a result that is particularly relevant to the discussion of the ontogeny of contextual memory. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The Forecasting Procedure for Long-Term Wind Speed in the Zhangye Area

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Zhenhai; Dong, Yao; Wang, Jianzhou; Lu, Haiyan

    2010-01-01

    Energy crisis has made it urgent to find alternative energy sources for sustainable energy supply; wind energy is one of the attractive alternatives. Within a wind energy system, the wind speed is one key parameter; accurately forecasting of wind speed can minimize the scheduling errors and in turn increase the reliability of the electric power grid and reduce the power market ancillary service costs. This paper proposes a new hybrid model for long-term wind speed forecasting based on the fir...

  2. [Short-term outcomes of laparoscopic-assisted procedures for chronic complications of diverticular disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achkasov, S I; Shelygin, Yu A; Moskalev, A I; Trubacheva, Yu L; Senashenko, S A

    2018-01-01

    To estimate efficacy of laparoscopic-assisted procedures for chronic complications of diverticular disease (DD). It was made a prospective comparative study within 2007-2015. Inclusion criteria were verified chronic DD (>6 weeks after the first attack) and bowel resection followed by primary anastomosis. contraindications for pneumoperitoneum, BMI ≥35 kg/m 2 , infiltrate dimension >10 cm, preoperatively non-excluded neoplasm. 233 patients with chronic DD underwent elective surgery, 136 (58.4%) of them were included in the study. There were 80 (58.8%) females aged 57.2±6.2 (24-83) years. Main group consisted of 75 patients after laparoscopic-assisted procedures, 61 were in control group (open ones). Both groups were homogeneous in age, gender, BMI, type of chronic complications, extent of inflammation, extent of bowel resection, surgery time (211.1 vs 206.3 min; p=0.16), incidence of preventive stoma (12.9 vs 19.7%; p=0.32) and complications rate (10.7 vs 14.7%; p=0.47). Maximal time of surgery was noted in case of chronic abdominal mass with statistically significance for main group (240.0±12.2 min vs 207.6±13.7 min; р=0.01). Conversion rate was 12.0% in main group. Main group showed significant higher rate of stapler anastomoses (66.7 vs 22.9%; рdiverticular disease are associated with more favorable early postoperative period with the same complication rate. Technical complexity and operative time depend on the extent of pelvic inflammatory changes.

  3. Treatment of isolated patellofemoral osteoarthritis with lateral facetectomy plus Insall's realignment procedure: long-term follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montserrat, Ferran; Alentorn-Geli, Eduard; León, Vicens; Ginés-Cespedosa, Alberto; Rigol, Pau

    2013-11-01

    To assess the long-term results of lateral facetectomy plus Insall's realignment procedure to treat isolated patellofemoral osteoarthritis. All consecutive patients undergoing this procedure with a follow-up between 10 and 14 years were included in this study. Subjects were excluded if they had previous patellar dislocation, patellar fracture, tibiofemoral osteoarthritis (except mild cases) or follow-up 14 years. Failure cases (need for total knee arthroplasty) of this surgical procedure before 10 years of follow-up were considered in the overall failure rate. Clinical, functional and radiographic outcomes were obtained at baseline and compared to postoperative values. Forty-three patients (mean (SD) age 59.7 (8.1) years) had a follow-up between 10 and 14 years and were finally included in this study. The failure rate in the whole series and included patients was 26.4 and 16.3 %, respectively, for a mean (SD) follow-up of 9.2 (3.2) years and 11.7 (1.4) years, respectively. Patellofemoral pain (p < 0.0001), need for NSAIDs (p < 0.0001), longitudinal (p < 0.0001) and transversal (p < 0.0001) patellar glide tests, Zholen's sign (p = 0.0007) and knee effusion (p = 0.02) significantly improved in the follow-up. Postoperative Knee Society Score (KSS) anatomical (p < 0.0001), functional (p < 0.0001) and total (p < 0.0001) scores and Kujala's score (p = 0.001) were significantly higher compared to preoperative values. The patellar tilt (p = 0.001) and shift (p = 0.04) significantly improved postoperatively, whereas the patellofemoral osteoarthritis was not modified (n.s.) with respect to preoperative assessment. The lateral facetectomy plus Insall's realignment procedure was a successful treatment for isolated patellofemoral osteoarthritis from a clinical, functional and radiographic point of view in the long-term follow-up.

  4. Look-ahead procedures for Lanczos-type product methods based on three-term recurrences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutknecht, M.H.; Ressel, K.J. [Swiss Center for Scientific Computing, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    1996-12-31

    Lanczos-type product methods for the solution of large sparse non-Hermitian linear systems either square the Lanczos process or combine it with a local minimization of the residual. They inherit from the underlying Lanczos process the danger of breakdown. For various Lanczos-type product methods that are based on the Lanczos three-term recurrence, look-ahead versions are presented, which avoid such breakdowns or near breakdowns with a small computational overhead. Different look-ahead strategies are discussed and their efficiency is demonstrated in several numerical examples.

  5. Effects of various uranium leaching procedures on soil: Short-term vegetation growth and physiology. Progress report, April 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, N.T.

    1994-08-01

    Significant volumes of soil containing elevated levels of uranium exist in the eastern United States. The contamination resulted from the development of the nuclear industry in the United States requiring a large variety of uranium products. The contaminated soil poses a collection and disposal problem of a magnitude that justifies the development of decontamination methods. Consequently, the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development formed the Uranium Soils Integrated Demonstration (USID) program to address the problem. The fundamental goal of the USID task group has been the selective extraction/leaching or removal of uranium from soil faster, cheaper, and safer than what can be done using current conventional technologies. The objective is to selectively remove uranium from soil without seriously degrading the soil's physicochemical characteristics and without generating waste that is difficult to manage and/or dispose of. However, procedures developed for removing uranium from contaminated soil have involved harsh chemical treatments that affect the physicochemical properties of the soil. The questions are (1) are the changes in soil properties severe enough to destroy the soil's capacity to support and sustain vegetation growth and survival? and (2) what amendments might be made to the leached soil to return it to a reasonable vegetation production capacity? This study examines the vegetation-support capacity of soil that had been chemically leached to remove uranium. The approach is to conduct short-term germination and phytotoxicity tests for evaluating soils after they are subjected to various leaching procedures followed by longer term pot studies on successfully leached soils that show the greatest capacity to support plant growth. This report details the results from germination and short-term phytotoxicity testing of soils that underwent a variety of leaching procedures at the bench scale at ORNL and at the pilot plant at Fernald

  6. Echoic and retrieval accounts of the long-term modality effect tested using the suffix procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, S T; Glenberg, A M

    1986-01-01

    The long-term modality effect is the advantage in recall of the last of a list of auditory to-be-remembered (TBR) items compared with the last of a list of visual TBR items when the list is followed by a filled retention interval. If the auditory advantage is due to echoic sensory memory mechanisms, then recall of the last auditory TBR item should be substantially reduced when it is followed by a redundant, not-to-be-recalled auditory suffix. Contrary to this prediction, Experiment 1 demonstrated that a redundant auditory suffix does not significantly reduce recall of the last auditory TBR item. In Experiment 2 a nonredundant auditory suffix produced a large reduction in the last auditory item. Redundancy is not the only factor controlling the effectiveness of a suffix, however. Experiment 3 demonstrated that a nonredundant visual suffix does not reduce recall of the last auditory TBR item. These results are discussed in reference to a retrieval account of the long-term modality effect.

  7. A common short-term memory retrieval rate may describe many cognitive procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evie eVergauwe

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We examine the relationship between response speed and the number of items in short-term memory in four different paradigms and find evidence for a similar high-speed processing rate of about 25 to 30 items per second (~35 to 40 ms/item. We propose that the similarity of the processing rates across paradigms reflects the operation of a very basic covert memory process, high-speed retrieval, that is involved in both the search for information in STM and the reactivation or refreshing of information that keeps it in STM. We link this process to a specific pattern of rhythmic, repetitive neural activity in the brain (gamma oscillations. This proposal generates ideas for research and calls for an integrative approach that combines neuroscientific measures with behavioral cognitive techniques.

  8. The Forecasting Procedure for Long-Term Wind Speed in the Zhangye Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenhai Guo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy crisis has made it urgent to find alternative energy sources for sustainable energy supply; wind energy is one of the attractive alternatives. Within a wind energy system, the wind speed is one key parameter; accurately forecasting of wind speed can minimize the scheduling errors and in turn increase the reliability of the electric power grid and reduce the power market ancillary service costs. This paper proposes a new hybrid model for long-term wind speed forecasting based on the first definite season index method and the Autoregressive Moving Average (ARMA models or the Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroskedasticity (GARCH forecasting models. The forecasting errors are analyzed and compared with the ones obtained from the ARMA, GARCH model, and Support Vector Machine (SVM; the simulation process and results show that the developed method is simple and quite efficient for daily average wind speed forecasting of Hexi Corridor in China.

  9. Short-term outcomes of the transvaginal minimal mesh procedure for pelvic organ prolapse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoko Takazawa

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate the clinical outcomes and complications of transvaginal minimal mesh repair without using commercially available kits for treatment of pelvic organ prolapse (POP. Materials and Methods: This retrospective cohort study involved 91 women who underwent surgical management of POP with originally designed small mesh between July 2014 and August 2015. This mesh is 56% smaller than the mesh widely used in Japan, and it has only two arms delivered into each right and left sacrospinous ligament. The main study outcome was the anatomic cure rate defined as recurrence of POP quantification (POP-Q stage II or more. We also assessed changes in the overactive bladder symptom score (OABSS and prolapse quality of life questionnaire (P-QOL and evaluated adverse events. Finally, we compared patient backgrounds between the patients with and without recurrence. Results: Prolapse recurred in 10 of 91 patients (11.0%, and all patients with recurrence were diagnosed as POP-Q stage II. As adverse events, only mesh erosion occurred in two (2.2% and pelvic pain in one (1.1% of the 91 patients. The OABSS and P-QOL were significantly improved by the operation. When we compared patient backgrounds between the patients with and without recurrence, body mass index was the only factor influencing affecting recurrence. Conclusions: Transvaginal minimal mesh repair resulted in successful outcomes with low mesh-related complications and anatomic recurrence at one year. Furthermore, significant improvement in QOL was offered by this procedure. Our minimal mesh technique should be considered as one treatment option for the management of POP.

  10. Andrew shortens lifetime of Louisiana Barrier Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Susan

    Because the Isles Dernieres, a series of four barrier islands off the coast of Louisiana, have one of the most rapidly eroding shorelines in the world, geologists at the U.S. Geological Survey and the Louisiana Geological Survey have been monitoring erosion activity over the last several years, said Jeff Williams of the USGS in Reston, Va. Hurricane Andrew, which struck the state on August 26, caused severe erosional damage to these islands that has shortened their lifetimes.Before Andrew struck, geologists projected that Raccoon Island would disappear below sea level by the year 2001 and that Whiskey Island would disappear by 2016. Now, due to the severe erosion from Hurricane Andrew, the scientists claim that the islands may disappear before the turn of the century, and the other islands in the Dernieres chain are expected to follow suit within 2 decades. Raccoon, Whiskey, Trinity, and East islands make up the Isles Dernieres, which existed as one island, known as the Isle Derniere, before an 1856 hurricane and subsequent erosion.

  11. A three-stage short-term electric power planning procedure for a generation company in a liberalized market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabona, Narcis; Pages, Adela

    2007-01-01

    In liberalized electricity markets, generation companies bid their hourly generation in order to maximize their profit. The optimization of the generation bids over a short-term weekly period must take into account the action of the competing generation companies and the market-price formation rules and must be coordinated with long-term planning results. This paper presents a three stage optimization process with a data analysis and parameter calculation, a linearized unit commitment, and a nonlinear generation scheduling refinement. Although the procedure has been developed from the experience with the Spanish power market, with minor adaptations it is also applicable to any generation company participating in a competitive market system. (author)

  12. Intermediate and Long-term Outcomes of Mitomycin C-enhanced Trabeculectomy as a First Glaucoma Procedure in Uveitic Glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almobarak, Faisal A; Alharbi, Ali H; Morales, Jose; Aljadaan, Ibrahim

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate the intermediate and long-term outcomes of mitomycin C-enhanced trabeculectomy as a first glaucoma procedure in uveitic glaucoma. Retrospective cohort study included 70 eyes of 50 patients with uveitic glaucoma who underwent mitomycin C-enhanced trabeculectomy as a first glaucoma procedure at King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia between 1996 and 2014. The main outcome measures were: the intraocular pressure (IOP), the number of antiglaucoma medications, the presence of visually threatening complications, and the need for further surgeries to control the IOP. Surgical outcome of each eye was classified as an absolute success, qualified success, or failure, based on the main outcome measures. The mean follow-up period was 77.0 months (±40.9). The IOP and number of antiglaucoma medications decreased significantly from a mean of 39.5 mm Hg (±8.9) and 3.7 (±0.8) to 14.4 mm Hg (±6.9) and 1 (±1.3) at the last follow-up, respectively (Pglaucoma, a significant number of patients needed further procedures to control the pressure. Thus, continuous monitoring of the pressure and inflammation are crucial.

  13. [Assessments of long-term results of different types of sling procedures for stress urinary incontinence in women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loran, O B; Seregin, A V; Dovlatov, Z A

    2016-02-01

    To evaluate long-term results of surgery for stress urinary incontinence in women using different types of sling procedures. The study included 698 patients aged 42 to 68 years (median 54 years) with stress urinary incontinence. TVT was used in 167 (23.9%) cases, TVT-O Gynecare system in 359 (51.4%), TVT-O Monarch system in 105 (15.0%), and TVT Secur mini-sling system - in 67 (9.6%). Follow-up ranged from 12 to 108 months (median 55 months). Patients' status was assessed using UDI-6 and IIQ-7 questionnaires, an improvised treatment satisfaction questionnaire, voiding diary, cough test and 1-hour Pad-test. The effectiveness of the treatment, according to objective criteria was 92.2%, 93.3%, 91.4% and 92.5% after surgery with TVT, TVT-O Gynecare, TVT-O Monarch and TVT Secur, respectively, and according to subjective criteria - 90.4%, 91.1%, 89.5% and 91.0%. No differences in the effectiveness of techniques were found. The data obtained in long-term observations of a large sample of patients treated with a variety of techniques in a single center showed the effectiveness and safety of modern sling procedures for correcting urinary incontinence in women.

  14. Relationship between opioid therapy, tissue-damaging procedures, and brain metabolites as measured by proton MRS in asphyxiated term neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeles, Danilyn M; Ashwal, Stephen; Wycliffe, Nathaniel D; Ebner, Charlotte; Fayard, Elba; Sowers, Lawrence; Holshouser, Barbara A

    2007-05-01

    To examine the effects of opioid and tissue-damaging procedures (TDPs) [i.e. procedures performed in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) known to result in pain, stress, and tissue damage] on brain metabolites, we reviewed the medical records of 28 asphyxiated term neonates (eight opioid-treated, 20 non-opioid treated) who had undergone magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) within the first month of life as well as eight newborns with no clinical findings of asphyxial injury. We found that lower creatine (Cr), myoinositol (Ins), and N-acetylaspartate (NAA)/choline (Cho) (p OGM) NAA/Cr was decreased (p = 0.03) and lactate (Lac) was present in a significantly higher amount (40%; p = 0.03) in non-opioid-treated neonates compared with opioid-treated neonates. Compared with controls, untreated neonates showed larger changes in more metabolites in basal ganglia (BG), thalami (TH), and OGM with greater significance than treated neonates. Our data suggest that TDPs affect spectral metabolites and that opioids do not cause harm in asphyxiated term neonates exposed to repetitive TDPs in the first 2-4 DOL and may provide a degree of neuroprotection.

  15. Radial shortening following a fracture of the proximal radius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duckworth, Andrew D; Watson, Bruce S; Will, Elizabeth M; Petrisor, Brad A; Walmsley, Phillip J; Court-Brown, Charles M; McQueen, Margaret M

    2011-06-01

    The Essex-Lopresti lesion is thought to be rare, with a varying degree of disruption to forearm stability probable. We describe the range of radial shortening that occurs following a fracture of the proximal radius, as well as the short-term outcome in these patients. Over an 18-month period, we prospectively assessed all patients with a radiographically confirmed proximal radial fracture. Patients noted to have ipsilateral wrist pain at initial presentation underwent bilateral radiography to determine whether there was disruption of the distal radio-ulnar joint suggestive of an Essex-Lopresti lesion. Outcome was assessed after a mean of 6 (1.5-12) months using clinical and radiographic results, including the Mayo elbow score (MES) and the short musculoskeletal function assessment (SMFA) questionnaire. One patient with a Mason type-I fracture was lost to follow-up after initial presentation. 60 patients had ipsilateral wrist pain at the initial assessment of 237 proximal radial fractures. Radial shortening of ≥ 2mm (range: 2-4mm) was seen in 22 patients (mean age 48 (19-79) years, 16 females). The most frequent mechanism of injury was a fall from standing height (10/22). 21 fractures were classified as being Mason type-I or type-II, all of which were managed nonoperatively. One Mason type-III fracture underwent acute radial head replacement. Functional outcome was assessed in 21 patients. We found an excellent or good MES in 18 of the 20 patients with a Mason type-I or type-II injury. The incidence of the Essex-Lopresti lesion type is possibly under-reported as there is a spectrum of injuries, and subtle disruptions often go unidentified. A full assessment of all patients with a proximal radial fracture is required in order to identify these injuries, and the index of suspicion is raised as the complexity of the fracture increases.

  16. L-Carnosine reduces telomere damage and shortening rate in cultured normal fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao Lan; Li Qinghuan; Tan Zheng

    2004-01-01

    Telomere is the repetitive DNA sequence at the end of chromosomes, which shortens progressively with cell division and limits the replicative potential of normal human somatic cells. L-Carnosine, a naturally occurring dipeptide, has been reported to delay the replicative senescence, and extend the lifespan of cultured human diploid fibroblasts. In this work, we studied the effect of carnosine on the telomeric DNA of cultured human fetal lung fibroblast cells. Cells continuously grown in 20 mM carnosine exhibited a slower telomere shortening rate and extended lifespan in population doublings. When kept in a long-term nonproliferating state, they accumulated much less damages in the telomeric DNA when cultured in the presence of carnosine. We suggest that the reduction in telomere shortening rate and damages in telomeric DNA made an important contribution to the life-extension effect of carnosine

  17. Accelerated Telomere Shortening in Acromegaly; IGF-I Induces Telomere Shortening and Cellular Senescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryusaku Matsumoto

    Full Text Available Patients with acromegaly exhibit reduced life expectancy and increased prevalence of age-related diseases, such as diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. However, the underlying mechanism has not been fully elucidated. Telomere shortening is reportedly associated with reduced life expectancy and increased prevalence of these age-related diseases.We measured telomere length in patients with acromegaly using quantitative PCR method. The effect of GH and IGF-I on telomere length and cellular senescence was examined in human skin fibroblasts.Patients with acromegaly exhibited shorter telomere length than age-, sex-, smoking-, and diabetes-matched control patients with non-functioning pituitary adenoma (0.62 ± 0.23 vs. 0.75 ± 0.35, respectively, P = 0.047. In addition, telomere length in acromegaly was negatively correlated with the disease duration (R2 = 0.210, P = 0.003. In vitro analysis revealed that not GH but IGF-I induced telomere shortening in human skin fibroblasts. Furthermore, IGF-I-treated cells showed increased senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity and expression of p53 and p21 protein. IGF-I-treated cells reached the Hayflick limit earlier than GH- or vehicle-treated cells, indicating that IGF-I induces cellular senescence.Shortened telomeres in acromegaly and cellular senescence induced by IGF-I can explain, in part, the underlying mechanisms by which acromegaly exhibits an increased morbidity and mortality in association with the excess secretion of IGF-I.

  18. [Extension of (extremely) shortened dental arches by fixed or removable partial dentures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witter, D.J.; Hoefnagel, R.A.; Snoek, P.A.; Creugers, N.H.J.

    2009-01-01

    Whether a shortened dental arch needs to be extended depends on the degree of the shortening. Four categories of shortened dental arches can be distinguished: 1. slightly shortened dental arches; 2. moderately shortened dental arches; 3. extremely shortened dental arches; and 4. asymmetrical

  19. Instability during bunch shortening of an electron-cooled beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Takanaka

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Bunch shortening causes an electron-cooled beam to be space charge dominated at low energies. Instability during the bunch shortening has been studied using a particle-tracking program where the 3D space-charge field due to the beam is calculated with a simplifying model.

  20. Operative shortening of the sling as a second-line treatment after TVT failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matuszewski, Marcin; Michajłowski, Jerzy; Krajka, Kazimierz

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Stress urinary incontinence (SUI) is defined as an involuntary loss of urine during physical exertion, sneezing, coughing, laughing, or other activities that put pressure on the bladder. In some cases, recurrent or persistent SUI after sling operations may be caused by too loose placement of the sling. In the current study, we describe our method of shortening of the sling as a second-line treatment of tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) failure. Materials and methods Four women, aged 46-61, after initial TVT operation were treated for persistent SUI. The severity of SUI was estimated by: physical examinations, cough tests, 24-h pad tests, and King's Health Questionnaire. The shortening procedure, based on excising the fragment of tape and suturing it back, was performed in all patients. Results All cases achieved a good result, which was defined as restoration of full continence. No complications occurred. The 12-month follow-up showed no side-effects. The postoperative control tests: the cough and 24-h pad tests were negative in all women. The general health perceptions increased after the shortening procedure by a mean value 44.25%. The incontinence impact decreased by a mean value 44.6%. In all patients, role and physical limitations significantly decreased (by 88.5% and 80.5%, respectively). The negative emotions connected with SUI significantly decreased after the second procedure. Conclusions The operative shortening of the implanted sling is a simple, cheap, and effective method of second-line treatment in cases of TVT failure and may be offered to the majority of patients with insufficient urethral support after the first procedure. PMID:24578885

  1. Optimizing test procedures for estimating daily methane and carbon dioxide emissions in cattle using short-term breath measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, P F; Barchia, I M; Weber, C; Bird-Gardiner, T; Donoghue, K A; Herd, R M; Hegarty, R S

    2017-02-01

    Respiration chambers are considered the reference method for quantifying the daily CH production rate (MPR) and CO production rate (CPR) of cattle; however, they are expensive, labor intensive, cannot be used in the production environment, and can be used to assess only a limited number of animals. Alternative methods are now available, including those that provide multiple short-term measures of CH and CO, such as the GreenFeed Emission Monitoring (GEM) system. This study was conducted to provide information for optimizing test procedures for estimating MPR and CPR of cattle from multiple short-term CH and CO records. Data on 495 Angus steers on a 70-d ad libitum feedlot diet with 46,657 CH and CO records and on 121 Angus heifers on a 15-d ad libitum roughage diet with 7,927 CH and CO records were used. Mean (SD) age and BW were 554 d (SD 92) and 506 kg (SD 73), respectively, for the steers and 372 d (SD 28) and 348 kg (SD 37), respectively, for the heifers. The 2 data sets were analyzed separately but using the same procedures to examine the reduction in variance as more records are added and to evaluate the level of precision with 2 vs. 3 min as the minimum GEM visit duration for a valid record. The moving averages procedure as well as the repeated measures procedure were used to calculate variances for both CH and CO, starting with 5 records and progressively increasing to a maximum of 80 records. For both CH and CO and in both data sets, there was a sharp reduction in the variances obtained by both procedures as more records were added. However, there was no substantial reduction in the variance after 30 records had been added. Inclusion of records with a minimum of 2-min GEM visit duration resulted in reduction in precision relative to a minimum of 3 min, as indicated by significantly ( < 0.05) more heterogeneous variances for all cases except CH4 in steers. In addition, more records were required to achieve the same level of precision relative to data with

  2. Specific language impairment in the long-term perspective – the importance of assessment procedures, reading skills, and communicative competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Richterová

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to provide a review of the literature regarding the treatment of specific language impairment (SLI in the long-term perspective. We develop the paper along the three issues we consider to be of the most importance in relation to counseling practice with SLI children and young people: the importance of assessment procedures of SLI, the importance of reading skills in the lives of SLI children and adults, and the importance of the quality of communication competence of SLI people for their social life. The review draws on international research mainly; however, the paper also aims to show how the three target issues are represented in the Czech research related literature.

  3. Spine-shortening vertebral osteotomy for tethered cord syndrome: report of three cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyakoshi, Naohisa; Abe, Eiji; Suzuki, Tetsuya; Kido, Tadato; Chiba, Mitsuho; Shimada, Yoichi

    2009-10-15

    Retrospective case series. To review findings from 3 patients who underwent spine-shortening vertebral osteotomy for tethered cord syndrome with a minimum follow-up of 3 years. Surgical detethering is the gold standard for symptomatic tethered cord syndrome. However, complications such as cerebrospinal fluid leakage and neurologic deterioration are common. Spine-shortening vertebral osteotomy, proposed by Kokubun, is an alternative surgical technique to reduce neural tension indirectly. However, case series of this novel procedure for tethered cord syndrome have not been reported in the English literature. Three patients aged 13, 22, and 27 years presented with progressive pain and/or neurologic dysfunction. They underwent spine-shortening vertebral osteotomy of L1 with a pedicle screw and rod system. Their clinical and radiologic outcomes are reviewed. All patients got relief from their preoperative symptoms after surgery, and no complications occurred. Complete bone union was obtained in all patients without correction loss. Spine-shortening vertebral osteotomy can be a safe and alternative surgical technique for tethered cord syndrome.

  4. Radiological management of patients with urinary obstruction following urinary diversion procedures: technical factors, complications, long-term management and outcome. Experience with 378 procedures.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Maher, M M

    2012-02-03

    We aimed to assess management by interventional radiology techniques of patients with urinary diversion procedures (UD) complicated by urinary obstruction (UO). A 12-year electronic database of interventional cases was searched for urinary access in patients with UD. Patients\\' records were assessed for aetiology of obstruction, indication for procedure, types of interventional radiology, complications and outcome. Management issues included frequency of visits for catheter care, type of catheter placement and technical problems associated with catheter maintenance. Three hundred and seventy eight procedures were carried out in 25 patients (mean age 70 years; Male : Female ratio 13:12). Indications for UD were malignancy (n = 22) and neuropathic bladder (n = 3). UD included ileal conduits (n = 17), cutaneous ureterostomy (n = 3 (2 patients)) and sigmoid colon urinary conduit (n = 6). In most patients, catheters were placed antegradely through nephrostomy tract, but subsequent access was through the UD. Twenty of 25 patients had unilateral stents where as 5 had bilateral stents (8-10- Fr pigtail catheters (20-45 cm in length)). The mean number of procedures including catheter changes was 15 +\\/- 4 per patient and 331 of 378 procedures (87 %) were carried out as outpatients. Since catheter placement, 11 patients required hospital admission on 22 occasions for catheter-related complications. Ureteric strictures in patients with UD can be successfully managed by interventional radiology.

  5. Options for shortening nuclear power plant refueling outages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kastl, H.

    2001-01-01

    Deregulation of the European electricity market on 01.01.1999 forced a large number of electric utilities- especially nuclear power plant operators - to find ways of drastically cutting down their costs in order to be able to compete successfully within the new market environment. Nuclear power plants currently in operation mainly have three potential ways of reducing their power generating costs: by increasing plant availability, reducing fuel costs and cutting down operating costs. The optimization of plant refueling outages offers considerable potential for enhancing plant availability, but also helps bring down operating costs by reducing expenditure on maintenance. In order to optimize an outage in terms of its duration and costs, a variety of approaches are possible - all of which, however, involve certain key factors such as good organization, planning, logistics and control, improvement of equipment and tools, as well as motivation of personnel. Another aspect is the introduction of innovative technologies. In the last few years, such technologies have frequently enabled maintenance effort to be reduced, thus saving considerable time, and have also resulted in a need for fewer personnel to carry out the work, thus reducing radiation exposure. In many instances they have also improved the quality of work and outage performance as a whole. The paper uses recent examples to show how innovative technologies can contribute to-wards reducing nuclear plant maintenance costs and shorten the duration of refueling out-ages. (author)

  6. Swallowing threshold parameters of subjects with shortened dental arches.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kreulen, C.M.; Witter, D.J.; Tekamp, F.A.; Slagter, A.P.; Creugers, N.H.J.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To quantify swallowing threshold parameters of subjects with a moderate shortened dental arch dentition (SDA: missing molar teeth, but premolar teeth in occluding position and uninterrupted anterior regions) compared to subjects with a complete dental arch dentition (CDA). METHODS:

  7. Clinical efficacy comparison of flabby skin excision combined orbicularis oculi muscle shortening surgery in patients with senile entropion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-Liang Xu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To observe the clinical effect of slack skin excision combined with orbicularis oculi muscle shortening and orbicularis muscle shortening in the treatment of elderly patients with lower eyelid entropion, and provide the reference for the clinical treatment.METHODS: Eighty-two(126 eyesclinical diagnosis's elderly patients with lower eyelid entropion were collected from our department, then randomly divided into excised relaxing skin and orbicularis oculi muscle shortening treatment group and the orbicularis muscle shortening treatment group.The general data of the two groups, long term curative effect and short-term curative effect were compared. RESULTS: The age, sex, proportion of patients with the first time operation, course of disease were no statistical significance between the observation group and the control group(P>0.05. The short-term effective rate of the observation group was 95.2%, while the short-term effective rate of the control group was 77.8%, the short-term efficiency differences between the two groups was statistical significance(χ2=4.100, P=0.043. The long-term cure rate of the observation group was 82.5%(34 cases, 52 eyes, recurrence rate was 17.5%(7 cases, 11 eyes, while the cure rate of the control group was 60.3%(25 cases, 38 eyes, recurrence rate was 39.7%(16 cases, 25 eyes, the difference of long term cure rate was statistical significance between the two groups(PCONCLUSION: The clinical curative effect of slack skin excision combined with orbicularis oculi muscle shortening in the treatment of senile inferior entropion is better than orbicularis muscle shortening operation, recommending application in the clinical.

  8. Microwave Ablation of Lung Tumors Near the Heart: A Retrospective Review of Short-Term Procedural Safety in Ten Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Aaron W P; Healey, Terrance T; Dupuy, Damian E

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate the rate of short-term complications associated with microwave ablation of lung tumors located near the heart. This HIPAA-compliant study was performed with a waiver for informed consent. Patients who underwent microwave ablation of lung tumors located 10 mm or less from the heart were identified by retrospective chart review. Both primary and metastatic tumors were included. Only tumors directly adjacent to one of the four cardiac chambers were included. All patients were treated in a single session using CT guidance with continuous electrocardiographic monitoring. Rates of new-onset arrhythmia and myocardial infarction (MI) within 90 days of the procedure were quantified, and evidence of cardiac or pericardiac injury was assessed for using post-ablation contrast-enhanced chest CT, electrocardiography (EKG), and-when available-echocardiography. Complications were graded using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) system. Ten patients (four males, six females; mean age 73.1 ± 9.5 years) met all inclusion criteria. Mean tumor distance from the heart was 3 mm (range, 0-6 mm). New-onset arrhythmia was not observed during or following any of the microwave ablation treatments, and there were no documented 90-day MI events. CTCAE Grade 1 complications were observed by CT in eight patients, most commonly mild focal pericardial thickening. EKG and echocardiography were normal in all patients. No major complications (CTCAE Grade 3 or greater) were observed. Microwave ablation of lung tumors located 10 mm or less from the heart appears to have low associated short-term morbidity and may be appropriate in selected patients.

  9. Consequences of crown shortening canine teeth in Greenland sled dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortegaard, H E; Anthony Knudsen, T; Dahl, S; Agger, J F G; Eriksen, T

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate the consequences of crown shortening, focusing on the prevalence of pulp exposure and periapical pathology in Greenland sled dogs that had had their canine crowns shortened at an early age. Five cadaver heads and 54 sled dogs underwent an oral examination for dental fractures and pulp exposure of canines. All canines were radiographed and evaluated for periapical pathology. The prevalence of canine pulp exposure in 12 (5 heads and 7 dogs) crown shortened dogs was 91 · 7%, and 21 · 3% in 47 not-crown shortened dogs. A significant (P canines in the crown shortened group compared to the not-crown shortened group was seen with a relative risk of 4 · 3 on a dog basis and a relative risk of 12 · 2 on a tooth basis. In dogs with pulp exposure of canines (n = 51) the prevalence of periapical pathology was 82 · 4%, but only 0 · 8% in dogs without pulp exposure (n = 133) resulting in a significant (relative risk, 109 · 5; P < 0 · 001) risk of periapical pathology in teeth with pulp exposure compared to teeth without pulp exposure. The high risk of periapical pathology observed in teeth with pulp exposure confirms that these teeth should not be neglected in affected dogs. © 2015 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  10. Consequences of crown shortening canine teeth in Greenland sled dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kortegaard, H E; Anthony Knudsen, T; Dahl, S

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the consequences of crown shortening, focusing on the prevalence of pulp exposure and periapical pathology in Greenland sled dogs that had had their canine crowns shortened at an early age. METHODS: Five cadaver heads and 54 sled dogs underwent an oral examination for dental...... fractures and pulp exposure of canines. All canines were radiographed and evaluated for periapical pathology. RESULTS: The prevalence of canine pulp exposure in 12 (5 heads and 7 dogs) crown shortened dogs was 91 · 7%, and 21 · 3% in 47 not-crown shortened dogs. A significant (P ... exposure of the canines in the crown shortened group compared to the not-crown shortened group was seen with a relative risk of 4 · 3 on a dog basis and a relative risk of 12 · 2 on a tooth basis. In dogs with pulp exposure of canines (n = 51) the prevalence of periapical pathology was 82 · 4%, but only 0...

  11. A study on occlusal stability in shortened dental arches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarita, Paulo T N; Kreulen, Cees M; Witter, Dick J; van't Hof, Martin; Creugers, Nico H J

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the hypothesis that shortened dental arches constitute a risk to occlusal stability. Using cluster samples, 725 subjects with shortened dental arches comprising intact anterior regions and zero to eight occluding pairs of posterior teeth and 125 subjects with complete dental arches were selected. Subjects with shortened dental arches were classified into eight categories according to arch length and symmetry. Parameters for occlusal stability were interdental spacing, occlusal tooth wear, occlusal contact of incisors in intercuspal position, and vertical and horizontal overlap. Additionally, tooth mobility and overeruption of unopposed teeth were assessed. Influence of independent variables (dental arch category, age, gender, and residence) on the parameters for occlusal stability was assessed by one-way ANOVA and Tukey's multiple range tests. Extreme shortened dental arches (zero to two pairs of occluding premolars) had significantly more interdental spacing, occlusal contact of incisors, and vertical overlap compared to complete dental arches. Occlusal wear and prevalence of mobile teeth were highest in these categories. The category with three to four occluding premolars had significantly more interdental spacing and, for the older age group, more anterior teeth in occlusal contact compared to complete dental arches. Age was consistently associated with increased changes in occlusal integrity. Signs of increased risk to occlusal stability seemed to occur in extreme shortened dental arches, whereas no such evidence was found for intermediate categories of shortened dental arches.

  12. Method selection and evaluation of midtrimester and long-term therapeutic efficiency of achalasia with three methods of interventional procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Yingsheng; Yang Renjie; Li Minghua; Chen Weixiong; Shang Kezhong; Zhuang Qixin; Xu Jianrong; Chen Niwei; Zhu Yude

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To study method selection and evaluation of midtrimester and long-term therapeutic efficiency of achalasia with three methods of interventional procedure. Method: 50 cases achalasia with 30 cases performing with balloon dilation (group A) and 5 cases with permanent metallic internal stent dilation (group B) and 15 cases with temporary metallic internal stent dilation (group C) under fluoroscopy. Results: 30 cases of group A had 56 times of dilations (mean 1.9 times). The mean diameter of cardia was (2.4 +- 1.2) mm before dilation and (9.7 +- 3.0) mm after dilation. The mean dysphagia scores were 2.4 +- 1.2 grades before dilation and 1.0 +- 0.3 grades after dilation. Complications in 30 cases included chest pain (n = 9), reflux (n = 8) and bleeding (n = 3). 18(60%) of 30 cases showed dysphagia relapse during follow-up over 6 months, 18(90%) of 20 cases showed dysphagia relapse during follow-up over 12 months. 5 uncovered expandable metal stents were permanently placed in 5 cases of group B. The mean diameter of cardia was (3.2 +- 2.0) mm before dilation and (18.4 +- 1.7) mm after dilation. The mean dysphagia scores were (2.4 +- 1.1) grade before dilation and (0.4 +- 0.2) grade after dilation. Complications in 5 cases included chest pain (n = 3), reflux (n = 4), bleeding (n = 1) and hyperplasia of granulation tissue (n 2). 3(60%) in 5 cases showed dysphagia relapse during follow-up over 6 months, 1(50%) in 2 cases were dysphagia relapse during follow-up over 12 months. 15 covered expandable metal stents were temporarily placed in 15 cases of group C and drawn out at the 3-7 days via gastroscopy. The mean diameter of cardia was (3.4 +- 2.9) mm before dilation and (14.7 +- 2.9) mm after dilation. The mean dysphagia scores were (2.5 +- 1.1) grades before dilation and (0.6 +- 0.3) grades after dilation. Complications in 15 cases included chest pain (n = 3), reflux (n = 3) and bleeding (n = 2). 3(20%) in 15 cases showed dysphagia relapse during follow-up over 6

  13. Advanced Monte Carlo procedure for the IFMIF d-Li neutron source term based on evaluated cross section data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simakov, S.P.; Fischer, U.; Moellendorff, U. von; Schmuck, I.; Konobeev, A.Yu.; Korovin, Yu.A.; Pereslavtsev, P.

    2002-01-01

    A newly developed computational procedure is presented for the generation of d-Li source neutrons in Monte Carlo transport calculations based on the use of evaluated double-differential d+ 6,7 Li cross section data. A new code M c DeLicious was developed as an extension to MCNP4C to enable neutronics design calculations for the d-Li based IFMIF neutron source making use of the evaluated deuteron data files. The M c DeLicious code was checked against available experimental data and calculation results of M c DeLi and MCNPX, both of which use built-in analytical models for the Li(d, xn) reaction. It is shown that M c DeLicious along with newly evaluated d+ 6,7 Li data is superior in predicting the characteristics of the d-Li neutron source. As this approach makes use of tabulated Li(d, xn) cross sections, the accuracy of the IFMIF d-Li neutron source term can be steadily improved with more advanced and validated data

  14. Advanced Monte Carlo procedure for the IFMIF d-Li neutron source term based on evaluated cross section data

    CERN Document Server

    Simakov, S P; Moellendorff, U V; Schmuck, I; Konobeev, A Y; Korovin, Y A; Pereslavtsev, P

    2002-01-01

    A newly developed computational procedure is presented for the generation of d-Li source neutrons in Monte Carlo transport calculations based on the use of evaluated double-differential d+ sup 6 sup , sup 7 Li cross section data. A new code M sup c DeLicious was developed as an extension to MCNP4C to enable neutronics design calculations for the d-Li based IFMIF neutron source making use of the evaluated deuteron data files. The M sup c DeLicious code was checked against available experimental data and calculation results of M sup c DeLi and MCNPX, both of which use built-in analytical models for the Li(d, xn) reaction. It is shown that M sup c DeLicious along with newly evaluated d+ sup 6 sup , sup 7 Li data is superior in predicting the characteristics of the d-Li neutron source. As this approach makes use of tabulated Li(d, xn) cross sections, the accuracy of the IFMIF d-Li neutron source term can be steadily improved with more advanced and validated data.

  15. Effect of Sucrose Analgesia, for Repeated Painful Procedures, on Short-term Neurobehavioral Outcome of Preterm Neonates: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banga, Shreshtha; Datta, Vikram; Rehan, Harmeet Singh; Bhakhri, Bhanu Kiran

    2016-04-01

    Safety of oral sucrose, commonly used procedural analgesic in neonates, is questioned. To evaluate the effect of sucrose analgesia, for repeated painful procedures, on short-term neurobehavioral outcome of preterm neonates. Stable preterm neonates were randomized to receive either sucrose or distilled water orally, for every potentially painful procedure during the first 7 days after enrollment. Neurodevelopmental status at 40 weeks postconceptional age (PCA) measured using the domains of Neurobehavioral Assessment of Preterm Infants scale. A total of 93 newborns were analyzed. The baseline characteristics of the groups were comparable. No statistically significant difference was observed in the assessment at 40 weeks PCA, among the groups. Use of sucrose analgesia, for repeated painful procedures on newborns, does not lead to any significant difference in the short-term neurobehavioral outcome. © The Author [2015]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Outcome predictors of empirical slow pathway modulation: clinical and procedural characteristics and long-term follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pott, Christian; Wegner, Felix K; Bögeholz, Nils; Frommeyer, Gerrit; Dechering, Dirk G; Zellerhoff, Stephan; Kochhäuser, Simon; Milberg, Peter; Köbe, Julia; Wasmer, Kristina; Breithardt, Günter; Mönnig, Gerold; Eckardt, Lars

    2015-11-01

    Catheter-based modulation of the slow pathway is the first-line therapy of atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT), the most common supraventricular tachycardia (SVT). In patients with a typical history, in whom AVNRT is not inducible during an electrophysiological study, the current guidelines allow consideration of empirical slow pathway modulation (ESPM) under the precondition that both, dual nodal pathway physiology (DNPP) and an ECG documentation compatible with AVNRT exist. This recommendation is based on small series. Furthermore, it is unknown whether ESPM is beneficial in the presence of ECG documentation but the absence of DNPP or vice versa in the presence of DNPP but absence of ECG documentation. Out of 3003 patients who underwent slow pathway modulation from 1993 to 2013, we included 116 patients (68 female; median age 47.0 years) with symptomatic tachycardia who had non-inducible SVT. All patients either had ECG documentation of SVT (66 %) or DNPP (89 %) or both (54 %). All patients underwent ESPM. No severe complications occurred. After a follow-up time of 64 ± 5.3 months, 81 % of all patients had benefited from ESPM (49 % freedom of symptoms, 32 % improvement). In patients with ECG documentation but absence of DNPP 100 % benefited (85 % freedom of symptoms; 15 % improvement). In patients with DNPP but absence of ECG documentation 75 % benefited (40 % freedom of symptoms, 35 % improvement). In a large cohort of patients, ESPM is a safe procedure that improves clinical symptoms in the majority of patients during long-term follow-up. We show for the first time that this also applies for cases where there is no DNPP but a characteristic ECG documentation, and vice versa.

  17. Long-term clinical outcomes with the retropubic tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) procedure compared to Burch colposuspension for correcting stress urinary incontinence (SUI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdø, Bjørn; Verelst, Margareta; Svenningsen, Rune; Milsom, Ian; Skjeldestad, Finn Egil

    2017-11-01

    The retropubic tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) procedure replaced Burch colposuspension as the primary surgical method for stress urinary incontinence (SUI) and mixed urinary incontinence (MUI) in women in our department in 1998. In this study we compared the short-term and long-term clinical outcomes of these surgical procedures. Using a case series design, we compared the last 5 years of the Burch procedure (n = 127, 1994-1999) with the first 5 years of the retropubic TVT procedure (n = 180, 1998-2002). Information from the medical records was transferred to a case report form comprising data on perioperative and long-term complications as well as recurrence of UI, defined as bothersome UI or UI in need of repeat surgery. Other endpoints were rates of perioperative and late complications and the rates of prolapse surgery after primary surgery. The data were analyzed with the chi-squared and t tests and survival analysis using SPSS. The cumulative recurrence rate of SUI in women with preoperative SUI was significantly higher after the Burch procedure, but no difference was observed in women with MUI. There were no significant differences in rates of perioperative and late complications. At 12 years there was a significant increase in rates of repeat surgery for incontinence and prolapse in women after the Burch procedure. The long-term efficacy of TVT surgery was superior to that of Burch colposuspension in women with SUI. In addition, the rate of late prolapse surgery was significantly higher after the Burch procedure.

  18. Midwall myocardial shortening in athletic left ventricular hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayet, Jamil; Ariff, Ben; Wasan, Balvinder; Chapman, Neil; Shahi, Manjit; Senior, Roxy; Foale, Rodney A; Thom, Simon A McG

    2002-12-01

    Patients with pathological left ventricular hypertrophy have depressed midwall systolic shortening in spite of normal indices of left ventricular chamber function and a reduced midwall function has been observed to be an independent predictor of cardiovascular risk. Whether midwall shortening is depressed in physiological hypertrophy is unknown. Forty-two subjects, 27 athletes and 15 age- and sex-matched normal control subjects (group 1) were studied. The athletes were divided into those with eccentric hypertrophy (group 2) and those with concentric hypertrophy (group 3). Systolic left ventricular function was assessed at the midwall and endocardium using two-dimensional echocardiography in all subjects. Left ventricular mass index was significantly greater in both athletic groups than in controls (group 1, 101+/-5.8 g/m(2), group 2, 141+/-11.1*, group 3, 155+/-5.8*; *Phypertrophy athletes compared with the other two groups (midwall fractional shortening: group 1, 21.9+/-1.1, group 2, 21.9+/-0.86, group 3, 18.4+/-0.96*%; Phypertrophy have depressed midwall fractional shortening. This suggests that the observed discrepancy between midwall and endocardial shortening in patients with left ventricular hypertrophy is likely to be a function of the geometry and not necessarily a reflection of pathology within the myocardium.

  19. Trans Fatty Acid content in Danish margarines and shortenings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Torben; Bysted, Anette; Hansen, Kirsten

    2003-01-01

    Margarines and shortenings have been major contributors to the intake by humans of the probably atherogenic trans FA (TFA). In 1999, all 73 brands of margarines and shortenings on the Danish market were analyzed by GLC on a 50-m highly polar capillary column, and the results were compared...... in shortenings, averaging about 6-7%. Long-chain TFA from hydrogenated,fish oil, although present in 13 brands in 1995, were not found at all in the 1999 samples. Trans-linoleic acids or CLA were not found. The reduction in TFA content in margarines has not resulted in a systematic change over the years...... in the content of saturated FA, monounsaturated FA, or PUFA. Calculated from sales figures, the intake of TFA decreased from 2.2 g per capita per year in 1992, to 1.5 g in 1995, and to 0.4 g in, 1999....

  20. Shortened stapedius tendon: a rare cause of conductive hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawawi, F; Varshney, R; Schloss, M D

    2014-01-01

    Anomalies of the stapedius tendon have been reported to cause conductive hearing loss; in theory, such anomalies limit the movement of the stapes. To demonstrate a rare cause of conductive hearing loss resulting from anomaly of the stapedius tendon and to compare the clinical findings of this patient to other stapedius tendon anomalies reported in the literature. Case report of a single case of shortened stapedius tendon and a review of the English literature on stapedius tendon anomalies. This is a case report of a 15-year-old boy with shortened stapedius tendon causing unilateral hearing loss, accompanied by a review of the literature. Contrary to other reported cases, this patient did not have an ossified tendon, but rather an extremely short tendon. The boy regained normal hearing following excision of the stapedius tendon. A shortened stapedius tendon is a very rare diagnosis, yet it should be considered as a possible cause of conductive hearing loss.

  1. 3'UTR shortening and EGF signaling: implications for breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akman, Hesna Begum; Oyken, Merve; Tuncer, Taner; Can, Tolga; Erson-Bensan, Ayse Elif

    2015-12-15

    Alternative polyadenylation (APA) plays a role in gene expression regulation generally by shortening of 3'UTRs (untranslated regions) upon proliferative signals and relieving microRNA-mediated repression. Owing to high proliferative indices of triple negative breast cancers (TNBCs), we hypothesized APA to cause 3'UTR length changes in this aggressive subgroup of breast cancers. Our probe-based meta-analysis approach identified 3'UTR length alterations where the significant majority was shortening events (∼70%, 113 of 165) of mostly proliferation-related transcripts in 520 TNBC patients compared with controls. Representative shortening events were further investigated for their microRNA binding potentials by computational predictions and dual-luciferase assay. In silico-predicted 3'UTR shortening events were experimentally confirmed in patient and cell line samples. To begin addressing the underlying mechanisms, we found CSTF2 (cleavage stimulation factor 2), a major regulator of 3'UTR shortening to be up-regulated in response to epidermal growth factor (EGF). EGF treatment also resulted with further shortening of the 3'UTRs. To investigate the contribution of CSTF2 and 3'UTR length alterations to the proliferative phenotype, we showed pharmacological inhibition of the EGF pathway to lead to a reduction in CSTF2 levels. Accordingly, RNAi-induced silencing of CSTF2 decreased the proliferative rate of cancer cells. Therefore, our computational and experimental approach revealed a pattern of 3'UTR length changes in TNBC patients and a potential link between APA and EGF signaling. Overall, detection of 3'UTR length alterations of various genes may help the discovery of new cancer-related genes, which may have been overlooked in conventional microarray gene expression analyses. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Long-Term Memory: A Review and Meta-Analysis of Studies of Declarative and Procedural Memory in Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, Jarrad A. G.; Conti-Ramsden, Gina

    2013-01-01

    This review examined the status of long-term memory systems in specific language impairment (SLI)--declarative memory and aspects of procedural memory in particular. Studies included in the review were identified following a systematic search of the literature and findings combined using meta-analysis. This review showed that individuals with SLI…

  3. Calibration procedures of area monitors in terms of the Ambient Dose Equivalent H*(10), for gamma, x-ray radiation fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dieguez Davila, L.E.

    1998-01-01

    In the present thesis procedures for calibrating portable survey meters in terms of the new ICRU quantities H*(10) ambient dose equivalent are discussed. Also the remendations of International Comission on Radiation Protection in their report ICRP 60 that inludes the operational magnitudes that the International Comission of Radiation Units proposed for calibrating area monitors

  4. Variables Prognostic for Delayed Union and Nonunion Following Ulnar Shortening Fixed With a Dedicated Osteotomy Plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar, Michael P; Kane, Patrick M; Zohn, Ralph C; Buckley, Taylor; Jacoby, Sidney M; Shin, Eon K

    2016-02-01

    To examine potential risk factors for the development of delayed or nonunion following elective ulnar shortening osteotomy using a dedicated osteotomy plating system. We performed a retrospective review of all patients who underwent elective ulnar shortening using the TriMed single osteotomy dynamic compression plating system by 1 of 2 fellowship-trained hand surgeons over a 5-year period. Demographic data and medical, surgical, and social histories were reviewed. Time to bony union was determined radiographically by a blinded reviewer. Bivariate statistical analysis was performed to examine the effect of explanatory variables on the time to union and the incidence of delayed or nonunion. Those variables associated with the development of delayed or nonunion were used in a multivariate logistic regression model. Complications, including the need for additional surgery, were also recorded. Seventy-two ulnar shortening osteotomy procedures were performed in 69 patients. Delayed union, defined as ≥ 6 months to union, occurred in 8 of 72 cases (11%). Of 72 surgeries, 4 (6%) resulted in nonunions, all of which required additional surgery. Hardware removal was performed in 13 of 72 (18%) of the cases. Time to union was significantly increased in smokers (6 ± 3 months) versus nonsmokers (3 ± 1 months). On multivariable analysis, diabetics and active smokers demonstrated a significantly higher risk of developing delayed union or nonunion. Patient age, sex, body mass index, thyroid disease, worker's compensation status, alcohol use, and amount smoked daily did not have an effect on the time to union or the incidence of delayed or nonunion. Despite the use of an osteotomy-specific plating system, smokers and diabetics were at significantly higher risk for both delayed union and nonunion following elective ulnar shortening osteotomy. Other known risk factors for suboptimal bony healing were not found to have a deleterious effect. Copyright © 2016 American Society for

  5. Mini-open spinal column shortening for the treatment of adult tethered cord syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaee, Michael M; Winkler, Ethan A; Chou, Dean

    2017-10-01

    Tethered cord syndrome (TCS) is a challenging entity characterized by adhesions at the caudal spinal cord that prevent upward movement during growth and result in stretching of the cord with a concomitant constellation of neurologic symptoms. Although growth in height stops in adulthood, some patients still develop progressive symptoms; many underwent detethering as a child or adolescent, resulting in significant scar tissue and re-tethering. Recent strategies have focused on spinal column shortening to reduce tension on the spinal cord without exposing the previous de-tethering site. Mini-open and minimally invasive approaches avoid the large dissection and exposure associated with traditional approaches and are associated with reduced blood loss, shorter hospital stay, and similar outcomes when compared to conventional open approaches. We describe a technique for mini-open spinal column shortening. Using intraoperative navigation pedicle screws were placed at T10, T11, L1, and L2. A mini-open 3-column "egg shell" decancellation osteotomy of T12 was performed through a transpedicular approach with preservation of the superior and inferior endplates. This procedure was performed on a 28year old male with recurrent TCS and neurogenic bladder. Postoperative imaging showed a reduction in spinal column length of 1.5cm and evidence of decreased tension on the spinal cord. At last follow-up he was recovering well with improved urinary function. Spinal column shortening for adult TCS can be safely achieved through a mini-open approach. Future studies should compare the efficacy of this technique to both traditional de-tethering and open spinal column shortening. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Mid-term follow-up of the status of Gore-Tex graft after extracardiac conduit Fontan procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochiai, Yoshie; Imoto, Yutaka; Sakamoto, Masato; Kajiwara, Takashi; Sese, Akira; Watanabe, Mamie; Ohno, Takuro; Joo, Kunitaka

    2009-07-01

    Extracardiac conduit Fontan procedure (ECFP) using Gore-Tex graft has been performed with increasing frequency for the patients with functional single ventricle. However, lack of growth potential and longevity of the conduit are consistent concerns and main points of criticism of the ECFP. In this study, we investigated the mid-term status of the Gore-Tex graft used in the ECFP by comparing the internal diameter of the graft with the inferior vena cava (IVC) diameter at 1 month and 5.2 years after the ECFP. Of 79 patients who underwent ECFP using Gore-Tex graft between November 1997 and December 2007, 33 patients who had completed cardiac catheterization at 1 month (21-73 days) and 5.2 years (3.3-9.6 years) after the ECFP were included in this study. We measured the internal diameter of the Gore-Tex graft and IVC at both catheterizations retrospectively. The size of the Gore-Tex graft used in the ECFP was 16 mm in 17 patients, 18 mm in 9 patients, and 20mm in 7 patients. Laminar flow through the conduits was maintained without any stenosis or kinking of the graft in these 33 patients. No intervention or reoperation related to the extracardiac conduit has been required. There were no significant differences in mean cross-sectional area (CSA) of the conduits at 1 month versus 5.2 years after the ECFP for each conduit size, and no significant changes in the conduit-to-IVC CSA ratio (0.98+/-0.40 vs 0.82+/-0.21 for 16 mm, 1.09+/-0.30 vs 0.92+/-0.33 for 18 mm, and 1.16+/-0.55 vs 0.94+/-0.44 for 20mm conduit). The conduit CSA and conduit-to-IVC CSA ratio remained unchanged in small caliber grafts down to 16 mm at 5.2 years after the ECFP. However, further investigation is necessary to evaluate the fate of the Gore-Tex graft and late hemodynamics in the patients with small conduits after they achieve full somatic growth.

  7. Accident Sequence Evaluation Program: Human reliability analysis procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swain, A.D.

    1987-02-01

    This document presents a shortened version of the procedure, models, and data for human reliability analysis (HRA) which are presented in the Handbook of Human Reliability Analysis With emphasis on Nuclear Power Plant Applications (NUREG/CR-1278, August 1983). This shortened version was prepared and tried out as part of the Accident Sequence Evaluation Program (ASEP) funded by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and managed by Sandia National Laboratories. The intent of this new HRA procedure, called the ''ASEP HRA Procedure,'' is to enable systems analysts, with minimal support from experts in human reliability analysis, to make estimates of human error probabilities and other human performance characteristics which are sufficiently accurate for many probabilistic risk assessments. The ASEP HRA Procedure consists of a Pre-Accident Screening HRA, a Pre-Accident Nominal HRA, a Post-Accident Screening HRA, and a Post-Accident Nominal HRA. The procedure in this document includes changes made after tryout and evaluation of the procedure in four nuclear power plants by four different systems analysts and related personnel, including human reliability specialists. The changes consist of some additional explanatory material (including examples), and more detailed definitions of some of the terms. 42 refs

  8. Accident Sequence Evaluation Program: Human reliability analysis procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swain, A.D.

    1987-02-01

    This document presents a shortened version of the procedure, models, and data for human reliability analysis (HRA) which are presented in the Handbook of Human Reliability Analysis With emphasis on Nuclear Power Plant Applications (NUREG/CR-1278, August 1983). This shortened version was prepared and tried out as part of the Accident Sequence Evaluation Program (ASEP) funded by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and managed by Sandia National Laboratories. The intent of this new HRA procedure, called the ''ASEP HRA Procedure,'' is to enable systems analysts, with minimal support from experts in human reliability analysis, to make estimates of human error probabilities and other human performance characteristics which are sufficiently accurate for many probabilistic risk assessments. The ASEP HRA Procedure consists of a Pre-Accident Screening HRA, a Pre-Accident Nominal HRA, a Post-Accident Screening HRA, and a Post-Accident Nominal HRA. The procedure in this document includes changes made after tryout and evaluation of the procedure in four nuclear power plants by four different systems analysts and related personnel, including human reliability specialists. The changes consist of some additional explanatory material (including examples), and more detailed definitions of some of the terms. 42 refs.

  9. Effects of post mortem temperature on rigor tension, shortening and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fully developed rigor mortis in muscle is characterised by maximum loss of extensibility. The course of post mortem changes in ostrich muscle was studied by following isometric tension, shortening and change in pH during the first 24 h post mortem within muscle strips from the muscularis gastrocnemius, pars interna at ...

  10. shortened lag phase with seeds from early exponential phase

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJL

    2012-01-12

    Jan 12, 2012 ... exponential or early stationary phase was selected as optimal. In the current study, the authors optimised inoculum conditions using a strategy that combined inoculum age and size as inoculum cell number to shorten the lag phase in yeast cultivation. Inoculum from the middle exponential phase (7th h).

  11. Challenges in Shortening New Product Introduction in the Pharmaceutical Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus Reinholdt Nyhuus; Grunow, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Drug developing companies are forced to utilize the effective protection of the patent by focusing on shortening the new product introduction [NPI] process measured as Time-to-Market [TTM]. Here the NPI process is considered and the trade-offs, which have to be address in the future are identified...

  12. Masticatory efficiency of shortened dental arch subjects with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The objective of this study was to compare the masticatory efficiency in subjects with shortened dental arch (SDA) before and after restoration with removable partial denture (RPD). Materials and Methods: This was a prospective study carried out on 36 consecutive patients. The subjects were asked to chew 5 g of ...

  13. On the Shortcomings of Shortened Tests: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruyen, Peter M.; Emons, Wilco H. M.; Sijtsma, Klaas

    2013-01-01

    To efficiently assess multiple psychological constructs and to minimize the burden on respondents, psychologists increasingly use shortened versions of existing tests. However, compared to the longer test, a shorter test version may have a substantial impact on the reliability and the validity of the test scores in psychological research and…

  14. Deactivation rate and shortening velocity as determinants of contractile frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, R L

    1990-08-01

    The kinetic properties of muscle that could influence locomotor frequency include rate of activation, rate of cross-bridge "attachment", intrinsic shortening velocity, and rate of deactivation. The latter two mechanisms are examined using examples from high-speed running in lizards and escape swimming in scallops. During running, inertial loading and elastic energy storage probably mitigate the effects of thermal alterations in intrinsic muscle shortening velocity. The result is a rather low thermal dependence of stride frequency over a 15-20 degree C temperature range. However, at lower temperatures, the longer times required for deactivation cause the thermal dependence of frequency to increase greatly. Scallops use a single muscle to swim by jet propulsion. In vivo shortening velocity in these animals also shows a low thermal dependence. As with high-speed running, the mechanics of jet propulsion may limit the effects of thermally induced changes in intrinsic shortening velocity. The largest thermal effect during swimming is on the initial phase of valve opening. The effects of temperature on the rate of deactivation of the adductor muscle could play an important role in limiting reextension of the muscle, which is dependent on elastic energy storage in the hinge ligament. These examples illustrate that the relative importance of various intrinsic contractile properties in controlling locomotor performance depends on the mechanics of the movements.

  15. Evaluation of the life shortening of flexible pavements | Bavandpour ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One of the reasons of life shortening of pavements operation is designing regardless of their administrative facts. The amount of transferred load between the layers depends on various factors such as the degree of adhesion and internal friction between the layers. If these layers limit by using proper bonding and sufficient ...

  16. A Shortened Stress Measure in Military Nursing Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-17

    Psychology 14. ABSTRACT A Shortened Stress Measure with Military Nursing Personnel Abstract Stress is a psychological construct with important... psychological construct with important consequences for human health. A substantial number of stress measures are available that vary in length and...that were similar in strength to longer versions of the PSQ. Keywords: psychological stress, psychometrics, military personnel The views expressed are

  17. Tectonic shortening and coeval volcanism during the Quaternary ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 122; Issue 1. Tectonic shortening ... Abstract. The Northeast Japan arc, a mature volcanic arc with a back-arc marginal basin (Japan Sea), is located on a convergent plate boundary along the subducting Pacific plate and the overriding North American plate. From a ...

  18. Knowledge and attitudes of dentists toward shortened dental arch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The aim of this study was to assess and compare the knowledge and attitudes of dentists toward shortened dental arch (SDA) therapy in Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: In this cross‑sectional study, self‑designed‑structured questionnaires were distributed among specialists (SP), residents (RES), and ...

  19. Telomere shortening reduces Alzheimer's disease amyloid pathology in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rolyan, Harshvardhan; Scheffold, Annika; Heinrich, Annette; Begus-Nahrmann, Yvonne; Langkopf, Britta Heike; Hoelter, Sabine M.; Vogt-Weisenhorn, Daniela M.; Liss, Birgit; Wurst, Wolfgang; Lie, Dieter Chichung; Thal, Dietmar Rudolf; Biber, Knut; Rudolph, Karl Lenhard

    Alzheimer's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder of the elderly and advancing age is the major risk factor for Alzheimer's disease development. Telomere shortening represents one of the molecular causes of ageing that limits the proliferative capacity of cells, including neural stem cells.

  20. Procedural and short-term safety of bronchial thermoplasty in clinical practice: evidence from a national registry and Hospital Episode Statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burn, Julie; Sims, Andrew J; Keltie, Kim; Patrick, Hannah; Welham, Sally A; Heaney, Liam G; Niven, Robert M

    2017-10-01

    Bronchial thermoplasty (BT) is a novel treatment for severe asthma. Its mode of action and ideal target patient group remain poorly defined, though clinical trials provided some evidence on efficacy and safety. This study presents procedural and short-term safety evidence from routine UK clinical practice. Patient characteristics and safety outcomes (procedural complications, 30-day readmission and accident and emergency (A&E) attendance, length of stay) were assessed using two independent data sources, the British Thoracic Society UK Difficult Asthma Registry (DAR) and Hospital Episodes Statistics (HES) database. A matched cohort (with records in both) was used to estimate safety outcome event rates and compare them with clinical trials. Between June 2011 and January 2015, 215 procedure records (83 patients; 68 treated in England) were available from DAR and 203 (85 patients) from HES. 152 procedures matched (59 patients; 6 centres), and of these, 11.2% reported a procedural complication, 11.8% resulted in emergency respiratory readmission, 0.7% in respiratory A&E attendance within 30 days (20.4% had at least one event) and 46.1% involved a post-procedure stay. Compared with published clinical trials which found lower hospitalisation rates, BT patients in routine clinical practice were, on average, older, had worse baseline lung function and asthma quality of life. A higher proportion of patients experienced adverse events compared with clinical trials. The greater severity of disease amongst patients treated in clinical practice may explain the observed rate of post-procedural stay and readmission. Study of long-term safety and efficacy requires continuing data collection.

  1. Long-term clinical and radiographic outcome of patello-femoral realignment procedures: a minimum of 15-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivod, Gregor; Verdonk, Peter; Drobnič, Matej

    2014-11-01

    A retrospective single-centre study was focused on the long-term outcome after different patello-femoral (PF) realignment procedures. Thirty-nine patients treated for recurrent PF instability were examined after a mean post-operative time of 22.5 years. Their 78 knees were divided into: non-operated knees (NON-OPERATED)-N = 24, isolated proximal procedures (PROXIMAL)-N = 22, isolated distal procedures (DISTAL)-N = 10, and combined procedures (COMBINED)-N = 22. PF-related medical history together with clinical, subjective (KOOS and Kujala scores), and radiographic (Caton-Deschamps PF height index, Kellgren-Lawrence scale for tibio-femoral OA, and Iwano classification for PF OA) evaluation was conducted. PF re-dislocation rate was comparable between PROXIMAL (36%), DISTAL (20%), and COMBINED (32%). Isolated proximal procedures revealed less central patella positions (PROXIMAL 64%; DISTAL 90%; COMBINED 95%) and more frequent PF apprehension test (PROXIMAL 82%; DISTAL 40%, COMBINED 50%). KOOS and Kujala scores were similar in all three surgical subgroups, but significantly lower than in NON-OPERATED. Patellas were positioned lower after DISTAL, 0.8 (0.5-1.0) or COMBINED, 0.9 (0.4-1.3). Kellgren-Lawrence scores ≥2 were found in 42% NON-OPERATED, 37% PROXIMAL, 70% DISTAL, and 59% COMBINED, whereas Iwano classification ≥2 was confirmed in 46% NON-OPERATED, 64% PROXIMAL, 80% DISTAL, and 86% COMBINED. High PF re-dislocation rates together with a very high incidence of PF OA indicate that PF realignment strategies used traditionally had failed to reach their long-term expectations. The transfer of tibial tuberosity resulted in more constrained PF joints than isolated proximal procedures which allowed for more residual PF instability. Distal procedures additionally increased the likelihood for tibio-femoral OA. III.

  2. Shortening a loop can increase protein native state entropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrilov, Yulian; Dagan, Shlomi; Levy, Yaakov

    2015-12-01

    Protein loops are essential structural elements that influence not only function but also protein stability and folding rates. It was recently reported that shortening a loop in the AcP protein may increase its native state conformational entropy. This effect on the entropy of the folded state can be much larger than the lower entropic penalty of ordering a shorter loop upon folding, and can therefore result in a more pronounced stabilization than predicted by polymer model for loop closure entropy. In this study, which aims at generalizing the effect of loop length shortening on native state dynamics, we use all-atom molecular dynamics simulations to study how gradual shortening a very long or solvent-exposed loop region in four different proteins can affect their stability. For two proteins, AcP and Ubc7, we show an increase in native state entropy in addition to the known effect of the loop length on the unfolded state entropy. However, for two permutants of SH3 domain, shortening a loop results only with the expected change in the entropy of the unfolded state, which nicely reproduces the observed experimental stabilization. Here, we show that an increase in the native state entropy following loop shortening is not unique to the AcP protein, yet nor is it a general rule that applies to all proteins following the truncation of any loop. This modification of the loop length on the folded state and on the unfolded state may result with a greater effect on protein stability. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Shortening induced effects on force (re)development in pig urinary smooth muscle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. van Asselt (Els); J.J.M. Pel (Johan); R. van Mastrigt (Ron)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: When muscle is allowed to shorten during an active contraction, the maximum force that redevelops after shortening is smaller than the isometric force at the same muscle length without prior shortening. We studied the course of force redevelopment after shortening in smooth

  4. The shortened cochlea: its classification and histopathologic features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yiqing; Schachern, Patricia A; Cureoglu, Sebahattin; Mutlu, Cemil; Dijalilian, Hamid; Paparella, Michael M

    2002-03-15

    The term 'Mondini dysplasia' has been used to describe virtually any congenital abnormality of the osseous labyrinth resulting in confusion and seemingly contradictory observations and conclusions about this type of deformity. The purpose of this study is to histopathologically classify and describe temporal bones whose cochleas have less than 2.5 turns. Of the 1800 temporal bones in our collection, 21 from 12 cases were found to have cochleas with less than 2.5 cochlear turns. Ages ranged from stillborn to 50 years. Temporal bones were harvested at autopsy, processed and embedded in celloidin. Sections were cut at a thickness of 20 microm and every 10th section stained with hematoxylin-eosin and examined using light microscopy. The number of turns, length of cochlea, integrity of cochlear base, length of modiolus, abnormalities of the semicircular canals and vestibule, enlargement of the vestibular aqueduct and middle ears were documented. Twenty-one temporal bones from age-matched patients without cochlear deformities were used as controls for modiolar length measurements. Malformation of the shortened cochlea was histopathologically classified into three groups as follows: (1) Common cavity, cochlear dysplasia (one ear)--severe dysplasia of the cochlea without a complete basal turn; (2) Mondini dysplasia (11 ears)--1.5 cochlear turns, a complete basal turn, an incomplete or absent interscalar septum and a complete bone at the base of the modiolus; and (3) Mondini-like dysplasia type A (five ears)--2 turns to the cochlea including a complete basal turn and complete bone at the base of the modiolus; and type B (four ears)--1.5-2 turns to the cochlea, hypoplasia of or a missing bone at the base of the modiolus (either with or without a communication between the internal auditory canal and the cochlea) and a complete basal turn. The range of congenital malformations in short cochlea is highly variable. Fundamental to the accurate evaluation of a labyrinthine anomaly

  5. Comparison between primary closure with karydakis's technique versus open procedure in treatment of pilonidal sinus in terms of frequency of postoperative wound infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nafees, A.U.A.; Ahmed, M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study is to compare between primary closure with Karydakis's technique versus open procedure in treatment of pilonidal sinus in terms of frequency of postoperative wound infection. Study Design: Randomized Clinical Trials (RCT). Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out at Department of Surgery, CMH, Kharian over a period of 2 years from Sept 2010 to Oct 2012. Patients and Methods: Sixty patients were selected out of which 30 patients underwent open excision and secondary healing and 30 patients underwent Karydakis procedure. Post operatively these patients were observed for wound infection on date of discharge and weeks 1, 2 and 3. Results of both groups were compared for wound infection by applying chi-square test. Results: There was no statistically significant difference in the frequency of infection between the two groups when calculated during the complete course of study. Conclusion: Primary closure with Karydakis's technique and open procedure are satisfactory surgical procedures for pilonidal sinus disease in terms of post-operative wound infection. (author)

  6. Long-Term Pavement Performance Program determination of in-place elastic layer modulus : backcalculation methodology and procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Deflection data have been measured at periodic intervals with a falling weight deflectometer on all rigid, flexible, semirigid, : and rehabilitated pavement test sections included in the Long-Term Pavement Performance (LTPP) program. A : common use o...

  7. Shortened duration of untreated first episode of psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Tor Ketil; McGlashan, T H; Johannessen, Jan Olav

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study examined whether duration of untreated psychosis can be shortened in patients with first episodes of DSM-IV schizophrenia spectrum disorders and whether shorted duration alters patient appearance at treatment. METHOD: Two study groups were ascertained in the same Norwegian...... health care sector: one from 1993-1994 with usual detection methods and one from 1997-1998 with early detection strategies that included education about psychosis. RESULTS: Patients with early detection had a shorter median duration of untreated psychosis by 21.5 weeks than patients with usual detection....... The number with psychosis was greater in the early detection group; the number with schizophrenia was less. Early detection patients had more substance abuse and were younger, better adjusted premorbidly, and less ill. CONCLUSIONS: Early detection can shorten duration of untreated psychosis and help more...

  8. [Hernia recurrence long term follow-up after open procedures of abdominal wall plasty-prospective study including 142 patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mureşan, Mircea; Mureşan, Simona; Bara, Tivadar; Neagoe, Radu; Sala, Daniela; Suciu, Bogdan

    2016-01-01

    The incisional hernia continues to be a frequent complication of laparotomies. The purpose of study is the analysis of hernia disease relapse after one year after different open plasties methods of the abdominal wall. A prospective longitudinal study was performed that included 142 patients. An analysis was performed on the individual data, the level of obesity, intra-surgical variations in intra-abdominal pressure, the intensity of post-surgical pain, the post-surgical complications, and the types of plasties of abdominal wall, simple and with polypropylene mesh. The analysis of studied group showed a general rate of relapse of 16.9%, and within the 4 procedures, 40.74% in the case of simple plasties, of 16.07% after the only plasties, 6.97% after the retro-muscular plasties, and 6.25% after the full substitution of parietal defect. On analysing the collected, hernia relapse was statistically significantly related to the level of obesity, variations in intra-abdominal pressure, post-surgical pain, and the type of procedure performed. Hernia is a frequent complication of laparotomies. Hernia relapse was more frequent in the case of simple plasties. Among the mesh procedures, the onlay plasty showed a higher rate of relapse and post-surgical complications. Hernia relapse was more frequent in the case of variations of intra-abdominal pressure, and with increased post-surgical pain. The use of an echography examination may increase the accuracy of the presence of hernia disease. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. All rights reserved.

  9. Incorporated fish oil fatty acids prevent action potential shortening induced by circulating fish oil fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hester M Den Ruijter

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Increased consumption of fatty fish, rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (3-PUFAs reduces the severity and number of arrhythmias. Long term 3-PUFA-intake modulates the activity of several cardiac ion channels leading to cardiac action potential shortening. Circulating 3-PUFAs in the bloodstream and incorporated 3-PUFAs in the cardiac membrane have a different mechanism to shorten the action potential. It is, however, unknown whether circulating 3-PUFAs in the bloodstream enhance or diminish the effects of incorporated 3-PUFAs. In the present study, we address this issue. Rabbits were fed a diet rich in fish oil (3 or sunflower oil (9, as control for 3 weeks. Ventricular myocytes were isolated by enzymatic dissociation and action potentials were measured using the perforated patch clamp technique in the absence and presence of acutely administered 3-PUFAs. Plasma of 3 fed rabbits contained more free eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and isolated myocytes of 3 fed rabbits contained higher amounts of both EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA in their sarcolemma compared to control. In the absence of acutely administered fatty acids, 3 myocytes had a shorter action potential with a more negative plateau than 9 myocytes. In the 9 myocytes, but not in the 3 myocytes, acute administration of a mixture of EPA+DHA shortened the action potential significantly. From these data we conclude that incorporated 3-PUFAs into the sarcolemma and acutely administered 3 fatty acids do not have a cumulative effect on action potential duration and morphology. As a consequence, patients with a high cardiac 3-PUFA status will probably not benefit from short term 3 supplementation as an antiarrhythmic therapy.

  10. Crown lengthening procedure following intentional endodontic therapy for correction of supra-erupted posterior teeth: Case series with long-term follow-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Shruti Arun; Kulkarni, Sudhindra; Thakur, Srinath; Naik, Balaram

    2016-01-01

    Context: The crown lengthening procedure (CLP) is routinely carried out to correct gingival levels and achieve esthetic contours and adequate crown lengths for restorative purposes. Though the short-term outcomes have been found to be stable, long-term results are not much reported. Aims: To evaluate the long-term stability of the marginal bone levels, gingival levels, and the status of the teeth, which underwent endodontic therapy, followed by CLP and final restorations. Settings and Design: Institutional setting, long-term case series. Materials and Methods: Case records of the patients who underwent CLP and endodontic therapy for corrections of the supra-erupted teeth to regain the lost interocclusal spaces were retrieved, and the cases with complete set of the clinical and radiographs were taken. All the cases were recalled and bone levels on the radiographs, bleeding on probing, probing pocket depths, and changes in the soft tissue margins were evaluated. Statistical Analysis Used: Descriptive analysis. Results: A total of 25 teeth had undergone CLP and endodontic therapy and final restorations for a minimum of 24 months. The mean post-restorative duration was 50.8 ± 22.48 months (range 24–96 months). All the teeth were functional and asymptomatic with 100% survival. Interdental bone loss of 1 mm, probing pockets of 5 mm, and 1 mm buccal recession were observed in 16% of the sites. The amount of interocclusal space regained was adequate to restore the missing teeth in the opposing arch. Conclusions: The CLP is a predictive procedure for correction of supra-erupted teeth. The survival of the teeth that underwent the procedure in the present study was 100% over 24–96 months. PMID:27041850

  11. Short-term clinical and quality-of-life outcomes in women treated by the TVT-Secur procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jeanette L; de Cuyper, Eva M J; Cornish, Ann; Frazer, Malcolm

    2010-04-01

    The TVT-Secur (Ethicon, Somerville, NJ, USA) is a minimally invasive suburethral synthetic sling used in the treatment of female stress urinary incontinence. It claims to cause less postoperative pain and to enable performing in an office setting. However, this may be at the expense of a significant learning curve and a higher early failure rate. To assess objectively the success rate of the TVT-Secur procedure in the 'U' configuration at six months. Secondary outcomes focussed on subjective success rates, complications, patient satisfaction and quality-of-life (QOL). A prospective observational study was undertaken at two tertiary referral urogynaecology centres. A cohort of 42 consecutive patients with urodynamic stress incontinence who underwent the TVT-Secur procedure in the 'U' configuration between November 2006 and August 2007 were followed up for six months. Three standardised QOL questionnaires were completed preoperatively and at six months. A urogenital history, visual analogue score (VAS) for patient satisfaction, uroflow and urinary stress test were performed at six months. Recruitment was ceased prematurely because of a high number of early failures. Objective and subjective success rates at six months were 58.3% and 51.3% respectively. Complications included urinary tract infections, voiding difficulty, groin discomfort, haematoma, vaginal pain, tape erosion and intra-operative dislodgement of tape. Prevalence of de novo urge incontinence was 10.3%. Only symptom-specific QOL scores improved and only 48.6% indicated a high level satisfaction (VAS > or = 80%) with TVT-Secur. On the basis of this limited study, we are hesitant to recommend the 'U' configuration of the TVT-Secur over its more established counterparts, the TVT and TVT-O.

  12. Short-term outcomes of laparoscopy-assisted hybrid living donor hepatectomy: a comparison with the conventional open procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitajima, Toshihiro; Kaido, Toshimi; Iida, Taku; Seo, Satoru; Taura, Kojiro; Fujimoto, Yasuhiro; Ogawa, Kohei; Hatano, Etsuro; Okajima, Hideaki; Uemoto, Shinji

    2017-12-01

    Although minimally invasive living donor surgery has been increasingly accepted, its safety remains to be fully clarified in a large-scale study. This study evaluated the safety and effectiveness of our laparoscopy-assisted hybrid living donor surgery (LAHDS) procedure with an upper median incision in comparison with conventional open donor hepatectomy (ODH). From 2011 to 2016, 153 adult living donors [right lobe (RL) graft: 80 donors; left lobe (LL) graft: 73 donors] were enrolled and divided into LAHDS (n = 76) and ODH (n = 77) groups. Donor characteristics, surgical outcomes, and postoperative complications were compared between the 2 groups in each graft subgroup. Postoperative liver function tests (LFTs), inflammatory markers, pain parameters, incision-related symptoms, and recipient outcomes were compared between the 2 groups in all donors. In RL donors, operative blood loss was significantly lower in the LAHDS group than in the ODH group (201 vs. 313 g; p = 0.034). In LL donors, duration of surgery was significantly longer in the LAHDS group than in the ODH group (459 vs. 403 min; p = 0.034). The incidence of complications, length of hospital stay, and postoperative changes in both LFTs and inflammatory markers were comparable. The incidence of postoperative scar discomfort or tightness was significantly lower in the LAHDS group than in the ODH group (2.6 vs. 31.2%; p < 0.001), whereas postoperative pain parameters were comparable. The incidence of wound problems and abdominal wall numbness tended to be lower, but not significantly so, in the LAHDS group. This large consecutive case series demonstrates that our LAHDS procedure can be performed as safely as ODH, and it can improve quality of life without impaired donor and recipient outcomes.

  13. The psychometric properties of a shortened corporate entrepreneurship assessment instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renier Steyn

    2017-08-01

    Aim: The aim of this research was to evaluate the psychometric properties of a measure of entrepreneurial climate. Entrepreneurial climate was measured using a shortened version of the Hornsby, Kuratko and Zahra (2002 instrument, called the Corporate Entrepreneurship Assessment Instrument (CEAI. Making information on the psychometric properties of the instrument available directly relates to its utility. Setting: The setting was medium to large South African companies. A random sample of employees was drawn from 53 selected companies across South Africa, with 60 respondents per company (N = 3 180. Methods: A cross-sectional survey design was used. Several instruments were administered, including the shortened version of the CEAI. Cronbach’s alpha was used to test for reliability and several methods were used to test for validity. Correlation analysis was used to test for concurrent validity, convergent validity and divergent validity. Principle component factor analysis was used to test for factorial validity and a t-test to test for known-group validity. Results: The results showed that the reliability for the total score of the shortened version of the CEAI was acceptable at 0.758. The results also showed some evidence of concurrent validity, as well as homogeneity among the items. With regard to factorial validity, all items loaded in accordance with the subscales of the instrument. The measure was able to distinguish, as expected, between government organisations and private business entities, suggesting known-group validity. Convergent validity and divergent validity were also assessed. Interesting to note was that entrepreneurship climate correlates more with general employee attitude (e.g. employee engagement; R= 0.420, p < 0.001 and organisational commitment, R = 0.331, p < 0.001 than with self-reported innovation (R = 0.277, p < 0.001 and R = 0.267, p < 0.001. Contribution: This paper not only provided information on the reliability

  14. Splenectomy during whole liver transplantation: a morbid procedure which does not adversely impact long-term survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golse, Nicolas; Mohkam, Kayvan; Rode, Agnès; Pradat, Pierre; Ducerf, Christian; Mabrut, Jean-Yves

    2017-06-01

    Indications for splenectomy (SP) during whole liver transplantation (LT) remain controversial and SP is often avoided because of common complications. We aimed to evaluate specific complications of these combined procedures. Data were retrospectively analysed. Splenectomy was performed in patients with splenorenal shunt and/or splenic artery aneurysms or hypersplenism. Patients undergoing simultaneous transplantation and splenectomy (LTSP group) were matched to a non-splenectomy group (LT group). Between 1994 and 2013, we included 47 and 94 patients in LTSP and LT groups, respectively. The LTSP patients had a higher rate of pre-LT portal vein thrombosis (PVT). The LTSP group had a longer operative time and greater blood loss. Mean follow-up was 101 months and 5-year survivals were identical (LTSP 85% vs LT 88%, p = 0.831). Hospital morbidity and rejection incidence were comparable, whereas de novo PVT (34% vs 2%, p Splenectomy during LT is technically demanding and exposes recipients to a higher thrombosis rate, therefore portal vein patency must be specifically assessed postoperatively. In selected recipients, SP can be performed without increased mortality but at the price of worsening outcome as evidenced by greater risk of infection and PVT. Copyright © 2017 International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Traumatic expulsion of T4 vertebral body into the spinal canal treated by vertebrectomy and spine shortening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappuccio, Michele; Corghi, Alessandro; De Iure, Federico; Amendola, Luca

    2014-05-20

    A case report. To describe an exceptional case of traumatic 2-level adjacent disk disruption with expulsion of the vertebral body into the spinal canal treated by vertebrectomy and spine shortening. Traumatic spondyloptosis is a very rare injury caused by high-energy trauma. Vertebral body expulsion is mostly the result of tremendous flexion-extension shearing forces causing a double contiguous disk disruption. A 49-year-old male was admitted to the emergency department of another hospital because of a high-speed car crash. He was conscious and collaborating and showed a complete paraplegia. Spinal computed tomographic scan showed a posterior expulsion of the T4 vertebral body and dislocation into the spinal canal. Magnetic resonance imaging of the spine confirmed the presence of a 2-level adjacent T3-T4 and T4-T5 disk disruption and severe compression of the spinal cord by the T4 vertebral body. We performed a posterior stabilization from T1 to T8 with T4 vertebrectomy and spine shortening. A postoperative computed tomographic scan showed a tolerable sagittal and frontal alignment and apposition of the endplates of T3 and T5. At present, 12 months after surgery, the patient is neurologically unchanged, but he can keep the sitting position without support. Total vertebrectomy and spinal shortening are safe and replicable procedures applicable in few patients with paraplegia. A surgical procedure after 3 weeks makes a complete reduction and a perfect sagittal alignment of the spine difficult to be obtained.

  16. Charcot arthropathy of the lumbar spine treated using one-staged posterior three-column shortening and fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Kenny Samuel; Agarwala, Amit Omprakash; Rampersaud, Yoga Raja

    2010-06-15

    Case report. We present a case of lumbar Charcot arthropathy successfully treated surgically using posterior 3-column resection, spinal shortening, and fusion. The operative treatment of Charcot arthropathy of the spine has conventionally been a combination of anterior and posterior surgery. The morbidity associated with these surgical procedures can be considerable. A posterior-only approach to the problem would avoid the additional morbidity associated with an anterior approach. We present a case of lumbar Charcot arthropathy with deformity treated successfully using such a procedure. Discussion of the patient's clinical and radiologic history, the technical merits of the operative intervention and a review of the relevant background literature are presented. A multilevel, single-stage, posterior 3-column resection with primary shortening and instrumented fusion augmented with rhBMP2 in a multiply operated patient with deformity provided a optimal biologic and mechanical environment for healing of the Charcot arthropathy and improved the sagittal and coronal profile of the spine. A single-stage, multilevel, posterior 3-column resection and primary shortening can be a useful surgical strategy in symptomatic patients with Charcot arthropathy of the spine.

  17. Treatment efficacy of lower eyelid twitch shift joint outer canthal ligament shortening surgery in degenerative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Shao

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To observe and compare efficacy of the lower eyelid twitch shift joint outer canthal ligament shortening surgery and orbicularis muscle resection surgery to treat degenerative entropion. METHODS: Patients with degenerative entropion in our hospital were selected. The test group was 40 cases(70 eyes, of which double eyes with attack(30 cases, and lower eyelid twitch shift joint outer canthal ligament shortening surgery was applied to the test group. Control group was 20 cases(26 eyes, of which double eyes with attack(6 cases, and the control group was used by orbicularis muscle resection surgery. The correction rate, double eyelid symmetry and overcorrection rate were observed in two groups at postoperative 1wk. The long- term recurrence rate, double eyelid symmetry and overcorrection rate with follow-up 6mo were observed. RESULTS: After 1wk, the correction rate of experimental group 98.6%,undercorrection rate of that was 1.4%, all the eyelid was symmetry, only one eye with a slight overcorrection. Correction rate of control group was 92.3%; all the eyelid was symmetry, and the poor rate of this group was 7.7%. After 6mo, correction rate of experimental group was 95.2%; undercorrection rate of experimental group was 3.2%, and overcorrection rate was 1.6%. Correction rate of control group was 87%, and 2 eyes of recurrence, 1 eye with a poor overcorrection. Double eyelid was symmetry, overcorrection rate difference was not statistically significant(P>0.05, and the correction rate were significantly different(PCONCLUSION: Compared toorbicularis muscle resection surgery, postoperative recurrence rate of lower eyelid twitch shift joint outer canthal ligament shortening surgery is significantly lowered.

  18. Short-term survival and effects of transmitter implantation into western grebes using a modified surgical procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaydos, Joseph K.; Massey, J. Gregory; Mulcahy, Daniel M.; Gaskins, Lori A.; Nysewander, David; Evenson, Joseph; Siegel, Paul B.; Ziccardi, Michael H.

    2011-01-01

    Two pilot trials and one study in a closely related grebe species suggest that Western grebes (Aechmophorus occidentalis) will not tolerate intracoelomic transmitter implantation with percutaneous antennae and often die within days of surgery. Wild Western grebes (n = 21) were captured to evaluate a modified surgical technique. Seven birds were surgically implanted with intracoelomic transmitters with percutaneous antennae by using the modified technique (transmitter group), 7 received the same surgery without transmitter implantation (celiotomy group), and 7 served as controls (only undergoing anesthesia). Modifications included laterally offsetting the body wall incision from the skin incision, application of absorbable cyanoacrylate tissue glue to the subcutaneous space between the body wall and skin incisions, application of a waterproof sealant to the skin incision after suture closure, and application of a piece of porcine small intestine submucosa to the antenna egress. Survival did not differ among the 3 groups with 7 of 7 control, 6 of 7 celiotomy, and 6 of 7 transmitter birds surviving the 9-day study. Experimental birds were euthanized at the end of the study, and postmortem findings indicated normal healing. Significant differences in plasma chemistry or immune function were not detected among the 3 groups, and only minor differences were detected in red blood cell indices and plasma proteins. After surgery, the birds in the transmitter group spent more time preening tail feathers than those in the control and celiotomy groups. These results demonstrate that, in a captive situation, celiotomy and intracoelomic transmitter implantation caused minimal detectable homeostatic disturbance in this species and that Western grebes can survive implantation of intracoelomic transmitters with percutaneous antennae. It remains to be determined what potential this modified surgical procedure has to improve postoperative survival of Western grebes that are

  19. Does the use of pacifiers shorten breastfeeding duration in infants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Sharin; Griffiths, Peter

    2003-10-01

    Breastfeeding has a number of benefits for both mother and baby, which appear to increase with longer duration of breastfeeding. The use of pacifiers has been negatively associated with shortened breastfeeding duration. The aim of this review was to determine whether the use of pacifiers actually shortens breastfeeding duration in infants. The Cochrane library, Medline, CINAHL and Embase databases were searched for systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials and cohort studies examining the effect of pacifier use on breastfeeding duration. After applying appropriate inclusion criteria only two cohort studies were identified. In one the overall breastfeeding duration was longer in non pacifier-using infants compared to those given pacifiers (10 months vs. 7.5 months). The mean breastfeeding duration in children who were given pacifiers before 6 weeks of age was 168.5 days compared to 196.0 days for children who had a pacifier introduced later or never. However, there is no evidence to suggest any effect from occasional pacifier use, and it remains unclear whether pacifiers are an independent causal factor for reducing breastfeeding duration in infants.

  20. Flexible lengthening-shortening arm mechanism for fishery resource management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiki Iwamochi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to use underwater robots instead of a diver’s observations to monitor and record the condition of an obstructed seabed in a shallow area. It is difficult to investigate marine resources that exist in deep water shaded by rock due to large and/or small rocks on the seabed. To solve these problems, we newly constructed a flexible lengthening-shortening arm with a small camera unit for an underwater robot to assist in the management of fishery resources. In this paper, we describe the concept and configuration of the newly developed arm mechanism using a sliding screw mechanism to overcome obstacles by changing arm posture in a two-dimensional plane, and we demonstrate the experimental results of a path-tracing controller for the rear links. The results were that the maximum deviations between the target path and the tracing path were less than 4.0% of the total width of the arm mechanism. These results suggest that the newly developed path-tracing algorithm is effective for our flexible lengthening-shortening arm mechanism.

  1. Long-Term Results of a Monocentric Series of Soldiers After Latarjet Procedure for Anterior Shoulder Instability. Implications for the Assessment of Soldiers' Medical Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de l'Escalopier, Nicolas; Barbier, Olivier; Demoures, Thomas; Ollat, Didier; Versier, Gilbert

    2018-01-01

    Stabilizing surgery of the shoulder with a coracoid graft according to Latarjet is a recognized surgical treatment for anterior instability of the shoulder. This pathology frequently affects soldiers. Postoperatively, the potential risk of recurrence or of secondary shoulder arthritis can limit the practitioner in their ability assessment. The aim of this study is to analyze the long-term outcomes of this surgery in a military population, in order to assess the possible implications for French soldiers' medical ability. Twenty soldiers operated on the shoulder by Latarjet procedure by the same surgeon were retrospectively reviewed after more than 15 yr. All of them did regular physical activity for leisure or competitions. None had preoperative osteoarthritis injuries. The number of dislocation recurrences, the functional score, and the rate of radiographic osteoarthritis were assessed. After more than 16.3 yr (extremes: 15-24 yr), none displayed a dislocation recurrence. The average Rowe's score was 91.8 ± 9.9. The average subjective shoulder value was 89.2 ± 9.7. All patients had resumed sport. Three of them developed level 1 or 2 radiological signs of osteoarthritis according to Samilson. No level 3 or 4 osteoarthritis was found. Among all the patients, 14 still did regular physical activity. In view of our results and of those from the literature, the results of treatment for anterior shoulder instability with the Latarjet procedure are good, even very good in the long term. These data must be considered to favor this procedure for soldiers with shoulder instability and from a medico-administrative viewpoint for military patients in order to pursue their careers without any job restrictions. © Association of Military Surgeons of the United States 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Cricket antennae shorten when bending (Acheta domesticus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loudon, Catherine; Bustamante, Jorge; Kellogg, Derek W

    2014-01-01

    Insect antennae are important mechanosensory and chemosensory organs. Insect appendages, such as antennae, are encased in a cuticular exoskeleton and are thought to bend only between segments or subsegments where the cuticle is thinner, more flexible, or bent into a fold. There is a growing appreciation of the dominating influence of folds in the mechanical behavior of a structure, and the bending of cricket antennae was considered in this context. Antennae will bend or deflect in response to forces, and the resulting bending behavior will affect the sensory input of the antennae. In some cricket antennae, such as in those of Acheta domesticus, there are a large number (>100) of subsegments (flagellomeres) that vary in their length. We evaluated whether these antennae bend only at the joints between flagellomeres, which has always been assumed but not tested. In addition we questioned whether an antenna undergoes a length change as it bends, which would result from some patterns of joint deformation. Measurements using light microscopy and SEM were conducted on both male and female adult crickets (Acheta domesticus) with bending in four different directions: dorsal, ventral, medial, and lateral. Bending occurred only at the joints between flagellomeres, and antennae shortened a comparable amount during bending, regardless of sex or bending direction. The cuticular folds separating antennal flagellomeres are not very deep, and therefore as an antenna bends, the convex side (in tension) does not have a lot of slack cuticle to "unfold" and does not lengthen during bending. Simultaneously on the other side of the antenna, on the concave side in compression, there is an increasing overlap in the folded cuticle of the joints during bending. Antennal shortening during bending would prevent stretching of antennal nerves and may promote hemolymph exchange between the antenna and head.

  3. Cricket antennae shorten when bending (Acheta domesticus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine eLoudon

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Insect antennae are important mechanosensory and chemosensory organs. Insect appendages, such as antennae, are encased in a cuticular exoskeleton and are thought to bend only between segments or subsegments where the cuticle is thinner, more flexible, or bent into a fold. There is a growing appreciation of the dominating influence of folds in the mechanical behavior of a structure, and the bending of cricket antennae was considered in this context. Antennae will bend or deflect in response to forces, and the resulting bending behavior will affect the sensory input of the antennae. In some cricket antennae, such as in those of Acheta domesticus, there are a large number (>100 of subsegments (flagellomeres that vary in their length. We evaluated whether these antennae bend only at the joints between flagellomeres, which has always been assumed but not tested. In addition we questioned whether an antenna undergoes a length change as it bends, which would result from some patterns of joint deformation. Measurements using light microscopy and SEM were conducted on both male and female adult crickets (Acheta domesticus with bending in four different directions: dorsal, ventral, medial and lateral. Bending occurred only at the joints between flagellomeres, and antennae shortened a comparable amount during bending, regardless of sex or bending direction. The cuticular folds separating antennal flagellomeres are not very deep, and therefore as an antenna bends, the convex side (in tension does not have a lot of slack cuticle to unfold and does not lengthen during bending. Simultaneously on the other side of the antenna, on the concave side in compression, there is an increasing overlap in the folded cuticle of the joints during bending. Antennal shortening during bending would prevent stretching of antennal nerves and may promote hemolymph exchange between the antenna and head.

  4. Shortened sleep duration does not predict obesity in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calamaro, Christina J; Park, Sunhee; Mason, Thornton B A; Marcus, Carole L; Weaver, Terri E; Pack, Allan; Ratcliffe, Sarah J

    2010-12-01

    Obesity continues to be a major public health issue. In adolescents, there are limited studies on the relationship between obesity and sleep duration. We found hypothesized that an average sleep duration of obesity. Data were from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (ADD Health); a survey of 90,000 youths, aged 12-18 years; surveyed in several waves. The sample population for our study was 13,568. Weighted multiple logistic regression was used to identify the relationship between obesity at Wave II and sleep duration, having adjusted for skipping breakfast ≥ 2/week; race, gender, parental income, TV ≥ 2 h per day, depression, and obesity at Wave I. At Wave I, the mean age was 15.96 ± 0.11 years; mean sleep hours were 7.91 ± 0.04. At Waves I and II, respectively, 10.6 and 11.2% of adolescents were obese. Adjusted analyses suggest that the effect of shortened sleep duration in Wave I was not significantly predictive of obesity in Wave II (P TV ≥ 2 h per day at Wave I was associated with a higher risk of obesity at Wave II in adjusted analyses. Depressed adolescents were almost twice as likely to be obese (OR = 1.84, 95% CI = 1.25-2.72); adolescents who watched TV ≥ 2 h per day were 37% more likely to be obese (OR = 1.37, 95% CI = 1.09-1.72). Environmental factors including TV ≥ 2 h per day and depression were significantly associated with obesity; shortened sleep duration was not. Future longitudinal studies in adolescents are needed to determine whether timing of television watching directly influences sleep patterns and, ultimately, obesity. © 2010 European Sleep Research Society.

  5. Cementless arthroplasty with a distal femoral shortening for the treatment of Crowe type IV developmental hip dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Chang-Yong; Liang, Bo-Wei; Sha, Mo; Kang, Liang-Qi; Wang, Jiang-Ze; Ding, Zhen-Qi

    2015-01-01

    Severe developmental dysplasia of the hip is a surgical challenge. The purpose of this study is to describe the cementless arthroplasty with a distal femoral shortening osteotomy for Crowe type IV developmental hip dysplasia and to report the results of this technique. 12 patients (2 male and 10 female) of Crowe type IV developmental hip dysplasia operated between January 2005 and December 2010 were included in the study. All had undergone cementless arthroplasty with a distal femoral shortening osteotomy. Acetabular cup was placed at the level of the anatomical position in all the hips. The clinical outcomes were assessed and radiographs were reviewed to evaluate treatment effects. The mean followup for the 12 hips was 52 months (range 36-82 months). The mean Harris hip score improved from 41 points (range 28-54) preoperatively to 85 points (range 79-92) at the final followup. The mean length of bone removed was 30 mm (range 25-40 mm). All the osteotomies healed in a mean time of 13 weeks (range 10-16 weeks). There were no neurovascular injuries, pulmonary embolism or no infections. Our study suggests that cementless arthroplasty with a distal femoral shortening is a safe and effective procedure for severe developmental dysplasia of the hip.

  6. Outcomes of Ulnar Shortening for Ulnar Impaction Syndrome Using the 2.7 mm AO Ulna Shortening Osteotomy System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnigan, T; Makaram, N; Baumann, A; Ramesh, K; Mohil, R; Srinivasan, M

    2018-03-01

    Ulnar shortening osteotomy is a well-established treatment for ulnar impaction syndrome. Controversy remains regarding the most effective system to achieve efficient bony union, whilst minimising incidence of complications, particularly hardware irritation. We present outcomes at 2 years using the recently released low profile AO osteotomy system. 32 consecutive patients with significant pain from ulnar impaction syndrome (idiopathic or post-traumatic), without degenerative changes of the distal radio-ulnar joint, were included. Time to union, range of motion, grip strength, pain and complications were recorded. Median time to union was 10.14 weeks (9.27-11.01, 95%CI), with one nonunion. Visual Analogue Pain score, grip strength and range of motion improved significantly. No patient experienced hardware irritation. No plate required removal. Positive ulnar variance was reduced by 3.8 mm (mean). The low profile AO system appears effective in achieving bony union whilst minimising incidence of hardware irritation, at a follow up of 2 years.

  7. Contraction-specific differences in maximal muscle power during stretch-shortening cycle movements in elderly males and females

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caserotti, Paolo; Aagaard, Per; Simonsen, Erik Bruun

    2001-01-01

    Aging, muscle power, stretch-shortening cycle, eccentric muscle actions, concentric contractions......Aging, muscle power, stretch-shortening cycle, eccentric muscle actions, concentric contractions...

  8. Shortened Cervix in the Subsequent Pregnancy after Embolization for Postpartum Cervical Hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltan Kozinszky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Rupture of a branch of uterine artery during delivery often leads to a massive postpartum hemorrhage that can be successfully treated using uterine artery embolization. Case Report. A 33-year-old woman had a cesarean section at term followed by a secondary postpartum hemorrhage due to a ruptured cervicovaginal branch terminating in a large, partially thrombosed hematoma of the cervix. She was given selective uterine artery embolization, and she was discharged to home in stable condition on the third day after embolization. In the forthcoming pregnancy a shortened cervix was a risk of threatened premature delivery from 26 weeks of gestation onwards. Conclusion. Superselective unilateral embolization of a thrombosed hematoma in the cervix might prevent extensive iatrogenic trauma of the cervix, which allows preservation of reproductive function.

  9. Grafted vertebral fracture after implant removal in a patient with spine-shortening vertebral osteotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Hiroaki; Yukawa, Yasutsugu; Ito, Keigo; Machino, Masaaki; Kanbara, Shunsuke; Morita, Daigo; Imagama, Shiro; Ishiguro, Naoki; Kato, Fumihiko

    2015-02-01

    We experienced the rare complication of a vertebral fracture that was caused by implant removal after bony fusion had been achieved in a patient who underwent spine-shortening osteotomy (SSO) for tethered cord syndrome (TCS). We propose that the removal of the implant used for SSO should be contraindicated. The patient (a 27-year-old female) presented to our institution with a history of progressive severe lower back pain, gait disturbance, and urinary incontinence. As an infant, she had undergone surgery for spina bifida with lipoma. Magnetic resonance imaging of the spine revealed tethering of the spinal cord to a lipoma. We performed SSO at the level of the L1 vertebra level. After spine shortening and fixation using a posterior approach, the L1 vertebral body was completely removed anteriorly and replaced with a left iliac bone graft. The patient's symptoms improved after surgery. After bony fusion was achieved after surgery, we decided to remove the spinal implant after we explained the advantages and disadvantages of the procedure to the patient. We performed implant removal surgery safely 2 years later; however, the patient complained of severe lower back pain 10 days after the surgery without any history of trauma. Reconstruction computed tomography showed fracture of the grafted vertebra. We performed a repeat posterior fixation, which relieved the lower back pain; she has experienced no complications in the subsequent 5 years. In summary, we report a case of a rare complication of the fracture of a grafted vertebra after removal of an implant used in SSO for TCS. Spinal stability could not be maintained without the spinal posterior implant after SSO. Postoperative fracture after spinal implant removal is rare but possible, and patients must be informed of this potential risk.

  10. Is there a proper way to treat shortened oesophagus? About a series of 67 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirard, L; Weerts, J M; Buldgen, B; Deben, L; Dewandre, J M; Francart, D; Monami, B; Markiewicz, S; Wahlen, Chr; Jehaes, C

    2010-01-01

    During the work-up of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) patients, barium swallow may show a shortened oesophagus with a non-reducible gastro-oesophageal junction. In our department, in such cases, a Collis-Nissen operation is usually planned. But, the proper reducibility of the gastro-oesophageal junction (GOJ) in the abdomen is difficult to assess peroperatively. The aim of this study is to compare retrospectively the follow-up of an oesophageal lengthening procedure (Collis-Nissen gastroplasty) versus a standard Nissen in the management of patients with primary short oesophagus or secondary to previous Nissen fundoplication. Between 01/2000 and 12/2009, 67 patients with a short oesophagus on X-Ray were operated on for proven GORD: 27 (Group A) underwent a Collis-Nissen fundoplication. In 40 patients (Group B), the GOJ was reduced easily and a standard Nissen fundoplication was judged sufficient by the experimented surgeon. Follow up included Quality of Life evaluation using the Gastrointestinal Quality of Life Index (GIQLI) and a barium swallow. 64 patients agreed to participate. Mean follow up was 46 months (4-122). Mean postoperative GIQLI score was 108 in group A, 97 in group B. Barium swallow was performed in 61 patients. In group A, seven patients out of 25 (28%) presented a intrathoracic migration on X-Ray while in group B, it was noted in 20 patients (55%). According literature, Collis gastroplasty allows a tension-free fundoplication to be performed to correct a shortened oesophagus. Though our series of brachy-oesophagus is small, it confirms a better outcome after a Collis-Nissen gastroplasty, compared to the classical Nissen fundoplication.

  11. Do right-ventricular trabeculae gain energetic advantage from having a greater velocity of shortening?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Toan; Han, June-Chiew; Taberner, Andrew; Loiselle, Denis

    2017-10-15

    We designed a study to test whether velocity of shortening in right-ventricular tissue preparations is greater than that of the left side under conditions mimicking those encountered by the heart in vivo. Our experiments allowed us to explore whether greater velocity of shortening results in any energetic advantage. We found that velocity of shortening was higher in the rat right-ventricular trabeculae. These results at the tissue level seem paradoxical to the velocity of ventricular ejection at the organ level, and are not always in accord with shortening of unloaded cells. Despite greater velocity of shortening in right-ventricular trabeculae, they neither gained nor lost advantage with respect to both mechanical efficiency and the heat generated during shortening. Our study aimed to ascertain whether the interventricular difference of shortening velocity, reported for isolated cardiac tissues in vitro, affects interventricular mechano-energetic performance when tested under physiological conditions using a shortening protocol designed to mimic those in vivo. We isolated trabeculae from both ventricles of the rat, mounted them in a calorimeter, and performed experiments at 37°C and 5 Hz stimulus frequency to emulate conditions of the rat heart in vivo. Each trabecula was subjected to two experimental protocols: (i) isotonic work-loop contractions at a variety of afterloads, and (ii) isometric contractions at a variety of preloads. Velocity of shortening was calculated from the former protocol during the isotonic shortening phase of the contraction. Simultaneous measurements of force-length work and heat output allowed calculation of mechanical efficiency. The shortening-dependent thermal component was quantified from the difference in heat output between the two protocols. Our results show that both extent of shortening and velocity of shortening were higher in trabeculae from the right ventricle. Despite these differences, trabeculae from both ventricles

  12. Chronic schizophrenics with positive symptomatology have shortened EEG microstate durations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strelets, V; Faber, P L; Golikova, J; Novototsky-Vlasov, V; Koenig, T; Gianotti, L R R; Gruzelier, J H; Lehmann, D

    2003-11-01

    In young, first-episode, never-treated schizophrenics compared with controls, (a) generally shorter durations of EEG microstates were reported (Koukkou et al., Brain Topogr 6 (1994) 251; Kinoshita et al., Psychiatry Res Neuroimaging 83 (1998) 58), and (b) specifically, shorter duration of a particular class of microstates (Koenig et al., Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 249 (1999) 205). We now examined whether older, chronic schizophrenic patients with positive symptomatology also show these characteristics. Multichannel resting EEG (62.2 s/subject) from two subject groups, 14 patients (36.1+/-10.2 years old) and 13 controls (35.1+/-8.2 years old), all males, was analyzed into microstates using a global approach for microstate analysis that clustered the microstates into 4 classes (Koenig et al., 1999). (a) Hypothesis testing of general microstate shortening supported a trend (P=0.064). (b) Two-way repeated measure ANOVA (two subject groupsx4 microstate classes) showed a significant group effect for microstate duration. Posthoc tests revealed that a microstate class with brain electric field orientation from left central to right central-posterior had significantly shorter microstates in patients than controls (68.5 vs. 76.1 ms, P=0.034). The results were in line with the results from young, never-treated, productive patients, thus suggesting that in schizophrenic information processing, one class of mental operations might intermittently cause deviant mental constructs because of premature termination of processing.

  13. Chemical Sharpening, Shortening, and Unzipping of Boron Nitride Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yunlong; Chen, Zhongfang; Connell, John W.; Fay, Catharine C.; Park, Cheol; Kim, Jae-Woo; Lin, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs), the one-dimensional member of the boron nitride nanostructure family, are generally accepted to be highly inert to oxidative treatments and can only be covalently modifi ed by highly reactive species. Conversely, it is discovered that the BNNTs can be chemically dispersed and their morphology modifi ed by a relatively mild method: simply sonicating the nanotubes in aqueous ammonia solution. The dispersed nanotubes are significantly corroded, with end-caps removed, tips sharpened, and walls thinned. The sonication treatment in aqueous ammonia solution also removes amorphous BN impurities and shortened BNNTs, resembling various oxidative treatments of carbon nanotubes. Importantly, the majority of BNNTs are at least partially longitudinally cut, or "unzipped". Entangled and freestanding BN nanoribbons (BNNRs), resulting from the unzipping, are found to be approximately 5-20 nm in width and up to a few hundred nanometers in length. This is the fi rst chemical method to obtain BNNRs from BNNT unzipping. This method is not derived from known carbon nanotube unzipping strategies, but is unique to BNNTs because the use of aqueous ammonia solutions specifi cally targets the B-N bond network. This study may pave the way for convenient processing of BNNTs, previously thought to be highly inert, toward controlling their dispersion, purity, lengths, and electronic properties.

  14. Shortening a Patient Experiences Survey for Medical Homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy H. Ng

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems—Patient-Centered Medical Home (CAHPS PCMH Survey assesses patient experiences reflecting domains of care related to general patient experience (access to care, communication with providers, office staff interaction, provider rating and PCMH-specific aspects of patient care (comprehensiveness of care, self-management support, shared decision making. The current work compares psychometric properties of the current survey and a proposed shortened version of the survey (from 52 to 26 adult survey items, from 66 to 31 child survey items. The revisions were based on initial psychometric analysis and stakeholder input regarding survey length concerns. A total of 268 practices voluntarily submitted adult surveys and 58 submitted child survey data to the National Committee for Quality Assurance in 2013. Mean unadjusted scores, practice-level item and composite reliability, and item-to-scale correlations were calculated. Results show that the shorter adult survey has lower reliability, but still it still meets general definitions of a sound survey for the adult version, and resulted in few changes to mean scores. The impact was more problematic for the pediatric version. Further testing is needed to investigate approaches to improving survey response and the relevance of survey items in informing quality improvement.

  15. Physicochemical, textural and viscoelastic properties of palm diacylglycerol bakery shortening during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Ling-Zhi; Tan, Chin-Ping; Long, Kamariah; Affandi Yusoff, Mohd Suria; Lai, Oi-Ming

    2010-10-01

    Diacylglycerol (DAG), which has health-enhancing properties, is sometimes added to bakery shortening to produce baked products with enhanced physical functionality. Nevertheless, the quantity present is often too little to exert any positive healthful effects. This research aimed to produce bakery shortenings containing significant amounts of palm diacyglycerol (PDG). Physicochemical, textural and viscoelastic properties of the PDG bakery shortenings during 3 months storage were evaluated and compared with those of commercial bakery shortening (CS). PDG bakery shortenings (DS55, DS64 and DS73) had less significant increments in slip melting point (SMP), solid fat content (SFC) and hardness during storage as compared to CS. Unlike CS, melting behaviour and viscoelastic properties of PDG bakery shortenings remained unchanged during storage. As for polymorphic transformation, CS contained only β crystals after 8 weeks of storage. PDG bakery shortenings managed to retard polymorphic transformation for up to 10 weeks of storage in DS55 and 12 weeks of storage in DS64 and DS73. PDG bakery shortenings had similar if not better storage stability as compared to CS. This is mainly due to the ability of DAG to retard polymorphic transformation from β' to β crystals. Thus, incorporation of DAG improved physical functionality of bakery shortening. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Long-term outcomes of TOT and TVT procedures for the treatment of female stress urinary incontinence: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone Roberti Maggiore, Umberto; Finazzi Agrò, Enrico; Soligo, Marco; Li Marzi, Vincenzo; Digesu, Alex; Serati, Maurizio

    2017-08-01

    One of the most relevant topics in the field of pelvic floor dysfunction treatment is the long-term efficacy of surgical procedures, in particular, the use of prosthesis. Hence, a systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the long-term effectiveness and safety of midurethral sling (MUS) procedures for stress urinary incontinence (SUI), as reported in randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and non-randomised studies. This systematic review is based on material searched and obtained via PubMed/Medline, Scopus, and the Cochrane Library between January 2000 and October 2016. Peer-reviewed, English-language journal articles evaluating the long-term (≥5 years) efficacy and safety of MUS in women affected by SUI were included. A total of 5,592 articles were found after the search, and excluding duplicate publications, 1,998 articles were available for the review process. Among these studies, 11 RCTs (0.6%) and 5 non-RCTs (0.3%) could be included in the qualitative and quantitative synthesis. Objective and subjective cumulative cure rates for retropubic technique (TVT) and transobturator tape (TOT; both out-in and in-out) were 61.6% (95% CI: 58.5-64.8%) and 76.5% (95% CI: 73.8-79.2%), and 64.4% (95% CI: 61.4-67.4%) and 81.3% (95% CI: 78.9-83.7%) respectively. When considering TOT using the out-in technique (TOT-OI) and TOT using the in-out technique (TVT-O) the objective and subjective cumulative cure rates were 57.2% (95% CI: 53.7-60.7%) and 81.6% (95% CI: 78.8-84.4%), and 68.8% (95% CI: 64.9-72.7%) and 81.3% (95% CI: 77.9-84.7%) respectively. Furthermore, this article demonstrates that both TVT and TOT are associated with similar long-term objectives (OR: 0.87 [95% CI: 0.49-1.53], I 2  = 67%, p = 0.62) and subjective (OR: 0.84 [95% CI: 0.46-1.55], I 2  = 68%, p = 0.58) cure rates. Similarly, no significant difference has been observed between TTOT-OI and TVT-O) in objective (OR: 3.03 [95% CI: 0.97-9.51], I 2  = 76%, p = 0

  17. Effect of Pre-gelatinized Wheat Starch on Physical and Rheological Properties of Shortened Cake Batter and Cake Texture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ebrahimi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this study was the effect of 1.5%, 3% and 4.5% pre-gelatinized wheat starch (based on the total weight of cake batter on improving the qualitative properties of shortened cake batter. Specific volume and viscosity of the shortened cake batter were measured for controls, 1.5%, 3% and 4.5% gelatinized starch; some important properties such as texture and sensory evaluation were examined. By increasing pre-gelatinized wheat starch used in the batter, a significant difference was observed in the rheological properties of the batter. Cake batter properties were found improved compared to the control samples. The sample with 3% pre-gelatinized starch had a lower viscosity than other treatments. The treatment with 4.5% pre-gelatinized starch had the lowest specific volume compared to other treatments. The overall results showed that the shortened cake with 3% pre-gelatinized starch was the best treatment in terms of texture and sensory evaluation factors.

  18. Creation of a continent urinary channel in adults with neurogenic bladder: long-term results with the Monti and Casale (Spiral Monti) procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, David; Anderson, Kirk; Knopick, Christopher R; Shah, Ketul; Flynn, Brian J

    2014-05-01

    To describe our technique and long-term results with creation of a continent urinary channel in adults with neurogenic bladder (NGB) using a single piece of bowel. From 2004 to 2013, 26 adult patients underwent creation of a continent urinary channel by a single surgeon. A retrospective medical record review was performed noting the indications, technique, concomitant procedures, complications, and outcomes. Continence outcome, ease of catheterization, and need for further surgical interventions are reported. Twenty women and 6 men were identified with a mean age of 48 years (range, 25-80) and a follow-up of 64 months (range, 22-100). The mean body mass index (BMI) was 30.5 kg/m(2) (range, 20.1-50.2). All patients had benign bladder disease, including 22 (85%) with known neurologic disease and 4 with a devastated bladder outlet. Creation of a continent urinary channel was performed using the single Monti tube in 1, double Monti tube in 7, and the Casale (Spiral Monti) in 18. Mean hospital stay was 10.5 days (range, 5-37). The most common complication was recurrent urinary tract infection that occurred in 14 patients (54%). There were 5 (19%) bowel complications and 1 (4%) bladder perforation. The percentage of patients continuing to catheterize via the stoma with a BMI of 40 kg/m(2) was 89%, 50%, and 25%, respectively. The Monti and Casale procedures are effective in creating a long continent urinary channel for catheterization in the adult population with neurogenic bladder, regardless of BMI. However, despite an intact channel, stomal self-catheterization appears to be challenging in morbidly obese patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Acute Limb Shortening for Major Near and Complete Upper Extremity Amputations with Associated Neurovascular Injury: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusnezov, Nicholas; Dunn, John C; Stewart, Jeremy; Mitchell, Justin S; Pirela-Cruz, Miguel

    2015-11-01

    In the setting a near or complete upper extremity amputations with significant soft tissue loss and neurovascular compromise, upper extremity surgeons are faced with the challenge of limb salvage. There are a multitude of treatment options for managing skeletal and soft tissue injuries including provisional fixation, staged reconstruction, and an acute shortening osteotomy with primary rigid internal fixation. However, many complications are associated with these techniques. Complications of provisional fixation include pin tract infection and loosening, tethering of musculotendinous units, nonunion, and additional surgeries. Staged reconstruction includes a variety of techniques: distraction osteogenesis, bone transport, or vascularized and non-vascularized structural autograft or allograft, but the risks often outweigh the benefits. Risks include nonunion, postoperative vascular complications necessitating reoperation, and the inability to return to the previous level of function at an average of 24 months. Acute shortening osteotomy with internal fixation offers the advantage of a single-stage procedure that provides for decreasing the soft tissue loss, provides a rigid platform to protect the delicate neurovascular repair, and alleviates unwanted tension at the repair sites. This review discusses the literature on the surgical treatment of severe upper extremity trauma with associated neurovascular injury over the past 75 years, and aims to evaluate the indications, surgical techniques, clinical and functional outcomes, and complications associated with acute shortening osteotomy with rigid internal fixation. Although this technique is not without risks, it is well-tolerated in the acute setting with a complication profile comparable to other techniques of fixation while remaining a single procedure. © 2015 Chinese Orthopaedic Association and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  20. Circular smooth muscle contributes to esophageal shortening during peristalsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vegesna, Anil K; Chuang, Keng-Yu; Besetty, Ramashesai; Phillips, Steven J; Braverman, Alan S; Barbe, Mary F; Ruggieri, Michael R; Miller, Larry S

    2012-08-28

    To study the angle between the circular smooth muscle (CSM) and longitudinal smooth muscle (LSM) fibers in the distal esophagus. In order to identify possible mechanisms for greater shortening in the distal compared to proximal esophagus during peristalsis, the angles between the LSM and CSM layers were measured in 9 cadavers. The outer longitudinal layer of the muscularis propria was exposed after stripping the outer serosa. The inner circular layer of the muscularis propria was then revealed after dissection of the esophageal mucosa and the underlying muscularis mucosa. Photographs of each specimen were taken with half of the open esophagus folded back showing both the outer longitudinal and inner circular muscle layers. Angles were measured every one cm for 10 cm proximal to the squamocolumnar junction (SCJ) by two independent investigators. Two human esophagi were obtained from organ transplant donors and the angles between the circular and longitudinal smooth muscle layers were measured using micro-computed tomography (micro CT) and Image J software. All data are presented as mean ± SE. The CSM to LSM angle at the SCJ and 1 cm proximal to SCJ on the autopsy specimens was 69.3 ± 4.62 degrees vs 74.9 ± 3.09 degrees, P = 0.32. The CSM to LSM angle at SCJ were statistically significantly lower than at 2, 3, 4 and 5 cm proximal to the SCJ, 69.3 ± 4.62 degrees vs 82.58 ± 1.34 degrees, 84.04 ± 1.64 degrees, 84.87 ± 1.04 degrees and 83.72 ± 1.42 degrees, P = 0.013, P = 0.008, P = 0.004, P = 0.009 respectively. The CSM to LSM angle at SCJ was also statistically significantly lower than the angles at 6, 7 and 8 cm proximal to the SCJ, 69.3 ± 4.62 degrees vs 80.18 ± 2.09 degrees, 81.81 ± 1.75 degrees and 80.96 ± 2.04 degrees, P = 0.05, P = 0.02, P = 0.03 respectively. The CSM to LSM angle at 1 cm proximal to SCJ was statistically significantly lower than at 3, 4 and 5 cm proximal to the SCJ, 74.94 ± 3.09 degrees vs 84.04 ± 1.64 degrees, 84.87 ± 1

  1. Early and long-term clinical and radiological follow-up results of expanded-polytetrafluoroethylene-covered stent-grafts for transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maleux, Geert; Heye, Sam; Thijs, Maria; Wilms, Guy; Nevens, Frederik; Verslype, Chris; Wilmer, Alexander

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the therapeutic efficacy and immediate and long-term safety of expanded-tetrafluoroethylene covered stent-grafts for transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts in patients with portal hypertension-related complications. A cohort of 56 patients suffering from severe portal hypertension-related complications underwent implantation of an expanded-polytetrafluoroethylene-covered stent-graft. All patients suffered from severe liver cirrhosis graded Child-Pugh A (n=8; 16%), B (n=13; 21%) or C (n=35; 63%). In 44 patients, the stent-graft was placed during the initial TIPS procedure (de novo TIPS); in the other 12 patients, the stent-graft was placed to repermeabilize the previously placed bare stent (TIPS revision). Follow-up was performed with clinical assessment, duplex ultrasound and, if abnormal or inconclusive, with invasive venography and pressure measurements. Per- en immediate post-procedural complications occurred in four patients (4/56, 7%). None of them was lethal. During follow-up, stent occlusion appeared in one patient and stenosis in two; no recurrence of bleeding was noted in all patients treated for variceal bleeding (n=28), and 24 of the 28 patients (86%) suffering from refractory ascites and/or hepatic hydrothorax were free of regular paracenteses and/or drainage of pleural effusion after shunt creation. The 30-day and global mortality for the total study population (n=56) was, respectively, 7% (n=4) and 28.5% (n=16). In the patient subgroup with variceal bleeding (n=28), 30-day mortality was 3.5% (n=1) and global mortality 14.2% (n=4). In the ascites and/or hydrothorax subgroup (n=28), 8.1% (n=3) mortality at 30 days was found and global mortality was 32.4% (n=12). In 10 patients of the 56 studied patients (18%), isolated hepatic encephalopathy occurred, which was lethal in 4 (Child C) patients (7%). Three of these four patients died within the 1st month after TIPS placement. A very high primary patency rate

  2. Early and long-term clinical and radiological follow-up results of expanded-polytetrafluoroethylene-covered stent-grafts for transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maleux, Geert; Heye, Sam; Thijs, Maria; Wilms, Guy [University Hospitals Gasthuisberg, Department of Radiology, Leuven (Belgium); Nevens, Frederik; Verslype, Chris [University Hospitals Gasthuisberg, Department of Hepatology, Leuven (Belgium); Wilmer, Alexander [University Hospitals Gasthuisberg, Department of Medical Intensive Care Unit, Leuven (Belgium)

    2004-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the therapeutic efficacy and immediate and long-term safety of expanded-tetrafluoroethylene covered stent-grafts for transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts in patients with portal hypertension-related complications. A cohort of 56 patients suffering from severe portal hypertension-related complications underwent implantation of an expanded-polytetrafluoroethylene-covered stent-graft. All patients suffered from severe liver cirrhosis graded Child-Pugh A (n=8; 16%), B (n=13; 21%) or C (n=35; 63%). In 44 patients, the stent-graft was placed during the initial TIPS procedure (de novo TIPS); in the other 12 patients, the stent-graft was placed to repermeabilize the previously placed bare stent (TIPS revision). Follow-up was performed with clinical assessment, duplex ultrasound and, if abnormal or inconclusive, with invasive venography and pressure measurements. Per- en immediate post-procedural complications occurred in four patients (4/56, 7%). None of them was lethal. During follow-up, stent occlusion appeared in one patient and stenosis in two; no recurrence of bleeding was noted in all patients treated for variceal bleeding (n=28), and 24 of the 28 patients (86%) suffering from refractory ascites and/or hepatic hydrothorax were free of regular paracenteses and/or drainage of pleural effusion after shunt creation. The 30-day and global mortality for the total study population (n=56) was, respectively, 7% (n=4) and 28.5% (n=16). In the patient subgroup with variceal bleeding (n=28), 30-day mortality was 3.5% (n=1) and global mortality 14.2% (n=4). In the ascites and/or hydrothorax subgroup (n=28), 8.1% (n=3) mortality at 30 days was found and global mortality was 32.4% (n=12). In 10 patients of the 56 studied patients (18%), isolated hepatic encephalopathy occurred, which was lethal in 4 (Child C) patients (7%). Three of these four patients died within the 1st month after TIPS placement. A very high primary patency rate

  3. Effect of finishing and polishing procedures on the gap width between a denture base resin and two long-term, resilient denture liners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesun, Igor J; Hodges, James; Lai, Juey H

    2002-03-01

    The junction between a long-term, resilient denture liner and the denture base is difficult to finish and polish due to differences in the hardness of the materials. Gaps tend to form during finishing and polishing procedures. This study measured the junctional gap between 2 long-term, resilient denture liners and a denture base material after different finishing and polishing procedures were performed. The surface smoothness of the 2 liner materials also was evaluated. Molloplast-B and an experimental, heat-polymerized methyl siloxane-resin-based denture liner were processed (according to the manufacturer's instructions) against Lucitone 199 acrylic resin. Control specimens (n = 20) were 2 mm thick and flat. Experimental specimens (n = 64) were fabricated with a raised center section: a 3- x 5- x 15-mm half-cylindrical ridge with a junction at the top of the cylinder between the liner material and acrylic resin. The specimens were finished with 1 of 6 types of burs and polished with different combinations of rubber-impregnated acrylic polishers, pumice, and tin oxide. The finished specimens were examined and photographed with a scanning electron microscope, and the largest gap along the liner/denture base junction on each specimen was measured. Three-way analysis of variance without replication (P<.05) and post-hoc t tests were used to analyze the data and compare groups. RESULTS; Averaged across finishing and polishing techniques, a larger gap was recorded for the experimental liner material (22 microm) than for Molloplast-B (14 microm) (P<.00005). Qualitative evaluation suggested that the experimental liner material polished better than Molloplast-B. The smoothest surfaces were obtained when specimens were finished with fine-tooth cross-cut carbide burs and polished with both pumice and tin oxide. A comparison between polished and unpolished specimens, averaged over materials and finishing techniques, revealed that polishing reduced gap size (P=.015). Within the

  4. Spinal column shortening for tethered cord syndrome associated with myelomeningocele, lumbosacral lipoma, and lipomyelomeningocele in children and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldave, Guillermo; Hansen, Daniel; Hwang, Steven W; Moreno, Amee; Briceño, Valentina; Jea, Andrew

    2017-06-01

    OBJECTIVE Tethered cord syndrome is the clinical manifestation of an abnormal stretch on the spinal cord, presumably causing mechanical injury, a compromised blood supply, and altered spinal cord metabolism. Tethered cord release is the standard treatment for tethered cord syndrome. However, direct untethering of the spinal cord carries potential risks, such as new neurological deficits from spinal cord injury, a CSF leak from opening the dura, and retethering of the spinal cord from normal scar formation after surgery. To avoid these risks, the authors applied spinal column shortening to children and transitional adults with primary and secondary tethered cord syndrome and report treatment outcomes. The authors' aim with this study was to determine the safety and efficacy of spinal column shortening for tethered cord syndrome by analyzing their experience with this surgical technique. METHODS The authors retrospectively reviewed the demographic and procedural data of children and young adults who had undergone spinal column shortening for primary or secondary tethered cord syndrome. RESULTS Seven patients with tethered cord syndrome caused by myelomeningocele, lipomyelomeningocele, and transitional spinal lipoma were treated with spinal column shortening. One patient with less than 24 months of follow-up was excluded from further analysis. There were 3 males and 4 females; the average age at the time was surgery was 16 years (range 8-30 years). Clinical presentations for our patients included pain (in 5 patients), weakness (in 4 patients), and bowel/bladder dysfunction (in 4 patients). Spinal column osteotomy was most commonly performed at the L-1 level, with fusion between T-12 and L-2 using a pedicle screw-rod construct. Pedicle subtraction osteotomy was performed in 6 patients, and vertebral column resection was performed in 1 patient. The average follow-up period was 31 months (range 26-37 months). Computed tomography-based radiographic outcomes showed solid

  5. A simple procedure for the extraction of DNA from long-term formalin-preserved brain tissues for the detection of EBV by PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassani, Asma; Khan, Gulfaraz

    2015-12-01

    Long-term formalin fixed brain tissues are potentially an important source of material for molecular studies. Ironically, very few protocols have been published describing DNA extraction from such material for use in PCR analysis. In our attempt to investigate the role of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS), extracting PCR quality DNA from brain samples fixed in formalin for 2-22 years, proved to be very difficult and challenging. As expected, DNA extracted from these samples was not only of poor quality and quantity, but more importantly, it was frequently found to be non-amplifiable due to the presence of PCR inhibitors. Here, we describe a simple and reproducible procedure for extracting DNA using a modified proteinase K and phenol-chloroform methodology. Central to this protocol is the thorough pre-digestion washing of the tissues in PBS, extensive digestion with proteinase K in low SDS containing buffer, and using low NaCl concentration during DNA precipitation. The optimized protocol was used in extracting DNA from meninges of 26 MS and 6 non-MS cases. Although the quality of DNA from these samples was generally poor, small size amplicons (100-200 nucleotides) of the house-keeping gene, β-globin could be reliably amplified from all the cases. PCR for EBV revealed positivity in 35% (9/26) MS cases, but 0/6 non-MS cases. These findings indicate that the method described here is suitable for PCR detection of viral sequences in long-term formalin persevered brain tissues. Our findings also support a possible role for EBV in the pathogenesis of MS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Influence of muscle geometry on shortening speed of fibre, aponeurosis and muscle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuurbier, C. J.; Huijing, P. A.

    1992-01-01

    The influence of muscle geometry on muscle shortening of the gastrocnemius medialis muscle (GM) of the rat was studied. Using cinematography, GM geometry was studied during isokinetic concentric activity at muscle lengths ranging from 85 to 105% of the optimum muscle length. The shortening speed of

  7. Assisting High School Students with Career Indecision Using a Shortened Form of the Career Construction Interview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehfuss, Mark C.; Sickinger, Pamela H.

    2015-01-01

    A shortened form of the Career Construction Interview (CCI) was used to help high school students struggling with the career decision making process. The shortened instrument is described, as well as, its use with eleventh grade high school students who had low levels of career concern and career curiosity. Students who completed the exercise…

  8. Muscle shortening manoeuvre reduces pain and functional impairment in shoulder impingement syndrome: clinical and ultrasonographic evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchiorre, Daniela; Maresca, Marco; Bracci, Riccardo; Ravaschio, Andrea; Valiensi, Bruno; Casale, Roberto; Bandinelli, Francesca; Candelieri, Antonio; Maddali Bongi, Susanna; Porta, Francesco; Innocenti, Massimo; Carulli, Christian; Matucci Cerinic, Marco

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the short-term efficacy of muscle shortening manoeuvre (MSM), by inducing an increase in strength of the shoulder muscles, for the treatment of shoulder impingement syndrome (SIS). Sixty subjects (mean age: 58.6 years) with SIS were assigned to one of 3 different treatment interventions: 1) MSM: a series of fast accelerations in the upward direction was applied to the upper limb that was also submitted to forces acting in the opposite direction (added mass); 2) traditional physiotherapeutic technique: scapulothoracic gliding; 3) simple traction: the added mass was applied to the limb without the series of fast accelerations. Pain intensity, Neer's impingement sign, range of motion and muscle strength were assessed. Ultrasound (US) examination was performed before, immediately after and 30 days after each treatment to study the width of the subacromial-subdeltoid bursa, long biceps tendon sheath and acromioclavicular joint. Impingement was evaluated by dynamic examination. After treatment with MSM, pain was significantly reduced (pimpingement sign was negative, range of motion and muscle strength were increased. US examination showed that the widths of the subacromial-subdeltoid bursa (pimpingement was no more detected. After 30 days, improvement in clinical and US findings was maintained. In the two control groups, no significant changes were observed after treatment. Clinical and US findings demonstrate that MSM, by inducing an increase in muscle strength, is effective in the short-term treatment of SIS.

  9. Myofascial force transmission in dynamic muscle conditions: effects of dynamic shortening of a single head of multi-tendoned rat extensor digitorum longus muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, Huub; Huijing, Peter A

    2005-08-01

    This study investigated the effects of myofascial force transmission during dynamic shortening of head III of rat extensor digitorum longus muscle (EDL III). The anterior crural compartment was left intact. Force was measured simultaneously at the distal EDL III tendon, the proximal EDL tendon and the distal tendons of tibialis anterior and extensor hallucis longus muscles (TA + EHL). Two types of distal shortening of EDL III were studied: (1) sinusoidal shortening (2 mm) and (2) isokinetic shortening (8 mm). Sinusoidal shortening of EDL III caused a decrease in force exerted at the distal tendon of EDL III: from 0.58 (0.08) N to 0.26 (0.04) N. In contrast, hardly any changes in proximal EDL force and distal TA+EHL force were found. Maximal concentric force exerted at the distal tendon of EDL III was higher than maximal isometric force expected on the basis of the physiological cross-sectional area of EDL III muscle fibers (Maas et al. 2003). Therefore, a substantial fraction of this force must originate from sources other than muscle fibers of EDL III. Isokinetic shortening of EDL III caused high changes in EDL III force from 0.97 (0.15) N to zero. In contrast, changes in proximal EDL force were much smaller: from 2.44 (0.25) N to 1.99 (0.19) N. No effects on TA + EHL force could be shown. These results are explained in terms of force transmission between the muscle belly of EDL III and adjacent tissues. Thus, also in dynamic muscle conditions, muscle fiber force is transmitted via myofascial pathways.

  10. Long-term outcomes of the Ross procedure in adults with severe aortic stenosis: single-centre experience with 20 years of follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalfa, David; Mohammadi, Siamak; Kalavrouziotis, Dimitri; Kharroubi, Mounir; Doyle, Daniel; Marzouk, Mohamed; Metras, Jacques; Perron, Jean

    2015-01-01

    The optimal prosthesis option for aortic valve replacement in adult patientsreplacement (n=190; 86%) or the subcoronary technique (n=31; 14%). There were 169 patients with bicuspid valves and 33 redo operations including previous aortic valve repair (n=6) and replacement (n=9) for severe AS. Demographic, preoperative, postoperative and longitudinal clinical and echocardiographic data were collected prospectively. The median and mean follow-up were 11.4 years (range: 1-20.1 years) and 10.1±5.9 years, respectively. The follow-up was complete in all patients. Kaplan-Meier actuarial survival analysis was performed to assess long-term survival, freedom from reoperation for autograft and/or homograft failure and freedom from autograft valve insufficiency. Cox regression risk analysis was performed to identify factors associated with autograft or homograft reoperations. The perioperative mortality rate was 0.9% (n=2). The incidence rate of early reoperation for bleeding was 5.9%. The actuarial survival rate at 10 and 15 years following surgery was 92.1 and 90.5%, respectively. Ross-related reoperations occurred in 21 patients during follow-up: autograft dysfunction (n=9), homograft dysfunction (n=6) and both (n=6). The rate of freedom from Ross-related reoperation was 94.7 and 87.7% at 10 and 15 years, respectively. The rate of freedom from reoperation for autograft failure was 97.6 and 91.5%, the rate of freedom from reoperation for homograft failure was 95.7 and 90.8%, and the rate of freedom from moderate or severe autograft regurgitation was 94.1 and 85.6% at 10 and 15 years, respectively. Compared with available aortic bioprosthetic alternatives in young adults with severe AS, the Ross procedure provides an excellent long-term option for patients with predominant severe AS who seek a durable operation without anticoagulation. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights

  11. Long-term changes in leptin, chemerin and ghrelin levels following different bariatric surgery procedures: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and sleeve gastrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terra, Ximena; Auguet, Teresa; Guiu-Jurado, Esther; Berlanga, Alba; Orellana-Gavaldà, Josep Maria; Hernández, Mercè; Sabench, Fàtima; Porras, Jose Antonio; Llutart, Jordi; Martinez, Salomé; Aguilar, Carmen; Del Castillo, Daniel; Richart, Cristóbal

    2013-11-01

    Different studies have evaluated changes in adipo/cytokine levels after bariatric surgery and have given conflicting results. The adipo/cytokines, leptin and chemerin, and the orexigenic hormone, ghrelin, have been shown to play a role in the regulation of metabolism and appetite. The aims of our study were to test the levels of these molecules after bariatric surgery and to compare the results between Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy. We analysed circulating levels of chemerin, ghrelin and leptin in 30 morbidly obese women (body mass index of >40 kg/m2). Subjects were studied at three time points: baseline (before the surgery started), and after 6 and 12 months. After surgery, chemerin (baseline, 95.03 ± 23.79; after 12 months, 76.80 ± 21.51; p = 0.034) and leptin levels (baseline, 248.17 ± 89.16; after 12 months, 63.85 ± 33.48; p surgery in terms of weight reduction, general metabolic state or adipo/cytokine levels after surgery. Our study demonstrates a marked decrease in fasting leptin and chemerin levels, and an increase in ghrelin levels, after bariatric surgery-induced weight loss, independently of the type of surgery performed. Further studies are needed on the interrelation between the changes in the circulating levels of these molecules and the efficacy of the bariatric surgery procedures to induce the beneficial metabolic changes and to sustain body weight loss.

  12. 78 FR 35812 - Revisions to Procedural Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    ... (APA) ``provides agencies with broad discretion to fashion procedures that make the hearing process... appearance. 39 CFR 3001.21(c). The Commission is proposing to shorten that period by requiring that motions to strike testimony be filed at least 3 calendar days before a witness's scheduled appearance, unless...

  13. Multiple causes of fatigue during shortening contractions in rat slow twitch skeletal muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Halvorsen Hortemo

    Full Text Available Fatigue in muscles that shorten might have other causes than fatigue during isometric contractions, since both cross-bridge cycling and energy demand are different in the two exercise modes. While isometric contractions are extensively studied, the causes of fatigue in shortening contractions are poorly mapped. Here, we investigate fatigue mechanisms during shortening contractions in slow twitch skeletal muscle in near physiological conditions. Fatigue was induced in rat soleus muscles with maintained blood supply by in situ shortening contractions at 37°C. Muscles were stimulated repeatedly (1 s on/off at 30 Hz for 15 min against a constant load, allowing the muscle to shorten and perform work. Fatigue and subsequent recovery was examined at 20 s, 100 s and 15 min exercise. The effects of prior exercise were investigated in a second exercise bout. Fatigue developed in three distinct phases. During the first 20 s the regulatory protein Myosin Light Chain-2 (slow isoform, MLC-2s was rapidly dephosphorylated in parallel with reduced rate of force development and reduced shortening. In the second phase there was degradation of high-energy phosphates and accumulation of lactate, and these changes were related to slowing of muscle relengthening and relaxation, culminating at 100 s exercise. Slowing of relaxation was also associated with increased leak of calcium from the SR. During the third phase of exercise there was restoration of high-energy phosphates and elimination of lactate, and the slowing of relaxation disappeared, whereas dephosphorylation of MLC-2s and reduced shortening prevailed. Prior exercise improved relaxation parameters in a subsequent exercise bout, and we propose that this effect is a result of less accumulation of lactate due to more rapid onset of oxidative metabolism. The correlation between dephosphorylation of MLC-2s and reduced shortening was confirmed in various experimental settings, and we suggest MLC-2s as an

  14. Fatigue-induced reductions of torque and shortening velocity are muscle dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Arthur J; Rice, Charles L

    2010-09-01

    In addition to torque (force) loss during dynamic fatiguing contractions, an important aspect of fatigue is the reduction in shortening velocity. Relatively few reports have studied changes in shortening velocity in response to fatigue, and inconsistencies in the results might depend on the muscle tested. To better understand fatigue-related changes in shortening velocity in different muscles, we compared the fatigue response of two muscles in humans with different physiological properties using the same criterion for task failure. During separate sessions for the triceps brachii and soleus, 10 young males performed repetitive shortening contractions with a moderate load (50% of maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVC) torque) until they achieved a 50% reduction in loaded shortening velocity at task failure. In the unfatigued condition, these muscles expressed different physiological features with similar power output but approximately 1.5 times slower shortening velocity, approximately 1.4 times slower normalized evoked 50-Hz maximum rate of relaxation, and approximately 47% lower postactivation potentiation in the soleus compared with the triceps brachii. During the fatiguing task, significantly less total work was performed in the soleus ( approximately 1986 J) compared with the triceps brachii ( approximately 3940 J), suggesting greater endurance in the triceps brachii. Despite similar relative reductions in shortening velocity in both muscles at task failure, the soleus had a smaller reduction in MVC torque than the triceps brachii at task failure. Furthermore, in both muscles, there was a greater reduction at task failure and a faster restoration of shortening velocity compared with MVC torque. Our findings suggest that fatigue-related mechanisms that reduce torque are not the same as those that reduce shortening velocity.

  15. Coral reef mesopredators switch prey, shortening food chains, in response to habitat degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hempson, Tessa N; Graham, Nicholas A J; MacNeil, M Aaron; Williamson, David H; Jones, Geoffrey P; Almany, Glenn R

    2017-04-01

    Diet specificity is likely to be the key predictor of a predator's vulnerability to changing habitat and prey conditions. Understanding the degree to which predatory coral reef fishes adjust or maintain prey choice, in response to declines in coral cover and changes in prey availability, is critical for predicting how they may respond to reef habitat degradation. Here, we use stable isotope analyses to characterize the trophic structure of predator-prey interactions on coral reefs of the Keppel Island Group on the southern Great Barrier Reef, Australia. These reefs, previously typified by exceptionally high coral cover, have recently lost much of their coral cover due to coral bleaching and frequent inundation by sediment-laden, freshwater flood plumes associated with increased rainfall patterns. Long-term monitoring of these reefs demonstrates that, as coral cover declined, there has been a decrease in prey biomass, and a shift in dominant prey species from pelagic plankton-feeding damselfishes to territorial benthic algal-feeding damselfishes, resulting in differences in the principal carbon pathways in the food web. Using isotopes, we tested whether this changing prey availability could be detected in the diet of a mesopredator (coral grouper, Plectropomus maculatus ). The δ 13 C signature in grouper tissue in the Keppel Islands shifted from a more pelagic to a more benthic signal, demonstrating a change in carbon sources aligning with the change in prey availability due to habitat degradation. Grouper with a more benthic carbon signature were also feeding at a lower trophic level, indicating a shortening in food chains. Further, we found a decline in the coral grouper population accompanying a decrease in total available prey biomass. Thus, while the ability to adapt diets could ameliorate the short-term impacts of habitat degradation on mesopredators, long-term effects may negatively impact mesopredator populations and alter the trophic structure of coral

  16. Combining abdominal and cosmetic breast surgery does not increase short-term complication rates: a comparison of each individual procedure and pretreatment risk stratification tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khavanin, Nima; Jordan, Sumanas W; Vieira, Brittany L; Hume, Keith M; Mlodinow, Alexei S; Simmons, Christopher J; Murphy, Robert X; Gutowski, Karol A; Kim, John Y S

    2015-11-01

    Combined abdominal and breast surgery presents a convenient and relatively cost-effective approach for accomplishing both procedures. This study is the largest to date assessing the safety of combined procedures, and it aims to develop a simple pretreatment risk stratification method for patients who desire a combined procedure. All women undergoing abdominoplasty, panniculectomy, augmentation mammaplasty, and/or mastopexy in the TOPS database were identified. Demographics and outcomes for combined procedures were compared to individual procedures using χ(2) and Student's t-tests. Multiple logistic regression provided adjusted odds ratios for the effect of a combined procedure on 30-day complications. Among combined procedures, a logistic regression model determined point values for pretreatment risk factors including diabetes (1 point), age over 53 (1), obesity (2), and 3+ ASA status (3), creating a 7-point pretreatment risk stratification tool. A total of 58,756 cases met inclusion criteria. Complication rates among combined procedures (9.40%) were greater than those of aesthetic breast surgery (2.66%; P risk (0 points total) with a 9.78% complication rates. Medium-risk patients (1 to 3 points) had a 16.63% complication rate, and high-risk (4 to 7 points) 38.46%. Combining abdominal and breast procedures is safe in the majority of patients and does not increase 30-day complications rates. The risk stratification tool can continue to ensure favorable outcomes for patients who may desire a combined surgery. 4 Risk. © 2015 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Active shortening within the Himalayan orogenic wedge implied by the 2015 Gorkha earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whipple, Kelin X.; Shirzaei, Manoochehr; Hodges, Kip V.; Ramon Arrowsmith, J.

    2016-09-01

    Models of Himalayan neotectonics generally attribute active mountain building to slip on the Himalayan Sole Thrust, also termed the Main Himalayan Thrust, which accommodates underthrusting of the Indian Plate beneath Tibet. However, the geometry of the Himalayan Sole Thrust and thus how slip along it causes uplift of the High Himalaya are unclear. We show that the geodetic record of the 2015 Gorkha earthquake sequence significantly clarifies the architecture of the Himalayan Sole Thrust and suggests the need for revision of the canonical view of how the Himalaya grow. Inversion of Gorkha surface deformation reveals that the Himalayan Sole Thrust extends as a planar gently dipping fault surface at least 20-30 km north of the topographic front of the High Himalaya. This geometry implies that building of the high range cannot be attributed solely to slip along the Himalayan Sole Thrust over a steep ramp; instead, shortening within the Himalayan wedge is required to support the topography and maintain rapid rock uplift. Indeed, the earthquake sequence may have included a moderate rupture (Mw 6.9) on an out-of-sequence thrust fault at the foot of the High Himalaya. Such internal deformation is an expected response to sustained, focused rapid erosion, and may be common to most compressional orogens.

  18. Computed Tomography Based Three-dimensional Measurements of Spine Shortening Distance After Posterior Three-column Osteotomies for the Treatment of Severe and Stiff Scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xue-Shi; Huang, Zi-Fang; Deng, Yao-Long; Fan, Heng-Wei; Sui, Wen-Yuan; Wang, Chong-Wen; Yang, Jun-Lin

    2017-07-15

    Retrospective study. This study is to measure and analyze the changes of three-dimensional (3D) distances of spinal column and spinal canal at the three-column osteotomy sites and address their clinical and neurologic significance. Three-column osteotomies were developed to treat severe and stiff spine deformities with insufficient understanding on the safe limit of spine shortening and the relationship between the shortening distance of the spinal column and that of the spinal canal. Records of 52 continuous patients with severe and stiff scoliosis treated with three-column spine osteotomies at our institution from July 2013 to June 2015 were reviewed. The preoperative spinal cord function classification were type A in 31 cases, type B in 10 cases, and type C in 11 cases. The types of osteotomies carried out were extended pedicle subtraction osteotomy in nine patients and posterior vertebral column resection in 43 patients. Multimodality neuromonitoring strategies were adopted intraoperatively. 3D pre- and postoperative spine models were reconstructed from the computed tomography (CT) scans. The distances of convex and concave spinal column and the spinal canal shortening were measured and analyzed. The spinal column shortening distance (SCSD) measured on the 3D models (27.8 mm) were statistically shorter than those measured intraoperatively (32.8 mm) (P column strut graft than in those with bone-on-bone fusion (P column cannot represent that of the central spinal canal in patients with severe scoliosis. The spinal column shortening procedure in appropriately selected patient groups with bone-on-bone fusion is a viable option with the CCSD being significantly shorter than the convex SCSD. 4.

  19. Establishment of the operating procedure to prevent boron precipitation during Post-LOCA long term cooling for Korean Westinghouse 3-loop NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Han Rim; Kwon, Tae Soon; Ban, Chang Hwan; Jeong, Jae Hoon; Lee, Young Jin.

    1996-11-01

    During post-LOCA LTC the increase of the excess reactivity for the extended fuel cycle should require increasing the RWST boron concentration in order to ensure core subcritical state. To quantify the concentration increment, the calculation methods was developed for the post-LOCA RCS/Sump mixed mean boron concentration, which applied for Kori 3 and 4 and Ulchin 1 and 2 of the Westinghouse 3-loop nuclear power plants in Korean. From the calculation results, the minimum boric acid concentrations increased of the RWST and accumulator were determined consideration of the convenient operation for operator on reloading. Boric acid concentrations of the RWST and the accumulators for Westinghouse 3-loop type plants were increased to meet the post-LOCA shutdown requirement for the long life cycles from 12 months to 18 months. To maintain LTC capability following a LOCA, the switchover time is examined using boron code of prevent the boron precipitation in the reactor core with the increased boron concentrations. The analysis results showed that hot leg recirculation switchover times were shortened to 7.5 hours from 24 hours after the initiation of LOCA for Kori 3 and 4 and 8 hours from 18 hours for Ulchin 1 and 2, respectively. The flow path in the mode J for Kori 3 and 4 was recommended to realign to the simultaneous recirculation of both hot and cold legs from the cold leg recirculation, as done by Ulchin 1 and 2. (author). 2 tabs., 12 figs., 13 refs

  20. Shortening Treatment in Adults with Noncavitary Tuberculosis and 2-Month Culture Conversion

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, John L.; Hadad, David Jamil; Dietze, Reynaldo; Noia Maciel, Ethel Leonor; Sewali, Barrett; Gitta, Phineas; Okwera, Alphonse; Mugerwa, Roy D.; Alcaneses, Mary Rose; Quelapio, Maria Imelda; Tupasi, Thelma E.; Horter, Libby; Debanne, Sara M.; Eisenach, Kathleen D.; Boom, W. Henry

    2009-01-01

    Rationale: Cavitary disease and delayed culture conversion have been associated with relapse. Combining patient characteristics and measures of bacteriologic response might allow treatment shortening with current drugs in some patients.

  1. Bit Error Rate Minimizing Channel Shortening Equalizers for Single Carrier Cyclic Prefixed Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martin, Richard K; Vanbleu, Koen; Ysebaert, Geert

    2007-01-01

    .... Previous work on channel shortening has largely been in the context of digital subscriber lines, a wireline system that allows bit allocation, thus it has focused on maximizing the bit rate for a given bit error rate (BER...

  2. Graphene oxide-loaded shortening as an environmentally friendly heat transfer fluid with high thermal conductivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vongsetskul Thammasit

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Graphene oxide-loaded shortening (GOS, an environmentally friendly heat transfer fluid with high thermal conductivity, was successfully prepared by mixing graphene oxide (GO with a shortening. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that GO particles, prepared by the modified Hummer’s method, dispersed well in the shortening. In addition, the latent heat of GOS decreased while their viscosity and thermal conductivity increased with increasing the amount of loaded GO. The thermal conductivity of the GOS with 4% GO was higher than that of pure shortening of ca. three times, from 0.1751 to 0.6022 W/mK, and increased with increasing temperature. The GOS started to be degraded at ca. 360°C. After being heated and cooled at 100°C for 100 cycles, its viscosity slightly decreased and no chemical degradation was observed. Therefore, the prepared GOS is potentially used as environmentally friendly heat transfer fluid at high temperature.

  3. Eyes in Various Species Can Shorten to Compensate for Myopic Defocus

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Xiaoying; McBrien, Neville A.; Smith, Earl L.; Troilo, David; Wallman, Josh

    2013-01-01

    We have shown that, in 4 different animal models of refractive development, eyes shorten axially to compensate for myopic defocus. This has potentially important implications for control of myopia in the growing eye of children.

  4. Long-term outcomes of aortic root operations for Marfan syndrome: A comparison of Bentall versus aortic valve-sparing procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Joel; Magruder, J Trent; Young, Allen; Grimm, Joshua C; Patel, Nishant D; Alejo, Diane; Dietz, Harry C; Vricella, Luca A; Cameron, Duke E

    2016-02-01

    Prophylactic aortic root replacement improves survival in patients with Marfan syndrome with aortic root aneurysms, but the optimal procedure remains undefined. Adult patients with Marfan syndrome who had Bentall or aortic valve-sparing root replacement (VSRR) procedures between 1997 and 2013 were identified. Comprehensive follow-up information was obtained from hospital charts and telephone contact. One hundred sixty-five adult patients with Marfan syndrome (aged > 20 years) had either VSRR (n = 98; 69 reimplantation, 29 remodeling) or Bentall (n = 67) procedures. Patients undergoing Bentall procedure were older (median, 37 vs 36 years; P = .03), had larger median preoperative sinus diameter (5.5 cm vs 5.0 cm; P = .003), more aortic dissections (25.4% vs 4.1%; P Marfan syndrome, patients undergoing Bentall and valve-sparing procedures have similar late survival, freedom from root reoperation, and freedom from endocarditis. However, valve-sparing procedures result in significantly fewer thromboembolic and hemorrhagic events. Copyright © 2016 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Subtrochanteric femoral shortening osteotomy combined with cementless total hip replacement for Crowe type IV developmental dysplasia: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollo, Giuseppe; Solarino, Giuseppe; Vicenti, Giovanni; Picca, Girolamo; Carrozzo, Massimiliano; Moretti, Biagio

    2017-12-01

    Total hip replacement for high dislocation of the hip presents some difficulties, considering patients' young ages, the abnormal hip anatomy and the high rate of complications. In this study, we present our experience in terms of clinical and radiological results in the treatment of Crowe type IV hips with subtrochanteric femoral shortening osteotomy and cementless total hip replacement. We retrospectively reviewed 15 patients with Crowe type IV hip dysplasia (two bilateral cases for a total of 17 hips) treated with cementless total hip replacement associated with shortening subtrochanteric osteotomies (nine transversal and eight Z-shape osteotomies) between March 2000 to February 2006. The mean follow-up was 88 months (range 63-133). Harris hip score, leg length discrepancy, neurological status, union status of the osteotomy and the component stability were the criteria of the evaluation. All complications were noted. The mean HHS improved from 38.3 (range 32-52) to 85.6 (range 69-90). The mean preoperative leg length discrepancy was of 45 mm (range 38-70) and reduced to a mean of 12 mm (range 9-1.6) postoperatively. All osteotomies resulted healed at an average of 12.3 weeks (range 10-15). No cases of delayed union or nonunion were detected. Two patients (11%) showed early symptoms of sciatic nerve palsy which resolved uneventfully in 6 months. There was no migrations and none of the implants required revision. Cementless THA with shortening subtrochanteric osteotomy is an effective method in the treatment of patients with Crowe type IV development dysplasia of the hip. IV.

  6. X-ray interference studies of crossbridge action in muscle contraction: evidence from muscles during steady shortening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huxley, Hugh; Reconditi, Massimo; Stewart, Alex; Irving, Tom

    2006-11-03

    During normal muscle shortening, the myosin heads must undergo many cycles of interaction with the actin filaments sliding past them. It is important to determine what range of configurations is found under these circumstances, and, in terms of the tilting lever arm model, what range of orientations the lever arms undergo. We have studied this using the X-ray interference technique described in the previous article, focusing mainly on the changes in the first order meridional reflection (M3) as compared to isometric. The change in ratio of the heights of the interference peaks indicates how far the mean lever arm angle has moved towards the end of the working stroke; the total intensity change depends on the angle change, on the number of heads now attached at any one time, and on the dispersion of lever arm angles. The latter provides a measure of the distance over which myosin heads remain attached to actin as they go through their working strokes. Surprisingly, the mean position of the attached heads moves only about 1 nm inwards (towards the center of the A-band) at low velocity shortening (around 0.9 T0): their dispersion changes very little. This shows that they must be detaching very early in the working stroke. However, at loads around 0.5 T0, the mean lever arm angle is about half way towards the end of the working stroke, and the dispersion of lever arm angles (with a uniform dispersion) is such as to distribute the heads throughout the whole of the working stroke. At higher velocities of shortening (at 0.3 T0), the mean position shifts further towards the end of the stroke, and the dispersion increases further. The details of the measurements, together with other data on muscle indicate that the force-generating mechanism within the myosin heads must have some unexpected properties.

  7. Shortening and Thickening of Metropolitan Los Angeles Measured and Inferred Using Geodesy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argus, D.; Heflin, M.; Donnellan, A.; Webb, F.; Dong, D.; Hurst, K.; Jefferson, D.; Lyzenga, G.; Watkins, M.; Zumberge, J.

    1999-01-01

    Geodetic measurements using the Global Positioning System and other techniques show north-south shortening near Los Angeles to be fastest across the northern part of the metropolitan area, where an ESE-striking, 5- to 40-km-wide belt lying to the south of San Gabriel Mountains and to the north of downtown and West Los Angeles is shortening at 5 mm/yr.

  8. Cytoskeleton-related regulation of primary cilia shortening mediated by melanin-concentrating hormone receptor 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomoshige, Sakura; Kobayashi, Yuki; Hosoba, Kosuke; Hamamoto, Akie; Miyamoto, Tatsuo; Saito, Yumiko

    2017-11-01

    Primary cilia are specialized microtubule-based organelles. Their importance is highlighted by the gamut of ciliary diseases associated with various syndromes including diabetes and obesity. Primary cilia serve as signaling hubs through selective interactions with ion channels and conventional G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) receptor 1 (MCHR1), a key regulator of feeding, is selectively expressed in neuronal primary cilia in distinct regions of the mouse brain. We previously found that MCH acts on ciliary MCHR1 and induces cilia shortening through a Gi/o-dependent Akt pathway with no cell cycle progression. Many factors can participate in cilia length control. However, the mechanisms for how these molecules are relocated and coordinated to activate cilia shortening are poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated the role of cytoskeletal dynamics in regulating MCH-induced cilia shortening using clonal MCHR1-expressing hTERT-RPE1 cells. Pharmacological and biochemical approaches showed that cilia shortening mediated by MCH was associated with increased soluble cytosolic tubulin without changing the total tubulin amount. Enhanced F-actin fiber intensity was also observed in MCH-treated cells. The actions of various pharmacological agents revealed that coordinated actin machinery, especially actin polymerization, was required for MCHR1-mediated cilia shortening. A recent report indicated the existence of actin-regulated machinery for cilia shortening through GPCR agonist-dependent ectosome release. However, our live-cell imaging experiments showed that MCH progressively elicited cilia shortening without exclusion of fluorescence-positive material from the tip. Short cilia phenotypes have been associated with various metabolic disorders. Thus, the present findings may contribute toward better understanding of how the cytoskeleton is involved in the GPCR ligand-triggered cilia shortening with cell mechanical

  9. Eyes in Various Species Can Shorten to Compensate for Myopic Defocus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaoying; McBrien, Neville A.; Smith, Earl L.; Troilo, David; Wallman, Josh

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. We demonstrated that eyes of young animals of various species (chick, tree shrew, marmoset, and rhesus macaque) can shorten in the axial dimension in response to myopic defocus. Methods. Chicks wore positive or negative lenses over one eye for 3 days. Tree shrews were measured during recovery from induced myopia after 5 days of monocular deprivation for 1 to 9 days. Marmosets were measured during recovery from induced myopia after monocular deprivation, or wearing negative lenses over one or both eyes, or from wearing positive lenses over one or both eyes. Rhesus macaques were measured after recovery from induced myopia after monocular deprivation, or wearing negative lenses over one or both eyes. Axial length was measured with ultrasound biometry in all species. Results. Tree shrew eyes showed a strong trend to shorten axially to compensate for myopic defocus. Of 34 eyes that recovered from deprivation-induced myopia for various durations, 30 eyes (88%) shortened, whereas only 7 fellow eyes shortened. In chicks, eyes wearing positive lenses reduced their rate of ocular elongation by two-thirds, including 38.5% of eyes in which the axial length became shorter than before. Evidence of axial shortening in rhesus macaque (40%) and marmoset (6%) eyes also occurred when exposed to myopic defocus, although much less frequently than that in eyes of tree shrews. The axial shortening was caused mostly by the reduction in vitreous chamber depth. Conclusions. Eyes of chick, tree shrew, marmoset, and rhesus macaque can shorten axially when presented with myopic defocus, whether the myopic defocus is created by wearing positive lenses, or is the result of axial elongation of the eye produced by prior negative lens wear or deprivation. This eye shortening facilitates compensation for the imposed myopia. Implications for human myopia control are significant. PMID:23493295

  10. Clinical results of cementless total hip arthroplasty with shortening osteotomy for high dislocation with developmental dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desteli, Engin Eren; Imren, Yunus; Tan, Erkan; Erdoğan, Murat; Özcan, Hüseyin

    2015-03-01

    Total hip arthroplasty for severe developmental dysplasia of the hip is a technically challenging procedure. Subtrochanteric femoral osteotomy enables reducing the femoral head and restoring abductor muscle strength without compromising proximal femoral bone stock in advanced dysplasia.We aimed to retrospectively evaluate Crowe type III or IV developmental dysplasia of the hip who underwent reconstruction with cementless total hip arthroplasty combined with a transverse subtrochanteric femoral osteotomy. Sixty hips of 52 patients (11 male, 49 female) with Crowe type III (n: 37) or IV (n: 23) developmental dysplasia of the hip were included. The average age was 51.4 years. Surgery was performed in lateral decubitis position with posterolateral approach. Subtrochanteric transverse femoral osteotomy were used with cementless components. 40 of the femoral components were Secur-Fit type, and 20 of them were secur-fit plus max type. Ceramic-ceramic coupling was used in 24 cases and metal-polyethylene coupling was used in 36 cases. Merle D'Aubigne and Harris Hip score were used to rate the clinical outcome at the final follow up. All femoral shortening osteotomies were united at a mean of 5.7 months. Mean Merle D'Aubigne pain score was increased from 3.1 to 5.4, and mean Harris Hip score improved from 39 to 92.8, postoperatively (p<0.01). There was no significant difference in time to union between different types of stems. 4 femoral stems had asymptomatic radiolucent lines. There was no significant difference in time to union between different types of stems.

  11. Reconstructive procedures for segmental resection of bone in giant cell tumors around the knee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aggarwal Aditya

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Segmental resection of bone in Giant Cell Tumor (GCT around the knee, in indicated cases, leaves a gap which requires a complex reconstructive procedure. The present study analyzes various reconstructive procedures in terms of morbidity and various complications encountered. Materials and Methods: Thirteen cases (M-six and F-seven; lower end femur-six and upper end tibia -seven of GCT around the knee, radiologically either Campanacci Grade II, Grade II with pathological fracture or Grade III were included. Mean age was 25.6 years (range 19-30 years. Resection arthrodesis with telescoping (shortening over intramedullary nail ( n=5, resection arthrodesis with an intercalary allograft threaded over a long intramedullary nail ( n=3 and resection arthrodesis with intercalary fibular autograft and simultaneous limb lengthening ( n=5 were the procedure performed. Results: Shortening was the major problem following resection arthrodesis with telescoping (shortening over intramedullary nail. Only two patients agreed for subsequent limb lengthening. The rest continued to walk with shortening. Infection was the major problem in all cases of resection arthrodesis with an intercalary allograft threaded over a long intramedullary nail and required multiple drainage procedures. Fusion was achieved after two years in two patients. In the third patient the allograft sequestrated. The patient underwent sequestrectomy, telescoping of fragments and ilizarov fixator application with subsequent limb lengthening. The patient was finally given an ischial weight relieving orthosis, 54 months after the index procedure. After resection arthrodesis with intercalary autograft and simultaneous lengthening the resultant gap (~15cm was partially bridged by intercalary nonvascularized dual fibular strut graft (6-7cm and additional corticocancellous bone graft from ipsilateral patella. Simultaneous limb lengthening with a distal tibial corticotomy was performed on an

  12. A new adaptive testing algorithm for shortening health literacy assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Currie Leanne M

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low health literacy has a detrimental effect on health outcomes, as well as ability to use online health resources. Good health literacy assessment tools must be brief to be adopted in practice; test development from the perspective of item-response theory requires pretesting on large participant populations. Our objective was to develop a novel classification method for developing brief assessment instruments that does not require pretesting on large numbers of research participants, and that would be suitable for computerized adaptive testing. Methods We present a new algorithm that uses principles of measurement decision theory (MDT and Shannon's information theory. As a demonstration, we applied it to a secondary analysis of data sets from two assessment tests: a study that measured patients' familiarity with health terms (52 participants, 60 items and a study that assessed health numeracy (165 participants, 8 items. Results In the familiarity data set, the method correctly classified 88.5% of the subjects, and the average length of test was reduced by about 50%. In the numeracy data set, for a two-class classification scheme, 96.9% of the subjects were correctly classified with a more modest reduction in test length of 35.7%; a three-class scheme correctly classified 93.8% with a 17.7% reduction in test length. Conclusions MDT-based approaches are a promising alternative to approaches based on item-response theory, and are well-suited for computerized adaptive testing in the health domain.

  13. Random access procedures and radio access network (RAN) overload control in standard and advanced long-term evolution (LTE and LTE-A) networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiilerich Pratas, Nuno; Thomsen, Henning; Popovski, Petar

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter, we describe and discuss the current LTE random access procedure and the Radio Access Network Load Control solution within LTE/LTE-A. We provide an overview of the several considered load control solutions and give a detailed description of the standardized Extended Access Class B...

  14. Procedures for conducting probabilistic safety assessments of nuclear power plants (level 2). Accident progression, containment analysis and estimation of accident source terms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The present publication on Level 2 PSA is based on a compilation and review of practices in various Member States. It complements Safety Series No. 50-P-4, issued in 1992, on Procedures for Conducting Probabilistic Safety Assessments of Nuclear Power Plants (Level 1). Refs, figs and tabs

  15. Mid-term results of bidirectional cavopulmonary anastomosis and hemi-Mustard procedure in anatomical correction of congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries(dagger)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sojak, Vladimir; Kuipers, Irene; Koolbergen, Dave; Rijlaarsdam, Marry; Hruda, Jaroslav; Blom, Nico; Hazekamp, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The Senning or Mustard procedure combined with the arterial switch operation (ASO) (+/- VSD and no left ventricular (LV) outflow tract obstruction) or the Rastelli operation (VSD and LV outflow tract obstruction) has become the preferred strategy over conventional repair as it is thought to prevent

  16. Short-term effect of TVT-SECUR procedure on quality of life and sexual function in women with stress urinary incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiang; Zhu, Lan; Zhong, Wen; Li, Bin; Lang, Jinghe

    2013-01-01

    To investigate whether patient quality of life and sexual function are improved after the tension-free vaginal tape SECUR (TVT-S) procedure (H-type). Prospective study (Canadian Task Force classification II-3). Single-center hospital. Thirty-three women with stress urinary incontinence (SUI) (high urethral mobility) and no concomitant pelvic floor prolapse underwent TVT-S between October 2009 and October 2011. TVT-S procedure. Before and after surgery(6 and 12 months), all patients completed the Chinese version of the Incontinence Quality of Life Questionnaire (I-QOL). In addition, 28 sexually active patients who underwent the TVT-S procedure completed the short-form Pelvic Organ Prolapse/Urinary Incontinence Sexual Function Questionnaire (PISQ-12) before and after surgery (6 and 12 months). We used a paired t test to compare I-QOL scores before and after surgery. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to compare the preoperative and postoperative PISQ scores. The objective cure rate was 78% (26 of 33 patients) at 12 months after surgery. The objective improvement rate was 12.1% (4 of 33 patients). The subjective satisfaction rate was 90%. Three operations (9.1%) were considered failures. Two patients underwent a TVT procedure after TVT-S because of recurrence. No patients reported severe pain; the mean (SD) visual analog scale pain score was 1.8 (1.2) after surgery. Only 1 patient (3%) was found to have sling erosion at 12 months postoperatively. The I-QOL score was 28.3 (14.2) before surgery and increased to 69.5 (18.9) at 12 months after the TVT-S procedure. The I-QOL score improved significantly after surgery (p .05). Although the objective cure rate was not high, the TVT-S procedure is a minimally invasive, safe, and effective surgical procedure for treatment of SUI (high urethral mobility) and can improve the quality of life and sexual function in women with SUI. Copyright © 2013 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Crustal balance and crustal flux from shortening estimates in the Central Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindle, David; Kley, Jonas; Oncken, Onno; Sobolev, Stephan

    2005-01-01

    The Central Andes of South America form the second largest high elevation plateau on earth. Extreme elevations have formed on a noncollisional margin with abundant associated arc magmatism. It has long been thought that the crustal thickness necessary to support Andean topography was not accounted for by known crustal shortening alone. We show that this may in part be due to a two-dimensional treatment of the problem. A three-dimensional analysis of crustal shortening and crustal thickness shows that displacement of material towards the axis of the bend in the Central Andes has added a significant volume of crust not accounted for in previous comparisons. We find that present-day crustal thickness between 12°S and 25°S is accounted for (∼-10% to ∼+3%)with the same shortening estimates, and the same assumed initial crustal thickness as had previously led to the conclusion of a ∼25-35% deficit in shortening relative to volume of crustal material. We suggest that the present-day measured crustal thickness distribution may not match that predicted due to shortening, and substantial redistribution of crust may have occurred by both erosion and deposition at the surface and lower crustal flow in regions of the thermally weakened middle and lower crust.

  18. [Effects of removable partial dentures on the quality of life in people with shortened dental arches].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armellini, D B; Heydecke, G; Witter, D J; Creugers, N H J

    2009-12-01

    In order to assess the enhanced value of removable partial dentures on the quality of life, patients at 2 university clinics were screened for the presence of complete or shortened dental arches. Those selected were assigned to 1 of 5 subgroups: 1) a shortened dental arch with all frontal teeth, 2) a shortened dental arch with one or more frontal diastemas, 3) a shortened dental arch with all frontal teeth, restored by a removable partial denture, 4) a shortened dental arch and several diastemas, restored by a removable partial denture, 5) a complete dental arch. The participants completed the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-49) and the Short Form Health Survey (SF-36). Clinical data recorded were: whether any teeth were missing and if so which, whether or not these had been replaced by a removable partial denture, and the number of occluding pairs of (pre)molars. The results revealed that a shortenend dental arch has a certain impact on the quality of life. However, the participants only experienced benefits from a removable partial denture if the denture also replaced frontal teeth.

  19. The timing of learning before night-time sleep differentially affects declarative and procedural long-term memory consolidation in adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Holz

    Full Text Available Sleep after learning has been shown to foster the consolidation of new memories. However, fundamental questions on the best timing of learning before night-time sleep persist. We tested the hypothesis that learning directly prior to night-time sleep compared to 7.5 hrs prior to night-time sleep provides better conditions for the consolidation of declarative and procedural memories. Fifty healthy female adolescents (aged 16-17 years were trained on a declarative word-pair and a procedural finger-tapping task at 3 pm (afternoon group, n = 25 or at 9 pm (evening group, n = 25, followed by a sleep laboratory night. Retrieval was assessed 24 hours and 7 days after initial training. Subjects trained in the afternoon showed a significantly elevated retention rate of word-pairs compared to subjects trained in the evening after 24 hours, but not after 7 days. In contrast, off-line gains in finger-tapping performance were significantly higher in subjects trained in the evening compared to those trained in the afternoon after both retention intervals. The observed enhanced consolidation of procedural memories after training in the evening fits to current models of sleep-related memory consolidation. In contrast, the higher retention of declarative memories after encoding in the afternoon is surprising, appeared to be less robust and needs further investigation.

  20. Onychocryptosis: a long-term retrospective and comparative follow-up study of surgical and phenol chemical matricectomy in 520 procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Pérez, David; Betlloch-Mas, Isabel; Encabo-Durán, Belén

    2017-02-01

    Onychocryptosis or ingrown toenail is a common condition for which there are several treatment options. Surgical matricectomy (SM) is the classical procedure, whereas chemical matricectomy with phenol (CMP) is the most widely used nowadays. This study was designed to evaluate the success rate, postoperative comfort, postoperative complications, and patient satisfaction provided by each of these procedures. A retrospective study of all patients who underwent surgery for ingrown toenail over a 5-year period was performed. Data used for the descriptive study and success rates were obtained from medical records. Postoperative data were collected by telephone interviews. Ingrown toenail surgery was carried out in 520 patients. SM was associated with a lower recurrence rate (8.2%) than CMP (17.8%), more pain (5.7/10 vs. 3.6/10), a higher risk for infection (15.3% vs. 2.9%), and lower cosmetic satisfaction (7.3/10 vs. 8.0/10). Overall satisfaction was similar in both procedures (8.5/10 and 8.4/10, respectively). Although SM is associated with a lower recurrence rate, CMP appears to facilitate better postoperative outcomes. © 2016 The International Society of Dermatology.

  1. The timing of learning before night-time sleep differentially affects declarative and procedural long-term memory consolidation in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holz, Johannes; Piosczyk, Hannah; Landmann, Nina; Feige, Bernd; Spiegelhalder, Kai; Riemann, Dieter; Nissen, Christoph; Voderholzer, Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    Sleep after learning has been shown to foster the consolidation of new memories. However, fundamental questions on the best timing of learning before night-time sleep persist. We tested the hypothesis that learning directly prior to night-time sleep compared to 7.5 hrs prior to night-time sleep provides better conditions for the consolidation of declarative and procedural memories. Fifty healthy female adolescents (aged 16-17 years) were trained on a declarative word-pair and a procedural finger-tapping task at 3 pm (afternoon group, n = 25) or at 9 pm (evening group, n = 25), followed by a sleep laboratory night. Retrieval was assessed 24 hours and 7 days after initial training. Subjects trained in the afternoon showed a significantly elevated retention rate of word-pairs compared to subjects trained in the evening after 24 hours, but not after 7 days. In contrast, off-line gains in finger-tapping performance were significantly higher in subjects trained in the evening compared to those trained in the afternoon after both retention intervals. The observed enhanced consolidation of procedural memories after training in the evening fits to current models of sleep-related memory consolidation. In contrast, the higher retention of declarative memories after encoding in the afternoon is surprising, appeared to be less robust and needs further investigation.

  2. MÉTODO SIMPLES PARA ESTIMAR ENCURTAMENTO PELO FRIO EM CARNE BOVINA A SIMPLE METHOD TO ESTIMATE COLD SHORTENING IN BEEF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riana Jordão Barrozo Heinemann

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available É bem conhecido o fato de que o encurtamento pelo frio pode influenciar negativamente a textura da carne. Por isso, a determinação do grau de contração do tecido muscular é um recurso analítico de grande importância quando se estuda a otimização dos procedimentos industriais. Neste trabalho, foram avaliadas comparativamente duas metodologias de microscopia. Para isso, os músculos Biceps femoris, Longissimus dorsi e Semimembranosus obtidos de nove carcaças bovinas com três diferentes graus de acabamento foram analisados de forma pareada por ambos os métodos. O músculo Longissimus dorsi apresentou menor comprimento de sarcômero e o m. Semimembranosus o maior (p0,05, revelando a possibilidade de emprego do método mais simples.The negative influence of cold shortening on meat texture is well known. Because of that, the determination of the muscle contraction extent represents an important analytical tool for the optimization of the industrial procedures. In this work, two methodologies to evaluate cold shortening were compared. Biceps femoris, Longissimus dorsi and Semimembranosus muscles from 9 cattle carcasses with three different fat thickness grades were paired analyzed by both methodologies. Longissimus dorsi muscle showed the shortest sarcomere length while Semimembranosus m. showed the longest one (p0.05, which suggests the possibility of using the simpler method for cold shortening evaluation.

  3. Site-specific DNA damage at GGG sequence by oxidative stress may accelerate telomere shortening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikawa, S; Kawanishi, S

    1999-06-25

    Telomere shortening during human aging has been reported to be accelerated by oxidative stress. We investigated the mechanism of telomere shortening by oxidative stress. H2O2 plus Cu(II) caused predominant DNA damage at the 5' site of 5'-GGG-3' in the telomere sequence. Furthermore, H2O2 plus Cu(II) induced 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) formation in telomere sequences more efficiently than that in non-telomere sequences. NO plus O2- efficiently caused base alteration at the 5' site of 5'-GGG-3' in the telomere sequence. It is concluded that the site-specific DNA damage at the GGG sequence by oxidative stress may play an important role in increasing the rate of telomere shortening with aging.

  4. Shortened Lifespan and Lethal Hemorrhage in a Hemophilia A Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staber, Janice M; Pollpeter, Molly J

    2016-01-01

    Hemophilia A animal models have helped advance our understanding of factor VIII deficiency. Previously, factor VIII deficient mouse models were reported to have a normal life span without spontaneous bleeds. However, the bleeding frequency and survival in these animals has not been thoroughly evaluated. To investigate the survival and lethal bleeding frequency in two strains of E-16 hemophilia A mice. We prospectively studied factor VIII deficient hemizygous affected males (n = 83) and homozygous affected females (n = 55) for survival and bleeding frequency. Animals were evaluated for presence and location of bleeds as potential cause of death. Hemophilia A mice had a median survival of 254 days, which is significantly shortened compared to wild type controls (p hemophilia A mice experienced hemorrhage in several tissues. This previously-underappreciated shortened survival in the hemophilia A murine model provides new outcomes for investigation of therapeutics and also reflects the shortened lifespan of patients if left untreated.

  5. Shortening of primary operators in N-extended $SCFT_{4}$ and harmonic-superspace analyticity

    CERN Document Server

    Andrianopoli, L.; Sokatchev, E.; Zupnik, B.

    1999-01-01

    We present the analysis of all possible shortenings which occur for composite gauge invariant conformal primary superfields in SU(2,2/N) invariant gauge theories. These primaries have top-spin range N/2 \\leq J_{max} < N with J_{max} = J_1 + J_2, (J_1,J_2) being the SL(2,C) quantum numbers of the highest spin component of the superfield. In Harmonic superspace, analytic and chiral superfields give J_{max}= N/2 series while intermediate shortenings correspond to fusion of chiral with analytic in N=2, or analytic with different analytic structures in N=3,4. In the AdS/CFT language shortenings of UIR's correspond to all possible BPS conditions on bulk states. An application of this analysis to multitrace operators, corresponding to multiparticle supergravity states, is spelled out.

  6. Preparation and Properties of Nanocomposites Prepared From Shortened, Functionalized Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. G., Jr.; Delozier, D. M.; Watson, K. A.; Connell, J. W.; Yu, Aiping; Haddon, R. C.; Bekyarova, E.

    2006-01-01

    As part of a continuing materials development activity, low color space environmentally stable polymeric materials that possess sufficient electrical conductivity for electrostatic charge dissipation (ESD) have been investigated. One method of incorporating sufficient electrical conductivity for ESD without detrimental effects on other polymer properties of interest (i.e., optical and thermo-optical) is through the incorporation of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). However, SWNTs are difficult to fully disperse in the polymer matrix. One means of improving dispersion is by shortening and functionalizing SWNTs. While this improves dispersion, other properties (i.e., electrical) of the SWNTs can be affected which can in turn alter the final nanocomposite properties. Additionally, functionalization of the polymer matrix can also influence nanocomposite properties obtained from shortened, functionalized SWNTs. The preparation and characterization of nanocomposites fabricated from a polyimide, both functionalized and unfunctionalized, and shortened, functionalized SWNTs will be presented.

  7. The effect of experimental shortening of the clavicle on shoulder kinematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillen, Robert J; Burger, Bart J; Pöll, Rudolf G; van Dijk, C Niek; Veeger, Dirkjan H E J

    2012-10-01

    Malunion after mid shaft clavicle fractures has recently been recognized as a cause of pain and dysfunction of the shoulder. The mechanism that causes these complaints is however yet unclear. In this study we describe the kinematic changes that occur in the shoulder girdle due to clavicle shortening. An experimental cadaveric study was performed on five shoulders of three fresh frozen specimens. The specimens were fixed in an upright position that allowed free motion of the shoulder girdle. We measured position of the bony structures with an opto-electronic system (Northern Digital Inc., Waterloo, Ontario Canada) in rest and during in a series of motions. Measurements were done with a normal clavicle and after shortening of the clavicle by 1.2, 2.4 and 3.6 cm. The shoulders were moved manually by one of the researchers. We examined for changes in resting position and during movement that resulted from the experimental shortening of the clavicle. In the resting position, winging of the scapula increased with resultant changes in the orientation of the glenoid, acromio-clavicular and sterno-clavicular joints and an altered position of the clavicle. On average protraction increased by 20°, lateral rotation changed 12° and posterior tilt decreased by 7°. Clavicle shortening affected sterno-clavicular joint rotations but did not do so in the acromio-clavicular joint. In arm elevation the offset in scapula orientation at resting position stayed relatively constant over the full range of motion but the amount of disposition is progressive in relation to the amount of shortening. Shortening of the clavicle leads to significant changes in the shoulder girdle in resting position and in movement. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Harmine treatment enhances short-term memory in old rats: Dissociation of cognition and the ability to perform the procedural requirements of maze testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennenga, Sarah E; Gerson, Julia E; Dunckley, Travis; Bimonte-Nelson, Heather A

    2015-01-01

    Harmine is a naturally occurring monoamine oxidase inhibitor that has recently been shown to selectively inhibit the dual-specificity tyrosine-(Y)-phosphorylation-regulated kinase 1A (DYRK1A). We investigated the cognitive effects of 1mg (low) Harmine and 5mg (high) Harmine using the delayed-match-to-sample (DMS) asymmetrical 3-choice water maze task to evaluate spatial working and recent memory, and the Morris water maze task (MM) to test spatial reference memory. Animals were also tested on the visible platform task, a water-escape task with the same motor, motivational, and reinforcement components as the other tasks used to evaluate cognition, but differing in its greater simplicity and that the platform was visible above the surface of the water. A subset of the Harmine-high treated animals showed clear motor impairments on all behavioral tasks, and the visible platform task confirmed a lack of competence to perform the procedural components of water maze testing. After excluding animals from the high dose group that could not perform the procedural components of a swim task, it was revealed that both high- and low-dose treatment with Harmine enhanced performance on the latter portion of DMS testing, but had no effect on MM performance. Thus, this study demonstrates the importance of confirming motor and visual competence when studying animal cognition, and verifies the one-day visible platform task as a reliable measure of ability to perform the procedural components necessary for completion of a swim task. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Percutaneous Treatment of Simple Hepatic Cysts: The Long-Term Results of PAIR and Catheterization Techniques as Single-Session Procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhan, Okan, E-mail: akhano@tr.net [Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Turkey); Islim, Filiz, E-mail: fislim@yahoo.com [Istanbul Bakirkoy Dr. Sadi Konuk Training and Research Hospital, Department of Radiology (Turkey); Balci, Sinan, E-mail: snnbalci@gmail.com [Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Turkey); Erbahceci, Aysun, E-mail: aysunerbahceci@yahoo.com [Istanbul Bakirkoy Dr. Sadi Konuk Training and Research Hospital, Department of Radiology (Turkey); Akpınar, Burcu, E-mail: burcu-akpinar@yahoo.com; Ciftci, Turkmen, E-mail: turkmenciftci@yahoo.com; Akinci, Devrim, E-mail: akincid@hotmail.com [Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Turkey)

    2016-06-15

    PurposeThe purpose of our study is to evaluate results of percutaneous aspiration with alcohol sclerotherapy in symptomatic patients with simple hepatic cysts by employing single-session techniques either by a needle or a catheter.Materials and MethodsWe retrospectively included 39 simple hepatic cysts in 35 patients treated via percutaneous aspiration and single-session alcohol sclerotherapy between years 1993 and 2012. Indications were pain (n = 28) or ruling out cystic echinococcus (CE) disease (n = 7). 29 cysts in 26 patients were treated by needle technique (Group A) and ten cysts in nine patients were treated by single-session catheter technique (Group B). Patients were followed for 4–173 months (median: 38 months).ResultsAll patients were successfully treated. Before procedure, cyst volumes were 21–676 cc (median: 94 cc). Post-procedure cyst volumes at last follow-up were 0-40 cc (median: 1 cc). The mean decrease in cyst volume was 95.92 ± 2.86 % in all patients (95.96 ± 3.26 % in Group A and 95.80 ± 6.20 % in Group B). There was no statistically significant difference between the volume reduction rates of Group A and Group B. Only one patient, in Group B, developed a major complication, an abscess. Hospitalization period was 1 day for all patients.ConclusionsFor patients with symptomatic simple hepatic cysts smaller than 500 cc in volume by using puncture, aspiration, injection, and reaspiration (PAIR) technique with only needle, single-session alcohol sclerotherapy of 10 min is a safe and effective procedure with high success rate.

  10. Is robot-assisted laparoscopic right colectomy more effective than the conventional laparoscopic procedure? A meta-analysis of short-term outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondelli, Fabio; Balzarotti, Ruben; Villa, Fabio; Guerra, Adriano; Avenia, Nicola; Mariani, Enrico; Bugiantella, Walter

    2015-06-01

    The use of robotic technology procedures has proved to be safe and effective, arising as a helpful alternative to standard laparoscopic surgery in a variety of colorectal procedures. However, the role of robotic assistance in laparoscopic right colectomy is still not demonstrated. A systematic review of the literature was carried out performing an unrestricted search in MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library and Google Scholar up to 30th August 2014. Reference lists of retrieved articles and review articles were manually searched for other relevant studies. We meta-analyzed the currently available data regarding the incidence of anastomotic leakage, operative time, intra-operative blood loss, conversion rate, retrieved lymphnodes, post-operative hemorrhage, intra-abdominal abscess, time to 1st flatus, post-operative ileus, wound infection, incisional hernia, not-surgical complications, total complications, hospital stay, post-operative mortality, surgery-related costs and total costs, in conventional laparoscopic right colectomy (LRC) compared to robot-assisted laparoscopic right colectomy (RRC). Overall 8 studies were included, thus resulting in 616 patients. The meta-analysis showed that the RRC decreases the intra-operative blood loss and the time to the 1st flatus, if compared to the LRC. On the other hand, the robotic assistance increases the operative time and the surgery-related costs. No statistically significant differences were found about the other post-operative outcomes. RRC may ensure limited improvements in post-operative outcome, thus increasing procedural costs and without a proved enhanced oncological accuracy to date, if compared to the LRC. Copyright © 2015 IJS Publishing Group Limited. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Markers of cellular senescence. Telomere shortening as a marker of cellular senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernadotte, Alexandra; Mikhelson, Victor M; Spivak, Irina M

    2016-01-01

    The cellular senescence definition comes to the fact of cells irreversible proliferation disability. Besides the cell cycle arrest, senescent cells go through some morphological, biochemical, and functional changes which are the signs of cellular senescence. The senescent cells (including replicative senescence and stress-induced premature senescence) of all the tissues look alike. They are metabolically active and possess the set of characteristics in vitro and in vivo, which are known as biomarkers of aging and cellular senescence. Among biomarkers of cellular senescence telomere shortening is a rather elegant frequently used biomarker. Validity of telomere shortening as a marker for cellular senescence is based on theoretical and experimental data.

  12. Alternative procedure to shorten rectal barostat proecure for the assessment of rectal compliance and visceral perception: a feasibility study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanhoutvin, S.A.; Troost, F.J.; Kilkens, T.O.; Lindsey, P.J.; Jonkers, D.M.; Venema, K.; Masclee, A.; Brummer, R.J.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Barostat methodology is widely used for assessing visceral perception. Different barostat protocols are described with respect to the measurement of rectal compliance and visceral perception. The choice of protocols affects the duration, which is normally 60-90 min, and accuracy of the

  13. Quantization Procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabrera, J. A.; Martin, R.

    1976-01-01

    We present in this work a review of the conventional quantization procedure, the proposed by I.E. Segal and a new quantization procedure similar to this one for use in non linear problems. We apply this quantization procedures to different potentials and we obtain the appropriate equations of motion. It is shown that for the linear case the three procedures exposed are equivalent but for the non linear cases we obtain different equations of motion and different energy spectra. (Author) 16 refs

  14. Removal of ureteral stones with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy and ureteroscopic procedures. What can we learn from the literature in terms of results and treatment efforts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiselius, Hans-Göran

    2005-06-01

    A literature review was made to obtain information on the treatment efforts required for a successful removal of ureteral stones when extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) or ureteroscopic stone extraction or disintegration (URS) were used as primary procedures. Data were collected from 59 reports on ESWL and 23 on URS. The study thereby comprised 20,659 patients primarily treated with ESWL and 5,520 treated with URS. A treatment index (TI) was formulated from the total number of patients (N(TOT)), the number of stone free patients (N(SF)), the number of patients with retreatment (N(RE)), auxiliary procedures (N(AUX)) and general or regional anaesthesia (N(ANE)). The difference between the TI and the efficiency quotients normally used was the incorporation of the factor N(ANE) that reflected the need for general or regional anaesthesia. TI had the following form: TI = N(SF)/(N(TOT) + N(RE) + N(AUX) + N(ANE). When the groups of treated patients were considered in this way, TI was significantly higher for the patients treated with ESWL than for those treated with URS (P = 0.007). The median (range) for the groups of ESWL-treated patients was 0.50 (0.25-0.90) and for patients treated with URS 0.42 (0.26-0.94). For the combined groups of patients, the TI-values were 0.54 and 0.40, respectively. Although the average retreatment for URS was only 2.2% compared with 12.1 percent for ESWL, the need for general/regional anaesthesia was 94.3% and 28.3% in the two groups, respectively. The advantage of a lower rate of retreatment in patients primarily referred to URS was thus obviously counterbalanced by the much higher need for anaesthesia. For ureteral stones treated with ESWL in the author's department using Dornier HM3, MFL 5000, and Modulith SLX lithotripters, stone free rates of 96%, 97% an 95% were associated with TI-values of 0.61, 0.60 and 0.63, respectively. Both ESWL and URS are excellent procedures for the removal of stones from the ureter. In addition to

  15. Short-term results of isolated phlebectomy with preservation of incompetent great saphenous vein (ASVAL procedure) in primary varicose veins disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolotukhin, Igor A; Seliverstov, Evgeny I; Zakharova, Elena A; Kirienko, Alexander I

    2017-10-01

    Objective To establish an effect of isolated phlebectomy in patients with incompetent great saphenous vein (Ambulatory Selective Varices Ablation under Local anesthesia (ASVAL) procedure) on the reflux and diameter of the trunk and to assess recurrence rate of varicose veins at one year. Material and methods We conducted a prospective study on patients with primary varicose veins and with C2 or C2,3 or C2,3,4 or C2,4 classes of chronic venous disease and great saphenous vein incompetence. The study included 67 patients (51 women and 16 men; 75 limbs in total). Age varied from 17 to 71 years; mean age was 46.8 years (SD 13.9). We recorded the presence or absence of reflux in the great saphenous vein with duplex ultrasound before and after surgery. The recurrence of varicose veins was evaluated at 12 months. All the patients underwent isolated phlebectomy with preservation of incompetent great saphenous vein (ASVAL procedure) under local anesthesia. Results At one year after removing of tributaries of the incompetent trunk, 66% of them were competent. Reflux persisted in 17% of great saphenous veins with reflux above mid-thigh and in 61% of trunks with reflux extended below the mid-thigh (p = 0.0004). The diameter of all the veins decreased significantly no matter reflux disappeared or not. Varicose veins reoccurred in 13.5% cases. In 6.5% of limbs with a reflux above the mid-thigh, the recurrence was registered at one year, while in the limbs with the reflux below the mid-thigh at a baseline, the recurrence rate was 25% (p = 0.036). Conclusion Isolated phlebectomy with a preservation of incompetent great saphenous vein leads to disappearance of reflux in a majority of cases and to significant decrease of vein diameter in all the cases. ASVAL procedure could be considered as a less aggressive and less expensive approach in selected cases. Clear indications for isolated phlebectomy need to be established.

  16. Left ventricle shortening fraction: a comparison between euploid and trisomy 21 fetuses in the first trimester

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Calda, P.; Břešťák, M.; Tomek, V.; Ošťádal, Bohuslav; Sonek, J.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 4 (2010), s. 368-371 ISSN 0197-3851 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0510 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : trisomy 21 * first trimester * shortening fraction of the left ventricle Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery Impact factor: 2.152, year: 2010

  17. The Spiritual Well-Being Scale: Psychometric Evaluation of the Shortened Version in Czech Adolescents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maliňáková, K.; Kopčáková, J.; Kolarčik, P.; Madarasová Gecková, A.; Poláčková Šolcová, Iva; Hušek, V.; Klůzová Kračmárová, L.; Dubovská, E.; Kalman, M.; Půžová, Z.; van Dijk, J.P.; Tavel, P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 2 (2017), s. 697-705 ISSN 0022-4197 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : Shortened SWBS * Adolescents * Spirituality * Religiosity * Psychometric evaluation Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality OBOR OECD: Psychology (including human - machine relations) Impact factor: 0.873, year: 2016

  18. The Spiritual Well-Being Scale : Psychometric Evaluation of the Shortened Version in Czech Adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malinakova, Klara; Kopcakova, Jaroslava; Kolarcik, Peter; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; Polackova Solcova, Iva; Husek, Vit; Kracmarova, Lucie Kluzova; Dubovska, Eva; Kalman, Michal; Puzova, Zuzana; van Dijk, Jitse P.; Tavel, Peter

    The aim of this study was to psychometrically evaluate the shortened version of the Spiritual Well-Being Scale (SWBS) in Czech adolescents. A nationally representative sample of 4217 adolescents participated in the 2014 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children survey. The internal consistency of the

  19. Differential Telomere Shortening in Blood versus Arteries in an Animal Model of Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Tajbakhsh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascular dysfunction is an early feature of diabetic vascular disease, due to increased oxidative stress and reduced nitric oxide (NO bioavailability. This can lead to endothelial cell senescence and clinical complications such as stroke. Cells can become senescent by shortened telomeres and oxidative stress is known to accelerate telomere attrition. Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1 has been linked to vascular health by upregulating endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS, suppressing oxidative stress, and attenuating telomere shortening. Accelerated leukocyte telomere attrition appears to be a feature of clinical type 2 diabetes (T2D and therefore the telomere system may be a potential therapeutic target in preventing vascular complications of T2D. However the effect of T2D on vascular telomere length is currently unknown. We hypothesized that T2D gives rise to shortened leukocyte and vascular telomeres alongside reduced vascular SIRT1 expression and increased oxidative stress. Accelerated telomere attrition was observed in circulating leukocytes, but not arteries, in T2D compared to control rats. T2D rats had blunted arterial SIRT1 and eNOS protein expression levels which were associated with reduced antioxidant defense capacity. Our findings suggest that hyperglycemia and a deficit in vascular SIRT1 per se are not sufficient to prematurely shorten vascular telomeres.

  20. The Spiritual Well-Being Scale: Psychometric Evaluation of the Shortened Version in Czech Adolescents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maliňáková, K.; Kopčáková, J.; Kolarčik, P.; Madarasová Gecková, A.; Poláčková Šolcová, Iva; Hušek, V.; Klůzová Kračmárová, L.; Dubovská, E.; Kalman, M.; Půžová, Z.; van Dijk, J.P.; Tavel, P.

    Roč. 56, č. 2 ( 2017 ), s. 697-705 ISSN 0022-4197 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : Shortened SWBS * Adolescents * Spirituality * Religiosity * Psychometric evaluation Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality OBOR OECD: Psychology (including human - machine relations) Impact factor: 0.873, year: 2016

  1. The addition of lidocaine to bupivacaine does not shorten the duration of spinal anesthesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Jon; Husum, Bent; Staffeldt, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    The duration of spinal anesthesia with bupivacaine is often too long for day surgery. A recent study of patients presenting for transurethral surgery suggested that the addition of a small amount of lidocaine to intrathecal hyperbaric bupivacaine could shorten the duration of the sensory and motor...

  2. Limb salvage after subtotal supramalleolar amputation by initial shortening followed by tibial lengthening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marti, R. K.; de Vries, J. S.; Kloen, P.

    2003-01-01

    Background. We present a patient with a subtotal traumatic supramalleolar amputation of the leg, which was initially treated by a vascular reconstruction with deliberate bone and soft-tissue shortening. Methods. To correct the ensuing complex deformity, which consisted of a varus hindfoot, leg

  3. Recovery time of motor evoked potentials following lengthening and shortening muscle action in the tibialis anterior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tallent, J.; Goodall, S.; Hortobagyi, T.; Gibson, A. St Clair; French, D. N.; Howatson, G.

    Motor evoked potentials (MEP) at rest remain facilitated following an isometric muscle contraction. Because the pre-synaptic and post-synaptic control of shortening (SHO) and lengthening (LEN) contractions differs, the possibility exists that the recovery of the MEP is also task specific. The time

  4. Chordee and Penile Shortening Rather Than Voiding Function Are Associated With Patient Dissatisfaction After Urethroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciejewski, Conrad C; Haines, Trevor; Rourke, Keith F

    2017-05-01

    To identify factors that predict patient satisfaction after urethroplasty by prospectively examining patient-reported quality of life scores using 3 validated instruments. A 3-part prospective survey consisting of the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) score, and a urethroplasty quality of life survey was completed by patients who underwent urethroplasty preoperatively and at 6 months postoperatively. The quality of life score included questions on genitourinary pain, urinary tract infection (UTI), postvoid dribbling, chordee, shortening, overall satisfaction, and overall health. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, paired t test, univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses, and Wilcoxon signed-rank analysis. Patients were enrolled in the study from February 2011 to December 2014, and a total of 94 patients who underwent a total of 102 urethroplasties completed the study. Patients reported statistically significant improvements in IPSS (P 4 cm and the absence of UTI, pain, shortening, and chordee as predictors of patient satisfaction. Multivariate analysis of quality of life domain scores identified absence of shortening and absence of chordee as independent predictors of patient satisfaction following urethroplasty (P < .01). Patient voiding function and quality of life improve significantly following urethroplasty, but improvement in voiding function is not associated with patient satisfaction. Chordee status and perceived penile shortening impact patient satisfaction, and should be included in patient-reported outcome measures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. On Tackling Flash Crowds with URL Shorteners and Examining User Behavior after Great East Japan Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Takeru; Minato, Shin-Ichi

    Several web sites providing disaster-related information failed repeatedly after the Great East Japan Earthquake, due to flash crowds caused by Twitter users. Twitter, which was intensively used for information sharing in the aftermath of the earthquake, relies on URL shorteners like bit.ly to offset its strict limit on message length. In order to mitigate the flash crowds, we examine the current Web usage and find that URL shorteners constitute a layer of indirection a significant part of Web traffic is guided by them. This implies that flash crowds can be controlled by URL shorteners. We developed a new URL shortener, named rcdn.info, just after the earthquake; rcdn.info redirects users to a replica created on a CoralCDN, if the original site is likely to become overloaded. This surprisingly simple solution worked very well in the emergency. We also conduct a thorough analysis of the request log and present several views that capture user behavior in the emergency from various aspects. Interestingly, the traffic significantly grew up at previously unpopular (i.e., small) sites during the disaster; this traffic shift could lead to the failure of several sites. Finally, we show that rcdn.info has great potential in mitigating such failures. We believe that our experience will help the research community tackle future disasters.

  6. Peak power is reduced following lengthening contractions despite a maintenance of shortening velocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Geoffrey A; Dalton, Brian H; Rice, Charles L; Vandervoort, Anthony A

    2013-12-01

    Following repetitive lengthening contractions, power (the product of torque and velocity) is impaired during shortening contractions. However, the relative contribution of each component to power loss and the underlying factors are unclear. We investigated neuromuscular properties of the dorsiflexors in 8 males (27 ± 3 years) and 8 females (26 ± 4 years) for a potential sex-related difference before, during, and after 150 unaccustomed maximal lengthening actions. Velocity-dependent power was determined from shortening contractions at 8 levels (1 N · m to 70% of maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVC)) before, after, and throughout recovery assessed at 0-30 min, 24 h, and 48 h. Immediately following task termination, both sexes displayed similar impairments of 30%, 4%, and 10% in MVC torque, shortening velocity, and overall peak power, respectively (P reduced by 10% in males, but females exhibited a 35% reduction (P reduced preferentially at higher loads (i.e., 60% MVC), with a greater loss in females (65%) than males (45%). For lower loads (velocity persisted until 30 min of recovery, and peak power did not recover until 24 h for both sexes. Unaccustomed lengthening contractions decreased power preferentially at higher loads, whereas peak power was reduced minimally owing to maintenance of maximal shortening velocity.

  7. Common Patterns of Congenital Lower Extremity Shortening: Diagnosis, Classification, and Follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedoya, Maria A; Chauvin, Nancy A; Jaramillo, Diego; Davidson, Richard; Horn, B David; Ho-Fung, Victor

    2015-01-01

    Congenital lower limb shortening is a group of relatively rare, heterogeneous disorders. Proximal focal femoral deficiency (PFFD) and fibular hemimelia (FH) are the most common pathologic entities in this disease spectrum. PFFD is characterized by variable degrees of shortening or absence of the femoral head, with associated dysplasia of the acetabulum and femoral shaft. FH ranges from mild hypoplasia to complete absence of the fibula with variable shortening of the tibia. The development of the lower limb requires complex and precise gene interactions. Although the etiologies of PFFD and FH remain unknown, there is a strong association between the two disorders. Associated congenital defects in the lower extremity are found in more than 50% of patients with PFFD, ipsilateral FH being the most common. FH also has a strong association with shortening and bowing of the tibia and with foot deformities such as absence of the lateral rays of the foot. Early diagnosis and radiologic classification of these abnormalities are imperative for appropriate management and surgical planning. Plain radiography remains the main diagnostic imaging modality for both PFFD and FH, and appropriate description of the osseous abnormalities seen on radiographs allows accurate classification, prognostic evaluation, and surgical planning. Minor malformations may commonly be misdiagnosed. ©RSNA, 2015.

  8. USE AND SAFETY OF A SHORTENED HISTAMINE CHALLENGE TEST IN AN OCCUPATIONAL STUDY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KREMER, AM; PAL, TM; OLDENZIEL, M; KERKHOF, M; DEMONCHY, JGR; RIJCKEN, B

    A shortened histamine challenge test was used in a study of occupational airway disease. We evaluated the safety, defined as the absence of a decrease in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) of greater than 40%. The occurrence of complaints, the repeatability of test results, and the

  9. [The concentration of growth factors in patients with inherent and acquired shortenings of limbs bones].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strogov, M V; Luneva, S N; Novikov, K I

    2013-04-01

    The article deals with the results of study of level of growth factors in blood serum of patients with inherent and post-traumatic shortenings of limbs' bones. The detection in blood serum the level of epidermal growth factor insulin-like growth factor I and angiopoetins is proposed to monitor in given patients the reparative bone formation.

  10. Femoral neck shortening after internal fixation of a femoral neck fracture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zielinski, Stephanie M.; Keijsers, Noël L.; Praet, Stephan F. E.; Heetveld, Martin J.; Bhandari, Mohit; Wilssens, Jean Pierre; Patka, Peter; van Lieshout, Esther M. M.; Devereaux, Philip J.; Guyatt, Gordon; Jeray, Kyle; Liew, Susan; Richardson, Martin J.; Schemitsch, Emil H.; Swiontkowski, Marc; Tornetta, Paul; Walter, Stephen; Sprague, Sheila; Simunovic, Helena Viveiros Nicole; Heels-Ansdell, Diane; Buckingham, Lisa; Duraikannan, Aravin; Swiontkowski, Marc F.; Agel, Julie; Goslings, J. Carel; Haverlag, Robert; Ponsen, Kees Jan; Bronkhorst, Maarten W. G. A.; Guicherit, O. R.; Eversdijk, Martin G.; Peters, Rolf; den Hartog, Dennis; van Waes, Oscar J. F.; Oprel, Pim; de Rijcke, Piet A. R.; Koppert, C. L.; Buijk, Steven E.; Groenendijk, Richard P. R.; Dawson, I.; Tetteroo, G. W. M.; Bruijninckx, Milko M. M.; Doornebosch, Pascal G.; de Graaf, E. J. R.; Gasthuis, Kennemer; Visser, Gijs A.; Stockmann, Heyn; Silvis, Rob; Snellen, J. P.; Rijbroek, A.; Scheepers, Joris J. G.; Vermeulen, Erik G. J.; Siroen, M. P. C.; Vuylsteke, Ronald; Brom, H. L. F.; Ryna, H.; Roukema, Gert R.; Josaputra, H.; Keller, Paul; de Rooij, P. D.; Kuiken, Hans; Boxma, Han; Cleffken, Barry I.; Liem, Ronald; Rhemrev, Steven J.; Bosman, C. H. R.; van Otterloo, Alexander de Mol; Hoogendoorn, Jochem; de Vries, Alexander C.; Meylaerts, Sven A. G.; Poolman, Rudolf W.; Simons, Maarten P.; van der Heijden, Frank H. W. M.; Willems, W. J.; de Meulemeester, Frank R. A. J.; van der Hart, Cor P.; Turckan, Kahn; Festen, Sebastiaan; de Nies, F.; Out, Nico J. M.; Bosma, J.; van der Elst, Maarten; van der Pol, Carmen C.; van 't Riet, Martijne; Karsten, T. M.; de Vries, M. R.; Stassen, Laurents P. S.; Schep, Niels W. L.; Schmidt, G. B.; Hoffman, W. H.; Segers, Michiel J. M.; Zijl, Jacco A. C.; Verhoeven, Bart; Smits, Anke B.; de Vries, J. P. P. M.; Fioole, Bram; van der Hoeven, H.; Theunissen, Evert B. M.; de Vries Reilingh, Tammo S.; Govaert, Lonneke; Wittich, Philippe; de Brauw, Maurits; Wille, Jan; Go, Peter M. N. Y. M.; Ritchie, Ewan D.; Wessel, R. N.; Hammacher, Eric R.; Verhofstad, Michiel H. J.; Meijer, Joost; van Egmond, Teun; van der Brand, Igor; van der Vis, Harm M.; Campo, Martin; Verhagen, Ronald; Albers, G. H. R.; Zurcher, A.; van Kampen, A.; Biert, Jan; van Vugt, Arie B.; Edwards, Michael J. R.; Blokhuis, Taco J.; Frölke, Jan Paul M.; Geeraedts, L. M. G.; Gardeniers, J. W. M.; Tan, Edward T. C. H.; Poelhekke, L. M. S. J.; de Waal Malefijt, M. C.; Schreurs, Bart; Simmermacher, Rogier K. J.; van Mulken, Jeroen; van Wessem, Karlijn; van Gaalen, Steven M.; Leenen, Luke P. H.; Frihagen, Frede; Nordsletten, Lars; Stoen, Ragnhild Oydna; Brekke, Kine; Tetsworth, Kevin; Weinrauch, Patrick; Pincus, Paul; Donald, Geoff; yang, Steven; Halliday, Brett; Gervais, Trevor; Holt, Michael; Flynn, Annette; Pirpiris, Marinis; Love, David; Bucknill, Andrew; Farrugia, Richard J.; Dowrick, Adam; Donohue, Craig; Bedi, Harvinder; Li, Doug; Edwards, Elton; Csongvay, Steven; Miller, Russell; Wang, Otis; Chia, Andrew; Jain, Arvind; Mammen, Mathan; Murdoch, Zoe; Sage, Claire; Kumar, Anil; Pankaj, Amite; Singh, Ajay Pal; Pesantez, Rodrigo; Martinez, Adriana; Novoa, Catherine; Buckley, Richard E.; Duffy, Paul; Korley, Robert; Johnston, Kelly; Puloski, Shannon; Carcary, Kimberly; Avram, Victoria; Bicknell, Ryan; Yach, Jeff; Bardana, Davide; Lambert, Sue; Sanders, David W.; Howard, Jamie; Macleod, Mark; Bartly, C. T.; Tieszer, Christina; Peterson, Devin; Zalzal, Paul; Maumetz, Victor; Brien, Heather; Weening, Brad; Wai, Eugene K.; Roffey, Darren; McCormack, Robert; Stone, Trevor; Perey, Bertrand; Viskontas, Darius; Boyer, Dory; Perey, Bert; Zomar, Mauri; Moon, Karyn; Oatt, Amber; McKee, Michael; Hall, Jeremy; Ahn, Henry; Vicente, Milena R.; Wild, Lisa M.; Kreder, Hans J.; Stephen, David J. G.; Nousianinen, Markku; Cagaanan, Ria; Kunz, Monica; Syed, Khalid; Azad, Tania; Coles, Chad; Leighton, Ross; Johnstone, David; Glazebrook, Mark; Alexander, David; Trask, Kelly; Dobbin, Gwendolyn; Oliver, Todd M.; Jones, Vicky; Ronan, James; Brown, Desmond T.; Carlilse, Hope; Shaughnessy, Lisa; Schwappach, John; Davis, Craig A.; Weingarten, Peter; Weinerman, Stewart; Newman, Heike; Baker, Janell; Browner, Kieran; Hurley, Meghan; Zura, Robert; Manson, Maria J.; Goetz, David; Broderick, Scott J.; Porter, Scott; Pace, Thomas; Tanner, Stephanie L.; Snider, Becky; Schmidt, Andrew H.; Haas, Jonathan; Templeman, David; Westberg, Jerald R.; Mullis, Brian; Ertl, J. P.; Shively, Karl; Frizzel, Valda; Marcantonio, Andrew J.; Iorio, Richard; Lobo, Margaret; Kain, Michael; Specht, Lawrence; Garfi, John; Prayson, Michael J.; Davis, Craig; Laughlin, Richard; Rubino, Joe; Lawless, Mathew; DiPaola, Matt; Gaydon, Chris; Dulaney, Liz; Vallier, Heather A.; Wilber, John; Sontich, John; Patterson, Brendan; Dolenc, Andrea; Robinson, Chalitha; Wilber, Roger; DePaolo, Charles J.; Alosky, Rachel; Shell, Leslie E.; Keeve, Jonathan P.; Anderson, Chris; McDonald, Michael; Hoffman, Jodi; Baele, Joseph; Weber, Tim; Edison, Matt; Musapatika, Dana; Jones, Clifford; Ringler, James; Endres, Terrance; Gelbke, Martin; Jabara, Michael; Sietsema, Debra L.; Engerman, Susan M.; Switzer, Julie A.; Li, Mangnai; Marston, Scott; Cole, Peter; Vang, Sandy X.; Foley, Amy; McBeth, Jessica; Comstock, Curt; Ziran, Navid; Shaer, James; Hileman, Barbara; Karges, David; Cannada, Lisa; Kuldjanov, Djoldas; Watson, John Tracy; Mills, Emily; Simon, Tiffany; Abdelgawad, Amr; Shunia, Juan; Jenkins, Mark; Zumwalt, Mimi; Romero, Amanda West; Lowe, Jason; Goldstein, Jessica; Zamorano, David P.; Lawson, Deanna; Archdeacon, Michael; Wyrick, John; Hampton, Shelley; Lewis, Courtland G.; Ademi, Arben; Sullivan, Raymond; Caminiti, Stephanie; Graves, Matthew; Smith, Lori; Della Rocca, Gregory J.; Crist, Brett D.; Murtha, Yvonne; Anderson, Linda K.; Kliewer, Toni K.; McPherson, Melinda K.; Sullivan, Kelly M.; Sagebien, Carlos; Seuffert, Patricia; Mehta, Samir; Esterhai, John; Ahn, Jaimo; Tjoumakaris, Fotios; Horan, Annamarie D.; Kaminski, Christine; Tarkin, Ivan; Siska, Peter; Luther, Arlene; Irrgang, James; Farrell, Dana; Gorczyca, John T.; Gross, Jonathan M.; Kates, Stephen Lloyd; Colosi, Jen; Hibsch, Nancy; Noble, Krista; Agarwal, Animesh; Wright, Rebecca; Hsu, Joseph R.; Ficke, James R.; Napierala, Matthew A.; Charlton, Michael T.; Fan, Mary K.; Obremskey, William T.; Richards, Justin E.; Robinson, Kenya; Carroll, Eben; Kulp, Brenda

    2013-01-01

    This study assesses femoral neck shortening and its effect on gait pattern and muscle strength in patients with femoral neck fractures treated with internal fixation. Seventy-six patients from a multicenter randomized controlled trial participated. Patient characteristics and Short Form 12 and

  11. The Shortened Visuospatial Questionnaire for Children: A Useful Tool to Identify Students with Low Visuospatial Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fastame, Maria Chiara; Cherchi, Rossella; Penna, Maria Pietronilla

    2015-01-01

    The current research was aimed mainly at exploring the reliability of a short-screening tool developed to self-evaluate visuospatial abilities in children. We presented 290 Italian third, fourth, and fifth graders with the 16-item Shortened Visuospatial questionnaire and several objective measures of intellectual efficiency, such as Raven's…

  12. Decayed/missing/filled teeth and shortened dental arches in Tanzanian adults.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarita, P.T.N.; Witter, D.J.; Kreulen, C.M.; Matee, M.I.N.; Hof, M.A. van 't; Creugers, N.H.J.

    2004-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study assessed decayed/missing/filled teeth (DMFT), presence of occlusal units, and prevalence of shortened dental arches in a Tanzanian adult population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The dental state of samples of the Tanzanian population was studied. Oral examinations were conducted on

  13. Residual force depression following muscle shortening is exaggerated by prior eccentric drop jump exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dargeviciute, Gintare; Masiulis, Nerijus; Kamandulis, Sigitas; Skurvydas, Albertas; Westerblad, Håkan

    2013-10-15

    We studied the relation between two common force modifications in skeletal muscle: the prolonged force depression induced by unaccustomed eccentric contractions, and the residual force depression (rFD) observed immediately after active shortening. We hypothesized that rFD originates from distortion within the sarcomeres and the extent of rFD: 1) correlates to the force and work performed during the shortening steps, which depend on sarcomeric integrity; and 2) is increased by sarcomeric disorganization induced by eccentric contractions. Nine healthy untrained men (mean age 26 yr) participated in the study. rFD was studied in electrically stimulated knee extensor muscles. rFD was defined as the reduction in isometric torque after active shortening compared with the torque in a purely isometric contraction. Eccentric contractions were performed as 50 repeated drop jumps with active deceleration to 90° knee angle, immediately followed by a maximal upward jump. rFD was assessed before and 5 min to 72 h after drop jumps. The series of drop jumps caused a prolonged force depression, which was about two times larger at 20-Hz than at 50-Hz stimulation. There was a significant correlation between increasing rFD and increasing mechanical work performed during active shortening both before and after drop jumps. In addition, a given rFD was obtained at a markedly lower mechanical work after drop jumps. In conclusion, the extent of rFD correlates to the mechanical work performed during active shortening. A series of eccentric contractions causes a prolonged reduction of isometric force. In addition, eccentric contractions exaggerate rFD, which further decreases muscle performance during dynamic contractions.

  14. The shortening reaction of forearm muscles: the influence of central set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miscio, G; Pisano, F; Del Conte, C; Pianca, D; Colombo, R; Schieppati, M

    2001-05-01

    The EMG of the forearm muscles shortened by an imposed wrist joint displacement has been studied at different levels and distribution of background muscle activity and with different instructions to the subjects, in order to test the hypothesis that the recorded EMG response (shortening reaction, ShoRe) could be deliberate in origin. Ten normal subjects were examined. A torque motor induced 50 degrees wrist extension or flexion at 500 degrees /s. The subjects were relaxed or exerted a 10% maximal voluntary contraction. They were instructed either not to intervene, or to oppose the displacement, or else to assist it. Several trials were repeated at different initial angles. We found a short-latency reflex (SR) in the stretched muscle, be it flexor or extensor, and a later inconstant ShoRe in the antagonist. ShoRe latency was compatible with that of a reaction time (RT), and was not influenced by the initial wrist angle. When subjects assisted the movement, the EMG burst in the shortening muscle was in every respect a RT; when they opposed the movement, the ShoRe disappeared. There was a strict temporal relationship between SR duration and ShoRe latency. We suggest that the brain would deliberately trigger the ShoRe on recognizing the displacement direction. The occurrence of such activity in the shortened muscle makes the SR to abruptly stop. The temporal relationship between the duration of the SR and onset of the ShoRe can be an expression of the inhibition on the SR burst by the cortical drive to the antagonist muscle being shortened, possibly through the action of spinal inhibitory interneurones. The ShoRe would complete the movement momentarily braked by the SR and redistribute the muscle tone across antagonists, appropriate for the new muscle length.

  15. Procedural Issues regarding the Audit of the Management and Control of EU Funds, in Terms of Specific Key Requirements of the New Funding Period 2014 - 2020

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelian Selișteanu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In practice, planning the audit of management and control for each operational program and for the whole programming period, will perform during substantiation audit strategy, based on analysis and risk assessment, made at the entities involved in implementing the operational program. In what follows, we propose an assessment guidelines for the 2014- 2020 programming period, especially in terms of explanation addressed key requirements that must be used, explaining the evaluation criteria for each key requirement, providing guidance for drawing conclusions for each key requirement by each authority and finally making recommendations for establishing general conclusions regarding the management and control.

  16. Analysis of short-term results of monsieur's tunica albuginea urethroplasty as a definitive procedure for pan-anterior urethral stricture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Adittya K.; Ratkal, C. S.; Shivlingaiah, M.; Girish, G. N.; Sanjay, R. P.; Venkatesh, G. K.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Long anterior urethral strictures are fairly common in developing world and the treatment is equally challenging. Aim: To assess the results and efficacy of Monsieur's Tunica Albuginea Urethroplasty (TAU) for anterior urethral stricture. Settings and Design: We analyzed the results in 10 consecutive patients with pan-anterior urethral stricture, who underwent Monsieur's urethroplasty. Materials and Methods: The procedure involves mobilization of strictured urethra and laying it open with a dorsal slit. Edges of the slit-open urethra are sutured to edges of the urethral groove to the tunica of corporal bodies with catheter in situ. Results were assessed postoperatively 3, 6, 9 and 12 months. Patients were categorized as success and failure by comparative analysis of patient satisfaction along with urethroscopy, retrograde urethrogram, uroflowmetry. All patients were taken for post-operative urethroscopic analysis at 6 months to allow better understanding of both successful and failed cases. Results: Mean follow-up of 15.2 (11-19) months showed an 80% success rate. Mean uroflow rate showed Qmax 24.5 cc/sec with 8 cases showing no residual or recurrent stricture. Two cases failed and required intervention. Urethroscopic visualization of the reconstruction site showed wide, patent and distensible neourethra appearing epithelized over roof formed by tunica albuginea of the corpora cavernosa in successful cases. Conclusion: Monsieur's TAU is effective technique in treatment of anterior urethral stricture especially cases with unavailable buccal mucosa, with results fairly acceptable at the end of one year. PMID:24311899

  17. Intraoperative blood salvage may shorten the lifespan of red blood cells within 3 days postoperatively

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Xin-Yi; Zuo, Shan-Shan; Meng, Wen-Tong; Zhang, Jie; Huang, Qin; Gou, Da-Ming

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Intraoperative blood salvage (IBS) recovers most lost blood, and is widely used in the clinic. It is unclear why IBS does not reduce long-term postoperative requirements for red blood cells (RBCs), and 1 possibility is that IBS affects RBC lifespan. Methods: Prospectively enrolled patients who underwent spine, pelvic, or femur surgery not involving allogeneic RBC transfusion were grouped based on whether they received IBS or not. Volumes of blood lost and of RBCs salvaged during surgery were recorded. Total blood cell counts, levels of plasma-free hemoglobin, and CD235a-positive granulocytes were determined perioperatively. Results: Although intraoperative blood loss was higher in the IBS group (n = 45) than in the non-IBS group (n = 52) (P < .001), hemoglobin levels were similar between groups (P = .125) at the end of surgery. Hemoglobin levels increased in non-IBS patients (4 ± 11 g/L), but decreased in IBS patients (−7 ± 12 g/L) over the first 3 postoperative days. Nadir hemoglobin levels after surgery were higher in the non-IBS group (107 ± 12 g/L) than in the IBS group (91 ± 12 g/L). Salvaged RBC volume correlated with hemoglobin decrease (r = 0.422, P = .004). In multivariate analysis, salvaged RBC volume was an independent risk factor for hemoglobin decrease (adjusted odds ratio 1.002, 95% confidence interval 1.001–1.004, P = .008). Flow cytometry showed the numbers of CD235a-positive granulocytes after surgery to be higher in the IBS group than in the non-IBS group (P < .05). Conclusion: IBS may shorten the lifespan of RBCs by triggering their engulfment upon re-infusion (China Clinical Trial Registry ChiCTR-OCH-14005140). PMID:28953650

  18. Statistical inference for extended or shortened phase II studies based on Simon's two-stage designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Junjun; Yu, Menggang; Feng, Xi-Ping

    2015-06-07

    Simon's two-stage designs are popular choices for conducting phase II clinical trials, especially in the oncology trials to reduce the number of patients placed on ineffective experimental therapies. Recently Koyama and Chen (2008) discussed how to conduct proper inference for such studies because they found that inference procedures used with Simon's designs almost always ignore the actual sampling plan used. In particular, they proposed an inference method for studies when the actual second stage sample sizes differ from planned ones. We consider an alternative inference method based on likelihood ratio. In particular, we order permissible sample paths under Simon's two-stage designs using their corresponding conditional likelihood. In this way, we can calculate p-values using the common definition: the probability of obtaining a test statistic value at least as extreme as that observed under the null hypothesis. In addition to providing inference for a couple of scenarios where Koyama and Chen's method can be difficult to apply, the resulting estimate based on our method appears to have certain advantage in terms of inference properties in many numerical simulations. It generally led to smaller biases and narrower confidence intervals while maintaining similar coverages. We also illustrated the two methods in a real data setting. Inference procedures used with Simon's designs almost always ignore the actual sampling plan. Reported P-values, point estimates and confidence intervals for the response rate are not usually adjusted for the design's adaptiveness. Proper statistical inference procedures should be used.

  19. Short term outcomes following clipping and coiling of ruptured intracranial aneurysms: does some of the benefit of coiling stem from less procedural impact on deranged physiology at presentation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortimer, Alex M; Bradford, Celia; Steinfort, Brendan; Faulder, Ken; Assaad, Nazih; Harrington, Timothy

    2016-02-01

    Endovascular coiling (EVC) has been shown to yield superior clinical outcomes to surgical clipping (SC) in the treatment of ruptured cerebral aneurysms. The reasons for these differences remain obscure. We aimed to assess outcomes of EVC and SC relative to baseline physiological derangement. This was an exploratory analysis of prospectively collected trial data. Physiological derangement was assessed using the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) scoring system. Other contributory variables such as age, World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies (WFNS) grade, and development of complications, including hydrocephalus and vasospasm, were included in the analysis. Clinical outcome was independently assessed at 90 days using the modified Rankin Scale (mRS). Hospital stay, ventilated days, and total norepinephrine dose were also used as secondary outcomes. Multivariate analysis was performed using binary logistic regression. EVC was performed in 69 patients and SC in 66 patients. More profound physiological derangement (APACHE II score >15) was the strongest predictor of poor outcome in the overall cohort (OR 17.80, 95% CI 4.78 to 66.21, p15; 59 patients), WFNS grade ≥4 (OR 6.74, 1.43 to 31.75) and SC (OR 6.33, 1.27 to 31.38) were significant predictors of poor outcome (pEVC patients in this subgroup. SC patients had significantly increased total norepinephrine dose, ventilated days, and hospital stay (p<0.05). More profound physiological derangement at baseline is a strong predictor of eventual poor outcome, and outcomes for patients with more profound baseline physiological derangement may be improved if undergoing a coiling procedure. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  20. Analysis of short-term results of monsieur′s tunica albuginea urethroplasty as a definitive procedure for pan-anterior urethral stricture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adittya K Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Long anterior urethral strictures are fairly common in developing world and the treatment is equally challenging. Aim: To assess the results and efficacy of Monsieur′s Tunica Albuginea Urethroplasty (TAU for anterior urethral stricture. Settings and Design: We analyzed the results in 10 consecutive patients with pan-anterior urethral stricture, who underwent Monsieur′s urethroplasty. Materials and Methods: The procedure involves mobilization of strictured urethra and laying it open with a dorsal slit. Edges of the slit-open urethra are sutured to edges of the urethral groove to the tunica of corporal bodies with catheter in situ. Results were assessed postoperatively 3, 6, 9 and 12 months. Patients were categorized as success and failure by comparative analysis of patient satisfaction along with urethroscopy, retrograde urethrogram, uroflowmetry. All patients were taken for post-operative urethroscopic analysis at 6 months to allow better understanding of both successful and failed cases. Results: Mean follow-up of 15.2 (11-19 months showed an 80% success rate. Mean uroflow rate showed Qmax 24.5 cc/sec with 8 cases showing no residual or recurrent stricture. Two cases failed and required intervention. Urethroscopic visualization of the reconstruction site showed wide, patent and distensible neourethra appearing epithelized over roof formed by tunica albuginea of the corpora cavernosa in successful cases. Conclusion: Monsieur′s TAU is effective technique in treatment of anterior urethral stricture especially cases with unavailable buccal mucosa, with results fairly acceptable at the end of one year.

  1. Diagnosis and Dosimetry of Exposure to Sulfur Mustard: Development of Standard Operating Procedures; Further Exploratory Research on Protein Adducts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Benschop, H

    1999-01-01

    .... Both procedures could be substantially shortened, while their sensitivities were improved. Furthermore, exploratory research is performed aiming at the development of a fieldable immunochemical assay for sulfur mustard adducts with proteins, i.e...

  2. A risk-informed approach of quantification of epistemic uncertainty for the long-term radioactive waste disposal. Improving reliability of expert judgements with an advanced elicitation procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiyama, Daisuke; Chida, Taiji; Fujita, Tomonari; Tsukamoto, Masaki

    2011-01-01

    A quantification methodology of epistemic uncertainty by expert judgement based on the risk-informed approach is developed to assess inevitable uncertainty for the long-term safety assessment of radioactive waste disposal. The proposed method in this study employs techniques of logic tree, by which options of models and/or scenarios are identified, and Evidential Support Logic (ESL), by which possibility of each option is quantified. In this report, the effect of a feedback process of discussion between experts and input of state-of-the-art knowledge in the proposed method is discussed to estimate alteration of the distribution of expert judgements which is one of the factors causing uncertainty. In a preliminary quantification experiment of uncertainty of degradation of the engineering barrier materials in a tentative sub-surface disposal using the proposed methodology, experts themselves modified questions appropriately to facilitate sound judgements and to correlate those with scientific evidences clearly. The result suggests that the method effectively improves confidence of expert judgement. Also, the degree of consensus of expert judgement was sort of improved in some cases, since scientific knowledge and information of expert judgement in other fields became common understanding. It is suggested that the proposed method could facilitate consensus on uncertainty between interested persons. (author)

  3. Evaluation of a low-cost procedure for sampling, long-term storage, and extraction of RNA from blood for qPCR analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mærkedahl, Rasmus Baadsgaard; Frøkiær, Hanne; Lauritzen, Lotte

    2015-01-01

    -extraction. We investigated the use of lysis buffer for long-term storage of blood samples for qPCR analysis. Methods: Blood was collected from 13 healthy adults and diluted in MagMAX lysis/binding solution or PAXgene Blood RNA tubes and stored at -20 °C for 0, 1, or 4 months before RNA extraction....../binding solution over time and between samples stored and extracted by the two systems. Conclusions: The MagMAX system can be used for storage of human blood for up to 4 months and is equivalent to the PAXgene system for RNA extraction. It furthermore, provides a means for significant cost reduction in large......Abstract Background: In large clinical trials, where RNA cannot be extracted immediately after sampling, preserving RNA in whole blood is a crucial initial step in obtaining robust qPCR data. The current golden standard for RNA preservation is costly and designed for time-consuming column-based RNA...

  4. Evaluation of Surface Cleaning Procedures in Terms of Gas Sensing Properties of Spray-Deposited CNT Film: Thermal- and O2 Plasma Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joon Hyub; Song, Min-Jung; Kim, Ki Beom; Jin, Joon-Hyung; Min, Nam Ki

    2016-01-01

    The effect of cleaning the surface of single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) networks by thermal and the O2 plasma treatments is presented in terms of NH3 gas sensing characteristics. The goal of this work is to determine the relationship between the physicochemical properties of the cleaned surface (including the chemical composition, crystal structure, hydrophilicity, and impurity content) and the sensitivity of the SWNT network films to NH3 gas. The SWNT networks are spray-deposited on pre-patterned Pt electrodes, and are further functionalized by heating on a programmable hot plate or by O2 plasma treatment in a laboratory-prepared plasma chamber. Cyclic voltammetry was employed to semi-quantitatively evaluate each surface state of various plasma-treated SWNT-based electrodes. The results show that O2 plasma treatment can more effectively modify the SWNT network surface than thermal cleaning, and can provide a better conductive network surface due to the larger number of carbonyl/carboxyl groups, enabling a faster electron transfer rate, even though both the thermal cleaning and the O2 plasma cleaning methods can eliminate the organic solvent residues from the network surface. The NH3 sensors based on the O2 plasma-treated SWNT network exhibit higher sensitivity, shorter response time, and better recovery of the initial resistance than those prepared employing the thermally-cleaned SWNT networks. PMID:28042843

  5. Evaluation of Surface Cleaning Procedures in Terms of Gas Sensing Properties of Spray-Deposited CNT Film: Thermal- and O2 Plasma Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joon Hyub Kim

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of cleaning the surface of single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT networks by thermal and the O2 plasma treatments is presented in terms of NH3 gas sensing characteristics. The goal of this work is to determine the relationship between the physicochemical properties of the cleaned surface (including the chemical composition, crystal structure, hydrophilicity, and impurity content and the sensitivity of the SWNT network films to NH3 gas. The SWNT networks are spray-deposited on pre-patterned Pt electrodes, and are further functionalized by heating on a programmable hot plate or by O2 plasma treatment in a laboratory-prepared plasma chamber. Cyclic voltammetry was employed to semi-quantitatively evaluate each surface state of various plasma-treated SWNT-based electrodes. The results show that O2 plasma treatment can more effectively modify the SWNT network surface than thermal cleaning, and can provide a better conductive network surface due to the larger number of carbonyl/carboxyl groups, enabling a faster electron transfer rate, even though both the thermal cleaning and the O2 plasma cleaning methods can eliminate the organic solvent residues from the network surface. The NH3 sensors based on the O2 plasma-treated SWNT network exhibit higher sensitivity, shorter response time, and better recovery of the initial resistance than those prepared employing the thermally-cleaned SWNT networks.

  6. [Effects of inpatient rehabilitation on long-term health-related quality of life in patients with cancer and rheumatoid arthritis: an analysis based on the classification of therapeutic procedures codes (KTL)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremsreiter, K; Henrich, G; Book, K; Herschbach, P; Marten-Mittag, B; Dinkel, A

    2013-05-01

    This explorative study investigated associations among the amount of different rehabilitative interventions, based on the classification of therapeutic procedures codes (KTL), and long-term health-related quality of life in patients with cancer or rheumatoid arthritis. 3 therapeutic modules of rehabilitative interventions were defined on the basis of KTL codes: (i) somatic interventions, (ii) psychological interventions, and (iii) medical counselling. Based on a median-split, patients were classified in 2 groups with low vs. high amount of rehabilitative interventions. Health-related quality of life was assessed on admission, at discharge from rehabilitative stay, as well as 3 and 12 months after discharge using the SF-12 health survey. 166 patients with chronic arthritis and 159 patients with cancer undergoing inpatient rehabilitation were included in the analysis. Arthritis patients who received a high amount of somatic interventions showed a significant improvement in the SF-12 mental health component summary score up to 12 months after discharge (p<0.05). Cancer patients who received a high amount of psychological interventions showed higher SF-12 physical health component summary scores at 3 and 12 months follow-up (p<0.05). The results suggest differential relationships between amount of rehabilitative interventions and long-term rehabilitation outcome in 2 different disease groups. Routine classification of rehabilitative procedures (KTL) codes can be used for analysing dose-response relationships, although open questions remain concerning the validity of KTL codes. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Civil Procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byer, Robert

    1997-01-01

    Briefly reviews the historical development of civil procedure (the rules that dictate how a civil case can proceed through the courts) and identifies some of its main components. Discusses procedures such as subject matter jurisdiction, personal jurisdiction, venue, discovery, motions practice, pleadings, pretrial conference, and trials. (MJP)

  8. Successful teriparatide treatment of atypical fracture after long-term use of alendronate without surgical procedure in a postmenopausal woman: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hsuan-Ti; Kang, Lin; Huang, Peng-Ju; Fu, Yin-Chih; Lin, Sung-Yen; Hsieh, Chih-Hsin; Chen, Jian-Chih; Cheng, Yuh-Min; Chen, Chung-Hwan

    2012-12-01

    Bisphosphonates are used as first-line therapy for postmenopausal osteoporosis owing to their potent inhibition of bone resorption. Long-term use of bisphosphonates may lead to low-energy femoral subtrochanteric or shaft fractures in a very few patients. The aim of this study was to describe the clinical course of a patient treated with alendronate for 3 years who developed an atypical femoral fracture and to hypothesize the beneficial effects of teriparatide on the healing of the patient's atypical femoral fracture. A 63-year-old Asian woman had a lumbar osteoporotic fracture and received 70 mg of alendronate for 3 years. Pain and soreness in the thigh presented initially and exacerbated thereafter. X-ray revealed a right femoral diaphysis stress fracture. She then received teriparatide for the treatment of osteoporosis and the femoral atypical fracture. Pain and tenderness improved remarkably after teriparatide treatment for 1 month, and these symptoms disappeared after teriparatide treatment for 9 months. The patient also received raloxifen as further therapy, and the fracture line had completely disappeared by 15 months after treatment. Even though a previous study has reported that teriparatide healed stress fractures in a rat model and even with the time course of fracture healing in our patient, we are still not certain that teriparatide played a primary role in the positive response to therapy. Vitamin D therapy, calcium, and alendronate discontinuation may have played secondary roles. This case report may serve to introduce a direction for future research into the pharmacological treatment of atypical femoral fractures. Surgical treatment of incomplete atypical femoral fractures may be a safer method.

  9. Resting-state EEG in schizophrenia: auditory verbal hallucinations are related to shortening of specific microstates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindler, J; Hubl, D; Strik, W K; Dierks, T; Koenig, T

    2011-06-01

    Abnormal perceptions and cognitions in schizophrenia might be related to abnormal resting states of the brain. Previous research found that a specific class (class D) of sub-second electroencephalography (EEG) microstates was shortened in schizophrenia. This shortening correlated with positive symptoms. We questioned if this reflected positive psychotic traits or present psychopathology. Resting-state EEGs of frequently hallucinating patients, indicating on- and offset of hallucinations by button press, were analyzed. Microstate class D duration was related to spontaneous within-subject fluctuations of auditory hallucinations. Microstate D was significantly shorter in periods with hallucinations. Microstates of class D resemble topographies associated with error monitoring. Its premature termination may facilitate the misattribution of self-generated inner speech to external sources during hallucinations. These results suggest that microstate D represents a biological state marker for hallucinatory experiences. Copyright © 2010 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Reconstruction of neglected developmental dysplasia by total hip arthroplasty with subtrochanteric shortening osteotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atilla, Bülent

    2016-03-01

    Patients with neglected developmental dysplasia (DDH) face with early osteoarthritis of the hip, limb length inequality and marked disability while total hip reconstruction is the only available choice.DDH has severe morphologic consequences, with distorted bony anatomy and soft tissue contractures around the hip. It is critical to evaluate patients thoroughly before surgery.Anatomic reconstruction at the level of true acetabulum with uncemented implant is the mainstay of treatment. This requires a subtrochanteric shortening osteotomy, which can be realised using different osteotomy and fixation options.Although a demanding technique with a high rate of related complications, once anatomic reconstruction of the hip is achieved, patients have a remarkably good functional capacity and implant survival during long follow-up periods. Cite this article: Atilla B. Reconstruction of neglected developmental dysplasia by total hip arthroplasty with subtrochanteric shortening osteotomy. EFORT Open Rev 2016;1:65-71. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.1.000026.

  11. Kinetic therapy reduces complications and shortens hospital stay in patients with cardiogenic shock - a retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonis, Gregor; Flemming, Kerstin; Ziegs, Enrico; Haacke, Katrin; Rauwolf, Thomas; Strasser, Ruth H

    2007-03-01

    Kinetic therapy (KT) has been shown to reduce complications and to shorten hospital stay in trauma patients. Data in non-surgical patients are inconclusive, and kinetic therapy has not been tested in patients with cardiogenic shock. The present analysis compares KT with standard care in patients with cardiogenic shock. A retrospective analysis of 133 patients with cardiogenic shock admitted to 1 academic heart center was performed. Patients with standard care (SC, turning every 2 h by the staff) were compared with kinetic therapy (KT, using oscillating air-flotation beds). 68 patients with KT were compared with 65 patients with SC. Length of ventilator therapy was 11 days in KT and 18 days in SC (p=0.048). The mortality was comparable in both groups. Pneumonia occurred in 14 patients in KT and 39 patients in SC (ppatients treated with kinetic therapy. The use of KT shortens hospital stay and reduces rates of pneumonia and pressure ulcers as compared to SC.

  12. Increased homocysteine plasma level is associated with shortened prothrombin time in HIV-infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca, Bernardino; Roca, Manuel; Girones, Guillermo

    2016-09-01

    To find factors associated with increased homocysteine plasma level in HIV-infected patients. Cross-sectional study, carried out as a supplementary task to the standard care of HIV-infected patients. The possible association of increased homocysteine plasma level with blood analyses results was assessed with a multiple linear regression analysis, using the automatic linear modeling available in SPSS version 22. A total of 145 patients were included. Creatinine was higher than normal in 7 patients (5%), prothrombin time was shortened in 36 patients (25%), and a monoclonal gammopathy was detected in 2 patients (1%). In the regression analysis, an association was found between high homocysteine plasma level and the following variables: low prothrombin time (β coefficient -0.286, confidence interval -1.1854 to -0.754, p homocysteine plasma level and shortened prothrombin time.

  13. Stretch-shortening cycle muscle power in women and men aged 18-81 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwén, C E; Thorlund, Jonas Bloch; Magnusson, Stig Peter

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the age-related deterioration in stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) muscle power and concurrent force-velocity properties in women and men across the adult life span. A total of 315 participants (women: n = 188; men: n = 127) aged 18-81 years performed maximal countermovement jump...... on an instrumented force plate. Maximal SSC leg extension power expressed per kg body mass (Ppeak) was greater in men than in women across the adult age span (P ......This study explored the age-related deterioration in stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) muscle power and concurrent force-velocity properties in women and men across the adult life span. A total of 315 participants (women: n = 188; men: n = 127) aged 18-81 years performed maximal countermovement jumps...

  14. TERRA Promotes Telomere Shortening through Exonuclease 1–Mediated Resection of Chromosome Ends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Verena; Lingner, Joachim

    2012-01-01

    The long noncoding telomeric repeat containing RNA (TERRA) is expressed at chromosome ends. TERRA upregulation upon experimental manipulation or in ICF (immunodeficiency, centromeric instability, facial anomalies) patients correlates with short telomeres. To study the mechanism of telomere length control by TERRA in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we mapped the transcriptional start site of TERRA at telomere 1L and inserted a doxycycline regulatable promoter upstream. Induction of TERRA transcription led to telomere shortening of 1L but not of other chromosome ends. TERRA interacts with the Exo1-inhibiting Ku70/80 complex, and deletion of EXO1 but not MRE11 fully suppressed the TERRA–mediated short telomere phenotype in presence and absence of telomerase. Thus TERRA transcription facilitates the 5′-3′ nuclease activity of Exo1 at chromosome ends, providing a means to regulate the telomere shortening rate. Thereby, telomere transcription can regulate cellular lifespan through modulation of chromosome end processing activities. PMID:22719262

  15. Telomeric noncoding RNA TERRA is induced by telomere shortening to nucleate telomerase molecules at short telomeres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusanelli, Emilio; Romero, Carmina Angelica Perez; Chartrand, Pascal

    2013-09-26

    Elongation of a short telomere depends on the action of multiple telomerase molecules, which are visible as telomerase RNA foci or clusters associated with telomeres in yeast and mammalian cells. How several telomerase molecules act on a single short telomere is unknown. Herein, we report that the telomeric noncoding RNA TERRA is involved in the nucleation of telomerase molecules into clusters prior to their recruitment at a short telomere. We find that telomere shortening induces TERRA expression, leading to the accumulation of TERRA molecules into a nuclear focus. Simultaneous time-lapse imaging of telomerase RNA and TERRA reveals spontaneous events of telomerase nucleation on TERRA foci in early S phase, generating TERRA-telomerase clusters. This cluster is subsequently recruited to the short telomere from which TERRA transcripts originate during S phase. We propose that telomere shortening induces noncoding RNA expression to coordinate the recruitment and activity of telomerase molecules at short telomeres. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. TERRA promotes telomere shortening through exonuclease 1-mediated resection of chromosome ends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Verena; Lingner, Joachim

    2012-01-01

    The long noncoding telomeric repeat containing RNA (TERRA) is expressed at chromosome ends. TERRA upregulation upon experimental manipulation or in ICF (immunodeficiency, centromeric instability, facial anomalies) patients correlates with short telomeres. To study the mechanism of telomere length control by TERRA in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we mapped the transcriptional start site of TERRA at telomere 1L and inserted a doxycycline regulatable promoter upstream. Induction of TERRA transcription led to telomere shortening of 1L but not of other chromosome ends. TERRA interacts with the Exo1-inhibiting Ku70/80 complex, and deletion of EXO1 but not MRE11 fully suppressed the TERRA-mediated short telomere phenotype in presence and absence of telomerase. Thus TERRA transcription facilitates the 5'-3' nuclease activity of Exo1 at chromosome ends, providing a means to regulate the telomere shortening rate. Thereby, telomere transcription can regulate cellular lifespan through modulation of chromosome end processing activities.

  17. Disappearance of spasticity after selective dorsal rhizotomy does not prevent muscle shortening in children with cerebral palsy: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spijker, Margje; Strijers, Rob L M; van Ouwerkerk, Willem J R; Becher, Jules G

    2009-05-01

    Selective dorsal rhizotomy is an effective treatment for spasticity in children with cerebral palsy who have a spastic motor disorder. It is hypothesized that muscle shortening is related to spasticity; the lack of stretch of a muscle is thought to be the cause of muscle shortening. If this is true, the treatment for spasticity should prevent the occurrence of muscle shortening during growth. We present the case of 1 child with cerebral palsy and spastic diplegia, for whom the treatment with selective dorsal rhizotomy was successful in improving the walking abilities. She did, however, develop muscle shortening during growth. In conclusion, the development of muscle shortening during growth in children with cerebral palsy and spastic paresis cannot be prevented by treatment for the spasticity alone.

  18. Radioimmunoassay procedure using a stabilized complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sultanian, I.V.; Irani, J.H.

    1978-01-01

    An improved radioimmunoassay procedure involves the use of a stabilized complex of labelled antigen and antibody which has an extended shelf life as compared to the same complex absent the stabilizers. Since the time needed to incubate the mixture of labelled antigen and antibody is eliminated, the time for completing the assay is considerably shortened and simplified. The components for carrying out the procedure are packaged in a kit basically including standard antigen for generation of a standard curve, a stabilized labelled antigen-antibody complex and reference serum, if used. A plurality of stabilizers are used in the complex to provide a shelf life of six weeks or more. 10 claims

  19. Site-specific DNA damage at the GGG sequence by UVA involves acceleration of telomere shortening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikawa, S; Tada-Oikawa, S; Kawanishi, S

    2001-04-17

    Telomere shortening is associated with cellular senescence. We investigated whether UVA, which contributes to photoaging, accelerates telomere shortening in human cultured cells. The terminal restriction fragment (TRF) from WI-38 fibroblasts irradiated with UVA (365-nm light) decreased with increasing irradiation dose. Furthermore, UVA irradiation dose-dependently increased the formation of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) in both WI-38 fibroblasts and HL-60 cells. To clarify the mechanism of the acceleration of telomere shortening, we investigated site-specific DNA damage induced by UVA irradiation in the presence of endogenous photosensitizers using (32)P 5'-end-labeled DNA fragments containing the telomeric oligonucleotide (TTAGGG)(4). UVA irradiation with riboflavin induced 8-oxodG formation in the DNA fragments containing telomeric sequence, and Fpg protein treatment led to chain cleavages at the central guanine of 5'-GGG-3' in telomere sequence. The amount of 8-oxodG formation in DNA fragment containing telomere sequence [5'-CGC(TTAGGG)(7)CGC-3'] was approximately 5 times more than that in DNA fragment containing nontelomere sequence [5'-CGC(TGTGAG)(7)CGC-3']. Catalase did not inhibit this oxidative DNA damage, indicating no or little participation of H(2)O(2) in DNA damage. These results indicate that the photoexcited endogenous photosensitizer specifically oxidizes the central guanine of 5'-GGG-3' in telomere sequence to produce 8-oxodG probably through an electron-transfer reaction. It is concluded that the site-specific damage in telomere sequence induced by UVA irradiation may participate in the increase of telomere shortening rate.

  20. Effect of Preactivation on Torque Enhancement by the Stretch-Shortening Cycle in Knee Extensors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsuki Fukutani

    Full Text Available The stretch-shortening cycle is one of the most interesting topics in the field of sport sciences, because the performance of human movement is enhanced by the stretch-shortening cycle (eccentric contraction. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether the influence of preactivation on the torque enhancement by stretch-shortening cycle in knee extensors. Twelve men participated in this study. The following three conditions were conducted for knee extensors: (1 concentric contraction without preactivation (CON, (2 concentric contraction with eccentric preactivation (ECC, and (3 concentric contraction with isometric preactivation (ISO. Muscle contractions were evoked by electrical stimulation to discard the influence of neural activity. The range of motion of the knee joint was set from 80 to 140 degrees (full extension = 180 degrees. Angular velocities of the concentric and eccentric contractions were set at 180 and 90 degrees/s, respectively. In the concentric contraction phase, joint torques were recorded at 85, 95, and 105 degrees, and they were compared among the three conditions. In the early phase (85 degrees of concentric contraction, the joint torque was larger in the ECC and ISO conditions than in the CON condition. However, these clear differences disappeared in the later phase (105 degrees of concentric contraction. The results showed that joint torque was clearly different among the three conditions in the early phase whereas this difference disappeared in the later phase. Thus, preactivation, which is prominent in the early phase of contractions, plays an important role in torque enhancement by the stretch-shortening cycle in knee extensors.

  1. Shortening the set-up-time in juice production process : the use of Lean methods

    OpenAIRE

    Miettinen, Esa

    2011-01-01

    The concrete goal of this thesis was to shorten the set-up-time in the juice production process at VIP Juicemaker LTD in Kuopio. The company focuses on the production of beverages. The con-glomerate had decided to implement Lean Management for production-based regeneration. Video editing was used to measure work times and to analyze individual work phases according to the principles of Lean seven wastes: wait, inventory, defects, extra processing, transportation, over production, motion ...

  2. Diabetes mellitus as a cause of life span shortening in locally exposed rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vershinina, S.F.; Markochev, A.B.

    1992-01-01

    A study was made of the development of remote radiation pathology of pancreas in male rats after local irradiation of abdomen with doses of 5, 10 (two fractions of 5 Gy at a 30-day interval) and 15 Gy (three fractions of 5 Gy at a 30-day interval). The clinical and morphological estimates show the dose-dependent development of diabetes mellitus and 1.8-fold shortening of the life span, as compared to biological control

  3. Use of a New Hybrid Heparin-Bonded Nitinol Ring Stent in the Popliteal Artery: Procedural and Mid-term Clinical and Anatomical Outcomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parthipun, Aneeta; Diamantopoulos, Athanasios; Kitrou, Panagiotis [King’s Health Partners, Department of Interventional Radiology, Guy’s and St. Thomas’ Hospitals, NHS Foundation Trust (United Kingdom); Padayachee, Soundrie [King’s Health Partners, Department of Ultrasonic Angiology, Guy’s and St. Thomas’ Hospitals, NHS Foundation Trust (United Kingdom); Karunanithy, Narayan; Ahmed, Irfan [King’s Health Partners, Department of Interventional Radiology, Guy’s and St. Thomas’ Hospitals, NHS Foundation Trust (United Kingdom); Zayed, Hany [King’s Health Partners, Department of Vascular Surgery, Guy’s and St. Thomas’ Hospitals, NHS Foundation Trust (United Kingdom); Katsanos, Konstantinos, E-mail: konstantinos.katsanos@gstt.nhs.uk, E-mail: katsanos@med.upatras.gr [King’s Health Partners, Department of Interventional Radiology, Guy’s and St. Thomas’ Hospitals, NHS Foundation Trust (United Kingdom)

    2015-08-15

    PurposeTo report the immediate and mid-term clinical and anatomical outcomes of a novel, hybrid, heparin-bonded, nitinol ring stent (TIGRIS; Gore Medical) when used for the treatment of lesions located in the popliteal artery.Materials and MethodsThis was a prospective single-centre registry. Patients eligible for inclusion were individuals suffering from symptomatic popliteal arterial occlusive disease (Rutherford–Becker stage 3–6; P1–P3 segments) and treated with placement of the TIGRIS stent(s). Patients were prospectively scheduled for clinical review and duplex ultrasound follow-up after 6 and 12 months. Outcome measures included immediate technical success, primary vessel patency, in-stent binary restenosis (evaluable by Duplex at 50 % threshold; PSVR > 2.0), freedom from target lesion revascularization (TLR) and amputation-free survival (AFS) estimated by Kaplan–Meier (K–M) survival analysis. Cox proportional-hazards regression analysis was also performed to adjust for confounders and search for independent predictors of outcomes.ResultsFrom August 2012 to March 2014, a total of 54 popliteal TIGRIS stents were implanted in 50 limbs of 48 patients (27 men and 21 women; mean age 76.0 ± 1.7 years). Median Rutherford–Becker stage was five at baseline and 37/50 (74.0 %) were chronic total occlusions. Technical success was achieved in all cases (100 %). Stented lesion length was 114.2 ± 36.9 mm (range 6–20 cm). Median follow-up was 11.8 ± 0.8 months. After 12 months, primary patency of the TIGRIS stent was 69.5 ± 10.2 % with an 86.1 ± 5.9 % freedom from TLR and 87 ± 5.0 % AFS (K–M estimates).ConclusionThe TIGRIS hybrid heparin-bonded nitinol ring stent is a safe and effective endovascular option for complex occlusive disease of the popliteal artery.

  4. Field monitoring of column shortenings in a high-rise building during construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Se Woon; Kim, Yousok; Kim, Jong Moon; Park, Hyo Seon

    2013-10-24

    The automatic monitoring of shortenings of vertical members in high-rise buildings under construction is a challenging issue in the high-rise building construction field. In this study, a practical system for monitoring column shortening in a high-rise building under construction is presented. The proposed monitoring system comprises the following components: (1) a wireless sensing system and (2) the corresponding monitoring software. The wireless sensing system comprises the sensors and energy-efficient wireless sensing units (sensor nodes, master nodes, and repeater nodes), which automate the processes for measuring the strains of vertical members and transmitting the measured data to the remote server. The monitoring software enables construction administrators to monitor real-time data collected by the server via an Internet connection. The proposed monitoring system is applied to actual 66-floor and 72-floor high-rise buildings under construction. The system enables automatic and real-time measurements of the shortening of vertical members, which can result in more precise construction.

  5. Shortened Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time May Help in Diagnosing Hereditary and Acquired Angioedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bork, Konrad; Witzke, Günther

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate whether activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) could be used in the laboratory diagnosis of hereditary or acquired angioedema (HAE or AAE) with and without C1 inhibitor (C1-INH) deficiency. In a prospective investigation, APTT and other coagulation parameters were determined in 149 adult patients with various types of angioedema and in 26 healthy participants (HP). Mean APTT was significantly shortened in HAE-C1-INH type I (p angioedema, 4/30 (13.3%) patients with nonhistaminergic angioedema and in 2/26 (7.7%) HP. Thus, a shortened APTT was obtained in 8-9 times more patients with angioedema due to C1-INH deficiency when compared to patients with various forms of angioedema with normal C1-INH and also to HP. A shortened APTT may help to diagnose HAE-C1-INH and AAE-C1-INH when determination of C1-INH is not yet available. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Response of slow and fast muscle to hypothyroidism: maximal shortening velocity and myosin isoforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caiozzo, V. J.; Herrick, R. E.; Baldwin, K. M.

    1992-01-01

    This study examined both the shortening velocity and myosin isoform distribution of slow- (soleus) and fast-twitch (plantaris) skeletal muscles under hypothyroid conditions. Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to one of two groups: control (n = 7) or hypothyroid (n = 7). In both muscles, the relative contents of native slow myosin (SM) and type I myosin heavy chain (MHC) increased in response to the hypothyroid treatment. The effects were such that the hypothyroid soleus muscle expressed only the native SM and type I MHC isoforms while repressing native intermediate myosin and type IIA MHC. In the plantaris, the relative content of native SM and type I MHC isoforms increased from 5 to 13% and from 4 to 10% of the total myosin pool, respectively. Maximal shortening velocity of the soleus and plantaris as measured by the slack test decreased by 32 and 19%, respectively, in response to hypothyroidism. In contrast, maximal shortening velocity as estimated by force-velocity data decreased only in the soleus (-19%). No significant change was observed for the plantaris.

  7. Circular and longitudinal muscles shortening indicates sliding patterns during peristalsis and transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Nirali; Jiang, Yanfen; Mittal, Ravinder K.; Kim, Tae Ho; Ledgerwood, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    Esophageal axial shortening is caused by longitudinal muscle (LM) contraction, but circular muscle (CM) may also contribute to axial shortening because of its spiral morphology. The goal of our study was to show patterns of contraction of CM and LM layers during peristalsis and transient lower esophageal sphincter (LES) relaxation (TLESR). In rats, esophageal and LES morphology was assessed by histology and immunohistochemistry, and function with the use of piezo-electric crystals and manometry. Electrical stimulation of the vagus nerve was used to induce esophageal contractions. In 18 healthy subjects, manometry and high frequency intraluminal ultrasound imaging during swallow-induced esophageal contractions and TLESR were evaluated. CM and LM thicknesses were measured (40 swallows and 30 TLESRs) as markers of axial shortening, before and at peak contraction, as well as during TLESRs. Animal studies revealed muscular connections between the LM and CM layers of the LES but not in the esophagus. During vagal stimulated esophageal contraction there was relative movement between the LM and CM. Human studies show that LM-to-CM (LM/CM) thickness ratio at baseline was 1. At the peak of swallow-induced contraction LM/CM ratio decreased significantly (2). The pattern of contraction of CM and LM suggests sliding of the two muscles. Furthermore, the sliding patterns are in the opposite direction during peristalsis and TLESR. PMID:26045610

  8. Technologies to shorten the drying period of dry-cured meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnau, J; Serra, X; Comaposada, J; Gou, P; Garriga, M

    2007-09-01

    Dry-cured meat products are well-known for their unique sensory characteristics. However, the traditional process is very time consuming. The process can be shortened especially by accelerating the drying period, which is the most time consuming. This paper deals with some technological, safety and sensorial aspects for producing fermented sausages and dry-cured hams when the process time is shortened. Different techniques, such as temperature increase and thickness reduction, and the effects of some ingredients and additives are discussed. A Quick-Dry-Slice process based on a continuous system that combines both convective and vacuum drying could accelerate the drying of slices after the desired pH is reached in fermented sausages. There are safety concerns when processes are shortened, but possible additional hurdles, such as the introduction of bacteriocin-producing starter cultures and high-pressure treatments at the end of the process, could reduce them. Methods to speed up the development of typical colour, texture and flavour and their limitations are also discussed.

  9. Telomeres shorten and then lengthen before fledging in Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerchiara, Jack A; Risques, Rosa Ana; Prunkard, Donna; Smith, Jeffrey R; Kane, Olivia J; Boersma, P Dee

    2017-02-08

    For all species, finite metabolic resources must be allocated toward three competing systems: maintenance, reproduction, and growth. Telomeres, the nucleoprotein tips of chromosomes, which shorten with age in most species, are correlated with increased survival. Chick growth is energetically costly and is associated with telomere shortening in most species. To assess the change in telomeres in penguin chicks, we quantified change in telomere length of wild known-age Magellanic penguin ( Spheniscus magellanicus ) chicks every 15 days during the species' growth period, from hatching to 60 days-of-age. Magellanic penguins continue to grow after fledging so we also sampled a set of 1-year-old juvenile penguins, and adults aged 5 years. Telomeres were significantly shorter on day 15 than on hatch day but returned to their initial length by 30 days old and remained at that length through 60 days of age. The length of telomeres of newly hatched chicks, chicks aged 30, 45 and 60 days, juveniles, and adults aged 5 years were similar. Chicks that fledged and those that died had similar telomere lengths. We show that while telomeres shorten during growth, Magellanic penguins elongate telomeres to their length at hatch, which may increase adult life span and reproductive opportunities.

  10. Life-shortening and carcinogenesis in mice irradiated neonatally with x rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, S.; Kasuga, T.

    1981-01-01

    The characteristics of life-shortening and carcinogenesis were investigated in x-irradiated neonatal B6WFr mice. Animals were irradiated with 24 hr after birth and allowed to complete their normal life span. Mean life span was shortened linearly with doses at a rate of 9.1% per 100 R for females and 9.8% for males. The spectrum of neoplastic diseases was apparently modulated by x irradiation, showing neonatal B6WFr mice to be highly susceptible to the induction of thymic lymphoma, liver tumor, and pituitary tumor. The dose-response relationship for thymice lymphoma could be described by a linear-quadratic model, and linearity could be rejected. Thymic lymphoma developed after a short latent period, resulting in death between 100 and 450 days of age. Liver and pituitary tumors increased with increasing dose up to 400 R and decreased thereafter. The latent period for liver tumor development was apparently shortened with increasing doses. Pituitary tumor developed in excess only in females after a long latent period

  11. Active finite element analysis of skeletal muscle-tendon complex during isometric, shortening and lengthening contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, C P; Tang, C Y; Leung, C P; Cheng, K W; Ng, Y F; Chow, D H K; Li, C K

    2004-01-01

    An active finite element model was developed to predict the mechanical behaviors of skeletal muscle-tendon complex during isometric, shortening and lengthening contraction. The active finite element was created through incorporation of a user-defined material property into ABAQUS finite element code. The active finite element is controlled by a motor element that is activated by a mathematical function. The nonlinear passive behavior of the muscle was defined by the viscoelastic elements and can be easily altered to other properties by using other elements in the material library without the need of re-defining the constitutive relation of the muscle. The isometric force-length relationship, force-strain relations of the muscle-tendon complex during both shortening and lengthening contraction and muscle relaxation response were predicted using the proposed finite element model. The predicted results were found to be in good agreement with available experimental data. In addition, the stress distribution in the muscle-tendon complex during isometric, shortening and lengthening contractions was simulated. The location of the maximum stress may provide useful information for studying muscle damage and fatigue in the future.

  12. Psychometric properties of a shortened version of the Physical Self-Concept Questionnaire (PSQ-S).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Fernández, Arantzazu; Axpe, Inge; Goñi, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    The four-dimensional model of physical self-concept which differentiates the physical self-perceptions of ability, condition, attractiveness and strength is widely accepted. In the last two decades much research has been done on the physical self-concept and its relations with the psychological well-being/distress, anxiety disorders or Eating Behavior Disorders (EBD). To validate a shortened version of the Physical Self-Concept Questionnaire (PSQ-S) and verify its ability to discriminate between people with different levels of EBD. Responses of 1478 subjects between 13 and 21 years old to the shortened version of the PSQ were analyzed in order to check indexes of reliability and validity. Furthermore, the scores of 96 women aged 14 to 23 years old diagnosed of EBD were compared to 96 others without clinical diagnosis. The results indicate a reliability of 0.93 and confirm the tetrafactorial structure of the physical selfconcept. The highest physical self-concept is that of those without a clinical diagnosis of EBD. The Shortened-PSQ is a simple, reliable and suitable screening tool both for educational and clinical settings. It also provides a sufficient measure of physical self-concept for research purposes.

  13. Photodigitizing procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilgore, P. D.; Gottbrath, J. H.

    1984-02-01

    This report documents procedures and programs for efficiently running the Photo Digitizing System at the Naval Biodynamics Laboratory. Procedures have been tested and have been found to be effective. Any future acquisitions of programs or changes to current programs should be incorporated in these procedures. On-going research programs use high speed instrumentation cameras to record the motion of test subjects during biodynamic experiments. The films are digitized and the 3-dimensional motion is reconstructed and analyzed. Experimental research is performed to determine the effects of aircraft crashes, ship motion, vibration, aircraft ejection and parachute opening forces on the health and performance of Navy personnel.

  14. Shortening Anesthesia Duration does not Affect Severity of Withdrawal Syndrome in Patients Undergoing Ultra Rapid Opioid Detoxification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoaleh Shami

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Ultra rapid opioid detoxification (UROD is one of the new methods of detoxification. This method of detoxification involves putting patients under general anesthesia and actively giving them opioid antagonists. The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of anesthesia duration in UROD on severity of withdrawal syndrome. Sixty addicted patients seeking UROD procedure assigned randomly to one of the 2hr, 4hr or 6hr anesthesia duration groups. Premedication and anesthesia procedure (induction and maintenance were the same for three groups. Detoxification was done for all patients with 50 mg oral naltroxane (prior to induction and 20 mg intravenous naloxane (8 mg/bolus and 12 mg/infusion. Blood pressure, heart rate and respiratory rate were automatically measured and recorded every 5 minutes. The severity of withdrawal syndrome was measured and recorded every one hour during anesthesia, 2hours post-anesthesia, and 12 and 24 hours following the induction of anesthesia according to the Wang Scale modified by Lomier (WSMBL. Patients aged 20-58 in three groups. Three cases experienced delirium after detoxification that lasted 24 hours in one. Severity of withdrawal syndrome in patients of groups 2, 4 and 6 hour were 8.7, 7.4 and 5.1 respectively during anesthesia and 12.3, 11.1 and 13.9 after 18 hours of anesthesia. Results of this study showed that, in standard settings, UROD is a safe method for detoxification and has low complications. The withdrawal symptoms during and after anesthesia are low. Shortening the duration of anesthesia has no affect on severity of withdrawal syndrome during and after anesthesia.

  15. Dyslipidemia and chronic inflammation markers are correlated with telomere length shortening in Cushing's syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Aulinas

    Full Text Available Cushing's syndrome (CS increases cardiovascular risk (CVR and adipocytokine imbalance, associated with an increased inflammatory state. Telomere length (TL shortening is a novel CVR marker, associated with inflammation biomarkers. We hypothesized that inflammatory state and higher CVR in CS might be related to TL shortening, as observed in premature aging.To evaluate relationships between TL, CVR and inflammation markers in CS.In a cross-sectional study, 77 patients with CS (14 males, 59 pituitary-, 17 adrenal- and 1 ectopic-origin; 21 active disease and 77 age-, gender-, smoking-matched controls were included. Total white blood cell TL was measured by TRF-Southern technique. Clinical data and blood samples were collected (lipids, adrenal function, glucose. Adiponectin, interleukin-6 (IL6 and C-reactive protein (CRP were available in a subgroup of patients (n=32. Correlations between TL and clinical features were examined and multiple linear regression analysis was performed to investigate potential predictors of TL.Dyslipidemic CS had shorter TL than non-dyslipidemic subjects (7328±1274 vs 7957±1137 bp, p<0.05. After adjustment for age and body mass index, cured and active CS dyslipidemic patients had shorter TL than non-dyslipidemic CS (cured: 7187±1309 vs 7868±1104; active: 7203±1262 vs 8615±1056, respectively, p<0.05. Total cholesterol and triglycerides negatively correlated with TL (r-0.279 and -0.259, respectively, p<0.05, as well as CRP and IL6 (r-0.412 and -0.441, respectively, p<0.05. No difference in TL according the presence of other individual CVR factors (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity were observed in CS or in the control group. Additional TL shortening was observed in dyslipidemic obese patients who were also hypertensive, compared to those with two or less CVR factors (6956±1280 vs 7860±1180, respectively, p<0.001. Age and dyslipidemia were independent negative predictors of TL.TL is shortened in dyslipidemic CS

  16. Oculoplastic procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... procedures may be done on the: Eyelids Eye sockets Eyebrows Cheeks Tear ducts Face or forehead These ... eyes. These lenses help protect your eyes and shield them from the bright lights of the surgical ...

  17. Epinephrine Diluted Saline-Irrigation Fluid in Arthroscopic Shoulder Surgery: A Significant Improvement of Clarity of Visual Field and Shortening of Total Operation Time. A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Montfoort, Douwe O; van Kampen, Paulien M; Huijsmans, Pol E

    2016-03-01

    To determine the influence of epinephrine saline irrigation in therapeutic shoulder arthroscopy procedures on the clarity of arthroscopic view. Three subgroups were analyzed; (1) Bankart/SLAP repairs; (2) rotator cuff repairs; and (3) subacromial procedures without rotator cuff repair. Secondary objectives were to evaluate the influence on total operating time and potential cardiovascular adverse reactions. The design of the study was a prospective, randomized, double-blind controlled trial. A total of 101 patients were included. Pressure pump-controlled regular saline irrigation fluid was used in the control group. In the epinephrine group, epinephrine (0.33 mg/L) was added to the saline-irrigation fluid. Visual clarity was rated by a Numeric Rating Scale. Total operation time, total use of irrigation fluid, increases in pump pressure, heart rate, blood pressure, and electrocautery use were registered. Visual clarity (P = .002) was significantly better and total operating time (P = .008) significantly shorter in the epinephrine group. Total irrigation fluid used was significantly lower in the epinephrine group (P = .001). The greatest effect on visual clarity and shortening of operation time up to 15 minutes was seen in Bankart and SLAP repairs. No significant effect of the addition of epinephrine on heart rate and blood pressure was observed. The addition of epinephrine (0.33 mg/L) to irrigation fluid significantly improves visual clarity in most common types of therapeutic shoulder arthroscopy. A significant reduction in total operating time and use of irrigation fluid was observed. The greatest effect on visual clarity and shortening of operation time was seen in Bankart and SLAP group. Therefore, one of our initial hypotheses that the greatest effect would be observed in subacromial and rotator cuff repair procedures was not supported by the data presented. No cardiovascular adverse reactions were seen. Level 1, Randomized controlled trial. Copyright

  18. Early Miocene shortening in the lower Comondú Group in Baja California Sur (México)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonini, Marco; Cerca, Mariano; Moratti, Giovanna; López-Martínez, Margarita; Corti, Giacomo; Gracia-Marroquín, Diego

    2017-11-01

    The Late Oligocene-Early Miocene volcaniclastic deposits of Baja California Sur form most of the exposed western margin of the Gulf of California rift. In some places these deposits, collectively referred to as Comondú Group, show complex deformation patterns given by the coexistence of tectonic and gravitational features. The area north of La Paz is characterized by the occurrence of several slump bodies, which are displaced by normal faults connected with the rift opening. In some places we have identified 100's m scale thrust-related folds and reverse faults that we have interpreted as shortening features. The latter displace the slump layers and are offset by the normal faults. If confirmed, this would represent the first report of a shortening event in the Early Miocene volcaniclastic deposits of Baja California Sur. The observed shortening has modest magnitude (ca 3-5% bulk shortening), and has been detected in a sector extending over 100 km north from La Paz. New 40Ar-39*Ar ages, integrated with existing radiometric age datasets, constrain the timing of this shortening episode. The rocks affected by shortening have ages between 24 and 21 Ma, and are capped by undeformed volcanic rocks with ages spanning between 19.4 and 17.2 Ma. These relationships define an intra-Early Miocene unconformity, which we interpret to be related to the shortening deformation. The available timing constraints allow us to infer that a main ENE-to-ESE-trending shortening was short-lived, possibly ca. 19.4-21 Ma. The account of this shortening event may shed some light on the complex subduction and microplate processes that preceded the continental rifting of the Gulf of California.

  19. Quantification of pancreatic exocrine function with secretin-enhanced magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography: normal values and short-term effects of pancreatic duct drainage procedures in chronic pancreatitis. Initial results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bali, M.A.; Sztantics, A.; Metens, T.; Matos, C. [Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Department of Radiology, Hopital Erasme, Brussels (Belgium); Arvanitakis, M.; Delhaye, M.; Deviere, J. [Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Department of Gastroenterology, Hopital Erasme, Brussels (Belgium)

    2005-10-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify pancreatic exocrine function in normal subjects and in patients with chronic pancreatitis (CP) before and after pancreatic duct drainage procedures (PDDP) with dynamic secretin-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) cholangiopancreatography (S-MRCP). Pancreatic exocrine secretions [quantified by pancreatic flow output (PFO) and total excreted volume (TEV)] were quantified twice in ten healthy volunteers and before and after treatment in 20 CP patients (18 classified as severe, one as moderate, and one as mild according to the Cambridge classification). PFO and TEV were derived from a linear regression between MR-calculated volumes and time. In all subjects, pancreatic exocrine fluid volume initially increased linearly with time during secretin stimulation. In controls, the mean PFO and TEV were 6.8 ml/min and 97 ml; intra-individual deviations were 0.8 ml/min and 16 ml. In 10/20 patients with impaired exocrine secretions before treatment, a significant increase of PFO and TEV was observed after treatment (P<0.05); 3/20 patients presented post-procedural acute pancreatitis and a reduced PFO. The S-MRCP quantification method used in the present study is reproducible and provides normal values for PFO and TEV in the range of those obtained from previous published intubation studies. The initial results in CP patients have demonstrated non-invasively a significant short-term improvement of PFO and TEV after PDDP. (orig.)

  20. Quantification of pancreatic exocrine function with secretin-enhanced magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography: normal values and short-term effects of pancreatic duct drainage procedures in chronic pancreatitis. Initial results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bali, M.A.; Sztantics, A.; Metens, T.; Matos, C.; Arvanitakis, M.; Delhaye, M.; Deviere, J.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify pancreatic exocrine function in normal subjects and in patients with chronic pancreatitis (CP) before and after pancreatic duct drainage procedures (PDDP) with dynamic secretin-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) cholangiopancreatography (S-MRCP). Pancreatic exocrine secretions [quantified by pancreatic flow output (PFO) and total excreted volume (TEV)] were quantified twice in ten healthy volunteers and before and after treatment in 20 CP patients (18 classified as severe, one as moderate, and one as mild according to the Cambridge classification). PFO and TEV were derived from a linear regression between MR-calculated volumes and time. In all subjects, pancreatic exocrine fluid volume initially increased linearly with time during secretin stimulation. In controls, the mean PFO and TEV were 6.8 ml/min and 97 ml; intra-individual deviations were 0.8 ml/min and 16 ml. In 10/20 patients with impaired exocrine secretions before treatment, a significant increase of PFO and TEV was observed after treatment (P<0.05); 3/20 patients presented post-procedural acute pancreatitis and a reduced PFO. The S-MRCP quantification method used in the present study is reproducible and provides normal values for PFO and TEV in the range of those obtained from previous published intubation studies. The initial results in CP patients have demonstrated non-invasively a significant short-term improvement of PFO and TEV after PDDP. (orig.)

  1. Effect of splitting a mixed-model line on shortening the line length under open- and closed-boundary working area settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Donghao; Matsuura, Haruki; Asada, Akiko

    2017-04-01

    Some automobile factories have segmented mixed-model production lines into shorter sub-lines according to part group, such as engine, trim, and powertrain. The effects of splitting a line into sub-lines have been reported from the standpoints of worker motivation, productivity improvement, and autonomy based on risk spreading. There has been no mention of the possibility of shortening the line length by altering the product sequence using sub-lines. The purpose of the present paper is to determine the conditions under which sub-lines reduce the line length and the degree to which the line length may be shortened. The line lengths for a non-split line and a line that has been split into sub-lines are compared using three methods for determining the working area, the standard closed boundary, the optimized open boundary, and real-life constant-length stations. The results are discussed by analyzing the upper and lower bounds of the line length. Based on these results, a procedure for deciding whether or not to split a production line is proposed.

  2. A Possible Differentially Shortened Strike-slip Plate Boundary: the Okhotsk Plate Example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindle, D.; Egorov, V.; Mackey, K. G.; Fujita, K.

    2004-12-01

    The Okhotsk plate has been postulated based on a combination of GPS geodetic inversions (REVEL1), seimsicity, geologic and lineament data. Lying between the North American and Eurasian plates, its northwestern corner would appear to be undergoing compression in a scissors motion between the two bounding plates. Extrusion tectonics along multiple, large strike-slip faults within the Okhotsk plate itself have been suggested to allow the escape of material away from the apex of Eurasia-North America. The plate boundary between Okhotsk and North America has been suggested to be diffuse, based on widely scattered minor seismicity. However, the large, left lateral, Ulakhan fault has also been suggested as a candidate plate boundary. We present field geological and geomorphological evidence of the partitioning of deformation between the Ulakhan fault, and several parallel and oblique, linked faults. The Ulakhan fault strand appears to have a maximum displacement of 24 km based on river valley offsets and closing large pull apart basins. Some of the displacement from the Ulakhan fault appears relayed into the plate margin along oblique trending, thrust/oblique slip faults. Estimated shortening over these faults is equivalent to the amount of shortening relayed into the plate margin from the plate boundary. There may be several thrust/oblique slip faults along the Ulakhan fault, which leads to the interesting situation of a segmented, strike-slip plate boundary being actively shortened in a margin parallel direction. This may be the result of postulated extrusion of the Okhotsk plate due to North America/Eurasia convergence. Such a situation would have important consequences for the interpretation of GPS data in a plate tectonic context.

  3. Action Potential Shortening and Impairment of Cardiac Function by Ablation of Slc26a6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirish, Padmini; Ledford, Hannah A; Timofeyev, Valeriy; Thai, Phung N; Ren, Lu; Kim, Hyo Jeong; Park, Seojin; Lee, Jeong Han; Dai, Gu; Moshref, Maryam; Sihn, Choong-Ryoul; Chen, Wei Chun; Timofeyeva, Maria Valeryevna; Jian, Zhong; Shimkunas, Rafael; Izu, Leighton T; Chiamvimonvat, Nipavan; Chen-Izu, Ye; Yamoah, Ebenezer N; Zhang, Xiao-Dong

    2017-10-01

    Intracellular pH (pH i ) is critical to cardiac excitation and contraction; uncompensated changes in pH i impair cardiac function and trigger arrhythmia. Several ion transporters participate in cardiac pH i regulation. Our previous studies identified several isoforms of a solute carrier Slc26a6 to be highly expressed in cardiomyocytes. We show that Slc26a6 mediates electrogenic Cl - /HCO 3 - exchange activities in cardiomyocytes, suggesting the potential role of Slc26a6 in regulation of not only pH i , but also cardiac excitability. To test the mechanistic role of Slc26a6 in the heart, we took advantage of Slc26a6 knockout ( Slc26a6 -/ - ) mice using both in vivo and in vitro analyses. Consistent with our prediction of its electrogenic activities, ablation of Slc26a6 results in action potential shortening. There are reduced Ca 2+ transient and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca 2+ load, together with decreased sarcomere shortening in Slc26a6 -/ - cardiomyocytes. These abnormalities translate into reduced fractional shortening and cardiac contractility at the in vivo level. Additionally, pH i is elevated in Slc26a6 -/ - cardiomyocytes with slower recovery kinetics from intracellular alkalization, consistent with the Cl - /HCO 3 - exchange activities of Slc26a6. Moreover, Slc26a6 -/ - mice show evidence of sinus bradycardia and fragmented QRS complex, supporting the critical role of Slc26a6 in cardiac conduction system. Our study provides mechanistic insights into Slc26a6, a unique cardiac electrogenic Cl - /HCO 3 - transporter in ventricular myocytes, linking the critical roles of Slc26a6 in regulation of pH i , excitability, and contractility. pH i is a critical regulator of other membrane and contractile proteins. Future studies are needed to investigate possible changes in these proteins in Slc26a6 -/ - mice. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. Successful Bone Healing of Nonunion After Ulnar Shortening Osteotomy for Smokers Treated With Teriparatide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uemura, Takuya; Okada, Mitsuhiro; Yokoi, Takuya; Shintani, Kosuke; Nakamura, Hiroaki

    2015-08-01

    Ulnar shortening osteotomy is widely performed as the standard surgical treatment for ulnar impaction syndrome and has a high percentage of success for pain relief. However, delayed union and nonunion of the osteotomy site remain the most concerning complications. In particular, smokers have a higher incidence of nonunion, which amounts to 30% of cases. For the treatment of nonunion, secondary surgical interventions such as bone grafting will be necessary but are extremely challenging. Recently, teriparatide (recombinant human parathyroid hormone [PTH 1-34]) administration has been reported in several clinical studies as a noninvasive pharmacological systemic treatment for fracture healing or nonunion. The authors present 2 cases of smokers, a 62-year-old man and a 42-year-old woman, with nonunion after ulnar shortening osteotomy and fixation with 6-hole non-locking plate for ulnar impaction syndrome. For treatment of nonunion, noninvasive therapy with teriparatide (20-µg, subcutaneous injection) in addition to low-intensity pulsed ultrasound was underwent. In both cases, partial bone union began to be observed on radiographs after the first 4 weeks of teriparatide administration and successful bone healing without additional surgical interventions was achieved after 10 and 6 months of treatment with teriparatide, respectively. The current case reports showed that non-invasive combination therapy of teriparatide and low-intensity pulsed ultrasound were a possible alternative to surgical intervention. In the future, teriparatide therapy might be applied actively to patients who have risk factors for delayed union, such a heavy smoking habit, and are expected to experience nonunion after ulnar shortening osteotomy. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  5. New insight into the shortening of the collagen fibril D-period in human cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastrzebska, Maria; Tarnawska, Dorota; Wrzalik, Roman; Chrobak, Artur; Grelowski, Michal; Wylegala, Edward; Zygadlo, Dorota; Ratuszna, Alicja

    2017-02-01

    Collagen fibrils type I display a typical banding pattern, so-called D-periodicity, of about 67 nm, when visualized by atomic force or electron microscopy imaging. Herein we report on a significant shortening of the D-period for human corneal collagen fibrils type I (21 ± 4 nm) upon air-drying, whereas no changes in the D-period were observed for human scleral collagen fibrils type I (64 ± 4 nm) measured under the same experimental conditions as the cornea. It was also found that for the corneal stroma fixed with glutaraldehyde and air-dried, the collagen fibrils show the commonly accepted D-period of 61 ± 8 nm. We used the atomic force microscopy method to image collagen fibrils type I present in the middle layers of human cornea and sclera. The water content in the cornea and sclera samples was varying in the range of .066-.085. Calculations of the D-period using the theoretical model of the fibril and the FFT approach allowed to reveal the possible molecular mechanism of the D-period shortening in the corneal collagen fibrils upon drying. It was found that both the decrease in the shift and the simultaneous reduction in the distance between tropocollagen molecules can be responsible for the experimentally observed effect. We also hypothesize that collagen type V, which co-assembles with collagen type I into heterotypic fibrils in cornea, could be involved in the observed shortening of the corneal D-period.

  6. Rate of Union After Segmental Midshaft Shortening Osteotomy of the Lesser Metatarsals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSandis, Bridget; Ellis, Scott J; Levitsky, Matthew; O'Malley, Quinn; Konin, Gabrielle; O'Malley, Martin J

    2015-10-01

    Current literature reports excellent rates of union following various lesser metatarsal osteotomy techniques. However, it is our experience that segmental midshaft shortening osteotomies heal very slowly and have a greater potential for nonunion than has previously been reported. The purpose of this study was to assess union rates and report the time required for segmental midshaft shortening osteotomies to achieve radiographic union. We reviewed the charts and postoperative radiographs of 58 patients (representing 91 osteotomies) who underwent segmental midshaft shortening osteotomies with internal fixation between January 2009 and December 2013. Radiographs were reviewed to determine when union was achieved. Union was defined as the bridging of 2 or more cortices in the anteroposterior, lateral, and oblique radiographic views. Osteotomies were classified as delayed union if they were not healed at 3 months postoperatively and nonunions if they were not healed at 6 months postoperatively. Overall, 27 of 91 osteotomies met our radiographic classification of union and were healed by 3 months (29.7%). Sixty-nine of the 91 osteotomies healed by 6 months (75.8%) and were considered delayed unions. Twenty-two osteotomies were not healed yet and therefore were considered nonunions (24.2%). Of the 22 nonunions, 7 healed in an additional 2 months (8 months) for an overall healing percentage of 83.5%, (76 of 91). By 10 months, 6 more nonunions were healed (overall healing percentage of 90.1%, 82 of 91). Three additional nonunions went on to heal by 12.9 months, yielding a final union rate of 93.4% (85 of 91), while 6 were still considered nonunions (6.6%). We report that a significant percentage of segmental midshaft metatarsal shortening osteotomies experienced delayed unions and nonunions. These findings contrast those previously reported in the literature that metatarsal osteotomies have very low nonunion rates. These results support our hypothesis that these osteotomies

  7. Lactose tolerance test shortened to 30 minutes: an exploratory study of its feasibility and impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Domínguez-Jiménez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Lactose malabsorption (LM is a very common condition with a high prevalence in our setting. Lactose tolerance test (LTT is a basic, affordable test for diagnosis that requires no complex technology. It has been recently shown that this test can be shortened to 3 measurements (baseline, 30 min, 60 min with no impact on final results. The purpose of our study was to assess the feasibility and benefits of LTT simplification and shortening to 30 min, as well as the financial impact entailed. Material and methods: A multicenter, observational study of consecutive patients undergoing LTT for LM suspicion. Patients received 50 g of lactose following a fasting period of 12 h, and had blood collected from a vein at all 3 time points for the measurement of blood glucose (mg/dl. Differences between the shortened and complete test forms were analyzed using McNemar's test. A comparison of blood glucose levels between patients with normal and abnormal results was performed using Student's T-test for independent mean values. Consistency was assessed using the kappa index. A p < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: A total of 270 patients (69.6% females were included, with a mean age of 39.9 ± 16 years. LTT was abnormal for 151 patients (55.9%. We observed no statistically significant differences in baseline blood glucose levels between patients with normal and abnormal LTT results (p = 0.13; however, as was to be expected, such differences were obvious for the remaining time points (p < 0.01. Deleting blood glucose measurements at 60 minutes only led to overdiagnose LM (false positive results in 6 patients (2.22 %, with a kappa index of 0.95 (95% CI: 0.92-0.99 (p < 0.001 versus the complete test. Suppressing measurements at 60 min would have saved at least € 7,726. Conclusion: The shortening of LTT to only 2 measurements (baseline and 30-min hardly leads to any differences in final results, and would entail savings in

  8. Development of advanced concept for shortening construction period of ABWR plant (part 2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Tomohiro; Satoh, Takashi

    2003-01-01

    The construction of the first building fully applying SC structure, which is indispensable for shortening construction period of ABWR plants (21.5 months from the first concrete work to fuel loading), has been started since August 2002 in Japan. Before the construction start, a pre-construction test with some actual size SC panels was carried out to confirm the SC modular construction method. The outline of the design and the construction of the first full-SC building and the results of the pre-construction test are reported. (author)

  9. In-treatment midwall and endocardial fractional shortening predict cardiovascular outcome in hypertensive patients with preserved baseline systolic ventricular function: the Losartan Intervention For Endpoint reduction study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wachtell, Kristian; Gerdts, Eva; Palmieri, Vittorio

    2010-01-01

    Endocardial fractional shortening (EFS) and midwall shortening (MWS) are impaired in patients with left ventricular hypertrophy. However, it remains unknown whether improvement of left ventricular systolic function during treatment reduces cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in hypertensive...

  10. Cost effectiveness of shortening screening interval or extending age range of NHS breast screening programme: computer simulation study

    OpenAIRE

    Boer, Rob; de Koning, Harry; Threlfall, Anthony; Warmerdam, Peter; Street, Andrew; Friedman, Ellis; Woodman, Ciaran

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To compare the cost effectiveness of two possible modifications to the current UK screening programme: shortening the screening interval from three to two years and extending the age of invitation to a final screen from 64 to 69.

  11. Two-stage revision of infected hip arthroplasty using a shortened post-operative course of antibiotics.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McKenna, Paul B

    2009-04-01

    We present a series of 30 consecutive patients with 31 infected total hip arthroplasties treated by a single surgeon over a 4-year period in whom a shortened post-operative course of antimicrobial chemotherapy was used.

  12. Environmental procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The European Bank has pledged in its Agreement to place environmental management at the forefront of its operations to promote sustainable economic development in central and eastern Europe. The Bank's environmental policy is set out in the document titled, Environmental Management: The Bank's Policy Approach. This document, Environmental Procedures, presents the procedures which the European Bank has adopted to implement this policy approach with respect to its operations. The environmental procedures aim to: ensure that throughout the project approval process, those in positions of responsibility for approving projects are aware of the environmental implications of the project, and can take these into account when making decisions; avoid potential liabilities that could undermine the success of a project for its sponsors and the Bank; ensure that environmental costs are estimated along with other costs and liabilities; and identify opportunities for environmental enhancement associated with projects. The review of environmental aspects of projects is conducted by many Bank staff members throughout the project's life. This document defines the responsibilities of the people and groups involved in implementing the environmental procedures. Annexes contain Environmental Management: The Bank's Policy Approach, examples of environmental documentation for the project file and other ancillary information

  13. Measurement of clavicular length and shortening after a midshaft clavicular fracture: Spatial digitization versus planar roentgen photogrammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegeman, Sylvia A; de Witte, Pieter Bas; Boonstra, Sjoerd; de Groot, Jurriaan H; Nagels, Jochem; Krijnen, Pieta; Schipper, Inger B

    2016-08-01

    Clavicular shortening after fracture is deemed prognostic for clinical outcome and is therefore generally assessed on radiographs. It is used for clinical decision making regarding operative or non-operative treatment in the first 2weeks after trauma, although the reliability and accuracy of the measurements are unclear. This study aimed to assess the reliability of roentgen photogrammetry (2D) of clavicular length and shortening, and to compare these with 3D-spatial digitization measurements, obtained with an electromagnetic recording system (Flock of Birds). Thirty-two participants with a consolidated non-operatively treated two or multi-fragmented dislocated midshaft clavicular fracture were analysed. Two observers measured clavicular lengths and absolute and proportional clavicular shortening on radiographs taken before and after fracture consolidation. The clavicular lengths were also measured with spatial digitization. Inter-observer agreement on the radiographic measurements was assessed using the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC). Agreement between the radiographic and spatial digitization measurements was assessed using a Bland-Altman plot. The inter-observer agreement on clavicular length, and absolute and proportional shortening on trauma radiographs was almost perfect (ICC>0.90), but moderate for absolute shortening after consolidation (ICC=0.45). The Bland-Altman plot compared measurements of length on AP panorama radiographs with spatial digitization and showed that planar roentgen photogrammetry resulted in up to 37mm longer and 34mm shorter measurements than spatial digitization. Measurements of clavicular length on radiographs are highly reliable between observers, but may not reflect the actual length and shortening of the clavicle when compared to length measurements with spatial digitization. We recommend to use proportional shortening when measuring clavicular length or shortening on radiographs for clinical decision making. Copyright

  14. Correlation of the degree of clavicle shortening after non-surgical treatment of midshaft fractures with upper limb function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Gustavo Santiago de Lima; Tamaoki, Marcel Jun Sugawara; Dragone, Bruno; Utino, Artur Yudi; Netto, Nicola Archetti; Matsumoto, Marcelo Hide; Matsunaga, Fábio Teruo

    2015-06-17

    Despite the use of non-surgical methods to treat for the majority of midshaft fractures of the clavicle, it is remains controversial whether shortening of this bone following non-surgical treatment of a middle third fracture affects upper limb function. We conducted a cohort study by sequentially recruiting 59 patients with a fracture of the middle third of the clavicle. All patients were treated nonsurgically with a figure-of-eight bandage until clinical and radiological findings indicated healing of the fracture. Functional outcome was assessed using the Disability of Arm, Hand and Shoulder (DASH) score revalidated for the Portuguese language, other outcomes assessed included: pain measured by visual analogue scale (VAS); radiographies to measure the degree of shortening, fracture consolidation and fracture malunion. Information were also collected regarding the mechanism of injury, patient's daily activities level and epidemiological features of the patient cohort. The results of our findings are expressed as the comparison of the functional outcome with the degree of shortening. Patients were assessed six weeks and one year after injury. In the first evaluation, the mean DASH score was 28.84 and pain measured by VAS was 2.57. In the second evaluation (one year after injury) the mean DASH score was 8.18 and pain was 0.84. The mean clavicle shortening was 0.92 cm, ranging from 0 to 3 cm (SD = 0.64). There were no correlation between the degree of shortening and DASH score after six weeks and one year (p = 0.073 and 0.706, respectively). When only patients with of shortening greater than 2 cm were assessed for correlation, the result did not change. We conclude that clavicle shortening after nonsurgical treatment with a figure-of-eight bandage does not affect limb function, even when shortening exceeds 2 cm. ISRCTN85206617 . Registered 12 May 2014.

  15. Comparison of hydrogenated vegetable shortening and nutritionally complete high fat diet on limited access-binge behavior in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Jon F.; Melhorn, Susan J.; Heiman, Justin U.; Tschöp, Matthias H.; Clegg, Deborah J.; Benoit, Stephen C.

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that intermittent exposure to hydrogenated vegetable shortening yields a binge/compensate pattern of feeding in rats. The present study was designed to assess whether rats would exhibit similar patterns of intake when given intermittent access to a nutritionally complete high-fat diet. Four groups of rats received varying exposure to either hydrogenated vegetable shortening or high-fat diet for 8 consecutive weeks. Animals were given daily and intermittent acce...

  16. Estimating the potential life-shortening effect of continuous sedation until death: a comparison between two approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruinsma, Sophie M; Rietjens, Judith A C; Swart, Siebe J; Perez, Roberto S G M; van Delden, Johannes J M; van der Heide, Agnes

    2014-07-01

    In some cases, physicians estimate that continuous sedation until death may have a life shortening effect. The accuracy of these estimations can be questioned. The aim of this study is to compare two approaches to estimate the potential life-shortening effect of continuous sedation until death. In 2008, 370 Dutch physicians filled out a questionnaire and reported on their last patient who received continuous sedation until death. The potential life-shortening effect of continuous sedation was estimated through a direct approach (question: Did continuous sedation, according to your estimation,hasten the patient's death? If yes: by how much time?)and an indirect approach (estimated life expectancy minus duration of sedation). The intrarater agreement between both approaches was determined with a weighted κ. According to the direct approach, sedation might have had a life-shortening effect in 51% of the cases and according to the indirect approach in 84%.The intrarater agreement between both approaches was fair (weighted κ=0.38). In 10% of all cases, the direct approach yielded higher estimates of the extent to which life had been shortened; in 58% of the cases, the indirect approach yielded higher estimates. The results show a discrepancy between different approaches to estimate the potential life shortening effect of continuous sedation until death.

  17. Knowledge, perceptions and clinical application of the shortened dental arch concept among Malaysian government dentists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasim, Siti Kamilah Mohd; Razak, Ishak Abdul; Yusof, Zamros Yuzadi Mohd

    2018-02-01

    To assess the knowledge and perceptions of Malaysian government dentists regarding the shortened dental arch (SDA) concept and its application in clinical practice. The SDA concept refers to a specific type of dentition with intact anterior teeth and a reduction in posterior occlusal pairs. Dentists' knowledge and perceptions of the SDA concept can influence its application in clinical practice. A self-administered questionnaire on the SDA concept was distributed to 326 government dentists in the states of Selangor and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The data were analysed using SPSS version 22 software. The response rate was 84.0%. The majority of respondents had good knowledge on five of six knowledge items and good attitudes towards 10 of 17 perception items. However, only one-fifth (20.4%) reported having applied the SDA concept in the clinic. A larger number of participants who graduated locally than who graduated abroad perceived that patients age, without molar support, can attain acceptable chewing function and that SDA treatment does not lead to loss of occlusal vertical dimension (P 5 years of work experience perceived that the SDA concept enables simpler treatment planning (P concept, it is not widely applied in the clinic. Concerted efforts in SDA training of dentists are needed to help to shorten denture waiting lists and reduce costs. © 2017 FDI World Dental Federation.

  18. The mechanism underlying dibutyl phthalate induced shortened anogenital distance and hypospadias in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning; Chen, Xuyong; Zhou, Xuefeng; Zhang, Wen; Yuan, Jiyan; Feng, Jiexiong

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanism of dibutyl phthalate (DBP) induced hypospadias and shortened anogenital distance (AGD). AGD, hypospadias, and cryptorchidism incidence was observed in male offspring of DBP treated pregnant Wistar rats. Testicular development and testosterone levels of normal and DBP-treated rat embryos were compared. Male offspring of 300mg and 900mg DBP-treated pregnant Wistar rats exhibited shortened average AGD compared with the control group. A 22.7% hypospadias incidence was observed in the 300mg group, but no offspring with cryptorchidism were identified. In the 900mg group, hypospadias and cryptorchidism incidence reached 43.5% and 17.4%, respectively. Between E15.5 and E17.5, the 300mg group exhibited delayed testicular development and testosterone secretion. However, testicular development and testosterone secretion subsequently recovered. The 300mg treated and control groups had similar measures after E19.5. Contrastingly, testicular development and testosterone secretion were significantly diminished throughout development in the 900mg group. Exogenous testosterone partially counteracted DBP-induced changes in the reproductive organs of male offspring of DBP-treated rats. High-dose DBP exposure may induce testicular dysgenesis in rat embryos. Additionally, low-dose DBP may delay testicular development and testosterone secretion during urethral development. This disruption may result in hypospadias. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Early telomere shortening and genomic instability in tubo-ovarian preneoplastic lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chene, Gautier; Tchirkov, Andrei; Pierre-Eymard, Eleonore; Dauplat, Jacques; Raoelfils, Ines; Cayre, Anne; Watkin, Emmanuel; Vago, Philippe; Penault-Llorca, Frederique

    2013-06-01

    Genetic instability plays an important role in ovarian carcinogenesis. We investigated the level of telomere shortening and genomic instability in early and preinvasive stages of ovarian cancer, serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma (STIC), and tubo-ovarian dysplasia (TOD). Fifty-one TOD from prophylactic salpingo-oophorectomies with BRCA1 or 2 mutation, 12 STICs, 53 tubo-ovarian high-grade serous carcinoma, and 36 noncancerous controls were laser capture microdissected from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections, analyzed by comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH) and for telomere length (using quantitative real-time PCR based on the Cawthon's method). TOD and STICs were defined by morphologic scores and immunohistochemical expressions of p53, Ki67, and γH2AX. TOD showed marked telomere shortening compared with noncancerous controls (P STICs had even shorter telomeres than TOD (P = 0.0008). Ovarian carcinoma had shorter telomeres than controls but longer than STICs and dysplasia. In TOD, telomeres were significantly shorter in those with BRCA1 mutation than in those with BRCA2 mutation (P = 0.005). In addition, γH2AX expression in TOD and STIC groups with short telomeres was significantly increased (P STICs. The total number of genetic alterations was the highest in ovarian cancers. These findings suggest that genetic instability occurs in early stages of ovarian tumorigenesis. STICs and noninvasive dysplasia are likely an important step in early serous ovarian neoplasia. ©2013 AACR

  20. On the shortening of Indian summer monsoon season in a warming scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabeerali, C. T.; Ajayamohan, R. S.

    2018-03-01

    Assessing the future projections of the length of rainy season (LRS) has paramount societal impact considering its potential to alter the seasonal mean rainfall over the Indian subcontinent. Here, we explored the projections of LRS using both historical and Representative Concentration Pathways 8.5 (RCP8.5) simulations of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase5 (CMIP5). RCP8.5 simulations project shortening of the LRS of Indian summer monsoon by altering the timing of onset and withdrawal dates. Most CMIP5 RCP8.5 model simulations indicate a faster warming rate over the western tropical Indian Ocean compared to other regions of the Indian Ocean. It is found that the pronounced western Indian Ocean warming and associated increase in convection results in warmer upper troposphere over the Indian Ocean compared to the Indian subcontinent, reducing the meridional gradient in upper tropospheric temperature (UTT) over the Asian summer monsoon (ASM) domain. The weakening of the meridional gradient in UTT induces weakening of easterly vertical wind shear over the ASM domain during first and last phase of monsoon, facilitate delayed (advanced) monsoon onset (withdrawal) dates, ensues the shortening of LRS of the Indian summer monsoon in a warming scenario.

  1. Animal studies of life shortening and cancer risk from space radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, D. H.; Yochmowitz, M. G.; Hardy, K. A.; Salmon, Y. L.

    The U. S. Air Force study of the delayed effects of single, total body exposures to simulated space radiation in rhesus monkeys is now in its 21st year. Observations on 301 irradiated and 57 age-matched control animals indicate that life expectancy loss from exposure to protons in the energy range encountered in the Van Allen belts and solar proton events can be expressed as a logarithmic function of the dose. The primary causes of life shortening are cancer and endometriosis (an abnormal proliferation of the lining of the uterus in females). Life shortening estimates permit comparison of the risk associated with space radiation exposures to be compared with that of other occupational and environmental hazards, thereby facilitating risk/benefit decisions in the planning and operational phases of manned space missions. Calculations of the relative risk of fatal cancers in the irradiated subjects reveal that the total body surface dose required to double the risk of death from cancer over a 20-year post exposure period varies with the linear energy transfer (LET) of the radiation. The ability to determine the integrated dose and LET spectrum in space radiation exposures of human is, therefore, critical to the assessment of life-time cancer risk.

  2. Comprehensive stabilization mechanism of electron-beam irradiated polyacrylonitrile fibers to shorten the conventional thermal treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sejoon; Yoo, Seung Hwa; Kang, Ha Ri; Jo, Seong Mu; Joh, Han-Ik; Lee, Sungho

    2016-01-01

    An electron beam was irradiated on polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fibers prior to thermal stabilization. The electron-beam irradiation effectively shortened the thermal stabilization process by one fourth compared with the conventional thermal stabilization process. A comprehensive mechanistic study was conducted regarding this shortening of the thermal stabilization by electron-beam irradiation. Various species of chain radicals were produced in PAN fibers by electron-beam irradiation and existed for a relatively long duration, as observed by electron spin resonance spectroscopy. Subsequently, these radicals were gradually oxidized to peroxy radicals in the presence of oxygen under storage or heating. We found that these peroxy radicals (CO) enabled such an effective shortcut of thermal stabilization by acting as intermolecular cross-linking and partial aromatization points in the low temperature range (100–130 °C) and as earlier initiation seeds of successive cyclization reactions in the next temperature range (>130–140 °C) of thermal stabilization. Finally, even at a low irradiation dose (200 kGy), followed by a short heat treatment (230 °C for 30 min), the PAN fibers were sufficiently stabilized to produce carbon fibers with tensile strength and modulus of 2.3 and 216 GPa, respectively, after carbonization. PMID:27349719

  3. Comprehensive stabilization mechanism of electron-beam irradiated polyacrylonitrile fibers to shorten the conventional thermal treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sejoon; Yoo, Seung Hwa; Kang, Ha Ri; Jo, Seong Mu; Joh, Han-Ik; Lee, Sungho

    2016-06-01

    An electron beam was irradiated on polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fibers prior to thermal stabilization. The electron-beam irradiation effectively shortened the thermal stabilization process by one fourth compared with the conventional thermal stabilization process. A comprehensive mechanistic study was conducted regarding this shortening of the thermal stabilization by electron-beam irradiation. Various species of chain radicals were produced in PAN fibers by electron-beam irradiation and existed for a relatively long duration, as observed by electron spin resonance spectroscopy. Subsequently, these radicals were gradually oxidized to peroxy radicals in the presence of oxygen under storage or heating. We found that these peroxy radicals (CO) enabled such an effective shortcut of thermal stabilization by acting as intermolecular cross-linking and partial aromatization points in the low temperature range (100-130 °C) and as earlier initiation seeds of successive cyclization reactions in the next temperature range (>130-140 °C) of thermal stabilization. Finally, even at a low irradiation dose (200 kGy), followed by a short heat treatment (230 °C for 30 min), the PAN fibers were sufficiently stabilized to produce carbon fibers with tensile strength and modulus of 2.3 and 216 GPa, respectively, after carbonization.

  4. Mechanical versus kinematical shortening reconstructions of the Zagros High Folded Zone (Kurdistan region of Iraq)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frehner, Marcel; Reif, Daniel; Grasemann, Bernhard

    2012-06-01

    This paper compares kinematical and mechanical techniques for the palinspastic reconstruction of folded cross sections in collision orogens. The studied area and the reconstructed NE-SW trending, 55.5 km long cross section is located in the High Folded Zone of the Zagros fold-and-thrust belt in the Kurdistan region of Iraq. The present-day geometry of the cross section has been constructed from field as well as remote sensing data. In a first step, the structures and the stratigraphy are simplified and summarized in eight units trying to identify the main geometric and mechanical parameters. In a second step, the shortening is kinematically estimated using the dip domain method to 11%-15%. Then the same cross section is used in a numerical finite element model to perform dynamical unfolding simulations taking various rheological parameters into account. The main factor allowing for an efficient dynamic unfolding is the presence of interfacial slip conditions between the mechanically strong units. Other factors, such as Newtonian versus power law viscous rheology or the presence of a basement, affect the numerical simulations much less strongly. If interfacial slip is accounted for, fold amplitudes are reduced efficiently during the dynamical unfolding simulations, while welded layer interfaces lead to unrealistic shortening estimates. It is suggested that interfacial slip and decoupling of the deformation along detachment horizons is an important mechanical parameter that controlled the folding processes in the Zagros High Folded Zone.

  5. A novel shortened electrospun nanofiber modified with a 'concentrated' polymer brush

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, Chiaki; Zhang, Kun; Zawadzak, Ewelina; Kobayashi, Hisatoshi

    2011-01-01

    We report the fabrication of shortened electrospun polymer fibers with a well-defined concentrated polymer brush. We first prepared electrospun nanofibers from a random copolymer of styrene and 4-vinylbenzyl 2-bromopropionate, with number-average molecular weight M n =105 200 and weight-average molecular weight M w =296 700 (M w /M n =2.82). The fibers had a diameter of 593±74 nm and contained initiating sites for surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP). Then, SI-ATRP of hydrophilic styrene sodium sulfonate (SSNa) was carried out in the presence of a free initiator and the hydrophobic fibers. Gel permeation chromatography confirmed that M n and M w /M n values were almost the same for free polymers and graft polymers. M n agreed well with the theoretical prediction, and M w /M n was relatively low ( n , we calculated the graft density σ as 0.22 chains nm -2 . This value was nearly equal to the density obtained on silicon wafers (σ=0.24 chains nm -2 ), which is categorized into the concentrated brush regime. Finally, we mechanically cut the fibers with a concentrated poly(SSNa) brush by a homogenizer. With increasing cutting time, the fiber length became shorter and more homogenous (11±17 μm after 3 h). The shortened fibers exhibited excellent water dispersibility owing to the hydrophilic poly(SSNa) brush layer.

  6. Shortening of an existing generic online health-related quality of life instrument for dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, J; Wiseman-Orr, L; Scott, M

    2017-10-11

    Development, initial validation and reliability testing of a shortened version of a web-based questionnaire instrument to measure generic health-related quality of life in companion dogs, to facilitate smartphone and online use. The original 46 items were reduced using expert judgment and factor analysis. Items were removed on the basis of item loadings and communalities on factors identified through factor analysis of responses from owners of healthy and unwell dogs, intrafactor item correlations, readability of items in the UK, USA and Australia and ability of individual items to discriminate between healthy and unwell dogs. Validity was assessed through factor analysis and a field trial using a "known groups" approach. Test-retest reliability was assessed using intraclass correlation coefficients. The new instrument comprises 22 items, each of which was rated by dog owners using a 7-point Likert scale. Factor analysis revealed a structure with four health-related quality of life domains (energetic/enthusiastic, happy/content, active/comfortable, and calm/relaxed) accounting for 72% of the variability in the data compared with 64% for the original instrument. The field test involving 153 healthy and unwell dogs demonstrated good discriminative properties and high intraclass correlation coefficients. The 22-item shortened form is superior to the original instrument and can be accessed via a mobile phone app. This is likely to increase the acceptability to dog owners as a routine wellness measure in health care packages and as a therapeutic monitoring tool. © 2017 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  7. On the shortening of Indian summer monsoon season in a warming scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabeerali, C. T.; Ajayamohan, R. S.

    2017-05-01

    Assessing the future projections of the length of rainy season (LRS) has paramount societal impact considering its potential to alter the seasonal mean rainfall over the Indian subcontinent. Here, we explored the projections of LRS using both historical and Representative Concentration Pathways 8.5 (RCP8.5) simulations of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase5 (CMIP5). RCP8.5 simulations project shortening of the LRS of Indian summer monsoon by altering the timing of onset and withdrawal dates. Most CMIP5 RCP8.5 model simulations indicate a faster warming rate over the western tropical Indian Ocean compared to other regions of the Indian Ocean. It is found that the pronounced western Indian Ocean warming and associated increase in convection results in warmer upper troposphere over the Indian Ocean compared to the Indian subcontinent, reducing the meridional gradient in upper tropospheric temperature (UTT) over the Asian summer monsoon (ASM) domain. The weakening of the meridional gradient in UTT induces weakening of easterly vertical wind shear over the ASM domain during first and last phase of monsoon, facilitate delayed (advanced) monsoon onset (withdrawal) dates, ensues the shortening of LRS of the Indian summer monsoon in a warming scenario.

  8. Study of imaging time shortening in Whole Heart MRCA. Evaluation of slice thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwai, Mitsuhiro; Tateishi, Toshiki; Takeda, Soji; Hayashi, Ryuji

    2005-01-01

    A series of examinations in cardiac MR imaging, such as cine, perfusion, MR coronary angiography (MRCA) and viability, is generally known as One Stop Cardiac Examination. It takes about 40 to 60 minutes to perform One Stop Cardiac Examination, and Whole Heart MRCA accounts for most of the examination time. Therefore, we aimed to shorten imaging time of Whole Heart MRCA, especially in a large imaging area such as that in the case of the postoperative evaluation of a bypass graft, by investigating the depiction of a diameter of mimic blood vessels as changing the slice thickness of Whole Heart MRCA. The results showed that the maximum slice thickness of about 1 mm was excellent considering the diameters of actual coronary arteries are about 3 mm. In this study, we could grasp the relationships among slice thickness of Whole Heart MRCA, the diameter of a blood vessel, and shortened examination time. We suggested that it was useful for selecting the suitable sequence depending on a patient's conditions. (author)

  9. Prognostic Factors Affecting Union After Ulnar Shortening Osteotomy in Ulnar Impaction Syndrome: A Retrospective Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Soo Min; Shin, Hyun Dae; Ahn, Ki Jun

    2017-04-19

    Ulnar shortening osteotomy (USO) is a widely adopted procedure with excellent outcomes. However, delayed union or nonunion has occasionally been observed. The purpose of this retrospective case-control study was to identify variables affecting osseous consolidation after USO in patients with ulnar impaction syndrome. The study included 325 patients who had undergone USO between March 2008 and March 2014. We evaluated the association between union and basic demographic factors as well as preoperative pain (assessed on a visual analog scale [VAS]), range of wrist motion, grip strength, and modified Mayo wrist score. We also assessed the association of union with radiographic variables such as the degree of dorsal subluxation of the ulna, preoperative and postoperative ulnar variance, morphological type of the distal radioulnar joint, gap at the osteotomy site, and presence of newly developed arthritic changes during the follow-up period. Finally, variables associated with operative conditions, such as degeneration of the triangular fibrocartilage complex, use of a parallel double-blade saw, type of plate used for fixation, number of screws, and plate position on the volar or dorsal ulnar surface were investigated. Ulnar union was achieved in 294 patients (group 1), and 31 patients had delayed union or nonunion (group 2). On univariate and multivariate analyses, smoking, low bone mineral density (BMD), a decreased range of motion of the wrist, and use of a double-blade saw were found to be significant factors for an adverse radiographic outcome (nonunion or delayed union). Delayed union or nonunion occurred in about 10% of patients treated with USO. We suggest that it may be preferable to perform USO in nonsmokers, patients with normal bone density, and those without restricted wrist motion. Also, we recommend the use of a single-blade saw when performing the osteotomy. Therapeutic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of

  10. A Prospective Comparison of Clinical, Radiographic, and Intraoperative Features of Hallux Rigidus: Long-Term Follow-Up and Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Andrew D; Borgert, Andrew J; Roukis, Thomas S

    2016-01-01

    Forty-seven patients (50 feet) underwent surgical intervention for symptomatic hallux rigidus from February 1998 to April 1999. Thirty-eight patients (41 feet) returned at 1 year for a follow-up evaluation. Of these 38 patients, 20 (21 feet) returned for the 15-year follow-up evaluation. Subjective evaluations were performed using the modified American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Surgery hallux metatarsophalangeal-interphalangeal 100-point scale. Long-term postoperative objective physical examination and radiographic analysis were performed. These data were compared with the preoperative and short-term follow-up data. The subjective evaluation showed a statistically significant differing over the long term, with a mean increase of 27.6 points. The results of the physical examination and radiographic measurements were mixed. The long-term dorsal range of motion was not significant across surgery type. Radiographically, the procedure types resulted in similar changes, suggesting that neither joint preservation nor joint destructive procedures were more stable over time. Plantar transposition of the capital fragment, offsetting the longitudinal shortening of the first metatarsal, was not significant, confirming the short-term findings. For this patient population, the long-term results of surgical intervention for hallux rigidus, regardless of procedure type, provided subjective patient improvement but no statistically significant increase in first metatarsophalangeal joint function or dorsal range of motion. Copyright © 2016 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Simplification and transformation of ASTM F1292 measurement procedure for fall accident injury criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Maki; Shimodaira, Yoshie; Sato, Takeshi; Iida, Hiromi

    2014-01-01

    Protecting children from injuries caused by fall accidents from playground equipment is important. Therefore, measures toward minimizing the risk of fall accident injuries are required. The risk of injury can be evaluated using ASTM F1292. In this test, G-max and the HIC are used to estimate the risk of injury. However, the measurement procedure is too complicated for application to a large number of installed equipment. F1292 requires simplified by reducing the number of phases, even with a small risk of loss in accuracy. With this in mind, this study proposes a shortened measurement procedure and a transformation equation to estimate the risk as same as F1292. As the result of experiments, it was revealed that G-max and the HIC values for both procedures linearly increase with drop height. The differences in outcomes between the regression equations of the standardized procedure and those of the shortened procedure can be used as a correction value. They can be added to the value measured by the shortened procedure. This suggests that the combination of the shortened procedure and transformation equation would be equivalent to F1292, with the advantage of being more easily and efficiently applied to the evaluation of installed playground equipment.

  12. Radiochemical procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, W.S.

    1982-01-01

    The modern counting instrumentation has largely obviated the need for separation processes in the radiochemical analysis but problems in low-level radioactivity measurement, environmental-type analyses, and special situations caused in the last years a renaissance of the need for separation techniques. Most of the radiochemical procedures, based on the classic works of the Manhattan Project chemists of the 1940's, were published in the National Nuclear Energy Series (NNES). Improvements such as new solvent extraction and ion exchange separations have been added to these methods throughout the years. Recently the Los Alamos Group have reissued their collected Radiochemical Procedures containing a short summary and review of basic inorganic chemistry - 'Chemistry of the Elements on the Basis of Electronic Configuration'. (A.L.)

  13. Corticision: A Flapless Procedure to Accelerate Tooth Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young Guk

    2016-01-01

    Orthodontic tooth movement results from applied forces to the teeth evoking cellular responses in the teeth and their surrounding tissues, including the periodontal ligament, alveolar bone and gingiva. It is advantageous for the orthodontist to be well informed of the detailed process of the biological events that unfold during tooth movement, since some of these details may differ from one person to another due to biological differences such as periodontal metabolism or alveolar bone density. This led us to emphasize that orthodontics is a field of endeavor where the integration of mechanics and biology is materialized, and to affirm the fact that tooth movement is conducted in individual human beings, each composed of a unique and intricate physiological system. Biological variations may be the foundation of the differences that are frequently observed in the outcomes of orthodontic treatment in particular with reference to treatment duration between patients with similar malocclusions and who were treated identically. A wide diversity of clinical trials has been carried out to control the tissue resistance to facilitate orthodontic tooth movement, which involves biomechanical, pharmaceutical, surgical, electrical regimens or tissue engineering technology. The term 'Corticision' is a neologism which indicates 'cortical bone incision'. It is a minimally invasive periodontal procedure without flap elevation, thus accelerating tooth movement with an enhanced turnover rate of the surrounding structures. This chapter introduces the technical procedure, and the biological background of how such a minor surgical procedure can receive the accelerated tooth movement with impunity and thereby shorten the duration of treatment. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Shortened telomere length is associated with increased risk of cancer: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxia Ma

    Full Text Available Telomeres play a key role in the maintenance of chromosome integrity and stability, and telomere shortening is involved in initiation and progression of malignancies. A series of epidemiological studies have examined the association between shortened telomeres and risk of cancers, but the findings remain conflicting.A dataset composed of 11,255 cases and 13,101 controls from 21 publications was included in a meta-analysis to evaluate the association between overall cancer risk or cancer-specific risk and the relative telomere length. Heterogeneity among studies and their publication bias were further assessed by the χ(2-based Q statistic test and Egger's test, respectively.The results showed that shorter telomeres were significantly associated with cancer risk (OR = 1.35, 95% CI = 1.14-1.60, compared with longer telomeres. In the stratified analysis by tumor type, the association remained significant in subgroups of bladder cancer (OR = 1.84, 95% CI = 1.38-2.44, lung cancer (OR = 2.39, 95% CI = 1.18-4.88, smoking-related cancers (OR = 2.25, 95% CI = 1.83-2.78, cancers in the digestive system (OR = 1.69, 95% CI = 1.53-1.87 and the urogenital system (OR = 1.73, 95% CI = 1.12-2.67. Furthermore, the results also indicated that the association between the relative telomere length and overall cancer risk was statistically significant in studies of Caucasian subjects, Asian subjects, retrospective designs, hospital-based controls and smaller sample sizes. Funnel plot and Egger's test suggested that there was no publication bias in the current meta-analysis (P = 0.532.The results of this meta-analysis suggest that the presence of shortened telomeres may be a marker for susceptibility to human cancer, but single larger, well-design prospective studies are warranted to confirm these findings.

  15. Procedural and Long-Term Outcomes of Bioresorbable Scaffolds Versus Drug-Eluting Stents in Chronic Total Occlusions: The BONITO Registry (Bioresorbable Scaffolds Versus Drug-Eluting Stents in Chronic Total Occlusions).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzalini, Lorenzo; Giustino, Gennaro; Ojeda, Soledad; Serra, Antonio; La Manna, Alessio; Ly, Hung Q; Bellini, Barbara; Benincasa, Susanna; Chavarría, Jorge; Gheorghe, Livia L; Longo, Giovanni; Miccichè, Eligio; D'Agosta, Guido; Picard, Fabien; Pan, Manuel; Tamburino, Corrado; Latib, Azeem; Carlino, Mauro; Chieffo, Alaide; Colombo, Antonio

    2016-10-01

    There is little evidence regarding the efficacy and safety of bioresorbable scaffolds (BRS) for the percutaneous treatment of chronic total occlusions. We performed a multicenter registry of consecutive chronic total occlusion patients treated with BRS (Absorb; Abbott Vascular) and second-generation drug-eluting stents (DES) at 5 institutions. Long-term target-vessel failure (a composite of cardiac death, target-vessel myocardial infarction, and ischemia-driven target-lesion revascularization) was the primary end point. Inverse probability of treatment weight-adjusted Cox regression was used to account for pretreatment differences between the 2 groups. A total of 537 patients (n=153 BRS; n=384 DES) were included. BRS patients were younger and had lower prevalence of comorbidities. Overall mean Japan-Chronic Total Occlusion (J-CTO) score was 1.43±1.16, with no differences between groups. Procedural success was achieved in 99.3% and 96.6% of BRS- and DES-treated patients, respectively (P=0.07). At a median follow-up of 703 days, there were no differences in target-vessel failure between BRS and DES (4.6% versus 7.7%; P=0.21). By adjusted Cox regression analysis, there were still no significant differences between BRS and DES (hazard ratio, 1.54; 95% confidence interval, 0.69-3.72; P=0.34). However, secondary analyses suggested a signal toward higher ischemia-driven target-lesion revascularization with BRS. Implantation of BRS versus second-generation DES in chronic total occlusion was associated with similar risk of target-vessel failure at long-term follow-up. However, a signal toward increased ischemia-driven target-lesion revascularization with BRS was observed. Large randomized studies should confirm these findings. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. Radiation-induced life shortening in neonatally thymectomized germ-free mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.E.; Howarth, J.L.; Troup, G.M.

    1980-01-01

    Radiation in sufficient amounts is carcinogenic, immunosuppressive, and results in a reduced life span. Similar consequences follow neonatal thymectomy (nTx) in some strains of rodents. The tumorigenic effects of irradiation appear to be partly mediated via suppression of the thymus-dependent portion of the immune response. Our purpose was to determine whether a similar relationship exists for radiation-induced accelerated aging. Female germ-free Charles River mice had neonatal or sham thymectomies within 24 hours of birth. Half of each group was exposed to 700 rads at 6 weeks of age. When mice with histologically malignant tumors were excluded, the combined life-shortening effects of nTx and irradiation were less pronounced than the sum of the individual effects. This suggests that some of the decreased longevity associated with irradiation may be mediated by T-cell injury

  17. Effect of hindlimb unweighting on single soleus fiber maximal shortening velocity and ATPase activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcdonald, K. S.; Fitts, R. H.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of hindlimb unweighting (HU) for 1 to 3 wks on the shortening velocity of a soleus fiber, its ATPase content, and the relative contents of the slow and fast myosin was investigated by measuring fiber force, V(0), ATPase activity, and myosin content in SDS protein profiles of a single rat soleus fiber suspended between a motor arm and a transducer. It was found that HU induces a progressive increase in fiber V(0) that is likely caused, at least in part, by an increase in the fiber's myofibrillar ATPase activity. The HU-induced increases in V(0) and ATPase were associated with the presence of a greater percentage of fast type IIa fibers. However, a large population of fibers after 1, 2, and 3 wks of HU showed increases in V(0) and ATPase but displayed the same myosin protein profile on SDS gels as control fibers.

  18. Irradiation shortens the survival time of red cells deficient in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenasee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westerman, M.P. (Rush Medical College, Chicago, IL); Wald, N.; Diloy-Puray, M.

    1980-03-01

    X radiation of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD)-deficient red cells causes distinct shortening of their survival time. This is accompanied by significant lowering of reduced glutathione content and is not observed in similarly prepared and treated normal cells. The damage is most likely related to irradiation-induced formation of activated oxygen products and to their subsequent effects on the cells. Neither methemoglobin increases nor Heinz body formation were observed, suggesting that hemolysis occurred prior to these changes. The study provides a model for examining the effects of irradiation and activated oxygen on red cells and suggests that patients with G6PD deficiency who receive irradiation could develop severe hemolysis in certain clinical settings.

  19. Effect of shortening kraft pulping integrated with extended oxygen delignification on biorefinery process performance of eucalyptus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Zhang, Chunyun; Hu, Huichao; Chai, Xin-Sheng

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this work was to study the impact of shortening kraft pulping (KP) process integrated with extended oxygen delignification (OD) on the biorefinery process performance of eucalyptus. Data showed that using kraft pulps with high kappa number could improve the delignification efficiency of OD, reduce hexenuronic acid formation in kraft pulps. Pulp viscosity for a target kappa number of ∼10 was comparable to that obtained from conventional KP and OD process. The energy and alkali consumption in the integrated biorefinery process could be optimized when using a KP pulp with kappa number of ∼27. The process could minimize the overall methanol formation, but greater amounts of carbonate and oxalate were formed. The information from this study will be helpful to the future implementation of short-time KP integrated with extended OD process in actual pulp mill applications for biorefinery, aiming at further improvement in the biorefinery effectiveness of hardwood. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Shortened constraint-induced movement therapy in subacute stroke - no effect of using a restraint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brogårdh, Christina; Vestling, Monika; Sjölund, Bengt H

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of using a mitt during shortened constraint-induced movement therapy for patients in the subacute phase after stroke. SUBJECTS: Twenty-four patients with stroke (mean age 57.6 (standard deviation (SD) 8.5) years; average 7 weeks post-stroke) with mild to moderate......, no statistically significant differences between the groups were found in any measures at any point in time. CONCLUSION: In this study, no effect of using a restraint in patients with subacute stroke was found. Thus, this component in the constraint-induced therapy concept seems to be of minor importance...... Scale, the Sollerman hand function test, the 2-Point Discrimination test and Motor Activity Log test. RESULTS: Patients in both groups showed significant improvements in arm and hand motor performance and on self-reported motor ability after 2 weeks of therapy and at 3 months follow-up. However...

  1. Semi-automated detection of fractional shortening in zebrafish embryo heart videos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrat Sara

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Quantifying cardiac functions in model organisms like embryonic zebrafish is of high importance in small molecule screens for new therapeutic compounds. One relevant cardiac parameter is the fractional shortening (FS. A method for semi-automatic quantification of FS in video recordings of zebrafish embryo hearts is presented. The software provides automated visual information about the end-systolic and end-diastolic stages of the heart by displaying corresponding colored lines into a Motion-mode display. After manually marking the ventricle diameters in frames of end-systolic and end-diastolic stages, the FS is calculated. The software was evaluated by comparing the results of the determination of FS with results obtained from another established method. Correlations of 0.96 < r < 0.99 between the two methods were found indicating that the new software provides comparable results for the determination of the FS.

  2. Foot lengthening and shortening during gait: a parameter to investigate foot function?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolwijk, N M; Koenraadt, K L M; Louwerens, J W K; Grim, D; Duysens, J; Keijsers, N L W

    2014-02-01

    Based on the windlass mechanism theory of Hicks, the medial longitudinal arch (MLA) flattens during weight bearing. Simultaneously, foot lengthening is expected. However, changes in foot length during gait and the influence of walking speed has not been investigated yet. The foot length and MLA angle of 34 healthy subjects (18 males, 16 females) at 3 velocities (preferred, low (preferred -0.4 m/s) and fast (preferred +0.4 m/s) speed were investigated with a 3D motion analysis system (VICON(®)). The MLA angle was calculated as the angle between the second metatarsal head, the navicular tuberculum and the heel in the local sagittal plane. Foot length was calculated as the distance between the marker at the heel and the 2nd metatarsal head. A General Linear Model for repeated measures was used to indicate significant differences in MLA angle and foot length between different walking speeds. The foot lengthened during the weight acceptance phase of gait and shortened during propulsion. With increased walking speed, the foot elongated less after heel strike and shortened more during push off. The MLA angle and foot length curve were similar, except between 50% and 80% of the stance phase in which the MLA increases whereas the foot length showed a slight decrease. Foot length seems to represent the Hicks mechanism in the foot and the ability of the foot to bear weight. At higher speeds, the foot becomes relatively stiffer, presumably to act as a lever arm to provide extra propulsion. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Longitudinal telomere shortening and early Alzheimer's disease progression in adults with down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Edmund C; Marchi, Elaine J; Velinov, Milen T; Ye, Lingling; Krinsky-McHale, Sharon J; Zigman, Warren B; Schupf, Nicole; Silverman, Wayne P

    2017-12-01

    Telomere shortening was shown to parallel Alzheimer's disease (AD) associated dementia. By using a dual PNA Probe system we have developed a practical method for comparing telomere length in T-lymphocyte interphases from individuals with Down syndrome (DS) with and without "mild cognitive impairment" (MCI-DS) and demonstrated that telomere length can serve as a valid biomarker for the onset of MCI-DS in this high-risk population. To verify progressive cognitive decline we have now examined sequential changes in telomere length in 10 adults with DS (N = 4 Female, N = 6 Male) developing MCI-DS. Cases were selected blind to telomere length from a sample of adults with DS previously enrolled in a prospective longitudinal study at 18-month intervals with clinical and telomere assessments: (1) MCI-DS group data were collected approximately three years prior to development of MCI-DS; (2) 18 months later; (3) when MCI-DS was first observed. These telomere measures were compared to those from another 10 adults with DS matched by sex and approximate age but without indications of MCI-DS (Controls). PNA (peptide nucleic acid) probes for telomeres together with a chromosome two centromere probe were used. Findings indicated telomere shortening over time for both Cases and Controls. Group differences emerged by 18-months prior to recognition of MCI-DS onset and completely non-overlapping distributions of telomere measures were observed by the time of MCI-DS onset. This study adds to accumulating evidence of the value of telomere length, as an early biomarker of AD progression in adults with Down syndrome. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Analysis of combination drug therapy to develop regimens with shortened duration of treatment for tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George L Drusano

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis remains a worldwide problem, particularly with the advent of multi-drug resistance. Shortening therapy duration for Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a major goal, requiring generation of optimal kill rate and resistance-suppression. Combination therapy is required to attain the goal of shorter therapy.Our objective was to identify a method for identifying optimal combination chemotherapy. We developed a mathematical model for attaining this end. This is accomplished by identifying drug effect interaction (synergy, additivity, antagonism for susceptible organisms and subpopulations resistant to each drug in the combination.We studied the combination of linezolid plus rifampin in our hollow fiber infection model. We generated a fully parametric drug effect interaction mathematical model. The results were subjected to Monte Carlo simulation to extend the findings to a population of patients by accounting for between-patient variability in drug pharmacokinetics.All monotherapy allowed emergence of resistance over the first two weeks of the experiment. In combination, the interaction was additive for each population (susceptible and resistant. For a 600 mg/600 mg daily regimen of linezolid plus rifampin, we demonstrated that >50% of simulated subjects had eradicated the susceptible population by day 27 with the remaining organisms resistant to one or the other drug. Only 4% of patients had complete organism eradication by experiment end.These data strongly suggest that in order to achieve the goal of shortening therapy, the original regimen may need to be changed at one month to a regimen of two completely new agents with resistance mechanisms independent of the initial regimen. This hypothesis which arose from the analysis is immediately testable in a clinical trial.

  5. A novel shortened electrospun nanofiber modified with a 'concentrated' polymer brush

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiaki Yoshikawa, Kun Zhang, Ewelina Zawadzak and Hisatoshi Kobayashi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the fabrication of shortened electrospun polymer fibers with a well-defined concentrated polymer brush. We first prepared electrospun nanofibers from a random copolymer of styrene and 4-vinylbenzyl 2-bromopropionate, with number-average molecular weight Mn=105 200 and weight-average molecular weight Mw=296 700 (Mw/Mn=2.82. The fibers had a diameter of 593±74 nm and contained initiating sites for surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP. Then, SI-ATRP of hydrophilic styrene sodium sulfonate (SSNa was carried out in the presence of a free initiator and the hydrophobic fibers. Gel permeation chromatography confirmed that Mn and Mw/Mn values were almost the same for free polymers and graft polymers. Mn agreed well with the theoretical prediction, and Mw/Mn was relatively low (<1.3 in all the examined cases, indicating that this polymerization proceeded in a living manner. Using the values of the graft amount measured by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, the surface area, and Mn, we calculated the graft density σ as 0.22 chains nm−2. This value was nearly equal to the density obtained on silicon wafers (σ=0.24 chains nm−2, which is categorized into the concentrated brush regime. Finally, we mechanically cut the fibers with a concentrated poly(SSNa brush by a homogenizer. With increasing cutting time, the fiber length became shorter and more homogenous (11±17 μm after 3 h. The shortened fibers exhibited excellent water dispersibility owing to the hydrophilic poly(SSNa brush layer.

  6. Unloaded shortening velocity of voluntarily and electrically activated human dorsiflexor muscles in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazushige Sasaki

    Full Text Available We have previously shown that unloaded shortening velocity (V(0 of human plantar flexors can be determined in vivo, by applying the "slack test" to submaximal voluntary contractions (J Physiol 567:1047-1056, 2005. In the present study, to investigate the effect of motor unit recruitment pattern on V(0 of human muscle, we modified the slack test and applied this method to both voluntary and electrically elicited contractions of dorsiflexors. A series of quick releases (i.e., rapid ankle joint rotation driven by an electrical dynamometer was applied to voluntarily activated dorsiflexor muscles at three different contraction intensities (15, 50, and 85% of maximal voluntary contraction; MVC. The quick-release trials were also performed on electrically activated dorsiflexor muscles, in which three stimulus conditions were used: submaximal (equal to 15%MVC 50-Hz stimulation, supramaximal 50-Hz stimulation, and supramaximal 20-Hz stimulation. Modification of the slack test in vivo resulted in good reproducibility of V(0, with an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.87 (95% confidence interval: 0.68-0.95. Regression analysis showed that V(0 of voluntarily activated dorsiflexor muscles significantly increased with increasing contraction intensity (R(2 = 0.52, P<0.001. By contrast, V(0 of electrically activated dorsiflexor muscles remained unchanged (R(2<0.001, P = 0.98 among three different stimulus conditions showing a large variation of tetanic torque. These results suggest that the recruitment pattern of motor units, which is quite different between voluntary and electrically elicited contractions, plays an important role in determining shortening velocity of human skeletal muscle in vivo.

  7. Evidence in criminal procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Ferrua

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the three components of the evidence operation: proof premises or evidence in the strict sense, with particular regard to the distinction between evidence declaration and critical/circumstantial evidence; the propositions to be proved, principal or incidental, final or intermediate; the act of proving, connoted by the rule of beyond all reasonable doubt. While the first two terms vary according to the procedural context, the third remains indefectible, since it is incongruous to consider any proposition to be 'proven' while there is a reasonable reason to doubt it. With regard to the distribution of the burden of proof, the structure of the case and its legal qualification, whether substantial or procedural, are decisive. Therefore, it is possible to identify, for each decision alternative, the term 'marked', which conveys the proposition to be proved, and the opposite 'consequential' term, which derives from the failure to reach the proof: for example, with respect to the main object in trial, the term 'marked' is the conviction, the term 'consequential' the acquittal.

  8. A Comparative Field Monitoring of Column Shortenings in Tall Buildings Using Wireless and Wired Sensor Network Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungho Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A comparative field measurement for column shortening of tall buildings is presented in this study, with a focus on the reliability and stability of a wireless sensor network. A wireless sensor network was used for monitoring the column shortenings of a 58-story building under construction. The wireless sensor network, which was composed of sensor and master nodes, employed the ultra-high-frequency band and CDMA communication methods. To evaluate the reliability and stability of the wireless sensor network system, the column shortenings were also measured using a conventional wired monitoring system. Two vibration wire gauges were installed in each of the selected 7 columns and 3 walls. Measurements for selected columns and walls were collected for 270 days after casting of the concrete. The results measured by the wireless sensor network were compared with the results of the conventional method. The strains and column shortenings measured using both methods showed good agreement for all members. It was verified that the column shortenings of tall buildings could be monitored using the wireless sensor network system with its reliability and stability.

  9. Comparison of EMG during passive stretching and shortening phases of each muscle for the investigation of parkinsonian rigidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Yuri; Kim, Ji-Won; Kim, Ji-Sun; Koh, Seong-Beom; Eom, Gwang-Moon; Lim, Tae-Hong

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis in the literature that torque resistance of parkinsonian rigidity is the difference between the independent contributions of stretched and shortened muscles. The hypothesis was tested using muscle-specific stretch-shortening (MSSS) EMG ratio in this study. Nineteen patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) and 18 healthy subjects (the mean age comparable to that of patients) participated in this study. The EMG activity was measured in the four muscles involved in wrist joint movement, i.e. flexor carpi radialis, flexor carpi ulnaris, extensor carpi radialis and extensor carpi ulnaris. The passive flexion-extension movement with a range of ±30∘ was applied at wrist joint. Root mean squared (RMS) mean was calculated from the envelope of the EMG for each of stretching and shortening phases. MSSS EMG ratio was defined as the ratio of RMS EMG of stretching phase and RMS EMG of shortening phase of a single muscle, and it was calculated for each muscle. MSSS EMG ratios were smaller than one in all muscles. These results indicate that all wrist muscles generate greater mean EMG during shortening than during stretching. Therefore, the torque resistance of parkinsonian rigidity cannot be explained as the simple summation of independent antagonistic torque pair.

  10. Intraoperative blood salvage may shorten the lifespan of red blood cells within 3 days postoperatively: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Xin-Yi; Zuo, Shan-Shan; Meng, Wen-Tong; Zhang, Jie; Huang, Qin; Gou, Da-Ming

    2017-09-01

    Intraoperative blood salvage (IBS) recovers most lost blood, and is widely used in the clinic. It is unclear why IBS does not reduce long-term postoperative requirements for red blood cells (RBCs), and 1 possibility is that IBS affects RBC lifespan. Prospectively enrolled patients who underwent spine, pelvic, or femur surgery not involving allogeneic RBC transfusion were grouped based on whether they received IBS or not. Volumes of blood lost and of RBCs salvaged during surgery were recorded. Total blood cell counts, levels of plasma-free hemoglobin, and CD235a-positive granulocytes were determined perioperatively. Although intraoperative blood loss was higher in the IBS group (n = 45) than in the non-IBS group (n = 52) (P < .001), hemoglobin levels were similar between groups (P = .125) at the end of surgery. Hemoglobin levels increased in non-IBS patients (4 ± 11 g/L), but decreased in IBS patients (-7 ± 12 g/L) over the first 3 postoperative days. Nadir hemoglobin levels after surgery were higher in the non-IBS group (107 ± 12 g/L) than in the IBS group (91 ± 12 g/L). Salvaged RBC volume correlated with hemoglobin decrease (r = 0.422, P = .004). In multivariate analysis, salvaged RBC volume was an independent risk factor for hemoglobin decrease (adjusted odds ratio 1.002, 95% confidence interval 1.001-1.004, P = .008). Flow cytometry showed the numbers of CD235a-positive granulocytes after surgery to be higher in the IBS group than in the non-IBS group (P < .05). IBS may shorten the lifespan of RBCs by triggering their engulfment upon re-infusion (China Clinical Trial Registry ChiCTR-OCH-14005140).

  11. Consequences of acute oxidative stress in Leishmania amazonensis: From telomere shortening to the selection of the fittest parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Marcelo Santos; Segatto, Marcela; Pavani, Raphael Souza; Gutierrez-Rodrigues, Fernanda; Bispo, Vanderson da Silva; de Medeiros, Marisa Helena Gennari; Calado, Rodrigo Tocantins; Elias, Maria Carolina; Cano, Maria Isabel Nogueira

    2017-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a spectrum of diseases caused by parasites of the genus Leishmania that affects millions of people around the world. During infection, the parasites use different strategies to survive the host's defenses, including overcoming exposure to reactive oxidant species (ROS), responsible for causing damage to lipids, proteins and DNA. This damage especially affects telomeres, which frequently results in genome instability, senescence and cell death. Telomeres are the physical ends of the chromosomes composed of repetitive DNA coupled with proteins, whose function is to protect the chromosomes termini and avoid end-fusion and nucleolytic degradation. In this work, we induced acute oxidative stress in promastigote forms of Leishmania amazonensis by treating parasites with 2mM hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) for 1h, which was able to increase intracellular ROS levels. In addition, oxidative stress induced DNA damage, as confirmed by 8-oxodGuo quantification and TUNEL assays and the dissociation of LaRPA-1 from the 3' G-overhang, leading to telomere shortening. Moreover, LaRPA-1 was observed to interact with newly formed C-rich single-stranded telomeric DNA, probably as a consequence of the DNA damage response. Nonetheless, acute oxidative stress caused the death of some of the L. amazonensis population and induced cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase in survivor parasites, which were able to continue proliferating and replicating DNA and became more resistant to oxidative stress. Taken together, these results suggest that adaptation occurs through the selection of the fittest parasites in terms of repairing oxidative DNA damage at telomeres and maintaining genome stability in a stressful environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Characterization of a Chinese KCNQ1 mutation (R259H) that shortens repolarization and causes short QT syndrome 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhi-Juan; Huang, Yun; Fu, Yi-Cheng; Zhao, Xiao-Jing; Zhu, Chao; Zhang, Yu; Xu, Bin; Zhu, Qing-Lei; Li, Yang

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate the association between a KCNQ1 mutation, R259H, and short QT syndrome (SQTS) and to explore the electrophysiological mechanisms underlying their association. We performed genetic screening of SQTS genes in 25 probands and their family members (63 patients). We used direct sequencing to screen the exons and intron-exon boundaries of candidate genes that encode ion channels which contribute to the repolarization of the ventricular action potential, including KCNQ1, KCNH2, KCNE1, KCNE2, KCNJ2, CACNA1c, CACNB2b and CACNA2D1. In one of the 25 SQTS probands screened, we discovered a KCNQ1 mutation, R259H. We cloned R259H and transiently expressed it in HEK-293 cells; then, currents were recorded using whole cell patch clamp techniques. R259H-KCNQ1 showed significantly increased current density, which was approximately 3-fold larger than that of wild type (WT) after a depolarizing pulse at 1 s. The steady state voltage dependence of the activation and inactivation did not show significant differences between the WT and R259H mutation (P > 0.05), whereas the time constant of deactivation was markedly prolonged in the mutant compared with the WT in terms of the test potentials, which indicated that the deactivation of R259H was markedly slower than that of the WT. These results suggested that the R259H mutation can effectively increase the slowly activated delayed rectifier potassium current (I Ks) in phase 3 of the cardiac action potential, which may be an infrequent cause of QT interval shortening. R259H is a gain-of-function mutation of the KCNQ1 channel that is responsible for SQTS2. This is the first time that the R259H mutation was detected in Chinese people.

  13. From Conservative to Dissipative Systems Through Quadratic Change of Time, with Application to the Curve-Shortening Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenier, Yann; Duan, Xianglong

    2018-02-01

    We provide several examples of dissipative systems that can be obtained from conservative ones through a simple, quadratic, change of time. A typical example is the curve-shortening flow in {R^d}, which is a particular case of mean-curvature flow with a co-dimension higher than one (except in the case d = 2). Through such a change of time, this flow can be formally derived from the conservative model of vibrating strings obtained from the Nambu-Goto action. Using the concept of "relative entropy" (or "modulated energy"), borrowed from the theory of hyperbolic systems of conservation laws, we introduce a notion of generalized solutions, that we call dissipative solutions, for the curve-shortening flow. For given initial conditions, the set of generalized solutions is convex and compact, if not empty. Smooth solutions to the curve-shortening flow are always unique in this setting.

  14. Report of the Federal Government concerning feasible measures for expediting the procedure under Atomic Energy Law for licensing installations of the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The measures mentioned in the report aim at shortening and expediting of the licensing procedure for installations of supply and waste disposal of nuclear power stations (e.g. manufacturing plants for fuel elements, reprocessing plants). At the same time improved conditions are created for reducing impediments of investment. After coordination with the authorities of the Laender the Federal Government proposes a set of measures accelerating the procedure. Primarily the set contains: - improved coordination of all authorities participating in the procedure, as for instance by a harmonized plan of the course of the whole project at the beginning of the licensing procedure under atomic energy law, - more precise information on the part of the authorities on the documents to be submitted by applicants, - information concerning safety requirements for the individual installations, to be required by the authorities at the beginning of the procedure, and not during the course of the procedure, because otherwise among others a long-term planning of the project by the applicant is made more difficult. (orig./HSCH) [de

  15. Matrix effects on the crystallization behaviour of butter and roll-in shortening in laminated bakery products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattice, Kristin D; Marangoni, Alejandro G

    2017-06-01

    Two hydrogenated roll-in shortenings (A & B), one non-hydrogenated roll-in shortening and butter were used to prepare croissants. The impact of the laminated dough matrix on fat crystallization was then investigated using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance (p-NMR) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The fat contained within a croissant matrix has never before been analyzed using these techniques. In each case, XRD revealed that the polymorphism of a roll-in fat will be different when baked within the dough matrix than when simply heated and cooled on its own. Both hydrogenated roll-in shortenings and butter experienced only minor changes, largely retaining their β' polymorphs, but the non-hydrogenated shortening experienced significant conversion from β' to the β form. However, this conversion did not take place immediately upon cooling, but after approximately 24h of storage time. The fat contained within the croissants exhibited a significantly lower SFC than the same fats in bulk. Further, DSC results demonstrated that a greater temperature was required to completely melt all of the fat in a croissant than the same fat in bulk, observed visually as broader peaks in the melting endotherms. Analysis of croissant firmness over storage time, measured as the maximum force required to cut a croissant was used as an indication of potential sensory consequences. Results suggested that only croissants prepared with non-hydrogenated shortening experienced significant changes in firmness over one week of storage. These results indicate that there is an interaction between the shortenings and the ingredients of the croissant matrix, and given the differences observed between roll-in fats used, the extent of interaction is potentially influenced by the composition of the roll-in fat itself. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The influence of sex on life shortening and tumor induction in CBA/Cne mice exposed to x rays or fission neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Majo, V.; Coppola, M.; Rebessi, S.; Saran, A.

    1996-01-01

    An experimental study of male and female CBA/Cne mice was set up at Casaccia primarily to investigate the influence of sex on long-term survival and tumor induction after exposure to high- and low-LET radiation. Mice were whole-body-irradiated at 3 months of age with fission-neutron doses of 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, 1.2 and 1.8 Gy at the RSV-TAPIRO reactor (mean neutron energy 0.4 MeV, in terms of kerma, y D = 51.5 KeV/μm), or with 250 KVp X-ray doses of 1, 3, 5 and 7 Gy. Control and irradiated animals were then followed for their entire life span. As a general finding, male CBA/Cne mice appear more susceptible to tumori-genesis than females. In particular, the incidences of induced acute myeloid leukemia and malignant lymphomas are significant only in male mice. Benign and malignant solid tumors of many types are observed in mice of both sexes, the most frequent being in the lung, liver and ovary. However, evidence for a radiation response is limited to the case of Harderian gland neoplasms. In addition, a comparison of the observed frequency of all irradiated compared to unirradiated animals bearing solid tumors shows that the total tumor occurrence is not altered markedly by radiation exposure. A decrease in survival time is observed for both sexes and radiation types and correlates well with increasing dose. Moreover, both sex and radiation quality appear to influence the life shortening. A similar dose dependence of survival time is found when tumor-free animals alone are considered, suggesting a non-specific component of life-shortening. 18 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs

  17. Effect of Pre-gelatinized Wheat Starch on Physical and Rheological Properties of Shortened Cake Batter and Cake Texture

    OpenAIRE

    F. Ebrahimi; B. G. Tarzi; M. Asghari

    2016-01-01

    The focus of this study was the effect of 1.5%, 3% and 4.5% pre-gelatinized wheat starch (based on the total weight of cake batter) on improving the qualitative properties of shortened cake batter. Specific volume and viscosity of the shortened cake batter were measured for controls, 1.5%, 3% and 4.5% gelatinized starch; some important properties such as texture and sensory evaluation were examined. By increasing pre-gelatinized wheat starch used in the batter, a significant difference was ob...

  18. A Late Quaternary shortening rate for the frontal thrust of the Andean Precordillera north of Mendoza

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, S.; Kuhlmann, J.; Hetzel, R.; Mingorance, F.; Ramos, V. A.

    2009-12-01

    Although large historical earthquakes occurred in the Andean back-arc region between 28° and 34°S - for instance Mendoza was destroyed by an earthquake of magnitude MS = 7.0 in 1861 - the slip rates of active faults remain unknown. We report a slip rate for the 50-km-long Las Penas thrust, which constitutes the frontal thrust of the Precordillera. In its southern part, a well preserved fluvial terrace along La Escondida Creek (Costa et al., 2000) is displaced vertically by 10.6 ± 0.7 m as documented by several fault scarp profiles. Apart from radiocarbon dating of plant remnants, three different approaches for 10Be exposure dating have been applied to constrain the age of the terrace. Amalgamated sandstone pebbles (corrected for an inherited 10Be component using similar pebbles from the active creek) and a depth profile obtained from four sand samples yield 10Be exposure ages of 12.2 ± 1.5 and 11.3 ± 2.0 kyr, respectively. Both ages are in excellent agreement with the 14C age of 12.61 ± 0.20 cal kyr BP. In contrast, 10Be ages of five sandstone boulders vary significantly and exceed the age of the terrace by 10 to 70 kyr, which demonstrates that the widely used assumption of a negligible inherited component is not valid here. The age of the river terrace combined with the vertical fault offset yields an uplift rate of ~0.8 mm/yr for the Las Penas thrust. Combined with the fault dip of 25°, we determine a Late Quaternary horizontal shortening rate of ~1.8 mm/yr, which is about 40% of the GPS derived shortening rate of 4.5 ± 1.7 mm/yr in the back-arc region of the Andes (Brooks et al., 2003). References Brooks, B.A., Bevis, M., Smalley, R., Kendrick, E., Manceda, R., Lauria, E., Maturana, R. & Araujo, M. (2003): Crustal motion in the Southern Andes (26° - 36°S): Do the Andes behave like a microplate? Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 4 (10), pp. 14, 1085, doi 10.1029/2003GC000505. Costa, C.H., Gardini, C.E., Diederix, H., Cortés, J.M. (2000): The Andean orogenic

  19. 3D T2-weighted imaging to shorten multiparametric prostate MRI protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanec, Stephan H; Lazar, Mathias; Wengert, Georg J; Bickel, Hubert; Spick, Claudio; Susani, Martin; Shariat, Shahrokh; Clauser, Paola; Baltzer, Pascal A T

    2018-04-01

    To determine whether 3D acquisitions provide equivalent image quality, lesion delineation quality and PI-RADS v2 performance compared to 2D acquisitions in T2-weighted imaging of the prostate at 3 T. This IRB-approved, prospective study included 150 consecutive patients (mean age 63.7 years, 35-84 years; mean PSA 7.2 ng/ml, 0.4-31.1 ng/ml). Two uroradiologists (R1, R2) independently rated image quality and lesion delineation quality using a five-point ordinal scale and assigned a PI-RADS score for 2D and 3D T2-weighted image data sets. Data were compared using visual grading characteristics (VGC) and receiver operating characteristics (ROC)/area under the curve (AUC) analysis. Image quality was similarly good to excellent for 2D T2w (mean score R1, 4.3 ± 0.81; R2, 4.7 ± 0.83) and 3D T2w (mean score R1, 4.3 ± 0.82; R2, 4.7 ± 0.69), p = 0.269. Lesion delineation was rated good to excellent for 2D (mean score R1, 4.16 ± 0.81; R2, 4.19 ± 0.92) and 3D T2w (R1, 4.19 ± 0.94; R2, 4.27 ± 0.94) without significant differences (p = 0.785). ROC analysis showed an equivalent performance for 2D (AUC 0.580-0.623) and 3D (AUC 0.576-0.629) T2w (p > 0.05, respectively). Three-dimensional acquisitions demonstrated equivalent image and lesion delineation quality, and PI-RADS v2 performance, compared to 2D in T2-weighted imaging of the prostate. Three-dimensional T2-weighted imaging could be used to considerably shorten prostate MRI protocols in clinical practice. • 3D shows equivalent image quality and lesion delineation compared to 2D T2w. • 3D T2w and 2D T2w image acquisition demonstrated comparable diagnostic performance. • Using a single 3D T2w acquisition may shorten the protocol by 40%. • Combined with short DCE, multiparametric protocols of 10 min are feasible.

  20. Reliability and consistency of plantarflexor stretch-shortening cycle function using an adapted force sledge apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furlong, Laura-Anne M; Harrison, Andrew J

    2013-01-01

    There are various limitations to existing methods of studying plantarflexor stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) function and muscle-tendon unit (MTU) mechanics, predominantly related to measurement validity and reliability. This study utilizes an innovative adaptation to a force sledge which isolates the plantarflexors and ankle for analysis. The aim of this study was to determine the sledge loading protocol to be used, most appropriate method of data analysis and measurement reliability in a group of healthy, non-injured subjects. Twenty subjects (11 males, 9 females; age: 23.5 ±2.3 years; height: 1.73 ±0.08 m; mass: 74.2 ±11.3 kg) completed 11 impacts at five different loadings rated on a scale of perceived exertion from 1 to 5, where 5 is a loading that the subject could only complete the 11 impacts using the adapted sledge. Analysis of impacts 4–8 or 5–7 using loading 2 provided consistent results that were highly reliable (single intra-class correlation, ICC > 0.85, average ICC > 0.95) and replicated kinematics found in hopping and running. Results support use of an adapted force sledge apparatus as an ecologically valid, reliable method of investigating plantarflexor SSC function and MTU mechanics in a dynamic controlled environment. (paper)

  1. Lower Leg Morphology and Stretch-Shortening Cycle Performance of Dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Paige E; van Werkhoven, Herman; Merritt, Edward K; McBride, Jeffrey M

    2018-01-24

    Greater levels of bone ultimate fracture load, bone stress-strain index, muscle cross-sectional area, and maximal voluntary isometric plantarflexion strength of the lower leg may be adaptations from chronic exposure to stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) actions. Dancers, a population that habitually performs SSC movements primarily about the ankle-joint, may serve as a novel population to gain broader understanding of SSC function. Ten female collegiate dancers and ten untrained controls underwent peripheral quantitative computed tomography scans of both lower legs and performed maximal voluntary isometric plantarflexions, countermovement hops and drop hops at 20 cm, 30 cm and 40 cm on a custom-made inclined sled. Dancers had greater right and left ultimate fracture load values and significantly (p ≤ 0.05) greater left leg stress-strain index than controls. Dancers had significantly larger right and left muscle cross-sectional area and maximal voluntary isometric plantarflexion values and hopped significantly higher during all hopping conditions in comparison to controls. Average force- and power-time curves revealed significantly greater relative force and power measurements during the concentric phase for all hopping conditions in dancers when compared to controls. This investigation provides evidence that dance may be a stimulus for positive muscle and bone adaptations, strength levels and enhanced SSC capabilities.

  2. Effects of Gender on Electrocardiography in Subjects with Shortened Ventricular Depolarization (QRS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Fatih; Aktoz, Meryem; Altun, Armagan; Gursul, Erdal; Aksit, Ercan

    2016-05-01

    Distinctions between electrocardiograms of female and male subjects have been recognized for many years. Due to these differences, arrhythmias in each gender have a tendency to differ. In our study, we aimed to compare electrocardiography intervals between men and women with short QRS durations. Subjects with a QRS interval of ≤80 ms were included in the study. Patients were grouped by gender and the parameters were compared. Patients with diseases that might affect QRS interval and/or who were on medications were excluded. The electrocardiogram intervals of the subjects were measured, Holter monitors were placed, and parameters of time-based heart rate variation were analyzed. A total of 100 patients (55% female) were included in the study. According to statistical analysis, no significant difference between the genders was observed in the heart rate or in the parameters, such as QT, JT, JTp, and TpTe intervals or heart rate-corrected QTc, JTc, JTpc, and TpTec intervals, which affect repolarization and are known to be arrhythmia precursors by shortening or elongation. No statistically significant difference was found between the two groups for the parameters of heart rate variability time measures (SDNN, SDANN, rMSSD, and pNN50). We observed that when the QRS interval gets shorter, repolarization differences between the genders disappear. New studies are required on this subject. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. A diversity compression and combining technique based on channel shortening for cooperative networks

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Syed Imtiaz

    2012-02-01

    The cooperative relaying process with multiple relays needs proper coordination among the communicating and the relaying nodes. This coordination and the required capabilities may not be available in some wireless systems where the nodes are equipped with very basic communication hardware. We consider a scenario where the source node transmits its signal to the destination through multiple relays in an uncoordinated fashion. The destination captures the multiple copies of the transmitted signal through a Rake receiver. We analyze a situation where the number of Rake fingers N is less than that of the relaying nodes L. In this case, the receiver can combine N strongest signals out of L. The remaining signals will be lost and act as interference to the desired signal components. To tackle this problem, we develop a novel signal combining technique based on channel shortening principles. This technique proposes a processing block before the Rake reception which compresses the energy of L signal components over N branches while keeping the noise level at its minimum. The proposed scheme saves the system resources and makes the received signal compatible to the available hardware. Simulation results show that it outperforms the selection combining scheme. © 2012 IEEE.

  4. Simulative Global Warming Negatively Affects Cotton Fiber Length through Shortening Fiber Rapid Elongation Duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yanjiao; Yang, Jiashuo; Hu, Wei; Zahoor, Rizwan; Chen, Binglin; Zhao, Wenqing; Meng, Yali; Zhou, Zhiguo

    2017-08-23

    Global warming could possibly increase the air temperature by 1.8-4.0 °C in the coming decade. Cotton fiber is an essential raw material for the textile industry. Fiber length, which was found negatively related to the excessively high temperature, determines yarn quality to a great extent. To investigate the effects of global warming on cotton fiber length and its mechaism, cottons grown in artificially elevated temperature (34.6/30.5 °C, T day /T night ) and ambient temperature (31.6/27.3 °C) regions have been investigated. Becaused of the high sensitivities of enzymes V-ATPase, PEPC, and genes GhXTH1 and GhXTH2 during fiber elongation when responding to high temperature stress, the fiber rapid elongation duration (FRED) has been shortened, which led to a significant suppression on final fiber length. Through comprehensive analysis, T night had a great influence on fiber elongation, which means T n could be deemed as an ideal index for forecasting the degree of high temperature stress would happen to cotton fiber property in future. Therefore, we speculate the global warming would bring unfavorable effects on cotton fiber length, which needs to take actions in advance for minimizing the loss in cotton production.

  5. The Shortened Dental Arch concept from the perspective of Swedish General Dental Practitioners: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korduner, Eva-Karin; Söderfeldt, Björn; Bagewitz, Ingrid Collin; Von Steyern, Vult; Wolf, Eva

    2016-01-01

    The aim was to study the cognizance of and attitudes towards the Shortened Dental Arch (SDA) concept among Swedish General Dental Practitioners (GDPs) and the application of the SDA concept in their treatment planning using Qualitative Content Analysis. Eleven Swedish GDPs were purposively selected and all agreed to participate. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted and covered treatment considerations concerning two patient cases and the participants' reflections regarding pre-formulated statements about the SDA concept. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyze this data.The emerging theme was "the SDA concept is irrelevant" in the sense of the GDPs disregarding treatments providing dentitions with loss of posterior teeth. There was a strong reluctance to extract teeth, without consideration of the SDA concept, and a firmly patient-focused attitude towards the needs, age and financial situation of the patients. Within the limitations of this study, Swedish GDPs show little or no cognizance of the SDA concept and it does not seem to be applied in their treatment planning. The results show that the qualitative methodology can be beneficial for further understanding of cognizance and attitudes towards the SDA concept.

  6. Urban environment shortens telomere length in nestling great tits, Parus major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmón, P; Nilsson, J F; Nord, A; Bensch, S; Isaksson, C

    2016-06-01

    Urban environments are expanding rapidly, and with urbanization come both challenges and opportunities for wildlife. Challenges include combating the anthropogenic disturbances such as light, noise and air pollution and lower availability of natural food sources. The benefits are many, including the availability of anthropogenic food sources, breeding boxes and warmer temperatures. Thus, depending on the context, urbanization can have both positive and negative effects on fitness related traits. It is well known that early-life conditions can have lifelong implications on fitness; little is however known about development in urban environments. We reciprocally cross-fostered urban and rural nestling great tits (Parus major L.) to study how growing up in an urban versus rural habitat affected telomere length (TL)-a suggested biomarker of longevity. We show, for the first time, that growing up in an urban environment significantly shortens TL, independently of natal origin (i.e. urban or rural). This implies that the urban environment imposes a challenge to developing birds, with potentially irreversible effects on lifespan. © 2016 The Author(s).

  7. Rapid estimate of adult literacy in medicine: a shortened screening instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, T C; Long, S W; Jackson, R H; Mayeaux, E J; George, R B; Murphy, P W; Crouch, M A

    1993-06-01

    This study was conducted to validate a shortened version of the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine (REALM). This screening instrument is designed to be used in public health and primary care settings to identify patients with low reading levels. It provides reading grade estimates for patients who read below a ninth-grade level. The REALM can be administered in one to two minutes by personnel with minimal training. Two hundred and three patients in four university hospital clinics (internal medicine, family practice, ambulatory care, and obstetrics/gynecology) were given the REALM and three other standardized reading tests: the reading recognition section of the Peabody Individual Achievement Test-Revised (PIAT-R), the Wide Range Achievement Test-Revised (WRAT-R), and the Slosson Oral Reading Test-Revised (SORT-R). One hundred inmates at a state prison were also given the REALM twice, one week apart, to determine test-retest reliability. The REALM correlated well with the three other tests. (Correlation coefficients were 0.97 [PIAT-R], 0.96 [SORT-R], and 0.88 [WRAT-R].) All correlations were significant at P < .0001. Test-retest reliability was 0.99 (P < .001). The REALM provides an estimate of patient reading ability, displays excellent concurrent validity with standardized reading tests, and is a practical instrument for busy primary care settings.

  8. Efficacy of a posterior implant support for extra shortened dental arches: a biomechanical model analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Y; Sogo, M; Tsutsumi, S

    2005-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the efficacy of utilizing implants underneath distal free-end denture bases to establish a stable occlusal support for extreme shortened dental arches (ESDA). The authors constructed a two-dimensional finite element model of the ESDA where only lower anterior teeth remain. Posterior occlusal support was provided by a fixed partial denture with an osseointegrated implant (IFPD), fixed cantilever partial denture (CFPD), or a removable partial denture with or without an implant underneath (IRPD and RPD). A dentate mandible model was the control. When muscle vectors simulating clenching force were applied, stress levels on the temporal bone surface area under each configuration were compared, to evaluate the efficacy in establishing the occlusal support. The largest stress increase in temporal bone was found in the ESDA situation followed by the RPD. The least amount of stress increase was found with the IFPD followed by IRPD when the implant was placed in the molar region. The stress increase with IRPD was about 20-45% of the amount with RPD. Our results suggest that IFPD provides most favourable and stable occlusal support, however, IRPD with a single posterior implant also provide stable occlusal support with reducing the stress levels in the temporomandibular joint.

  9. A signal combining technique based on channel shortening for cooperative sensor networks

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Syed Imtiaz

    2010-06-01

    The cooperative relaying process needs proper coordination among the communicating and the relaying nodes. This coordination and the required capabilities may not be available in some wireless systems, e.g. wireless sensor networks where the nodes are equipped with very basic communication hardware. In this paper, we consider a scenario where the source node transmits its signal to the destination through multiple relays in an uncoordinated fashion. The destination can capture the multiple copies of the transmitted signal through a Rake receiver. We analyze a situation where the number of Rake fingers N is less than that of the relaying nodes L. In this case, the receiver can combine N strongest signals out of L. The remaining signals will be lost and act as interference to the desired signal components. To tackle this problem, we develop a novel signal combining technique based on channel shortening. This technique proposes a processing block before the Rake reception which compresses the energy of L signal components over N branches while keeping the noise level at its minimum. The proposed scheme saves the system resources and makes the received signal compatible to the available hardware. Simulation results show that it outperforms the selection combining scheme. ©2010 IEEE.

  10. Measurement characteristics of the childhood Asthma-Control Test and a shortened, child-only version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bime, Christian; Gerald, Joe K; Wei, Christine Y; Holbrook, Janet T; Teague, William G; Wise, Robert A; Gerald, Lynn B

    2016-10-20

    The childhood Asthma-Control Test (C-ACT) is validated for assessing asthma control in paediatric asthma. Among children aged 4-11 years, the C-ACT requires the simultaneous presence of both parent and child. There is an unmet need for a tool that can be used to assess asthma control in children when parents or caregivers are not present such as in the school setting. We assessed the psychometric properties and estimated the minimally important difference (MID) of the C-ACT and a modified version, comprising only the child responses (C-ACTc). Asthma patients aged 6-11 years (n=161) from a previously completed multicenter randomised trial were included. Demographic information, spirometry and questionnaire scores were obtained at baseline and during follow-up. Participants or their guardians kept a daily asthma diary. Internal consistency reliabilities of the C-ACT and C-ACTc were 0.76 and 0.67 (Cronbach's α), respectively. Test-retest reliabilities of the C-ACT and C-ACTc were 0.72 and 0.66 (intra-class correlation), respectively. Significant correlations were noted between C-ACT scores and ACQ scores (Spearman's correlation r=-0.56, 95% CI (-0.66, -0.44), Pasthma patients aged 6-11 years, the C-ACT had good psychometric properties. The psychometric properties of a shortened child-only version (C-ACTc), although acceptable, are not as strong.

  11. The association of occupational metals exposure and oxidative damage, telomere shortening in fitness equipments manufacturing workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Jiunn-Liang; Cheng, Yu-Jung; Liu, Guan-Cen; Hsin, I-Lun; Chen, Hsiu-Ling

    2017-08-08

    The welding is the major working process in fitness equipment manufacturing industry, and International Agency for Research on Cancer has classified welding fumes as possibly carcinogenic to humans (Group 2B). The present study aimed to evaluate associations between the occupational exposure of metals and oxidative damage and telomere length shortening in workers involved in the manufacture of fitness equipment. The blood metal concentrations were monitored and malondialdehyde (MDA), alkaline Comet assay was determined as oxidative damage in 117 workers from two representative fitness equipment manufacturing plants. MDA levels varied according to workers' roles at the manufacturing plants, and showed a trend as cutting>painting>welding>administration workers. Welders had marginally shorter average telomere lengths than the administrative workers (p=0.058). Cr and Mn levels were significantly greater in welders than they were in administrative workers. There were significantly positive correlations between MDA and Cr and Mn levels, the major components of welding fume. However, the association would be eliminated if co-metals exposure were considered simultaneously. In future, telomere length and MDA might be potential biomarkers for predicting cardiovascular disease in co-metals exposed workers.

  12. Remote ischaemic preconditioning shortens QT intervals during exercise in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caru, Maxime; Lalonde, François; Gravel, Hugo; Daigle, Chantal; Tournoux, François; Jacquemet, Vincent; Curnier, Daniel

    2016-11-01

    The protective action of remote ischaemic preconditioning (RIPC) has been demonstrated in the context of surgical interventions in cardiology. Application of RIPC to sports performance has been proposed, but its effect on the electrocardiogram (ECG) during exercise remains unknown. This exploratory study aims to measure the changes in ventricular repolarization observed during exercise following RIPC in healthy subjects. In an experimental randomized crossover study, 17 subjects underwent two bouts of constant load exercise tests at 75% and 115% of gas exchange threshold (GET). Prior to exercise, they were allocated to either control or RIPC intervention with four cycles of 5 min of ischaemia followed by 5 min of reperfusion. ECG was continuously recorded during the protocol. QT and RR intervals were measured every 30 s (on an average tracing of the preceding 10 s). Although the time course of RR intervals did not differ between the two interventions (p = .56 at 75% GET and p = .74 at 115% GET), a significant shortening of QT intervals (measured from Q onset to T end) was observed during exercise (mean ± standard deviation of RIPC vs. -32 ± 19 ms at 75% GET (p exercise.

  13. Acetyl-L-carnitine suppresses thyroid hormone-induced and spontaneous anuran tadpole tail shortening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanada, Hideki; Kobuchi, Hirotsugu; Yamamoto, Masanao; Kashiwagi, Keiko; Katsu, Kenjiro; Utsumi, Toshihiko; Kashiwagi, Akihiko; Sasaki, Junzo; Inoue, Masayasu; Utsumi, Kozo

    2013-02-01

    Mitochondrial membrane permeability transition (MPT) plays a crucial role in apoptotic tail shortening during anuran metamorphosis. L-carnitine is known to shuttle free fatty acids (FFAs) from the cytosol into mitochondria matrix for β-oxidation and energy production, and in a previous study we found that treatment with L-carnitine suppresses 3, 3', 5-triiodothyronine (T3 ) and FFA-induced MPT by reducing the level of FFAs. In the present study we focus on acetyl-L-carnitine, which is also involved in fatty acid oxidation, to determine its effect on T3 -induced tail regression in Rana rugosa tadpoles and spontaneous tail regression in Xenopus laevis tadpoles. The ladder-like DNA profile and increases in caspase-3 and caspase-9 indicative of apoptosis in the tails of T3 -treated tadpoles were found to be suppressed by the addition of acetyl-L-carnitine. Likewise, acetyl-L-carnitine was found to inhibit thyroid hormone regulated spontaneous metamorphosis in X. laevis tadpoles, accompanied by decreases in caspase and phospholipase A2 activity, as well as non-ladder-like DNA profiles. These findings support our previous conclusion that elevated levels of FFAs initiate MPT and activate the signaling pathway controlling apoptotic cell death in tadpole tails during anuran metamorphosis. © 2013 The Authors.

  14. Palliative sedation in advanced cancer patients: Does it shorten survival time? - A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Barathi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients with advanced cancer often suffer from multiple refractory symptoms in the terminal phase of their life. Palliative sedation is one of the few ways to relieve this refractory suffering. Objectives: This systematic review investigated the effect of palliative sedation on survival time in terminally ill cancer patients. Materials and Methods: Six electronic databases were searched for both prospective and retrospective studies which evaluated the effect of palliative sedation on survival time. Only those studies which had a comparison group that did not receive palliative sedation were selected for the review. Abstracts of all retrieved studies were screened to include the most relevant studies and only studies which met inclusion criteria were selected. References of all retrieved studies were also screened for relevant studies. Selected studies were assessed for quality and data extraction was done using the structured data extraction form. Results: Eleven studies including four prospective and seven retrospective studies were identified. Mean survival time (MST was measured as the time from last admission until death. A careful analysis of the results of all the 11 studies indicated that MST of sedated and non-sedated group was not statistically different in any of the studies. Conclusion: This systematic review supports the fact that palliative sedation does not shorten survival in terminally ill cancer patients. However, this conclusion needs to be taken with consideration of the methodology, study design, and the population studied of the included studies in this review.

  15. A systematic review of prosthetic restoration in patients with shortened dental arches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Fueki

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The literature regarding the effect of prosthetic restoration in patients having distal extension edentulous space in posterior area (shortened dental arch: SDA is reviewed in the following article. Information retrieval followed a systematic approach using PubMed. Articles in English published between 1966 and March 2011 describing the outcome of treatment with various prostheses were evaluated. From the search results of 98 articles, 21 articles met the inclusion criteria. Treatment with removable partial dentures (RPDs improved masticatory function, patient satisfaction and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL. However, no significant difference was found in the outcomes between patients with RPDs and with cantilever fixed partial dentures (CFPDs. Caries developed more frequently after treatment with RPDs than CFPDs. The time to survival for CFPDs was not longer than that for RPDs, while more visits to maintain RPDs were required than for CFPDs. No significant difference was found in masticatory function, OHRQoL, and occlusal stability between patients with RPDs and those without restoration of missing molars. Consequently, treatment with RPDs for SDA seems to be less advantageous than CFPDs or no restoration for missing molars. Further research is required to validate treatment with implant-supported fixed partial dentures for SDA.

  16. Ammonium is toxic for aging yeast cells, inducing death and shortening of the chronological lifespan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlia Santos

    Full Text Available Here we show that in aging Saccharomyces cerevisiae (budding yeast cells, NH(4 (+ induces cell death associated with shortening of chronological life span. This effect is positively correlated with the concentration of NH(4 (+ added to the culture medium and is particularly evident when cells are starved for auxotrophy-complementing amino acids. NH(4 (+-induced cell death is accompanied by an initial small increase of apoptotic cells followed by extensive necrosis. Autophagy is inhibited by NH(4 (+, but this does not cause a decrease in cell viability. We propose that the toxic effects of NH(4 (+ are mediated by activation of PKA and TOR and inhibition of Sch9p. Our data show that NH(4 (+ induces cell death in aging cultures through the regulation of evolutionary conserved pathways. They may also provide new insights into longevity regulation in multicellular organisms and increase our understanding of human disorders such as hyperammonemia as well as effects of amino acid deprivation employed as a therapeutic strategy.

  17. Cost effectiveness of shortening screening interval or extending age range of NHS breast screening programme: computer simulation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Boer (Rob); A. Threlfall; P. Warmerdam (Peter); A. Street (Andrew); E. Friedman (Eitan); C. Woodman; H.J. de Koning (Harry)

    1998-01-01

    markdownabstract__OBJECTIVE__: To compare the cost effectiveness of two possible modifications to the current UK screening programme: shortening the screening interval from three to two years and extending the age of invitation to a final screen from 64 to 69.

  18. 3'UTR Shortening Potentiates MicroRNA-Based Repression of Pro-differentiation Genes in Proliferating Human Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonit Hoffman

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Most mammalian genes often feature alternative polyadenylation (APA sites and hence diverse 3'UTR lengths. Proliferating cells were reported to favor APA sites that result in shorter 3'UTRs. One consequence of such shortening is escape of mRNAs from targeting by microRNAs (miRNAs whose binding sites are eliminated. Such a mechanism might provide proliferation-related genes with an expression gain during normal or cancerous proliferation. Notably, miRNA sites tend to be more active when located near both ends of the 3'UTR compared to those located more centrally. Accordingly, miRNA sites located near the center of the full 3'UTR might become more active upon 3'UTR shortening. To address this conjecture we performed 3' sequencing to determine the 3' ends of all human UTRs in several cell lines. Remarkably, we found that conserved miRNA binding sites are preferentially enriched immediately upstream to APA sites, and this enrichment is more prominent in pro-differentiation/anti-proliferative genes. Binding sites of the miR17-92 cluster, upregulated in rapidly proliferating cells, are particularly enriched just upstream to APA sites, presumably conferring stronger inhibitory activity upon shortening. Thus 3'UTR shortening appears not only to enable escape from inhibition of growth promoting genes but also to potentiate repression of anti-proliferative genes.

  19. 3’UTR Shortening Potentiates MicroRNA-Based Repression of Pro-differentiation Genes in Proliferating Human Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Yonit; Bublik, Debora Rosa; P. Ugalde, Alejandro; Elkon, Ran; Biniashvili, Tammy; Agami, Reuven; Oren, Moshe; Pilpel, Yitzhak

    2016-01-01

    Most mammalian genes often feature alternative polyadenylation (APA) sites and hence diverse 3’UTR lengths. Proliferating cells were reported to favor APA sites that result in shorter 3’UTRs. One consequence of such shortening is escape of mRNAs from targeting by microRNAs (miRNAs) whose binding sites are eliminated. Such a mechanism might provide proliferation-related genes with an expression gain during normal or cancerous proliferation. Notably, miRNA sites tend to be more active when located near both ends of the 3’UTR compared to those located more centrally. Accordingly, miRNA sites located near the center of the full 3’UTR might become more active upon 3'UTR shortening. To address this conjecture we performed 3' sequencing to determine the 3' ends of all human UTRs in several cell lines. Remarkably, we found that conserved miRNA binding sites are preferentially enriched immediately upstream to APA sites, and this enrichment is more prominent in pro-differentiation/anti-proliferative genes. Binding sites of the miR17-92 cluster, upregulated in rapidly proliferating cells, are particularly enriched just upstream to APA sites, presumably conferring stronger inhibitory activity upon shortening. Thus 3’UTR shortening appears not only to enable escape from inhibition of growth promoting genes but also to potentiate repression of anti-proliferative genes. PMID:26908102

  20. Higher education delays and shortens cognitive impairment : A multistate life table analysis of the US Health and Retirement Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reuser, Mieke; Willekens, Frans J.; Bonneux, Luc

    Improved health may extend or shorten the duration of cognitive impairment by postponing incidence or death. We assess the duration of cognitive impairment in the US Health and Retirement Study (1992-2004) by self reported BMI, smoking and levels of education in men and women and three ethnic

  1. Higher education delays and shortens cognitive impairment: a multistate life table analysis of the US Health and Retirement Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reuser, M.; Willekens, F.J.C.; Bonneux, L.G.A.

    2011-01-01

    Improved health may extend or shorten the duration of cognitive impairment by postponing incidence or death. We assess the duration of cognitive impairment in the US Health and Retirement Study (1992–2004) by self reported BMI, smoking and levels of education in men and women and three ethnic

  2. Enhanced Corticospinal Excitability and Volitional Drive in Response to Shortening and Lengthening Strength Training and Changes Following Detraining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tallent, Jamie; Goodall, Stuart; Gibbon, Karl C.; Hortobagyi, Tibor; Howatson, Glyn

    2017-01-01

    There is a limited understanding of the neurological adaptations responsible for changes in strength following shortening and lengthening resistance training and subsequent detraining. The aim of the study was to investigate differences in corticospinal and spinal responses to resistance training of

  3. An observational cohort study on shortened dental arches--clinical course during a period of 27-35 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen, A.E.; Witter, D.J.; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Creugers, N.H.J.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to investigate the clinical course of shortened dental arches ('SDA group') compared to SDAs plus removable denture prosthesis ('SDA plus RDP group') and complete dental arches ('CDA group', controls). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data (numbers of direct and

  4. Experimental investigation of impulse response shortening for low-complexity MLSE of a 112-Gbit/s PAM-4 transceiver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Der Heide, Sjoerd; Eiselt, Nicklas; Griesser, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    An optimized channel shortening method for reduced complexity MLSE detection enables the compensation of severe inter-symbol interference. Experimental investigations demonstrate the benefit on the performance for a severely bandwidth limited 112-Gbit/s PAM-4 transmission system with residual...

  5. Telomere shortening leads to an acceleration of synucleinopathy and impaired microglia response in a genetic mouse model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheffold, Annika; Holtman, Inge R; Dieni, Sandra; Brouwer, Nieske; Katz, Sarah-Fee; Jebaraj, Billy Michael Chelliah; Kahle, Philipp J; Hengerer, Bastian; Lechel, André; Stilgenbauer, Stephan; Boddeke, Erik W G M; Eggen, Bart J L; Rudolph, Karl-Lenhard; Biber, Knut

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson's disease is one of the most common neurodegenerative disorders of the elderly and ageing hence described to be a major risk factor. Telomere shortening as a result of the inability to fully replicate the ends of linear chromosomes is one of the hallmarks of ageing. The role of telomere

  6. Diagnosing Changes in Attitude in First-Year College Chemistry Students with a Shortened Version of Bauer's Semantic Differential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandriet, Alexandra R.; Xu, Xiaoying; Bretz, Stacey Lowery; Lewis, Jennifer E.

    2011-01-01

    In this quantitative study, a shortened version of the Attitude toward the Subject of Chemistry Inventory (ASCI) created by Bauer (2008) was used to identify the chemistry attitudes of two populations of general chemistry students at two universities. The ASCIv2 contained just two factors from the original instrument. These factors measured…

  7. Magnitude of crustal shortening and structural framework of the easternmost Himalayan orogen, northern Indo-Burma Ranges of northeastern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haproff, P. J.; Yin, A.

    2016-12-01

    Along-strike variation in crustal shortening throughout the Himalayan orogen has been attributed to (1) diachronous, eastward-increasing convergence, or (2) localized controls including pre-collisional stratigraphic configuration and climate. In this study, we present new geologic maps and balanced cross-sections across the easternmost segment of the Himalayan orogen, the N-S-trending N. Indo-Burma Ranges of northeastern India. First order structures are NE-dipping, km-wide ductile thrust shear zones with mylonitic fabrics indicating top-to-the SW motion. Major structures include the Mayodia klippe and Hunli window, generated during folding of the SW-directed Tidding thrust and duplexing of Lesser Himalayan rocks (LHS) at depth. Reconstruction of two balanced cross-sections yields minimum shortening estimates of 70% (48 km) and 71% (133 km), respectively. The widths of the orogen for each transect are 21 km and 54 km, respectively. Our percent strain values are comparable to that of western Arunachal Himalaya, reflecting eastward-increasing strain due to counterclockwise rotation of India during convergence or along-strike variation in India's subduction angle. However, shortening magnitudes much less than that of the Sikkim (641 km), Bhutan (414-615 km), and western Arunachal Himalaya (515-775 km) could signal eastward increasing shortening of a unique Himalayan stratigraphic framework, evidenced by few GHC rocks, absence of Tethyan strata, and an extensive subduction mélange and forearc complex.

  8. Force generation examined by laser temperature-jumps in shortening and lengthening mammalian (rabbit psoas) muscle fibres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranatunga, K W; Coupland, M E; Pinniger, G J; Roots, H; Offer, G W

    2007-11-15

    We examined the tension change induced by a rapid temperature jump (T-jump) in shortening and lengthening active muscle fibres. Experiments were done on segments of permeabilized single fibres (length (L0) approximately 2 mm, sarcomere length 2.5 microm) from rabbit psoas muscle; [MgATP] was 4.6 mm, pH 7.1, ionic strength 200 mm and temperature approximately 9 degrees C. A fibre was maximally Ca2+-activated in the isometric state and a approximately 3 degrees C, rapid ( 0.05 L0 s(-1), whereas the tension decreased to about < 0.5 x P0 during shortening at 0.1-0.2 L0 s(-1); the unloaded shortening velocity was approximately 1 L0 s(-1) and the curvature of the force-shortening velocity relation was high (a/P0 ratio from Hill's equation of approximately 0.05). In isometric state, a T-jump induced a tension rise of 15-20% to a new steady state; by curve fitting, the tension rise could be resolved into a fast (phase 2b, 40-50 s(-1)) and a slow (phase 3, 5-10 s(-1)) exponential component (as previously reported). During steady lengthening, a T-jump induced a small instantaneous drop in tension, followed by recovery, so that the final tension recorded with and without a T-jump was not significantly different; thus, a T-jump did not lead to a net increase of tension. During steady shortening, the T-jump induced a pronounced tension rise and both its amplitude and the rate (from a single exponential fit) increased with shortening velocity; at 0.1-0.2 L0 s(-1), the extent of fibre shortening during the T-jump tension rise was estimated to be approximately 1.2% L(0) and it was shorter at lower velocities. At a given shortening velocity and over the temperature range of 8-30 degrees C, the rate of T-jump tension rise increased with warming (Q10 approximately 2.7), similar to phase 2b (endothermic force generation) in isometric muscle. Results are discussed in relation to the previous findings in isometric muscle fibres which showed that a T-jump promotes an early step in the

  9. Long-Term Cardiovascular Mortality After Procedure-Related or Spontaneous Myocardial Infarction in Patients With Non-ST-Segment Elevation Acute Coronary Syndrome A Collaborative Analysis of Individual Patient Data From the FRISC II, ICTUS, and RITA-3 Trials (FIR)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damman, Peter; Wallentin, Lars; Fox, Keith A. A.; Windhausen, Fons; Hirsch, Alexander; Clayton, Tim; Pocock, Stuart J.; Lagerqvist, Bo; Tijssen, Jan G. P.; de Winter, Robbert J.

    2012-01-01

    Background-The present study was designed to investigate the long-term prognostic impact of procedure-related and spontaneous myocardial infarction (MI) on cardiovascular mortality in patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome. Methods and Results-Five-year follow-up after

  10. How the cervix shortens: an anatomic study using 3-dimensional transperineal sonography and image registration in singletons and twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Reshma; Patel, Atur; Stack, Trevor; Socrate, Simona; House, Michael

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to use a fixed reference to study movement (displacement) of the cervical internal os from the second to the third trimester in singletons and twins. The rationale was to gain insight into anatomic changes associated with cervical shortening. For each patient, 2 transperineal scans were performed 12 weeks apart (20 and 32 weeks). The internal os and symphysis pubis were visualized in the same field of view. Image registration techniques were used to align the 2 scans using the symphysis as a fixed reference. Total displacement, anterior displacement, and inferior displacement of the internal os were measured. Displacements were correlated with cervical shortening. Bland-Altman plots and interobserver intraclass correlation coefficients were calculated. A total of 42 healthy participants were studied: 28 with singletons and 14 with twins. The mean ± SD values for total displacement were 2.1 ± 1.2 and 2.0 ± 1.2 cm for singletons and twins, respectively (P = .75). The direction of displacement was significantly different. The mean anterior displacement was 1.1 cm greater for singletons than for twins (95% confidence interval, 0.29-2.0 cm, P = .01). Mean inferior displacement was 1.3 cm greater for twins than for singletons (95% confidence interval, 2.2-0.1 cm; P = .03). Only inferior displacement correlated with cervical shortening (P < .001; R(2) = 0.74). For every 2.2 cm of inferior displacement, the cervix shortened 1.0 cm. Assessments of reliability showed good agreement between 2 observers. The anatomic position of the internal cervical os depends on gestational age and fetal number. Cervical shortening correlated most strongly with inferior displacement.

  11. Long-term cardiovascular mortality after procedure-related or spontaneous myocardial infarction in patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome: a collaborative analysis of individual patient data from the FRISC II, ICTUS, and RITA-3 trials (FIR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damman, Peter; Wallentin, Lars; Fox, Keith A A; Windhausen, Fons; Hirsch, Alexander; Clayton, Tim; Pocock, Stuart J; Lagerqvist, Bo; Tijssen, Jan G P; de Winter, Robbert J

    2012-01-31

    The present study was designed to investigate the long-term prognostic impact of procedure-related and spontaneous myocardial infarction (MI) on cardiovascular mortality in patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome. Five-year follow-up after procedure-related or spontaneous MI was investigated in the individual patient pooled data set of the FRISC-II (Fast Revascularization During Instability in Coronary Artery Disease), ICTUS (Invasive Versus Conservative Treatment in Unstable Coronary Syndromes), and RITA-3 (Randomized Intervention Trial of Unstable Angina 3) non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome trials. The principal outcome was cardiovascular death up to 5 years of follow-up. Cumulative event rates were estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method; hazard ratios were calculated with time-dependent Cox proportional hazards models. Adjustments were made for the variables associated with long-term outcomes. Among the 5467 patients, 212 experienced a procedure-related MI within 6 months after enrollment. A spontaneous MI occurred in 236 patients within 6 months. The cumulative cardiovascular death rate was 5.2% in patients who had a procedure-related MI, comparable to that for patients without a procedure-related MI (hazard ratio 0.66; 95% confidence interval, 0.36-1.20, P=0.17). In patients who had a spontaneous MI within 6 months, the cumulative cardiovascular death rate was 22.2%, higher than for patients without a spontaneous MI (hazard ratio 4.52; 95% confidence interval, 3.37-6.06, P<0.001). These hazard ratios did not change materially after risk adjustments. Five-year follow-up of patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome from the 3 trials showed no association between a procedure-related MI and long-term cardiovascular mortality. In contrast, there was a substantial increase in long-term mortality after a spontaneous MI.

  12. Specialized Learning in Antlions (Neuroptera: Myrmeleontidae), Pit-Digging Predators, Shortens Vulnerable Larval Stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollis, Karen L.; Cogswell, Heather; Snyder, Kenzie; Guillette, Lauren M.; Nowbahari, Elise

    2011-01-01

    Unique in the insect world for their extremely sedentary predatory behavior, pit-dwelling larval antlions dig pits, and then sit at the bottom and wait, sometimes for months, for prey to fall inside. This sedentary predation strategy, combined with their seemingly innate ability to detect approaching prey, make antlions unlikely candidates for learning. That is, although scientists have demonstrated that many species of insects possess the capacity to learn, each of these species, which together represent multiple families from every major insect order, utilizes this ability as a means of navigating the environment, using learned cues to guide an active search for food and hosts, or to avoid noxious events. Nonetheless, we demonstrate not only that sedentary antlions can learn, but also, more importantly, that learning provides an important fitness benefit, namely decreasing the time to pupate, a benefit not yet demonstrated in any other species. Compared to a control group in which an environmental cue was presented randomly vis-à-vis daily prey arrival, antlions given the opportunity to associate the cue with prey were able to make more efficient use of prey and pupate significantly sooner, thus shortening their long, highly vulnerable larval stage. Whereas “median survival time,” the point at which half of the animals in each group had pupated, was 46 days for antlions receiving the Learning treatment, that point never was reached in antlions receiving the Random treatment, even by the end of the experiment on Day 70. In addition, we demonstrate a novel manifestation of antlions' learned response to cues predicting prey arrival, behavior that does not match the typical “learning curve” but which is well-adapted to their sedentary predation strategy. Finally, we suggest that what has long appeared to be instinctive predatory behavior is likely to be highly modified and shaped by learning. PMID:21479229

  13. A study of dentists’ preferences for the restoration of shortened dental arches with partial dentures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassani, Mohammad Zakaria; Ibraheem, Shukran; Al-Hallak, Khaled Rateb; Ali El Khalifa, Mohammed Othman; Baroudi, Kusai

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to use a utility method in order to assess dentists’ preferences for the restoration of shortened dental arches (SDAs) with partial dentures. Also, the impact of patient age and length of the SDA on dentists’ preferences for the partial dentures was investigated. Materials and Methods: Totally, 104 subjects holding a basic degree in dentistry and working as staff members in a private dental college in Saudi Arabia were interviewed and presented with 12 scenarios for patients of different ages and mandibular SDAs of varying length. Participants were asked to indicate on a standardized visual analog scale how they would value the health of the patient's mouth if the mandibular SDAs were restored with cobalt-chromium removable partial dentures (RPDs). Results: With a utility value of 0.0 representing the worst possible health state for a mouth and 1.0 representing the best, dentists’ average utility value of the RPD for the SDAs was 0.49 (sd= 0.15). Mean utility scores of the RPDs across the 12 SDA scenarios ranged between 0.35 and 0.61. RPDs that restored the extremely SDAs attracted the highest utility values and dentists’ utility of the RPD significantly increased with the increase in the number of missing posterior teeth. No significant differences in dentists’ mean utility values for the RPD were identified among SDA scenarios for patients of different ages. Conclusion: Restoration of the mandibular SDAs by RPDs is not a highly preferred treatment option among the surveyed group of dentists. Length of the SDA affects dentists’ preferences for the RPD, but patient age does not. PMID:26038647

  14. Factors of force potentiation induced by stretch-shortening cycle in plantarflexors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsuki Fukutani

    Full Text Available Muscle force is potentiated by countermovement; this phenomenon is called stretch-shortening cycle (SSC effect. In this study, we examined the factors strongly related to SSC effect in vivo, focusing on tendon elongation, preactivation, and residual force enhancement. Twelve healthy men participated in this study. Ankle joint angle was passively moved by a dynamometer, with a range of motion from 15° dorsiflexion (DF to 15° plantarflexion (PF. Muscle contraction was evoked by electrical stimulation, with stimulation timing adjusted to elicit three types of contraction: (1 concentric contraction without preliminary contraction (CON, (2 concentric contraction after preliminary eccentric contraction (ECC, and (3 concentric contraction after preliminary isometric contraction (ISO. Joint torque was recorded at DF5°, PF0°, and PF5°, respectively. SSC effect was calculated as the ratio of joint torque obtained in ECC or ISO with respect to that obtained in CON at the aforementioned three joint angles. SSC effect was prominent in the first half of movement in both ECC (DF5°, 329.3 ± 101.2%; PF0°, 159.2 ± 29.4%; PF5°, 125.5 ± 20.8% and ISO (DF5°, 276.4 ± 87.0%; PF0°, 134.5 ± 24.5%; PF5°, 106.8 ± 18.0% conditions. SSC effect was significantly larger in ECC than in ISO at all joint angles (P < 0.001. Even without preliminary eccentric contraction (i.e., ISO condition, SSC effect was clearly large, indicating that a significant part of SSC effect is derived from preactivation. However, the active lengthening-induced force potentiation mechanism (residual force enhancement also contributes to SSC effect.

  15. Structural studies of the waves in striated muscle fibres shortened passively below their slack length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, L M; González-Serratos, H; Huxley, A F

    1984-06-01

    Isolated skeletal muscle fibres of Rana pipiens were shortened below their slack length by longitudinal compression in a gelatine block, and examined by light and electron microscopy. Waves appeared sharply when the striation spacing (S) reached a critical value (about 2 microns) and increased in height with further compression down to S = 1.6 microns while the resting band pattern was maintained. The waves were plane, helical or irregular, with wave lengths of 5-15 striations. The Z lines usually ran perpendicular to the direction of the myofibrils to form wedge-shaped sarcomeres. The bending occurred mainly in the I band. The thin filaments ran stiffly for about 30 nm from the Z line and then bent toward the A band. The thick filaments bent very slightly, particularly at their tips. The edges of the A band were indistinct, and there were no dense lines at the A-I junction. The appearance of the individual sarcomeres resembled those in relaxed myofibrils at slack length, with no Cm bands. The H zone was only seen occasionally in the slack and wavy fibres examined. In very thin sections the individual thin filaments were seen to end in the pseudo-H zone, and not to cross the M line. There was a single array of not more than six thin filaments round each thick one in transverse sections of the M-line region. These observations suggest that the narrowing of the bands observed in fresh wavy fibres is due mainly to the obliquity of the myofibrils, and that the sarcomere length measured parallel to their axis is longer than the striation spacing. The relationship between sarcomere length and the length of the thin-filament complex is discussed.

  16. Thrust initiation and propagation during shortening of a 2-layer model lithosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Fernando O.

    2008-01-01

    Analogue modelling was used to investigate thrust initiation and propagation in the lithosphere. The model comprised a top layer of light sand (model brittle crust) overlying a layer of heavy silicone putty (model ductile lower crust), both resting upon higher density and lower viscosity natural honey (model ductile mantle). The experiments show the following. (1) Thrust initiation may occur in two main modes: fold-first or fault-first. They seem to be the result of presence or absence of an initial perturbation close to the piston, respectively. The fault-first mode eventually goes into a fold-first mode after a certain amount of deformation. (2) In both modes, thrusts localized around the inflection points of both fore and back-limbs of buckles as a result of tectonic (horizontal), gravitational (vertical) and elastic forces. (3) Thrust propagation in the fault-first mode occurred by thrust wedge thickening and downward flexure due to isostatic compensation, which led to forward formation of bulges and subsequent amplification by buckling. Continued shortening increased the stresses that reached the brittle yield of sand and new thrusts originated. (4) Bulging ahead of thrusts tended to develop into asymmetric buckles with the shorter limb (back-limb) steeper towards the piston. (5) As a whole, thrust initiation and propagation seem to depend mostly on how stresses evolve and propagate through the model and how material strength varies with progressive deformation. The main stresses at play are born at the moving piston (model horizontal tectonic force), from thickening and isostatic compensation in the model (gravitational forces), and from elastic resistance to buckling.

  17. Life shortening and carcinogenesis in mice irradiated at the perinatal period with gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, S.; Kasuga, T.

    1986-01-01

    This study elucidates the life-span radiation effects in mice irradiated at the perinatal period in comparison to mice irradiated at the young adult period. B6C3F 1 female mice were irradiated at 17 days of prenatal age, at 0 days of postnatal age, or as young adults at 15 weeks of age with 190, 380, or 570 rads of 137 Cs gamma rays. Mice irradiated at the late fetal period showed dose-dependent life shortening of somewhat lesser magnitude than that seen after neonatal or young adult irradiation. Mice exposed at the late fetal period were highly susceptible to induction of pituitary tumors for which the latent period was the longest of all induced neoplasms. Incidence of lung tumors in mice irradiated at the late fetal period with 190 and 380 rads was higher than in controls. Malignant lymphomas of the lymphocytic type developed in excess, after a short latent period, in mice irradiated fetally with the highest dose; susceptibility of prenatally exposed mice was lower than that of early postnatally exposed mice. Liver tumors developed more frequently in mice irradiated in utero than in controls; susceptibility to induction of this type of neoplasm was highest at the neonatal period. In general, carcinogenic response of mice exposed at the late fetal period resembled that of neonatally exposed mice but was quite different from that of young adult mice. Mice exposed as young adults have no, or low, susceptibility to induction of pituitary, lung, and liver tumors; and a higher susceptibility to induction of myeloid leukemias and Harderian gland tumors. 19 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  18. Admission of people with dementia to psychiatric hospitals in Japan: factors that can shorten their hospitalizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morikawa, Takako; Maeda, Kiyoshi; Osaki, Tohmi; Kajita, Hiroyuki; Yotsumoto, Kayano; Kawamata, Toshio

    2017-11-01

    People exhibiting serious behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia are usually voluntarily or involuntarily committed to psychiatric hospitals for treatment. In Japan, the average hospital stay for individuals with dementia is about 2 years. Ideally, individuals should be discharged once their symptoms have subsided. However, we see cases in Japan where individuals remain institutionalized long after behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia are no longer apparent. This study will attempt to identify factors contributing to shorter stays in psychiatric hospitals for dementia patients. Questionnaires consisting of 17 items were mailed to 121 psychiatric hospitals with dementia treatment wards in western Japan. Out of 121 hospitals that received the questionnaires, 45 hospitals returned them. The total number of new patient admissions at all 45 hospitals during the month of August 2014 was 1428, including 384 dementia patients (26.9%). The average length of stay in the dementia wards in August 2014 was 482.7 days. Our findings revealed that the rate of discharge after 2 months was 35.4% for the dementia wards. In addition, we found that the average stay in hospitals charging or planning to charge the rehabilitation fee to dementia patients was significantly shorter than in hospitals not charging the rehabilitation fee. In Japan, dementia patients account for over 25% of new admissions to psychiatric hospitals with dementia wards. The average length of stay in a psychiatric hospital dementia ward is more than 1 year. A discharge after fewer than 2 months is exceedingly rare for those in a dementia ward compared with dementia patients in other wards. If institutions focus on rehabilitation, it may be possible to shorten the stay of dementia patients in psychiatric hospitals. © 2017 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  19. Air pollution shortens life expectancy and health expectancy for older adults: the case of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Ming; Gu, Danan

    2012-11-01

    Outdoor air pollution is one of the most worrying environmental threats China faces today. Comprehensive and quantitative analyses of the health consequences of air pollution in China are lacking. This study reports age- and sex-specific life expectancy and health expectancies (HEs) corresponding to different levels of air pollution based on associations between air pollution and individual risks for a host of health conditions and mortality net of individual- and community-level confounders. This is a multilevel prospective cohort study based a nationally representative sample of Chinese elders. The main outcome measures in this study include life expectancy estimated from mortality and HEs based on five health conditions including activity of daily living, instrumental activity of daily living, cognitive status, self-rated health, and chronic conditions. Net of the controls, exposure to outdoor air pollution corresponded to subsequent reductions of life expectancy and HEs for all five health conditions. These detrimental pollution effects were stronger for women. The gap in life expectancy between areas with good air quality and moderately heavily polluted areas was 3.78 years for women of age 65 and 0.93 years for men. The differences in HEs at age 65 were also large, ranging from 1.47 years for HE for good self-rated health in men to 5.20 years for activity of daily living disability-free HE in women. Air pollution has devastating health impacts on Chinese elders reducing longevity and shortening HEs. Women are more vulnerable than men. More strict air policy should be implemented to pursue sustainable development in China.

  20. Distraction lengthening by callotasis of traumatically shortened bones of the hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosny, Gamal Ahmad; Kandel, Wael Abdelaziz

    2012-06-01

    Callotasis of the hand has several advantages: it is less invasive than other techniques as bone grafting is unnecessary, gradual distraction is possible, joint mobilization can be performed during treatment, and sensation is maintained. Disadvantages include longer period of treatment and perhaps the need for complicated and bulky instrumentation. We reported results of the lengthening of eight traumatically shortened metacarpals or phalanges (in six patients). There were two men and four women, with a mean age of 17.5 years. There were one thumb and seven fingers. There were three proximal phalanges and five metacarpals. Unilateral external fixator was applied to all cases. Osteotomy was performed at the proximal metaphysis in three cases, middle diaphysis in two cases, and the distal metaphysis in three cases. Lengthening was begun after 10 days to 14 days at a rate of 0.25 mm two times or three times daily. We modified the rate of distraction according to the development of pain, sensory disturbance, and contracture of the digit during lengthening. In former cases, the rate was 0.25 mm three times daily. The proposed length was achieved in all digits and no bone graft was required. The mean length increase was 18.9 mm (53.5% of the original length of 35.25 mm). Age was positively correlated with the healing index and consolidation time as younger patients healed faster than older patients. Conversely, the faster the distraction rate, the slower were the healing index and consolidation time. There were few complications which did not affect the final results. We preferred metacarpal lengthening in cases with very short proximal phalangeal traumatic amputation stump (<1 cm). Distraction lengthening is a valid option with minor complications rate. Therapeutic study, level V. Copyright © 2012 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

  1. Asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum infections may not be shortened by acquired immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretscher, Michael T; Maire, Nicolas; Felger, Ingrid; Owusu-Agyei, Seth; Smith, Tom

    2015-08-04

    The duration of untreated Plasmodium falciparum infections is a defining characteristic of the parasite's biology. It is not clear whether naturally acquired immunity (NAI) can shorten infections, despite the potential implications for malaria control and elimination as well as for basic research. Data on the presence of P. falciparum msp2 genotypes in six blood samples collected over one year was analysed, together with four samples collected over 1 week, from a cohort in Navrongo (Ghana). Mathematical models assuming either exponential, Weibull, gamma, or log-normal infection durations were estimated separately for six age-groups. The method allowed for varying clonal acquisition and detection rates. The best fitting (Weibull) mean durations were 124 days (children 10 years). This non-monotonic age pattern is not suggestive of an infection-clearing effect of NAI since immunity increases with exposure, and thus, age. Age-related differences in innate immunity are a more plausible explanation. 21% of blood-stage infections terminated within 1 week, in stark contrast to months of persistence in infections induced in neuro-syphilis patients (malariatherapy data). Age independence in this percentage raises the possibility that this clearance may result from innate mechanisms or genetic incompatibility between hosts and parasites, rather than from NAI. In all ages of hosts a substantial proportion of infections are cleared in the first days or weeks of appearance in the blood, while others persist for many months. Although cumulative exposure and NAI increase with age, this does apparently not translate into an increased rate of termination of infections.

  2. Decoupling of modern shortening rates, climate, and topography in the Caucasus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forte, Adam M.; Whipple, Kelin X.; Bookhagen, Bodo; Rossi, Matthew W.

    2016-09-01

    The Greater and Lesser Caucasus mountains and their associated foreland basins contain similar rock types, experience a similar two-fold, along-strike variation in mean annual precipitation, and were affected by extreme base-level drops of the neighboring Caspian Sea. However, the two Caucasus ranges are characterized by decidedly different tectonic regimes and rates of deformation that are subject to moderate (less than an order of magnitude) gradients in climate, and thus allow for a unique opportunity to isolate the effects of climate and tectonics in the evolution of topography within active orogens. There is an apparent disconnect between modern climate, shortening rates, and topography of both the Greater Caucasus and Lesser Caucasus which exhibit remarkably similar topography along-strike despite the gradients in forcing. By combining multiple datasets, we examine plausible causes for this disconnect by presenting a detailed analysis of the topography of both ranges utilizing established relationships between catchment-mean erosion rates and topography (local relief, hillslope gradients, and channel steepness) and combining it with a synthesis of previously published low-temperature thermochronologic data. Modern climate of the Caucasus region is assessed through an analysis of remotely-sensed data (TRMM and MODIS) and historical streamflow data. Because along-strike variation in either erosional efficiency or thickness of accreted material fail to explain our observations, we suggest that the topography of both the western Lesser and Greater Caucasus are partially supported by different geodynamic forces. In the western Lesser Caucasus, high relief portions of the landscape likely reflect uplift related to ongoing mantle lithosphere delamination beneath the neighboring East Anatolian Plateau. In the Greater Caucasus, maintenance of high topography in the western portion of the range despite extremely low (<2-4 mm/y) modern convergence rates may be related

  3. Gelatinized wheat starch influences crystallization behaviour and structure of roll-in shortenings in laminated bakery products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattice, Kristin D; Marangoni, Alejandro G

    2018-03-15

    One hydrogenated and one non-hydrogenated shortening were baked with isolated components of a croissant matrix, including crystalline wheat starch, gelatinized wheat starch, gluten, and formed gluten network. The impact of the matrix components on fat crystallization was analyzed for polymorphism using powder X-ray diffraction, solid fat content by pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance and thermal behaviour by differential scanning calorimetry. When compared to results obtained from croissants prepared with the respective shortenings, samples containing gelatinized wheat starch displayed notably similar results: polymorphic conversion, from the β' to β form over storage, and visually broader peaks in the melting endotherms indicating a greater temperature was required to completely melt all of the fat. All other component mixtures behaved similar to the respective fats in bulk. The measured rate of crystallization was greater in samples containing gelatinized wheat starch, indicating that the gelatinized starch could act as a nucleation site to speed crystallization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of music on sedation depth and sedative use during pediatric dental procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkalayci, Ozlem; Araz, Coskun; Cehreli, Sevi Burcak; Tirali, Resmiye Ebru; Kayhan, Zeynep

    2016-11-01

    The study aimed to investigate the effects of listening to music or providing sound isolation on the depth of sedation and need for sedatives in pediatric dental patients. Prospective, randomized, and controlled study. Tertiary, university hospital. In total, 180 pediatric patients, American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I and II, who were scheduled for dental procedures of tooth extraction, filling, amputation, and root treatment. Patients were categorized into 3 groups: music, isolation, and control. During the procedures, the patients in the music group listened to Vivaldi's The Four Seasons violin concertos by sound-isolating headphones, whereas the patients in the isolation group wore the headphones but did not listen to music. All patients were sedated by 0.1 mg/kg midazolam and 1 mg/kg propofol. During the procedure, an additional 0.5 mg/kg propofol was administered as required. Bispectral index was used for quantifying the depth of sedation, and total dosage of the propofol was used for sedative requirements. The patients' heart rates, oxygen saturations, and Observer's Assessment of Alertness and Sedation Scale and bispectral index scores, which were monitored during the operation, were similar among the groups. In terms of the amount of propofol used, the groups were similar. Prolonged postoperative recovery cases were found to be significantly frequent in the control group, according to the recovery duration measurements (P = .004). Listening to music or providing sound isolation during pediatric dental interventions did not alter the sedation level, amount of medication, and hemodynamic variables significantly. This result might be due to the deep sedation levels reached during the procedures. However, listening to music and providing sound isolation might have contributed in shortening the postoperative recovery duration of the patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Cost effectiveness of shortening screening interval or extending age range of NHS breast screening programme: computer simulation study

    OpenAIRE

    Boer, Rob; Threlfall, A.; Warmerdam, Peter; Street, Andrew; Friedman, Eitan; Woodman, C.; Koning, Harry

    1998-01-01

    markdownabstract__OBJECTIVE__: To compare the cost effectiveness of two possible modifications to the current UK screening programme: shortening the screening interval from three to two years and extending the age of invitation to a final screen from 64 to 69. __DESIGN__: Computer simulation model which first simulates life histories for women in the absence of a screening programme for breast cancer and then assesses how these life histories would be changed by introducing different screenin...

  6. Error detecting capabilities of the shortened Hamming codes adopted for error detection in IEEE Standard 802.3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Toru; Kasami, Tadao; Lin, Shu

    1989-09-01

    The error-detecting capabilities of the shortened Hamming codes adopted for error detection in IEEE Standard 802.3 are investigated. These codes are also used for error detection in the data link layer of the Ethernet, a local area network. The weight distributions for various code lengths are calculated to obtain the probability of undetectable error and that of detectable error for a binary symmetric channel with bit-error rate between 0.00001 and 1/2.

  7. [Effect of removable partial dentures restoration on oral health-related quality of life of patients with shortened dental arch].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Zhen-nan; Lin, Xue-feng

    2013-11-01

    To assess the effect of removable partial dentures (PRD) restoration on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQOL) of subjects with shortened dental arches (SDA) using the Chinese version of the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14). Consecutive patients with shortened dental arches were recruited from the Department of Prosthodontics, Foshan Chancheng Hospital of Stomatology. The Chinese version of OHIP-14 was administered to each subject before treatment and after treatment. The subjective outcomes of removable partial dentures therapy on SDA were collected and the pre- and post-treatment scores of the Chinese version of OHIP-14 were compared. After treatment, significant decrease in patients' total score of OHRQOL [before: 9 (6, 12) ; after: 4 (2.25, 6)] was detected, as well as physical pain subscale, physical disability subscale and handicap subscale; and the score of OHRQOL in function limitation subscale increased [before: 0(0,0); after: 2(1, 2)]. The main impacts of shortened dental arch with intact anterior region affecting patients' OHRQOL are physical disability.From a quality-of-life perspective, patients with SDA can perceive benefits from RPD.

  8. Activation of serotonergic neurons in the medullary caudal raphe shortens the laryngeal chemoreflex in anaesthetized neonatal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, William T; Xia, Luxi; Bartlett, Donald; Leiter, J C

    2017-08-01

    What is the central question of this study? Does activation of serotonergic neurons in the caudal medullary raphe, some of which project to the nucleus of the solitary tract, shorten the laryngeal chemoreflex? What is the main finding and its importance? We found that serotonin originating from neurons in the caudal raphe acts through a 5-HT 3 receptor located in the nucleus of the solitary tract to terminate reflex apnoea. Failure or deficiency of this arousal-related process is likely to be relevant to the pathogenesis of sudden infant death syndrome. Failure to terminate apnoea and arouse is likely to contribute to sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Serotonin is deficient in the brainstems of babies who have died of SIDS. We tested the hypothesis that activation of serotoninergic neurons in the caudal medullary raphe, some of which project to the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), would shorten the laryngeal chemoreflex (LCR). We studied anaesthetized neonatal rat pups between postnatal days 9 and 17. We injected 5-40 μl of water into the larynx to elicit the LCR and measured the duration of respiratory disruption. Microinjection of 50 nl of 100 μm AMPA into the caudal medullary raphe shortened the apnoeas (P serotonergic termination of apnoea is likely to be relevant to the pathogenesis of SIDS. © 2017 The Authors. Experimental Physiology © 2017 The Physiological Society.

  9. Effect of shortening replacement with flaxseed oil on physical, sensory, fatty acid and storage characteristics of cookies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangrej, V; Shah, V; Patel, J; Ganorkar, P M

    2015-06-01

    Omega-3 fatty acid imparted good evidence of health benefits. Flaxseed oil, being the richest vegetarian source of alpha linolenic acid (omega-3 fatty acid), was incorporated in cookies by replacing shortening at level of 5 %, 10 %, 20 %, 30 %, 40 % and 50 %. Effect of shortening replacement with flaxseed oil on physical, textural and sensory attributes were investigated. Spread ratio and breaking strength of cookies increased as flaxseed oil level increased. Sensory score was not significantly affected up to 30 % shortening replacement with flaxseed oil as compared with the control cookies. Above 30 % flaxseed oil, sensory score was adversely affected. Fatty acid profile confirmed the enhancement of omega-3 fatty acid from 0 (control) to 14.14 % (30 % flaxseed oil cookies). The poly-unsaturated to saturated fatty acid ratio (P/S) increased from 0.088 (control) to 0.57 while ω - 6 to ω -3 fatty acid ratio of flaxseed oil cookies decreased from 4.51 (control) to 0.65 in the optimized cookies. The data on storage characteristics of the control and 30 % flaxseed oil cookies showed that there was significant change in the moisture content, Peroxide value (PV) and overall acceptability (OAA) up to 28 days of storage at 45 °C packed in polyethylene bags. Flaxseed oil cookies were acceptable up to 21 days of storage and afterwards noticeable off flavour was perceived.

  10. Overexpression of the Large-Conductance, Ca2+-Activated K+ (BK) Channel Shortens Action Potential Duration in HL-1 Cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stimers, Joseph R; Song, Li; Rusch, Nancy J; Rhee, Sung W

    2015-01-01

    Long QT syndrome is characterized by a prolongation of the interval between the Q wave and the T wave on the electrocardiogram. This abnormality reflects a prolongation of the ventricular action potential caused by a number of genetic mutations or a variety of drugs. Since effective treatments are unavailable, we explored the possibility of using cardiac expression of the large-conductance, Ca2+-activated K+ (BK) channel to shorten action potential duration (APD). We hypothesized that expression of the pore-forming α subunit of human BK channels (hBKα) in HL-1 cells would shorten action potential duration in this mouse atrial cell line. Expression of hBKα had minimal effects on expression levels of other ion channels with the exception of a small but significant reduction in Kv11.1. Patch-clamped hBKα expressing HL-1 cells exhibited an outward voltage- and Ca2+-sensitive K+ current, which was inhibited by the BK channel blocker iberiotoxin (100 nM). This BK current phenotype was not detected in untransfected HL-1 cells or in HL-1 null cells sham-transfected with an empty vector. Importantly, APD in hBKα-expressing HL-1 cells averaged 14.3 ± 2.8 ms (n = 10), which represented a 53% reduction in APD compared to HL-1 null cells lacking BKα expression. APD in the latter cells averaged 31.0 ± 5.1 ms (n = 13). The shortened APD in hBKα-expressing cells was restored to normal duration by 100 nM iberiotoxin, suggesting that a repolarizing K+ current attributed to BK channels accounted for action potential shortening. These findings provide initial proof-of-concept that the introduction of hBKα channels into a cardiac cell line can shorten APD, and raise the possibility that gene-based interventions to increase hBKα channels in cardiac cells may hold promise as a therapeutic strategy for long QT syndrome.

  11. Deposition, clearance, and shortening of Kevlar para-aramid fibrils in acute, subchronic, and chronic inhalation studies in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, D P; Merriman, E A; Kennedy, G L; Lee, K P

    1993-10-01

    The deposition and clearance of lung-deposited Kevlar para-aramid fibrils (subfibers) have been investigated as part of a subchronic and chronic inhalation toxicity testing program. Fibrils recovered from lung tissue in para-aramid-exposed Sprague-Dawley rats were microscopically counted and measured after exposures to airborne fibrils which were about 12 microns median length (ML) and < 0.3 micron median diameter. In each of three studies lung-recovered fibrils were progressively shorter with increasing residence time in the lungs. Twenty-eight days after a single 6-hr exposure at 400 respirable fibrils per cubic centimeter (f/cm3) the ML of recovered fibrils decreased to about 5 microns. Twenty-four months after a 3-week exposure to 25 or 400 f/cm3, fibrils reached about 2 microns ML. After 2 years of continuous exposure at 2.5, 25, or 100 f/cm3 or 1 year exposure plus 1 year recovery at 400 f/cm3, fibril ML approached 4 microns. In the 2-year study, the lung-fiber accumulation rate/exposure concentration was similar for the three highest concentrations and was about 3 x greater than that seen at 2.5 f/cm3, indicating that concentrations of about 25 f/cm3 or more may overwhelm clearance mechanisms. Time required for fibrils to be reduced to < 5 microns in the lung was markedly less at lower exposure concentration and shorter exposure time. The primary shortening mechanism is proposed to be long fibril cutting by enzymatic attack at fibril defects. However, length-selective fibril deposition and clearance may contribute to shortening in the first few days after exposure. The enzymatic cutting hypothesis is supported by measured increases in numbers of short fibers following cessation of exposures, continued shortening of the fibril length distribution up to 2 years following exposure, and in vitro fibril shortening after 3 months in a proteolytic enzyme preparation. The conclusion is that para-aramid fibrils are less durable in the lungs of rats than expected from

  12. High spatial and temporal resolution retrospective cine cardiovascular magnetic resonance from shortened free breathing real-time acquisitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Hui; Kellman, Peter; Larocca, Gina; Arai, Andrew E; Hansen, Michael S

    2013-11-14

    Cine cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is challenging in patients who cannot perform repeated breath holds. Real-time, free-breathing acquisition is an alternative, but image quality is typically inferior. There is a clinical need for techniques that achieve similar image quality to the segmented cine using a free breathing acquisition. Previously, high quality retrospectively gated cine images have been reconstructed from real-time acquisitions using parallel imaging and motion correction. These methods had limited clinical applicability due to lengthy acquisitions and volumetric measurements obtained with such methods have not previously been evaluated systematically. This study introduces a new retrospective reconstruction scheme for real-time cine imaging which aims to shorten the required acquisition. A real-time acquisition of 16-20s per acquired slice was inputted into a retrospective cine reconstruction algorithm, which employed non-rigid registration to remove respiratory motion and SPIRiT non-linear reconstruction with temporal regularization to fill in missing data. The algorithm was used to reconstruct cine loops with high spatial (1.3-1.8 × 1.8-2.1 mm²) and temporal resolution (retrospectively gated, 30 cardiac phases, temporal resolution 34.3 ± 9.1 ms). Validation was performed in 15 healthy volunteers using two different acquisition resolutions (256 × 144/192 × 128 matrix sizes). For each subject, 9 to 12 short axis and 3 long axis slices were imaged with both segmented and real-time acquisitions. The retrospectively reconstructed real-time cine images were compared to a traditional segmented breath-held acquisition in terms of image quality scores. Image quality scoring was performed by two experts using a scale between 1 and 5 (poor to good). For every subject, LAX and three SAX slices were selected and reviewed in the random order. The reviewers were blinded to the reconstruction approach and acquisition protocols and

  13. Interventional spinal procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreula, Cosma E-mail: cosmaandreula@tin.it; Muto, Mario; Leonardi, Marco

    2004-05-01

    The interventional procedures for disk herniation and protrusion by percutaneous techniques are decompressive such as chemodiscolysis with chimopapain, nucleo-discectomy introduced by Onik, LASER discectomy, and recently nucleoplasty, and decompressive and direct antinflammatory such as chemiodiscolysis with an Oxygen-ozone mixture. These techniques have minimized the invasive nature of surgery and avoid or decrease complications like infection linked to surgery. Reducing intervertebral disc size by mechanical aspiration of a part of the disc or partially dissolving the herniation by drying reduces the conic pressure on the torn annulus and creates the space necessary for retropulsion whenever the circular fibres of the annulus regain a minimum capacity to contain the disc under tension. The proposed suggestion in these techniques is that a small change in volume produces large change in pressure. The success rates reported in different studies vary from 65 to 80% of excellent or good results with chemonucleolysis and aspiration. Vertebroplasty (VP) is done by percutaneous injection of acrylic cement (polymethylmetacrylate-PMMA) into the vertebrae under fluoroscopic and/or CT control to achieve an antalgic effect and stabilize the vertebral body. VP has been used for vertebral collapses caused by osteoporosis, long-term steroid treatment, aggressive symptomatic angiomas and lytic metastasis. The reported figures in literature are 80-95% of pain relief, within 7 days after procedure, commonly on the same day.

  14. [Distal shortening osteotomy of the metatarsals using the Weil technique: surgical treatment of metatarsalgia and dislocation of the metatarsophalangeal joint].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podskubka, A; Stĕdrý, V; Kafunĕk, M

    2002-01-01

    Weil technique of the distal shortening osteotomy of metatarsal is a relatively new method of the surgical treatment of metatarsalgia and dislocation of metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joints. A retrospective study evaluates the first experience in Weil osteotomy at the authors' department. Between May 1999 and the end of 2000 twelve patients (14 feet) were operated on in which the Weil technique of the osteotomy was performed on 28 metatarsals. Indication for the surgery was chronic metatarsalgia with dislocation of the MTP joint, with excessive length of one or more lesser metatarsals, with insufficiency of the first ray after the surgery of hallux valgus and metatarsalgia after the resection of the head of II metatarsal. All patients were women, average age of 57 years (range, 50-68 years) at the time of operation. The average follow-up is 9 months (range, 6-24 months). Dislocated prior to operation were 9 MTP joints, in 2 cases a deformity of 2nd digit of the digitus supraductus type was operated on. The patients evaluated subjectively the functional and cosmetic outcomes of the surgery. Clinical evaluation related to recurrence or transfer of difficulties to the head of the neighbouring metatarsal, range of motion of the MTP joint, function and grip of the digit. Radiograph was used for the evaluation of the metatarsal index, post-operative shortening of II metatarsal, reduction of dislocation in the MTP joint and healing of osteotomy. Satisfied with the functionla and cosmetic results of the operation were 83% patients (10 of 12). Recurrence of metatarsalgia was not found in any patient, transfermetatarsalgia in one patient. Reduction of the range of motion in the MTP joint (plantar flexion) by more than 50% was recorded in 43% operated on metatarsals and in all metatarsals after the reduction of the dislocation. Acceptable function and strength of the digit evaluated by the ability to press by the digit a sheet of paper against the floor was preserved in most of

  15. Automated Sampling Procedures Supported by High Persistence of Bacterial Fecal Indicators and Bacteroidetes Genetic Microbial Source Tracking Markers in Municipal Wastewater during Short-Term Storage at 5°C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, R. E.; Vierheilig, J.; Egle, L.; Reischer, G. H.; Saracevic, E.; Mach, R. L.; Kirschner, A. K. T.; Zessner, M.; Farnleitner, A. H.

    2015-01-01

    Because of high diurnal water quality fluctuations in raw municipal wastewater, the use of proportional autosampling over a period of 24 h at municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) to evaluate carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus removal has become a standard in many countries. Microbial removal or load estimation at municipal WWTPs, however, is still based on manually recovered grab samples. The goal of this study was to establish basic knowledge regarding the persistence of standard bacterial fecal indicators and Bacteroidetes genetic microbial source tracking markers in municipal wastewater in order to evaluate their suitability for automated sampling, as the potential lack of persistence is the main argument against such procedures. Raw and secondary treated wastewater of municipal origin from representative and well-characterized biological WWTPs without disinfection (organic carbon and nutrient removal) was investigated in microcosm experiments at 5 and 21°C with a total storage time of 32 h (including a 24-h autosampling component and an 8-h postsampling phase). Vegetative Escherichia coli and enterococci, as well as Clostridium perfringens spores, were selected as indicators for cultivation-based standard enumeration. Molecular analysis focused on total (AllBac) and human-associated genetic Bacteroidetes (BacHum-UCD, HF183 TaqMan) markers by using quantitative PCR, as well as 16S rRNA gene-based next-generation sequencing. The microbial parameters showed high persistence in both raw and treated wastewater at 5°C under the storage conditions used. Surprisingly, and in contrast to results obtained with treated wastewater, persistence of the microbial markers in raw wastewater was also high at 21°C. On the basis of our results, 24-h autosampling procedures with 5°C storage conditions can be recommended for the investigation of fecal indicators or Bacteroidetes genetic markers at municipal WWTPs. Such autosampling procedures will contribute to better

  16. Rapid bioassay-guided screening of toxic substances in vegetable oils that shorten the life of SHRSP rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewandowski Paul

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract It has been consistently reported that vegetable oils including canola oil have a life shortening effect in Stroke-Prone Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHRSP and this toxic effect is not due to the fatty acid composition of the oil. Although it is possible that the phytosterol content or type of phytosterol present in vegetable oils may play some role in the life shortening effect observed in SHRSP rats this is still not completely resolved. Furthermore supercritical CO2 fractionation of canola oil with subsequent testing in SHRSP rats identified safe and toxic fractions however, the compounds responsible for life shortening effect were not characterised. The conventional approach to screen toxic substances in oils using rats takes more than six months and involves large number of animals. In this article we describe how rapid bioassay-guided screening could be used to identify toxic substances derived from vegetable oils and/or processed foods fortified with vegetable oils. The technique incorporates sequential fractionation of oils/processed foods and subsequent treatment of human cell lines that can be used in place of animal studies to determine cytotoxicity of the fractions with structural elucidation of compounds of interest determined via HPLC-MS and GC-MS. The rapid bioassay-guided screening proposed would require two weeks to test multiple fractions from oils, compared with six months if animal experiments were used to screen toxic effects. Fractionation of oil before bio-assay enhances the effectiveness of the detection of active compounds as fractionation increases the relative concentration of minor components.

  17. Radiation and chemotherapy bystander effects induce early genomic instability events: Telomere shortening and bridge formation coupled with mitochondrial dysfunction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorman, Sheeona; Tosetto, Miriam [Centre for Colorectal Disease, St. Vincent' s University Hospital, Elm Park, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Lyng, Fiona; Howe, Orla [Radiation and Environmental Science Centre, Dublin Institute of Technology and St. Luke' s Hospital, Dublin (Ireland); Sheahan, Kieran; O' Donoghue, Diarmuid; Hyland, John; Mulcahy, Hugh [Centre for Colorectal Disease, St. Vincent' s University Hospital, Elm Park, Dublin 4 (Ireland); O' Sullivan, Jacintha, E-mail: jacintha.osullivan@ucd.ie [Centre for Colorectal Disease, St. Vincent' s University Hospital, Elm Park, Dublin 4 (Ireland)

    2009-10-02

    The bridge breakage fusion cycle is a chromosomal instability mechanism responsible for genomic changes. Radiation bystander effects induce genomic instability; however, the mechanism driving this instability is unknown. We examined if radiation and chemotherapy bystander effects induce early genomic instability events such as telomere shortening and bridge formation using a human colon cancer explant model. We assessed telomere lengths, bridge formations, mitochondrial membrane potential and levels of reactive oxygen species in bystander cells exposed to medium from irradiated and chemotherapy-treated explant tissues. Bystander cells exposed to media from 2 Gy, 5 Gy, FOLFOX treated tumor and matching normal tissue showed a significant reduction in telomere lengths (all p values <0.018) and an increase in bridge formations (all p values <0.017) compared to bystander cells treated with media from unirradiated tissue (0 Gy) at 24 h. There was no significant difference between 2 Gy and 5 Gy treatments, or between effects elicited by tumor versus matched normal tissue. Bystander cells exposed to media from 2 Gy irradiated tumor tissue showed significant depolarisation of the mitochondrial membrane potential (p = 0.012) and an increase in reactive oxygen species levels. We also used bystander cells overexpressing a mitochondrial antioxidant manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) to examine if this antioxidant could rescue the mitochondrial changes and subsequently influence nuclear instability events. In MnSOD cells, ROS levels were reduced (p = 0.02) and mitochondrial membrane potential increased (p = 0.04). These events were coupled with a decrease in percentage of cells with anaphase bridges and a decrease in the number of cells undergoing telomere length shortening (p values 0.01 and 0.028 respectively). We demonstrate that radiation and chemotherapy bystander responses induce early genomic instability coupled with defects in mitochondrial function. Restoring

  18. Improving the Performance of an Auditory Brain-Computer Interface Using Virtual Sound Sources by Shortening Stimulus Onset Asynchrony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugi, Miho; Hagimoto, Yutaka; Nambu, Isao; Gonzalez, Alejandro; Takei, Yoshinori; Yano, Shohei; Hokari, Haruhide; Wada, Yasuhiro

    2018-01-01

    Recently, a brain-computer interface (BCI) using virtual sound sources has been proposed for estimating user intention via electroencephalogram (EEG) in an oddball task. However, its performance is still insufficient for practical use. In this study, we examine the impact that shortening the stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) has on this auditory BCI. While very short SOA might improve its performance, sound perception and task performance become difficult, and event-related potentials (ERPs) may not be induced if the SOA is too short. Therefore, we carried out behavioral and EEG experiments to determine the optimal SOA. In the experiments, participants were instructed to direct attention to one of six virtual sounds (target direction). We used eight different SOA conditions: 200, 300, 400, 500, 600, 700, 800, and 1,100 ms. In the behavioral experiment, we recorded participant behavioral responses to target direction and evaluated recognition performance of the stimuli. In all SOA conditions, recognition accuracy was over 85%, indicating that participants could recognize the target stimuli correctly. Next, using a silent counting task in the EEG experiment, we found significant differences between target and non-target sound directions in all but the 200-ms SOA condition. When we calculated an identification accuracy using Fisher discriminant analysis (FDA), the SOA could be shortened by 400 ms without decreasing the identification accuracies. Thus, improvements in performance (evaluated by BCI utility) could be achieved. On average, higher BCI utilities were obtained in the 400 and 500-ms SOA conditions. Thus, auditory BCI performance can be optimized for both behavioral and neurophysiological responses by shortening the SOA. PMID:29535602

  19. Efficacy of MTAD with shortened irrigation time on smear layer removal after rotary canal instrumentation: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaishak Kustagi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: A search in the endodontic literature showed the absence of any reports regarding the use of a mixture of tetracycline, acid, and detergent (MTAD to remove smear layer at shortened irrigation time. Aims: To determine the efficacy of MTAD with shortened irrigation time on smear layer removal after Pro Taper rotary canal instrumentation. Methods: Twenty single-rooted lower premolar teeth were randomly divided into two experimental groups. After decoronation of all the samples, working length was determined and all the teeth were instrumented to master apical size # 30 (F3, using Pro Taper rotary files. Teeth were irrigated with 3% NaOCl during instrumentation. Experimental groups one and two were irrigated with a 5 ml final rinse using MTAD for 5 min and 2.5 min, respectively. After irrigation, all root canals were dried with absorbent paper points. The teeth were then sectioned longitudinally and prepared for a scanning electron microscopic examination. The scanning electron microscope photographs were evaluated using a standard scoring system developed by Rome et al. Statistical Analysis Used: Results were statistically analyzed using Mann–Whitney U-test. Results: When intercomparison was made between Group 1 and 2 at the coronal and middle third, statistically significant difference was observed, with Group 1 having significantly less smear layer than Group 2. In apical third, no statistically significant difference was observed between Group 1 and 2, even though smear layer removal was more in Group 1 than Group 2. Conclusion: Effective smear layer removal was not possible with shortened irrigation time using MTAD.

  20. Telomere shortening impairs regeneration of the olfactory epithelium in response to injury but not under homeostatic conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masami Watabe-Rudolph

    Full Text Available Atrophy of the olfactory epithelium (OE associated with impaired olfaction and dry nose represents one of the most common phenotypes of human aging. Impairment in regeneration of a functional olfactory epithelium can also occur in response to injury due to infection or nasal surgery. These complications occur more frequently in aged patients. Although age is the most unifying risk factor for atrophic changes and functional decline of the olfactory epithelium, little is known about molecular mechanisms that could influence maintenance and repair of the olfactory epithelium. Here, we analyzed the influence of telomere shortening (a basic mechanism of cellular aging on homeostasis and regenerative reserve in response to chemical induced injury of the OE in late generation telomere knockout mice (G3 mTerc(-/- with short telomeres compared to wild type mice (mTerc(+/+ with long telomeres. The study revealed no significant influence of telomere shortening on homeostatic maintenance of the OE during mouse aging. In contrast, the regenerative response to chemical induced injury of the OE was significantly impaired in G3 mTerc(-/- mice compared to mTerc(+/+ mice. Seven days after chemical induced damage, G3 mTerc(-/- mice exhibited significantly enlarged areas of persisting atrophy compared to mTerc(+/+ mice (p = 0.031. Telomere dysfunction was associated with impairments in cell proliferation in the regenerating epithelium. Deletion of the cell cycle inhibitor, Cdkn1a (p21 rescued defects in OE regeneration in telomere dysfunctional mice. Together, these data indicate that telomere shortening impairs the regenerative capacity of the OE by impairing cell cycle progression in a p21-dependent manner. These findings could be relevant for the impairment in OE function in elderly people.

  1. Radiation and chemotherapy bystander effects induce early genomic instability events: telomere shortening and bridge formation coupled with mitochondrial dysfunction.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gorman, Sheeona

    2012-02-01

    The bridge breakage fusion cycle is a chromosomal instability mechanism responsible for genomic changes. Radiation bystander effects induce genomic instability; however, the mechanism driving this instability is unknown. We examined if radiation and chemotherapy bystander effects induce early genomic instability events such as telomere shortening and bridge formation using a human colon cancer explant model. We assessed telomere lengths, bridge formations, mitochondrial membrane potential and levels of reactive oxygen species in bystander cells exposed to medium from irradiated and chemotherapy-treated explant tissues. Bystander cells exposed to media from 2Gy, 5Gy, FOLFOX treated tumor and matching normal tissue showed a significant reduction in telomere lengths (all p values <0.018) and an increase in bridge formations (all p values <0.017) compared to bystander cells treated with media from unirradiated tissue (0Gy) at 24h. There was no significant difference between 2Gy and 5Gy treatments, or between effects elicited by tumor versus matched normal tissue. Bystander cells exposed to media from 2Gy irradiated tumor tissue showed significant depolarisation of the mitochondrial membrane potential (p=0.012) and an increase in reactive oxygen species levels. We also used bystander cells overexpressing a mitochondrial antioxidant manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) to examine if this antioxidant could rescue the mitochondrial changes and subsequently influence nuclear instability events. In MnSOD cells, ROS levels were reduced (p=0.02) and mitochondrial membrane potential increased (p=0.04). These events were coupled with a decrease in percentage of cells with anaphase bridges and a decrease in the number of cells undergoing telomere length shortening (p values 0.01 and 0.028 respectively). We demonstrate that radiation and chemotherapy bystander responses induce early genomic instability coupled with defects in mitochondrial function. Restoring mitochondrial

  2. Will talking about it make it worse? Facilitating family conversations in the context of chronic and life-shortening illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imber-Black, Evan

    2014-05-01

    This article explores secrecy and openness in the context of chronic and life-shortening illness. Illustrated by clinical work with families at the Center for Families and Health at the Ackerman Institute for the Family, I examine the impact of secrecy on family relationships, including the serious relational price of silence, the danger to physical and emotional well-being, and the formation of triangles. Through the stories of four families, I demonstrate ways to facilitate greater openness when illness pertains. The benefits to families of being able to speak with candor and authenticity are shown. The article concludes with a range of questions to guide the clinician.

  3. Measurement of nucleotide exchange rate constants in single rabbit soleus myofibrils during shortening and lengthening using a fluorescent ATP analog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirakawa, I; Chaen, S; Bagshaw, C R; Sugi, H

    2000-02-01

    The kinetics of displacement of a fluorescent nucleotide, 2'(3')-O-[N[2-[[Cy3]amido]ethyl]carbamoyl]-adenosine 5'-triphosphate (Cy3-EDA-ATP), bound to rabbit soleus muscle myofibrils were studied using flash photolysis of caged ATP. Use of myofibrils from this slow twitch muscle allowed better resolution of the kinetics of nucleotide exchange than previous studies with psoas muscle myofibrils (, Biophys. J. 73:2033-2042). Soleus myofibrils in the presence of Cy3-EDA-nucleotides (Cy3-EDA-ATP or Cy3-EDA-ADP) showed selective fluorescence staining of the A-band. The K(m) for Cy3-EDA-ATP and the K(d) for Cy3-EDA-ADP binding to the myofibril A-band were 1.9 microM and 3.8 microM, respectively, indicating stronger binding of nucleotide to soleus cross-bridges compared to psoas cross-bridges (2.6 microM and 50 microM, respectively). After flash photolysis of caged ATP, the A-band fluorescence of the myofibril in the Cy3-EDA-ATP solution under isometric conditions decayed exponentially with a rate constant of 0.045 +/- 0.007 s(-1) (n = 32) at 10 degrees C, which was about seven times slower than that for psoas myofibrils. When a myofibril was allowed to shorten with a constant velocity, the nucleotide displacement rate constant increased from 0.066 s(-1) (isometric) to 0.14 s(-1) at 20 degrees C with increasing shortening velocity up to 0.1 myofibril length/s (V(max), the shortening velocity under no load was approximately 0. 2 myofibril lengths/s). The rate constant was not significantly affected by an isovelocity stretch of up to 0.1 myofibril lengths/s. These results suggest that the cross-bridge kinetics are not significantly affected at higher strain during lengthening but depend on the lower strain during shortening. These data also indicate that the interaction distance between a cross-bridge and the actin filament is at least 16 nm for a single cycle of the ATPase.

  4. A novel temperature control method for shortening thermal cycling time to achieve rapid polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in a disposable polymer microfluidic device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bu, Minqiang; R. Perch-Nielsen, Ivan; Sørensen, Karen Skotte

    We present a new temperature control method capable of effectively shortening the thermal cycling time of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in a disposable polymer microfluidic device with external heater and temperature sensor. The method employs optimized temperature overshooting and undershooting...

  5. Increasing the speed of computational fluid dynamics procedure for minimization the nitrogen oxide polution from the premixed atmospheric gas burner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fotev Vasko G.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents innovative method for increasing the speed of procedure which includes complex computational fluid dynamic calculations for finding the distance between flame openings of atmospheric gas burner that lead to minimal NO pollution. The method is based on standard features included in commercial computational fluid dynamic software and shortens computer working time roughly seven times in this particular case.

  6. A model of procedural and distributive fairness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krawczyk, M.W.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a new model aimed at predicting behav- ior in games involving a randomized allocation procedure. It is designed to capture the relative importance and interaction between procedural justice (defined crudely in terms of the share of one's expected outcome in the sum of all

  7. Analysis of shortened versions of the tampa scale for kinesiophobia and pain catastrophizing scale for patients after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Steven Z; Lentz, Trevor A; Zeppieri, Giorgio; Lee, Derek; Chmielewski, Terese L

    2012-01-01

    Recent work suggests that psychological influence on pain intensity and knee function should be considered for patients after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). The Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia (TSK) and Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS) have been used to determine psychological influence in these patients. However, TSK and PCS factor structures have not been described for patients with ACLR. This study investigated 2 groups of patients post-ACLR to determine if the use of shortened questionnaires is warranted. Cross-sectional study in which patients completed measures during early (n=105, median days from surgery=56.0) and late (n=184, median days from surgery=195.0) postoperative phases of ACLR rehabilitation. Shortened questionnaires for fear of pain, fear of injury, and somatic focus were generated for the TSK-11. A shortened questionnaire for magnification/helplessness and rumination was generated for the PCS in the late group only. There were minimal differences in the shortened questionnaires for clinical subgroups based on sex, ACLR graft type, method of injury, or nature of injury. Correlation and regression analyses suggested a shortened version of the TSK-11 for fear of injury was appropriate for use in the early postoperative phase, whereas the original TSK-11 scale may be appropriate for use in the late postoperative phase. There were no shortened versions of the PCS for consideration in the early postoperative phase, but a shortened version for magnification/helplessness was appropriate for use in the late postoperative phase. Shortened versions of the TSK-11 and PCS may be appropriate for ACLR populations, depending on the postoperative phase. These data may guide future research of psychological factors in ACLR populations so that levels predictive of risk for developing chronic pain and/or inability to return to pre-injury activity levels can be determined.

  8. Effects of Cigarette Smoking on Transplant Survival: Extending or Shortening It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Feifei; Fan, Ping; Nie, Golay D; Liu, Huazhen; Liang, Chun-Ling; Yu, Wanlin; Dai, Zhenhua

    2017-01-01

    Cigarette smoking (CS) regulates both innate and adaptive immunity and causes numerous diseases, including cardiovascular, respiratory, and autoimmune diseases, allergies, cancers, and transplant rejection. Therefore, smoking poses a serious challenge to the healthcare system worldwide. Epidemiological studies have always shown that CS is one of the major risk factors for transplant rejection, even though smoking plays redundant roles in regulating immune responses. The complex roles for smoking in immunoregulation are likely due to molecular and functional diversities of cigarette smoke components, including carbon monoxide (CO) and nicotine. Especially, CO has been shown to induce immune tolerance. Although CS has been shown to impact transplantation by causing complications and subsequent rejection, it is overlooked whether CS interferes with transplant tolerance. We have previously demonstrated that cigarette smoke exposure reverses long-term allograft survival induced by costimulatory blockade. Given that CS impacts both adaptive and innate immunity and that it hinders long-term transplant survival, our perspective is that CS impacts transplant tolerance. Here, we review impacts of CS on major immune cells that are critical for transplant outcomes and propose the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying its effects on alloimmunity and transplant survival. Further investigations are warranted to fully understand why CS exerts deleterious rather than beneficial effects on transplant survival even if some of its components are immunosuppressive.

  9. Intestinal Insulin Signaling Encodes Two Different Molecular Mechanisms for the Shortened Longevity Induced by Graphene Oxide in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yunli; Yang, Ruilong; Rui, Qi; Wang, Dayong

    2016-04-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) has been shown to cause multiple toxicities in various organisms. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms for GO-induced shortened longevity are still unclear. We employed Caenorhabditis elegans to investigate the possible involvement of insulin signaling pathway in the control of GO toxicity and its underlying molecular mechanisms. Mutation of daf-2, age-1, akt-1, or akt-2 gene induced a resistant property of nematodes to GO toxicity, while mutation of daf-16 gene led to a susceptible property of nematodes to GO toxicity, suggesting that GO may dysregulate the functions of DAF-2/IGF-1 receptor, AGE-1, AKT-1 and AKT-2-mediated kinase cascade, and DAF-16/FOXO transcription factor. Genetic interaction analysis suggested the involvement of signaling cascade of DAF-2-AGE-1-AKT-1/2-DAF-16 in the control of GO toxicity on longevity. Moreover, intestinal RNA interference (RNAi) analysis demonstrated that GO reduced longevity by affecting the functions of signaling cascade of DAF-2-AGE-1-AKT-1/2-DAF-16 in the intestine. DAF-16 could also regulate GO toxicity on longevity by functioning upstream of SOD-3, which encodes an antioxidation system that prevents the accumulation of oxidative stress. Therefore, intestinal insulin signaling may encode two different molecular mechanisms responsible for the GO toxicity in inducing the shortened longevity. Our results highlight the key role of insulin signaling pathway in the control of GO toxicity in organisms.

  10. Effects of different dropping intensities on fascicle and tendinous tissue behavior during stretch-shortening cycle exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Masaki; Komi, Paavo V

    2004-03-01

    This study examined whether the elasticity of the tendinous tissues plays an important role in human locomotion by improving the power output and efficiency of skeletal muscle. Ten subjects performed one-leg drop jumps (DJ) from different dropping heights with a constant rebound height. The fascicle length of the vastus lateralis muscle was measured by using real-time ultrasonography during DJ. In the braking phase of the DJ, fascicle lengthening decreased and the tendinous tissue lengthening increased with increased dropping intensity. In the subsequent push-off phase, the shortening of tendinous tissues increased with higher dropping intensity. The averaged electromyographic activities of the preactivation and braking phases increased and those of the push-off phase decreased as the drop height was increased. With higher dropping height but constant submaximal rebound jump, the stretched tendinous tissue length increased with less stretched fascicle during the braking phase. In the subsequent push-off phase, the recoil of tendinous tissues became greater. These results suggest that the increased prestretch intensity has considerable influence on the process of storage and subsequent recoil of the elastic energy during the stretch-shortening cycle action.

  11. Simulation training is useful for shortening the decision-to-delivery interval in cases of emergent cesarean section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iitani, Yukako; Tsuda, Hiroyuki; Ito, Yumiko; Moriyama, Yoshinori; Nakano, Tomoko; Imai, Kenji; Kotani, Tomomi; Kikkawa, Fumitaka

    2017-08-16

    We examined the effect of simulation training for medical staff on the decision-to-delivery interval (DDI) in cases of emergent cesarean delivery and the effect of a shortened DDI on maternal and neonatal outcomes. Our hospital is a tertiary perinatal center. As the simulation training was performed in March 2014, the study population was divided into two groups: pretraining group (November 2011-March 2014, 29 months: n = 15) and post-training group (April 2014-August 2016, 29 months: n = 35). The DDI was significantly shorter in the post-training group than in the pretraining group (p = .009). In particular, the decision-to-entering the operating room interval was significantly shorter in the post-training group than in the pretraining group (p = .003). The umbilical artery pH was significantly better in post-training group than in the pretraining group (p = .019). Furthermore, the umbilical artery pH was significantly improved by simulation training only in "irreversible" cases (p = .012). The DDI was significantly shortened by introducing simulation training. We also demonstrated a beneficial effect of the simulation training on the umbilical artery pH, especially in "irreversible" cases, without increasing the rate of maternal adverse outcome.

  12. A Comparison of Prostaglandin & Stripping in Ripening of Cervix and Shortening of Labor in Post Date Pregnancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rabiee

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Around 22% of pregnancies reach to 40 weeks or more. Investigations have shown that PG is effective in improving cervical ripe and shortening the labor. Stripping also is one of the effective approach for reducing post date pregnancies. This study was undertaken to compare vaginal Misoprostol (PG E1 and membrane stripping to improve Bishop Score and shortening of labor in post date pregnancies.Materials & Methods: In this randomized clinical trial, 60 post date pregnant women (gestational age > 40w, primigravida and gravida 2 enrolled in two study groups. Group A was stripping and group B was PG E2 (Misoprostol tablet. The mean of labor time and Bishop Score changes compared by t-student test.Results: Mean of labor time in the group B and A was 11.6±8.8 and 11.9±6.8 hours respectively. Mean of Bishop Score change in group A was 4 ± 0.81 and in group B was 3.7 ± 1.86.Conclusion: Efficacy of each method in improvement of Bishop Score and reduction of labor time was equal and statistically had no significant difference.

  13. Effects of Estrogen Fluctuation during the Menstrual Cycle on the Response to Stretch-Shortening Exercise in Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulė Sipavičienė

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate whether variation in estrogen levels during the menstrual cycle influences susceptibility to exercise-induced muscle damage after stretch-shortening cycle exercise. Physically active women (n=18; age = 20.2 ± 1.7 yr participated in this research. The subjects performed one session of 100 maximal drop jumps on day 1 or 2 of the follicular phase and another identical session on day 1 or 2 of the ovulatory phase; the order of the sessions was randomized. Quadriceps femoris muscle peak torque evoked by electrical stimulation and maximal voluntary contraction, muscle pain, and CK activity were measured before and at various times up to 72 h after exercise. It was found that the high estrogen level during the ovulatory phase might be related to an earlier return to baseline muscle strength after strenuous stretch-shortening cycle exercise in that phase compared with the follicular phase. The estrogen effect appears to be highly specific to the damaged site because the differences in most EIMD markers (CK, soreness, and low-frequency fatigue between the two menstrual cycle phases were small.

  14. A multicentre randomized/controlled trial of a conventional versus modestly accelerated radiotherapy in the laryngeal cancer: influence of a 1 week shortening overall time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hliniak, A.; Gwiazdowska, B.; Szutkowski, Z.; Kraszewska, E.; Kukolowicz, P.; Jarzabski, A.; Sochacka, B.; Mazurkiewicz, M.; Paprota, K.; Oliskiewicz, W.; Zadrozna, O.; Milecki, P.; Kubiak, M.; Czopkiewicz, L.; Jagas, M.; Gozdz, S.; Wieczorek, A.; Woytowicz, A.; Cisowska, B.; Magdziarz, H.; Nowakowski, S.; Kosniewski, W.; Laskosz, I.; Serafin, A.; Gradon, E.

    2002-01-01

    Background and purpose: To compare in a phase III study the loco-regional control, disease-free survival and overall survival induced by an accelerated regimen (AF) as compared with conventional regimen (CF) and to analyze the early and late post-radiation morbidity in both arms. Materials and methods: Patients with age≤75, WHO 0-1, suitable for a radical course of radiotherapy T1-T3, N0, M0, stage of glottic and supraglottic laryngeal cancer were randomized to either CF: 66Gy given in 33 fractions over 45 days or AF: 66Gy given in 33 fractions over 38 days (2 fractions every Thursday). A total of 395 patients were included from 05.1995 to 12.1998. Results. Early toxicity: At the end of radiotherapy patients treated with AF complained for more severe reactions than patients treated with CF. In 8 weeks after treatment completion patients treated with AF complained only for more severe pain on swallowing (P=0.027). In 4 months after treatment completion all types of toxicity except for skin teleangiectasia (P=0.001) were similar in the two groups. Loco-regional control: comparison between CF and AF showed no difference in terms of loco-regional control (P=0.37). Conclusions: The improvement in AF in terms of loco-regional control is estimated to be 3-5% in comparison with conventional regimen and is not significant. The intensity of reactions after 4 months was similar in both arms, what suggests the possibility of further shortening of the overall time by few days or enhancing the total dose within the limits of acceptable morbidity

  15. Style, magnitude, and timing of shortening at the eastern end of Kura fold-thrust belt, Azerbaijan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forte, A. M.; Cowgill, E.; Murtuzayev, I.

    2010-12-01

    Although the Greater Caucasus forms the northern edge of the Arabia-Eurasia collision, the main locus of shortening has shifted south since 5 Ma, producing the Kura fold-thrust belt in Georgia and Azerbaijan. Eastward-decreasing structural complexity and depth of exposure within the thrust belt suggest eastward propagation of faulting. Two topographic features define the eastern termination of the Kura fold-thrust belt at ~48°E: a southern range front exposing south-directed, closely spaced (back thrust. To determine the style, magnitude, and timing of shortening at the east end of the fold-thrust belt, we conducted 1:100K-scale structural mapping covering ~1000 ~km^2 of this region. Along-strike changes in structural geometry divide the map area into two structural domains, the Surxayxan in the west and the Qaramaryam to the east. The Surxayxan domain (47.5°E to 47.8°E) is characterized by two main, north-dipping thrusts, the Savalan to the north and Agcayazi ~4-6 km to the S. At maximum displacement the Savalan thrust places Apsheron sediments over Baku-Khazar deposits, repeating ~2 km of section. The hanging wall anticline of the Savalan thrust is poorly preserved, but a footwall syncline occurs along its full length. The Agcayazi thrust defines the southern range front in this domain, characterized by exposures of Apsheron sediments with the overturned forelimb of the hanging wall anticline preserved in limited areas, but no definitive exposure of the thrust. The Qaramaryam structural domain (47.8°E to 48.3°E) is characterized by the eastwards termination of the Agcayazi thrust and transfer of slip to the north-dipping Padar and Inca thrusts to the south, which together form the Qaramaryam anticline. The latter two thrusts are separated by ~4 km and expose the top of the Apsheron at their maximum displacements but mostly deform Baku-Khazar sediments. In both domains, fold geometries are consistent with a trishear model. Preliminary balanced cross sections

  16. Human factoring administrative procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grider, D.A.; Sturdivant, M.H.

    1991-01-01

    In nonnuclear business, administrative procedures bring to mind such mundane topics as filing correspondence and scheduling vacation time. In the nuclear industry, on the other hand, administrative procedures play a vital role in assuring the safe operation of a facility. For some time now, industry focus has been on improving technical procedures. Significant efforts are under way to produce technical procedure requires that a validated technical, regulatory, and administrative basis be developed and that the technical process be established for each procedure. Producing usable technical procedures requires that procedure presentation be engineered to the same human factors principles used in control room design. The vital safety role of administrative procedures requires that they be just as sound, just a rigorously formulated, and documented as technical procedures. Procedure programs at the Tennessee Valley Authority and at Boston Edison's Pilgrim Station demonstrate that human factors engineering techniques can be applied effectively to technical procedures. With a few modifications, those same techniques can be used to produce more effective administrative procedures. Efforts are under way at the US Department of Energy Nuclear Weapons Complex and at some utilities (Boston Edison, for instance) to apply human factors engineering to administrative procedures: The techniques being adapted include the following

  17. Treatment of a Slaughterhouse Wastewater using Sequencing Batch Reactors at a Shortened Operating Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suwadi Saikomon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This laboratory-scale study employed sequencing batch reactor (SBR technology to investigate the effect of two operational parameters [i.e. solids retention time (SRT and anoxic time ratios] regarding the treatment of a slaughterhouse wastewater. Results indicated that organic matter removal, expressed as chemical oxygen demand (COD, was very high, consistently exceeding the 95 % level. In addition, the total nitrogen (TN removal ranged between 82 and 94 %, while total phosphorus (TP removal fluctuated between 88 and 94 %. In general, the reactors exhibited a high degree of operational stability during treatment. Although the investigated range of the two operational parameters appeared to have a minimal effect on the process performance (expressed as % carbon or nutrient removal, the corresponding COD and TN specific consumption rates were noticeably affected by the variation in the anoxic time ratios. Furthermore, the operating cycle length of 8 h employed in this study resulted in improved performance, in terms of nitrogen removal, compared to other studies conducted at longer operating cycles.

  18. The procedural egalitarian solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietzenbacher, Bas; Borm, Peter; Hendrickx, Ruud

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we introduce and analyze the procedural egalitarian solution for transferable utility games. This new concept is based on the result of a coalitional bargaining procedure in which egalitarian considerations play a central role. The procedural egalitarian solution is the first

  19. The Procedural Egalitarian Solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietzenbacher, Bas; Borm, Peter; Hendrickx, Ruud

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we introduce and analyze the procedural egalitarian solution for transferable utility games. This new concept is based on the result of a coalitional bargaining procedure in which egalitarian considerations play a central role. The procedural egalitarian solution is the first

  20. Interaction between fascicle and tendinous tissues in short-contact stretch-shortening cycle exercise with varying eccentric intensities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, M; Niemelä, E; Komi, P V

    2005-07-01

    The interaction between fascicle and tendinous tissues (TT) in short-contact drop jumps (DJ) with three different drop heights [low (Low), optimal (OP), and high (High)] was examined with 11 subjects. The ground reaction force (F(z)) and ankle and knee joint angles were measured together with real-time ultrasonography (fascicle length) and electromyographic activities of the medial gastrocnemius (MG) and vastus lateralis (VL) muscles during the movement. With increasing drop height, the braking force and flight time increased from Low to OP (P elastic recoil ratio decreased in both muscles with increasing the intensity during DJ. These findings demonstrated that TT underwent lengthening before shortening during DJ. However, the efficacy of elastic recoil decreased with increasing the drop intensity. The effective catapult action in TT can be limited by the drop intensity. In addition, the measured muscles behaved differently during DJ, providing evidence that each muscle may have a specific means of fascicle-TT interaction.

  1. Laparoscopic Collis gastroplasty and Dor fundoplication for reflux esophagitis complicated by a penetrating ulcer and shortened esophagus: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Fumiaki; Omura, Nobuo; Tsuboi, Kazuto; Nakada, Koji; Kashiwagi, Hideyuki; Yanaga, Katsuhiko

    2007-08-01

    The patient was a 72-year-old man, who was referred to us at the beginning of July 2005 with a chief complaint of difficulty with swallowing. After a thorough medical examination, the patient was diagnosed with a penetrating ulcer due to reflux esophagitis, lower esophageal stricture, Barrett esophagus, and shortened esophagus. After administration of a proton pump inhibitor and 2 sessions of endoscopic dilatation, esophagitis was cured and the stricture was eliminated. Subsequently, Collis gastroplasty and Dor fundoplication, which seemed appropriate to certainly avoid injuring communication with the mediastinum created by the penetrating ulcer and provide radical cure, were performed laparoscopically. The patient made a good postoperative progress, was discharged on the 11th hospital day, and is now being followed up on an outpatient basis. There have been no signs of recurrence of esophagitis, and the penetrating ulcer was cured. To our knowledge, this is the first report of simultaneous laparoscopic Collis gastroplasty and Dor fundoplication in the English literature.

  2. Shortened screening method for phosphorus fractionation in sediments A complementary approach to the standards, measurements and testing harmonised protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pardo, Patricia; Rauret, Gemma; Lopez-Sanchez, Jose Fermin

    2004-01-01

    The SMT protocol, a sediment phosphorus fractionation method harmonised and validated in the frame of the standards, measurements and testing (SMT) programme (European Commission), establishes five fractions of phosphorus according to their extractability. The determination of phosphate extracted is carried out spectrophotometrically. This protocol has been applied to 11 sediments of different origin and characteristics and the phosphorus extracted in each fraction was determined not only by UV-Vis spectrophotometry, but also by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry. The use of these two determination techniques allowed the differentiation between phosphorus that was present in the extracts as soluble reactive phosphorus and as total phosphorus. From the comparison of data obtained with both determination techniques a shortened screening method, for a quick evaluation of the magnitude and importance of the fractions given by the SMT protocol, is proposed and validated using two certified reference materials

  3. Presence of a nail in the medullary canal; is it enough to prevent femoral neck shortening in trochanteric fracture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hyung Keun; Yoon, Han Kuk; Yang, Kyu Hyun

    2014-09-01

    Presence of a cephalomedullary nail (CMN) in the medullary canal has been thought as advantageous in the control of femoral neck shortening (FNS) and lag screw sliding in trochanteric fracture compared to extramedullary fixation system. However, researches on the factors that influence the degree of FNS after cephalomedullary nailing are lacking. We observed 95 patients (mean age, 75±2.8 years) with trochanteric fractures who were treated with a CMN, and evaluated the relationship between FNS and patient factors including age, gender, fracture type (AO/OTA), bone mineral density, medullary canal diameter, canal occupancy ratio (COR=nail size/canal diameter), and tip-apex distance using initial, immediate postoperative, and follow-up radiography. Univariate regression analyses revealed that the degree of FNS was significantly correlated with fracture type (A1 versus A3, pfracture type (pfracture.

  4. The effect of strength training, recreational soccer and running exercise on stretch-shortening cycle muscle performance during countermovement jumping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Markus Due; Sundstrup, Emil; Randers, Morten Bredsgaard

    2012-01-01

    ) and muscle fiber size (CSA) were studied in untrained individuals (n=49, 21-45yrs) pre and post 12weeks of progressive heavy-resistance strength training (ST, n=8), recreational soccer training (SOC, n=15), high-intensity interval running (INT, n=7), continuous running (RUN, n=9) or continuation...... production, indicating a more explosive-type SSC muscle performance. No effects were detected in CMJ performance after continuous running, high-intensity interval running and recreational soccer, despite an increased muscle fiber CSA and quadriceps muscle activity in SOC. Enhanced neuromuscular activity......The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of contrasting training modalities on mechanical muscle performance and neuromuscular activity during maximal SSC (stretch-shortening cycle) countermovement jumps (CMJ). Bilateral countermovement jumping, surface electromyography (EMG...

  5. Intravenous albumin shortens the duration of hospitalization for patients with hypoalbuminemia and bleeding peptic ulcers: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hsiu-Chi; Chang, Wei-Lun; Chen, Wei-Ying; Tsai, Yu-Ching; Yeh, Yi-Chun; Sheu, Bor-Shyang

    2013-11-01

    Patients with hypoalbuminemia have an increased risk of ulcer rebleeding and longer length of hospitalization. This study aimed to test whether intravenous albumin can decrease the incidence of rebleeding or shorten the duration of hospitalization in patients with bleeding peptic ulcers and hypoalbuminemia. Sixty-two patients with bleeding peptic ulcers and Rockall scores ≥ 6 were prospectively enrolled after having received endoscopic therapy. The enrolled patients were divided into a normal albumin group (serum albumin ≥ 3 g/dL, n = 39) or an intervention group (<3 g/dL, n = 23) to receive a 3-day course of omeprazole infusion and 25-day oral esomeprazole. Patients (n = 29) with bleeding ulcers and hypoalbuminemia who received the same dose of intravenous and oral omeprazole but did not receive albumin therapy were enrolled from a previous study as the control group. In the intervention group, patients received albumin infusion (10 g q8h) for 1 day (serum albumin levels 2.5-2.9 g/dL) and 2 days (<2.5 g/dL), respectively. The 28-day cumulative rebleeding rates were similar between the intervention group and the control group (39.1 vs. 42.3 %, p = 0.99). The intervention group had a shorter duration of hospitalization (9 vs. 15 days, p = 0.02) than cohort controls. The risk of rebleeding developed after discharge were similar (normal albumin group vs. intervention group vs. control group, 1/5 [20 %] vs. 2/9 [22.2 %] vs. 1/11 [9.1 %], p = 0.7). Albumin administration shortens the duration of hospitalization for patients with peptic ulcer bleeding and hypoalbuminemia, but does not decrease the incidence of rebleeding.

  6. Effectivity of Betel Leaf (Piper betle L. Gel Extract in Shortening Bleeding Time After Deciduous Tooth Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Tedjasulaksana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: As an Indonesian traditional medicine, betel leafis often used to stop nosebleed. Effective substances in betel leaves which serves to stop the bleeding is tannin. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of the betel leaf ethanol extract gel shortened bleeding time after the revocation of deciduous teeth. Method: This research was conducted at the Department of Dental Nursing Clinic, Health Polytechnic Denpasar.This study is pure experimental research design with Completely Randomized Post Test Only Control Group Design. The total sample of 27 respondents were divided into a treatment group and two control groups. Anterior deciduous teeth on the physiological loose grade 3 or 4 is extracted, then the tooth socket is put pure gel for group 1 to group 2, epinephrine gel and gel ethanol extract of betel leaf for group 3. The bleeding time is calculated from the first moment the blood out until there is blood on filter paper that is placed on the tooth socket. Data were statistically analyzed with descriptive test and comparability test with One Way Anova. Result: The results showed bleeding time pure gel groups differ significantly with epinephrine group and the group of ethanol extract of betel leaf gel (p< 0.05. Bleeding time of epinephrine group did not differ significantly with betel leaf ethanol extract group (p>0.05. Conclusion: This means ethanol gel betel leaf extract can shorten bleeding after deciduous tooth extraction and it is suggested that the use of gel ethanol extract of betel leaves to cope with bleeding after tooth extraction.

  7. An Attempt to Shorten Loading Time of Epirubicin into DC Beads{sup ®} Using Vibration and a Sieve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonoda, Akinaga, E-mail: akinagasonoda@yahoo.co.jp; Nitta, Norihisa [Shiga University of Medical Science, Department of Radiology (Japan); Yamamoto, Takefumi [Shiga University of Medical Science, Central Research Laboratory (Japan); Tomozawa, Yuki; Ohta, Shinichi; Watanabe, Shobu; Murata, Kiyoshi [Shiga University of Medical Science, Department of Radiology (Japan)

    2017-04-15

    PurposeWe investigated the possibility of shortening the time required for loading epirubicin into calibrated polyvinyl alcohol-based hydrogel beads (DC Beads{sup ®}) to be used for transarterial chemoembolization.MethodAfter separating the beads suspended in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) solution by the use of a sieve (clearance 75 µm), epirubicin hydrochloride (EH) was loaded for 20, 30, or 60 s under vibration into DC beads. The EH loading rate into conventionally prepared (control) beads, i.e., beads loaded for 30 min without vibration, and vibration-loaded beads were calculated from the residual EH concentration in the bead-depleted EH solution. The amount of EH eluted from conventionally and vibration-loaded samples into a PBS solution (pH 7.0) was measured at 15 and 30 min and 1, 2, 6, 12, and 24 h. We also recorded the inhibitory effect of the PBS solution on the loading time. Using frozen sections, the EH load in the beads was evaluated visually under a fluorescence microscope.ResultsSpectrophotometry (495 nm) showed that the loading rate was 98.98 ± 0.34, 99.02 ± 0.32, and 99.50 ± 0.11 % with 20-, 30-, and 60-s vibration, respectively. The eluted rate was statistically similar between vibration- and statically loaded (control) beads. The PBS solution hampered EH loading into the beads. Visually, the distribution of EH in conventionally and vibration-loaded DC beads was similar.DiscussionThe use of vibration and the removal of PBS solution when epirubicin hydrochloride was loaded into DC beads dramatically shortened the loading time of epirubicin hydrochloride into DC beads.

  8. An Attempt to Shorten Loading Time of Epirubicin into DC Beads®Using Vibration and a Sieve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonoda, Akinaga; Nitta, Norihisa; Yamamoto, Takefumi; Tomozawa, Yuki; Ohta, Shinichi; Watanabe, Shobu; Murata, Kiyoshi

    2017-04-01

    We investigated the possibility of shortening the time required for loading epirubicin into calibrated polyvinyl alcohol-based hydrogel beads (DC Beads ® ) to be used for transarterial chemoembolization. After separating the beads suspended in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) solution by the use of a sieve (clearance 75 µm), epirubicin hydrochloride (EH) was loaded for 20, 30, or 60 s under vibration into DC beads. The EH loading rate into conventionally prepared (control) beads, i.e., beads loaded for 30 min without vibration, and vibration-loaded beads were calculated from the residual EH concentration in the bead-depleted EH solution. The amount of EH eluted from conventionally and vibration-loaded samples into a PBS solution (pH 7.0) was measured at 15 and 30 min and 1, 2, 6, 12, and 24 h. We also recorded the inhibitory effect of the PBS solution on the loading time. Using frozen sections, the EH load in the beads was evaluated visually under a fluorescence microscope. Spectrophotometry (495 nm) showed that the loading rate was 98.98 ± 0.34, 99.02 ± 0.32, and 99.50 ± 0.11 % with 20-, 30-, and 60-s vibration, respectively. The eluted rate was statistically similar between vibration- and statically loaded (control) beads. The PBS solution hampered EH loading into the beads. Visually, the distribution of EH in conventionally and vibration-loaded DC beads was similar. The use of vibration and the removal of PBS solution when epirubicin hydrochloride was loaded into DC beads dramatically shortened the loading time of epirubicin hydrochloride into DC beads.

  9. The evaluation of the effects of hyperbaric oxygen therapy on new bone formation obtained by distraction osteogenesis in terms of consolidation periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutlu, Ibrahim; Aydintug, Yavuz Sinan; Kaya, Ayper; Bayar, Gurkan Rasit; Suer, Berkay Tolga; Gulses, Aydin

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy on new bone formation obtained by distraction osteogenesis in long- or short-term consolidation periods. Twenty-four rabbits were used. The animals were divided into two groups of 12 animals each, and vertical mandibular distraction osteogenesis was performed. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy was administered in the first group. Each group was subdivided into two subgroups according to the 30- and 60-day consolidation period. The acquired bone amounts were compared according to their radiographic density and histopathology. Histopathologically, in the experimental group, callus formation was increased and the new bone was more mineralized. According to the radiographic densitometry analyses, there were no statistically significant differences between the 30-day consolidated subgroups of the experimental group and the 60-day consolidated subgroup of the control group (p = 0.873). Hyperbaric oxygen therapy can be used to increase the quality and the quantity of bone and to decrease the maturation time which may shorten the consolidation period of vertical distraction osteogenesis. The effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy on vertical distraction osteogenesis procedure according to consolidation periods has been determined. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy may increase the quality and the quantity of bone and shorten the consolidation period.

  10. Developing policies and procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randolph, Susan A

    2006-11-01

    The development of policies and procedures is an integral part of the occupational health nurse's role. Policies and procedures serve as the foundation for the occupational health service and are based on its vision, mission, culture, and values. The design and layout selected for the policies and procedures should be simple, consistent, and easy to use. The same format should be used for all existing and new policies and procedures. Policies and procedures should be reviewed periodically based on a specified time frame (i.e., annually). However, some policies may require a more frequent review if they involve rapidly changing external standards, ethical issues, or emerging exposures.

  11. Procedure generation and verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheely, W.F.

    1986-01-01

    The Department of Energy has used Artificial Intelligence of ''AI'' concepts to develop two powerful new computer-based techniques to enhance safety in nuclear applications. The Procedure Generation System, and the Procedure Verification System, can be adapted to other commercial applications, such as a manufacturing plant. The Procedure Generation System can create a procedure to deal with the off-normal condition. The operator can then take correct actions on the system in minimal time. The Verification System evaluates the logic of the Procedure Generator's conclusions. This evaluation uses logic techniques totally independent of the Procedure Generator. The rapid, accurate generation and verification of corrective procedures can greatly reduce the human error, possible in a complex (stressful/high stress) situation

  12. Design and validation of a clinical scale for prehospital stroke recognition, severity grading and prediction of large vessel occlusion: the shortened NIH Stroke Scale for emergency medical services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purrucker, Jan Christoph; Härtig, Florian; Richter, Hardy; Engelbrecht, Andreas; Hartmann, Johannes; Auer, Jonas; Hametner, Christian; Popp, Erik; Ringleb, Peter Arthur; Nagel, Simon; Poli, Sven

    2017-09-01

    To develop an NIH Stroke Scale (NIHSS)-compatible, all-in-one scale for rapid and comprehensive prehospital stroke assessment including stroke recognition, severity grading and progression monitoring as well as prediction of large vessel occlusion (LVO). Emergency medical services (EMS) personnel and stroke physicians (n=326) rated each item of the NIHSS regarding suitability for prehospital use; best rated items were included. Stroke recognition was evaluated retrospectively in 689 consecutive patients with acute stroke or stroke mimics, prediction of LVO in 741 consecutive patients with ischaemic stroke with acute vessel imaging independent of admission NIHSS score. Nine of the NIHSS items were rated as 'suitable for prehospital use.' After excluding two items in order to increase specificity, the final scale (termed shortened NIHSS for EMS, sNIHSS-EMS) consists of 'level of consciousness', 'facial palsy', 'motor arm/leg', 'sensory', 'language' and 'dysarthria'. Sensitivity for stroke recognition of the sNIHSS-EMS is 91% (95% CI 86 to 94), specificity 52% (95% CI 47 to 56). Receiver operating curve analysis revealed an optimal cut-off point for LVO prediction of ≥6 (sensitivity 70% (95% CI 65 to 76), specificity 81% (95% CI 76 to 84), positive predictive value 70 (95% CI 65 to 75), area under the curve 0.81 (95% CI 0.78 to 0.84)). Test characteristics were non-inferior to non-comprehensive scales. The sNIHSS-EMS may overcome the sequential use of multiple emergency stroke scales by permitting parallel stroke recognition, severity grading and LVO prediction. Full NIHSS-item compatibility allows for evaluation of stroke progression starting at the prehospital phase. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  13. Peri-operative alemtuzumab (Campath-1H) and plasmapheresis for high-PRA positive lymphocyte crossmatch heart transplant: a strategy to shorten left ventricular assist device support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lick, Scott D; Vaidya, Smita; Kollar, Andras C; Boor, Paul J; Vertrees, Roger A

    2008-09-01

    Patients on a left ventricular assist device (LVAD) often have a high level of panel-reactive antibodies (PRA). Conventional therapy is to await a heart from a negative prospective-crossmatch donor. We transplanted three high-PRA patients with non-crossmatched hearts, using intra- and post-operative plasmapheresis and long-term T-/B-/plasma-cell therapy with alemtuzumab. Three highly sensitized patients (70%, 94% and 96% T-PRA; 63%, 24% and 73% B-PRA) were transplanted after 29, 187 and 94 days LVAD support. The first patient (Case 1) had an erroneous prospective negative crossmatch (due to an outside laboratory's use of the wrong patient's serum) with immediate allograft dysfunction. The correct serum showed a strongly positive crossmatch; plasmapheresis followed by alemtuzumab (20 mg intravenously) shortly after arrival in the ICU resulted in rapid hemodynamic improvement. Encouraged by this success, the next two patients (Cases 2 and 3) underwent LVAD explant and heart transplant with the next available ABO-identical, non-crossmatched donors, using plasmapheresis on bypass immediately before heart implant and alemtuzumab 20 mg intravenously upon ICU arrival, with uneventful courses. All three patients had positive retrospective T- and B-cell crossmatches. Maintenance immunosuppression consisted of cyclosporine and routine prednisone taper, with plasmapheresis as needed (Patient 1, x10; Patient 2, x5) based on diastolic dysfunction. Mycophenolate mofetil was started as a third agent several months post-transplant. Patients are presently New York Heart Association (NYHA) Class I at 26, 16 and 13 months post-transplant. In this small series with follow-up, immediate antibody removal with plasmapheresis, combined with alemtuzumab, a long-acting antibody to CD52 (expressed on T, B and some plasma cells), appears effective in allowing transplantation in sensitized, positive crossmatch recipients. Expanded use of this strategy could shorten LVAD support in many

  14. Audit of long-term and short-term liabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korinko M.D.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article determines the importance of long-term and short-term liabilities for the management of financial and material resources of an enterprise. It reviews the aim, objects and information generators for realization of audit of short-term and long-term obligations. The organizing and methodical providing of audit of long-term and short-term liabilities of an enterprise are generalized. The authors distinguish the stages of realization of audit of long-term and short-term liabilities, the aim of audit on each of the presented stages, and recommend methodical techniques. It is fixed that it is necessary to conduct the estimation of the systems of internal control and record-keeping of an enterprise by implementation of public accountant procedures for determination of volume and maintenance of selection realization. After estimating the indicated systems, a public accountant determines the methodology for realization of public accountant verification of long-term and short-term liabilities. The analytical procedures that public accountants are expedient to use for realization of audit of short-term and long-term obligations are determined. The authors suggest the classification of the educed defects on the results of the conducted public accountant verification of short-term and long-term obligations.

  15. Effects of Cortisol on Short and Long Term Diet and Morphology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peiman, Kathryn S.; Birnie-Gauvin, Kim; Larsen, Martin Hage

    2017-01-01

    (designed to mimic an extreme physiological challenge), a sham group (injection of vegetable shortening) and a control group (tagged only). We then recaptured fish 2 weeks later and again after 4 months. We assessed diet using stable isotopes from plasma (short term) and scales (long term), and morphology......) using a wild population of juvenile semi-anadromous brown trout (Salmo trutta) in Denmark. We caught, tagged and manipulated juvenile fish while in their natal freshwater streams in the fall. Manipulations consisted of an exogenous intracoelomic injection of cortisol suspended in vegetable shortening...

  16. Fatty acid composition and contents of trans monounsaturated fatty acids in frying fats, and in margarines and shortenings marketed in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ovesen, L.; Leth, Torben; Hansen, K.

    1998-01-01

    This study examined trans monounsaturated fatty acid contents in all margarines and shortenings marketed in Denmark, and in frying fats used by the fast-food restaurants Burger King and McDonald's. Trans C-18:1 content was 4.1 +/- 3.8% (g per 100 g fatty acids) in hard margarines, significantly...... higher than the content in soft margarines of 0.4 +/- 0.8%. Shortenings had an even higher content of trans C-18:1, 6.7 +/- 2.3%, than the hard margarines. Margarines and shortenings with high contents of long-chain fatty acids had about 20% total trans monoenoic of which close to 50% were made up...

  17. Civil Procedure In Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    The book contains an up-to-date survey of Danish civil procedure after the profound Danish procedural reforms in 2007. It deals with questions concerning competence and function of Danish courts, commencement and preparation of civil cases, questions of evidence and burden of proof, international...... procedural questions, including relations to the Brussels I Regulation and Denmark's participation in this Regulation via a parallel convention with the EU countries, impact on Danish civil procedure of the convention on human rights, preparation and pronouncement of judgment and verdict, questions of appeal...... scientific activities conducted by the author, partly based on the author's experience as a member, through a number of years, of the Danish Standing Committee on Procedural Law (Retsplejeraadet), which on a continuous basis evaluates the need for civil procedural reforms in Denmark, and finally also based...

  18. Decision-making Procedures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aldashev, Gani; Kirchsteiger, Georg; Sebald, Alexander Christopher

    2009-01-01

    It is a persistent finding in psychology and experimental economics that people's behavior is not only shaped by outcomes but also by decision-making procedures. In this paper we develop a general framework capable of modelling these procedural concerns. Within the context of psychological games we...... define procedures as mechanisms that influence the probabilities of reaching different endnodes. We show that for such procedural games a sequential psychological equilibrium always exists. Applying this approach within a principal-agent context we show that the way less attractive jobs are allocated...

  19. Complications associated with distraction osteogenesis for the correction of brachymetatarsia: a review of five procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilusz, Peter M; Van, Phi; Pupp, Guy R

    2007-01-01

    Congenital brachymetatarsia is often treated with callus distraction. This technique is associated with a variety of complications. We investigated complications encountered in treatment of brachymetatarsia in four female patients and reviewed adjunctive procedures performed to treat these complications. We reviewed five distraction osteogenesis procedures performed in four female patients with congenital shortening of the fourth metatarsal over a 3-year period. Serial radiographs were obtained weekly until bone consolidation was achieved, at which time the external fixator was removed. Follow-up ranged from 5 to 10 months. Three patients (four metatarsals) were satisfied with the cosmetic and functional outcomes of their procedure. One patient was dissatisfied with the cosmetic result owing to a short digit from a short proximal phalanx but was completely functional and resumed all of her normal activities. Complications associated with callus distraction were decreased range of motion and stiffness at the metatarsophalangeal joint, flexion deformity of the digit, angulation of the metatarsal, prolonged distraction time due to pain, fracture of the bone callus, pin-site infection, and an undesirable cosmetic appearance due to a short proximal phalanx. Adjunctive procedures were needed in some of these cases and yielded good results. Callus distraction is an effective treatment for congenital shortening of the fourth metatarsal, but the procedure is associated with a number of complications. Because most patients proceed with surgery for cosmetic reasons, it is important to present the possible complications and the adjunctive surgical procedures that may be necessary for a desirable outcome.

  20. Onshore-offshore seismic reflection profiling across the southern margin of the Sea of Japan: back-arc opening, shortening and active strike-slip deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Hiroshi; Ishiyama, Tatsuya; Kato, Naoko; Toda, Shigeru; Kawasaki, Shinji; Fujiwara, Akira; Tanaka, Yasuhisa; Abe, Susumu

    2017-04-01

    M7-class crustal earthquakes of overlying plate in subduction system have tendency to increase before megathrust earthquake events. Due to stress buildup by the upcoming Nankai Trough megathrust earthquake, SW Japan has being seismically active for last 20 years. In terms of the mitigation of earthquake and tsunami hazards, to construct seismogenic source fault models is first step for evaluating the strong ground motions and height of tsunamis. Since 2013, we performed intense seismic profiling in and around the southern part of the Sea of Japan. In 2016, a 180-km-long onshore -offshore seismic survey was carried out across the volcanic arc and back-arc basins (from Kurayoshi to the Yamato basin). Onshore section, CMP seismic reflection data were collected using four vibroseis trucks and fixed 1150 channel recorders. Offshore part we acquired the seismic reflection data using 1950 cu inch air-guns towing a 4-km-long streamer cable. We performed CMP reflection and refraction tomography analysis. Obtained seismic section portrays compressively deformed rifted continental crust and undeformed oceanic back-arc basin, reflecting the rheological features. These basic structures were formed during the opening of the Sea of Japan in early Miocene. The sub-horizontal Pliocene sediments unconformably cover the folded Miocene sediments. The opening and clock-wise rotation of SW Japan has been terminated at 15 Ma and contacted to the young Shikoku basin along the Nankai trough. Northward motion of Philippine Sea plate (PHS) and the high thermal regime in the Shikoku basin produced the strong resistance along the Nankai trough. The main shortening deformation observed in the seismic section has been formed this tectonic event. After the initiation of the subduction along the Nankai trough, the rate of shortening deformation was decreased and the folded strata were covered by sub-horizontal Pliocene sediments. The thrusting trending parallel to the arc has been continued from

  1. Shortening Delivery Times of Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy by Reducing Proton Energy Layers During Treatment Plan Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Water, Steven van de, E-mail: s.vandewater@erasmusmc.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus MC Cancer Institute, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Kooy, Hanne M. [F. H. Burr Proton Therapy Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Heijmen, Ben J.M.; Hoogeman, Mischa S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus MC Cancer Institute, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2015-06-01

    Purpose: To shorten delivery times of intensity modulated proton therapy by reducing the number of energy layers in the treatment plan. Methods and Materials: We have developed an energy layer reduction method, which was implemented into our in-house-developed multicriteria treatment planning system “Erasmus-iCycle.” The method consisted of 2 components: (1) minimizing the logarithm of the total spot weight per energy layer; and (2) iteratively excluding low-weighted energy layers. The method was benchmarked by comparing a robust “time-efficient plan” (with energy layer reduction) with a robust “standard clinical plan” (without energy layer reduction) for 5 oropharyngeal cases and 5 prostate cases. Both plans of each patient had equal robust plan quality, because the worst-case dose parameters of the standard clinical plan were used as dose constraints for the time-efficient plan. Worst-case robust optimization was performed, accounting for setup errors of 3 mm and range errors of 3% + 1 mm. We evaluated the number of energy layers and the expected delivery time per fraction, assuming 30 seconds per beam direction, 10 ms per spot, and 400 Giga-protons per minute. The energy switching time was varied from 0.1 to 5 seconds. Results: The number of energy layers was on average reduced by 45% (range, 30%-56%) for the oropharyngeal cases and by 28% (range, 25%-32%) for the prostate cases. When assuming 1, 2, or 5 seconds energy switching time, the average delivery time was shortened from 3.9 to 3.0 minutes (25%), 6.0 to 4.2 minutes (32%), or 12.3 to 7.7 minutes (38%) for the oropharyngeal cases, and from 3.4 to 2.9 minutes (16%), 5.2 to 4.2 minutes (20%), or 10.6 to 8.0 minutes (24%) for the prostate cases. Conclusions: Delivery times of intensity modulated proton therapy can be reduced substantially without compromising robust plan quality. Shorter delivery times are likely to reduce treatment uncertainties and costs.

  2. Age- and gender-related development of stretch shortening cycle during a sub-maximal hopping task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Laffaye

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyse the effects of age and gender (and their interaction on a stretch shortening cycle solicited during a hopping task. For this aim, 147 girls and 148 boys aged 11 to 20 years, who were enrolled in middle school or secondary school with no experience in sport activity, or training less than three times per week, performed 3x5 hops in place. Leg-stiffness, jump-height and reactive-strength indices were assessed using an accelerometer (Myotest. The participants were selected in order to form five age groups: 11 12, 13-14, 15-16, 17-18 and 19-20 years. Regression analysis between force and centre of mass displacement revealed spring-mass behavior for all groups (r2=73-89, meaning that beginning at the age of 11 years, children are able to perform complex inter-muscular coordination of the lower limbs, revealing efficient neural control early in childhood. Leg stiffness increased from 24.7 ± 10.6 kN • m-1 at 11-12 years to 44.1 ± 14 kN • m-1 in boys, with a small increase until 16 years (+17% and a large increase between 17 and 20 years (+32.7%. In girls, leg stiffness increased from 26.6 ± 9 kN • m-1 at 11-12 years to 39.4 ± 10.9 kN • m-1 at 19-20 years, with a curious decrease in leg stiffness at 17-18 years, probably due to an increase in the percentage of fat at this age (25%. While no gender effect was found, the reactive-strength index revealed that, from 15-16 years onward, boys were better able to produce high levels of force in a shorter time than girls. The age of 15-16 years is a threshold of maturity and gender differentiation, where the boys investigated are more efficient in the stretch shortening cycle.

  3. Development of a Shortened Version of the Spatial Hearing Questionnaire (SHQ-S) for Screening Spatial-Hearing Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Hua; Perreau, Ann; Tyler, Richard S

    2017-09-18

    The Spatial Hearing Questionnaire (SHQ) was developed to address how to measure spatial-hearing ability in complex listening situations (Tyler, Perreau, & Ji, 2009). It has been translated and validated into various languages, including Chinese, Dutch, French, and Persian. Although the SHQ contains only 24 items, it could be time-consuming in a busy clinic to administer. The purposes of this study were to develop and validate a shortened version of the SHQ (SHQ-S) and to compare self-perceived spatial-hearing ability across adults with normal hearing (NH), hearing loss (HL), and cochlear implants (CIs). This was a retrospective study. The full version of the SHQ was administered to measure self-perceived spatial-hearing ability for 51 adults with NH at Augustana College, 47 adults with essentially mild to moderately severe sensorineural HL at Illinois State University, and 72 adult CI users at the University of Iowa. Exploratory factor analysis was performed for the full version for the data collected from adults with NH and HL. Appropriate items were chosen to develop the SHQ-S from the results of the exploratory factor analysis. Confirmatory factor analysis was then applied to test the factor structure of the SHQ-S for all participants. One-way analysis of variance was used to compare the self-perceived spatial-hearing performance scores between the 3 groups. The exploratory factor analysis revealed scores loaded on 2 factors. Six items from the full version were chosen accordingly. The results of the confirmatory factor analysis indicated that that a shortened version of 6 items is sufficient to measure spatial-hearing ability. The internal consistency reliability of the SHQ-S was high. The main effect of the one-way analysis of variance was significant for the groups, F(2, 167) = 36.0, p spatial-hearing ability than either the HL or the CI group (both adjusted p values spatial-hearing ability and screening for spatial-hearing difficulties. Participants with NH

  4. Pre-power-stroke cross-bridges contribute to force transients during imposed shortening in isolated muscle fibers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio C Minozzo

    Full Text Available When skeletal muscles are activated and mechanically shortened, the force that is produced by the muscle fibers decreases in two phases, marked by two changes in slope (P₁ and P₂ that happen at specific lengths (L₁ and L₂. We tested the hypothesis that these force transients are determined by the amount of myosin cross-bridges attached to actin and by changes in cross-bridge strain due to a changing fraction of cross-bridges in the pre-power-stroke state. Three separate experiments were performed, using skinned muscle fibers that were isolated and subsequently (i activated at different Ca²⁺ concentrations (pCa²⁺ 4.5, 5.0, 5.5, 6.0 (n = 13, (ii activated in the presence of blebbistatin (n = 16, and (iii activated in the presence of blebbistatin at varying velocities (n = 5. In all experiments, a ramp shortening was imposed (amplitude 10%L₀, velocity 1 L₀•sarcomere length (SL•s⁻¹, from an initial SL of 2.5 µm (except by the third group, in which velocities ranged from 0.125 to 2.0 L₀•s⁻¹. The values of P₁, P₂, L₁, and L₂ did not change with Ca²⁺ concentrations. Blebbistatin decreased P₁, and it did not alter P₂, L₁, and L₂. We developed a mathematical cross-bridge model comprising a load-dependent power-stroke transition and a pre-power-stroke cross-bridge state. The P₁ and P₂ critical points as well as the critical lengths L₁ and L₂ were explained qualitatively by the model, and the effects of blebbistatin inhibition on P₁ were also predicted. Furthermore, the results of the model suggest that the mechanism by which blebbistatin inhibits force is by interfering with the closing of the myosin upper binding cleft, biasing cross-bridges into a pre-power-stroke state.

  5. Caloric restriction shortens lifespan through an increase in lipid peroxidation, inflammation and apoptosis in the G93A mouse, an animal model of ALS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barkha P Patel

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Caloric restriction (CR extends lifespan through a reduction in oxidative stress, delays the onset of morbidity and prolongs lifespan. We previously reported that long-term CR hastened clinical onset, disease progression and shortened lifespan, while transiently improving motor performance in G93A mice, a model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS that shows increased free radical production. To investigate the long-term CR-induced pathology in G93A mice, we assessed the mitochondrial bioenergetic efficiency and oxidative capacity (CS--citrate synthase content and activity, cytochrome c oxidase--COX activity and protein content of COX subunit-I and IV and UCP3-uncoupling protein 3, oxidative damage (MDA--malondialdehyde and PC--protein carbonyls, antioxidant enzyme capacity (Mn-SOD, Cu/Zn-SOD and catalase, inflammation (TNF-alpha, stress response (Hsp70 and markers of apoptosis (Bax, Bcl-2, caspase 9, cleaved caspase 9 in their skeletal muscle. At age 40 days, G93A mice were divided into two groups: Ad libitum (AL; n = 14; 7 females or CR (n = 13; 6 females, with a diet equal to 60% of AL. COX/CS enzyme activity was lower in CR vs. AL male quadriceps (35%, despite a 2.3-fold higher COX-IV/CS protein content. UCP3 was higher in CR vs. AL females only. MnSOD and Cu/Zn-SOD were higher in CR vs. AL mice and CR vs. AL females. MDA was higher (83% in CR vs. AL red gastrocnemius. Conversely, PC was lower in CR vs. AL red (62% and white (30% gastrocnemius. TNF-alpha was higher (52% in CR vs. AL mice and Hsp70 was lower (62% in CR vs. AL quadriceps. Bax was higher in CR vs. AL mice (41% and CR vs. AL females (52%. Catalase, Bcl-2 and caspases did not differ. We conclude that CR increases lipid peroxidation, inflammation and apoptosis, while decreasing mitochondrial bioenergetic efficiency, protein oxidation and stress response in G93A mice.

  6. Shortening the Xerostomia Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, William Murray; van der Putten, Gert-Jan; de Baat, Cees; Ikebe, Kazunori; Matsuda, Ken-ichi; Enoki, Kaori; Hopcraft, Matthew; Ling, Guo Y

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To determine the validity and properties of the Summated Xerostomia Inventory-Dutch Version in samples from Australia, The Netherlands, Japan and New Zealand. Study design Six cross-sectional samples of older people from The Netherlands (N = 50), Australia (N = 637 and N = 245), Japan (N = 401) and New Zealand (N = 167 and N = 86). Data were analysed using the Summated Xerostomia Inventory-Dutch Version. Results Almost all data-sets revealed a single extracted factor which explained about half of the variance, with Cronbach’s alpha values of at least 0.70. When mean scale scores were plotted against a “gold standard” xerostomia question, statistically significant gradients were observed, with the highest score seen in those who always had dry mouth, and the lowest in those who never had it. Conclusion The Summated Xerostomia Inventory-Dutch Version is valid for measuring xerostomia symptoms in clinical and epidemiological research. PMID:21684773

  7. Fixed-Term Homotopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hector Vazquez-Leal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A new tool for the solution of nonlinear differential equations is presented. The Fixed-Term Homotopy (FTH delivers a high precision representation of the nonlinear differential equation using only a few linear algebraic terms. In addition to this tool, a procedure based on Laplace-Padé to deal with the truncate power series resulting from the FTH method is also proposed. In order to assess the benefits of this proposal, two nonlinear problems are solved and compared against other semianalytic methods. The obtained results show that FTH is a power tool capable of generating highly accurate solutions compared with other methods of literature.

  8. Procedural confidence in hospital based practitioners: implications for the training and practice of doctors at all grades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsagkaraki Petroula A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical doctors routinely undertake a number of practical procedures and these should be performed competently. The UK Postgraduate Medical Education and Training Board (PMETB curriculum lists the procedures trainees should be competent in. We aimed to describe medical practitioner's confidence in their procedural skills, and to define which practical procedures are important in current medical practice. Methods A cross sectional observational study was performed measuring procedural confidence in 181 hospital practitioners at all grades from 2 centres in East Anglia, England. Results Both trainees and consultants provide significant service provision. SpR level doctors perform the widest range and the highest median number of procedures per year. Most consultants perform few if any procedures, however some perform a narrow range at high volume. Cumulative confidence for the procedures tested peaks in the SpR grade. Five key procedures (central line insertion, lumbar puncture, pleural aspiration, ascitic aspiration, and intercostal drain insertion are the most commonly performed, are seen as important generic skills, and correspond to the total number of procedures for which confidence can be maintained. Key determinants of confidence are gender, number of procedures performed in the previous year and total number of procedures performed. Conclusion The highest volume of service requirement is for six procedures. The procedural confidence is dependent upon gender, number of procedures performed in the previous year and total number of procedures performed. This has implications for those designing the training curriculum and with regards the move to shorten the duration of training.

  9. Bariatric Surgery Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Procedures Who is a Candidate for Bariatric Surgery? Childhood and Adolescent Obesity Find a Provider Benefits of Bariatric Surgery Life ... Bariatric Surgery FAQs Bariatric Surgery Procedures BMI Calculator Childhood and Adolescent Obesity 100 SW 75th Street, Suite 201, Gainesville, FL, ...

  10. Reforming Russian Civil Procedur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Maleshin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The II Annual Symposium of the journal Herald of Civil Procedure ‘2015: The Civil Procedure 2.0: Reform and Current State’ took place on October 9, 2015, at the Faculty of Law of Kazan (Volga region Federal University.The Symposium is now an established tradition for the University. In 2015 it brought together in Kazan eminent scholars of civil procedure from cities across the whole of Russia: Moscow, St. Petersburg, Saratov, Ekaterinburg, Omsk, Samara, Nizhnekamsk and others. This large-scale event attracted the attention not only of Russian scholars, but also of legal scholars from abroad: Elisabetta Silvestri (Professor, University of Pavia, Italy, William B. Simons (Professor, University of Tartu, Estonia, Jaroslav Turlukovsky (Professor, Warsaw University, Poland, Stuart H. Schultz (Practising Attorney, USA, Irina Izarova (Associate Professor, Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Ukraine.The opening ceremony of the Symposium began with greetings to all participants and best wishes for productive discussions. Participants were welcomed with remarks by Marat Khairullin, Deputy Chair of the Supreme Court of the Republic of Tatarstan, Radik Ilyasov, Head of the Federal Bailiff Service of the Republic of Tatarstan, and Ildar Tarkhanov, Academic Supervisor at the Faculty of Law. They expressed their appreciation for the great value of the journal Herald of Civil Procedure in the growth of the science of civil procedure and enforcement procedure, and for its contributions to the development of the judicial system of the Russian Federation.In addition to hearing prepared reports and discussing viewpoints on current issues of civil and arbitration procedure, participants attended presentations by representatives from procedural law periodicals in the frame of the Symposium. The Editor-in-Chief of Herald of Civil Procedure, Damir Valeev, and the Commercial Director of the Statut Publishing House (Moscow, Kirill Samoilov, presented new

  11. Play vs. Procedures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammar, Emil

    Through the theories of play by Gadamer (2004) and Henricks (2006), I will show how the relationship between play and game can be understood as dialectic and disruptive, thus challenging understandings of how the procedures of games determine player activity and vice versa. As such, I posit some...... analytical consequences for understandings of digital games as procedurally fixed (Boghost, 2006; Flannagan, 2009; Bathwaite & Sharp, 2010). That is, if digital games are argued to be procedurally fixed and if play is an appropriative and dialectic activity, then it could be argued that the latter affects...... and alters the former, and vice versa. Consequently, if the appointed procedures of a game are no longer fixed and rigid in their conveyance of meaning, qua the appropriative and dissolving nature of play, then understandings of games as conveying a fixed meaning through their procedures are inadequate...

  12. Apple latent spherical virus vector-induced flowering for shortening the juvenile phase in Japanese gentian and lisianthus plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekih, Rym; Yamagishi, Noriko; Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki

    2016-07-01

    Infection by apple latent spherical virus (ALSV) vectors that promote the expression of Arabidopsis thaliana FLOWERING LOCUS T ( AtFT ) or Gentiana triflora GtFT s accelerates flowering in gentian and lisianthus plants. Apple latent spherical virus (ALSV) has isometric virus particles (25 nm in diameter) that contain two ssRNA species (RNA1 and RNA2) and three capsid proteins (Vp25, Vp20, and Vp24). ALSV vectors are used for foreign gene expression and virus-induced gene silencing in a broad range of plant species. Here, we report the infection by ALSV vectors that express FLOWERING LOCUS T (AtFT) from Arabidopsis thaliana or its homolog GtFT1 from Gentiana triflora in three gentian cultivars ('Iwate Yume Aoi' [early flowering], 'Iwate' [medium flowering], and 'Alta' [late flowering]), and two lisianthus cultivars ('Newlination Pink ver. 2' and 'Torukogikyou daburu mikkusu') promotes flowering within 90 days post-inoculation using particle bombardment. Additionally, seedlings from the progeny of the early-flowering plants were tested by tissue blot hybridization, and the results showed that ALSV was not transmitted to the next generation. The promotion of flowering in the family Gentianaceae by ALSV vectors shortened the juvenile phase from 1-3 years to 3-5 months, and thus, it could be considered as a new plant breeding technique in ornamental gentian and lisianthus plants.

  13. Modulation of Stretch-Shortening-Cycle Behavior With Eccentric Loading of Triceps Surae: A Possible Therapeutic Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debenham, James R; Gibson, William I; Travers, Mervyn J; Campbell, Amity C; Allison, Garry T

    2017-04-01

    Eccentric exercises are increasingly being used to treat lower-limb musculoskeletal conditions such as Achilles tendinopathy. Despite widespread clinical application and documented efficacy, mechanisms underpinning clinical benefit remain unclear. Positive adaptations in motor performance are a potential mechanism. To investigate how an eccentric loading intervention influences measures of stretch-shortening-cycle (SSC) behavior during a hopping task. Within-subjects repeated-measures observational study. University motion-analysis laboratory. Healthy adults. A single intervention of 5 sets of 10 eccentric plantar-flexion contractions at 6 repetitions maximum using a commercial seated calf-raise machine. Lower-limb stiffness, sagittal-plane ankle kinematics, and temporal muscle activity of the agonist (soleus) and antagonist (tibialis anterior) muscles, measured during submaximal hopping on a custom-built sledge-jump system. Eccentric loading altered ankle kinematics during submaximal hopping; peak angle shifted to a less dorsiflexed position by 2.9° and ankle angle precontact shifted by 4.4° (P eccentric loading alters SSC behavior in a manner reflective of improved motor performance. Decreased ankle excursion, increased lower-limb stiffness, and alterations in motor control may represent a positive adaptive response to eccentric loading. These findings support the theory that mechanisms underpinning eccentric loading for tendinopathy may in part be due to improved "buffering" of the tendon by the neuromuscular system.

  14. MET18 Deficiency Increases the Sensitivity of Yeast to Oxidative Stress and Shortens Replicative Lifespan by Inhibiting Catalase Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ya-Qin; Liu, Xin-Guang; Zhao, Wei; Cui, Hongjing; Ruan, Jie; Yuan, Yuan; Tu, Zhiguang

    2017-01-01

    Yeast MET18 , a subunit of the cytosolic iron-sulfur (Fe/S) protein assembly (CIA) machinery which is responsible for the maturation of Fe/S proteins, has been reported to participate in the oxidative stress response. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we constructed a MET18/met18Δ heterozygous mutant yeast strain and found that MET18 deficiency in yeast cells impaired oxidative stress resistance as evidenced by increased sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) and cumene hydroperoxide (CHP). Mechanistically, the mRNA levels of catalase A (CTA1) and catalase T (CTT1) as well as the total catalase activity were significantly reduced in MET18 -deficient cells. In contrast, overexpression of CTT1 or CTA1 in MET18 -deficient cells significantly increased the intracellular catalase activity and enhanced the resistance ability against H 2 O 2 and CHP. In addition, MET18 deficiency diminished the replicative capacity of yeast cells as evidenced by the shortened replicative lifespan, which can be restored by CTT1 overexpression, but not by CTA1 , in the MET18 -deficient cells. These results suggest that MET18 , in a catalase-dependent manner, plays an essential role in enhancing the resistance of yeast cells to oxidative stress and increasing the replicative capacity of yeast cells.

  15. Temporal, but not Directional, Prior Knowledge Shortens Muscle Reflex Latency in Response to Sudden Transition of Support Surface During Walking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinya, Masahiro; Kawashima, Noritaka; Nakazawa, Kimitaka

    2016-01-01

    The central nervous system takes advantage of prior knowledge about potential upcoming perturbations for modulating postural reflexes. There are two distinct aspects of prior knowledge: spatial and temporal. This study investigated how each of spatial and temporal prior knowledge contributes to the shortening of muscle response latency. Eleven participants walked on a split-belt treadmill and perturbed by sudden acceleration or deceleration of the right belt at right foot contact. Spatial prior knowledge was given by instruction of possible direction (e.g., only acceleration) of upcoming perturbation at the beginning of an experimental session. Temporal prior knowledge was given to subjects by warning tones at foot contact during three consecutive strides before the perturbation. In response to acceleration perturbation, reflexive muscle activity was observed in soleus (SOL) and gastrocnemius (GAS) muscles. Onset latency of the GAS response was shorter (72 ms vs. 58 ms) when subjects knew the timing of the upcoming perturbation, whereas the latency was independent of directional prior knowledge. SOL onset latency (44 ms) was not influenced by directional nor temporal prior knowledge. Although spinal neural circuit that mediates short-latency reflex was not influenced by the prior knowledge, excitability in supra-spinal neural circuit that mediates medium- and long-latency reflex might be enhanced by knowing the timing of the upcoming perturbation. PMID:26903838

  16. Skin transcriptome reveals the intrinsic molecular mechanisms underlying hair follicle cycling in Cashmere goats under natural and shortened photoperiod conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Min; Song, Shen; Dong, Kunzhe; Chen, XiaoFei; Liu, Xuexue; Rouzi, Marhaba; Zhao, Qianjun; He, Xiaohong; Pu, Yabin; Guan, Weijun; Ma, Yuehui; Jiang, Lin

    2017-10-18

    The growth of cashmere exhibits a seasonal pattern arising from photoperiod change. However, the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear. We profiled the skin transcriptome of six goats at seven time points during hair follicle cycling via RNA-seq. The six goats comprised three goats exposed to a natural photoperiod and three exposed to a shortened photoperiod. During hair cycle transition, 1713 genes showed differential expression, and 332 genes showed a pattern of periodic expression. Moreover, a short photoperiod induced the hair follicle to enter anagen early, and 246 genes overlapped with the periodic genes. Among these key genes, cold-shock domain containing C2 (CSDC2) was highly expressed in the epidermis and dermis of Cashmere goat skin, although its function in hair-follicle development remains unknown. CSDC2 silencing in mouse fibroblasts resulted in the decreased mRNA expression of two key hair-follicle factors, leading to reduced cell numbers and a lower cell density. Cashmere growth or molting might be controlled by a set of periodic regulatory genes. The appropriate management of short light exposure can induce hair follicles to enter full anagen early through the activation of these regulators. The CSDC2 gene is a potentially important transcription factor in the hair growth cycle.

  17. Calcium channel blockers shorten the periodicity of ultradian variation in blood pressure in patients with essential hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, H; Mitsubayashi, H; Saito, T; Kanmatsuse, K; Saito, N

    1998-09-01

    We studied ultradian and circadian variations in blood pressure (BP) in patients with essential hypertension who were receiving antihypertensive agents. No patient had previously received antihypertensive agents before this study began. After a 2-wk control period, we performed ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) in 86 patients with essential hypertension (WHO stages I or II). The patients were then given a long-acting angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) (captopril or imidapril), a beta-receptor blocker (arotinolol or bisoprolol), or a calcium channel blocker (nisoldipine or benidipine) twice daily to control BP. We evaluated the patients' BP once every 2 wk to ensure optimal control. After 12 wk, ultradian and circadian variations in BP were analyzed by the maximum entropy method (MEM). All antihypertensive agents decreased office systolic BP (SBP), office diastolic BP (DBP), 24-h SBP, and 24-h DBP. ACEI did not change office, 24-h, daytime, or nighttime pulse rate (PR). Arotinolol and bisoprolol decreased 24-h PR. All antihypertensive agents decreased 24-h, daytime, and nighttime pressure rate product. MEM showed that no antihypertensive agent affected the circadian variation in the 1st peak (24-h periodicity) of SBP, DBP, or PR. However, calcium channel blockers shortened the periodicity of circadian variations in the 2nd peak (12-h periodicity) of SBP and the 3rd peak (8 to 6 h periodicity) of SBP. Therefore, ultradian variations in BP should be carefully monitored in hypertensive patients treated with calcium channel blockers.

  18. Prolonged dry periods between rainfall events shorten the growth period of the resurrection plantReaumuria soongorica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhengzhong; Shan, Lishan; Li, Yi

    2018-01-01

    The resurrection plant Reaumuria soongorica is widespread across Asia, southern Europe, and North Africa and is considered to be a constructive keystone species in desert ecosystems, but the impacts of climate change on this species in desert ecosystems are unclear. Here, the morphological responses of R. soongorica to changes in rainfall quantity (30% reduction and 30% increase in rainfall quantity) and interval (50% longer drought interval between rainfall events) were tested. Stage-specific changes in growth were monitored by sampling at the beginning, middle, and end of the growing season. Reduced rainfall decreased the aboveground and total biomass, while additional precipitation generally advanced R. soongorica growth and biomass accumulation. An increased interval between rainfall events resulted in an increase in root biomass in the middle of the growing season, followed by a decrease toward the end. The response to the combination of increased rainfall quantity and interval was similar to the response to increased interval alone, suggesting that the effects of changes in rainfall patterns exert a greater influence than increased rainfall quantity. Thus, despite the short du