WorldWideScience

Sample records for term service gas

  1. Selling gas, selling services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moncel, V.

    1999-01-01

    Traditionally, the commercial activities of gas companies have been limited almost exclusively to the sale of gas. However, several socioeconomic factors specific to the gas industry, such as increasing customer expectations, competition between gas operators, a growing emphasis on services in many companies and the opening of public monopolies to competition, will bring inevitable change. Moreover, these developments coincide with imminent gas market opening. In response to the changing situation, the gas industry will seek to develop a range of multi-service offers, probably through external partnerships. (authors)

  2. Changing incentives for long-term gas contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohi, D.R.

    1992-01-01

    There is much concern about the absence of long-term gas contracts with fixed price and quantity conditions, which until recent years was the standard way of doing business in the gas industry. These types of contracts performed a valuable service in the development of the gas industry, and there comparative absence today is sometimes thought to be one reason for the current malaise in the industry. One hears the argument that there must be some kind of 'market failure' that prevents buyers and sellers from entering into these long term arrangements, and recent changes in state and federal regulations are often cited as the cause of the problem. The purpose of the author's remarks is to argue that what is taken as a breakdown in the market may be simply a reaction to a decline in economic incentives to enter into long-term contracts with rigid price and quantity terms. This is, in other words, simply one more aspect of change in the gas business that Frank Heintz referred to in his opening remarks this morning. The author starts by giving a brief description of the motives for engaging in long-term contracts, and then describes how incentives to use long-term contracts have declined for both gas buyers and gas sellers. He concludes that the decline in the use of long-term contracts is not cause for regulatory concern, but a result of the continuing transformation of the gas business to one that more closely resembles other commodity markets

  3. Strategies for contracting gas storage and hub services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auld, J.

    1996-01-01

    The many efficiencies that can be gained by the natural gas industry in effectively using storage, were demonstrated. The circumstances under which the natural gas industry uses storage and how Market Centres or Hub Services can be strategically used in offering companies the highest flexibility in a tough marketplace, were explained. For example, in North America, storage played an important role during the winter of 95/96, which will be remembered for its extreme cold. That year provided the first true opportunity to test the natural gas delivery system since deregulation in 1985. The fact that natural gas supplies continued to be delivered throughout the entire winter was attributed to the use of stored gas held in reserves to meet the severe demand. The companies that did well, relied on storage and also on the services offered by Hub Services which increased margins for all players in the natural gas industry. Using storage, companies can ensure that field deliveries of gas are kept constant by having storage facilities absorb the swings in market demand. The companies that learn to use storage effectively can create competitive edges over their competition and provide more value to their customers. The three main categories of hub services were also described. These are parking (interruptible storage), gas loans (stored gas can be offered to customers on a term basis for low daily rates), and title exchange (the transfer of gas between buyer and seller). The strategic use of parking, loaned gas, title exchange, direct connections, and InterHub Services can provide customers even greater benefits than are provided by storage-based services. 6 figs

  4. Short-term natural gas consumption forecasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potocnik, P.; Govekar, E.; Grabec, I.

    2007-01-01

    Energy forecasting requirements for Slovenia's natural gas market were investigated along with the cycles of natural gas consumption. This paper presented a short-term natural gas forecasting approach where the daily, weekly and yearly gas consumption were analyzed and the information obtained was incorporated into the forecasting model for hourly forecasting for the next day. The natural gas market depends on forecasting in order to optimize the leasing of storage capacities. As such, natural gas distribution companies have an economic incentive to accurately forecast their future gas consumption. The authors proposed a forecasting model with the following properties: two submodels for the winter and summer seasons; input variables including past consumption data, weather data, weather forecasts and basic cycle indexes; and, a hierarchical forecasting structure in which a daily model was used as the basis, with the hourly forecast obtained by modeling the relative daily profile. This proposed method was illustrated by a forecasting example for Slovenia's natural gas market. 11 refs., 11 figs

  5. Natural gas market assessment: Long-term Canadian natural gas contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    A descriptive analysis is presented of the changes which have occurred and the developing trends in the long-term Canadian contracts governing the sale of western Canadian gas into the domestic and export markets from 1985 to 1991. The report is limited to domestic and export contracts for Canadian gas and does not include imported gas under contract. Contract structures prior to deregulation, the changing role of long-term contracts, size and duration of long-term contracts, and terms and conditions of long-term contracts are discussed. Important changes since the mid-1980s include: increased flexibility in long-term contracts enabling the parties to respond more readily to changing supply and demand conditions; greater balance between the buyer's obligation to purchase and the seller's obligation to deliver; flexible and increasingly simple pricing terms that track competitive market conditions; shorter contract terms; reduced contract volumes as smaller end-users and producer/marketers enter the market; and unbundling of gas sales and transportation service providing a wider range of contracting choices and options. 36 figs., 2 tabs

  6. The oil and gas equipment and services market in Bolivia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The economy of Bolivia is based mainly on agriculture and resource extraction, making Bolivia one of the poorest countries in Latin America. Approximately 14 per cent of exports are hydrocarbons. Starting in 1996, the oil and gas sector was privatised, resulting in the domination of multinational corporations. It is estimated that the natural gas reserves of Bolivia stand in excess of 2.2 trillion cubic metres. Equipment, materials, and services used in all stages of the oil and gas production and distribution chain are all in demand in Bolivia. Over the medium term, it is expected that pipelines and equipment required for gas-fired power plants represent the most important opportunity in the country. Incentives for vehicle and industrial conversion were included in the new domestic energy plan, as well as the extension of the domestic gas distribution system to 250,000 homes. Canadian geomatics capability could fill the requirements concerning the Bolivian oil and gas assets still in the exploration, development, and documentation stages. Companies with exploration and development contracts, companies producing from commercial fields, refinery operators, producers in the liquid propane gas and compressed natural gas sub-sector, as well as pipeline operators are all considered key players, in addition to the Bolivian Chamber of Hydrocarbons. The customers are sophisticated buyers who purchase based on technical specifications and price negotiations. There are no significant non-tariff barriers, and Bolivia has adopted liberal trade policies. 9 refs., 3 tabs

  7. Natural gas as public service; Gas natural como servico publico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gois, Breno Vincius de; Franca, Vladimir da Rocha [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The Natural Gas passes through an outbreak of enormous growth in Brazil. Important in several economies in the world and is one of the main components of the energy matrix of various countries, including neighbouring Southern Cone, such as Argentina and Bolivia, he begins to own as a major viable alternatives to replace oil, along with alcohol and biodiesel. When the distribution of the gas flowing, this should be governed by a system of public law, according to the principles governing the administration, is emphasizing the principle of continuity, efficiency, and generally modest, because this is public service, and how to see this be seen on a strong regulation of the Member States of the Federation, which has the power to provide them directly or by concession. (author)

  8. Mitchell firmly retrenched in natural gas services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Share, J.

    1997-01-01

    The past three years, Mitchell Energy and Development Corp. has undergone a massive restructuring that has changed the face of one of the nation's largest and best-known natural gas/natural gas liquids companies. Facing a rapidly changing industry that frequently has been stung by volatile swings in energy markets, management of the independent company, founded by George Mitchell in 1946, sold off $300 million in non-core assets; reduced its long-term debt by $400 million; instituted a hiring freeze and reduced its workforce by a third, from 2,900 to 1,950, over the last three years. Mitchell negotiated a buyout of its hugely profitable North Texas gas sales contract with Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America as a means of easing its transition to a market-sensitive price environment and reducing its debt. Mitchell also took operational control. Finally, Mitchell has left the real estate business, culminating July 31 with the sale of its real estate subsidiary, The Woodlands Corporation, for $543 million ($460 million net after-tax), further reducing its workforce to 1,100. On Aug. 18, the company said it will use the proceeds to repurchase common stock, retire another $200 million of public debt, make asset niche energy acquisitions and increase capital spending for existing programs. The result is a renewed focus on its exploration and production and gas gathering, processing and marketing businesses

  9. Alphabet Soup. Children's Services: Glossary of Terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California Child Development Programs Advisory Committee, Sacramento.

    This document provides a glossary of terms related to children's services in California and a list of state and local organizations and agencies. The glossary includes such terms as Alternative Payment, Child Health and Disability Prevention Program, Child Support Enforcement Program, Employer-Supported Child Care, Family Reunification Program,…

  10. Fiscal terms for gas need improvement in many countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meurs, A.P.H. van; Seck, A.

    1997-01-01

    It would be logical to assume that many governments in the world would have more favorable fiscal terms for gas than for oil in order to stimulate gas development. The economics of gas is often less attractive than oil. In many countries gas markets are limited, often causing delays in gas development or restricting the level of production. Expensive gas pipeline and distribution systems need to be installed in order to deliver gas from the fields to markets. Prices for gas at the wellhead are usually lower than for oil on an energy equivalent basis. Gas is a desirable fuel for environmental reasons. Domestic gas development could result in a lower level of oil imports or increased oil exports. Low cost gas could be used in many ways to stimulate the development of certain industries. Finally, improved terms for gas could result in better overall petroleum exploration economics which often results in the discovery of more oil as well as gas. However, a comparative analysis of the government take for oil and for gas for the same concessions and contracts indicates that most governments still require identical fiscal terms for gas and oil. Only a few governments are stimulating gas development with more attractive fiscal terms

  11. Automation of steam generator services at public service electric & gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruickshank, H.; Wray, J.; Scull, D. [Public Service Electric & Gas, Hancock`s Bridge, NJ (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Public Service Electric & Gas takes an aggressive approach to pursuing new exposure reduction techniques. Evaluation of historic outage exposure shows that over the last eight refueling outages, primary steam generator work has averaged sixty-six (66) person-rem, or, approximately tewenty-five percent (25%) of the general outage exposure at Salem Station. This maintenance evolution represents the largest percentage of exposure for any single activity. Because of this, primary steam generator work represents an excellent opportunity for the development of significant exposure reduction techniques. A study of primary steam generator maintenance activities demonstrated that seventy-five percent (75%) of radiation exposure was due to work activities of the primary steam generator platform, and that development of automated methods for performing these activities was worth pursuing. Existing robotics systems were examined and it was found that a new approach would have to be developed. This resulted in a joint research and development project between Westinghouse and Public Service Electric & Gas to develop an automated system of accomplishing the Health Physics functions on the primary steam generator platform. R.O.M.M.R.S. (Remotely Operated Managed Maintenance Robotics System) was the result of this venture.

  12. Indonesia focuses upstream toward sweeter terms, gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    With the prospect looming this decade of losing its status as a net oil exporter, Indonesia is sweetening the pot for foreign petroleum investors and refocusing on natural gas. The decline in the discovery rate of oil reserves and low world oil prices have caused Indonesian hydrocarbon exploration in 1992--93 to fall short of expectations after the boom in drilling during 1989--91. Indonesia's government earlier this month disclosed a long awaited incentive package designed to attract new oil investors to high risk and remote areas of the archipelago. The paper describes the incentive package, production sharing contracts, reserves and production, the gas future, and domestic gas use

  13. Panorama 2010: Short-term trends in the gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecarpentier, A.

    2010-01-01

    After a period of strong expansion that lasted for most of 2008, the gas industry was hard hit by the impact of the economic recession. Although the competitiveness of the gas price was often an advantage in 2009, the natural gas market saw a net decline in consumption that led to a historic decrease in world production and international trade. In addition, the subsequent collapse of market prices gave LNG a competitive edge in the Atlantic Basin, where surplus gas continued to accumulate, heralding a long 'gas bubble' period that the industry will have to adjust to permit harmonious, long-term development of the gas markets. (author)

  14. Panorama 2013 - Short term trends in the gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecarpentier, Armelle

    2012-10-01

    The outlook for gas industry development in the short term is clouded by uncertainties (impact of the economic slowdown, competition between energies, price fluctuations, etc.). However, as in 2012, many favorable factors in terms of natural gas supply and demand point to sustained and sustainable growth of this energy. (author)

  15. Panorama 2012 - Short-term trends in the gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecarpentier, Armelle

    2011-12-01

    Against the background of an energy market beset by the Fukushima crisis, the Arab spring and economic uncertainty, 2011 saw dynamic growth in demand for natural gas, although developments varied widely from region to region. New trends are emerging in the gas market, and these will have both short-term and longer-term impacts on how the industry develops. (author)

  16. Panorama 2007: Medium-Term Prospects for the Gas Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabrelie, M.F.

    2007-01-01

    In the nineties, natural gas was the fastest growing energy source in the world energy mix. However, recent developments on the energy scene, particularly in terms of prices, have strongly impacted the growth of the various energies to the detriment of natural gas. Beyond this inter-energy competition, which could intensify, medium-term prospects for the gas industry evolve in an environment beset with uncertainties. (author)

  17. Structuring spot, short and long term gas contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gretener, N.M.

    1996-01-01

    A review of the core clauses of the modern natural gas purchase and sales contracts, was presented. There exists a wide variety of terms which can be used by a seller and a buyer to customize such a contract to suit particular circumstances. On the basis of length of term, gas contracts may classified as spot contracts having a term of 30 days or less, short term contracts having a term of 30 days to one to two years, and long term contracts having terms greater than two years. The three key elements which are applicable to all gas sales contracts are the contract price, the seller's obligation to deliver, and the buyer's obligation to accept. Other provisions that may be included in any gas sales contract in addition to the basic three were reviewed, including market pricing, load factor incentive pricing, seasonal pricing, pipeline demand charges, market shares, and the seller's right to decontract

  18. Panorama 2014 - Short term trends in the gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecarpentier, Armelle

    2013-12-01

    Due to sustained competition between energy sources and an economic and geopolitical climate that is still unstable, gas growth has slowed. The year 2013 looks very mixed for the gas industry, particularly on the upstream side. Constraints on the supply of gas and the increased dependence on imports in consumer markets increase the vulnerability of the gas markets to the vagaries of geopolitical risks and result in tensions on the international market. In an environment full of uncertainties about future prices and contractual terms, investors are slow to initiate the projects necessary for a global gas balance in this decade. (author)

  19. The oil and gas equipment and services market in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    In terms of purchasing power, India represents the fourth largest economy in the world. In the year April 1, 2001-Mar 31, 2002, it was estimated that India had a 5.4 per cent growth in gross domestic product (GDP). Canada experienced a 19.9 per cent increase in exports to India in 2001, reaching 656 million dollars. With the world's six-largest energy consumption, oil demand in India is expected to grow to 179 million tonnes in 2006-2007, while the demand for natural gas is expected to reach 231 million cubic metres per day in the same period. To meet this growing demand, India will require investments in the order of 150 billion dollars over the next 10 to 12 years. The oil and gas industry is being opened to the private sector and foreign direct investment, due to new government policies on exploration, production, distribution, and sales. Foreign involvement in exploration, previously restricted to Indian state-owned firms, is now allowed through the New Exploration Licensing Policy. In exploration and production (E and P) activities, as well as the refinery sector, foreign ownership of up to 100 per cent is now allowed. Two Indian companies which dominate the Indian E and P sector, namely Oil and Natural Gas Corporation (ONGC) and Oil India Limited (OIL), will be upgrading their ageing infrastructure, purchasing new equipment and redeveloping existing oil and gas fields, thereby creating opportunities for the supply of equipment and services. Canadian companies possessing the latest technologies and services in exploration, drilling machinery and equipment, directional drilling services, production machinery and equipment, enhanced recovery services, deep-water drilling equipment and services, and equipment for coal methane E and P should benefit from these opportunities. Over 12,000 kilometres of pipelines are being planned across India, as well as private opportunities in the refinery sector which was opened to the private sector in April 2002. Occasional

  20. Panorama 2016 - Short-term trends in the gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecarpentier, Armelle

    2015-12-01

    In an environment marked by slowing economic growth in emerging markets and developing countries, trends in gas market fundamentals varied widely across the regions during 2015. Structural economic factors stifled growth in natural gas demand, which was unable to take up all the excess supply, leading to imbalance in the global gas market and price weakness which is expected to continue in the short and medium-term. (author)

  1. Long term gas supply contracting: A producer's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    There is a consensus building in the natural gas industry that most of the future growth in sales will occur because of an increase in the use of gas for power generation. Certainly, there are environmental, operational and economic reasons for this to be so. However, the power generation market has many unique requirements which can make it particularly difficult to the gas industry to supply. Until these obstacles are overcome, growth through this market may be limited. One particular area of perceived difficulty is contracting for long-term reliable and affordable gas supplies. This paper will focus on the issues surrounding long-term gas contracts, attempt to put them in a historical context and discuss some of the ways these issues are now being overcome

  2. Medium-term perspectives of the natural gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabrelie, M.F.

    2007-01-01

    During the 1990's, natural gas was the energy source with the fastest rate of growth in the world energy balance. Nevertheless, recent evolutions of the energy context, in particular in terms of prices, have had a rather strong impact on the progress of the different energy sources penalizing gas a little. Beyond this competition between energies, which may increase, the medium-term perspectives of natural gas development is in keeping with an environment full of uncertainties. This article presents: the world supply and demand prospects for 2010-2015 (impact of high gas prices on other energy sources, occurrence of production constraints, political decisions of producing countries and world gas industry balance), trends on main markets (North America, Europe, Asia-Oceania), and international trade. (J.S.)

  3. CERN Services for Long Term Data Preservation

    CERN Document Server

    Shiers, Jamie; Blomer, Jakob; Ganis, Gerardo; Dallmeier-Tiessen, Sunje; Simko, Tibor; Cancio Melia, German; CERN. Geneva. IT Department

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we describe the services that are offered by CERN for Long Term preservation of High Energy Physics (HEP) data, with the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) as a key use case. Data preservation is a strategic goal for European High Energy Physics (HEP), as well as for the HEP community worldwide and we position our work in this global content. Specifically, we target the preservation of the scientific data, together with the software, documentation and computing environment needed to process, (re-)analyse or otherwise (re-)use the data. The target data volumes range from hundreds of petabytes (PB – 10^15 bytes) to hundreds of exabytes (EB – 10^18 bytes) for a target duration of several decades. The Use Cases driving data preservation are presented together with metrics that allow us to measure how close we are to meeting our goals, including the possibility for formal certification for at least part of this work. Almost all of the services that we describe are fully generic – the exception being A...

  4. Food Service Technical Terms. English-Spanish Lexicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Masako T.

    This English-Spanish lexicon presents food service technical terms. The terms are divided into seven categories: basic food items, common baking terms, food cutting terms, general cooking terms, non-English culinary terms, and tools and equipment. Each English word or term is followed by its Spanish equivalent(s). (YLB)

  5. New Commodity Services System increases gas bill for clients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koevoet, H.

    2003-01-01

    The Dutch company Gasunie Trade and Supply will replace the Commodity Services System (CDS, abbreviated in Dutch) January 1, 2004. This will result in a higher gas bill for almost all their clients that are expected to use more than 1 million m 3 natural gas per year. An overview is given of the principles of the old and the new pricing system [nl

  6. 76 FR 63581 - Certainty of Terms of Service Contracts and NVOCC Service Arrangements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-13

    ... Terms of Service Contracts and NVOCC Service Arrangements AGENCY: Federal Maritime Commission. ACTION... regarding certainty of terms of service contracts and non-vessel- operating common carrier service... flexibility if they decide to use long-term contracts that adjust based on a freight rate index that reflects...

  7. Developments in the North American gas services business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haughey, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    The gas services business sector was briefly defined. Emerging issues of the business were reviewed as seen from the vantage point of Westcoast Gas Services Inc. The traditional gas market was described as one in which marketer's credit was overlooked, formal risk management was not employed, unpriced imbedded options were common, there was little capital investment, and there were no cash trading exchanges. Specific industry forces and customer needs were said to have created a powerful driving force which will fundamentally change this outdated framework of the gas service industry. Two key issues were said to emerge from this renewal. One of these is risk management, the other is the need for major ongoing investments. Skilled people, scale and scope of the business, transactional excellence, credit worthiness and systems technology were the other forces driving the upcoming transformation of the industry during the next few years

  8. Medicaid Long-Term Services and Supports

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — An environmental scan was conducted of the scientific evidence regarding the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and availability of ASD-related psychosocial services...

  9. Long-term contracts vs. short-term trade of natural gas - a European perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuhoff, Karsten; Hirschhausen, Christian von

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyses the economics of long-term gas contracts under changing institutional conditions, mainly gas sector liberalisation. The paper is motivated by the increasingly tense debate in continental Europe, UK and the US on the security of long-term gas supply. We discuss the main issues regarding long-term contracts, i.e. the changing role of the flexibility clause, the effect of abandoning the destination clause, and the strategic behaviour of producers between long-term sales and spot-sales. The literature suggests consumers and producers benefit from risk hedging through long-term contracts. Furthermore long-term contracts may reduce exercise of market power. Our analysis adds an additional benefit if the long-run demand elasticity is significantly lower than the short-run elasticity, both strategic producers and consumers benefit from lower prices and larger market volume. Some policy implications of the findings are also discussed. (Author)

  10. Medium and Long Term Natural Gas Outlook - February 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecarpentier, Armelle

    2015-02-01

    World natural gas demand is expected to grow by 1.8%/year over 2013- 2035. Asia-Oceania explains 42% of the incremental demand (China: 28%), followed by the Middle East (24%). Natural gas share in world primary energy supply is projected to increase from an estimated 21.3% in 2013 to 23.6% in 2035 to the detriment of other fossil fuels. Although the expansion of gas demand is spread across all of the main consuming sectors, gas-fired power generation remains the largest contributor to growth. Natural gas production is growing everywhere, with the exception of Europe (-2.1%/year). The largest regional production gains are expected in Asia Oceania, the Middle East and North America. Shale gas will provide one third of the incremental natural gas supply by 2035. In the US, shale gas production will account for 56% of national output by 2035, versus 44% in 2013. Net inter-regional trade is forecast to grow by 3.1%/year to 821 bcm by 2035. The CIS will record the largest volumetric growth in net exports (+ 191 bcm). The share of LNG in net inter-regional flows will increase from 46% in 2013 to 50% in 2035. The international LNG market is expected to tighten after 2020. The price differentials between the US, Europe and Japan will narrow in a context of globalization of gas markets via a strong expansion of the LNG trade (flexible LNG). A number of powerful factors argue in favour of a growing contribution of natural gas to meet the economic, environmental and security challenges of the world energy system. In terms of supply, costly investments must be made to meet future demand, limit tensions on international markets and favour supply security, flexibility and diversification. Despite a growing component of spot indexing in pricing formulas, oil indexing (Asia) and long term contracts will remain necessary to meet the massive investment requirements in new and capital-intensive projects. The competitiveness of natural gas remains a major challenge. The orientation of

  11. Panorama 2011: Short-term trends in the gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecarpentier, A.

    2011-01-01

    2009 was a particularly bad year for the natural gas industry, with demand falling dramatically by 2.8% as a result of the world economic crisis. However, 2010 appears to have been a very positive year for the industry, with a sustained increase in production and trade. Increased economic activity, together with harsh winters and competitive gas prices are the reasons for the markets having rediscovered their buoyancy. Although the economic recovery has shown signs of fragility in OECD countries, global natural gas demand should continue to grow rapidly in the short-term, driven by consumption in developing countries, suggesting that the gas bubble will be reabsorbed faster than expected on the international markets. (author)

  12. Short-term trends in the gas industry - Panorama 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    In a context of high investment costs and rising energy prices, and recurring unseasonably warm temperatures in recent years, the growth of natural gas demand is slowing. On the supply side, and on the demand side too, new trends are emerging, with potentially powerful impact on the short-and long-term development of the industry

  13. French gas industry in transition: breach in the public service model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finon, D.

    2001-08-01

    France is generally viewed as the European country that most vigorously resists the pressure to liberalize its national gas markets. The moderate reform which has resulted from the transcription of the European gas directive was voted in 2002 after much delay. The main reason is the robustness of the French public service-model which has shaped the gas industry organisation in the same way as most of the network industries. To explain the institutional stability of the French gas industry, this document analyses its institutional trajectory shaped by the public service model and its strong institutional path dependency, marked by the resistance to change. The central hypothesis of the analysis is that, as long as this model demonstrates economic and social efficiency in the development of gas supply in relation to public services obligation and in the control of the import dependence risk in the gas sector, no reform can be brought about by endogenous factors. The analysis of the French gas industry transition consists of four sections. After a survey of its historical development, the author presents its organisation and regulation under the public service model and its performances in terms of social and economic efficiency. In the third section, the minimalist reform for transcribing the European Directive in the French law is presented, in order to identify its potential effects in terms of competition development and public service erosion. Finally, in the fourth section, the industrial policy option to preserve the existence of a French mono-energy company and its consequences in terms of strategic adaptation are discussed. (A.L.B.)

  14. Long term contracts in portfolios of core LDC gas supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John, F.E.

    1992-01-01

    This paper recommends that local distribution companies (LDCs) should use a portfolio approach for their gas supply strategy. The author recommends that LDCs not rely on spot supplies to meet the peak needs of the core residential and commercial markets. He recommends that a secure supply through long-term contracts are better sources than spot or even intermediate term suppliers. The paper provides a brief outline format of the advantages to the use of a portfolio approach which include the rapid restructuring of the market, general changes in the market, and general market performance. By maintaining a portfolio, a list of available natural gas suppliers is always available. This portfolio also acts to compare pricing between short, medium, and long-term pricing for the LDCs

  15. The oil and gas equipment and services market in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The oil and gas market in Nigeria is being expanded by the Nigerian government over the 2003-2010 period through increased exploration and production (E and P) in new areas. Other measures being implemented are the improvements of structural flaws that hamper industry growth, the modernization of the weak downstream sector, and attempts to attract foreign investment and technologies required for petroleum development. In 2001, it was estimated that the market for oil and gas equipment in Nigeria was approximately 1.03 billion dollars, and is expected to reach 1.15 billion dollars in 2002. In deep-sea areas, major offshore E and P projects are being planned by large oil multinationals. The implementation of several gas-related E and P operations and major liquefied natural gas (LNG) and gas-to-liquid (GTL) projects are being supported by the government of Nigeria to develop the natural gas sector. Onshore and offshore exploration, surveying and geophysical prospecting, drilling equipment, facilities maintenance, deepwater E and P, equipment for LNG/GTL facilities, enhanced recovery equipment and services, gas re-injection technology, pipelines, and the refinery sector are all areas where Canadian equipment and service suppliers could benefit from opportunities in Nigeria. One of the most prominent foreign player in the Nigerian market is Royal Dutch Shell. As far as the offshore deepwater E and P sub-sector, the three major players are Shell, ChevronTexaco, and ExxonMobil. The Nigerian government advocate in upstream and downstream oil industries in the country is Nigeria National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC). The primary domestic end-users of oil and gas equipment and services are member companies of the Nigerian Association of Indigenous Petroleum Exploration Companies (NAIPEC). Canadian companies are encouraged to form joint venture partnerships in oil and gas projects, as foreign majors operating in Nigeria tend to rely on the skills and expertise of foreign

  16. 77 FR 13508 - Certainty of Terms of Service Contracts and NVOCC Service Arrangements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-07

    ... Terms of Service Contracts and NVOCC Service Arrangements AGENCY: Federal Maritime Commission. ACTION... carriers and shippers with certainty and flexibility by facilitating their use of long-term contracts that... Federal Maritime Commission (FMC or Commission) proposed to amend its rules for terms of service contracts...

  17. Marketing strategy for the BC oil and gas service sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-10-29

    The British Columbia (BC) oil and gas service sector is collaborating with the BC Ministry of Energy and Mines (MEM) to enhance the competitiveness of oil and gas service providers in Northeast BC. The MEM agreed to provide one-time funding to develop this marketing strategy for the oil and gas sector, particularly for small to medium-sized companies with limited resources. This document is also a resource tool for suppliers in the sector that have developed and are implementing their own marketing plans and wish to enhance elements of their own plans. The strategy also outlines the potential role of associations in Northeast BC that represent the service sector. It links their marketing activities with the activities of individual service providers. Local service providers (LSP) include companies in a wide range of businesses such as drilling support, transportation, health and safety services, and construction. Six issues that directly impact the competitiveness of LSPs were also presented along with recommendations for participants in the service sector, associations and individual companies. tabs., figs., 11 appendices.

  18. Marketing strategy for the BC oil and gas service sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The British Columbia (BC) oil and gas service sector is collaborating with the BC Ministry of Energy and Mines (MEM) to enhance the competitiveness of oil and gas service providers in Northeast BC. The MEM agreed to provide one-time funding to develop this marketing strategy for the oil and gas sector, particularly for small to medium-sized companies with limited resources. This document is also a resource tool for suppliers in the sector that have developed and are implementing their own marketing plans and wish to enhance elements of their own plans. The strategy also outlines the potential role of associations in Northeast BC that represent the service sector. It links their marketing activities with the activities of individual service providers. Local service providers (LSP) include companies in a wide range of businesses such as drilling support, transportation, health and safety services, and construction. Six issues that directly impact the competitiveness of LSPs were also presented along with recommendations for participants in the service sector, associations and individual companies. tabs., figs., 11 appendices

  19. Long-Term Care Services for Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-14

    MH RRTPs) (http://www.va.gov/ homeless /dchv.asp). Further discussion and analysis of the domiciliary care programs is beyond the scope of this report...number of veterans with a service- connected disability, defined as a disability caused by injury or disease incurred or aggravated during active...veterans who are taking medications that may cause side effects, and who could benefit from a simplified medication regimen); and  frequent

  20. The oil and gas equipment and services market in New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    In terms of petroleum exploration investment, New Zealand ranks seventeenth in the world. The oil, gas, and petrochemical industry is mainly concentrated in Taranaki, a province where considerable onshore and offshore exploration and production (E and P) activity is taking place. The largest licensing round in the petroleum industry of New Zealand was recently completed, with 41 applications emanating from 21 companies were submitted, related to 26 new exploration blocks located onshore and frontier Taranaki basin. Starting in 2007, New Zealand is expected to suffer from a natural gas shortfall due to the gradual depletion of the main natural gas field called Maui. As a result, the development of the Pohokura project is being afforded top priority. In 2002, in the province of Taranaki, it is expected that 125 million dollars will be spent in support of exploration activity. The areas of oil and gas exploration such as seismic surveying services, geophysical services, drilling, monitoring and logging, and field management technologies represent potential opportunities for Canadian companies specialized in the provision of oil and gas equipment and services. For the period 2002-2005, New Zealand is planning significant offshore deep-water E and P projects with a view to ensure a secure supply of natural gas. The largest domestic oil and gas E and P company in New Zealand is Todd Petroleum Mining Company, while the largest foreign-owned oil and gas production company operating in the country is Shell Petroleum Mining Company. Responsible for over 90 per cent of oil and gas production, the largest joint oil service company in New Zealand is Shell Todd Oil Service (STOS), 50 per cent owned by Shell Petroleum Mining Company and 50 per cent by Todd Petroleum Mining Company. Canadian equipment and services might be particularly well received by companies such as STOS and Natural Gas Corporation. Partners in oil and gas projects are sought by companies such as Shell. Higher

  1. 75 FR 42737 - Texas Gas Service Company, a Division of ONEOK, Inc. v. El Paso Natural Gas Company; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-22

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Texas Gas Service Company, a Division of ONEOK, Inc. v. El Paso Natural Gas Company; Notice of Complaint July 9, 2010. Take notice that on July 7, 2010, pursuant to section 5 of the... Practice and Procedure, 18 CFR 385.206 (2010), Texas Gas Service Company, a Division of ONEOK (TGS...

  2. Radiation Damage and Long-Term Aging in Gas Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Titov, Maxim

    2004-01-01

    Aging phenomena constitute one of the most complex and serious potential problems which could limit, or severely impair, the use of gaseous detectors in unprecedented harsh radiation environments. Long-term operation in high-intensity experiments of the LHC-era not only demands extraordinary radiation hardness of construction materials and gas mixtures but also very specific and appropriate assembly procedures and quality checks during detector construction and testing. Recent experimental data from hadron beams is discussed. It is shown that the initial stage of radiation tests, usually performed under isolated laboratory conditions, may not offer the full information needed to extrapolate to the long-term performance of real and full-size detectors at high energy physics facilities. Major factors, closely related to the capability of operating at large localized ionization densities, and which could lead to operation instabilities and subsequent aging phenomena in gaseous detectors, are summarized. Finally,...

  3. Long-term flow monitoring of submarine gas emanations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spickenbom, K.; Faber, E.; Poggenburg, J.; Seeger, C.

    2009-04-01

    One of the Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) strategies currently under study is the sequestration of CO2 in sub-seabed geological formations. Even after a thorough review of the geological setting, there is the possibility of leaks from the reservoirs. As part of the EU-financed project CO2ReMoVe (Research, Monitoring, Verification), which aims to develop innovative research and technologies for monitoring and verification of carbon dioxide geological storage, we are working on the development of submarine long-term gas flow monitoring systems. Technically, however, these systems are not limited to CO2 but can be used for monitoring of any free gas emission (bubbles) on the seafloor. The basic design of the gas flow sensor system was derived from former prototypes developed for monitoring CO2 and CH4 on mud volcanoes in Azerbaijan. This design was composed of a raft floating on the surface above the gas vent to collect the bubbles. Sensors for CO2 flux and concentration and electronics for data storage and transmission were mounted on the raft, together with battery-buffered solar panels for power supply. The system was modified for installation in open sea by using a buoy instead of a raft and a funnel on the seafloor to collect the gas, which is then guided above water level through a flexible tube. Besides some technical problems (condensed water in the tube, movement of the buoys due to waves leading to biased measurement of flow rates), this setup provides a cost-effective solution for shallow waters. However, a buoy interferes with ship traffic, and it is also difficult to adapt this design to greater water depths. These requirements can best be complied by a completely submersed system. To allow unattended long-term monitoring in a submarine environment, such a system has to be extremely durable. Therefore, we focussed on developing a mechanically and electrically as simple setup as possible, which has the additional advantage of low cost. The system

  4. 75 FR 18828 - Wisconsin Electric Power Company, Wisconsin Gas LLC, Wisconsin Public Service Corporation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-13

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Wisconsin Electric Power Company, Wisconsin Gas LLC, Wisconsin Public Service Corporation: Complainants; ANR Pipeline Company: Respondent; Notice of Complaint April 6, 2010....206 (2009), Wisconsin Electric Power Company, Wisconsin Gas LLC, and Wisconsin Public Service...

  5. Valuing Ecosystem Services in Terms of Ecological Risks and Returns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abson, Dave; Termansen, Mette

    2011-01-01

    ecosystem services are not of direct value and that the losses of such services can be expressed in terms of the effects of their loss on the risk to the provision of the directly valued ecosystem services they support. We propose a heuristic framework that considers the relations between ecological risks...... are generally produced and consumed in ways that make them amenable to economic valuation. The values associated with cultural ecosystem services lie outside the domain of economic valuation, but their worth may be expressed through noneconomic, deliberative forms of valuation. We argue that supporting...... and returns in the provision of ecosystem services. The proposed ecosystem-service valuation framework, which allows the expression of the value of all types of ecosystem services, calls for a shift from static, purely monetary valuation toward the consideration of trade-offs between the current flow...

  6. Long-Term Mortality of Emergency Medical Services Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtker, Morten Thingemann; Terkelsen, Christian J; Sørensen, Jan N.

    2017-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: Emergency medical services (EMS) provides out-of-hospital care to patients with life-threatening conditions, but the long-term outcomes of EMS patients are unknown. We seek to determine the long-term mortality of EMS patients in Denmark. METHODS: We analyzed linked EMS, hospital...

  7. 40 CFR 264.1054 - Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... gas/vapor service. 264.1054 Section 264.1054 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... relief devices in gas/vapor service. (a) Except during pressure releases, each pressure relief device in gas/vapor service shall be operated with no detectable emissions, as indicated by an instrument...

  8. 40 CFR 60.482-4a - Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... gas/vapor service. 60.482-4a Section 60.482-4a Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service. (a) Except during pressure releases, each pressure relief device in gas/vapor service shall be operated with no detectable emissions, as indicated by an...

  9. 40 CFR 61.242-4 - Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... gas/vapor service. 61.242-4 Section 61.242-4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... devices in gas/vapor service. (a) Except during pressure releases, each pressure relief device in gas/vapor service shall be operated with no detectable emissions, as indicated by an instrument reading of...

  10. 40 CFR 63.165 - Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... gas/vapor service. 63.165 Section 63.165 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service. (a) Except during pressure releases, each pressure relief device in gas/vapor service shall be operated with an instrument reading of less than 500 parts...

  11. 40 CFR 65.111 - Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... gas/vapor service. 65.111 Section 65.111 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service. (a) Compliance schedule. The owner or operator shall comply... device in gas/vapor service shall be operated with an instrument reading of less than 500 parts per...

  12. 40 CFR 265.1054 - Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... gas/vapor service. 265.1054 Section 265.1054 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service. (a) Except during pressure releases, each pressure relief device in gas/vapor service shall be operated with no detectable emissions, as indicated by an instrument...

  13. 40 CFR 60.482-4 - Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... gas/vapor service. 60.482-4 Section 60.482-4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY..., 2006 § 60.482-4 Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service. (a) Except during pressure releases, each pressure relief device in gas/vapor service shall be operated with no detectable emissions...

  14. Long-term monitoring of marine gas leakage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spickenbom, Kai; Faber, Eckhard; Poggenburg, Jürgen; Seeger, Christian; Furche, Markus

    2010-05-01

    The sequestration of CO2 in sub-seabed geological formations is one of the Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) strategies currently under study. Although offshore operations are significantly more expensive than comparable onshore operations, the growing public resistance against onshore CCS projects makes sub-seabed storage a promising option. Even after a thorough review of the geological setting, there is always the possibility of leakage from the reservoir. As part of the EU-financed project CO2ReMoVe (Research, Monitoring, Verification), which aims to develop innovative research and technologies for monitoring and verification of carbon dioxide geological storage, we are working on the development of submarine long-term gas flow monitoring systems. The basic design of the monitoring system builds on our experience in volcano monitoring. Early prototypes were composed of a raft floating on the surface of a mud volcano, carrying sensors for CO2 flux and concentration, data storage and transmission, and power supply by battery-buffered solar panels. The system was modified for installation in open sea by using a buoy instead of a raft and a funnel on the seafloor to collect the gas, connected by a flexible tube. This setup provides a cost-effective solution for shallow waters. However, a buoy interferes with ship traffic, and it is also difficult to adapt this design to greater water depths. These requirements can best be complied by a completely submersed system. A system for unattended long-term monitoring in a marine environment has to be extremely durable. Therefore, we focussed on developing a mechanically and electrically as simple setup as possible, which has the additional advantage of low cost. The system consists of a funnel-shaped gas collector, a sensor head and pressure housings for electronics and power supply. Since this setup is inexpensive, it can be deployed in numbers to cover larger areas. By addition of multi-channel data loggers, data

  15. Some risks related to the short-term trading of natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed El Hachemi Mazighi

    2004-01-01

    Traditionally guided by long-term contracts, the international natural gas trade is experiencing new methods of operating, based on the short term and more flexibility. Today, indeed, the existence of uncommitted quantities of natural gas, combined with gas price discrepancies among different regions of the world, gives room for the expansion of the spot-trading of gas. The main objective of this paper is to discuss three fundamental risks related to the short-term trading of natural gas: volume risk, price risk and infrastructure risk. The defenders Of globalisation argue that the transition from the long-term to the short-term trading of natural gas is mainly a question of access to gas reserves, decreasing costs of gas liquefaction, the building of liquefied natural gas (LNG) fleets and regasification facilities and third-party access to the infrastructure. This process needs to be as short as possible, so that the risks related to the transition process will disappear rapidly. On the other hand, the detractors of globalisation put the emphasis on the complexity of the gas value chain and on the fact that eliminating long- term contracts increases the risks inherent to the international natural gas business. In this paper, we try to untangle and assess the risks related to the short-term trading of natural gas. Our main conclusions are: the short-term trading of gas is far from riskless; volume risk requires stock-building in both consuming and producing countries. (author)

  16. Microstructural evolution and deformation features in gas turbine blades operated in-service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Fei [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Tong, Jinyan [National Center for Materials Service Safety, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Feng, Qiang [National Center for Materials Service Safety, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Zhang, Jianxin [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China)

    2015-01-05

    Highlights: • Gas turbine blades operated in-service have been investigated. • Two primary MC decomposition reactions take place during servicing. • Deformation features during servicing have been analyzed. - Abstract: The nickel based superalloy GH4037 is employed in gas turbine blades because of its high temperature strength and oxidation resistance. Microstructural evolution and deformation features in gas turbine blades after 1600 h service have been investigated by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The microstructure of blade changes according to complex and comprehensive temperature and stress fields applied on it. Microstructural observations show that minor carbide precipitates dispersedly precipitate in the matrix. Two MC decomposition reactions occur: MC + γ → M{sub 23}C{sub 6} + γ′ and MC + γ → M{sub 23}C{sub 6} + η. Blocky, closely spaced M{sub 23}C{sub 6} particles continuously distribute along grain boundaries. The main deformation features, such as slip bands, APB-coupled dislocation pairs, stacking faults bound by partial dislocations and deformation twinning, have also been analyzed in terms of fundamental deformation mechanisms and environmental effects.

  17. Short-term outlook for natural gas and natural gas liquids to 2006 : an energy market assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-10-01

    In recent years, natural gas markets in North America have seen a close balance between supply and demand, resulting in high and volatile natural gas prices. The National Energy Board monitors the supply of all energy commodities in Canada along with the demand for Canadian energy commodities in domestic and export markets. This is the NEB's first energy market assessment report that presents a combined short-term analysis and outlook of natural gas and natural gas liquids (NGLs), such as ethane, propane and butane. It provides comprehensive information on the complexity of natural gas and NGL industries and highlights recent developments and topical issues. As a major producer of natural gas, western Canada has a correspondingly large natural gas processing capability that was developed specifically to extract NGLs. A world-scale petrochemical industry was developed in Alberta to convert NGLs into even higher valued products such as ethylene. Since NGLs in Canada are sourced mostly from natural gas, changes to the supply and demand for natural gas would impact NGL supply. This report addressed the issue of commodity prices with reference to crude oil, natural gas and NGL prices. Natural gas supply in terms of North American production and natural gas from coal (NGC) was also reviewed along with natural gas demand for residential and commercial heating, industrial use, power generation, and enhanced recovery for oil sand operations. There are about 692 gas plants in Canada that process raw natural gas into marketable gas and NGLs. Most are small field plants that process raw natural gas production to remove impurities such as sulphur, water and other contaminants. This report also discussed this infrastructure, with reference to field plants, straddle plants, pipelines, distribution and storage, including underground NGL storage. 3 tabs., 27 figs., 5 appendices

  18. Panorama 2017 - Short-term trends in the gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecarpentier, Armelle

    2016-12-01

    The slowing growth in demand observed since 2012 has continued in 2016. Despite weak gas prices, gas growth is limited by the rapid expansion of renewable energy, advances in energy efficiency and the economic downturn in some countries. Excess supply of LNG entering the market favored declining gas prices which benefits emerging countries. These countries appear to be the main driver for future expansion of gas demand

  19. Some risks related to the short-term trading of natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazighi, Ahmed El Hachemi

    2004-01-01

    Traditionally guided by long-term contracts, the international natural gas trade is experiencing new methods of operating, based on the short term and more flexibility. Today, indeed, the existence of uncommitted quantities of natural gas, combined with gas price discrepancies among different regions of the world, gives room for the expansion of the spot-trading of gas. The main objective of this paper is to discuss three fundamental risks related to the short-term trading of natural gas: volume risk, price risk and infrastructure risk. The defenders of globalisation argue that the transition from the long-term to the short-term trading of natural gas is mainly a question of access to gas reserves, decreasing costs of gas liquefaction, the building of liquefied natural gas (LNG) fleets and regasification facilities and third-party access to the infrastructure. This process needs to be as short as possible, so that the risks related to the transition process will disappear rapidly. On the other hand, the detractors of globalisation put the emphasis on the complexity of the gas value chain and on the fact that eliminating long-term contracts increases the risks inherent to the international natural gas business. In this paper, we try to untangle and assess the risks related to the short-term trading of natural gas. Our main conclusions are: the short-term trading of gas is far from riskless; volume risk requires stock-building in both consuming and producing countries; price risk, through the high volatility for gas, induces an increase in options prices; there is no evidence to suggest that money-lenders' appetite for financing gas infrastructure projects will continue in a short-term trading system. This would be a threat to consumers' security of supply. (Author)

  20. Service with a smile : service companies are enjoying unconventional gas boom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunan, D.

    2005-08-01

    This article presented financial information from Calgary Brokerage House Peters and Co. Ltd. relating to the growth of unconventional gas production in Canada. The long-lived, stable and low-decline resource is expected to offset some of the rapid reservoir decline many producers are experiencing in conventional operations. However, it is anticipated that service companies involved in well drilling, well stimulation and infrastructure needs of the unconventional gas sector will become more profitable than the operations. In an expansive research paper published late last year, the brokerage house also noted that 2004 marked the transition year for coalbed methane (CBM), as the concept moved from experimental to an increasingly important source of natural gas production. It was suggested that CBM activity could represent the biggest growth opportunity for the Canadian oil-field service sector. Companies using newer generations of coiled tubing drilling units were expected to have the greatest success, as the units are extremely agile and can often drill more than one well a day. A review of service companies was presented, with details of financial activities, including revenues, stock market information and economic forecasts. 4 figs.

  1. Service with a smile : service companies are enjoying unconventional gas boom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunan, D.

    2005-01-01

    This article presented financial information from Calgary Brokerage House Peters and Co. Ltd. relating to the growth of unconventional gas production in Canada. The long-lived, stable and low-decline resource is expected to offset some of the rapid reservoir decline many producers are experiencing in conventional operations. However, it is anticipated that service companies involved in well drilling, well stimulation and infrastructure needs of the unconventional gas sector will become more profitable than the operations. In an expansive research paper published late last year, the brokerage house also noted that 2004 marked the transition year for coalbed methane (CBM), as the concept moved from experimental to an increasingly important source of natural gas production. It was suggested that CBM activity could represent the biggest growth opportunity for the Canadian oil-field service sector. Companies using newer generations of coiled tubing drilling units were expected to have the greatest success, as the units are extremely agile and can often drill more than one well a day. A review of service companies was presented, with details of financial activities, including revenues, stock market information and economic forecasts. 4 figs

  2. Panorama 2015 - Short term trends in the gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Carpentier, Armelle

    2014-12-01

    For the third consecutive year, growth in gas demand is slowing down. The year of 2014 is marked by lower activity in the global gas industry at all stages in the chain. This can be explained by increased competition between energies (coal, renewables), the economic slowdown and the mild weather conditions which have put a brake on expansion of the gas demand (Europe, Asia) and led to high stock levels. These developments have pushed market prices downwards and modified inter-regional balancing flows. (author)

  3. Gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The French government has decided to modify the conditions of extension of local natural gas authorities to neighbouring districts. The European Union is studying the conditions of internal gas market with the objective of more open markets although considering public service requirements

  4. Medium-Term Gas Market Report 2013: Market Trends and Projections to 2018

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-01

    Global growth in natural gas use slowed measurably in 2012, although it still exceeded that of oil and total energy use. Among the headwinds facing gas are continuing weak demand in Europe, resilience of coal in North America as well as persistent bottlenecks and disruptions in the LNG value chain that in 2012 caused an exceptional global decline of LNG supply. At the same time, Asian demand for gas remains red-hot, and gas is beginning to gain traction as a transport fuel. The IEA new Medium-Term Gas Market Report provides a detailed analysis of demand, upstream investment and trade developments through 2018 that will shape the gas industry and the role of gas in the global energy system. Its special sections investigate the economic viability of gas-fired power generation in Europe, the prospects for an LNG trading hub in Asia as well as the potentially transformational role of natural gas in transport. Amid a continuous regional divergence between North American abundance, European weakness and Asian thirst for LNG, the 2013 Medium Term Gas Market Report will investigate the key questions that the gas industry faces. These include the prospect of the United States becoming a major gas exporter, the challenges of securing enough gas to meet China’s growth, and the ability of Russian gas – spurred both by weak EU demand and resurgent domestic production – to find its manifest destiny in Asia.

  5. Short-term versus long-term contracting for uranium enrichment services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudy, G.P.

    1990-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (US DOE) is the world's largest and most experienced supplier of uranium enrichment services. Through the late 1970s and early 1980s, emerging market forces transformed what was once a monopoly into a highly competitive industry. In the early 1980's the DOE lost market share. But as we enter the 1990s, new market forces have emerged. The US DOE believes a responsible balance between long-term and short-term contracting will be the key to success and the key to assuring the long-term health and reliability of the nuclear fuel industry. The US DOE intends to be in this nuclear business for a long time and will continue to offer reliable and responsive services second to none

  6. Medium-Term Oil and Gas Markets 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-06-16

    Oil and gas markets have been marked by an increased divergence in recent months. On the one hand, oil market developments have generated an unpleasant sense of deja vu: rapid demand growth in emerging markets eclipsed sluggish supply growth to push prices higher even before the conflict in Libya tightened supplies still further. Oil prices around $100/bbl are weighing down on an already-fragile macroeconomic and financial situation in the OECD, pressuring national budgets in the non-OECD and causing price inflation of other commodities, as well as political concerns about speculation. There is an uncanny resemblance to the first half of 2008. On the other hand, in the world of natural gas an amazing disconnect has developed as demand recovered to well above pre-financial-crisis levels in most major regions. Gas markets have tightened in Europe and Asia, where prices are about twice the level seen in the United States, as the unconventional gas revolution is in full swing. From the upstream implications of the Arab Spring to the macroeconomic consequences of the eurozone crisis, energy markets are experiencing one of the most uncertain periods in decades. This publication provides a comprehensive outlook for oil and gas fundamentals through 2016. The oil market analysis covers demand developments on a product-by-product and key-sector basis, as well as a detailed bottom-up assessment of upstream and refinery investments, trade flows, oil products supply and OPEC spare capacity. The gas market analysis offers a region-by-region assessment of demand and production, infrastructure investment, price developments and prospects for unconventional gas. It also examines the globalising LNG trade.

  7. Long-term prospects for the gas-cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, W.P.S.

    1983-01-01

    Towards the second half of a 50-year time span the market for gas-cooled reactors as sources of high-temperature process heat and as highly fuel-efficient electricity producers should be reasonably bright, given a fair degree of technological maturity and consequent realization of inherent economic advantages. Declining fossil resources and increasing prices, initially in oil and gas, later in open-cast coal, provide the economic impetus towards substitution of nuclear for coal heat, not only in the generally accepted processes of coal conversion and steel making but also for oil shale pyrolysis and electrothermal aluminium smelting. Around 2010, if not sooner, the need for uranium conservation should allow the market penetration of breeders and thorium-cycle reactors for which gas cooling has a potential techno-economic edge. (author)

  8. 77 FR 28869 - Exelon Corporation, Public Service Electric and Gas Company, PSEG Power LLC, PSEG Energy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-16

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Exelon Corporation, Public Service Electric and Gas Company, PSEG Power LLC...(e), Exelon Corporation, Public Service Electric and Gas Company, PSEG Power LLC, and PSEG Energy... and is available for review in the Commission's Public Reference Room in Washington, DC There is an...

  9. A gas-phase source term for Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwahlen, E.D.; Lee, W.W.L.; Pigford, T.H.; Chambre, P.L.

    1990-02-01

    We previously presented analyses of gas flow into and out of a partly failed nuclear waste container for various assumed hole sizes and failure times. We also estimated the release rate of 14 C by advection and counter-diffusion from the failed container. Here we present an estimate of 14 C release rate and cumulative release for hole sizes of one to 300-μm and failure at emplacement and 300 years. 4 refs., 4 figs

  10. Evaluation of Public Service Electric & Gas Company`s standard offer program, Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, C.A.; Kito, M.S.; Moezzi, M.M.

    1995-07-01

    In May 1993, Public Service Electric and Gas (PSE&G), the largest investor-owned utility in New Jersey, initiated the Standard Offer program, an innovative approach to acquiring demand-side management (DSM) resources. In this program, PSE&G offers longterm contracts with standard terms and conditions to project sponsors, either customers or third-party energy service companies (ESCOs), on a first-come, first-serve basis to fill a resource block. The design includes posted, time-differentiated prices which are paid for energy savings that will be verified over the contract term (5, 10, or 15 years) based on a statewide measurement and verification (M&V) protocol. The design of the Standard Offer differs significantly from DSM bidding programs in several respects. The eligibility requirements and posted prices allow ESCOs and other energy service providers to market and develop projects among customers with few constraints on acceptable end use efficiency technologies. In contrast, in DSM bidding, ESCOs typically submit bids without final commitments from customers and the utility selects a limited number of winning bidders who often agree to deliver a pre-specified mix of savings from various end uses in targeted markets. The major objectives of the LBNL evaluation were to assess market response and customer satisfaction; analyze program costs and cost-effectiveness; review and evaluate the utility`s administration and delivery of the program; examine the role of PSE&G`s energy services subsidiary (PSCRC) in the program and the effect of its involvement on the development of the energy services industry in New Jersey; and discuss the potential applicability of the Standard Offer concept given current trends in the electricity industry (i.e., increasing competition and the prospect of industry restructuring).

  11. 75 FR 55315 - Seminole Energy Services, LLC; Seminole Gas Company, LLC; Seminole High Plains, LLC; Lakeshore...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Seminole Energy Services, LLC; Seminole Gas Company, LLC; Seminole High Plains, LLC; Lakeshore Energy Services, LLC; Vanguard Energy Services, LLC Notice of Amended Designation...

  12. 25 CFR 213.5 - Term of oil and gas leases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... MEMBERS OF FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING How to Acquire Leases § 213.5 Term of oil and gas leases. Oil and gas mining leases which require the approval of the Secretary of the Interior may be made for periods of 10 years from the date of approval of lease by the Secretary of the Interior and as...

  13. Gas Pipelines, LP and LNG, Gas transmission line work provided to AIMS from Kansas Gas Service. Data is limited to CUE (Collaborative Utility Exchange) Participants and subcontractors of them., Published in 2004, Johnson County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Gas Pipelines, LP and LNG dataset current as of 2004. Gas transmission line work provided to AIMS from Kansas Gas Service. Data is limited to CUE (Collaborative...

  14. Natural Gas Year 2014 and Short-Term Outlook First Estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hureau, Geoffroy; Lecarpentier, Armelle

    2015-01-01

    CEDIGAZ first estimates confirm the slowdown in the growth of gas supply seen in the past two years. CEDIGAZ expects a moderate 1.1% growth, on a par with the previous year. Net slowdown in China's gas demand growth (+ 8% in 2014, versus 16%/y over 2008-13). European natural gas consumption decline worsened (- 10%), largely due to mild weather. Strong decline in CIS' gas production and consumption amidst the Ukraine conflict. Surging US production (+ 5.7%), driven by shale gas. Significant decline in international pipeline trade (- 4.8%): Russian gas exports at the lowest in decade: -13% (- 9.7% to Europe, - 24% to the CIS); US net pipeline imports down 5% (effect of shale gas). 2014 showed a turnaround on the LNG market, after four years of market tightening: Additional LNG supply in Asia, combined with weather-related weak demand. Dramatic reduction of both European and Asian spot LNG prices in this context. Positive developments of US LNG projects (Cameron, Cove Point, Freeport all took FID...), which will likely delay other competing LNG projects (Russia, Canada, East Africa). In the short term, global gas demand growth is likely to remain moderate. The European market will continue to suffer from strong competition with coal and renewables + slowdown in Chinese gas demand growth. Uncertainties on the future evolution of the well-supplied LNG market and international prices until 2020 (demand in price-sensitive emerging markets...). Increasing pressure to cut subsidies in emerging markets in order to increase supply for a more viable development of natural gas in the long term. Recent structural and not temporary factors which could affect long term gas demand growth, such as the competition with other energy fuels (coal). Energy policies and general environmental regulations will thus be critical factors influencing natural gas demand (China). The Asian market will keep a major influence on the global LNG market

  15. Long term outlook for gas supply and demand 2007-2030

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-05-01

    Given the economic crisis and the even greater focus of energy policy in recent years on energy efficiency and renewables, earlier expectations in respect of gas demand have to be lowered. Nonetheless, there are still good prospects for gas expanding its position in the EU energy market in the medium to long term. Environmental friendliness and highly efficient technologies in all areas of energy supply give gas a key role in a realistic EU climate policy, the goals of which cannot be achieved solely through increased use of renewables. Its green qualities make gas attractive in direct utilisation in homes and businesses, in centralised power generation, in local CHP plant (including micro-CHP), and - in some member states - in the transport sector too. The current slump in demand is accompanied by strong supply pressure on European procurement markets. Experts do not predict that the present excess supply situation will continue in the long term. It is expected that imports to Europe will rise in order to compensate for the impending fall in domestic European production and to supply additional gas. The procurement challenge cannot be considered in isolation from global developments. The increasing demand for gas worldwide will intensify the competition for global gas reserves on international markets. The European gas industry emphasises the importance of fostering long-term relationships with major suppliers, transit countries and key partners in the EU as well as with multilateral organisations and structures.

  16. Remaining authorized gas exports under long-term licences as of 1 November 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    A statistical base of information on natural gas exports authorized under long-term licences to markets in the U.S. as of November 1, 1995, was provided. The first part of the report focused on the total licensed exports to the U.S. while the second part provided a breakdown of the licensed export volumes by U.S. market regions. The National Energy Board Act empowers the National Energy Board to issue licences and orders for the export of natural gas from Canada. Licences are issued for long-term periods (over 2 years) and orders for short-term periods (2 years or less). Each individual export licence contains terms and conditions including the duration of the licence, the point of export where the gas may leave Canada, and the maximum allowable volumes that may be exported daily, annually, and throughout the term of the licence. 17 figs

  17. Long-term Service (O&M) Contract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salkov, E.

    2016-01-01

    The companies of State Corporation have the highest competencies in servicing VVER based NPPs. Rusatom Service JSC is a specialized service company, a single point of contact for maintenance of foreign NPPs. The company performs orders in seven countries and is a leader of service market in three countries. Its value of orders is about $500 million

  18. Sector of the natural gas in Colombia: Toward a bigger backing and dependability of the service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    A sketch of the infrastructure requirements and laws is made of the natural gas industry in Colombia, according to the plan of massive use of the gas, settled down by the government in 1991 and the maturity of the market, that which forces to the development of a backing infrastructure to assure the highest levels of quality and continuity of the service of the natural gas for the users

  19. Role of gas cooling in tomorrow`s energy services industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, P.J.

    1997-04-01

    This article discusses the marketing approach and opportunities for suppliers and manufacturers of gas cooling equipment to partner with energy service companies (ESCOs). The author`s viewpoint is that in educating and partnering with ESCOs the gas cooling industry enables their technology to reach its potential in the projects that the ESCOs develop.

  20. Government policy and access to natural gas service in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plourde, A.; Ryan, D.L.

    1995-01-01

    As part of the Canadian energy policy between the mid-1970's to the mid-1980's, consumers were encouraged to use fuels alternative to oil. The first set of policy issues involved measures to provide consumers with incentives to switch to non-oil-burning equipment, whereas the second set of. policy papers emphasized the expansion of the natural gas distribution system. More than $1 billion have been spent on the gas pipeline expansion project. Consequences of program expenditures in each province were examined. With the exception of Manitoba, it was found that annual net pipeline additions were higher during the program period, indicating that the program policies induced these activities to occur sooner than if the policies were not in place. Kilometres of gas pipeline per individual constructed was highest in Quebec, where construction proceeded mainly between the more densely populated centres. In contrast, in Saskatchewan and Alberta, the program encouraged natural gas pipeline construction in rural areas with lower populations. Without the program, these areas may not have had access to natural gas for a very long time. It was concluded that, in this, and some other instances, public investment had the effect of accelerating developments, or encouraging the completion of projects that otherwise would not have been undertaken. It was suggested that in the future decision-makers consider the costs of changes in activity patterns prior to designing such programs. 2 figs., 1 table

  1. Long term natural gas supply in North America: prospects for mexican exports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elizalde Baltierra, A.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this work is to discuss the most important factors and uncertainties likely to affect future Mexican natural gas exports to the United States. Firstly, we study the long term natural gas supply/demand balance in North America over the period from 2000 to 2020. Secondly, we analyze the main driving forces determining future natural gas supply and demand in Mexico, which also allows us to discuss the prospects for Mexican gas exports. Finally, our analysis suggests that: in the short and medium term (2000-2010), Mexico will probably continue to increase imports of USA gas in order to satisfy increasing demand and will probably not export large volumes of gas to the USA; in the long term (2020-2020), Mexico could resume exports to the USA in sizeable quantities. Two main conditions appear necessary to resume exports: Premex's budgetary constraints should be relaxed and/or new foreign investment should be able to participate in the Mexican upstream oil and gas sector. (author)

  2. A simulation approach for analysis of short-term security of natural gas supply in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villada, Juan; Olaya, Yris

    2013-01-01

    Achieving security of gas supply implies diversifying gas sources, while having enough supply, transportation, and storage capacity to meet demand peaks and supply interruptions. Devising a strategy for securing gas supply is not straightforward because gas supply depends on complex interactions of production, demand and infrastructure, and it is exposed to economic, regulatory, political, environmental and technical risks. To address this complexity, we propose a simulation approach that replicates the structure of the gas supply chain, including transportation constraints and demand fluctuations. We build and calibrate a computer model for the Colombian gas sector, and run the model to assess the impact of expanding transportation capacity and increasing market flexibility on the security of supply. Our analysis focuses on the operation and planned and proposed expansions of the transportation infrastructure because adequate regulation and development of this infrastructure can contribute to increase the security of supply in the gas sector. We find that proposed import facilities, specifically LNG import terminals at Buenaventura, increase system's security under the current market structure. - Highlights: ► We build a simulation model for analyzing natural gas trade in Colombia. ► The model captures the structure of the gas network and on market rules. ► We simulate investment decisions to increase short-term security of supply. ► Securing supply would need LNG imports and expansion of pipeline capacity.

  3. Relative Effects of Daily Feedback and Weekly Feedback on Customer Service Behavior at a Gas Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Yongjoon; Lee, Kyehoon; Oah, Shezeen

    2013-01-01

    The relative effects of daily and weekly feedback on customer service behavior at a gas station were assessed using an ABC within-subjects design. Four critical service behaviors were identified and measured daily. After baseline (A), weekly feedback (B) was introduced, and daily feedback (C) was introduced in the next phase. The results indicated…

  4. Passivation of gas microstrip detectors and stability of long-term operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salomon, M.; Armitage, J.; Chapman, G.; Dixit, M.; Dubeau, J.; Faszer, W.; Hamel, L.A.; Oakham, G.

    1994-01-01

    We have studied the long-term operation of gas microstrip detectors which have been passivated with a layer of nickel oxide. We have used as the active gas CF 4 /isobutane (80 : 20) and three different types of substrates: Tedlar, glass and Upilex. In all three cases we found that the detectors are stable after passivation and can operate for a month without changes in gain at rates of MHz. The total accumulated charge was approximately 100 mC. ((orig.))

  5. 45 CFR 2552.51 - What are the terms of service of a Foster Grandparent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Grandparent? 2552.51 Section 2552.51 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE FOSTER GRANDPARENT PROGRAM Foster Grandparent Terms of Service § 2552.51 What are the terms of service of a Foster Grandparent? A Foster Grandparent shall serve a...

  6. Gas distribution equipment in hydrogen service - Phase II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasionowski, W. J.; Huang, H. D.

    1980-01-01

    The hydrogen permeability of three different types of commercially available natural gas polyethylene pipes was determined. Ring tensile tests were conducted on permeability-exposed and as-received samples. Hydrogen-methane leakage experiments were also performed. The results show no selective leakage of hydrogen via Poiseuille, turbulent, or orifice flow (through leaks) on the distribution of blends of hydrogen and methane. The data collected show that the polyethylene pipe is 4 to 6 times more permeable to hydrogen than to methane.

  7. Improved gas installations and services. Phase 1: Analysis project. Part report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, K.J.

    1996-05-01

    As Danish gas companies receive a large number of complaints related to the installation and operation of gas installations it was suggested that a course for personnel should be established in order to raise the standard of services and installation requirements. The first phase of the described project was to evaluate the quality of the gas installers' services so as to determine which aspects of installation and services should be emphasized during such a course. Interviews were carried out and questionnaires (illustrated within the document) sent out to installaters etc. Recommendations include that the level of information given to customers should be raised, also in relation to maintenance, and that installation should be improved. Analyses of the degree of customers' satisfaction, of the nature of the quality of services etc. expected, subjects for further training in this area and details of the training system are dealt with

  8. 18 CFR 260.9 - Reports by natural gas pipeline companies on service interruptions and damage to facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... pipeline companies on service interruptions and damage to facilities. 260.9 Section 260.9 Conservation of..., NATURAL GAS ACT STATEMENTS AND REPORTS (SCHEDULES) § 260.9 Reports by natural gas pipeline companies on service interruptions and damage to facilities. (a)(1) Every natural gas company must report to the...

  9. Service order execution procedure (in terms of labour law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana VIDAT

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available From the perspective of labor law, it is understood that the execution of the order of service, the essence of labor discipline, has in principle lawful purpose and, consequently, can not attract liability. It requires, however, the regulation mechanism by which theoretical assertions regarding order execution service materializes from a procedural standpoint.

  10. Characterization and Health Risk Assessment of Volatile Organic Compounds in Gas Service Station Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duangduan Yimrungruang

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Gas service station workers who work near volatile organic compounds (VOCs sources, such as gasoline vapor emissions, and motor vehicle exhausts, may be exposed to highly elevated VOCs levels. This study investigates air samples from gas service stations in Thailand to evaluate the health risks following inhalation exposure. Personal air samplings were obtained at nine gas service stations in Chonburi, Thailand from October to December 2007. The concentrations of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, and hexane in the air from the workplaces were significantly higher than in a control group of office workers (p<0.05. However, all VOCs in these air samples were lower than TWA limit of Thailand and the OSHA standard. Samples of urine, collected after 8-h work periods which were analyzed for VOCs metabolites, including t,t muconic acid, hippuric acid, mandelic acid and m-hippuric acid, demonstrate that the average levels of metabolites in gas service station workers and in controls were close, except for t,t muconic acid of gas service station workers which displayed higher levels than the in the controls. The lifetime cancer and noncancer risks for the workers exposed to VOCs were also assessed. Results show that all nine gas service stations in this study had a elevated lifetime cancer risk ranging from 53 to 630 per million, thus exceeding the normal risk of 1 per million. For noncancer risks, the levels in all gas stations ranged between 0.03 and 0.4, which is well below the reference hazard level of 1.0. Benzene may the most important cause of both cancer and noncancer risk followed by 1,3 butadiene.

  11. Effects of interruptible natural gas service: Winter 1989--1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-07-01

    During the extreme winter conditions experienced in December 1989, petroleum products showed dramatic price increases. Supply of certain products such as propane reached critical levels. Numerous factors contributed to the heating fuel situation, including well freeze-ups and refinery problems, as well as difficulties associated with delivery of the product. An area of concern identified in the ensuing debates was the impact of customer requirements for petroleum products resulting from curtailment of natural gas purchases under interruptible contracts. The lower rates associated with interruptible contracts make them an attractive choice for electric utilities. However, they require that the customer be prepared to obtain adequate fuel supplies in the event of curtailments. Electric utilities prepare for these contingencies with stocks of alternative fuels. Particularly in cold climates, interruptible has contracts are part of doing business. The extent and duration of the interruptions faced by customers relate principally to weather factors. Previous EIA studies investigated on a national level the causes of the dramatic price increases seen in petroleum product markets in the 1989--1990 heating season. This study is in response to a request from Senator Timothy Wirth, Chairman, Subcommittee on Energy Regulation and Conservation, to study in detail the impact of interruptible natural gas contracts as one of the factors cited as contributing to the price increases. A copy of the letter requesting the study is contained in Appendix A

  12. Emerging new services for the gas and electricity economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matas, Ch.

    2002-01-01

    This article reports on a postgraduate study at the Swiss Institute of Technology (EPFL) in Lausanne, Switzerland, addressing the prospects for new energy technologies and their development, according to bankers, industry managers and international organisations. The study merges macro-economic, financial and technological views and focusses especially on electricity and natural gas including cogeneration and decentralised, small and middle-size energy production units. The world energy market is changing pace, moving from various monopolies to a dynamic system, with growing decentralisation and networking. The study reveals that constraints are changing due to the economy globalization as well as to the growing internet-based economy, and that new prospects for the development of promising energy technologies are emerging. The demand for more specific energy products like for example uninterruptible power supplies will stimulate new sectors in the energy economy. Growing environmental concern will also be an important factor for the energy market remodelling. For the gas and electricity markets, a considerable rise in sales is expected

  13. A Comparison of the Impacts of Wind Energy and Unconventional Gas Development on Land-use and Ecosystem Services: An Example from the Anadarko Basin of Oklahoma, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kendall M; Nguyen, Michael N; McClung, Maureen R; Moran, Matthew D

    2018-05-01

    The United States energy industry is transforming with the rapid development of alternative energy sources and technological advancements in fossil fuels. Two major changes include the growth of wind turbines and unconventional oil and gas. We measured land-use impacts and associated ecosystem services costs of unconventional gas and wind energy development within the Anadarko Basin of the Oklahoma Woodford Shale, an area that has experienced large increases in both energy sectors. Unconventional gas wells developed three times as much land compared to wind turbines (on a per unit basis), resulting in higher ecosystem services costs for gas. Gas wells had higher impacts on intensive agricultural lands (i.e., row crops) compared to wind turbines that had higher impacts on natural grasslands/pastures. Because wind turbines produced on average less energy compared to gas wells, the average land-use-related ecosystem cost per gigajoule of energy produced was almost the same. Our results demonstrate that both unconventional gas and wind energy have substantial impacts on land use, which likely affect wildlife populations and land-use-related ecosystem services. Although wind energy does not have the associated greenhouse gas emissions, we suggest that the direct impacts on ecosystems in terms of land use are similar to unconventional fossil fuels. Considering the expected rapid global expansion of these two forms of energy production, many ecosystems are likely to be at risk.

  14. Two-part pricing structure in long-term gas sales contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slocum, J.C.; Lee, S.Y.

    1992-01-01

    Although the incremental electricity generation market has the potential to be a major growth area for natural gas demand in the U.S., it may never live up to such promise unless gas suppliers are more willing to enter into long-term gas sales agreements necessary to nurture this segment of the industry. The authors submit that producer reluctance to enter into such long-term sales agreements can be traced, at least in part to the differing contract price requirements between gas producers and buyers. This paper will address an evolving solution to this contracting dilemma - the development of a two-part pricing structure for the gas commodity. A two-part pricing structure includes a usage or throughput charge established in a way to yield a marginal gas cost competitive with electric utility avoided costs, and a reservation charge established to guarantee a minimum cash flow to the producer. Moreover, the combined effect of the two charges may yield total revenues that better reflect the producer's replacement cost of the reserves committed under the contract. 2 tabs

  15. Round and round: Little consensus exists on the near-term future of natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunan, D.

    2004-01-01

    The various combinations of factors influencing natural gas supply and demand and the future price of natural gas is discussed. Expert opinion is that prices will continue to track higher, demand will grow with the surging American economy, and supplies will remain constrained providing more fuel for another cycle of ever-higher prices. There is also considerable concern about the continuing rise in demand and tight supply situation in the near term, and the uncertainty about when, or even whether, major new sources will become available. The prediction is that the overriding impact of declining domestic supplies will put a premium on natural gas at any given time. Overall, it appears certain that higher prices are here to stay: as a result, industrial gas users will see their competitiveness eroded, and individual consumers will see their heating bills rise. Governments, too, will be affected as the increasing cost of natural gas will slow down the pace of conversion of coal-fired power generating plants to natural gas, reducing anticipated emissions benefits and in the process compromising environmental goals. Current best estimates put prices for the 2004/2005 heating season at about US$5.40 per MMBtu, whereas the longer term price range is estimated to lie in the range of US$4.75 to US$5.25 per MMBtu. 2 figs

  16. Long-term contracts and take-or-pay clauses in natural gas markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creti, A.; Villeneuve, B.

    2004-01-01

    Theoretical and empirical research on long-term contracts inspired by the American experience are surveyed, with emphasis on the analysis of the role of take-or-pay clauses and price indexation rules, and whether regulation distorts optimal contract duration. The underlying motivation is to analyze the economic fundamentals of the European Union provisions on long-term contracts in the natural gas industry, and to highlight the features that differentiate them from the American experience. The impacts of long term contracts in the opening to competition of the European Union natural gas sector, and the apparent confusion between contract duration and flexibility as applied to long-term contracts in the European Union, are also explored. 29 refs., 2 tabs

  17. Environmental legacy of an underground gas well blowout: long-term effects of gas and brine leakage on groundwater quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schout, Gilian; Hartog, Niels; Majid Hassanizadeh, S.; Griffioen, Jasper

    2017-04-01

    In 1965, a catastrophic underground blowout occurred during the drilling of a gas well in the village of Sleen, the Netherlands. The blowout led to the uncontrolled release of large amounts of natural gas and saline groundwater. Now, 50 years later, a number of nearby groundwater monitoring have been sampled to study the long term effects of this event on the groundwater composition of the overlying freshwater aquifers. The findings are used as an analogue for studying the potential adverse effects of hydraulic fracturing on groundwater quality. In total, 27 samples were taken and analysed for dissolved gas molecular and isotopic composition, major ion chemistry, water isotopes and stable chlorine isotope ratios. The resulting data show that concentrations of dissolved methane are still strongly elevated compared to background samples in a plume downstream of the blowout location. Isotopic data reveals the thermogenic nature of this plume; all samples with methane concentrations greater than 10 mg/l (n=12) had δC-CH4 values greater than -30‰ (VPDB), characteristic of thermogenic methane. The maximum distance at which thermogenic methane is observed is at approximately 500 meter downstream of the centre of the blowout. The progressive enrichment of both δ13C-CH4 and δ2D-CH4, that is observed with distance from the well and decreasing methane concentrations, presents strong evidence for the role of anaerobic methane oxidation (AOM) in limiting the spread of the dissolved methane plume. Low sulphate and increased Fe(II) and Mn(II) concentrations indeed suggest that multiple AOM pathways are involved in the natural attenuation of the dissolved methane plume. Chlorine concentrations were only elevated in a subset of wells in close proximity to the blowout location, indicating that the present-day effects of brine migration are minimal. Nevertheless, elevated Na/Cl ratio's in multiple wells reveal that freshening of the aquifer is still on-going. In summary, this

  18. Evolution of the European gas market on the long term. Organisation and price

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouvry, V.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this work is to shed light upon the future organization of the European gas market with an emphasis on price matters. There are nowadays few producers of gas on the market, most of whom hold long-term contracts with gas companies. Gas pricing is based on the net-back principle. The actual debate on liberalization of the gas market and the growing pressure from industrial customers to obtain lower prices addresses the problem of the future organisation of the market and the potential impact of the introduction of third party access. We first analyse the main actors of the gas market, their strategy and the actual market organization market. Two different logics are considered hereunder: a market approach: the competition theory provides efficient tools to analyse the evolution of competition depending on numerous factors. It appears that the strategy of all actors and particularly of producers will be the main determinant of the future competition. The oligopoly theory includes oligopolistic behaviours modelizations. The application of the Cournot's model leads to prices ranging from 1,6 to 3,7 $/MBtu; a contractual approach: today, gas is essentially exchanged through long term contracts, which allow for long-term management of investments and supply security. Two operators negotiate the price, which ultimately mirrors their respective leverage. The transaction cost theory clearly shows the necessity of including transaction costs, especially when optimizing the duration of the contract. The gas prices escalation is nowadays partially obsolete and unadapted to customer needs. Escalation on coal, electricity price or inflation should soon be considered. The theories of negotiation highlight the importance of the operators' marketing power during gas price fixation Applying Nash and Harsanyi-Selten's negotiation models results in a scale of 2,4 to 3,5 $/MBtu of the gas price at the actual supply and demand conditions. Both approaches lead to similar

  19. Panorama 2010: Short-term trends in the gas industry; Panorama 2010: Tendances a court terme de l'industrie gaziere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lecarpentier, A.

    2010-07-01

    After a period of strong expansion that lasted for most of 2008, the gas industry was hard hit by the impact of the economic recession. Although the competitiveness of the gas price was often an advantage in 2009, the natural gas market saw a net decline in consumption that led to a historic decrease in world production and international trade. In addition, the subsequent collapse of market prices gave LNG a competitive edge in the Atlantic Basin, where surplus gas continued to accumulate, heralding a long 'gas bubble' period that the industry will have to adjust to permit harmonious, long-term development of the gas markets. (author)

  20. Management of Customer Service in Terms of Logistics Information Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kampf Rudolf

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on perceiving the logistic services as the competition advantage in frame of the ecommerce. Customers consider their purchases in its complexity and all the logistic services should be designed to meet with customers’ preferences as much as possible. Our aim was to identify and evaluate of customers perceiving in frame of sales proposals offered by e-shops. Collected data of research were processed with the usage of cluster analysis. The aim of this paper is to present the results and conclusions from this research with focus on the elements of logistics services within e-commerce. These outputs can be used for knowledge base of information systems through which enterprises evaluate their decisions and selection of variants. For the enterprise, it is important to appropriate decisions about resource allocation and design of the structure of logistics services were set based on real customer preferences.

  1. Management of Customer Service in Terms of Logistics Information Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampf, Rudolf; Ližbetinová, Lenka; Tišlerová, Kamila

    2017-03-01

    This paper is focused on perceiving the logistic services as the competition advantage in frame of the ecommerce. Customers consider their purchases in its complexity and all the logistic services should be designed to meet with customers' preferences as much as possible. Our aim was to identify and evaluate of customers perceiving in frame of sales proposals offered by e-shops. Collected data of research were processed with the usage of cluster analysis. The aim of this paper is to present the results and conclusions from this research with focus on the elements of logistics services within e-commerce. These outputs can be used for knowledge base of information systems through which enterprises evaluate their decisions and selection of variants. For the enterprise, it is important to appropriate decisions about resource allocation and design of the structure of logistics services were set based on real customer preferences.

  2. Potentiality of the Usage of Compressed Natural Gas for Competitiveness in Service Delivery Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gazi Mohammad Hasan Jamil

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. With the rising costs of gasoline, many vehicle owners are looking for alternatives of it. Compressed natural gas (CNG has been tested for this very purpose in some countries and found as a better alternative so far. CNG comes from country’s natural resources and it is clean and less costly to use. This paper is mainly an analysis of the potential benefits of using natural gas as a transportation fuel by the service delivery industries. It will examine CNG’s potential contribution in reducing delivery and vehicle maintenance cost, saving money in the long run projects, improving fuel efficiency, enhancing physical safety and assuring environment friendly emissions of carbon monoxide or reactive gases for the service delivery industries.Keywords: Compressed natural gas (CNG, Service Delivery, Fossil fuel, Global warming, Competitiveness

  3. Economic Sanctions Against Russia: Short and Medium Term Consequences for the Oil and Gas Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rustem M. Nureev

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The growth in production and exports of oil and gas from the United States and other OECD countries led to pressure on energy prices, and posed the problem of redistribution of the structure of oil and gas market shares. The aggravation of competition contributed to the selection of measures to modernize the industry in Russia as the main measures of economic sanctions, as well as restrictions on the supply of Russian oil and gas to Europe, which jeopardized the implementation of the South Stream and North Stream-2 projects. The oil and gas industry continues to play a significant role in the formation of the revenue base of the federal budget of the Russian Federation. As a result of the imposition of sanctions, the export of Western equipment to Russia was banned, it could be a serious blow to the industry, which potential could be fully realized in the next 3–5 years. Oil and gas companies are most dependent on the pumping equipment (import share is 50%, catalysts (80% share of imports, applied software (the share of imports is more than 80%. Currently, Russian companies purchase equipment in China and South Korea, but the quality is much lower than the US, and the equipment often fails, so it is associated with the high costs of repairs. The import substitution should revive the domestic production of oil and gas equipment, but how this policy is implemented is difficult to predict, as enterprises have to overcome a significant technological gap and lag behind foreign developments. Russia managed to survive the short-term period of economic sanctions with significant, but not extremely large losses. Much more acute consequences can affect in the medium term, unless vigorous steps are taken to import substitution and modernization of oil and gas production and processing.

  4. Effect of long time service exposure on microstructure and mechanical properties of gas turbine vanes made of IN939 alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahangiri, M.R.; Abedini, M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Microstructure of service-exposed turbine vanes made of IN939 was investigated. • Mechanical properties of service-exposed alloy were also investigated. • Formation of M 23 C 6 films on GBs and degeneration of MCs are microstructural changes. • Despite its thermodynamic favorability, σ phase is not observed in microstructure. • Microstructural changes lead to a loss in tensile ductility and creep life. - Abstract: In the present study, the effects of long-term service exposure have been investigated on microstructure and mechanical properties of gas turbine vanes made of IN939 superalloy. The major microstructural changes for the investigated service-exposed vanes include the formation of continuous grain boundary carbides and the transformation (degeneration) of MC carbides located at the grain boundaries. The brittle σ phase, which is predicted to be stable on the basis of thermodynamic calculations, is not observed in the microstructure of service-exposed vanes. The microstructural changes during service lead to a loss in room temperature ductility as well as in creep properties of the alloy

  5. Long term warranty and after sales service concept, policies and cost models

    CERN Document Server

    Rahman, Anisur

    2015-01-01

    This volume presents concepts, policies and cost models for various long-term warranty and maintenance contracts. It offers several numerical examples for estimating costs to both the manufacturer and consumer. Long-term warranties and maintenance contracts are becoming increasingly popular, as these types of aftersales services provide assurance to consumers that they can enjoy long, reliable service, and protect them from defects and the potentially high costs of repairs. Studying long-term warranty and service contracts is important to manufacturers and consumers alike, as offering long-term warranty and maintenance contracts produce additional costs for manufacturers / service providers over the product’s service life. These costs must be factored into the price, or the manufacturer / dealer will incur losses instead of making a profit. On the other hand, the buyer / consumer needs to weigh the cost of maintaining it over its service life and to decide whether or not these policies are worth purchasing....

  6. 25 CFR 20.504 - What short-term homemaker services can Child Assistance pay for?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (protective) supervision; (b) A severely handicapped or special needs child whose care places undue stress on... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What short-term homemaker services can Child Assistance... SERVICES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Child Assistance How Child Assistance Funds Can...

  7. Evaluation of present thermal barrier coatings for potential service in electric utility gas turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratton, R. J.; Lau, S. K.; Lee, S. Y.

    1982-01-01

    The resistance of present-day thermal barrier coatings to combustion gases found in electric utility turbines was assessed. The plasma sprayed coatings, both duplex and graded types, were primarily zirconia-based, although a calcium silicate was also evaluated. Both atmospheric burner rig tests and high pressure tests (135 psig) showed that several present-day thermal barrier coatings have a high potential for service in gas turbines burning the relatively clean GT No. 2 fuel. However, coating improvements are needed for use in turbines burning lower grade fuel such as residual oil. The duplex ZrO2.8Y2O3/NiCrA1Y coating was ranked highest and selected for near-term field testing, with Ca2SiO4/NiCrA1Y ranked second. Graded coatings show potential for corrosive turbine operating conditions and warrant further development. The coating degradation mechanisms for each coating system subjected to the various environmental conditions are also described.

  8. Assessment of long-term gas sampling design at two commercial manure-belt layer barns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Li-Long; Ni, Ji-Qin; Chen, Yan; Diehl, Claude A; Heber, Albert J; Lim, Teng T

    2010-06-01

    Understanding temporal and spatial variations of aerial pollutant concentrations is important for designing air quality monitoring systems. In long-term and continuous air quality monitoring in large livestock and poultry barns, these systems usually use location-shared analyzers and sensors and can only sample air at limited number of locations. To assess the validity of the gas sampling design at a commercial layer farm, a new methodology was developed to map pollutant gas concentrations using portable sensors under steady-state or quasi-steady-state barn conditions. Three assessment tests were conducted from December 2008 to February 2009 in two manure-belt layer barns. Each barn was 140.2 m long and 19.5 m wide and had 250,000 birds. Each test included four measurements of ammonia and carbon dioxide concentrations at 20 locations that covered all operating fans, including six of the fans used in the long-term sampling that represented three zones along the lengths of the barns, to generate data for complete-barn monitoring. To simulate the long-term monitoring, gas concentrations from the six long-term sampling locations were extracted from the 20 assessment locations. Statistical analyses were performed to test the variances (F-test) and sample means (t test) between the 6- and 20-sample data. The study clearly demonstrated ammonia and carbon dioxide concentration gradients that were characterized by increasing concentrations from the west to east ends of the barns following the under-cage manure-belt travel direction. Mean concentrations increased from 7.1 to 47.7 parts per million (ppm) for ammonia and from 2303 to 3454 ppm for carbon dioxide from the west to east of the barns. Variations of mean gas concentrations were much less apparent between the south and north sides of the barns, because they were 21.2 and 20.9 ppm for ammonia and 2979 and 2951 ppm for carbon dioxide, respectively. The null hypotheses that the variances and means between the 6- and 20

  9. 75 FR 45108 - Enterprise Alabama Intrastate, LLC Yankee Gas Services Company Kinder Morgan Tejas Pipeline LLC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. PR10-63-000; Docket No. PR10-64-000; Docket No. PR10-66- 000] Enterprise Alabama Intrastate, LLC Yankee Gas Services Company Kinder Morgan Tejas Pipeline LLC (Not Consolidated); Notice of Baseline Filings July 26, 2010. Take...

  10. 77 FR 64964 - Cheniere Marketing, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY [FE Docket No. 12-97-LNG] Cheniere Marketing, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas Produced From Domestic Natural Gas Resources to Non-Free Trade... application (Application) filed on August 31, 2012, by Cheniere Marketing, LLC (CMI), requesting long- term...

  11. Draft of law relating to revamping of natural gas supply public service and to development of gas enterprises; Avant projet de loi relatif a la modernisation du service public du gaz naturel et au developpement des entreprises gazieres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bricq [ed.] [Deputee de Seine-et-Marne, Assemblee Nationale, Paris (France)

    2000-02-07

    The state secretariat for industry has launched a large public debate between June and October 1999 based on a white book titled 'Towards the future organization of the gas sector'. The suggestions obtained were substantial. A brief presentation is added to the draft of the law devoted to revamping of natural gas supply public service and to development of gas enterprises. The presentation addresses the following points: 1. A public gas supply service modern and thought to reconcile the dynamism, equity and solidarity. 2. A controlled opening of the natural gas market towards competition: participating to the struggle for employment. 3. Tools ensuring the quality of gas supply and security of resources. 4. A transparent and efficient regulation: creating the conditions of a nondiscriminatory competition. 5. Requirements for developing the transport of natural gas regime. 6. Storage. 7. Social questions. The draft of the law relating to revamping of natural gas supply public service and to development of gas enterprises is a working document, not engaging the government. It is based on six titles. Title 1 and Title 2 treat the points 1 and 2 mentioned above. Title 3 contains two chapters devoted to transparency and accounting dissociation and to regulation in the natural gas sector, respectively. The Title 4 contains three chapters devoted to: 1. authorization of the works of natural gas transport; 2. gas distribution and 3. exploitation of the transport and natural gas distribution network. The fifth Title is dedicated to underground storage. The sixth Title presents diverse directives.

  12. Ultrahigh Sensitivity Heavy Noble Gas Detectors for Long-Term Monitoring and for Monitoring Air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John D. Valentine

    2005-07-28

    The primary objective of this research project is to develop heavy noble gas (krypton, xenon, and radon) detectors for (1) long-term monitoring of transuranic waste, spent fuel, and other uranium and thorium bearing wastes and (2) alpha particle air monitors that discriminate between radon emissions and other alpha emitters. DOE needs that are addressed by this project include improved long-term monitoring capability and improved air monitoring capability during remedial activities. Successful development and implementation of the proposed detection systems could significantly improve current capabilities with relatively simple and inexpensive equipment.

  13. Long term building energy demand for India: Disaggregating end use energy services in an integrated assessment modeling framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaturvedi, Vaibhav; Eom, Jiyong; Clarke, Leon E.; Shukla, Priyadarshi R.

    2014-01-01

    With increasing population, income, and urbanization, meeting the energy service demands for the building sector will be a huge challenge for Indian energy policy. Although there is broad consensus that the Indian building sector will grow and evolve over the coming century, there is little understanding of the potential nature of this evolution over the longer term. The present study uses a technologically detailed, service based building energy model nested in the long term, global, integrated assessment framework, GCAM, to produce scenarios of the evolution of the Indian buildings sector up through the end of the century. The results support the idea that as India evolves toward developed country per-capita income levels, its building sector will largely evolve to resemble those of the currently developed countries (heavy reliance on electricity both for increasing cooling loads and a range of emerging appliance and other plug loads), albeit with unique characteristics based on its climate conditions (cooling dominating heating and even more so with climate change), on fuel preferences that may linger from the present (for example, a preference for gas for cooking), and vestiges of its development path (including remnants of rural poor that use substantial quantities of traditional biomass). - Highlights: ► Building sector final energy demand in India will grow to over five times by century end. ► Space cooling and appliance services will grow substantially in the future. ► Energy service demands will be met predominantly by electricity and gas. ► Urban centers will face huge demand for floor space and building energy services. ► Carbon tax policy will have little effect on reducing building energy demands

  14. Consideration of emergency source terms for pebble-bed high temperature gas-cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao, Liu; Jun, Zhao; Jiejuan, Tong; Jianzhu, Cao

    2009-01-01

    Being the last barrier in the nuclear power plant defense-in-depth strategy, emergency planning (EP) is an integrated project. One of the key elements in this process is emergency source terms selection. Emergency Source terms for light water reactor (LWR) nuclear power plant (NPP) have been introduced in many technical documents, and advanced NPP emergency planning is attracting attention recently. Commercial practices of advanced NPP are undergoing in the world, pebble-bed high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) power plant is under construction in China which is considered as a representative of advanced NPP. The paper tries to find some pieces of suggestion from our investigation. The discussion of advanced NPP EP will be summarized first, and then the characteristics of pebble-bed HTGR relating to EP will be described. Finally, PSA insights on emergency source terms selection and current pebble-bed HTGR emergency source terms suggestions are proposed

  15. Analysing the Possible Ways for Short-Term Forcing Gas Turbine Engines in Auxiliary Power Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Trotskii

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Using a gas turbine energy unit as an example, the article discusses possible ways for forcing the short-term gas turbine engines (GTE. The introduction explains the need for forcing the air transport and marine GTE in specific driving conditions and offers the main methods. Then it analyzes the three main short-term forcing methods according to GTE power, namely: precompressor water injection, a short-term rise in temperature after the combustion chamber, and feeding an additional compressed air into combustion chamber from the reserve cylinders.The analysis of the water injection method to force a GTE presents the main provisions and calculation results of the cycle, as a function of engine power on the amount of water injected into compressor inlet. It is shown that with water injection into compressor inlet in an amount of 1% of the total airflow there is a 17% power increase in the compressor. It also lists the main implementation problems of this method and makes a comparison with the results of other studies on the water injection into compressor.Next, the article concerns the GTE short-term forcing method through the pre-turbine short-term increase in the gas temperature. The article presents the calculation results of the cycle as a function of the power and the fuel-flow rate on the gas temperature at the turbine inlet. It is shown that with increasing temperature by 80 degrees the engine power increases by 11.2% and requires 11% more fuel. In the analysis of this method arises an issue of thermal barrier coating on the blade surface. The article discusses the most common types of coatings and their main shortcomings. It lists the main challenges and some ways of their solving when using this method to implement the short-term forcing.The last method under consideration is GTE short-term forcing by feeding the compressed air into the combustion chamber from the additional reserve cylinders. It should be noted that this method is

  16. Developing a long-term condition's information service in collaboration with third sector organisations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McShane, Lesley; Greenwell, Kate; Corbett, Sally; Walker, Richard

    2014-06-01

    People with long-term conditions need to be signposted to high quality information and advice to understand and manage their condition. Information seeking tools combined with third sector information could help address their information needs. To describe the development and implementation of an information service for people living with long-term conditions at one NHS acute trust in the Northeast of England. An information service was trialled using bespoke information models for three long-term conditions in collaboration with third sector organisations. These guided people to relevant, timely and reliable information. Both clinician and service user questionnaires were used to evaluate satisfaction with the service. Appropriately designed information models can be used interchangeably across all services. Between 75% and 91% of users agreed that they were satisfied with various aspects of the service. Generally, users received relevant, understandable and high quality information at the right time. Nearly all health professionals (94-100%) felt the service was accessible, provided high quality information and did not significantly impact on their consultation time. The developed information service was well received by service users and health professionals. Specifically, the use of information prescriptions and menus facilitated access to information for people with long-term conditions. © 2014 The authors. Health Information and Libraries Journal © 2014 Health Libraries Group.

  17. Short-Term Output Variations in Wind Farms--Implications for Ancillary Services in the United States: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadogan, J. [U.S. Department of Energy (US); Milligan, M. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (US); Wan, Y. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (US); Kirby, B. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (US)

    2001-09-21

    With the advent of competition in the electric power marketplace, this paper reviews changes that affect wind and other renewable energy technologies, and discusses the role of federal and state policies in the recent wind installations in the United States. In particular, it reviews the implications of ancillary service requirements on a wind farm and presents initial operating results of monitoring one Midwest wind farm. Under federal energy policy, each generator must purchase, or otherwise provide for, ancillary services, such as dispatch, regulation, operation reserve, voltage regulation, and scheduling required to move power to load. As a renewable technology that depends on the forces of nature, short-term output variations are inherently greater for a wind farm than for a gas-fired combined cycle or a supercritical coal-fired unit.

  18. Incentive regulation regarding the service quality of electricity and natural gas network operators. 2014 Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-12-01

    The tariffs set by the French Energy Regulation Commission (CRE) for natural gas distribution system operators (DSOs), natural gas transmission system operators (TSOs) as well as for the electricity distribution system operator Electricite Reseau Distribution France (ERDF) include an incentive regulation regarding the quality of service. The CRE has defined indicators to monitor the performance of operators in several fields considered relevant to assess the quality of service. Some of these indicators, considered to have specific importance in ensuring that the market operates properly, are subject to a system of financial incentives: bonuses or penalties are given to operators depending on the attainment of objectives set by the CRE. Other indicators, which do not carry financial incentives, complete the mechanism and ensure a broader surveillance of the operators' service quality. A financial incentive may be applied to these indicators at a later date if the CRE deems it necessary. The analyses of the service quality monitoring indicators presented in this report cover the period from January 1 to December 31, 2014. A review of the service quality of DSOs, TSOs and ERDF is made according to these indicators. An annex contains the definitions and detailed results for all the indicators during the whole period of analysis

  19. The Place of Assisted Living in Long-Term Care and Related Service Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Robyn I.; Reinhard, Susan C.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to describe how assisted living (AL) fits with other long-term-care services. Design and Methods: We analyzed the evolution of AL, including the populations served, the services offered, and federal and state policies that create various incentives or disincentives for using AL to replace other forms of care…

  20. User Acceptance of Long-Term Evolution (LTE) Services: An Application of Extended Technology Acceptance Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eunil; Kim, Ki Joon

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to propose an integrated path model in order to explore user acceptance of long-term evolution (LTE) services by examining potential causal relationships between key psychological factors and user intention to use the services. Design/methodology/approach: Online survey data collected from 1,344 users are analysed…

  1. Participatory Research Into Inclusive Practice: Improving Services for People With Long Term Neurological Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Cook

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available People with long-term conditions are intensive users of health services as well as being long term users of social care and community services. In the UK, the Department of Health has suggested that the development of a more inclusive approach to services could furnish benefits to people with long-term conditions and financial savings for service providers. Researchers with a varied set of expertise and experience (users of neuro-rehabilitation services, staff working in services, people working with third sector agencies and university academics adopted a participatory research approach to work together to explore what inclusion might look and feel like for people who are long term users of health services. The element of critique and mutual challenge, developed within the research process, disturbed current presentations of inclusion and inclusive practice. It revealed that the more usually expected components of inclusion (trust, respect and shared responsibility whilst necessary for inclusive practice, are not necessarily sufficient. Inclusion is revealed as a complex and challenging process that requires the active construction of a critical communicative space for dialectical and democratic learning for service development.

  2. Analyzing the Effects of Car Sharing Services on the Reduction of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions

    OpenAIRE

    Jiyeon Jung; Yoonmo Koo

    2018-01-01

    This study examines the environmental impacts of roundtrip car sharing services by investigating transportation behavior. Car sharing should contribute to reduced greenhouse gas GHG emissions; however, such schemes include both positive and negative environmental effects, including: (1) reduced CO2e (carbon dioxide equivalent) from substituting private vehicle use for more fuel-efficient car sharing vehicles, (2) increased CO2e as car-less individuals switch from public transit to car sharing...

  3. The Natural Gas Dilemma in New England's Electricity Sector: Experts' Perspectives on Long Term Climate Issues and Policy Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Steven

    This thesis is an interpretive analysis of experts' perspectives on the climate implications of New England's reliance on natural gas for electricity generation. Specifically, this research, conducted through interviews and literature review, examines experts' opinions on the desired role of natural gas within the regional electricity sector, alternative energy resources, and state and regional policy opportunities toward the achievement of New England's ambitious long-term greenhouse gas reduction goals. Experts expressed concern about the climate dilemma posed by a dependence on natural gas. However, interviews revealed that short-term reliability and cost considerations are paramount for many experts, and therefore a reliance on natural gas is the existing reality. To incentivize renewable generation technologies for the purposes of long-term climate stabilization, experts advocated for the expanded implementation of renewable portfolio standard, net metering, and feed-in tariff policies. More broadly, interviewees expressed the need for an array of complementary state and regional policies.

  4. 24 CFR 100.65 - Discrimination in terms, conditions and privileges and in services and facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discrimination in terms, conditions... Discriminatory Housing Practices § 100.65 Discrimination in terms, conditions and privileges and in services and... rental of a dwelling, because a person failed or refused to provide sexual favors. ...

  5. Interest in Long-Term Care among Health Services Administration Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, April; Thompson, Jon M.

    2011-01-01

    The aging of the population has created increased opportunities for health administrators in long-term care. This study consisted of a cross-sectional survey of 68 undergraduate health services administration students to explore factors related to interest in a career in long-term care administration. One third expressed interest working in the…

  6. Investigation of MTBE and aromatic compound concentrations at a gas service station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chi-Wen; Chiang, Song-Bor; Lu, San-Ju

    2005-06-01

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) has been used as a fuel additive at levels of 2-11% in Taiwan for the past decade. The purpose of this additive is to enhance the octane, replace the use of lead-based anti-knock gasoline additives and reduce aromatic hydrocarbons. However, it is possible that oxygenated fuel has a potential health impact. To determine the air quality impact of MTBE, measurements were made of ambient MTBE and other gasoline constituents at a service station. Additionally, environmental conditions (wind speed, wind direction, and temperature, etc.) that could affect concentrations of emission constituents were measured. Gas samples were analyzed for target MTBE and volatile organic compounds, e.g., benzene and toluene. Ambient samples were collected using Tenax adsorbent tubes for mass spectrometric analysis at a service station located in Changhua County, Taiwan. The resulting measured ambient air concentrations were compared with Taiwan's regulatory standards for hazardous air pollutants. Subsequently, the factors controlling the formation of high-VOC levels at the service station and in the residential neighborhoods were identified. Additionally, the results can provide the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) of Taiwan with useful information and prompt them to mandate this gas service station to install a refueling vapor recovery system.

  7. 38 CFR 8.26 - Renewal of National Service Life Insurance on the 5-year level premium term plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Service Life Insurance on the 5-year level premium term plan. 8.26 Section 8.26 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS NATIONAL SERVICE LIFE INSURANCE Renewal of Term Insurance § 8.26 Renewal of National Service Life Insurance on the 5-year level premium term plan. (a) Effective...

  8. International short-term medical service trips: guidelines from the literature and perspectives from the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapin, Erica; Doocy, Shannon

    2010-01-01

    The increasing interest in practising medicine overseas has outpaced research conducted to evaluate its effectiveness and the development of guidelines from evidence-based best practices. Short-term medical teams regularly travel to provide medical care, yet there is little research on the impact or practices of these missions. This study assessed current practices and challenges of short-term medical service teams, using questionnaire-based interviews of 40 participants in recent medical service trips. Study results and a review of recommendations in peer-reviewed journals were used to develop guidelines for international short-term medical trips in relation to mission, collaboration, education and capacity building, provider qualifications, appropriate donations, and cultural sensitivity and understanding. Guidelines that inform models, approaches, best practices and minimum standards for short-term medical service trips should be adopted so that improved and sustainable outcomes can be consistently achieved.

  9. A labour market study of the manufacturing, oil and gas, and business services industries in Calgary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    A survey was conducted in Calgary in spring 1994 of 861 firms in the manufacturing, oil and gas, and service industries. The main objective of the survey was to collect labor market information to assist in making career and educational decisions. A total of 543 employment vacancies were identified, with the largest number of vacancies reported for electrical contractors, computer operators, petroleum engineers, geologists, and geological technicians. A total of 1,129 new personnel were planned to be hired in the near future. Of the employees covered by the survey, 57.1% were reported as having some post-secondary qualifications. Over 88% of reported employment was listed as full-time. Of the firms surveyed, 56.2% indicated that they would provide training to their employees over the next six months. Of the three industries surveyed, the oil and gas sector reported the largest increase in employment within the past six months. Improved profitability and sales in natural gas was a major factor for the reported increase of 1,648 employees in the oil and gas sector. 16 figs., 17 tabs

  10. Analyzing the Effects of Car Sharing Services on the Reduction of Greenhouse Gas (GHG Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiyeon Jung

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the environmental impacts of roundtrip car sharing services by investigating transportation behavior. Car sharing should contribute to reduced greenhouse gas GHG emissions; however, such schemes include both positive and negative environmental effects, including: (1 reduced CO2e (carbon dioxide equivalent from substituting private vehicle use for more fuel-efficient car sharing vehicles, (2 increased CO2e as car-less individuals switch from public transit to car sharing vehicles and (3 reduced CO2e due to fewer vehicles. This study examines the impacts of this modal shift on greenhouse gas (GHG emissions using three types of models: a mixed logit model to analyze car sharing service preferences; a binary logit model to analyze whether individuals are willing to forgo vehicle ownership or planned purchases to use car sharing services; and a linear regression to determine how much private vehicle or public transportation use would be replaced by car sharing and the resulting effects on mobility. Total emissions from the current car sharing market equal 1,025,589.36 t CO2e/year. However, an increase in electric vehicle (EV charging stations to 50% of the number of gasoline-fuel stations would increase the probability of electric car sharing vehicle use, thereby reducing emissions by 655,773 t CO2e. This study shows that forgoing vehicle purchases does not offset the increased GHG emissions caused by the shift from public transportation or private vehicle use to car sharing.

  11. Effects of harvesting forest biomass on water and climate regulation services: A synthesis of long-term ecosystem experiments in eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputo, Jesse; Beier, Colin D; Groffman, Peter M; Burns, Douglas A.; Beall, Frederick D; Hazlett, Paul W.; Yorks, Thad E

    2016-01-01

    Demand for woody biomass fuels is increasing amidst concerns about global energy security and climate change, but there may be negative implications of increased harvesting for forest ecosystem functions and their benefits to society (ecosystem services). Using new methods for assessing ecosystem services based on long-term experimental research, post-harvest changes in ten potential benefits were assessed for ten first-order northern hardwood forest watersheds at three long-term experimental research sites in northeastern North America. As expected, we observed near-term tradeoffs between biomass provision and greenhouse gas regulation, as well as tradeoffs between intensive harvest and the capacity of the forest to remediate nutrient pollution. In both cases, service provision began to recover along with the regeneration of forest vegetation; in the case of pollution remediation, the service recovered to pre-harvest levels within 10 years. By contrast to these two services, biomass harvesting had relatively nominal and transient impacts on other ecosystem services. Our results are sensitive to empirical definitions of societal demand, including methods for scaling societal demand to ecosystem units, which are often poorly resolved. Reducing uncertainty around these parameters can improve confidence in our results and increase their relevance for decision-making. Our synthesis of long-term experimental studies provides insights on the social-ecological resilience of managed forest ecosystems to multiple drivers of change.

  12. Wireless sensing of gas in mining with web service in real time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Mauricio Salamanca

    2014-12-01

    hierarchically in order to transmit the data to the entrance of the mine. Finally, the network configuration is done until the system enters in mode sleep (idle when it is not receiving information, in this way the consuming power decreased, increasing the autonomy of the batteries. This paper describes the design, implementation and operation of a gas monitoring system in mining with web service inreal-time based on a network of Zigbee sensors.

  13. Long-term stability measurements of low concentration Volatile Organic Compound gas mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Nick; Amico di Meane, Elena; Brewer, Paul; Ferracci, Valerio; Corbel, Marivon; Worton, David

    2017-04-01

    VOCs (Volatile Organic Compounds) are a class of compounds with significant influence on the atmosphere due to their large anthropogenic and biogenic emission sources. VOC emissions have a significant impact on the atmospheric hydroxyl budget and nitrogen reservoir species, while also contributing indirectly to the production of tropospheric ozone and secondary organic aerosol. However, the global budget of many of these species are poorly constrained. Moreover, the World Meteorological Organization's (WMO) Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) have set challenging data quality objectives for atmospheric monitoring programmes for these classes of traceable VOCs, despite the lack of available stable gas standards. The Key-VOCs Joint Research Project is an ongoing three-year collaboration with the aim of improving the measurement infrastructure of important atmospheric VOCs by providing traceable and comparable reference gas standards and by validating new measurement systems in support of the air monitoring networks. It focuses on VOC compounds that are regulated by European legislation, that are relevant for indoor air monitoring and for air quality and climate monitoring programmes like the VOC programme established by the WMO GAW and the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP). These VOCs include formaldehyde, oxy[genated]-VOCs (acetone, ethanol and methanol) and terpenes (a-pinene, 1,8-cineole, δ-3-carene and R-limonene). Here we present the results of a novel long term stability study for low concentration formaldehyde, oxy-VOC and terpenes gas mixtures produced by the Key-VOCs consortium with discussion regarding the implementation of improved preparation techniques and the use of novel cylinder passivation chemistries to guarantee mixture stability.

  14. Design and validation of a model to offer environmental consulting services to minimize oil pollution at gas stations: case study: a gas station in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calderon Hernandez, Teresita

    2016-01-01

    An environmental consulting service was designed and validated to minimize hydrocarbon contamination at gas stations, to be used by Migliore S.A. in order to strengthen and increase the number of services offered in the market niche of these companies. A matrix was synthesized with tools such as SWOT, deployment of the Quality Function Deployment (QFD) and international analysis. With the standardized protocols it will be possible to increase in a fluid way, the offer of consulting services. The final validation of the model allowed to verify the functionality of the same, through the generation of solid evaluation criteria that allowed a good knowledge of the gas station, case study, to offer a timely solution to your particular case, in a simple way and harmonious. The company providing environmental consulting services Migliore S.A. can count on a better commercial development, using the designed model [es

  15. Theoretical estimation and experimental studies on gas dissociation in TEA CO2 laser for long term arc free operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manoj; Biswas, A. K.; Bhargav, Pankaj; Reghu, T.; Sahu, Shashikiran; Pakhare, J. S.; Bhagat, M. S.; Kukreja, L. M.

    2013-11-01

    Gas dissociation in a high energy, high repetition rate Transversely Excited Atmospheric (TEA) CO2 laser in both sealed-off and gas replenishment modes were studied for nitrogen lean gas mixture. A comprehensive theoretical model based on the Boltzmann transport equation and the discharge excitation circuit equations was adopted to calculate the amount of CO2 dissociated during a single discharge pulse. Theoretically it is shown that inclusion of superelastic collisions in the Boltzmann transport equation is necessary for precise estimation of dissociation per pulse, particularly at high discharge energy loadings and for nitrogen rich gas mixtures. Gas lifetime for repetitively pulsed operations was found experimentally by measuring the amount of CO formed when frequent arcing sets in under sealed off operation. Using this model, the optimum replenishment rate of CO2 either by gas purging and/or by catalytic regeneration needed for arc free long term operation of the laser was estimated. The measured saturation values of CO concentration in the laser chamber agreed well with the calculated values for various operating conditions. Arc free, long term repetitively pulsed operation of the laser was achieved in the gas replenishment mode with gas purging and/or catalytic regeneration.

  16. Thesis: the ''evolutions of the long term European gas market - organisation and costs''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouvry, V.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents the main conclusions of the thesis defended by the author on January 30, 1998: recalls of some characteristics of the European gas market, the stakes of the gas market liberation, the regulatory aspects, the tariffs problem, the competition in the gas marketing segment, and different possible modeling of the gas market evolution (contracts, costs, competition). (J.S.)

  17. Evaluation of long-term natural gas marketing agreements: An application of commodity forward and option pricing theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salahor, G.S.; Laughton, D.G.

    1993-01-01

    Methods that have been empirically validated in the analysis of short-term traded securities are adapted to evaluate long-term natural gas direct-sale contracts. A sample contract is examined from the perspective of the producer, and analyzed as a series of forward and option contracts. The assessment of contract value is based on the gas price forecast, the volatility in that forecast, and the valuation of risk caused by that volatility. The method presented allows the gas producer to quantify these elements, and to evaluate the variety of terms encountered in direct-sale natural gas agreements, including features such as load factors and penalty charges. The analysis uses as inputs a probabilistic price forecast and a determination of a price of risk for gas prices. Once the forecast volatility is derived from the probabilistic forecast, the forward contracts imbedded in the long-term gas contract can be valued with a risk-discounting model, and optional aspects can be evaluated using the Black-Scholes option pricing method. 10 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  18. Long-term commitment of Japanese gas utilities to PAFCs and SOFCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Kiyokazu; Kasahara, Komei

    Tokyo Gas and Osaka Gas have been committed to addressing the energy- and environment-related issues of Japan through promotion of natural gas, an energy friendly to the environment. Being aware of the diversifying market needs (e.g. efficient energy utilization, rising demand for electricity, etc.), active efforts have been made in marketing gas-fired air-conditioning and co-generation systems. In this process, a high priority has also been placed on fuel cells, particularly for realizing their market introduction. Since their participation in the TARGET Program in USA in 1972, the two companies have been involved with the field testing and operation of phosphoric acid fuel cells (PAFCs), whose total capacity has amounted to 12.4 MW. The two companies have played a vital role in promoting and accelerating fuel cell development through the following means: (1) giving incentives to manufacturers through purchase of units and testing, (2) giving feedback on required specifications and technical problems in operation, and (3) verifying and realizing long-term operation utilizing their maintenance techniques. It has been expected that the primary goal of the cumulative operation time of 40 000 h shall be achieved in the near future. Work has also been in progress to develop SOFC. In the joint R&D of a 25-kW solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) with Westinghouse, the record operation time of 13 000 h has been achieved. Though still twice as much as the average price of competing equipment, the commercialization of PAFCs is close at hand. By utilizing government spending and subsidies for field testing, work will be continued to verify reliability and durability of PAFCs installed at users' sites. These activities have been expected to contribute to realizing economically viable systems and enhance market introduction. The superlative advantages of fuel cells, particularly their environment-friendly qualities, should be best taken advantage of at an appropriate time. In

  19. Evolution of the European gas market on the long term. Organisation and price; Evolution du marche gazier europeen a long terme. Organisation et prix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouvry, V

    1998-01-30

    The objective of this work is to shed light upon the future organization of the European gas market with an emphasis on price matters. There are nowadays few producers of gas on the market, most of whom hold long-term contracts with gas companies. Gas pricing is based on the net-back principle. The actual debate on liberalization of the gas market and the growing pressure from industrial customers to obtain lower prices addresses the problem of the future organisation of the market and the potential impact of the introduction of third party access. We first analyse the main actors of the gas market, their strategy and the actual market organization market. Two different logics are considered hereunder: a market approach: the competition theory provides efficient tools to analyse the evolution of competition depending on numerous factors. It appears that the strategy of all actors and particularly of producers will be the main determinant of the future competition. The oligopoly theory includes oligopolistic behaviours modelizations. The application of the Cournot`s model leads to prices ranging from 1,6 to 3,7 $/MBtu; a contractual approach: today, gas is essentially exchanged through long term contracts, which allow for long-term management of investments and supply security. Two operators negotiate the price, which ultimately mirrors their respective leverage. The transaction cost theory clearly shows the necessity of including transaction costs, especially when optimizing the duration of the contract. The gas prices escalation is nowadays partially obsolete and unadapted to customer needs. Escalation on coal, electricity price or inflation should soon be considered. The theories of negotiation highlight the importance of the operators` marketing power during gas price fixation Applying Nash and Harsanyi-Selten`s negotiation models results in a scale of 2,4 to 3,5 $/MBtu of the gas price at the actual supply and demand conditions. Both approaches lead to similar

  20. Simulation of Mechanical Processes in Gas Storage Caverns for Short-Term Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böttcher, Norbert; Nagel, Thomas; Kolditz, Olaf

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, Germany's energy management has started to be transferred from fossil fuels to renewable and sustainable energy carriers. Renewable energy sources such as solar and wind power are subjected by fluctuations, thus the development and extension of energy storage capacities is a priority in German R&D programs. This work is a part of the ANGUS+ Project, funded by the federal ministry of education and research, which investigates the influence of subsurface energy storage on the underground. The utilization of subsurface salt caverns as a long-term storage reservoir for fossil fuels is a common method, since the construction of caverns in salt rock is inexpensive in comparison to solid rock formations due to solution mining. Another advantage of evaporate as host material is the self-healing behaviour of salt rock, thus the cavity can be assumed to be impermeable. In the framework of short-term energy storage (hours to days), caverns can be used as gas storage reservoirs for natural or artificial fuel gases, such as hydrogen, methane, or compressed air, where the operation pressures inside the caverns will fluctuate more frequently. This work investigates the influence of changing operation pressures at high frequencies on the stability of the host rock of gas storage caverns utilizing numerical models. Therefore, we developed a coupled Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical (THM) model based on the finite element method utilizing the open-source software platform OpenGeoSys. The salt behaviour is described by well-known constitutive material models which are capable of predicting creep, self-healing, and dilatancy processes. Our simulations include the thermodynamic behaviour of gas storage process, temperature development and distribution on the cavern boundary, the deformation of the cavern geometry, and the prediction of the dilatancy zone. Based on the numerical results, optimal operation modes can be found for individual caverns, so the risk of host rock damage

  1. Panorama 2011: Short-term trends in the gas industry; Panorama 2011: Tendances a court terme de l'industrie gaziere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lecarpentier, A.

    2011-07-01

    2009 was a particularly bad year for the natural gas industry, with demand falling dramatically by 2.8% as a result of the world economic crisis. However, 2010 appears to have been a very positive year for the industry, with a sustained increase in production and trade. Increased economic activity, together with harsh winters and competitive gas prices are the reasons for the markets having rediscovered their buoyancy. Although the economic recovery has shown signs of fragility in OECD countries, global natural gas demand should continue to grow rapidly in the short-term, driven by consumption in developing countries, suggesting that the gas bubble will be reabsorbed faster than expected on the international markets. (author)

  2. Characterization of Erosion and Failure Processes of Spark Plugs After Field Service in Natural Gas Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Hua-Tay [ORNL; Brady, Michael P [ORNL; Richards, Roger K [ORNL; Layton, David [National Transportation Research Center (NTRC)

    2005-01-01

    Microstructural and optical spectroscopic analyses were carried out on as-received and used spark plugs after field service in natural gas (NG) reciprocating engines. The objective of this work was to examine the corrosion and erosion mechanisms of natural gas engine spark plug as well as identify the primary life limiting processes during field operation. The optical emission spectroscopic analysis showed a strong Ca signal in the exposed spark plugs and scanning electron microscopy showed substantial formation of Ca-enriched glassy oxide phase(s) on the electrode surfaces. In addition, intergranular cracking was observed in the subsurface region of both iridium (Ir) and platinum-tungsten (Pt-W) alloy electrode insert tips. The coalescence and subsequent growth of these cracks would accelerate the wear of the electrodes and shorten the lifetime of the spark plugs. Also, extensive internal oxidation and subsequent crack generation occurred along the interface between Ni-base alloy electrode and Pt-W alloy tip insert during field service, which would result in substantial degradation in the ignitability and performance of the electrodes, and thus spark plug failure.

  3. Culture and long-term care: the bath as social service in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traphagan, John W

    2004-01-01

    A central feature of Japan's approach to community-based care of the elderly, including long-term home health care, is the emphasis on providing bath facilities. For mobile elders, senior centers typically provide a public bathing facility in which people can enjoy a relaxing soak along with friends who also visit the centers. In terms of in-home long-term care, visiting bath services are provided to assist family care providers with the difflcult task of bathing a frail or disabled elder--a task made more problematic as a result of the Japanese style of bathing. I argue that the bath, as social service, is a culturally shaped solution to a specific problem of elder care that arises in the Japanese context as a result of the importance of the bath in everyday life for Japanese. While the services may be considered specific to Japan, some aspects of bathing services, particularly the mobile bath service, may also have applicability in the United States.

  4. Short-term trends in the gas industry - Panorama 2008; Tendances a court terme de l'industrie gaziere - Panorama 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    In a context of high investment costs and rising energy prices, and recurring unseasonably warm temperatures in recent years, the growth of natural gas demand is slowing. On the supply side, and on the demand side too, new trends are emerging, with potentially powerful impact on the short-and long-term development of the industry.

  5. Long term assurance of supply of back end of fuel cycle facilities and services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The paper deals with the long-term assurance of supply of the back end of fuel cycle facilities and services. 11 fundamental questions are posed and commented on by representatives of 7 countries. Non-proliferation aspects are not considered as they will be discussed elsewhere

  6. Using Forecasting to Predict Long-Term Resource Utilization for Web Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoas, Daniel W.

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have spent years understanding resource utilization to improve scheduling, load balancing, and system management through short-term prediction of resource utilization. Early research focused primarily on single operating systems; later, interest shifted to distributed systems and, finally, into web services. In each case researchers…

  7. 78 FR 80382 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Terms of Service and Open-Ended Indemnification and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-31

    ... Acquisition Regulation (FAR) to address concerns raised in an opinion from the U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ... acquisitions for social media applications. DATES: Effective: December 31, 2013. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION... Online Terms of Service Agreements. The interim rule became effective on June 21, 2013. One respondent...

  8. Long term operation of nuclear power plants – IAEA SALTO peer review service and its results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivanek, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • SALTO peer review service is designed for reviewing of ageing management and NPPs’ preparedness LTO. • It has been established as an effective tool to review the compliance with IAEA safety standards. • The important issues for safe LTO are being identified by SALTO missions. • Analysis of those issues is provided in the paper. • This peer review service is strongly recommended for NPPs prior to entering LTO period. - Abstract: This paper presents main IAEA activities for safe long term operation (LTO) which includes establishment of IAEA Safety Standards and other LTO related documents, fostering information exchange and establishing databases and provision of SALTO (Safety Aspects of Long Term Operation) peer review service. This paper provides insights into IAEA SALTO peer review service objectives, scope and methodology. The SALTO peer review service was designed to assist nuclear power plant (NPP) operators in adopting a proper approach to LTO of their plants and in implementing complete and appropriate activities to ensure that plant safety will be maintained during the LTO period. The SALTO peer review service can also support regulators in establishing or improving regulatory and licensing strategies for LTO of NPPs. Issues derived from 19 SALTO missions and 2 LTO modules of OSART (Operational Safety Review Team) missions conducted during the period of 2005 to March 2014 are also analyzed in this paper

  9. Radiolytic gas production during long-term storage of nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibler, N.E.

    1976-01-01

    Gases produced by in situ radiolysis of sealed solidified nuclear wastes during long-term storage could conceivably breach containment. Therefore, candidate waste forms (matrices containing simulated nuclear wastes) were irradiated with 60 Co-γ and 244 Cm-α radiation. These forms were: cement containing simulated fission product sludges, vermiculite containing organic liquids, and cellulosics contaminated with α-emitting transuranic isotopes. For cement waste forms exposed to γ-radiolysis, an equilibrium hydrogen pressure was reached that was dose rate dependent. For α-radiolysis, equilibrium was not reached. With organic wastes (n-octane on vermiculite), H 2 and traces of CO 2 and CH 4 were produced, and O 2 was consumed with both radiations. Only energy absorbed by the organic material was effective in producing H 2 . At low dose rates with both α- and γ-irradiations, G(H 2 ) was 4.5 and G(-O 2 ) was 5.0. Also, equilibrium was not obtained. For cellulosic material, H 2 , CO 2 , and CO were produced in the ratio of 1.0:0.7:0.3, and O 2 was consumed. With α-radiolysis, G(gas) was dose dependent; measured values ranged from 2.2 to 0.6 as the dose increased. Implications of all these results on long-term storage of radioactive waste are discussed. Some data from an actual nuclear wasteform are also presented

  10. Recommendations for Planning and Managing International Short-term Pharmacy Service Trips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kalin L; Alsharif, Naser Z; Rovers, John; Connor, Sharon; White, Nicole D; Hogue, Michael D

    2017-03-25

    International pharmacy service trips by schools and colleges of pharmacy allow students to provide health care to medically underserved areas. A literature review (2000-2016) in databases and Internet searches with specific keywords or terms was performed to assess current practices to establish and maintain successful pharmacy service trips. Educational documents such as syllabi were obtained from pharmacy programs and examined. A preliminary draft was developed and authors worked on sections of interest and expertise. Considerations and current recommendations are provided for the key aspects of the home institution and the host country requirements for pharmacy service trips based on findings from a literature search and the authors' collective, extensive experience. Evaluation of the trip and ethical considerations are also discussed. This article serves as a resource for schools and colleges of pharmacy that are interested in the development of new pharmacy service trips and provides key considerations for continuous quality improvement of current or future activities.

  11. Addition of Japanese terms to MEDLINE File-Service through JOIS-III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosoe, Takao; Sakagami, Yasuhiko; Kawano, Koreni

    This paper describes new service through JOIS-III(JICST Online Information System-III) which enabled English databases, MEDLINE, TOXLINE, and CANCERLIT, to search and output both with Japanese MeSH terms and with English MeSH terms by adding terms of MeSH translated into Japanese to these three files. In this paper, circumstances and background of this plan, cooperation of the work between JICST and The Japan Medical Library Association(JMLA) , fundamental conception and rules for translation of MeSH thesaurus terms into Japanese, practical translation work, search and output by JOIS-III using Japanese MeSH terms translated, relation between JOIS-III and Japanese version of MeSH in book style published by JMLA, and future issues are also described.

  12. Long-term care services expenditure projection in South Korea from 2015 to 2050.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nayoung

    2015-01-01

    South Korea has been undergoing significant change in its population structure over the past three decades. Within 10 years, South Korean baby-boomers will reach the age of 65 years and accelerate this change. This trend in population structure is crucial, because an aging population may increase medical demand, especially that for long-term care (LTC) services, which would create a financial burden on society. This study estimates total LTC expenditure in South Korea from 2015 to 2050 by modifying the method proposed by the UK Personal Social Science Research Unit, the seminal study on projecting costs of LTC services. Using population data from the projections of the Korean Statistical Information Service, I stratify the projected population by gender and age, using the groups 65-69, 70-74, 75-79 and 80 or over and divide LTC services into two categories, namely facility and home care. South Korea's total LTC expenditure is predicted to continuously increase and then reach 4.2% of GDP in 2050. Expenditure on LTC services for women is higher than that for men. Moreover, the increase in total expenditure is dramatic after 2040 for home-based services but is constant for facility services. This study shows that the presence of baby-boomers heavily influences LTC expenditure in South Korea. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Investigations of the long-term effects of LII on soot and bath gas

    KAUST Repository

    Cenker, Emre

    2017-08-24

    A combination of high-repetition rate imaging, laser extinction measurements, two-colour soot pyrometry imaging, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy of thermophoretically sampled soot is used to investigate the long-term and permanent effects of rapid heating of in-flame soot during laser-induced incandescence (LII). Experiments are carried out on a laminar non-premixed co-annular ethylene/air flame with various laser fluences. The high-repetition rate images clearly show that the heated and the neighbouring laser-border zones undergo a permanent transformation after the laser pulse, and advect vertically with the flow while the permanent marking is preserved. The soot volume fraction at the heated zone reduces due to the sublimation of soot and the subsequent enhanced oxidation. At the laser-border zones, however, optical thickness increases that may be due to thermophoretic forces drawing hot particles towards relatively cooler zones and the rapid compression of the bath gas induced by the pressure waves created by the expansion of the desorbed carbon clusters. Additionally sublimed carbon clusters can condense onto existing particles and contribute to increase of the optical thickness. Time-resolved two-colour pyrometry imaging show that the increased temperature of soot both in the heated and neighbouring laser-border zones persists for several milliseconds. This can be associated to the increase in the bath-gas temperature, and a change in the wavelength-dependent emissivity of soot particles induced by the thermal annealing of soot. Ex-situ analysis show that the lattice structure of the soot sampled at the laser-border zones tend to change and soot becomes more graphitic. This may be attributed to thermal annealing induced by elevated temperature.

  14. Report on the service quality incentive regulations for gas network operators and ERDF. 2009-2010 Report Synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-11-01

    The latest natural gas transmission network tariffs, called 'ATRT4', and the tariffs for natural gas distribution network, 'ATRD3', as well as the 3. tariffs for using the public electricity networks, 'TURPE 3', constitute a regulatory framework offering incentives to gas transmission and distribution operators, as well as the electricity distributor ERDF, to control their costs and improve the quality of service provided for network users. For gas and electricity distribution system operators (DSO), the incentive-based regulation for quality of service implemented through the tariffs is complementary to the supervision powers of the licensing authorities. It operates by means of concession contracts which imply that the concessionaire has to deliver activity reports and that the licensing authorities have to publish monitoring reports of the concessionaire's activity. The licensing authorities act on the local level, whereas the incentive regulation is of national scope. The actions of the licensing authorities and of the Energy Regulatory Commission (CRE) contribute together to assess and enhance the quality of service of the DSO. As the service quality monitoring exercises are conducted successively, the analysis will become more refined as a greater data history is acquired. The quality of service from the gas network operators (GrDF, GRTgaz and TIGF) and the electricity distributor (ERDF) has been improving gradually over the period of the monitoring, or has stabilised at a satisfactory level for the areas that are most important for the correct functioning of the market. Some objectives set by the tariffs have been met or even exceeded, which earns financial bonuses for the operators in question. This second service quality monitoring report on the gas network operators and ERDF is going to be used by the CRE, in consultation with all the market players, to refine the incentive mechanisms already in place. Contents: 1

  15. Longer term outcomes of voluntarily admitted service users with high levels of perceived coercion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donoghue, Brian; Roche, Eric; Shannon, Stephen; Creed, Lisa; Lyne, John; Madigan, Kevin; Feeney, Larkin

    2015-09-30

    Voluntarily admitted service users can report levels of perceived coercion comparable to those admitted involuntarily, yet little is known of this groups longer term outcome. The 'coerced voluntary' had a score of 4 or above on the MacArthur perceived coercion scale and one year after discharge, they had a better therapeutic relationship compared to involuntarily admitted service users. There was no difference between the coerced voluntary, uncoerced voluntary and involuntary groups in engagement, satisfaction and functioning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. How competitive gas air-conditioning is being offered to domestic users by means of attractive energy selling services?; Une climatisation au gaz concurrentielle pour le marche residentiel via des services de vente d'energie attractifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jane, R.; Raventos, M. [Gas Natural, SDG, S.A. (Spain); Naval, J.; Martinez, J.A. [Gas Serviconfort S.A. (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    With the object of responding to the progressive increase in the demand for air-conditioning in the domestic sector with the presentation of gas as a competitive alternative to the electric systems currently available, and in order to avoid not only the loss of this specific market but also of the heating and hot water markets in the new-build residential sector, a new individualized energy selling service has been developed. This new option incorporates the advantages of the individualized and centralized systems of air-conditioning thanks to the utilisation of the medium-size gas air-conditioning systems currently available and to the geNie system as an instrument for totally individualizing the service and offering truly innovative features that will be attractive to the consumer. This new line of activity, implemented by the Serviconfort, a subsidiary company off the Gas Natural Group, has proven its viability both in technological and in service-definition terms in a series of demonstrations with more than 800 clients, which have served to indicate the considerable interest of the new-build residential sector in Spain and the expectations for the potential market over the next few years. (authors)

  17. Effects of long-term low atmospheric pressure on gas exchange and growth of lettuce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yongkang; Guo, Shuangsheng; Dong, Wenping; Qin, Lifeng; Ai, Weidang; Lin, Shan

    2010-09-01

    The objectives of this research were to determine photosynthesis, evapotranspiration and growth of lettuce at long-term low atmospheric pressure. Lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L . cv. Youmaicai) plants were grown at 40 kPa total pressure (8.4 kPa p) or 101 kPa total pressure (20.9 kPa p) from seed to harvest for 35 days. Germination rate of lettuce seeds decreased by 7.6% at low pressure, although this was not significant. There was no significant difference in crop photosynthetic rate between hypobaria and ambient pressure during the 35-day study. The crop evapotranspiration rate was significantly lower at low pressure than that at ambient pressure from 20 to 30 days after planting (DAP), but it had no significant difference before 20 DAP or after 30 DAP. The growth cycle of lettuce plants at low pressure was delayed. At low pressure, lettuce leaves were curly at the seedling stage and this disappeared gradually as the plants grew. Ambient lettuce plants were yellow and had an epinastic growth at harvest. The shoot height, leaf number, leaf length and shoot/root ratio were lower at low pressure than those at ambient pressure, while leaf area and root growth increased. Total biomass of lettuce plants grown at two pressures had no significant difference. Ethylene production at low pressure decreased significantly by 38.8% compared with ambient pressure. There was no significant difference in microelements, nutritional phytochemicals and nitrate concentrations at the two treatments. This research shows that lettuce can be grown at long-term low pressure (40 kPa) without significant adverse effects on seed germination, gas exchange and plant growth. Furthermore, ethylene release was reduced in hypobaria.

  18. Combined FTIR-micrometeorological techniques for long term measurements of greenhouse gas fluxes from agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, A. K.; Griffith, D.; Harvey, M.; Naylor, T.; Smith, M.

    2009-04-01

    The exchange of trace gases between the biosphere and the atmosphere affects the atmospheric concentrations of gases such as methane, carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, carbon monoxide, ammonia, volatile organic compounds, nitrogen dioxide and others. The quantification of the exchange between a biogenic system and the atmosphere is necessary for the evaluation of the impact of these interactions. This is of special interest for agricultural systems which can be sources or sinks of trace gases, and the measurement of the fluxes is necessary when evaluating both the environmental impact of agricultural activities and the impact of atmospheric pollution on agricultural production and sustainability. With the exception of CO2, micrometeorological measurements of the fluxes of greenhouse gases from agricultural activities are still mostly possible only in campaign mode due to the complexity and logistical requirements of the existing measurement techniques. This limitation precludes studies of fluxes which run for longer periods, for example over full seasonal or growing cycles for both animal- and crop-based agriculture. We have developed an instrument system for long-term flux measurements through a combination of micrometeorological flux measurement techniques such as Relaxed Eddy Accumulation (REA) and Flux-Gradient (FG) with the high precision multi-species detection capabilities of FTIR spectroscopy. The combined technique is capable of simultaneous flux measurements of N2O, CH4 and CO2 at paddock to regional scales continuously, over longer terms (months, seasonal cycles, years). The system was tested on a 3 weeks field campaign in NSW, Australia on a flat, homogeneous circular grass paddock with grazing cattle. The flux of the atmospheric trace gas CO2 was measured with three different micrometeorological techniques: Relaxed Eddy Accumulation, Flux-Gradient, and Eddy Correlation. Simultaneously, fluxes of CH4 and N2O were measured by REA and FG technique.

  19. Developing a Natural Gas-Powered Bus Rapid Transit Service. A Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, George [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-11-01

    The Roaring Fork Transit Authority (RFTA) and its VelociRFTA Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) program are unique in many ways. For example, VelociRFTA was the first rural BRT system in the United States and the operational environment of the VelociRFTA BRT is one of the most severe in the country, with extreme winter temperatures and altitudes close to 8,000 feet. RFTA viewed high altitude operation as the most challenging characteristic when it began considering the use of natural gas. RFTA is the second-largest public transit system in Colorado behind Denver's Regional Transportation District (RTD), and it is one of the largest rural public transit systems in the country. In 2013, RFTA accepted delivery of 22 new compressed natural gas (CNG) buses that went into service after completion of maintenance and refueling facilities earlier that year. This paper examines the lessons learned from RFTA's experience of investigating--and ultimately choosing--CNG for their new BRT program and focuses on the unique environment of RFTA's BRT application; the decision process to include CNG fueling in the project; unforeseen difficulties encountered in the operation of CNG buses; public perception; cost comparison to competing fuels; and considerations for indoor fueling facilities and project funding.

  20. Developing a Natural Gas-Powered Bus Rapid Transit Service: A Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, G.

    2015-11-03

    The Roaring Fork Transit Authority (RFTA) and its VelociRFTA Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) program are unique in many ways. For example, VelociRFTA was the first rural BRT system in the United States and the operational environment of the VelociRFTA BRT is one of the most severe in the country, with extreme winter temperatures and altitudes close to 8,000 feet. RFTA viewed high altitude operation as the most challenging characteristic when it began considering the use of natural gas. RFTA is the second-largest public transit system in Colorado behind Denver's Regional Transportation District (RTD), and it is one of the largest rural public transit systems in the country. In 2013, RFTA accepted delivery of 22 new compressed natural gas (CNG) buses that went into service after completion of maintenance and refueling facilities earlier that year. This paper examines the lessons learned from RFTA's experience of investigating--and ultimately choosing--CNG for their new BRT program and focuses on the unique environment of RFTA's BRT application; the decision process to include CNG fueling in the project; unforeseen difficulties encountered in the operation of CNG buses; public perception; cost comparison to competing fuels; and considerations for indoor fueling facilities and project funding.

  1. What do near-term observations tell us about long-term developments in greenhouse gas emissions? A letter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vuuren, van D.P.; Edmonds, J.; Smith, S.J.; Calvin, K.V.; Karas, J.; Kainuma, M.; Nakicenovic, N.; Riahi, K.; Ruijven, B.J.; Swart, R.J.; Thomson, A.

    2010-01-01

    Long-term scenarios developed by integrated assessment models are used in climate research to provide an indication of plausible long-term emissions of greenhouse gases and other radiatively active substances based on developments in the global energy system, land-use and the emissions associated

  2. Service-level Agreement Usage in the Long-term Archive Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Vohnout

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to assess the most important area of long-term archivation using the multi-criteria analysis. This approach point out the section that should be put the most effort in during the design stage. The outline of the work covers basic prerequisites for the service level agreement conditions. Later on it continues with the service level agreement demands and uses the multi-criteria analysis to find out the criteria, which should be taken into consideration most during the agreement preparation phase. The dominant factor for the multi-criteria analysis criteria values was based on the customer-related costs during the long-term archivation’s problem occurrences.

  3. Identifying Personal Goals of Patients With Long Term Condition: A Service Design Thinking Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eunji; Gammon, Deede

    2017-01-01

    Care for patients with long term conditions is often characterized as fragmented and ineffective, and fails to engage the resources of patients and their families in the care process. Information and communication technology can potentially help bridge the gap between patients' lives and resources and services provided by professionals. However, there is little attention on how to identify and incorporate the patients' individual needs, values, preferences and care goals into the digitally driven care settings. We conducted a case study with healthcare professionals and patients participated applying a service design thinking approach. The participants could elaborate some personal goals of patients with long term condition which can potentially be incorporated in digitally driven care plans using examples from their own experiences.

  4. Characteristics of young people with long term conditions close to transfer to adult health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrick, Hannah; McConachie, Helen; Le Couteur, Ann; Mann, Kay; Parr, Jeremy R; Pearce, Mark S; Colver, Allan

    2015-09-30

    For many young people with long term conditions (LTC), transferring from paediatric to adult health services can be difficult and outcomes are often reported to be poor. We report the characteristics and representativeness of three groups of young people with LTCs as they approach transfer to adult services: those with autism spectrum disorder with additional mental health problems (ASD); cerebral palsy (CP); or diabetes. Young people aged 14 years-18 years 11 months with ASD, or those with diabetes were identified from children's services and those with CP from population databases. Questionnaires, completed by the young person and a parent, included the 'Mind the Gap' Scale, the Rotterdam Transition Profile, and the Warwick and Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Scale. Three hundred seventy four young people joined the study; 118 with ASD, 106 with CP, and 150 with diabetes. Participants had a significant (p young people were small. Parents' satisfaction was significantly lower than their children's (p young people with diabetes were in a more independent phase of participation than those with ASD or CP. The wellbeing scores of those with diabetes (median = 53, IQR: 47-58) and CP (median = 53, IQR: 48-60) were similar, and significantly higher than for those with ASD (median = 47, IQR: 41-52; p young people with one of three LTCs recruited close to transfer to adult services was representative, we have described aspects of their satisfaction with services, participation and wellbeing, noting similarities and differences by LTC. This information about levels of current functioning is important for subsequent evaluation of the impact of service features on the health and wellbeing of young people with LTCs following transfer from child services to adult services.

  5. Short-term Canadian natural gas deliverability 2006-2008 : an energy market assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-10-01

    This report presented an assessment of the expected capability of Canadian gas production through to the year 2008. Strong natural gas prices have led to record drilling levels in Canada's natural gas industry. North American natural gas prices reached a peak near the end of 2005. The rise in prices during 2005 reflected high world crude oil prices, a tight balance between natural gas supply and demand, and disruptions to United States gas supply from 2 hurricanes. In response to rising prices, western Canada drilling activity achieved new highs in early 2006. Higher drilling rates also reflected rising costs for key inputs of steel, fuel, and labour. Gas prices have since softened due to a storage overhang resulting from a mild winter. The combination of rising costs and softening prices has impacted margins for Canadian gas producers. In response, some producers have reduced drilling expansion plans in coalbed methane (CBM) and shallow gas plays in the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin (WCSB). Increases in deeper gas drilling have been maintained. Total gas drilling for 2006 is expected to rise by 3 per cent compared to 2005. The report projected a small increase in Canada's total annual gas production from 484 million m 3 /d in 2005 to 491 million m 3 /d in 2008. Annual average deliverability of conventional gas is expected to decline slightly over the projection period. The decrease is expected to be more than offset by growth in CBM production in western Canada, which is expected to increase from 8 million m 3 /d in 2005 to 27 million m 3 /d in 2008. 5 tabs., 5 figs

  6. Autonomous long-term trace gas measurements using Long-Path Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasse, Jan-Marcus; Pöhler, Denis; Eger, Philipp; Schmitt, Stefan; Friess, Udo; Platt, Ulrich

    2017-04-01

    Long-Path DOAS (Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy) is a well-established, very specific and reliable remote sensing technique for the observation of a large variety of trace gases. So far DOAS has been mostly applied in the UV-Vis spectral region; detectable species are for example ClO, OClO, BrO, OBrO, IO, OIO, I2, OIO, O3, formaldehyde, glyoxal, NO2, H2O, O4, or SO2. In the Long Path DOAS setup, a dedicated light source and a measurement path of up to 10 km between a telescope and a reflector yield continuous path averaged concentrations independent of solar radiation and still on scales below the ground pixel sizes of satellite instruments. Here we present an advanced LP-DOAS instrument incorporating several technical improvements to a setup that allows for the first time autonomous and continuous long term measurements with very high measurement accuracy necessary for the measurement of low trace gas concentrations. The setup uses an optical fiber bundle in the telescope for transmission and reception of the measurement signal. The traditional Xe-arc lamp has been replaced by a Laser Driven Light Source with a long life time and very good optical stability. Using this light source also allows an improved wavelength selective coupling from light source into the fiber which reduces stray light. The coupling and configuration of the optical fiber was optimised compared to previous designs to maximise light throughput and reduce stray light. Additionally, the fibers were treated in order to reduce noise caused by irregular grating illumination. These changes drastically lower detection limits (e.g. to 1 pptv for BrO or 8 pptv for ClO) and improve the long-term reliability. To facilitate an autonomous operation, the measurement software incorporates features such as an automatic reflector search and intensity optimisation as well as a selection from the available measurement paths based on atmospheric visibility. Since January 2016, we are successfully

  7. Long-term congestion management by investment in gas-turbine generators : a cost-benefit analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuan, L.A.; Bhattacharya, K.

    2007-01-01

    Load management is one of the most important tasks in the operation of an electric power system. Transmission congestion occurs whenever the grid has one or more violations of the physical, operation, or policy constraints under which it normally operates. In a deregulated electricity market, the independent system operator (ISO) must ensure that contracted power transactions are carried out reliably. Several schemes of congestion management run the risk of increasing electricity prices due to the market power of local generators in congested areas. An alternative is to manage congestion through the installation of reserve gas turbine generators which can be brought online to the system within a short time. The use of gas turbines at different buses in the system can enhance the system in ways of transmission relief during emergency events. This paper proposed a framework for the evaluation of long-term investment by the ISO on gas-turbine generators as a tool for providing transmission congestion relief in the dispatch stage based on cost-benefit analysis. The objective of the framework is to optimally decide the locations and sizes of the generators at different buses in the network in order to minimize the total cost of investment of gas turbines and to minimize total system congestion. A bus-wise cost-benefit analysis was carried out by solving the DC optimal power flow (dc-OPF) model. The CIGRE 32-Bus system was used for the case study. It was shown that network overloading can be significantly reduced with the support of gas turbines at selected buses. The long-term decision of the investment on gas-turbine would depend on the opportunity cost of the gas-turbine with respect to the congestion problem. The gas turbines could also reduce the amount of unserved energy during peak load conditions. 11 refs., 4 tabs., 3 figs

  8. Long-term development of nuclear maintenance service provider in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Androjna, A.; Racic, Z.; Balazic, D.

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, most utilities have been facing a challenge of optimizing maintenance costs, while maintaining or improving equipment reliability. As the equipment ages and maintenance skills within the plant staff may decline due to a generation exchange, the challenge becomes even stronger. Consequently, many plants are looking for possible solutions through partnering with maintenance service providers. The fact that there is only one nuclear power plant in Slovenia hinders the development of local maintenance contractors to some extent. Additionally, they have to face everincreasing technical and organizational requirements while a longer fuel cycle and shorter outage durations result in a narrower annual scope of outage activities. In such circumstances, it may be very difficult for local maintenance service providers to retain and improve skills and qualifications in the long run. Even more so, since they also face the need to rejuvenate their staff and the interest of subcontractors to participate diminishes. The paper presents a case on long-term development issues as experienced by NUMIP, the leading Slovenian nuclear maintenance service provider. Above all, we would like to contribute to a better understanding of efficient local maintenance support. NUMIP's future strategic options are explored in light of possible partnering relationship with the nuclear power plant, based on trust, win-win attitude and continuous improvement. Long-term benefits of the proposed partnering are indicated for both parties, the nuclear power plant and the local maintenance service provider. (author)

  9. Forest Service Experimental Forests and long-term data sets: stories of their meaning to station directors

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.E. Lugo; B. Eav; G.S. Foster; M. Rains; J. Reaves; D.J. Stouder

    2014-01-01

    As Forest Service Research and Development worked to prepare this book reporting important results from long-term research conducted on U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service Experimental Forests and Ranges, the station directors added a chapter to highlight addditional accounts of long-term research, its benefits to land managers and policy makers, and lessons...

  10. Improving Service Quality in Long-term Care Hospitals: National Evaluation on Long-term Care Hospitals and Employees Perception of Quality Dimensions

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jinkyung; Han, Woosok

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To investigate predictors for specific dimensions of service quality perceived by hospital employees in long-term care hospitals. Methods Data collected from a survey of 298 hospital employees in 18 long-term care hospitals were analysed. Multivariate ordinary least squares regression analysis with hospital fixed effects was used to determine the predictors of service quality using respondents? and organizational characteristics. Results The most significant predictors of employee-...

  11. Inert gas narcosis disrupts encoding but not retrieval of long term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Malcolm; Kneller, Wendy

    2015-05-15

    Exposure to increased ambient pressure causes inert gas narcosis of which one symptom is long-term memory (LTM) impairment. Narcosis is posited to impair LTM by disrupting information encoding, retrieval (self-guided search), or both. The effect of narcosis on the encoding and retrieval of LTM was investigated by testing the effect of learning-recall pressure and levels of processing (LoP) on the free-recall of word lists in divers underwater. All participants (n=60) took part in four conditions in which words were learnt and then recalled at either low pressure (1.4-1.9atm/4-9msw) or high pressure (4.4-5.0atm/34-40msw), as manipulated by changes in depth underwater: low-low (LL), low-high(LH), high-high (HH), and high-low (HL). In addition, participants were assigned to either a deep or shallow processing condition, using LoP methodology. Free-recall memory ability was significantly impaired only when words were initially learned at high pressure (HH & HL conditions). When words were learned at low pressure and then recalled at low pressure (LL condition) or high pressure (LH condition) free-recall was not impaired. Although numerically superior in several conditions, deeper processing failed to significantly improve free-recall ability in any of the learning-recall conditions. This pattern of results support the hypothesis that narcosis disrupts encoding of information into LTM, while retrieval appears to be unaffected. These findings are discussed in relation to similar effects reported by some memory impairing drugs and the practical implications for workers in pressurised environments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The Gas Turbine - Modular Helium Reactor: A Promising Option for Near Term Deployment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaBar, Malcolm P.

    2002-01-01

    The Gas Turbine - Modular Helium Reactor (GT-MHR) is an advanced nuclear power system that offers unparalleled safety, high thermal efficiency, environmental advantages, and competitive electricity generation costs. The GT-MHR module couples a gas-cooled modular helium reactor (MHR) with a high efficiency modular Brayton cycle gas turbine (GT) energy conversion system. The reactor and power conversion systems are located in a below grade concrete silo that provides protection against sabotage. The GT-MHR safety is achieved through a combination of inherent safety characteristics and design selections that take maximum advantage of the gas-cooled reactor coated particle fuel, helium coolant and graphite moderator. The GT-MHR is projected to be economically competitive with alternative electricity generation technologies due to the high operating temperature of the gas-cooled reactor, high thermal efficiency of the Brayton cycle power conversion system, high fuel burnup (>100,000 MWd/MT), and low operation and maintenance requirements. (author)

  13. Heat-pump-centered integrated community energy systems. System development, Consolidated Natural Gas Service Company, interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tison, R.R.; Baker, N.R.; Yudow, B.D.; Sala, D.L.; Donakowski, T.D.; Swenson, P.F.

    1979-08-01

    Heat-pump-centered integrated community energy systems are energy systems for communities that provide heating, cooling, and/or other thermal energy services through the use of heat pumps. Since heat pumps primarily transfer energy from existing and otherwise probably unused sources, rather than convert it from electrical or chemical to thermal form, HP-ICES offer a significant potential for energy savings. Results of the System Development Phase of the HP-ICES Project are given. The heat-actuated (gas) heat-pump incorporated into this HP-ICES concept is under current development and demonstration. The concurrent program was redirected in September 1977 toward large-tonnage applications; it is currently focusing on 60- to 400-ton built-up systems for multi-zone applications. This study evaluates the performance of a HAHP-ICES as applied to a community of residential and commercial buildings. To permit a general assessment of the concept in non-site-specific terms, the sensitivity of the system's performance and economics to climate, community size, utility rate structures, and economic assumptions is explored. (MCW)

  14. Modernization of the gas utility; La modernisation du service public du gaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-04-01

    After a large discussion, the project of law for the modernization of the French gas utility and for the development of gas companies was finally adopted by the government on May 17, 2000. This legislative project aims at modernizing and strengthening the gas public utility and adapting the gas sector to the progressive opening of this market to international competition with keeping up the quality and security of supplies and the position of French gas operators. (J.S.)

  15. The challenge of the growth of the asian gas market in the long term. Opportunities and restrictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finon, D.; Locatelli, C.

    1999-01-01

    The Asian gas market is expected to quickly resume its ground at the spectacular rate of the 90's, expanding to new purchasers and new exporters, including the countries of the Middle East and the CIS in search of outlets for their gas resources. The aim of this article is to identify the broad tendencies in the development of this market over the next 20 years. To meet potential demand (600 Mtoe in the year 2020 as opposed to 210 Mtoe at present) the base of reserves to be exploited must expand beyond South Eastern Asia. The procedures for commercialization must gradually open to include trade via land-based infrastructures, alongside conventional LNG business. If al gas projects, LNG chains or gas pipelines are faced with significant restriction (scale of capital to be mobilized, outlets to be guaranteed, price risk, country risk), the gas-pipe-line projects, the only ones which are capable of establishing a link between the richest basins and the most important potential markets would be feasible only in the long-term future. In any case, the major petroleum and gas companies are essential to the concrete realisation of the projects. (authors)

  16. Revisiting the Long-Term Hedge Value of Wind Power in an Era of Low Natural Gas Prices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolinger, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division

    2013-03-01

    Expanding production of the United States’ vast shale gas reserves in recent years has put the country on a path towards greater energy independence, enhanced economic prosperity, and (potentially) reduced emissions of greenhouse gases and other pollutants. The corresponding expansion of gas-fired generation in the power sector – driven primarily by lower natural gas prices – has also made it easier and cheaper to integrate large amounts of variable renewable generation, such as wind power, into the grid. At the same time, however, low natural gas prices have suppressed wholesale power prices across the nation, making it harder for wind and other renewable power technologies to compete on cost alone – even despite their recent cost and performance improvements. A near-term softening in policy-driven demand from state-level renewable energy mandates, coupled with a possible phase-out of a key federal tax incentive over time, may exacerbate wind’s challenge in the coming years. As wind power finds it more difficult to compete with gas-fired generation on the basis of near-term cost, it will increasingly need to rely on other attributes, such as its “portfolio” or “hedge” value, as justification for inclusion in the power mix. This article investigates the degree to which wind power can still serve as a cost-effective hedge against rising natural gas prices, given the significant reduction in gas prices in recent years, coupled with expectations that prices will remain low for many years to come. It does so by drawing upon a rich sample of long-term power purchase agreements (“PPAs”) between existing wind generators and electric utilities in the U.S., and comparing the contracted prices at which utilities will be buying wind power from these existing projects for decades to come to a variety of long-term projections of the fuel costs of gas-fired generation modeled by the Energy Information Administration (“EIA”).

  17. Structural and regulatory reform of the European natural gas market : does the current approach secure the public service obligations?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spanjer, Abdelkader Rainaldo

    2008-01-01

    The European natural gas market is in a state of flux. In order to better secure the public service obligations – supply security, competitiveness and sustainability – this market is currently being liberalized. This requires significant structural and regulatory reform. This reform process is not

  18. Insomnia in Long-Term Care Facilities: A Comparison of Seven European Countries and Israel: The Services and Health for Elderly in Long TERm care Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gindin, J.; Shochat, T.; Chetrit, A.; Epstein, S.; Ben Israel, Y.; Levi, S.; Onder, G.; Carpenter, I.; Finne-Soveri, H.; van Hout, H.P.J.; Henrard, J.C.; Nikolaus, T.; Topinkova, E.; Fialova, D.; Bernabei, R.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To assess insomnia and its correlates as part of the Services and Health for Elderly in Long TERm care (SHELTER) study, funded by the 7th Framework Programme of the European Union. Design Cross-cultural investigation. Setting Long-term care facilities (LTCFs) in eight European countries

  19. Understanding consumer evaluations of personalised nutrition services in terms of the privacy calculus: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezowska, Aleksandra; Fischer, Arnout R H; Ronteltap, Amber; Kuznesof, Sharron; Macready, Anna; Fallaize, Rosalind; van Trijp, Hans C M

    2014-01-01

    Personalised nutrition (PN) may provide major health benefits to consumers. A potential barrier to the uptake of PN is consumers' reluctance to disclose sensitive information upon which PN is based. This study adopts the privacy calculus to explore how PN service attributes contribute to consumers' privacy risk and personalisation benefit perceptions. Sixteen focus groups (n = 124) were held in 8 EU countries and discussed 9 PN services that differed in terms of personal information, communication channel, service provider, advice justification, scope, frequency, and customer lock-in. Transcripts were content analysed. The personal information that underpinned PN contributed to both privacy risk perception and personalisation benefit perception. Disclosing information face-to-face mitigated the perception of privacy risk and amplified the perception of personalisation benefit. PN provided by a qualified expert and justified by scientific evidence increased participants' value perception. Enhancing convenience, offering regular face-to face support, and employing customer lock-in strategies were perceived as beneficial. This study suggests that to encourage consumer adoption, PN has to account for face-to-face communication, expert advice providers, support, a lifestyle-change focus, and customised offers. The results provide an initial insight into service attributes that influence consumer adoption of PN. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Short-term memory in the service of executive control functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshad Alizadeh Mansouri

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Short-term memory is a crucial cognitive function for supporting on-going and upcoming behaviours, allowing storage of information across delay periods. The content of this memory may typically include tangible information about features such as the shape, colour or texture of an object, its location and motion relative to the body, or phonological information. The neural correlate of these short-term memories has been found in different brain areas involved in organizing perceptual or motor functions. In particular, neuronal activity in different prefrontal areas encodes task-related information corresponding to short-term memory across delay periods, and lesions in the prefrontal cortex severely affect the ability to hold this type of memory. Recent studies have further expanded the scope and possible role of short-term memory by showing that information of abstract entities such as a behaviour-guiding rule, or the occurrence of a conflict in information processing; can also be maintained in short-term memory and used for adjusting the allocation of executive control in dynamic environments. It has also been shown that neuronal activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal and orbitofrontal cortices encodes information about such abstract entities. These findings suggest that the prefrontal cortex plays crucial roles in organizing goal-directed behaviour by supporting various mnemonic processes that maintain a wide range of information in the service of executive control of on-going or upcoming behaviour.

  1. Long-term consequences of youth volunteering: Voluntary versus involuntary service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinho; Morgül, Kerem

    2017-09-01

    Despite the renewed interest in youth volunteering in recent years, there remain major gaps in our knowledge of its consequences. Drawing data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, we examine the long-term effects of youth volunteering on the civic and personal aspects of volunteers' lives. Our results suggest that youth volunteering has a positive return on adult volunteering only when it is voluntary, and that net of contextual factors neither voluntary nor involuntary youth service has a significant effect on adult voting. Regarding personal outcomes, our findings indicate that the psychological benefits of youth volunteering accrue only to voluntary participants, whereas both voluntary and involuntary youth service are positively associated with educational attainment and earnings in young adulthood. Taken together, these results lend support to the case for youth volunteer programs, though the civic benefits of these programs appear to be less dramatic than generally suggested. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Europe's Dependence on Russian Natural Gas: Perspectives and Recommendations for a Long-Term Strategy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anderson, Richard J

    2008-01-01

    The EU currently rely on Russia for almost 38% of their imported natural gas; this dependency will become significantly greater if European states implement their currently formulated energy policies...

  3. BRIEF CONSIDERATIONS ON THE NEW EUROPEAN REGULATION IN TERMS OF PAYMENT SERVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Bulearcă

    2014-11-01

    /from outside through a payment service provider acting within the EU or EEA. The objective of the study was a comparative analysis of current legislation of Directive 2007/64/EC, transposed into national law by Ordinance No. 113/2009 with subsequent amendments, with the provisions of the draft directive adopted by the 24.07.2013, who, on the date of entry into force will repeal Directive 2007/64/EC. The research method used was a study comparing the current regulations and terms of the draft directive, using the rules for the interpretation of specific international trade law science and those common to all branches of law.

  4. Long-term study of optimal gas purifiers for the RPC systems at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Altuntas, E; Glushkov, I; Guida, R; Hahn, F; Haider, S; Mandelli, B; Rouwette, S

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the impurities produced in the gas of heavily irradiated RPC chambers and the properties of possible purifiers for the closed-loop gas systems used in the LHC experiments. The goal is finding the operational conditions that will keep the RPC gas purity near the level of the fresh gas quality to ensure proper operation of the large RPC systems at high luminosity. The properties and performance of a large number of purifiers have been understood. On that basis, an optimal combination of different filters consisting of MS (MS) 5Å and 4Å, and a CuO catalyst R11 has been chosen and validated irradiating a set of RPCs at the CERN Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF) for several years. An important feature of this new filters configuration is the increase of the cycle duration for each purifier, which results in better stability and reduced downtime of the gas systems. If needed, it permits to comfortably increase the gas flow in the detectors during the high luminosity running at LHC.

  5. Short-term service trips and the interprofessional team: a perspective from Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderWielen, Lynn M; Halder, Gabriela E; Enurah, Alexander S; Pearson, Catherine; Stevens, Michael P; Crossman, Steven H

    2015-03-01

    Short-term service trips from the USA annually spend over $250 million dollars to provide healthcare to individuals in developing nations. These trips often uniquely define goals as related to changes in the host population and overlook the valuable benefits potentially incurred by the trip volunteers. The Honduras Outreach Medical Brigada Relief Effort utilizes an interprofessional team approach to develop the dual goals of improving health and quality of life in host communities and improving interprofessional teamwork values and skills among participants. This article outlines details of this program, describes on-going evaluation work and discusses the interprofessional implications from this project.

  6. Effects of home-based long-term care services on caregiver health according to age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming-Chun; Kao, Chi-Wen; Chiu, Yu-Lung; Lin, Tzu-Ying; Tsai, Yu-Ting; Jian, Yi-Ting Zhang; Tzeng, Ya-Mei; Lin, Fu-Gong; Hwang, Shu-Ling; Li, Shan-Ru; Kao, Senyeong

    2017-10-23

    Caregiver health is a crucial public health concern due to the increasing number of elderly people with disabilities. Elderly caregivers are more likely to have poorer health and be a care recipient than younger caregivers. The Taiwan government offers home-based long-term care (LTC) services to provide formal care and decrease the burden of caregivers. This study examined the effects of home-based LTC services on caregiver health according to caregiver age. This cross-sectional study included a simple random sample of care recipients and their caregivers. The care recipients had used LTC services under the Ten-Year Long-Term Care Project (TLTCP) in Taiwan. Data were collected through self-administered questionnaires from September 2012 to January 2013. The following variables were assessed for caregivers: health, sex, marital status, education level, relationship with care recipient, quality of relationship with care recipient, job, household monthly income, family income spent on caring for the care recipient (%) and caregiving period. Furthermore, the following factors were assessed for care recipients: age, sex, marital status, education level, living alone, number of family members living with the care recipient, quality of relationship with family and dependency level. The health of the caregivers and care recipients was measured using a self-rated question (self-rated health [SRH] was rated as very poor, poor, fair, good and very good). The study revealed that home nursing care was significantly associated with the health of caregivers aged 65 years or older; however, caregivers aged less than 65 who had used home nursing care, rehabilitation or respite care had poorer health than those who had not used these services. In addition, the following variables significantly improved the health of caregivers aged 65 years or older: caregiver employment, 20% or less of family income spent on caregiving than 81%-100% and higher care recipient health. The

  7. Evaluation of PM emissions from two in-service gas turbine general aviation aircraft engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhenhong; Liscinsky, David S.; Fortner, Edward C.; Yacovitch, Tara I.; Croteau, Philip; Herndon, Scott C.; Miake-Lye, Richard C.

    2017-07-01

    We determined particulate matter (PM) emissions in the exhaust plumes from two gas turbine aircraft engines: a CF34-3A1 turbofan engine and a TPE331-6-252B turboprop engine in a dedicated study on in-service general aviation aircraft. The engine power states were from 16% to 100% engine thrust. Both nucleation and soot mode particles were observed from the emission exhausts of the CF34-3A1 engine but only soot particle mode was detected from the TPE331-6-252B engine. For the CF34-3A1 engine, the contribution of soot mode to total PM emissions was dominant at high power, while at decreased engine power states nucleation mode organic PM became important. PM emissions indices of the TPE331-6-252B engine were found to be generally larger than those of the CF34-3A1 engine. For both engines, medium power conditions (40-60% of thrust) yielded the lowest PM emissions. For the TPE331-6-252B engine, volatile PM components including organic and sulfate were more than 50% in mass at low power, while non-volatile black carbon became dominant at high power conditions such as takeoff.

  8. Online short-term forecast of greenhouse heat load using a weather forecast service

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogler-Finck, P. J.C.; Bacher, P.; Madsen, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    In some district heating systems, greenhouses represent a significant share of the total load, and can lead to operational challenges. Short term load forecast of such consumers has a strong potential to contribute to the improvement of the overall system efficiency. This work investigates...... the performance of recursive least squares for predicting the heat load of individual greenhouses in an online manner. Predictor inputs (weekly curves terms and weather forecast inputs) are selected in an automated manner using a forward selection approach. Historical load measurements from 5 Danish greenhouses...... with different operational characteristics were used, together with weather measurements and a weather forecast service. It was found that these predictors of reduced complexity and computational load performed well at capturing recurring load profiles, but not fast frequency random changes. Overall, the root...

  9. A comparative study of long-term energy demand and potential greenhouse gas emission control in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalaquazzaman, Mohammad

    2005-02-01

    This report presents a comparative study of long-term energy demand and potential greenhouse gas emissions projections from energy demand and supply sectors in Bangladesh covering the period 2000 to 2020. The study was conducted employing the IAEA's tool ENPEP- BALANCE model. This study presents a reliable energy system plan with minimal carbon emission for the country. Primary energy demands distributed by energy carriers and electricity demand have been projected based on macro-economic growth scenarios constructed for national energy policy of 1996. The conservation of indigenous energy resources was emphasized to build a long-term secured energy supply system. The potential energy supply options including nuclear energy and prospective greenhouse gas mitigation options were analyzed

  10. Guidelines and recommended terms for expression of stable-isotope-ratio and gas-ratio measurement results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coplen, Tyler B.

    2011-01-01

    To minimize confusion in the expression of measurement results of stable isotope and gas-ratio measurements, recommendations based on publications of the Commission on Isotopic Abundances and Atomic Weights of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) are presented. Whenever feasible, entries are consistent with the Système International d'Unités, the SI (known in English as the International System of Units), and the third edition of the International Vocabulary of Basic and General Terms in Metrology (VIM, 3rd edition). The recommendations presented herein are approved by the Commission on Isotopic Abundances and Atomic Weights and are designed to clarify expression of quantities related to measurement of isotope and gas ratios to ensure that quantity equations instead of numerical value equations are used for quantity definitions. Examples of column headings consistent with quantity calculus (also called the algebra of quantities) and examples of various deprecated usages connected with the terms recommended are presented.

  11. Short-term gas dispersion in idealised urban canopy in street parallel with flow direction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaloupecká Hana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical attacks (e.g. Syria 2014-15 chlorine, 2013 sarine or Iraq 2006-7 chlorine as well as chemical plant disasters (e.g. Spain 2015 nitric oxide, ferric chloride; Texas 2014 methyl mercaptan threaten mankind. In these crisis situations, gas clouds are released. Dispersion of gas clouds is the issue of interest investigated in this paper. The paper describes wind tunnel experiments of dispersion from ground level point gas source. The source is situated in a model of an idealised urban canopy. The short duration releases of passive contaminant ethane are created by an electromagnetic valve. The gas cloud concentrations are measured in individual places at the height of the human breathing zone within a street parallel with flow direction by Fast-response Ionisation Detector. The simulations of the gas release for each measurement position are repeated many times under the same experimental set up to obtain representative datasets. These datasets are analysed to compute puff characteristics (arrival, leaving time and duration. The results indicate that the mean value of the dimensionless arrival time can be described as a growing linear function of the dimensionless coordinate in the street parallel with flow direction where the gas source is situated. The same might be stated about the dimensionless leaving time as well as the dimensionless duration, however these fits are worse. Utilising a linear function, we might also estimate some other statistical characteristics from datasets than the datasets means (medians, trimeans. The datasets of the dimensionless arrival time, the dimensionless leaving time and the dimensionless duration can be fitted by the generalized extreme value distribution (GEV in all sampling positions except one.

  12. Transforming Service Employees and Climate: A Multilevel, Multisource Examination of Transformational Leadership in Building Long-Term Service Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Hui; Chuang, Aichia

    2007-01-01

    This longitudinal field study integrates the theories of transformational leadership (TFL) and relationship marketing to examine how TFL influences employee service performance and customer relationship outcomes by transforming both (at the micro level) the service employees' attitudes and (at the macro level) the work unit's service climate.…

  13. Mechanical Properties of the Assembly Welded Joint of the Oil Transportation Tank After a Long-Term Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimnev, A. L.; Zemenkova, M. Yu; Zemenkov, Yu D.; Iljyashchenko, D. P.

    2016-04-01

    The paper provides results of studying a change in mechanical properties of the design elements metal and assembly welded joints of a vertical steel tank after a long-term service in oil transport facilities.

  14. Effect of Long-Term Service on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Martensitic 9% Cr Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golański, Grzegorz; Zielińska-Lipiec, Anna; Zieliński, Adam; Sroka, Marek

    2017-03-01

    The paper presents the results of research on the X10CrMoVNbN9-1 (T91) steel after long-term service. The material for testing was taken from a pipe section of a boiler superheater coil serviced for around 105,000 h at the temperature of 540 °C, at the pressure of 12.5 MPa. A quantitative analysis including the measurement of mean diameter of subgrains and precipitates as well as the density of dislocations of the examined steel was performed by means of TEM. The microscopic tests of T91 steel were complemented with the results of tests on mechanical properties which included also the short creep tests. After service, the investigated steel was characterized by a retained lath microstructure of tempered martensite with fine subgrain and quite large density of dislocations as well as numerous precipitates. In the microstructure, apart from the particles of M23C6 and MX (VX, NbC, V-wings), the precipitates of Laves phase and single particles of Z phase were revealed. It has been shown that the extent of degradation of the T91 steel microstructure was minor, which resulted from its low temperature of service. Performed tests of mechanical properties showed that these properties fulfilled the minimum requirements for this steel in the as-received condition. A favorable influence of fine precipitates of Laves phase on mechanical properties was observed. Moreover, an insignificant influence of single precipitates of Z phase on the creep resistance of the examined steel was stated.

  15. [Menus offered in long-term care homes: quality of meal service and nutritional analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Rejón, Ana Isabel; Ruiz López, María Dolores; Malafarina, Vincenzo; Puerta, Antonio; Zuñiga, Antonia; Artacho, Reyes

    2017-06-05

    Institutionalization is a risk factor for malnutrition. Low energy intake and/or nutrient deficiencies are considered to be the main causes. To evaluate the quality of meals and meal service as well as the nutritional value of the main menus (regular menu, menu for diabetics, and pureed menu) offered in three long-term care (LTC) homes located in the metropolitan area of Granada (Spain). Cross-sectional study. A validated "quality of meals and meal service" set of indicators was applied. The menus were assessed by weighed food records on 14 consecutive days. The results were compared with the dietary reference intakes (DRIs) and the recommended number of servings. Important deficiencies in the quality of meals and meal service have been reported. Average energy varies from 1,788 to 2,124 kcal/day in the regular menus, from 1,687 to 1,924 kcal/day in the menus for diabetics, and from 1,518 to 1,639 kcal/day in the pureed menus. Average protein varied from 71.4 to 75.4 g/day, from 72.6 to 76.1 g/day, and from 50.5 to 54.7 g/day, respectively. None of the menus complied with the recommendations for fiber, potassium, magnesium, iodine, vitamin D, vitamin E, folate, nor for vegetables, fruit, milk products, olive oil, legumes, or nuts. It is necessary to ensure the implementation of regular routines for controlling the quality of meals and meal service as well as the nutritional value of the menus offered in LTC homes.

  16. Surface coal mine land reclamation using a dry flue gas desulfurization product: Short-term and long-term water responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liming; Stehouwer, Richard; Tong, Xiaogang; Kost, Dave; Bigham, Jerry M; Dick, Warren A

    2015-09-01

    Abandoned coal-mined lands are a worldwide concern due to their potential negative environmental impacts, including erosion and development of acid mine drainage. A field study investigated the use of a dry flue gas desulfurization product for reclamation of abandoned coal mined land in USA. Treatments included flue gas desulfurization product at a rate of 280 Mg ha(-1) (FGD), FGD at the same rate plus 112 Mg ha(-1) yard waste compost (FGD/C), and conventional reclamation that included 20 cm of re-soil material plus 157 Mg ha(-1) of agricultural limestone (SOIL). A grass-legume sward was planted after treatment applications. Chemical properties of surface runoff and tile water (collected from a depth of 1.2m below the ground surface) were measured over both short-term (1-4 yr) and long-term (14-20 yr) periods following reclamation. The pH of surface runoff water was increased from approximately 3, and then sustained at 7 or higher by all treatments for up to 20 yr, and the pH of tile flow water was also increased and sustained above 5 for 20 yr. Compared with SOIL, concentrations of Ca, S and B in surface runoff and tile flow water were generally increased by the treatments with FGD product in both short- and long-term measurements and concentrations of the trace elements were generally not statistically increased in surface runoff and tile flow water over the 20-yr period. However, concentrations of As, Ba, Cr and Hg were occasionally elevated. These results suggest the use of FGD product for remediating acidic surface coal mined sites can provide effective, long-term reclamation. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. “I Agree”: The Effects of Embedding Terms of Service Key Points in Online User Registration Form

    OpenAIRE

    Kljun, Matjaž; Vičič, Jernej; Pucihar, Klen,; Kavšek, Branko

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Terms of service (ToS) are becoming an ubiquitous part of online account creation. There is a general understanding that users rarely read them and do not particularly care about binding themselves into legally enforceable contracts with online service providers. Some services are trying to change this trend with presenting ToS section as key points on a ToS dedicated page. However, little is known how would such presentation of key points affect the continuation of us...

  18. Report on the incentive regulation regarding the service quality of natural gas network operators and ERDF. Summary report 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-05-01

    The tariffs set by the French Energy Regulation Commission (CRE) for natural gas distribution system operators (DSOs), natural gas transmission system operators (TSOs) as well as for the electricity distribution system operator electricite Reseau Distribution France (ERDF) include an incentive regulation regarding the quality of service. The CRE has defined indicators to monitor the performance of operators in several fields considered relevant to assess the quality of service. Some of these indicators, considered to have specific importance in ensuring that the market operates properly, are subject to a system of financial incentives: bonuses or penalties are given to operators depending on the attainment of objectives set by the CRE. Other indicators, which do not carry financial incentives, complete the mechanism and ensure a broader surveillance of the operators' service quality. A financial incentive may be applied to these indicators at a later date if the CRE deems it necessary. The analyses of the service quality monitoring indicators presented in this report cover the period from 1 July 2010 to 30 June 2011. They were used to inform the work conducted to develop the incentive regulation mechanism for service quality in GrDF's ATRD4 tariff (A Third-party access to natural gas distribution networks, scheduled to enter into effect on 1 July 2012). The conclusions of the report will also be used by the CRE for ERDF as part of the work on TURPE 4 tariff (Tariff for the use of public electricity grids, scheduled to enter into effect during the third quarter of 2013), for natural gas local distribution companies (LDCs) to prepare their ATRD4 tariff (Entry into effect scheduled for 1 July 2013), as well as for GRTgaz and TIGF to define the future ATRT5 tariff (Third-party access to natural gas transmission networks, scheduled to enter into effect on 1 April 2013). Implemented in 2009 with an initial annual follow- up report on gas network operators Gr

  19. The medium-term sustainability of organisational innovations in the national health service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finn Rachael

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a growing recognition of the importance of introducing new ways of working into the UK's National Health Service (NHS and other health systems, in order to ensure that patient care is provided as effectively and efficiently as possible. Researchers have examined the challenges of introducing new ways of working--'organisational innovations'--into complex organisations such as the NHS, and this has given rise to a much better understanding of how this takes place--and why seemingly good ideas do not always result in changes in practice. However, there has been less research on the medium- and longer-term outcomes for organisational innovations and on the question of how new ways of working, introduced by frontline clinicians and managers, are sustained and become established in day-to-day practice. Clearly, this question of sustainability is crucial if the gains in patient care that derive from organisational innovations are to be maintained, rather than lost to what the NHS Institute has called the 'improvement-evaporation effect'. Methods The study will involve research in four case-study sites around England, each of which was successful in sustaining its new model of service provision beyond an initial period of pilot funding for new genetics services provided by the Department of Health. Building on findings relating to the introduction and sustainability of these services already gained from an earlier study, the research will use qualitative methods--in-depth interviews, observation of key meetings, and analysis of relevant documents--to understand the longer-term challenges involved in each case and how these were surmounted. The research will provide lessons for those seeking to sustain their own organisational innovations in wide-ranging clinical areas and for those designing the systems and organisations that make up the NHS, to make them more receptive contexts for the sustainment of innovation. Discussion

  20. The medium-term sustainability of organisational innovations in the national health service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Graham P; Currie, Graeme; Finn, Rachael; McDonald, Ruth

    2011-03-14

    There is a growing recognition of the importance of introducing new ways of working into the UK's National Health Service (NHS) and other health systems, in order to ensure that patient care is provided as effectively and efficiently as possible. Researchers have examined the challenges of introducing new ways of working--'organisational innovations'--into complex organisations such as the NHS, and this has given rise to a much better understanding of how this takes place--and why seemingly good ideas do not always result in changes in practice. However, there has been less research on the medium- and longer-term outcomes for organisational innovations and on the question of how new ways of working, introduced by frontline clinicians and managers, are sustained and become established in day-to-day practice. Clearly, this question of sustainability is crucial if the gains in patient care that derive from organisational innovations are to be maintained, rather than lost to what the NHS Institute has called the 'improvement-evaporation effect'. The study will involve research in four case-study sites around England, each of which was successful in sustaining its new model of service provision beyond an initial period of pilot funding for new genetics services provided by the Department of Health. Building on findings relating to the introduction and sustainability of these services already gained from an earlier study, the research will use qualitative methods--in-depth interviews, observation of key meetings, and analysis of relevant documents--to understand the longer-term challenges involved in each case and how these were surmounted. The research will provide lessons for those seeking to sustain their own organisational innovations in wide-ranging clinical areas and for those designing the systems and organisations that make up the NHS, to make them more receptive contexts for the sustainment of innovation. Through comparison and contrast across four sites, each

  1. Incentive regulation regarding the service quality of natural gas network operators and ERDF. 2011-2012 Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The tariffs set by the French Energy Regulation Commission (CRE) for natural gas distribution system operators (DSOs), natural gas transmission system operators (TSOs) as well as for the electricity distribution system operator Electricite Reseau Distribution France (ERDF) include an incentive regulation regarding the quality of service. The CRE has defined indicators to monitor the performance of operators in several fields considered relevant to assess the quality of service. Some of these indicators, considered to have specific importance in ensuring that the market operates properly, are subject to a system of financial incentives: bonuses or penalties are given to operators depending on the attainment of objectives set by the CRE. Other indicators, which do not carry financial incentives, complete the mechanism and ensure a broader surveillance of the operators' service quality. A financial incentive may be applied to these indicators at a later date if the CRE deems it necessary. The analyses of the service quality monitoring indicators presented in this fourth report cover the period from July 1, 2011 to December 31, 2012. A review of the service quality of DSOs, TSOs and ERDF is made according to these indicators. An annex contains the definitions and detailed results for all the indicators during the whole period of analysis

  2. Long-term soil gas flux and root mortality, Tapajos National Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. L. Silver; A. W. Thompson; M. E. McGroddy; R. K. Varner; J. R. Robertson; J. D. Dias; H. Silva; P. Crill; M. Keller

    2012-01-01

    This data set reports measurements of trace gas fluxes of methane (CH4), nitric oxide (N2O), nitrous oxide (NO), carbon dioxide (CO2) from soils at a study site in the Tapajos National Forest (TNF), near the km 83 on the Santarem-Cuiaba Highway south of Santarem, Para, Brazil. Data for root mass and carbon content, soil nitrogen (N), nitrification, and moisture content...

  3. Short-term temporal variations of soil gas radon concentration and comparison of measurement techniques

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Neznal, M.; Matolín, M.; Just, G.; Turek, Karel

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 108, č. 1 (2004), s. 55-63 ISSN 0144-8420 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK2067107; GA AV ČR KSK4055109 Grant - others:Projekt SÚJB(CZ) R/2/2000 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1048901 Keywords : radon * soil gas * temporal variations Subject RIV: DL - Nuclear Waste, Radioactive Pollution ; Quality Impact factor: 0.617, year: 2003

  4. Beyond the gas bubble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilt, R.H.

    1990-01-01

    The deliverability issue currently being discussed within the natural gas industry involves both near-term and long-term questions. In the near-term, over the next two or three years, it is probable that the natural gas industry will need to mobilize for much greater levels of investment than have been the experience over the past few years. In the longer-term, it is expected that new opportunities for gas will arise as the nation seeks to meet increasing energy requirements within new environmental constraints. Methane for emissions control, CNG vehicles, expanded gas-fired electricity generation, and increased efficiency of traditional energy services are just a few examples. The issues in the longer-term center on the ability of the gas industry to meet increasing supply requirements reliably and at cost-competitive prices for these markets. This paper begins by reviewing the historical situation of gas deliverability that is the capability of the gas producing and transportation portions of the industry. The delivery system's ability to handle shifts in the centers of consumption and production is discussed, with an emphasis on regional problems of gas deliverability and potential bottlenecks. On the production side, the paper reviews the capability and the required investment necessary to handle an orderly transition to a stable supply and demand balance once the elusive bubble had finally disappeared

  5. The Long-Term Impact of Service-Learning on Graduates' Civic Engagement and Career Exploration in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hok-ka, Carol Ma; Wing-fung, Chad Chan; Cheung-ming, Alfred Chan

    2016-01-01

    Service-learning (SL) is a relatively new pedagogy in Hong Kong and so far, no study of SL's long-term impact in Hong Kong exists. To explore SL's impacts on Hong Kong students, researchers conducted a quantitative study to compare graduates with SL experience to graduates without SL experience in terms of three domains: (1) adaptability, brain…

  6. The Investigation of University Websites in Terms of the Community Service Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek KEKEÇ MORKOÇ

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The fact that the consciousness of social responsibility of teachers who are the architects of the future has developed will cause them to act with a sense of social responsibility and service to the community in their professional lives and the awareness will also reflect on the students. Thus, it is important to develop the awareness of social responsibility in the process of teacher education. In this way, teacher candidates can be better at solving social problems and be more aware of and more sensitive to the social problems and contribute to social development. In the research, it has been aimed to determine the functions and features of the websites of the state and private universities which are offered to the candidate students, current students of the faculties of education and the other users; and it has also been aimed to evaluate these websites in terms of social service practices. The use of websites and social responsibility projects of a total of 95 faculties of education connected to the state and private universities in the 2015-2016 university preference guides of Student Selection and Placement Center affiliated to Turkish Higher Education Council have been examined through the website content analysis research in the scope of research.

  7. Building a Comprehensive System of Services to Support Adults Living with Long-Term Mechanical Ventilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Leasa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Increasing numbers of individuals require long-term mechanical ventilation (LTMV in the community. In the South West Local Health Integration Network (LHIN in Ontario, multiple organizations have come together to design, build, and operate a system to serve adults living with LTMV. Objective. The goal was to develop an integrated approach to meet the health and supportive care needs of adults living with LTMV. Methods. The project was undertaken in three phases: System Design, Implementation Planning, and Implementation. Results. There are both qualitative and quantitative evidences that a multiorganizational system of care is now operational and functioning in a way that previously did not exist. An Oversight Committee and an Operations Management Committee currently support the system of services. A Memorandum of Understanding has been signed by the participating organizations. There is case-based evidence that hospital admissions are being avoided, transitions in care are being thoughtfully planned and executed collaboratively among service providers, and new roles and responsibilities are being accepted within the overall system of care. Conclusion. Addressing the complex and variable needs of adults living with LTMV requires a systems response involving the full continuum of care.

  8. Heat treatment of long term serviced Cr – Mo cast steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Golanski

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of research on the influence of heat treatment on the structure and properties of L20HM cast steel after long term operation at elevated temperature. Investigated cast steel was taken out from an outer frame of a steam turbine serviced for 167 424 hours at the temp. of 535 oC and pressure 12.75 MPa. In post-operating condition the investigated cast steel was characterized by mechanical properties below the required minimum and by high brittleness. Performed research on the influence of austenitizing parameters has revealed that the range of austenitizing temperatures for the examined cast steel: Ac3 + 30 ÷ 60 oC ensures obtaining of a fine austenite grain, homogeneous in size. It has been proved that tempering of bainititc – ferritic structure above 680 ÷ 690 oC causes an increase of impact energy along with a decrease of mechanical properties below the required minimum. Moreover, it has been noticed that applying of under-annealing instead of tempering, after full-annealing, guarantees the required impact energy of KV > 27J, with the mechanical properties similar to those after service.

  9. Long-term greenhouse gas emission and petroleum reduction goals: Evolutionary pathways for the light-duty vehicle sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kromer, Matthew A.; Bandivadekar, Anup; Evans, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    To meet long-term environmental and energy security goals, the United States must reduce petroleum use in the light-duty vehicle fleet by 70% and greenhouse gas emissions by a factor of ten compared to business-as-usual growth projections for the year 2050. A wedge-based approach was used to quantify the scope of the problem in real terms, and to develop options for meeting mid-century targets. Four mitigation mechanisms were considered: (1) improvements in near-term vehicle technologies; (2) emphasis on low-carbon biofuels; (3) de-carbonization of the electric grid; and (4) demand-side travel-reduction initiatives. Projections from previous studies were used to characterize the potential of individual mitigation mechanisms, which were then integrated into a light-duty vehicle fleet model; particular emphasis was given to systemic constraints on scale and rates of change. Based on these projections, two different greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation implementation plans were considered ('evolutionary' and 'aggressive'). Fleet model projections indicate that both the evolutionary and aggressive approaches can effectively end US dependence on foreign oil, but achieving an 80% GHG reduction requires changes that extend significantly beyond even the aggressive case, which was projected to achieve a 65% reduction.

  10. Long-term homelessness in men with a psychosis: Limitation of services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Adam; Robins, Alan; Hodge, Mark; Holmes, Alex

    2009-04-01

    A proportion of persistently homeless men with psychosis are unable to function in the community, despite intensive outreach. The present study aimed to (i) develop a method to measure the number of homeless clients with a psychosis who are unable to maintain basic levels of function, despite the application of intensive community treatment; and (ii) determine if the proportion of these men had increased in an Australian inner urban setting over a 5-year period. Criteria were developed and validated to define this group. A review of records of clients engaged in homeless settings was conducted in order to compare the proportion of men with these features in 2000 and 2005. In 2005, 23% met the criterion of long-term homelessness with poor function, despite intensive outreach, as compared with 17% in 2000 (P = 0.62). The 2005 cohort was more likely to have attempted intensive community psychiatric treatment (P = 0.04). We conclude that a proportion of homeless men with a psychosis in Australia do not achieve basic function, despite access to intensive outreach. The proportion of these men did not change between 2000 and 2005. These men require additional specialized services, including access to long-term supported housing.

  11. Service Life Extension of the Propulsion System of Long-Term Manned Orbital Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamath, Ulhas; Kuznetsov, Sergei; Spencer, Victor

    2014-01-01

    One of the critical non-replaceable systems of a long-term manned orbital station is the propulsion system. Since the propulsion system operates beginning with the launch of station elements into orbit, its service life determines the service life of the station overall. Weighing almost a million pounds, the International Space Station (ISS) is about four times as large as the Russian space station Mir and about five times as large as the U.S. Skylab. Constructed over a span of more than a decade with the help of over 100 space flights, elements and modules of the ISS provide more research space than any spacecraft ever built. Originally envisaged for a service life of fifteen years, this Earth orbiting laboratory has been in orbit since 1998. Some elements that have been launched later in the assembly sequence were not yet built when the first elements were placed in orbit. Hence, some of the early modules that were launched at the inception of the program were already nearing the end of their design life when the ISS was finally ready and operational. To maximize the return on global investments on ISS, it is essential for the valuable research on ISS to continue as long as the station can be sustained safely in orbit. This paper describes the work performed to extend the service life of the ISS propulsion system. A system comprises of many components with varying failure rates. Reliability of a system is the probability that it will perform its intended function under encountered operating conditions, for a specified period of time. As we are interested in finding out how reliable a system would be in the future, reliability expressed as a function of time provides valuable insight. In a hypothetical bathtub shaped failure rate curve, the failure rate, defined as the number of failures per unit time that a currently healthy component will suffer in a given future time interval, decreases during infant-mortality period, stays nearly constant during the service

  12. Results of a Long-Term Demonstration of an Optical Multi-Gas Monitor on ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudgett, Paul; Pilgrim, Jeffrey S.

    2015-01-01

    Previously at SAMAP we reported on the development of tunable diode laser spectroscopy (TDLS) based instruments for measuring small gas molecules in real time. TDLS technology has matured rapidly over the last 5 years as a result of advances in low power diode lasers as well as better detection schemes. In collaboration with two small businesses Vista Photonics, Inc. and Nanoracks LLC, NASA developed a 4 gas TDLS based monitor for an experimental demonstration of the technology on the International Space Station (ISS). Vista invented and constructed the core TDLS sensor. Nanoracks designed and built the enclosure, and certified the integrated monitor as a payload. The device, which measures oxygen, carbon dioxide, ammonia and water vapor, is called the Multi-Gas Monitor (MGM). MGM measures the 4 gases every few seconds and records a 30 second moving average of the concentrations. The relatively small unit draws only 2.5W. MGM was calibrated at NASA-Johnson Space Center in July 2013 and launched to ISS on a Soyuz vehicle in November 2013. Installation and activation of MGM occurred in February 2014, and the unit has been operating nearly continuously ever since in the Japanese Experiment Module. Data is downlinked from ISS about once per week. Oxygen and carbon dioxide data is compared with that from the central Major Constituents Analyzer. Water vapor data is compared with dew point measurements made by sensors in the Columbus module. The ammonia channel was tested by the crew using a commercial ammonia inhalant. MGM is remarkably stable to date. Results of 18 months of operation are presented and future applications including combustion product monitoring are discussed.

  13. Eco-technology service station: the future of gas station; Posto eco-tecnologico: o posto do futuro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, Newton R. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Daher, Humberto Antonio S. [PETROBRAS Distribuidora, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    PETROBRAS Distribuidora and CENPES have a project to build an eco-technology service station at Ilha do Fundao, to know new technologies for vehicle fuelling, test of new vehicle natural gas compression system, and start projects with new fuels that are not available at Brazilian market. This service station concept shall be aligned with sustainability premise that are being established for both companies, that means, besides a technology focus, it shall have a social focus without any environment damage. PETROBRAS 'Board of Directors approved the expansion of PETROBRAS' Research and Development Center (CENPES) installations, including this service station construction. Some activities that will be developed at the service station are pointed out here: available of new natural gas compression system; micro-generation with micro turbine, fuel cell; and photo-voltaic cell technologies; hydrogen fuelling; oil-water system treatment; biodiesel fuelling. This station will have a show room opened to the public, with panels, videos and a CNG compressor in cut. (author)

  14. Short-term gas dispersion in idealised urban canopy in street parallel with flow direction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chaloupecká, Hana; Jaňour, Zbyněk; Nosek, Štěpán

    March (2016), č. článku 02047. ISSN 2101-6275. [Experimental Fluid Mechanics 2015 /10./. Praha, 17.11.2015-20.11.2015] R&D Projects: GA MŠk LD12007; GA ČR GA15-18964S Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : wind tunnel * gas cloud * puff * puff characteristics * arrival time * leaving time * duration Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics http://www.epj-conferences.org/articles/epjconf/pdf/2016/09/epjconf_efm2016_02047.pdf

  15. Oil and gas equipment and services country sector profile in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-06-01

    This report presents a market overview of the oil and gas sector in Pakistan where government efforts to privatize state-owned companies will help make the sector more efficient. The potential for Canadian suppliers to enter into joint ventures to establish local production facilities and transfer technology expertise was also described along with the key factors shaping market growth, sector reform and opportunities for actual and planned projects. Pakistan is a modest producer of oil and gas. It imports 80 per cent of its crude oil requirements but is self-sufficient in natural gas. This may change as demand increases. The key player in the Pakistani petroleum industry is the state-owned Oil and Gas Development Corporation Ltd. (OGDCL). Most domestic natural gas is produced by Pakistan Petroleum Ltd. Proposed pipelines from oil and gas deposits in Turkmenistan and Kazakhstan could provide Pakistan with revenue through transport fees. Pakistan is offering a full range of options to investors through an ambitious privatization program. This report described the competitive environment with reference to local capabilities, international competition, Canadian position, and a competitive advantage through Canadian government policies and initiatives. A section of the report on public-sector customers described the organizations that manage and approve oil and gas projects. Considerations for market-entry in Pakistan were also outlined

  16. Modular High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor short term thermal response to flow and reactivity transients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cleveland, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    The analyses reported here have been conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) Division of Regulatory Applications of the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. The short-term thermal response of the Modular High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (MHTGR) is analyzed for a range of flow and reactivity transients. These include loss of forced circulation (LOFC) without scram, moisture ingress, spurious withdrawal of a control rod group, hypothetical large and rapid positive reactivity insertion, and a rapid core cooling event. The coupled heat transfer-neutron kinetics model is also described.

  17. Regional prediction of long-term landfill gas to energy potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, Hamid R; Reinhart, Debra R

    2011-01-01

    Quantifying landfill gas to energy (LFGTE) potential as a source of renewable energy is difficult due to the challenges involved in modeling landfill gas (LFG) generation. In this paper a methodology is presented to estimate LFGTE potential on a regional scale over a 25-year timeframe with consideration of modeling uncertainties. The methodology was demonstrated for the US state of Florida, as a case study, and showed that Florida could increase the annual LFGTE production by more than threefold by 2035 through installation of LFGTE facilities at all landfills. The estimated electricity production potential from Florida LFG is equivalent to removing some 70 million vehicles from highways or replacing over 800 million barrels of oil consumption during the 2010-2035 timeframe. Diverting food waste could significantly reduce fugitive LFG emissions, while having minimal effect on the LFGTE potential; whereas, achieving high diversion goals through increased recycling will result in reduced uncollected LFG and significant loss of energy production potential which may be offset by energy savings from material recovery and reuse. Estimates showed that the power density for Florida LFGTE production could reach as high as 10 Wm(-2) with optimized landfill operation and energy production practices. The environmental benefits from increased lifetime LFG collection efficiencies magnify the value of LFGTE projects. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Methodologies for assessing the use-phase power consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of telecommunications network services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Chien A; Gygax, André F; Wong, Elaine; Leckie, Christopher A; Nirmalathas, Ampalavanapillai; Kilper, Daniel C

    2013-01-02

    Internet traffic has grown rapidly in recent years and is expected to continue to expand significantly over the next decade. Consequently, the resulting greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of telecommunications service-supporting infrastructures have become an important issue. In this study, we develop a set of models for assessing the use-phase power consumption and carbon dioxide emissions of telecom network services to help telecom providers gain a better understanding of the GHG emissions associated with the energy required for their networks and services. Due to the fact that measuring the power consumption and traffic in a telecom network is a challenging task, these models utilize different granularities of available network information. As the granularity of the network measurement information decreases, the corresponding models have the potential to produce larger estimation errors. Therefore, we examine the accuracy of these models under various network scenarios using two approaches: (i) a sensitivity analysis through simulations and (ii) a case study of a deployed network. Both approaches show that the accuracy of the models depends on the network size, the total amount of network service traffic (i.e., for the service under assessment), and the number of network nodes used to process the service.

  19. Water retention, gas transport, and pore network complexity during short-term regeneration of soil structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arthur, Emmanuel; Møldrup, Per; Schjønning, Per

    2013-01-01

    Human activities such as mining, grading, and filling results in physical disturbance of soil structure and associated functions, and knowledge on structure recovery after such activities is vital. This study quantifies the newly-formed structure of 22-month field-incubated physically-disturbed (2...... was done using water retention (pore size distribution), soil gas diffusivity, air permeability, and derived pore network complexity parameters. Significant decreases in bulk density (increased total porosity) and increases in pores > 100 1m was observed for incubated samples compared with SR samples......, incubated samples had lower water content, higher air filled porosity, and air permeability than natural intact samples at matric potential of –10 kPa. Despite this, soil pore organization was similar among the two groups but pore network complexity increased in order: SR

  20. Oxidative Stress and Genotoxicity of Long-Term Occupational Exposure to Low Levels of BTEX in Gas Station Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Xiong

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX can lead to multiple health injuries. However, what remains uncertain is the effect of long-term exposure to low levels of BTEX. Thus, we determined the BTEX levels in the air from the refueling and office areas in gas stations. Then we collected workers’ (200 refueling vs. 52 office workers peripheral blood samples to analyze the serum total-superoxide dismutase (T-SOD, glutathione (GSH, malondialdehyde (MDA, and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG levels. DNA damage was analyzed by the comet assay and micronucleus test in buccal epithelial cells. We found that the levels of BTEX in refueling areas were significantly higher than those in office areas (p < 0.001. The serum T-SOD and GSH of refueling workers were significantly lower than those in office workers (p < 0.001. By contrast, the serum MDA and 8-OHdG of refueling workers were significantly higher than those of office workers (p < 0.001, MDA; p = 0.025, 8-OHdG. Furthermore, tail and Olive tail moments in refueling workers were longer (p = 0.004, tail moment; p = 0.001, Olive tail moment, and the micronucleus rate was higher (p < 0.001 than those in office workers. Taken together, long-term exposure to low levels of BTEX may reduce the antioxidant ability and increase the risk of DNA damage in refueling workers of gas stations.

  1. Emission Characteristics of Greenhouse Gas from Maize Field of Black Soil Region Under Long-term Fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GAO Hong-jun

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Study on greenhouse gases emission and their global warming potential under different fertilizations would be the theoretical basis for establishing measurements to reduce greenhouses gas emissions. Based on a long-term fertilization experiment, greenhouses gas(GHG emissions from black soil of summer maize were measured by using a static chamber-gas chromatograph technique, and global warming potential(GWP effect was also estimated. The results showed the peaks of CO2 and N2O emissions occurred at maize jointing period. The CO2 and N2O emission flux and CH4 uptake flux in the M2NPK treatment(mixed application of organic fertilizer and chemical fertilizer were significantly higher than those of the chemical fertilizer treatments(P2 and N2O emission flux in the chemical fertilizer treatments were higher than that of the no fertilizer treatment. The CO2 emission flux of the fallow treatment was the highest among all the treatments, but its N2O emission flux was significantly lower than that of the chemical fertilizer treatment. Under equal N rates, the N2O emission flux of the NPK treatment was significantly higher than that of the SNPK treatment(straw returning, but CH4 uptake flux was the opposite result. Compared with no fertilizer treatment(CK, GWP of the N and NPK treatments increased by 142% and 32% respectively, GWP of SNPK treatment decreased by 38%, and GWP in the M2NPK treatment was negative value. Greenhouse gas emission intensity(GHGI of the NPK, SNPK and M2NPK treatments were significantly lower than that of the CK and the N treatments, GHGI of the M2NPK treatment was -222 kg CO2-eq·t-1. Therefore, in order to implement the higher maize yield with lower GHGI synchronously, mixed application of organic fertilizer and chemical fertilizer would be the optimal fertilization measurement in black soil region of Northeast China.

  2. A short-term load forecasting model of natural gas based on optimized genetic algorithm and improved BP neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Feng; Xu, Xiaozhong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A detailed data processing will make more accurate results prediction. • Taking a full account of more load factors to improve the prediction precision. • Improved BP network obtains higher learning convergence. • Genetic algorithm optimized by chaotic cat map enhances the global search ability. • The combined GA–BP model improved by modified additional momentum factor is superior to others. - Abstract: This paper proposes an appropriate combinational approach which is based on improved BP neural network for short-term gas load forecasting, and the network is optimized by the real-coded genetic algorithm. Firstly, several kinds of modifications are carried out on the standard neural network to accelerate the convergence speed of network, including improved additional momentum factor, improved self-adaptive learning rate and improved momentum and self-adaptive learning rate. Then, it is available to use the global search capability of optimized genetic algorithm to determine the initial weights and thresholds of BP neural network to avoid being trapped in local minima. The ability of GA is enhanced by cat chaotic mapping. In light of the characteristic of natural gas load for Shanghai, a series of data preprocessing methods are adopted and more comprehensive load factors are taken into account to improve the prediction accuracy. Such improvements facilitate forecasting efficiency and exert maximum performance of the model. As a result, the integration model improved by modified additional momentum factor gets more ideal solutions for short-term gas load forecasting, through analyses and comparisons of the above several different combinational algorithms

  3. Developing the east coast gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stedman, C.

    1998-01-01

    Development of a natural gas industry on Canada's east coast was discussed. The various stages of near-term and long-term development were outlined. Opportunities were identified in the areas of Grand Banks gas utilization, third party gas and natural gas liquids transportation and processing, cogeneration, petrochemicals and in energy marketing and services. As an example of this industry development, a corporate review of Novagas Canada Ltd., was presented. The company was formed in January 1994 and is wholly owned by Nova Gas International. Novagas Canada has ultimate resources of 62.9 Tcf of natural gas of which 48.9 Tcf remains to be discovered. The company focuses on non-regulated mid-stream operations of the natural gas/natural gas liquid value chain. Some 800 million dollars have been invested so far in gas processing, liquids and olefins businesses in Nova Scotia and the Grand Banks/Labrador area. The pending Nova/TCPL merger will combine Novagas Canada's and TransCanada Gas Services' midstream assets. The general conclusion was that the resource base is large enough to support development throughout the gas and natural gas liquids value chain, and that a critical mass is required to support development of the necessary gas infrastructure. A sizeable challenge remains in encouraging gas utilization, and in encouraging competition, open access and unbundling of energy services. 2 tabs., 2 figs

  4. Integrated natural gas pipeline control and customer service system of Gasum; Le systeme integre de controle des canalisations de gaz et de service au consommateur chez Gasum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aho, J.; Manty, O.; Ahlnas, B. [Gasul Oy (Finland)

    2000-07-01

    Due to the rapid development of the information technology, ageing is not the only driving force for replacing old computer systems with more sophisticated ones. The Finnish natural Gas company, Gasum Oy, has recently taken into use a new control and monitoring system for natural gas pipeline. A special customer service system, developed by Gasum Oy, is closely connected to monitoring system. It provides up-to-date information to all customers of Gasum Oy. The information is layered in three confidential levels: general information, operational data and invoicing information. The system is operating interactively in confidential Extranet. Inside Gasum Oy to meet the needs of departments outside the control room, a new GID system is developed. GID is a way to present pipeline process data and its further modifications with a very user-friendly interface based on geographical map. The system is based on data warehouse architecture and it is working on company's Intranet. This makes it possible to present various secrecy level information based on user ID. Gasum's new SCADA is not only the base for operating the pipeline, but it also provides lot of vital information to other systems serving different user groups within natural gas business in Finland. (authors)

  5. The long term storage of advanced gas-cooled reactor (AGR) fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Standring, P.N.

    1999-01-01

    The approach being taken by BNFL in managing the AGR lifetime spent fuel arisings from British Energy reactors is given. Interim storage for up to 80 years is envisaged for fuel delivered beyond the life of the Thorp reprocessing plant. Adopting a policy of using existing facilities, to comply with the principles of waste minimisation, has defined the development requirements to demonstrate that this approach can be undertaken safely and business issues can be addressed. The major safety issues are the long term integrity of both the fuel being stored and structure it is being stored in. Business related issues reflect long term interactions with the rest of the Sellafield site and storage optimisation. Examples of the development programme in each of these areas is given. (author)

  6. Evaluation of Long Term Behaviour of Polymers for Offshore Oil and Gas Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Gac P.-Y.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Polymers and composites are very attractive for underwater applications, but it is essential to evaluate their long term behaviour in sea water if structural integrity of offshore structures is to be guaranteed. Accelerated test procedures are frequently required, and this paper will present three examples showing how the durability of polymers, in the form of fibres, matrix resins in fibre reinforced composites for structural elements, and thermal insulation coatings of flow-lines, have been evaluated for offshore use. The influence of the ageing medium, temperature, and hydrostatic pressure will be discussed first, then an example of the application of ageing test results to predict long term behavior of the thermal insulation coating of a flowline will be presented.

  7. Developing an equitable fee structure for gas processing services: JP-90 and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kingsbury, J.D.; Moller, I.

    1996-01-01

    The Joint Industry Gas Processing Fee Task Force Report, JP-90, was designed to promote negotiation of gas processing fees that are based on principles of equity and fairness for both natural gas producers and processors. Another purpose of the JP-90 was to develop an effective dispute resolution process for use in those cases where negotiations have failed. At its inception, JP-90 was the only guideline for unregulated fee practices in the oil and gas sector in North America. Today PJVA-95, the revised version of JP-90, is in its final draft. It addresses the changing focus of the gas processing business, and changing regulatory roles in Alberta and British Columbia. A number of other fee mechanisms also have been described, such as the jumping pound formula, fixed fees, fees based on price, wellhead purchases, and others. These mechanisms developed over time to allow the processor and the producer to share the price risk. The changing role of regulatory agencies in fee dispute resolution was also discussed briefly

  8. The duty to negotiate in good faith and the enforceability of short-term natural gas clauses in production sharing agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishop, R.D.

    1997-01-01

    The exploitation of natural gas resources not associated with oil production, poses legal and ethical problems for some countries. This document examines various international oil contracts, especially Production Sharing Agreements (PSA), to establish how short-term gas provisions can be exploited. In particular the issue of breaching a PSA by failing to negotiate in good faith on such a project is debated, showing how clearly this duty falls on the government party. International oil companies are urged to create contracts which allow them to enforce short-term PSA gas clauses. (UK)

  9. Private ordering and the rise of terms of service as cyber-regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Belli

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Online communications and activities require the intermediation of numerous private entities that unilaterally define and implement their terms of service (ToS. The substantive provisions set in the ToS regulate the relationships between intermediaries and users with a binding force that may be even stronger than the one exercised by the law. Notably, we stress that internet intermediaries privately enforce their contractual regulation by shaping the architecture of the networks and platforms under their control. Such regulation and implementation do not need to rely on “traditional” public law-enforcement mechanisms and may apply in a transnational fashion. This paper argues that internet governance is witnessing the increasing centralisation of power in the hands of internet intermediaries defining private orderings. While acknowledging that ToS are an efficient and well-suited instrument to regulate the online world, we claim that ToS unilaterally impose rules, despite being presented as voluntarily accepted by the involved parties through the expression of free and informed consent. Based on empirical research, we highlight that ToS and their private implementation affect internet users’ capability to enjoy their human rights, with particular regard to freedom of expression (and innovation, the right to privacy and to due process. Lastly, we put forward some recommendations on internet intermediaries’ compliance with human rights standards.

  10. Realization of a service for the long-term risk assessment of diabetes-related complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagani, Vincenzo; Chiarugi, Franco; Manousos, Dimitris; Verma, Vivek; Fursse, Joanna; Marias, Kostas; Tsamardinos, Ioannis

    2015-07-01

    We present a computerized system for the assessment of the long-term risk of developing diabetes-related complications. The core of the system consists of a set of predictive models, developed through a data-mining/machine-learning approach, which are able to evaluate individual patient profiles and provide personalized risk assessments. Missing data is a common issue in (electronic) patient records, thus the models are paired with a module for the intelligent management of missing information. The system has been deployed and made publicly available as Web service, and it has been fully integrated within the diabetes-management platform developed by the European project REACTION. Preliminary usability tests showed that the clinicians judged the models useful for risk assessment and for communicating the risk to the patient. Furthermore, the system performs as well as the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) Risk Engine when both systems are tested on an independent cohort of UK diabetes patients. Our work provides a working example of risk-stratification tool that is (a) specific for diabetes patients, (b) able to handle several different diabetes related complications, (c) performing as well as the widely known UKPDS Risk Engine on an external validation cohort. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Prediction of long-term frost heave of chilled gas pipelines by centrifuge modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, V.; Clark, J.; Hawlader, B. [Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St. John' s, NL (Canada). C-Core; Zhou, J. [TransCanada PipeLines Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    The behaviour of pipelines operating under harsh northern conditions has been studied at full-scale test facilities since the 1970s in order to develop and calibrate various theories and analytical models. The studies have addressed the issue of predicting frost heave of chilled pipelines. The use of chilled gas transmission for northern pipelines is touted as being an effective solution to preserve permafrost and to increase throughput. Frost heave occurs in soil as in-situ pore water freezes and additional free water advances to the freezing front leading to the formation of ice lenses. The amount of heave depends on soil type, cooling rate, thermal gradient and availability of a water source. The extent of deformation of both frozen and unfrozen soil also plays a role in the amount of heave. In recent years, centrifuge modeling of frost heave processes have provided useful information. Small-scale models have been constructed and tested under increased gravitational acceleration to replicate full-scale conditions. The key benefits are the reduced scale and time effects used in the modeling of the frost heave, allowing for sequential studies on soil types, pipe temperatures, groundwater and climatic conditions. This paper presented an interpretation of test results. Comparison with full-scale test sites has shown promising results, but some further verification exercises are warranted, particularly in the design methodology that allows for reliable and accurate prediction of pipeline behaviour as it passes through discontinuous permafrost or changing soil type. 14 refs., 2 tabs., 9 figs.

  12. Short-term electricity demand and gas price forecasts using wavelet transforms and adaptive models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Hang T.; Nabney, Ian T.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents some forecasting techniques for energy demand and price prediction, one day ahead. These techniques combine wavelet transform (WT) with fixed and adaptive machine learning/time series models (multi-layer perceptron (MLP), radial basis functions, linear regression, or GARCH). To create an adaptive model, we use an extended Kalman filter or particle filter to update the parameters continuously on the test set. The adaptive GARCH model is a new contribution, broadening the applicability of GARCH methods. We empirically compared two approaches of combining the WT with prediction models: multicomponent forecasts and direct forecasts. These techniques are applied to large sets of real data (both stationary and non-stationary) from the UK energy markets, so as to provide comparative results that are statistically stronger than those previously reported. The results showed that the forecasting accuracy is significantly improved by using the WT and adaptive models. The best models on the electricity demand/gas price forecast are the adaptive MLP/GARCH with the multicomponent forecast; their NMSEs are 0.02314 and 0.15384 respectively. (author)

  13. Classification trees for identifying non-use of community-based long-term care services among older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penkunas, Michael James; Eom, Kirsten Yuna; Chan, Angelique Wei-Ming

    2017-10-01

    Home- and center-based long-term care (LTC) services allow older adults to remain in the community while simultaneously helping caregivers cope with the stresses associated with providing care. Despite these benefits, the uptake of community-based LTC services among older adults remains low. We analyzed data from a longitudinal study in Singapore to identify the characteristics of individuals with referrals to home-based LTC services or day rehabilitation services at the time of hospital discharge. Classification and regression tree analysis was employed to identify combinations of clinical and sociodemographic characteristics of patients and their caregivers for individuals who did not take up their referred services. Patients' level of limitation in activities of daily living (ADL) and caregivers' ethnicity and educational level were the most distinguishing characteristics for identifying older adults who failed to take up their referred home-based services. For day rehabilitation services, patients' level of ADL limitation, home size, age, and possession of a national medical savings account, as well as caregivers' education level, and gender were significant factors influencing service uptake. Identifying subgroups of patients with high rates of non-use can help clinicians target individuals who are need of community-based LTC services but unlikely to engage in formal treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. RADIATION SAFETY JUSTIFICATION FOR THE LONG-TERM STORAGE OF GAS CONDENSATE IN THE UNDERGROUND RESERVOURS FORMED BY THE NUCLEAR EXPLOSION TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. K. Romanovich

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents approaches to the safety justification of the gas condensate and brine long-term storage in the underground reservoirs formed by the nuclear explosion technology. Gas condensate and brine are the intermediate level liquid radioactive waste containing isotopes: 3Н, 137Cs and 90Sr, in traces - 239Pu, 235U, 241Am.Safety of the gas condensate and brine long-term storage in the underground reservoirs is assessed on the base of the multi-barrier principle implementation, used during radioactive waste disposal. It is shown that the gas condensate and brine long-term storage in the sealed underground reservoirs formed by nuclear explosion technologies in salt domes does not lead to the surface radioactive contamination and population exposure.

  15. California Power-to-Gas and Power-to-Hydrogen Near-Term Business Case Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichman, Josh [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Flores-Espino, Francisco [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Flexible operation of electrolysis systems represents an opportunity to reduce the cost of hydrogen for a variety of end-uses while also supporting grid operations and thereby enabling greater renewable penetration. California is an ideal location to realize that value on account of growing renewable capacity and markets for hydrogen as a fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV) fuel, refineries, and other end-uses. Shifting the production of hydrogen to avoid high cost electricity and participation in utility and system operator markets along with installing renewable generation to avoid utility charges and increase revenue from the Low Carbon Fuel Standard (LCFS) program can result in around $2.5/kg (21%) reduction in the production and delivery cost of hydrogen from electrolysis. This reduction can be achieved without impacting the consumers of hydrogen. Additionally, future strategies for reducing hydrogen cost were explored and include lower cost of capital, participation in the Renewable Fuel Standard program, capital cost reduction, and increased LCFS value. Each must be achieved independently and could each contribute to further reductions. Using the assumptions in this study found a 29% reduction in cost if all future strategies are realized. Flexible hydrogen production can simultaneously improve the performance and decarbonize multiple energy sectors. The lessons learned from this study should be used to understand near-term cost drivers and to support longer-term research activities to further improve cost effectiveness of grid integrated electrolysis systems.

  16. Real option valuation of free destination in long-term liquefied natural gas supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yepes Rodriguez, Ramon

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a real option model for the valuation of destination flexibility in long-term LNG supplies. Stochastic price dynamics in the different markets is modelled through geometric Brownian motion processes. Mean reversion is considered as well as correlation between markets, but instead of the usual correlation in return shocks, a price convergence term is introduced representing the arbitrage streams between markets. Model parameters are estimated from market data on LNG prices by maximum log-likelihood. The goodness of the fit for the proposed model is tested as well as for two alternative models. Confidence intervals for the parameters are given. Results for the model are calculated by Monte Carlo simulation. Frequency distributions for the main results are plotted. The effect of the main parameters of the model is studied (i.e. price volatilities, price convergence, initial prices in the markets, mean reversion, extra transportation costs, number of alternative markets). The value of destination flexibility is found to be an important share of the value of LNG

  17. Inert gas narcosis and the encoding and retrieval of long-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneller, Wendy; Hobbs, Malcolm

    2013-12-01

    Prior research has indicated that inert gas narcosis (IGN) causes decrements in free recall memory performance and that these result from disruption of either encoding or self-guided search in the retrieval process. In a recent study we provided evidence, using a Levels of Processing approach, for the hypothesis that IGN affects the encoding of new information. The current study sought to replicate these results with an improved methodology. The effect of ambient pressure (111.5-212.8 kPa/1-11 msw vs. 456-516.8 kPa/35-41 msw) and level of processing (shallow vs. deep) on free recall memory performance was measured in 34 divers in the context of an underwater field experiment. Free recall was significantly worse at high ambient pressure compared to low ambient pressure in the deep processing condition (low pressure: M = 5.6; SD = 2.7; high pressure: M = 3.3; SD = 1.4), but not in the shallow processing condition (low pressure: M = 3.9; SD = 1.7; high pressure: M = 3.1; SD = 1.8), indicating IGN impaired memory ability in the deep processing condition. In the shallow water, deep processing improved recall over shallow processing but, significantly, this effect was eliminated in the deep water. In contrast to our earlier study this supported the hypothesis that IGN affects the self-guided search of information and not encoding. It is suggested that IGN may affect both encoding and self-guided search and further research is recommended.

  18. Present Status and Near Term Activities for the ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svedhem, H.; Vago, J. L.

    2017-12-01

    The ExoMars 2016 mission was launched on a Proton rocket from Baikonur, Kazakhstan, on 14 March 2016 and arrived at Mars on 19 October 2016. The spacecraft is now performing aerobraking to reduce its orbital period from initial post-insertion orbital period of one Sol to the final science orbit with a 2 hours period. The orbital inclination will be 74 degrees. During the aerobraking a wealth of data has been acquired on the state of the atmosphere along the tracks between 140km and the lowest altitude at about 105 km. These data are now being analysed and compared with existing models. In average TGO measures a lower atmospheric density than predicted, but the numbers lay within the expected variability. ExoMars is a joint programme of the European Space Agency (ESA) and Roscosmos, Russia. It consists of the ExoMars 2016 mission with the Trace Gas Orbiter, TGO, and the Entry Descent and Landing Demonstrator, EDM, named Schiaparelli, and the ExoMars 2020 mission, which carries a lander and a rover. The TGO scientific payload consists of four instruments: ACS and NOMAD, both infrared spectrometers for atmospheric measurements in solar occultation mode and in nadir mode, CASSIS, a multichannel camera with stereo imaging capability, and FREND, an epithermal neutron detector to search for subsurface hydrogen (as proxy for water ice and hydrated minerals). The launch mass of the TGO was 3700 kg, including fuel. In addition to its scientific measurements TGO will act as a relay orbiter for NASA's landers on Mars and as from 2021 for the ESA-Roscosmos Rover and Surface Station.

  19. Long term monitoring of methane in the atmosphere by multiplex gas chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentin, Jose R.; Carle, Glenn C.; Phillips, John B.

    1985-01-01

    Methane is of interest in the study of the Earth's atmosphere because of its implication in the future global warming of the surface. This warming is produced by the absorption of infrared energy by trace gases. It has been estimated that in the next 40 to 50 years, methane could contribute 20 to 25 pct. as much atmospheric warming as that expected from carbon dioxide increases. Studies to examine sources, sinks, and cycles of methane will require analytical methods capable of continuous unattended measurement with temporal resolution of an hour or less for weeks at a time. Gas chromatography (GC) is one of the most practical methods available to conduct the analysis of air, but limitations in this technique still exist which can be alleviated with multiplex GC (MGC). MGC is a technique where many samples are pseudo-randomly introduced to the chromatograph without regard to the length of time required for an analysis. The resulting data must then be reduced using computational methods such as cross correlation. In the technique reported, a tube packed with silver oxide was used at the inlet of the GC column to create concentration pulses of methane in a sample stream of air. By using only one carrier, i.e., ambient air, an effective and accurate method to monitor the variations in concentration of methane in the atmosphere over long periods of time was developed. Methane in ambient air was monitored for an eight day period and an interesting temporal variability was found. This work has shown the utility of a relatively simple MGC for the analysis of a real environmental sample.

  20. Decision in the matter of a generic hearing in respect to market issues and conduct related to the sale of gas and customer services in the natural gas industry in New Brunswick

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    In response to changes in the Gas Distribution Act and the Gas Distributor Marketing Regulation, the New Brunswick Board of Commissioners of Public Utilities (Board), issued an order in June 2003 for a generic hearing regarding the sale of gas and customer services in the natural gas industry in New Brunswick. The purpose of the hearing was to have an open discussion among intervenors regarding several issues, such as whether the Code of Conduct provides fair and adequate rules for marketers; should Enbridge Gas New Brunswick (EGNB) be required to follow rules similar to the Code of Conduct; the requirements surrounding letters of credit; the Board's decision on Rules and Regulations regarding the billing conduct of gas distributors and marketers; the information that should be provided by a gas marketer or a distributor to the customer before the customer enters into an agreement for the supply of gas; the need for information on price volatility; the need for EGNB to notify potential customers of all possible suppliers of gas; the removal of automatic renewal clauses from gas retailers' contracts; how the Board should determine if prices are reasonably and sufficiently competitive; financial reporting requirements; the role of the Board in response to customer complaints regarding the sale of gas by a distributor; and, the Board's action regarding Enbridge Atlantic's plan to exit the New Brunswick market. This report provided the response to these issues by 10 intervenors

  1. Perceived service quality, perceived value, overall satisfaction and happiness of outlook for long-term care institution residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jesun; Hsiao, Chih-Tung; Glen, Robert; Pai, Jar-Yuan; Zeng, Sin-Huei

    2014-06-01

    To investigate the psychometric properties and relationships of perceived service quality, perceived value and overall satisfaction for residents with respect to their long-term care institutions. The five-point Likert scale questionnaire administered through facetoface interviews. Fourteen long-term care institutions located in central and southern Taiwan stratified according to services and accommodation population. One hundred and eighty long-term institutional care residents. Perceived service quality (the SERVPERF model), perceived value and overall satisfaction (models based on the literature on perceived value and satisfaction). Student's t-test on institutional location shows a significant difference between overall satisfaction for central and southern institution long-term care recipients. The correlation test revealed that the higher a resident's level of education, the higher the scores for perceived value. The factor loading results of confirmation factor analysis show acceptable levels of reliability and index-of-model fits for perceived service, perceived value and overall satisfaction. In addition, the results suggest that an additional construct, a positive attitude (happiness of outlook) towards long-term care institutions, is also an important factor in residents' overall satisfaction. The primary goal of long-term institutional care policy in Taiwan, as in other countries, is to provide residents with practical, cost-effective but high-quality care. On the basis of the results of in-depth interviews with long-term institutional care residents, this study suggests long-term care institutions arrange more family visit days to increase the accessibility and interaction of family and residents and thereby increase the happiness of outlook of the residents. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Control of the Onboard Microgravity Environment and Extension of the Service Life of the Long-Term Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titov, V. A.

    2018-03-01

    The problem of control of the on-board microgravity environment in order to extend the service life of the long-term space station has been discussed. Software developed for the ISS and the results of identifying dynamic models and external impacts based on telemetry data have been presented. Proposals for controlling the onboard microgravity environment for future long-term space stations have been formulated.

  3. Short-term and medium-term health effects of thermonuclear weapons and war on individuals and health services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lechat, M.F.

    1984-01-01

    In the aftermath of a thermonuclear attack a number of health problems would appear, related to the changed living conditions, lack of food, absence of sanitation, the environmental effects, and disruption of the health services. Internal irradiation by ingestion of radioactive isotopes deposited on the ground would constitute a major hazard from the fallout. In the first few weeks following the attack iodine-131 would present the greatest hazard. Its main entry into the body would be through milk from livestock grazing on pastures contaminated with fallout; milk from local cattle pasturing in open land would thus be unsuitable for consumption. There is much speculation about the possible outbreaks of communicable diseases following a nuclear attack. Infection could emerge as a major problem. It constitutes a leading cause of death in burns. In the Japanese experience acute radiation sickness was generally accompanied by infectious complications

  4. Potential for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions through the use of mobility services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grischkat, Sylvie; Hunecke, Marcel; Böhler, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    gas emissions per person and year was found to be 78 kg in an optimistic scenario and 25 kg in a pessimistic scenario. Extrapolated to the German metropolitan population, behaviour-related measures alone could result in a 1.8 million ton (optimistic scenario) or 0.6 million ton (pessimistic scenario...

  5. Numerical simulation of the environmental impact of hydraulic fracturing of tight/shale gas reservoirs on near-surface groundwater: Background, base cases, shallow reservoirs, short-term gas, and water transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reagan, Matthew T; Moridis, George J; Keen, Noel D; Johnson, Jeffrey N

    2015-04-01

    Hydrocarbon production from unconventional resources and the use of reservoir stimulation techniques, such as hydraulic fracturing, has grown explosively over the last decade. However, concerns have arisen that reservoir stimulation creates significant environmental threats through the creation of permeable pathways connecting the stimulated reservoir with shallower freshwater aquifers, thus resulting in the contamination of potable groundwater by escaping hydrocarbons or other reservoir fluids. This study investigates, by numerical simulation, gas and water transport between a shallow tight-gas reservoir and a shallower overlying freshwater aquifer following hydraulic fracturing operations, if such a connecting pathway has been created. We focus on two general failure scenarios: (1) communication between the reservoir and aquifer via a connecting fracture or fault and (2) communication via a deteriorated, preexisting nearby well. We conclude that the key factors driving short-term transport of gas include high permeability for the connecting pathway and the overall volume of the connecting feature. Production from the reservoir is likely to mitigate release through reduction of available free gas and lowering of reservoir pressure, and not producing may increase the potential for release. We also find that hydrostatic tight-gas reservoirs are unlikely to act as a continuing source of migrating gas, as gas contained within the newly formed hydraulic fracture is the primary source for potential contamination. Such incidents of gas escape are likely to be limited in duration and scope for hydrostatic reservoirs. Reliable field and laboratory data must be acquired to constrain the factors and determine the likelihood of these outcomes. Short-term leakage fractured reservoirs requires high-permeability pathways Production strategy affects the likelihood and magnitude of gas release Gas release is likely short-term, without additional driving forces.

  6. Long-term effects of mustard gas on respiratory system of Iranian veterans after Iraq-Iran war: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razavi Seyed Mansour

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】To review long-term respiratory effects of mustard gas on Iranian veterans having undergone Iraq-Iran war. Electronic databases of Scopus, Medline, ISI, IranMedex, and Irandoc sites were searched. We accepted articles published in scientific journals as a quality criterion. The main pathogenic factors are free radical mediators. Preva-lence of pulmonary involvement is approximately 42.5%. The most common complaints are cough and dyspnea. Major respiratory complications are chronic obstructive pulmo-nary disease, bronchiectasis, and asthma. Spirometry re-sults can reveal restrictive and obstructive pulmonary disease. Plain chest X-ray does not help in about 50% of lung diseases. High-resolution CT of the lung is the best modality for diagnostic assessment of parenchymal lung and bronchi. There is no definite curative treatment for mus-tard lung. The effective treatment regimens consist of oxy-gen administration, use of vaporized moist air, respiratory physiotherapy, administration of mucolytic agents, bronchodilators, corticosteroids, and long-acting beta-2 agonists, antioxidants, surfactant, magnesium ions, thera-peutic bronchoscopy, laser therapy, placement of respira-tory stents, early tracheostomy in laryngospasm, and ulti-mately lung transplantation. High-resolution CT of the lung is the most accurate modality for the evaluation of the lung parenchyma and bronchi. The treatment efficacy of patients exposed to mustard gas depends on patient conditions (acute or chronic, upper or lower respiratory tract involvement. There are various treatment protocols, but unfortunately none of them is definitely curable. Key words: Lung injury; Chemical warfare; Mustard gas

  7. Analysis and description of the long-term creep behaviour of high-temperature gas turbine materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartsch, H.

    1985-01-01

    On a series of standard high-temperature gas turbine materials, creep tests were accomplished with the aim to obtain improved data on the long-term creep behaviour. The tests were carried out in the range of the main application temperatures of the materials and in the range of low stresses and elongations similar to operation conditions. They lasted about 5000 to 16000 h at maximum. At all important temperatures additional annealing tests lasting up to about 10000 h were carried out for the determination of a material-induced structure contraction. Thermal tension tests were effected for the description of elastoplastic short-time behaviour. As typical selection of materials the nickel investment casting alloys IN-738 LC, IN-939 and Udimet 500 for industrial turbine blades, IN-100 for aviation turbine blades and IN-713 C for integrally cast wheels of exhaust gas turbochargers were investigated, and also the nickel forge alloy Inconel 718 for industrial and aviation turbine disks and Nimonic 101 for industrial turbine blades and finally the cobalt alloy FSC 414 for guide blades and heat accumulation segments of industrial gas turbines. The creep tests were started on long-period individual creep testing machines with high strain measuring accuracy and economically continued on long-period multispecimen creep testing machines with long duration of test. The test results of this mixed test method were first subjected to a conventional evaluation in logarithmic time yield and creep diagrams which besides creep strength curves provided creep stress limit curves down to 0.2% residual strain. (orig./MM) [de

  8. WLAN Hot Spot services for the automotive and oil industries :a business analysis Or : "Refuel the car with petrol and information, both ways at the gas station"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L-F. Pau (Louis-François); M.H.P. Oremus

    2003-01-01

    textabstractWhile you refuel for gas ,why not refuel for information or download vehicle data ? This paper analyzes in extensive detail the user segmentation by vehicle usage , service offering , and full business models from WLAN hot spot services delivered to vehicles (private, professional ,

  9. An Examination of Pre-service Classroom Teaching Programs in terms of Gifted Education in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eda DEMİRHAN

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available It has been recently given importance that programs are prepared in consideration of individual differences of children with the need for special education. Even if it is especially thought that children with the need for special education are just physically or mentally disabled, one should recognize children whom we can actually call 'gifted' for them to be able to adapt to the classroom environment. Provided that the first-, second- and third-grade students are nominated by the classroom teachers as of the academic year of 2016-2017, they will be able to receive education at Science-Art Centers. Therefore, classroom teachers undertake an important task for identifying gifted children. Can teachers having such a great responsibility be trained to have that competence? The main purpose of this study is to investigate to what extent the subject 'gifted students' is included in the teaching plan during the eight-term education of pre-service classroom teachers. For this purpose, the websites of 193 universities registered to the Council of Higher Education were identified to examine 70 universities with a classroom teaching program. According to the findings, there is a course called 'special education' that handles the topics related to the gifted in 68 of those 70 universities, and in the rest, there is no course titled either 'special education' or 'gifted'. When the special education course is investigated, it is seen that objectives concerning the gifted take the last places and the contents addressing the gifted takes the third place. According to the learning acquisitions of the special education course, 'knowing about the characteristics of gifted children and educational applications for them' comes across as one of the least addressed topics.

  10. Long-term effects of mustard gas on respiratory system of Iranian veterans after Iraq-Iran war: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi, Seyed-Mansour; Ghanei, Mostafa; Salamati, Payman; Safiabadi, Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    To review long-term respiratory effects of mustard gas on Iranian veterans having undergone Iraq-Iran war. Electronic databases of Scopus, Medline, ISI, IranMedex, and Irandoc sites were searched. We accepted articles published in scientific journals as a quality criterion.The main pathogenic factors are free radical mediators. Prevalence of pulmonary involvement is approximately 42.5%. The most common complaints are cough and dyspnea. Major respiratory complications are chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, bronchiectasis, and asthma. Spirometry results can reveal restrictive and obstructive pulmonary disease. Plain chest X-ray does not help in about 50% of lung diseases. High-resolution CT of the lung is the best modality for diagnostic assessment of parenchymal lung and bronchi. There is no definite curative treatment for mustard lung. The effective treatment regimens consist of oxygen administration, use of vaporized moist air, respiratory physiotherapy, administration of mucolytic agents, bronchodilators, corticosteroids, and long-acting beta-2 agonists, antioxidants, surfactant, magnesium ions, therapeutic bronchoscopy, laser therapy, placement of respiratory stents, early tracheostomy in laryngospasm, and ultimately lung transplantation. High-resolution CT of the lung is the most accurate modality for the evaluation of the lung parenchyma and bronchi. The treatment efficacy of patients exposed to mustard gas depends on patient conditions (acute or chronic, upper or lower respiratory tract involvement). There are various treatment protocols, but unfortunately none of them is definitely curable.

  11. Long term records of lake clarity as an indicator for final ecosystem goods and services of lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    We reviewed available long-term records of lake clarity (via secchi disc readings) as an indicator of final ecosystem goods and services of lakes. Lake water quality assessments are often based on biophysical indicators not explicitly or quantifiably linked to the ecosystem servi...

  12. Short-Term International Experience (STIE) and Students' Understanding of Quality Early Childhood Service Provision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Margaret; Nishida, Yukiyo

    2018-01-01

    Exposing pre-service teachers to international professional experiences through a short-term visiting programme serves to challenge their understandings of good quality practice through disturbing assumptions and expectations previously formed through experiences in their own country/culture. Much of the research in international study focuses on…

  13. Living Well With a Long-Term Condition: Service Users' Perspectives of a Self-Management Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenberg, Nicola; Furness, Penny J

    2017-03-01

    The outcomes of self-management interventions are commonly assessed using quantitative measurement tools, and few studies ask people with long-term conditions to explain, in their own words, what aspects of the intervention they valued. In this Grounded Theory study, a Health Trainers service in the north of England was evaluated based on interviews with eight service-users. Open, focused, and theoretical coding led to the development of a preliminary model explaining participants' experiences and perceived impact of the service. The model reflects the findings that living well with a long-term condition encompassed social connectedness, changed identities, acceptance, and self-care. Health trainers performed four related roles that were perceived to contribute to these outcomes: conceptualizer, connector, coach, and champion. The evaluation contributes a grounded theoretical understanding of a personalized self-management intervention that emphasizes the benefits of a holistic approach to enable cognitive, behavioral, emotional, and social adjustments.

  14. The rights and responsibilities of citizenship for service users: some terms and conditions apply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamer, H P; Finlayson, M

    2015-11-01

    What is known about the subject? Citizenship is an important yet largely overlooked concept within psychiatric and mental health nursing practice Many service users are subject to legally mandated restrictions that place conditions on their rights and responsibilities as citizens. What this paper adds to existing knowledge? Even though service users have legal status as citizens, they continue to experience many conditions on their rights and responsibilities. Concerns about services users' trustworthiness and doubts about their levels of insight impact on their status as full citizens. What are the implications for practice? Nurses' understandings of the conditions placed on the citizenship rights and responsibilities of service users will ensure inclusive and less restrictive care and treatment Integration of the principles of therapeutic reciprocity and procedural justice within practice will help nurses balance both the rights of services users and legal restrictions on their liberty and autonomy Service users have long been lobbying for equal participation as citizens, yet citizenship is an important and largely overlooked concept within nursing education and practice. The study explored service users' understandings of their rights and responsibilities of citizenship and the conditions placed on these. A total of 17 service users participated in semi-structured interviews. Isin's theory of the content of citizenship was used to analyze the data using a framework approach. Service users experience conditional citizenship that includes barriers to their participation and their rights and responsibilities that others in society enjoy. When the world of the service user is constructed through the language of the biomedical model, nurses may unwittingly reinforce psychiatric labels and thus perpetuate the stereotype that service users lack the competence to fully enact their rights and responsibilities. When providing care, nurses should incorporate the notion of

  15. The perspective of a settled aboriginal land claim stakeholder : realities to date in terms of oil and gas operations and exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linklater, J. [Vuntut Gwitchin First Nation, Old Crow, YT (Canada)

    2000-07-01

    The Chief of the Vuntut Gwitchin (VG) First Nation described the social effects of oil and gas operations and exploration from the perspective of First Nations as having been both enlightening and devastating. This presentation described the transition of this First Nation's modern form of self-government, what self-government consists of, and the present policy framework for the government as it relates to oil and gas activities in North Yukon. In the past, affected First Nations have had very little say in land and environmental management in traditional territories. The first steps toward self-government began in 1972 when the Council for Yukon Indians was formed in acknowledgement that Yukon First Nations should join together to outline grievances and to work toward solutions. The Final and Self-Government Agreement came into effect on February 14, 1995. Since then, it has been difficult to overcome the 'dependence effect', a legacy of the Department of Indian Affairs. Self-government involves every aspect of the lives of indigenous people in dealing with the ever-changing world while trying to maintain their cultural identity. In terms of land and resource management planning and administration, this involves environmental review as well as licensing and permitting for Vuntut Gwitchin settlement lands. A brief description of self-government services, social programs, youth education and economic development was also provided. The VG government sees economic development as a means of self-reliance for its people, but considers a healthy environment and a healthy wildlife population to be equally important.

  16. 78 FR 36134 - Limitations on Terms of Consumer Credit Extended to Service Members and Dependents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-17

    ... vigilant to eliminate continuing, evolving predatory lending practices targeting service members and their... predatory marketing practices, and other abuses identified by consumer protection advocates, including the...

  17. Gas industry health services system in far North; Services d'assistance a la sante dans l'industrie gaziere dans l'extreme Nord de la Russie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shishkina, T.N. [Nadymgasprom Ltd. Gasprom Plc. Nadym, YNAR (Russian Federation)

    2000-07-01

    The distinctive conditions of production of the gas extracting industry of the Far North, the wide use of rotation labor, the high morbidity level of the workers and connected with all this labor losses at the enterprises stipulated the necessity for creation of the System of Public Health Service of the gas extracting industry of the Far North. According to the resolution of Gasprom Plc., its elaboration and approbation has been carried out since 1995 on the basis of the diversified enterprise Nadymgasprom, which extract and transport natural gas. It has 25-year-old experience of the development of gas condensate deposits in the extreme climatic region. Improvement of the state of health indexes of the members of work teams in conditions of introduction of the industrial medicine system at the gas extracting enterprise with realization of the complex program of prophylaxis and rehabilitation proved the efficiency of the elaborated System of Medico-sanitary Provision Service. (author)

  18. Impact of surrounding environment evolution on long-term gas flux measurements in a temperate mixed forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurdebise, Quentin; Rixen, Toma; De Ligne, Anne; Vincke, Caroline; Heinesch, Bernard; Aubinet, Marc

    2016-04-01

    With the development of eddy covariance networks like Fluxnet, ICOS or NEON, long-term data series of carbon dioxide, water vapor and other gas exchanges between terrestrial ecosystems and atmosphere will become more and more numerous. However, long-term analyses of such exchanges require a good understanding of measurement conditions during the investigated period. Independently of climate drivers, measurements may indeed be influenced by measurement conditions themselves subjected to long-term variability due to vegetation growth or set-up changes. The present research refers to the Vielsalm Terrestrial Observatory (VTO) where fluxes of momentum, carbon dioxide, latent and sensible heat have been continuously measured by eddy covariance during twenty years. VTO is an ICOS site installed in a mixed forest (beech, silver fir, Douglas fir, Norway spruce) in the Belgian Ardennes. A multidisciplinary approach was developed in order to investigate the spatial and temporal evolution of several site characteristics: -displacement height (d) and relative measurement height (z-d) were determined using a spectral approach that compared observed and theoretical cospectra; -turbulence statistics were analyzed in the context of Monin-Obukhov similarity theory; -tree height during the measurement period was obtained by combining tree height inventories, a LIDAR survey and tree growth models; -measurement footprint was determined by using a footprint model. A good agreement was found between the three first approaches. Results show notably that z-d was subjected to both temporal and spatial evolution. Temporal evolution resulted from continuous tree growth as well as from a tower raise, achieved in 2009. Spatial evolution, due to canopy heterogeneity, was also observed. The impacts of these changes on measurements are investigated. In particular, it was shown that they affect measurement footprint, flux spectral corrections and flux quality. All these effects must be taken into

  19. International experience of the civil service performance and possible ways of its application in Ukraine in terms of administration reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Y. Kizilov

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the most countries the deep modernization and reforming of civil service were launched in 70­80 years of the past century and now these processes have given good results. Therefore, it will be useful to adopt a foreign experience on reforming and civil service performance with the aim to determine effective components of civil service performance in Ukraine. The analysis shows that the process of the civil service reforming and development, improving of the performing process are characterized in the world practice as the continental and Anglo­Saxon models, but despite of this most countries have a mixed model of civil service. For modernization of the civil service and approximation to the most preferable type of management in Europe were developed different models, which named «new public administration». In the article the international experience of France, Germany, Great Britain, USA, Japan and other countries on civil service performance in terms of administrative reform was analyzed. It was founded that experience of these countries is very valuable for the development of civil service institute in Ukraine, in particular civil service performance, because these countries made an economic progress and ensured sustainable development. The generalization of the international experience on civil service performance allowed to systemize the development of civil service performance institute in the democratic countries, namely: development of the reform programme and civil service modernization and adoption of new legislation on civil service; optimization and creation new organizational entities in the civil service system; existing of the special institutes of the civil service management; gradual staff reduction of state apparatus; creation of the institute of senior leadership; application of the management methods by the example of private sector; staff rotation; existing of ethic code; ensuring of lifelong education for civil

  20. Prospects for Integrating Service Learning into Short-Term International Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Donna M.; Baker, Suzanne; Williams, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    In an era of significant social, political, and economic globalization, it is crucial for health and human services educators to adopt a more hands on international view vis-à-vis student education. This article presents information that will assist educators in extending domestic service learning concepts and activities into the undergraduate…

  1. Pre-Service Special Education Teachers' Professionalism and Preparation in Terms of Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Zboon, Eman; Ahmad, Jamal

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at examining Jordanian pre-service special education teachers' professionalism and preparation on the topic of child sexual abuse (CSA). Qualitative research data from interviews with 20 pre-service special education teachers were analysed using thematic analysis. The results showed that these participants generally hold avoiding…

  2. Investigation of Priority Needs in Terms of Museum Service Accessibility for Visually Impaired Visitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handa, Kozue; Dairoku, Hitoshi; Toriyama, Yoshiko

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the priority needs of museum service accessibility for visually impaired visitors. For this purpose, conjoint analysis was utilized. Four conjoint attributes of museum services were selected: A--facilities for wayfinding; B--exhibitions and collections including objects for touching, hearing, smelling, etc.; C--information…

  3. Assessing Pre-Service Teachers' Computer Phobia Levels in Terms of Gender and Experience, Turkish Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursavas, Omer Faruk; Karal, Hasan

    2009-01-01

    In this study it is aimed to determine the level of pre-service teachers' computer phobia. Whether or not computer phobia meaningfully varies statistically according to gender and computer experience has been tested in the study. The study was performed on 430 pre-service teachers at the Education Faculty in Rize/Turkey. Data in the study were…

  4. Problematic Areas of Host University Support Services for Short-Term Mobility Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Encinas, Adriana; Rodriguez-Pomeda, Jesus; Josek, Mikuláš

    2017-01-01

    The growing numbers of mobile students over the years made the provision of student services a key topic of interest for higher education institutions. In order to offer a better experience for international students, it is important to be aware of and assess their needs in relation to different sets of support services. The data used in this…

  5. An adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system for short-term natural gas demand estimation: Uncertain and complex environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azadeh, A.; Asadzadeh, S.M.; Ghanbari, A.

    2010-01-01

    Accurate short-term natural gas (NG) demand estimation and forecasting is vital for policy and decision-making process in energy sector. Moreover, conventional methods may not provide accurate results. This paper presents an adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) for estimation of NG demand. Standard input variables are used which are day of the week, demand of the same day in previous year, demand of a day before and demand of 2 days before. The proposed ANFIS approach is equipped with pre-processing and post-processing concepts. Moreover, input data are pre-processed (scaled) and finally output data are post-processed (returned to its original scale). The superiority and applicability of the ANFIS approach is shown for Iranian NG consumption from 22/12/2007 to 30/6/2008. Results show that ANFIS provides more accurate results than artificial neural network (ANN) and conventional time series approach. The results of this study provide policy makers with an appropriate tool to make more accurate predictions on future short-term NG demand. This is because the proposed approach is capable of handling non-linearity, complexity as well as uncertainty that may exist in actual data sets due to erratic responses and measurement errors.

  6. Ultrahigh sensitivity heavy noble gas detectors for long-term monitoring and monitoring air. 1998 annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valentine, J.D. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (US); Gross, K. [Argonne National Lab., IL (US)

    1998-06-01

    'The primary objective of this research project is to develop heavy noble gas (krypton, xenon, and radon) detectors for: (1) long-term monitoring of transuranic waste, spent fuel, and other uranium and thorium bearing wastes, and (2) alpha particle air monitors that discriminate between radon emissions and other alpha emitters. A University of Cincinnati/Argonne National Laboratory (UC/ANL) Team has been assembled to complete this detector development project. DOE needs that are addressed by this project include improved long-term monitoring capability and improved air monitoring capability during remedial activities. Successful development and implementation of the proposed detection systems could significantly improve current capabilities with relatively simple and inexpensive equipment. As of June 1, 1998, the UC/ANL Team has: (1) made significant progress toward characterizing the fluid transfer process which is the basis for this detector development project and (2) evaluated several radiation detectors and several potential pulse processing schemes. The following discussion describes the progress made during the first year of this project and the implications of this progress.'

  7. Long-term creep behavior of high-temperature gas turbine materials under constant and variable stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granacher, J.; Preussler, T.

    1987-01-01

    Within the framework of the documented research project, extensive creep rupture tests were carried out with characteristic, high-temperature gas turbine materials for establishment of improved design data. In the range of the main application temperatures and in stress ranges down to application-relevant values the tests extended over a period of about 40,000 hours. In addition, long-term annealing tests were carried out in the most important temperature ranges for the measurement of the density-dependent straim, which almost always manifested itself as a material contraction. Furthermore, hot tensile tests were carried out for the description of the elastoplastic short-term behavior. Several creep curves were derived from the results of the different tests with a differentiated evaluation method. On the basis of these creep curves, creep equations were set up for a series of materials which are valid in the entire examined temperature range and stress range and up to the end of the secondary creep range. Also, equations for the time-temperature-dependent description of the material contraction behavior were derived. With these equations, the high-temperature deformation behavior of the examined materials under constant creep stress can be described simply and application-oriented. (orig.) With 109 figs., 19 tabs., 77 refs [de

  8. Long-term contracts for European gas supply - an empirical analysis of the changing nature of pipeline and LNG-contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumann, Anne

    2005-01-01

    As the structure of the European natural gas market is evolving towards more competition and more diverse market structures than before, the nature of the long-term contracts for European natural gas supply is also undergoing change. Experience from other liberalization processes, such as in the U.S. or the UK, suggests that the importance of long-term contracts diminishes over time, but that they remain an important element of supply. In Europe long-term contracts are still considered as a firm basis for investment and financing of capital-intensive infrastructure with a high degree of asset and relationship-specificity. Literature on institutional economics also suggests that long-term contracts act as a device to overcome the ''hold-up'' problem of relationship-specific investments in infrastructure (Klein, Crawford, and Alchian, 1987; Williamson, 1975, 1985). On the other hand, Hartley and Brito (2002) show that more flexible markets also imply a lower degree of asset specificity, thus requiring less fixed contracts. This paper explores the changing nature of long-term contracts for European natural gas supply, with a particular focus on differences between contracts for pipeline gas and liquefied natural gas (LNG). Traditionally, Europe relied on very long-term contracts for pipeline gas (Russia, Norway, Algeria). More recently, increasing LNG supplies are contemplated as a more flexible source of natural gas: The international LNG market is becoming more flexible, LNG can be sourced from a variety of sellers, and the cost of LNG supplies and infrastructure is coming down rapidly (Jensen, 2004). Thus, the evaluation of investing in LNG infrastructure (and the so bought flexibility and possibility of arbitraging profits) may be higher than committing to fixed/predetermined flows of pipeline gas. We ask whether this is reflected in the observed contracts. The paper is based on standard contract theory (Bolton and Dewatripont, 2005). We apply a microeconomic

  9. A long-term aging study of honeycomb drift tubes for the HERA-B Outer Tracker using a circulated and purified CF$_{4}$ gas mixture

    CERN Document Server

    Capéans-Garrido, M; Hohlmann, M; Schmidt, B

    2003-01-01

    The Outer Tracker of HERA-B uses a gas mixture containing CF/sub 4/ to obtain high electron drift velocities. The high cost of this gas makes it necessary to circulate the gas mixture which must then be purified to avoid accumulation of air and pollutants. However, the usage of gas purifiers poses the danger of outgassing pollutants from the purifiers themselves into the gas stream. Purifiers could also be attacked chemically by the aggressive products from the cracking of CF/sub 4/ molecules in the plasma avalanches of the detector. This could potentially release further harmful pollutants into the gas stream. To test for such effects, a long-term irradiation study of about 3000 h was carried out with the honeycomb drift tubes that are used in the Outer Tracker. This provided a check of the long-term stability of the gas purifiers before putting them into operation for the full-size detector. We report on the experimental setup, procedures and the results obtained. (8 refs).

  10. [The Development of an Intelligent Long-Term Care Services System That Integrates Innovative Information and Communication Technologies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ean-Wen; Chiou, Shwu-Fen; Pan, Mei-Lien; Wu, Hua-Huan; Jiang, Jia-Rong; Lu, Yi-De

    2017-08-01

    Rapid progress in information and communication technologies and the increasing popularity of healthcare-related applications has increased interest in the topic of intelligent medical care. This topic emphasizes the use of information and communication technologies to collect and analyze a variety of data in order to provide physicians and other healthcare professionals with clinical decision support. At present, so-called smart hospitals are the focal point of most intelligent-systems development activity, with little attention currently being focused on long-term care needs. The present article discusses the application of intelligent systems in the field of long-term care, especially in community and home-based models of care. System-implementation components such as the data entry interface components of mobile devices, the data transmission and synchronization components between the mobile device and file server, the data presentation, and the statistics analysis components are also introduced. These components have been used to develop long-term care service-related applications, including home health nursing, home-care services, meals on wheels, and assistive devices rental. We believe that the findings will be useful for the promotion of innovative long-term care services as well as the improvement of healthcare quality and efficiency.

  11. Alliances and partnering: A new relationship between oil/gas producing companies and service companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazi, N.H.; Hottman, W.E.; Logan, J.L.; Verrett, R.C.

    1995-01-01

    The current state of the energy industry finds both operating and service companies squeezed by lower prices and higher costs. Investment in exploration, equipment, and technology has been severely restricted. Many operators are responding to these harsh market conditions by re-engineering their work processes and focusing on core business activities. Re-engineered work processes encourage operators and service companies to work closely together. This motivates both to eliminate duplication, simplify processes, increase efficiency and capitalize on combined expertise to enhance production and optimize total system cost. Alliances and partnering are based on mutual trust and the commitment to add value to both organizations. Aligning interests is fundamental in establishing a lasting and mutually beneficial relationship. This paper presents an overview of these new relationships. The benefits and concerns of changing from traditional bidding agreements to new business arrangements between producing companies and service companies is discussed. Evaluation criteria for potential candidates, how to structure an alliance or partnering agreement, and a discussion of the key issues in the application of incentive contracts is presented

  12. Research of railroad stations in terms of the efficient delivery of additional services to increase profitability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Світлана Вікторівна Кисіль

    2016-11-01

    • International orientation. Use of advantages, taking into account these features, can significantly extend the range of additional services that eventually able to increase the profitability of railroad stations.

  13. The Short-Term Effect of Chest Physiotherapy on Spirometric Indices in Chemical Warfare Victims Exposed to Mustard Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Abedi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available ABCTRACT Introduction & Objective: Chronic respiratory diseases are the most prevalent late sequels of sulfur mustard gas injury among Iranian chemical warfare victims. Chest physiotherapy is one of the useful methods in care, cure and infection prevention of these patients. The aim of this study was to determine the short-term effect of chest physiotherapy on spirometric indices in chemical warfare victims exposed to sulfur mustard gas. Materials & Methods: In this study, 27 of the chemical warfare victims with respiratory diseases were selected. Chest physiotherapy including postural drainage percussion and vibration were used in four positions for all patients. Pulmonary function test (PFT was obtained before (baseline, immediately and 20 minute after the chest physiotherapy. The SPSS software was used for the data analysis of the collected data. Results: Results of this study showed the significant effect (p<0.01 of chest physiotherapy upon forced expiratory volume in first second (FEV1 (baseline mean, 44.19 immediately after intervention mean 47.3 and 20 minute after intervention mean 48.3 and forced vital capacity (FVC (baseline mean, 69.37 immediately after intervention mean, 73.67 20 minute after intervention 75.74. Chest physiotherapy had significant effect (p<0.01 in asthmatic bronchitis group and also had significant effect (p<0.05 in both severe and moderate groups. Conclusion: Chest physiotherapy was able to improve pulmonary function test indices in chemical warfare victims suffering from respiratory problems. The effect on asthmatic bronchitis group, as well as both severe and moderate groups, was significant.

  14. The long-term perspectives of the energy supply and the potential role of natural gas. Langfristaussichten der Energieversorgung und die potentielle Rolle von Erdgas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruebler, A. (International Inst. for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg (Austria))

    1989-01-01

    The perspectives on energy have changed. Instead of resource limitations, possible global climatic change is perceived as ultimate constraint for growth in energy demand. Natural gas is shown to constitute an efficient and clean energy alternative. More than adequate reserves, high energy efficiency in end use applications, the most benign environmental impacts of all fossil energy carriers and finally, high social acceptability, are all good arguments for increased reliance on natural gas for end use applications and electricity generation. Natural gas is from a long-term perspective, an evolutionary step in the historical development of the energy system in direction of higher quality (i.e. higher hydrogen content) fields. Natural gas could, therefore, be a natural transition to a postfossil hydrogen economy. In the meantime, also active CO{sub 2} control policies and the effective lowering of the climatic change potential due to energy use are opened by increased uses of natural gas. An open question is, whether the potential increased contribution of natural gas to future energy supplies and the advantages stemming from it, can be realized. We are not lacking abundant resources or efficient conversion and end-use technologies. The missing element is that policy makers, and the public, recognize natural gas as viable realistic alternative, and are prepared to abandon conventional wisdom hindering increased uses of gas. (orig.).

  15. Analysis of resource potential for China’s unconventional gas and forecast for its long-term production growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jianliang; Mohr, Steve; Feng, Lianyong; Liu, Huihui; Tverberg, Gail E.

    2016-01-01

    China is vigorously promoting the development of its unconventional gas resources because natural gas is viewed as a lower-carbon energy source and because China has relatively little conventional natural gas supply. In this paper, we first evaluate how much unconventional gas might be available based on an analysis of technically recoverable resources for three types of unconventional gas resources: shale gas, coalbed methane and tight gas. We then develop three alternative scenarios of how this extraction might proceed, using the Geologic Resources Supply Demand Model. Based on our analysis, the medium scenario, which we would consider to be our best estimate, shows a resource peak of 176.1 billion cubic meters (bcm) in 2068. Depending on economic conditions and advance in extraction techniques, production could vary greatly from this. If economic conditions are adverse, unconventional natural gas production could perhaps be as low as 70.1 bcm, peaking in 2021. Under the extremely optimistic assumption that all of the resources that appear to be technologically available can actually be recovered, unconventional production could amount to as much as 469.7 bcm, with peak production in 2069. Even if this high scenario is achieved, China’s total gas production will only be sufficient to meet China’s lowest demand forecast. If production instead matches our best estimate, significant amounts of natural gas imports are likely to be needed. - Highlights: • A comprehensive investigation on China’s unconventional gas resources is presented. • China’s unconventional gas production is forecast under different scenarios. • Unconventional gas production will increase rapidly in high scenario. • Achieving the projected production in high scenario faces many challenges. • The increase of China’s unconventional gas production cannot solve its gas shortage.

  16. [Problems impeding the introduction of care services under the long-term care insurance system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Hiroko; Yamanaka, Katsuo; Fujita, Yoshio; Hirano, Yasuyuki; Iijima, Setsu

    2012-03-01

    To identify problems currently impeding the introduction of care services to seniors who are not yet taking advantage of such services despite the need for some kind of in-home care, and to examine effective solutions by creating a model that clarifies relationships among these problems based on covariance structural analysis. An anecdotal self-completion questionnaire was sent by mail to public health nurses who provide consultations to seniors in 657 locations throughout the mainland Japan, Honshu. The cases targeted in this survey were seniors for whom the introduction of care services was perceived to be difficult. Respondents were asked to relate one particularly memorable case encountered since April 2000 in which intervention assistance was provided through home visits. The survey consisted of 43 questions, including demographic information, basic case data, the outcome of intervention assistance in the case cited, and obstacles to introducing nursing services. We analyzed the 311 valid responses received (valid response rate: 47.3%). After performing factor analysis on the problems that were considered to impede the introduction of care services, we examined the relationships among these problems using covariance structural analysis and selected the model that best fit the data. 1) Problems that were considered to impede the introduction of care services were extracted from the results of an item analysis and factor analysis as follows. Factor 1: "Resistance to changing lifestyle." Factor 2: "Relative's lack of understanding or cooperation." Factor 3: "Lack of ability to handle procedures and contracts." Factor 4: "Lack of informal support." Factor 5: "Resistance to undergoing medical exams." 2) We performed a covariance structural analysis using the five factors derived from the factor analysis as the latent variables, and selected the best-fitting model, in which GFI = 0.929, AGFI = 0.901, and CFI = 0.950. The model showed that factors 3, 4, and 5

  17. Operational Excellence in Manufacturing, Service and the Oil & Gas: the Sectorial Definitional Constructs and Risk Management Implication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muazu Hassan Muazu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The current global business climate has not been favorable to most firms irrespective of industry affiliation. That condition necessitated companies to adopt operational excellence as a strategy for optimising output with little resources, reducing lead time with the efficient use of assets and employees and avoiding safety and health issues to people and the environment. As a result of the need for operational excellence, many kinds of literature defined the concept based on the context of industry or sector. Industries such as manufacturing, services, oil and gas, mining and so many industries to mention a few, have their unique construct in the definition and therefore causing dilemma on which dimension to hold on to. It is against this backdrop that this paper synthesizes and integrate all the varying dimensions and fuses out similarities, differences and the antecedence of research directions taken on the few mentioned sectors. The paper thus concludes that the unique construct among all the definitions is continuous improvement, cost reduction, quality, time utilization, operational efficiency, staff involvement and output optimisation. However, they varied on risk management, staff health, safety and the concern for the environment, which is unique to oil and gas industry and that can affect the choice of research variables.

  18. Unintended greenhouse gas consequences of lowering level of service in urban transit systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griswold, Julia B; Cheng, Han; Madanat, Samer; Horvath, Arpad

    2014-01-01

    Public transit is often touted as a ‘green’ transportation option and a way for users to reduce their environmental footprint by avoiding automobile emissions, but that may not be the case when systems run well below passenger capacity. In previous work, we explored an approach to optimizing the design and operations of transit systems for both costs and emissions, using continuum approximation models and assuming fixed demand. In this letter, we expand upon our previous work to explore how the level of service for users impacts emissions. We incorporate travel time elasticities into the optimization to account for demand shifts from transit to cars, resulting from increases in transit travel time. We find that emissions reductions are moderated, but not eliminated, for relatively inelastic users. We consider two scenarios: the first is where only the agency faces an emissions budget; the second is where the entire city faces an emissions budget. In the latter scenario, the emissions reductions resulting from reductions in transit level of service are mitigated as users switch to automobile. (letter)

  19. Young and midlife stroke survivors' experiences with the health services and long-term follow-up needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinsen, Randi; Kirkevold, Marit; Sveen, Unni

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this qualitative study was to explore young and midlife stroke survivors' experiences with the health services and to identify long-term follow-up needs. Sixteen participants from two cohorts were interviewed in-depth. The interviews were analyzed applying a hermeneutic-phenomenological analysis. The participants struggled to gain access to follow-up health services. They felt that whether they were systematically followed up was more coincidental than planned. Young and midlife stroke survivors thus appear vulnerable to falling outside the follow-up system. Those participants who received some follow-up care perceived it as untailored to their specific needs. To be considered supportive, the follow-up programs must be in line with their long-term needs, take into account their particular challenges as young and midlife stroke survivors, and be planned in close collaboration with the individual patient. To secure systematic and follow-up health services tailored to the individual, knowledgeable and committed healthcare professionals should play a prominent role within the community health services.

  20. Long-Term In-Service Monitoring and Performance Assessment of the Main Cables of Long-Span Suspension Bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yang; Liu, Yang; Chen, Suren

    2017-06-16

    Despite the recent developments in structural health monitoring, there remain great challenges for accurately, conveniently, and economically assessing the in-service performance of the main cables for long-span suspension bridges. A long-term structural health monitoring technique is developed to measure the tension force with a conventional sensing technology and further provide the in-service performance assessment strategy of the main cable. The monitoring system adopts conventional vibrating strings transducers to monitor the tension forces of separate cable strands of the main cable in the anchor span. The performance evaluation of the main cable is conducted based on the collected health monitoring data: (1) the measured strand forces are used to derive the overall tension force of a main cable, which is further translated into load bearing capacity assessment using the concept of safety factor; and (2) the proposed technique can also evaluate the uniformity of tension forces from different cable strands. The assessment of uniformity of strand forces of a main cable offers critical information in terms of potential risks of partial damage and performance deterioration of the main cable. The results suggest the proposed low-cost monitoring system is an option to provide approximate estimation of tension forces of main cables for suspension bridges. With the long-term monitoring data, the proposed monitoring-based evaluation methods can further provide critical information to assess the safety and serviceability performance of main cables.

  1. Measuring the short-term effects of incorporating academic service learning throughout a dental hygiene curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmer-Beck, M; Gadbury-Amyot, C; Williams, K B; Keselyak, N T; Branson, B; Mitchell, T V

    2013-11-01

    Academic service learning (ASL) provides the venue for dental hygiene education to take oral healthcare services directly into communities while at the same time promoting professional responsibility within the student bodies. The purpose of this study was to quantitatively examine the change in pre-existing attitudes and behaviours of dental hygiene students following the incorporation of ASL activities throughout a five-semester dental hygiene curriculum. Seventy-seven first-year dental hygiene students who participated in ASL from the graduating classes of 2008-2010 participated in the study. A survey instrument developed by Shiarella, based on Schwartz's Helping Behaviors Model, was used to assess students' attitudes towards community service. Additionally, questions were developed using Shinnamon's Methods and Strategies for Assessing Service-Learning in the Health Professions. Internal estimates of reliability for scales (Cronbach's α) were all >0.8. The results revealed statistically significant improvements over time in enhanced learning (P = 0.0001), self-awareness (P = 0.0001), sense of volunteerism (P = 0.013), impact on career choices (P = 0.001) and decrease in personal costs (P = 0.0001). There were no significant changes in other subscales over time. Further investigating these domains revealed minimal to no changes in attributes of service learning. Service learning integrated into the dental hygiene curriculum can enhance learning and improve students' self-awareness, sense of volunteerism, career choices and perception of personal costs. In concert with the literature on ASL, these experiences throughout the curriculum have potential for increasing students' awareness of community need and their roles as oral health professionals. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  2. Modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor short-term thermal response to flow and reactivity transients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cleveland, J.C. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

    1993-02-01

    The research reported here has been conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Division of Regulatory Applications of the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. The short-term thermal response of the Modular High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (MHTGR) is analyzed for a range of flow and reactivity transients. These transients include loss of forced circulation without scram, spurious withdrawal of a control rod group, moisture ingress, control rod and control rod group ejections, and a rapid core cooling event. For each event analyzed, an event description, a discussion of the analysis approach and assumptions, and results are presented. When possible, results of these analyses are compared with those presented by the designers in the MHTGR Preliminary Safety Information Document and in the MHTGR Probabilistic Risk Assessment. The importance of inherent safety features is illustrated, and conclusions are presented regarding the safety performance of the MHTGR. Recommendations are made for a more in-depth examination of MHTGR response for some of the analyzed transients. The coupled heat transfer-neutron kinetics model is described in detail in Appendix A.

  3. Modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor short-term thermal response to flow and reactivity transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleveland, J.C.

    1993-02-01

    The research reported here has been conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Division of Regulatory Applications of the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. The short-term thermal response of the Modular High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (MHTGR) is analyzed for a range of flow and reactivity transients. These transients include loss of forced circulation without scram, spurious withdrawal of a control rod group, moisture ingress, control rod and control rod group ejections, and a rapid core cooling event. For each event analyzed, an event description, a discussion of the analysis approach and assumptions, and results are presented. When possible, results of these analyses are compared with those presented by the designers in the MHTGR Preliminary Safety Information Document and in the MHTGR Probabilistic Risk Assessment. The importance of inherent safety features is illustrated, and conclusions are presented regarding the safety performance of the MHTGR. Recommendations are made for a more in-depth examination of MHTGR response for some of the analyzed transients. The coupled heat transfer-neutron kinetics model is described in detail in Appendix A

  4. 78 FR 66276 - Determination of Rates and Terms for Business Establishment Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-05

    ... recording of a sound recording by a business establishment service for the period January 1, 2014, through... Media, Inc.; Music Choice; DMX, Inc.; Muzak, LLC; Music Reports, Inc.; Clear Channel Broadcasting, Inc... negotiation period, see 17 U.S.C. 803(b)(3), as well as a deadline of November 16, 2012, for the participants...

  5. 78 FR 43094 - Determination of Rates and Terms for Business Establishment Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-19

    ... of an ephemeral recording of a sound recording by a business establishment service for the period... Media, Inc.; Music Choice; DMX, Inc.; Muzak LLC; Music Reports, Inc.; Clear Channel Broadcasting, Inc... negotiation period, see 17 U.S.C. 803(b)(3), and directed the participants to submit their written direct...

  6. Understanding consumer evaluations of personalised nutrition services in terms of the privacy calculus: a qualitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berezowska, A.; Fischer, A.R.H.; Ronteltap, A.; Kuznesof, S.; Macready, A.; Fallaize, R.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Personalised nutrition (PN) may provide major health benefits to consumers. A potential barrier to the uptake of PN is consumers' reluctance to disclose sensitive information upon which PN is based. This study adopts the privacy calculus to explore how PN service attributes contribute to

  7. 78 FR 37686 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Terms of Service and Open-Ended Indemnification, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-21

    ... small business concerns and other interested parties on the expected impact of this rule on small... service (TOS) agreement in the course of registering for an account with a social media application on the... consultation with agency counsel and review of a GSA-maintained list of social media applications governed by...

  8. Profiles of Turkish Pre-Service Teachers of English in Terms of Language Learning Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uztosun, Mehmet Sercan

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to describe the language learning backgrounds of Turkish pre-service teachers of English as a foreign language (EFL) with reference to their perceived language competence and satisfaction with perceived speaking ability. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected through a questionnaire that was administered to 365 first-year…

  9. Short-term memory in the service of executive control functions

    OpenAIRE

    Farshad Alizadeh Mansouri; Marcello eRosa; Nafiseh eAtapour

    2015-01-01

    Short-term memory is a crucial cognitive function for supporting on-going and upcoming behaviours, allowing storage of information across delay periods. The content of this memory may typically include tangible information about features such as the shape, colour or texture of an object, its location and motion relative to the body, or phonological information. The neural correlate of these short-term memories has been found in different brain areas involved in organizing perceptual or motor ...

  10. Labour market assessment of the offshore oil and gas industry supply and service sector in Newfoundland and Labrador

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-09-01

    The Petroleum Industry Human Resource Committee (PIHRC) commissioned this study in December 2002 to develop a profile of the labour demand and supply for the upstream production phase of the offshore oil and gas industry. Interviews with representatives from more than 45 countries in the offshore oil and gas sector in Newfoundland and Labrador were conducted. In addition, the results of a mail survey forwarded to an additional 42 companies were included along with a review of secondary labour market research. More than 340 positions were identified in the production phase in the study. Of these, approximately 80 were identified as difficult to recruit for a variety of reasons including: insufficient experience in the oil industry; occupational shortages; short-term or project employment opportunities; very limited employment opportunities and limited occupational supply; lack of specific occupational training programs; and additional projects possibly leading to occupational shortages. The study provided valuable input concerning future labour market and human resource planning and career counselling on the 340 positions previously identified. 10 tabs.

  11. Determinants of first-time utilization of long-term care services in the Netherlands: an observational record linkage study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slobbe, Laurentius C J; Wong, Albert; Verheij, Robert A; van Oers, Hans A M; Polder, Johan J

    2017-09-05

    Since in an ageing society more long-term care (LTC) facilities are needed, it is important to understand the main determinants of first-time utilization of (LTC) services. The Andersen service model, which distinguishes predisposing, enabling and need factors, was used to develop a model for first-time utilization of LTC services among the general population of the Netherlands. We used data on 214,821 persons registered in a database of general practitioners (NIVEL Primary Care Database). For each person the medical history was known, as well as characteristics such as ethnicity, income, home-ownership, and marital status. Utilization data from the national register on long-term care was linked at a personal level. Generalized Linear Models were used to determine the relative importance of factors of incident LTC-service utilization. Top 5 determinants of LTC are need, measured as the presence of chronic diseases, age, household size, household income and homeownership. When controlling for all other determinants, the presence of an additional chronic disease increases the probability of utilizing any LTC service by 45% among the 20+ population (OR = 1.45, 95% CI: 1.41-1.49), and 31% among the 65+ population (OR = 1.31, 95% CI: 1.27-1.36). With respect to the 20+ population, living in social rent (OR = 2.45, 95% CI = 2.25-2.67, ref. = home-owner) had a large impact on utilizing any LTC service. In a lesser degree this was the case for living alone (OR = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.52-1.75, ref. = not living alone). A higher household income was linked with a lower utilization of any LTC service. All three factors of the Anderson model, predisposing, enabling, and need determinants influence the likelihood of future LTC service utilization. This implies that none of these factors can be left out of the analysis of what determines this use. New in our analysis is the focus on incident utilization. This provides a better estimate of the effects of predictors

  12. Panorama 2015 - Changes in French behaviour in terms of transport: generational effect and new mobility services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevalier, Amandine; Lantz, Frederic

    2014-11-01

    Analysis of the daily mobility of French households reveals some changes in their use of the different modes of transport available to them. While use of the private car is still predominant, the use of other transport modes is changing, depending on the socio-economic characteristics of households and areas of residence. New mobility services such as car-pooling or car sharing now complement the transport facilities available to individuals. (authors)

  13. Evaluating the Long-Term Effect of NIST MEP Services on Establishment Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Clifford A. Lipscomb; Jan Youtie; Sanjay Arora; Andy Krause; Philip Shapira

    2015-01-01

    This work examines the effects of receipt of business assistance services from the Manufacturing Extension Partnership (MEP) on manufacturing establishment performance. Several measures of performance are considered: (1) change in value-added per employee (a measure of productivity); (2) change in sales per worker; (3) change in employment; and (4) establishment survival. To analyze these relationships, we merged program records from the MEP’s client and project information files with adminis...

  14. [Association between Service Utilization Patterns and Frailty in the Elderly Certified at the Support Level in the Long-term Care Insurance System].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshiyuki, Noriko; Kono, Ayumi; Soga, Tomoko; Kanaya, Yukiko; Hotta, Kuniko

    2016-01-01

    This cross-sectional study clarified the association between service utilization patterns and frailty in the elderly certified at the support level in Japan's long-term care insurance (LTCI) system. We analyzed 710 subjects who completed in-home assessments and interviews from 1,033 elderly aged 65 and over living in Izumiotsu who had been certified at the LTCI support level in August 2014. The long-term service utilization data were collected from the local governmental office. Frailty was examined by the in-home structured assessment conducted by local health and welfare professionals. As frailty indicators, we measured subjects' frailty using the Kaigo-Yobo-Checklist (CL frailty), handgrip strength, body mass index, depression, and cognitive function. Long-term service utilization patterns were classified into five patterns: (1) home helper service only, (2) day care service only, (3) home helper and day care service, (4) one or more other services (using at least one other service regardless of home helper or day care), and (5) no service utilization. Odds ratios (ORs) of each frailty indicator were estimated by service utilization patterns by using logistic regression analyses adjusted for demographic characteristics, with the other services group as the reference category. Out of 710 subjects (100%), the proportions of the service utilization patterns were as follows: home helper service only, 17.9%; day care service only, 15.6%; home helper and day care service, 13.1%; one or more other services, 27.0%; and no service utilization, 26.3%. The logistic regression analyses showed that compared with the one or more other services group, the day care service only group had lower odds of CL frailty (OR=0.57, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.34 to 0.95) and lower odds of low handgrip strength (OR=0.59, 95% CI=0.35 to 1.00). The no service utilization group had lower odds of CL frailty (OR=0.50, 95% CI=0.32 to 0.79) and lower odds of low handgrip strength (OR=0.58, 95

  15. The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III - International Space Station: Extending Long-Term Ozone and Aerosol Observations (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckman, R.; Zawodny, J. M.; Cisewski, M.; Gasbarre, J.; Flittner, D. E.; Hill, C.; Roell, M.; Moore, J. R.; Hernandez, G.; McCormick, M. P.

    2013-12-01

    The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III - International Space Station (SAGE III on ISS) will extend the global measurements of vertical profiles of ozone, aerosols, water vapor, nitrogen dioxide, and other trace gases begun with SAGE I in 1979, enabling the detection of long-term trends. SAGE III on ISS is the fourth in a series of instruments developed for monitoring these constituents in the stratosphere and troposphere. The SAGE III instrument is a moderate resolution spectrometer covering wavelengths from 290 nm to 1550 nm, using the heritage occultation technique, utilizing both the sun and the moon. Launch to ISS is planned for early 2015 aboard a Falcon 9 spacecraft. SAGE III will investigate the spatial and temporal variability of the measured species in order to determine their role in climatological processes, biogeochemical cycles, the hydrologic cycle, and atmospheric chemistry. It will characterize tropospheric, as well as stratospheric aerosols and upper tropospheric and stratospheric clouds, and investigate their effects on the Earth's environment including radiative, microphysical, and chemical interactions. The multi-decadal SAGE ozone and aerosol data sets have undergone intense scrutiny and are the international standard for accuracy and stability. SAGE data have been used to monitor the effectiveness of the Montreal Protocol. Amongst its key objectives will be to assess the state of the recovery in the distribution of ozone, to reestablish the aerosol measurements needed by both climate and ozone models, and to gain further insight into key processes contributing to ozone and aerosol variability. The ISS is ideal for Earth observing experiments; its mid-inclination orbit allows for a large range in latitude sampling and nearly continuous communications with payloads. In this presentation, we describe the SAGE III on ISS mission, its implementation, current status, and concentrate on its key science objectives.

  16. Limiting Short-term Noise versus Optical Density in a Direct Absorption Spectrometer for Trace Gas Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jervis, D.

    2016-12-01

    Field-deployable trace gas monitors are important for understanding a multitude of atmospheric processes: from forest photosynthesis and respiration [1], to fugitive methane emissions [2] and satellite measurement validation [3]. Consequently, a detailed knowledge of the performance limitations of these instruments is essential in order to establish reliable datasets. We present the short-term ( >1 Hz) performance of a long-pass direct absorption spectrometer as a function of the optical density of the absorption transition being probed. In particular, we identify fluctuations in the laser intensity as limiting the optical density uncertainty to 4x10-6/√Hz for weak transitions, and noise in the laser drive current as limiting the fractional noise in the optical density to 4x10-5/√Hz for deep transitions. We provide numerical and analytical predictions for both effects, as well as using the understanding of this phenomena to estimate how noise on neighboring strong and weak transitions couple to each other. All measurements were performed using the Aerodyne Research TILDAS Monitor, but are general to any instrument that uses direct absorption spectroscopy as a detection method. Wehr, R., et al. "Seasonality of temperate forest photosynthesis and daytime respiration." Nature 534.7609 (2016): 680-683. Conley, S., et al. "Methane emissions from the 2015 Aliso Canyon blowout in Los Angeles, CA." Science 351.6279 (2016): 1317-1320. Emmons, L. K., et al. "Validation of Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) CO retrievals with aircraft in situ profiles." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 109.D3 (2004).

  17. Effects of agricultural tillage practise on green house gas balance of an arable soil in a long term field experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munch, Jean Charles; Schilling, Rolf; Ruth, Bernhard; Fuss, Roland

    2010-05-01

    Soils are an important part of the global carbon cycle. A large proportion of global carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions is released from soils, though carbon sequestration occurs. Nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions of soils are also believed to contribute significantly to the green house effect as well as the stratospheric ozone depletion. An important source of N2O emissions is denitrification of nitrate from nitrogen fertilized soils. Although it is desirable to minimize these emissions while maintaining high crop yields it is still poorly understood how green house gas emissions may be steered by agricultural management practise, i.e. tillage and fertilization systems . In an ongoing long term field experiment at the research farm Scheyern, Bavaria, a arable field with one homogenous soil formation was transformed into plots in a randomized design 14 years ago. Since then, they are managed using conventional tillage (CT) and no tillage (NT) as well as low and high fertilization. A conventional crop rotation is maintained on the field. Starting 2007, CO2 and N2O emissions were monitored continuously for 2.5 years. Furthermore water content, temperature and redox potential were measured in-situ as they are major factors on microbial activity and denitrification. Soil was sampled from the Ap horizons of the plots about twice a month and extracts from these soil samples were analyzed for dissolved organic carbon (DOC), ammonium, nitrate/nitrite, and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON). According to the results soil density and hydrology are clearly affected by tillage practise. DOC is more affected by tillage while concentration of nitrogen species is controlled mainly by fertilization. There are distinct differences in redox potential between CT and NT plots with CT plots having more anaerobic periods. CO2 and N2O emissions exhibit a clear seasonal pattern and are affected by both tillage system and fertilization

  18. VARIABILITY OF CONTINUOUSLY MEASURED ARTERIAL PH AND BLOOD-GAS VALUES IN THE NEAR-TERM FETAL LAMB

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WOUDSTRA, BR; DEWOLF, BTHM; SMITS, TM; NATHANIELSZ, PW; ZIJLSTRA, WG; AARNOUDSE, JG

    1995-01-01

    In fetal sheep, arterial blood gas values show considerable spontaneous fluctuations. The aim of the present study was to obtain quantitative data on fetal blood gas variability. Accurate assessment of the intraindividual variations can hardly be obtained from intermittent blood samples, but

  19. 77 FR 72837 - Golden Pass Products LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    ... Florida Gas Transmission Company, LLC; Golden Triangle Storage, Inc.; Natural Gas Pipeline Company of... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY [FE Docket No. 12-156-LNG] Golden Pass Products LLC; Application for Long... notice of receipt of an application (Application) filed on October 26, 2012, by Golden Pass Products LLC...

  20. 78 FR 75337 - Eos LNG LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas Produced...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-11

    ... hub in North America, the Henry Hub, is located in southern Louisiana, and the Houston Ship Channel..., Korea, and Taiwan, are dependent upon LNG imports for their natural gas supplies. Eos states that while... natural gas supply, U.S. energy security, and any other issues, including the impact on the U.S. economy...

  1. Long-term impacts of manure amendments on carbon and greenhouse gas dynamics of rangelands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Justine J; Parton, William J; Silver, Whendee L

    2015-12-01

    Livestock manure is applied to rangelands as an organic fertilizer to stimulate forage production, but the long-term impacts of this practice on soil carbon (C) and greenhouse gas (GHG) dynamics are poorly known. We collected soil samples from manured and nonmanured fields on commercial dairies and found that manure amendments increased soil C stocks by 19.0 ± 7.3 Mg C ha(-1) and N stocks by 1.94 ± 0.63 Mg N ha(-1) compared to nonmanured fields (0-20 cm depth). Long-term historical (1700-present) and future (present-2100) impacts of management on soil C and N dynamics, net primary productivity (NPP), and GHG emissions were modeled with DayCent. Modeled total soil C and N stocks increased with the onset of dairying. Nitrous oxide (N2 O) emissions also increased by ~2 kg N2 O-N ha(-1)  yr(-1) . These emissions were proportional to total N additions and offset 75-100% of soil C sequestration. All fields were small net methane (CH4 ) sinks, averaging -4.7 ± 1.2 kg CH4 -C ha(-1)  yr(-1) . Overall, manured fields were net GHG sinks between 1954 and 2011 (-0.74 ± 0.73 Mg CO2 e ha(-1)  yr(-1) , CO2 e are carbon dioxide equivalents), whereas nonmanured fields varied around zero. Future soil C pools stabilized 40-60 years faster in manured fields than nonmanured fields, at which point manured fields were significantly larger sources than nonmanured fields (1.45 ± 0.52 Mg CO2 e ha(-1)  yr(-1) and 0.51 ± 0.60 Mg CO2 e ha(-1)  yr(-1) , respectively). Modeling also revealed a large background loss of soil C from the passive soil pool associated with the shift from perennial to annual grasses, equivalent to 29.4 ± 1.47 Tg CO2 e in California between 1820 and 2011. Manure applications increased NPP and soil C storage, but plant community changes and GHG emissions decreased, and eventually eliminated, the net climate benefit of this practice. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Remote servicing considerations for near term tokamak power reactors (TNS). Final summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spampinato, P.T.

    1977-01-01

    Next generation Tokamaks require special consideration for remote servicing. Three major problems are highlighted: (1) movement of heavy components, (2) remote connection/disconnection of joints, and (3) remote cutting, welding, and leak detection. The first problem is assumed to be handled with existing expertise and is not considered. The remaining problems are thought to be minimized by considering two engineering departures from conventional tokamak design; locating the field shaping coils outside of the toroidal coils and enclosing the total device within an evacuated reactor cell. Five topics under this vacuum building concept are discussed: incremental cost, vacuum pumping, tritium containment, activation topology, and first year operations

  3. The medium-term sustainability of organisational innovations in the national health service

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Graham P; Currie, Graeme; Finn, Rachael; McDonald, Ruth

    2011-01-01

    Background: There is a growing recognition of the importance of introducing new ways of working into the UK’s\\ud National Health Service (NHS) and other health systems, in order to ensure that patient care is provided as\\ud effectively and efficiently as possible. Researchers have examined the challenges of introducing new ways of\\ud working–’organisational innovations’–into complex organisations such as the NHS, and this has given rise to a\\ud much better understanding of how this takes plac...

  4. Strategies for the goods and services market development: a new approach for the natural gas industry in Brazil; Estrategias para o desenvolvimento do mercado de bens e servicos: uma nova abordagem para a industria de gas natural no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, Paulo S.R. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Fernandes, Elton; Fonseca, Marcus V. de A. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia de Producao; Pinto, Maria C.L.F.P. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2004-07-01

    This work approaches the issue of developing the national goods and services market for the natural gas area, analyzing the constraints that exist today to the growth of the supply of goods and services and proposes innovative strategies and actions to accelerate the emergence of this supply. The suggested strategies and actions are presented in the form of two management models: the first aimed towards the development of pioneering equipment and the other directed to augmenting the supply of services within the country, focusing on human training programs, technological assistance to companies and the development of applied research projects. The models may be adopted by a company that intends to assume the leadership in the commercialization of natural gas, offering its clients not only a commodity but an energy solution. The innovation strategies applicable to each model are analyzed, discussing the advantages in the adoption of each one by the natural gas industry. The social profits resulting from the proposed actions and the general results expected from the adoption of the two models are presented focusing the contribution to foster the share of natural gas in the Brazilian Energy Matrix. (author)

  5. The Analysis of the Dynamics of the Marketing Services Market in Terms of Strategic Management of Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanova Natalya

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to determine the basic modern marketing services according to the dynamics data of the media market of Ukraine. Thus, marketing services are considered as tools that provide crisis man-agement in strategic business development perspective. Scientific and practical significance of the study lies in the results of trend analysis of the dynamics of the media market of Ukraine and its components, the results of which led to the conclusion about the importance of Internet advertising as a modern marketing tool in terms of anti-crisis policy. The study predicted the values of the obtained volumes and market share of Internet advertising in the media market structure in Ukraine for the next period.

  6. Long-term fluid expulsion revealed by carbonate crusts and pockmarks connected to subsurface gas anomalies and palaeo-channels in the central North Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chand, Shyam; Crémière, Antoine; Lepland, Aivo; Thorsnes, Terje; Brunstad, Harald; Stoddart, Daniel

    2017-06-01

    Gas seepage through the seafloor into the water column is inferred based on acoustic mapping, video observations and geochemical analyses at multiple locations in the Viking Graben and Utsira High areas of the central North Sea. Flares in the Viking Graben occur both inside and along the periphery of a submarine melt water channel where pockmarks (up to 500 m in diameter) and methane-derived carbonate crusts are found on the seafloor, indicating focussing of fluid flow in the vicinity of the channel. The flares can be related to gas accumulations close to the seafloor as well as in Quaternary and deeper strata, observed as high-amplitude reflections on seismic data. Many palaeo-channels, which act as accumulation zones, are observed in the subsurface of both the Viking Graben and Utsira High areas. The deeper origin of gas is partially supported by results of isotope analyses of headspace gas collected from sediment samples of the Viking Graben, which show a mixed microbial/thermogenic origin whereas isotope data on free seeping gas in the Viking Graben indicate a predominantly microbial origin. Based on these lines of evidence, a structure-controlled fluid flow model is proposed whereby hydrocarbons migrate in limited amount from deep thermogenic reservoirs along faults, and these deep fluids are strongly diluted by microbial methane. Moreover, the existence of subsurface pockmarks at several stratigraphic levels indicates long-term fluid flow, interpreted to be caused by gas hydrate destabilisation and stress-related high overpressures.

  7. Understanding the effects of short-term international service-learning trips on medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedini, Nauzley C; Gruppen, Larry D; Kolars, Joseph C; Kumagai, Arno K

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to understand what meaning(s) preclinical students attributed to participation in one-week international service-learning trips (ISLTs) and what specific experiences during the trips accounted for such perspectives. Twenty-four first-year students who had participated in one-week ISLTs at the University of Michigan Medical School during February 2010 were invited to participate. Individual, semistructured interviews were conducted from March to August 2010 with 13 student participants. Using grounded theory analysis, several major themes were identified. Acquisition of clinical/language skills and knowledge of other health care systems were explicit benefits associated with student ISLT experiences. However, in-depth, reflective discussions revealed implicit insights and lessons, the most pervasive of which were student ambivalence concerning the value and effect of ISLTs on communities, issues of privilege and power, and ethical concerns when working with vulnerable populations. These implicit lessons stimulated new insights into future involvement in global health and emphasized the importance of reflection and discussion to enhance ISLT experiences. The current study suggests that one-week ISLTs may engender implicit insights and lessons regarding ethical and societal issues involved with global health and may stimulate the development of critical reflection on current and future professional roles for student participants. Furthermore, these activities should allow time and space for dialogue and reflection to ensure that this implicit understanding can be put to constructive educational and service-oriented uses.

  8. 38 CFR 8.0 - Definitions of terms used in connection with title 38 CFR, part 8, National Service Life Insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... term organic loss of speech means the loss of the ability to express oneself, both by voice and whisper... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions of terms used... § 8.0 Definitions of terms used in connection with title 38 CFR, part 8, National Service Life...

  9. Child and Adolescent Mental Health in Haiti: Developing Long-Term Mental Health Services After the 2010 Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legha, Rupinder K; Solages, Martine

    2015-10-01

    This article presents an overview of child and adolescent mental health in Haiti, emphasizing the role of structural violence and the factors shaping child protection. The 2010 Haiti earthquake is discussed as an acute on chronic event that highlighted the lack of pre-existing formal biomedical mental health services and worsened the impact of structural violence. Considerations for long-term, sustainable, culturally relevant child and adolescent mental health care in Haiti are also provided. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Proposal for the award of an industrial services contract for maintenance of fire and gas detection and evacuation alarm systems

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    This document concerns the award of an Industrial Services contract for maintenance of fire and gas detection and evacuation alarm systems. Following a market survey carried out among 48 firms in fourteen Member States, a call for tenders (IT-2818/ST) was sent on 15 December 2000 to four firms and three consortia, each consisting of two firms, in five Member States. By the closing date, CERN had received tenders from one firm and three consortia in four Member States. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a contract with the consortium SCHRACK SECONET (AT) - SOTEB (FR), the lowest bidder, for an initial period of three years from 1 October 2001 for an amount not exceeding 5 800 000 Swiss francs, not subject to revision. The contract will include options for two one-year extensions beyond the initial three-year period. The consortium has indicated the following distribution by country of the contract value covered by this adjudication proposal: AT-50%, FR-50%.

  11. LBA-ECO TG-07 Long-Term Soil Gas Flux and Root Mortality, Tapajos National Forest

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set reports measurements of trace gas fluxes of methane (CH4), nitric oxide (N2O), nitrous oxide (NO), carbon dioxide (CO2) from soils at a study site in...

  12. LBA-ECO TG-07 Long-Term Soil Gas Flux and Root Mortality, Tapajos National Forest

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set reports measurements of trace gas fluxes of methane (CH4), nitric oxide (N2O), nitrous oxide (NO), carbon dioxide (CO2) from soils at a study...

  13. Health Services Use by Late Preterm and Term Infants From Infancy to Adulthood: A Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isayama, Tetsuya; Lewis-Mikhael, Anne-Mary; O'Reilly, Daria; Beyene, Joseph; McDonald, Sarah D

    2017-07-01

    Late-preterm infants born at 34 to 36 weeks' gestation have increased risks of various health problems. Health service utilization (HSU) of late-preterm infants has not been systematically summarized before. To summarize the published literature on short- and long-term HSU by late-preterm infants versus term infants from infancy to adulthood after initial discharge from the hospital. We searched Medline, Embase, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and PsycINFO. Cohort and case-control studies that compared HSU (admissions, emergency department visits, etc) between late-preterm infants and term infants were included. Data extracted included study design, setting, population, HSU, covariates, and effect estimates. Fifty-two articles were included (50 cohort and 2 case-control studies). Meta-analyses with random effect models that used the inverse-variance method found that late-preterm infants had higher chances of all-cause admissions than term infants during all the time periods. The magnitude of the differences decreased with age from the neonatal period through adolescence, with adjusted odds ratios from 2.34 (95% confidence intervals 1.19-4.61) to 1.09 (1.05-1.13) and adjusted incidence rate ratios from 2.62 (2.52-2.72) to 1.14 (1.11-1.18). Late-preterm infants had higher rates of various cause-specific HSU than term infants for jaundice, infection, respiratory problems, asthma, and neurologic and/or mental health problems during certain periods, including adulthood. Considerable heterogeneity existed and was partially explained by the variations in the adjustment for multiple births and gestational age ranges of the term infants. Late-preterm infants had higher risks for all-cause admissions as well as for various cause-specific HSU during the neonatal period through adolescence. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  14. Re-imagining long-term services and supports: towards livable environments, service capacity, and enhanced community integration, choice, and quality of life for seniors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Rosalie A; Cutler, Lois J

    2015-04-01

    In the half century since enactment of the 1965 Great Society programs, accomplishments were gradually made to improve access to and quality of long-term services and supports (LTSS), including: mitigation of financial and care abuses in nursing facilities (NFs); substantial rebalancing of LTSS towards consumer-preferred home-and-community-based services (HCBS); increasing flexible consumer-centered HCBS including payment to family caregivers; and more assisted-living and housing options for seniors with heavy care needs. A unified planning and advocacy agenda across age and disability type and greater consumer transparency fueled progress. Nonetheless, LTSS is a broken system; persistent problems interfere with substantial and necessary change. These include; over-emphasis on safety for LTSS consumers; inattention to physical environments in all settings; regulatory and professional rigidity; and poor communication and information. Our recommendations are aimed at builders and designers, LTSS professionals, regulators, and educators/trainers; the last may be crucial in forging new consensus and over-coming entrenched beliefs. Policy recommendations include relatively narrow steps-for example, requiring single occupancy in all NFs and assisted living settings financed with public dollars-to broad reworking of the prerequisites for livable age-friendly (and dementia-friendly) communities and for a capable, flexible LTSS workforce. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. A Long-term Ring Current Measure Created by Using the VMO MANGO Service Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargatze, L. F.; King, T. A.

    2008-12-01

    A set of computational routines called MANGO (Magnetogram Analysis for the Network of Geomagnetic Observatories) is utilized to calculate a new measure of magnetic storm activity for the years 1932 to the near present. The MANGO routines are part of an effort to enhance data services available to users of the Heliophysics VxOs, specifically for the Virtual Magnetospheric Observatory (VMO). The community can utilize MANGO to derive value-added data products and images suitable for publication via the VMO web site. MANGO routines will be demonstrated through their application to study magnetic storms, a field of research that began in 1828 when von Humboldt launched an investigation of observations taken simultaneously from magnetic field stations spread around the Earth. The defining signature of magnetic storms is a worldwide decrease of the horizontal component of the magnetic field caused by fluctuations in the strength of the ring current. In the 1940's, Bartel pushed for deriving an index to measure the strength of magnetic storms. Progress intensified during the International Geophysical Year leading to the definition of the Dst index. The definitive Dst index is calculated at WDC-C2 for Geomagnetism in Kyoto by using a derivation scheme certified by Division V of IAGA. The Dst index time series spans the years 1957 to present with a cadence equal to 1-hr. The new data set we will present is a magnetic storm measure that is similar to the Dst index though it is calculated by using MANGO and a method that differs slightly from the official scheme. The MANGO data service package is based on a set of IDL routines that decompose ground magnetic field observations to isolate secular, diurnal, and disturbance variations of the magnetic field station-by-station. Each MANGO subroutine has been written in modular fashion to allow "plug and play"- style flexibility and each has been designed to account for failure modes and noisy data so that the programs will run to

  16. Trends in greenhouse gas emissions from consumption and production of animal food products - implications for long-term climate targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cederberg, C; Hedenus, F; Wirsenius, S; Sonesson, U

    2013-02-01

    To analyse trends in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from production and consumption of animal products in Sweden, life cycle emissions were calculated for the average production of pork, chicken meat, beef, dairy and eggs in 1990 and 2005. The calculated average emissions were used together with food consumption statistics and literature data on imported products to estimate trends in per capita emissions from animal food consumption. Total life cycle emissions from the Swedish livestock production were around 8.5 Mt carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2e) in 1990 and emissions decreased to 7.3 Mt CO2e in 2005 (14% reduction). Around two-thirds of the emission cut was explained by more efficient production (less GHG emission per product unit) and one-third was due to a reduced animal production. The average GHG emissions per product unit until the farm-gate were reduced by 20% for dairy, 15% for pork and 23% for chicken meat, unchanged for eggs and increased by 10% for beef. A larger share of the average beef was produced from suckler cows in cow-calf systems in 2005 due to the decreasing dairy cow herd, which explains the increased emissions for the average beef in 2005. The overall emission cuts from the livestock sector were a result of several measures taken in farm production, for example increased milk yield per cow, lowered use of synthetic nitrogen fertilisers in grasslands, reduced losses of ammonia from manure and a switch to biofuels for heating in chicken houses. In contrast to production, total GHG emissions from the Swedish consumption of animal products increased by around 22% between 1990 and 2005. This was explained by strong growth in meat consumption based mainly on imports, where growth in beef consumption especially was responsible for most emission increase over the 15-year period. Swedish GHG emissions caused by consumption of animal products reached around 1.1 t CO2e per capita in 2005. The emission cuts necessary for meeting a global temperature

  17. Short-term effects of CO2 leakage on the soil bacterial community in a simulated gas leakage scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Ma

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The technology of carbon dioxide (CO2 capture and storage (CCS has provided a new option for mitigating global anthropogenic emissions with unique advantages. However, the potential risk of gas leakage from CO2 sequestration and utilization processes has attracted considerable attention. Moreover, leakage might threaten soil ecosystems and thus cannot be ignored. In this study, a simulation experiment of leakage from CO2 geological storage was designed to investigate the short-term effects of different CO2 leakage concentration (from 400 g m−2 day−1 to 2,000 g m−2 day−1 on soil bacterial communities. A shunt device and adjustable flow meter were used to control the amount of CO2 injected into the soil. Comparisons were made between soil physicochemical properties, soil enzyme activities, and microbial community diversity before and after injecting different CO2 concentrations. Increasing CO2 concentration decreased the soil pH, and the largest variation ranged from 8.15 to 7.29 (p < 0.05. Nitrate nitrogen content varied from 1.01 to 4.03 mg/Kg, while Olsen-phosphorus and total phosphorus demonstrated less regular downtrends. The fluorescein diacetate (FDA hydrolytic enzyme activity was inhibited by the increasing CO2 flux, with the average content varying from 22.69 to 11.25 mg/(Kg h (p < 0.05. However, the increasing activity amplitude of the polyphenol oxidase enzyme approached 230%, while the urease activity presented a similar rising trend. Alpha diversity results showed that the Shannon index decreased from 7.66 ± 0.13 to 5.23 ± 0.35 as the soil CO2 concentration increased. The dominant phylum in the soil samples was Proteobacteria, whose proportion rose rapidly from 28.85% to 67.93%. In addition, the proportion of Acidobacteria decreased from 19.64% to 9.29% (p < 0.01. Moreover, the abundances of genera Methylophilus, Methylobacillus, and Methylovorus increased, while GP4, GP6 and GP7 decreased. Canonical correlation analysis

  18. International long-term interim storage for spent fuel. An independent storage service investor model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leister, P.

    1999-01-01

    Thinking globally the obvious world-wide demands for large storage capacities for spent fuel within the next decades and the newly arising demands for long-term interim storage of spent fuel urges to respond by international interim storage facilities of high capacity. Low cost storage can be achieved only by arranging the storage facility underground in a suitable host rock formation and by selecting the geographical are by an international competition under those countries, who are willing to offer their land. The investor and operator of an international storage facility selected and realised by a competition on the free market as well as the country where the storage is built are both bound by two different kinds of contacts. The main contract is between the offering country/region and the independent operator. The independent operator has in addition a series of contracts with various utilities, which are interested to have their spent fuel stored for a longer period

  19. Child abuse victims' involvement in community agency treatment: service correlates, short-term outcomes, and relationship to reabuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolko, David J; Baumann, Barbara L; Caldwell, Nicola

    2003-11-01

    This study examines the correlates and impacts of child treatment in 68 cases referred to community agency providers after reports of child physical or sexual abuse. Standardized clinical assessments were conducted with child victims and their caregivers at intake and short-term follow-up (FUP-1), supplemented by official record reviews at a long-term follow-up (FUP-2). Child treatment was received by 19% and 50% of the children at FUP-1 and FUP-2, respectively. There were few correlates of initial child treatment involvement (sexual abuse or parent and family services received concurrently). Initial child treatment was not associated with significant gains in child outcomes. Child improvement in abuse-related outcomes was associated with post-traumatic stress disorder and lower adjustment at intake. Initial child treatment was unrelated to reabuse or out-of-home placement by FUP-2. Additional studies are needed to more fully evaluate the process and outcome of referral of child abuse victims to community-based services.

  20. Dynamics and Structure of Dispute in Open Group of Facebook Social Networking Service in Terms of Teenagers’ Homosexual Relations Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei V. Kharitonov

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the results of discussions in the group of Facebook social networking service, dealing with the problem of teenagers’ homosexual relations education. The goal of the research is to study the dynamics of the dispute in Facebook social networking service on the example of the closed group “Teenagers’ Sexual Orientation”. As a whole, 72 people participated in the discussion, involving both representatives, sharing the views of the LGBT community, concerning homosexual relations and teenagers’ heterosexual parents. As a result of the dispute, conducted within Facebook website 230 comments were left. Resulting from the content analysis of the message texts, the estimation of a number of parameters was made. The estimation showed that the parties of the virtual discussion are in deficit of decisions in terms of virtual disputes conduct. The declared wish to argue out doesn’t lead to the real activity, relevant to evidence-based disputes. Thus, we can consider that the participants of the virtual discussion are in deficit of the decisions in terms of virtual disputes conduct.

  1. The times they are a-changing: Self-directed long-term services and supports and gerontological social work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciegaj, Mark; Hooyman, Nancy R; Mahoney, Kevin J; DeLuca, Casey

    2018-03-05

    The Partnerships for Person-Centered (PC) and Participant-Directed (PD) Long-Term Services and Supports (LTSS) Project (Partnerships Project) was a three-year effort funded by the New York Community Trust to develop and implement social work curriculum that would better prepare students for the changing practice demands of the aging and disability services network for self-directed LTSS (SD-LTSS). This article first describes the growth of SD-LTSS and the need for trained social workers on this service delivery model. The paper then describes the Partnerships Project that involved schools of social work along and aging and disability network organization partners in nine states. This description includes the major activities of the project including the creation of SD-LTSS competencies for social work education, the infusion of these competencies in beginning and advanced social work classes, and student assessment of their attainment of these competencies. This article then discusses the challenges to institutionalizing such curricular changes within social work programs and the need for a national strategy to train social workers for the demands of SD-LTSS.

  2. Utilisation of dental services in a university hospital palliative and long-term care unit in Geneva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmel, Martin; Schoeni, Patricia; Zulian, Gilbert B; Müller, Frauke

    2008-06-01

    Dental care plays an important role in the multidisciplinary approach, which is used in palliative and long-term care to address the complex needs of terminally ill patients. The aim of this study was to assess the utilisation of dental services in a University Hospital Palliative and Long-term Care Unit. Over an observation period of 13 months, structured questionnaires were filled in after each dental appointment. The survey covered three main topics: the initiation and incentive from the dental consultation, particular difficulties because of the patient's health or the hospital's organisation as well as the accomplished treatment. Two hundred and seventy-five questionnaires from a total of 102 patients were available for analysis. The patients' median age was 83 years (SD 10.3, range 49-101 years), 63 were female, 39 male. A majority of first appointments were initiated by a physician (n = 49 of 102), mainly because of pain (n = 62 of 275). 10.5% of the appointments were cancelled on the same day. Only one-fifth of the patients were able to reach the practice on foot. Six used a walking stick and 54 relied on a wheelchair. Eighteen patients needed to be seen in their bed. The most frequently performed procedures were extractions and removal of denture sore spots (n = 67 of 275) followed by the manufacturing of new dentures (n = 38 of 275). In more than 17% of the appointments, no particular treatment was performed. The utilisation of dental services in terminally ill and severely compromised elderly patients shown justifies a dental service in a palliative care or geriatric hospital setting. The particular dental work profile requires a practitioner with empathy and professional experience.

  3. Developing a Natural Gas-Powered Bus Rapid Transit Service: A Case Study on Leadership: Roaring Fork Transportation Authority (Presentation); NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, A.

    2015-03-01

    The Roaring Fork Transportation Authority (RFTA) represents a series of unique successes in alternative fuel deployment by pushing the envelope with innovative solutions. In the last year, RFTA demonstrated the ability to utilize compressed natural gas buses at a range of altitudes, across long distances, in extreme weather conditions and in a modern indoor fueling and maintenance facility - allwhile saving money and providing high-quality customer service. This case study will highlight how the leadership of organizations and communities that are implementing advances in natural gas vehicle technology is paving the way for broader participation.

  4. Evaluation of Gas Reburning & Low NOx Burners on a Wall Fired Boiler Performance and Economics Report Gas Reburning-Low NOx Burner System Cherokee Station Unit 3 Public Service Company of Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    1998-07-01

    Under the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Coal Technology Program (Round 3), a project was completed to demonstrate control of boiler NOX emissions and to a lesser degree, due to coal replacement, SO2 emissions. The project involved combining Gas Reburning with Low NOX Burners (GR-LNB) on a coal-fired electric utility boiler to determine if high levels of NOX reduction (70%) could be achieved. Sponsors of the project included the U.S. Department of Energy, the Gas Research Institute, Public Service Company of Colorado, Colorado Interstate Gas, Electric Power Research Institute, and the Energy and Environmental Research Corporation. The GR-LNB demonstration was performed on Public Service Company of Colorado's (PSCO) Cherokee Unit #3, located in Denver, Colorado. This unit is a 172 MW~ wall-fired boiler that uses Colorado Bituminous, low-sulfur coal. It had a baseline NOX emission level of 0.73 lb/106 Btu using conventional burners. Low NOX burners are designed to yield lower NOX emissions than conventional burners. However, the NOX control achieved with this technique is limited to 30-50%. Also, with LNBs, CO emissions can increase to above acceptable standards. Gas Reburning (GR) is designed to reduce NOX in the flue gas by staged fuel combustion. This technology involves the introduction of natural gas into the hot furnace flue gas stream. When combined, GR and LNBs minimize NOX emissions and maintain acceptable levels of CO emissions. A comprehensive test program was completed, operating over a wide range of boiler conditions. Over 4,000 hours of operation were achieved, providing substantial data. Measurements were taken to quantify reductions in NOX emissions, the impact on boiler equipment and operability and factors influencing costs. The GR-LNB technology achieved good NOX emission reductions and the goals of the project were achieved. Although the performance of the low NOX burners (supplied by others) was less than expected, a NOX reduction of

  5. Law project on the gas utility modernization and gas industries development. Law project synthesis on the gas utility modernization and gas industries development; Projet de loi relatif a la modernisation du service public du gaz naturel et au developpement des entreprises gazieres.Synthese du projet de loi sur la modernisation du service public du gaz et le developpement des entreprises gazieres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-05-01

    The french government would like to develop a law concerning the gas utility modernization and gas industries development, which completes the today system, more particularly, the law of 1946. This project specifies and comforts the gas utility, it gives to the energy policy tools adapted to the new european context. It helps the natural gas industry to become more competitive. The method chosen by the government is presented and discussed in these three documents. (A.L.B.)

  6. Analysis of the radius and diameter protocols in terms of pricing telecommunication services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna M. Radonjić

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Accounting of telecommunication services is closely related to the functions of authentication and authorization. These functions are usually considered together and implemented within the same server using a common protocol. The most renowned protocols for authentication, authorization and accounting are the RADIUS and Diameter protocols.   AAA functions and related protocols   In this chapter, the accounting management architecture developed by IETF is presented. It includes the interaction between network elements, accounting servers and billing and charging servers. Accounting data can be used for management, planning and charging users as well as other (specific purposes. Authentication is the process of confirming a user's digital identity, usually through some type of identifiers and related data. Authorization determines whether a particular entity is authorized to perform an activity.   Basic Functions of the RADIUS Protocol   The RADIUS architecture is based on a client-server model. It uses UDP on the transport layer. Transactions between the client and the server are authenticated, which is achieved by using a common secret key that is never sent through the network. Given the limited resources available to network devices, RADIUS facilitates and centralizes charging end users, provides some protection against active attacks by unauthorized users and it has great support from different network equipment vendors. Although RADIUS is a widely accepted protocol for the mechanisms of authentication, authorization and accounting, it has certain shortcomings that may be caused by the protocol itself or by its poor implementation.   Architecture and Operation of the Diameter Protocol   Diameter is a scalable protocol designed by the IETF working group in order to eliminate shortcomings and functional limitations of the RADIUS protocol and eventually to replace it in the near future. Most of the basic Diameter mechanisms and its

  7. 77 FR 72840 - CE FLNG, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas Produced...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    ..., DOE/FE issued Order No. 3193, granting long-term multi-contract authorization to export LNG by vessel... Application In the instant application, CE FLNG seeks long-term, multi-contract authorization to export up to... is not prohibited by United States law or policy. CE FLNG requests that such long-term authorization...

  8. Successfully integrating aged care services: A review of the evidence and tools emerging from a long-term care program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Stewart

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Providing efficient and effective aged care services is one of the greatest public policy concerns currently facing governments. Increasing the integration of care services has the potential to provide many benefits including increased access, promoting greater efficiency, and improving care outcomes. There is little research, however, investigating how integrated aged care can be successfully achieved. The PRISMA (Program of Research to Integrate Services for the Maintenance of Autonomy project, from Quebec, Canada, is one of the most systematic and sustained bodies of research investigating the translation and outcomes of an integrated care policy into practice.  The PRISMA research program has run since 1988, yet there has been no independent systematic review of this work to draw out the lessons learnt. Methods: Narrative review of all literature emanating from the PRISMA project between 1988 and 2012. Researchers accessed an online list of all published papers from the program website. The reference lists of papers were hand searched to identify additional literature. Finally, Medline, Pubmed, EMBASE and Google Scholar indexing databases were searched using key terms and author names. Results were extracted into specially designed spread sheets for analysis. Results: 45 journal articles and two books authored or co-authored by the PRISMA team were identified. Research was primarily concerned with: the design, development and validation of screening and assessment tools; and results generated from their application. Both quasi-experimental and cross sectional analytic designs were used extensively. Contextually appropriate expert opinion was obtained using variations on the Delphi Method. Literature analysis revealed the structures, processes and outcomes which underpinned the implementation. PRISMA provides evidence that integrating care for older persons is beneficial to individuals through reducing incidence of functional

  9. Incentive regulation regarding the service quality of electricity and natural gas network operators in 2015. Follow-up Report, January 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    The tariffs set by the French Energy Regulation Commission (CRE) for natural gas distribution system operators (DSOs), natural gas transmission system operators (TSOs) as well as for the electricity distribution system operator (Enedis, former ERDF) include an incentive regulation regarding the quality of service. The CRE has defined indicators to monitor the performance of operators in several fields considered relevant to assess the quality of service. Some of these indicators, considered to have specific importance in ensuring that the market operates properly, are subject to a system of financial incentives: bonuses or penalties are given to operators depending on the attainment of objectives set by the CRE. Other indicators, which do not carry financial incentives, complete the mechanism and ensure a broader surveillance of the operators' service quality. A financial incentive may be applied to these indicators at a later date if the CRE deems it necessary. The analyses of the service quality monitoring indicators presented in this report cover the period from January 1 to December 31, 2015. A review of the service quality of DSOs, TSOs and Enedis is made according to these indicators. An annex contains all individual quality reports of Enedis, DSOs and TSOs

  10. Long-term changes in corneal endothelial morphology after discontinuation of low gas-permeable contact lens wear

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Odenthal, M. T. P.; Gan, I. M.; Oosting, J.; Kijlstra, A.; Beekhuis, W. H.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Low gas-permeable contact lens wear of polymethyl methacrylate or hydroxyethyl methacrylate material is known to cause morphologic abnormalities in the corneal endothelial cell layer. These tenses were widely prescribed and successfully worn until their use was actively discouraged in the

  11. Long-term changes in corneal endothelial morphology after discontinuation of low gas-permeable contact lens wear

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Odenthal, M.T.; Gan, I.M.; Oosting, J.; Kijlstra, A.; Beekhuis, W.H.

    2005-01-01

    Low gas-permeable contact lens wear of polymethyl methacrylate or hydroxyethyl methacrylate material is known to cause morphologic abnormalities in the corneal endothelial cell layer. These lenses were widely prescribed and successfully worn until their use was actively discouraged in the late 1980s

  12. 76 FR 34212 - Lake Charles Exports, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-13

    ..., Jordan, Nicaragua, Mexico, Morocco, Oman, Peru, and Singapore. DATES: Protests, motions to intervene or... Commission) in 1977, and original construction was completed in July 1981. In 2001, BGLS entered into a firm... terminal through the construction of additional storage capacity, additional gas-fired vaporization...

  13. Gas-liquid two-phase flow behaviors and performance characteristics of proton exchange membrane fuel cells in a short-term microgravity environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hang; Liu, Xuan; Zhao, Jian Fu; Ye, Fang; Ma, Chong Fang

    2017-06-01

    In this work, proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) with transparent windows are designed to study the gas-liquid two-phase flow behaviors inside flow channels and the performance of a PEMFC with vertical channels and a PEMFC with horizontal channels in a normal gravity environment and a 3.6 s short-term microgravity environment. Experiments are conducted under high external circuit load and low external circuit load at low temperature where is 35 °C. The results of the present experimental work demonstrate that the performance and the gas-liquid two-phase flow behaviors of the PEMFC with vertical channels exhibits obvious changes when the PEMFCs enter the 3.6 s short-term microgravity environment from the normal gravity environment. Meanwhile, the performance of the PEMFC with vertical channels increases after the PEMFC enters the 3.6 s short-term microgravity environment under high external circuit load, while under low external circuit load, the PEMFC with horizontal channels exhibits better performance in both the normal gravity environment and the 3.6 s short-term microgravity environment.

  14. Dynamics of soil gas radon concentration in a highly permeable soil based on a long-term high temporal resolution observation series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Katalin Zsuzsanna; Jordan, Gyozo; Horváth, Ákos; Szabó, Csaba

    2013-10-01

    This paper studies the temporal variation of soil gas radon activity concentration in a highly permeable (k = 2.0E-11 m(2)) sandy-gravelly soil in order to understand if temporal variation of soil gas radon activity concentration can affect geogenic radon potential determination. Geogenic radon potential provides information about the potential risk from radon. Its calculation takes into account the equilibrium, saturated at infinite depth, soil gas radon activity concentration (c∞). This concentration may vary at annual time scale due to the environmental conditions. A long-term (yearly) and high temporal resolution (15 min) observation, applied in this study, reveal various temporal features such as long-term trend, seasonality, daily periodicity and sudden events in soil gas radon time series. Results show seasonal and daily periodical variation of the measured soil gas radon activity concentration (csoilRn) in a highly permeable sandy-gravelly soil with definite seasons without obvious long transitional periods. The winter (from October 2010 to April 2011) is characterized by 2.5 times higher average soil gas radon activity concentration (median is 7.0 kBq m(-3)) than the summer (August, September 2010 and May, June, July 2011) (median is 2.8 kBq m(-3)). Daily periodicity, which is much less than the seasonal one, controls the soil gas radon activity concentration mainly in the summer season. Average (AM) value of csoilRn is higher at night than in the daytime with about 18% and 3.8% in summer and in winter, respectively. As a conclusion, in case of single csoilRn measurement on a highly permeable (k ≥ 2.0E-11 m(2)) soil, similar to our test site, csoilRn should be corrected according to the seasons for calculating the equilibrium activity concentration c∞ value. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Nutrient digestibility and growth in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) are impaired by short term exposure to moderate supersaturation in total gas pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Peter Vilhelm; Pedersen, Lars-Flemming; Pedersen, Per Bovbjerg

    2013-01-01

    maintained at or above saturation, this leads to a supersaturation in total gas pressure (TGP). Depending on severity, total gas pressures above saturation may lead to gas bubble trauma, evident by visual inspection of the fish. Physiological effects of subclinical levels of TGP are not well known and have...... not been investigated for rainbow trout. The present study examined the effects of N2 supersaturation, with or without simultaneous excess TGP. Supersaturation with N2 (ΔP 22mmHg) without total gas supersaturation (ΔTGP −6mmHg) did not have any significant effects on feed intake, feed conversion or growth....... Short term (16days) exposure to N2 supersaturation (ΔP 36mmHg) in combination with a ΔTGP of 23mmHg did not affect feed intake, nor did it cause GBT or any apparent changes in behaviour. Excess TGP did, however, significantly reduce apparent lipid digestibility, feed conversion, and the thermal growth...

  16. ATLAS monitored drift tube long-term stability and aging study performed for the first time with the gas-recirculation system planned for LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Zimmermann, S

    2004-01-01

    The monitored drift tubes (MDTs) of the ATLAS muon spectrometer have to sustain count rates up to 1500 Hz/cm and must be able to survive an accumulated charge of up to 0.6 C/cm during 10 years of operation. This paper presents results of aging studies carried out at the CERN Gamma Irradiation Facility GIF for the first time with a final ATLAS muon chamber and a prototype of the gas recirculation system planned at LHC. A loss in pulse height was observed for MDTs under gas recirculation after an accumulated charge equivalent to only 1 year of LHC operation; the effect was traced to a silicone contamination from bad components in the gas recirculation system. Tubes operated with the classical one-pass, flushing mode did not show any evidence of aging, thus (re)validating the materials and components used in the MDT construction. Questions of long-term stability when recycling the major part of the operating gas could also be addressed by the measurements performed; results on this will also be discussed. (6 ref...

  17. Excellent impact performance of PVC pipeline materials in gas distribution networks after many years of service (CD-rom)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Roy; Hermkens, R.M.J.; Wolters, Mannes; Weller, J.; Warnet, Laurent; Beckervordersandforth, C.; Verberg, G.H.B.; Kramer, M.

    2008-01-01

    It has been about fifty years ago since the first unplasticized poly(vinyl chloride) (uPVC) pipes were installed for use in gas distribution purposes. Currently, about 22,500 km of uPVC is still in use in the Dutch gas distribution network. The pipes were originally designed for a lifetime of 50

  18. Effective antimicrobial stewardship in a long-term care facility through an infectious disease consultation service: keeping a LID on antibiotic use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jump, Robin L P; Olds, Danielle M; Seifi, Nasim; Kypriotakis, Georgios; Jury, Lucy A; Peron, Emily P; Hirsch, Amy A; Drawz, Paul E; Watts, Brook; Bonomo, Robert A; Donskey, Curtis J

    2012-12-01

    We introduced a long-term care facility (LTCF) infectious disease (ID) consultation service (LID service) that provides on-site consultations to residents of a Veterans Affairs (VA) LTCF. We determined the impact of the LID service on antimicrobial use and Clostridium difficile infections at the LTCF. A 160-bed VA LTCF. Systemic antimicrobial use and positive C. difficile tests at the LTCF were compared for the 36 months before and the 18 months after the initiation of the ID consultation service through segmented regression analysis of an interrupted time series. Relative to that in the preintervention period, total systemic antibiotic administration decreased by 30% (Peffective means to achieve antimicrobial stewardship.

  19. Factors Associated With Changes in Perceived Quality of Life Among Elderly Recipients of Long-Term Services and Supports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naylor, Mary D; Hirschman, Karen B; Hanlon, Alexandra L; Abbott, Katherine M; Bowles, Kathryn H; Foust, Janice; Shah, Shivani; Zubritsky, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    Advance knowledge about changes in multiple dimensions of health related quality of life (HRQoL) among older adults receiving long-term services and supports (LTSS) over time and across settings. A prospective, observational, longitudinal cohort design. Nursing homes (NHs), assisted living facilities (ALFs), community. A total of 470 older adults who were first-time recipients of LTSS. Single-item quality-of-life measure assessed every 3 months over 2 years. HRQoL domains of emotional status, functional status, and social support were measured using standardized instruments. Multivariable mixed effects model with time varying covariates revealed that quality-of-life ratings decreased over time (P Quality-of-life ratings were higher among enrollees with fewer depressive symptoms (P elderly LTSS recipients: quality of life. Understanding associations between multiple HRQoL domains and quality of life over time and directly from LTSS recipients represents a critical step in enhancing care processes and outcomes of this vulnerable population. Copyright © 2016 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Long-term implications of alternative light-duty vehicle technologies for global greenhouse gas emissions and primary energy demands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyle, Page; Kim, Son H.

    2011-01-01

    This study assesses global light-duty vehicle (LDV) transport in the upcoming century, and the implications of vehicle technology advancement and fuel-switching on greenhouse gas emissions and primary energy demands. Five different vehicle technology scenarios are analyzed with and without a CO 2 emissions mitigation policy using the GCAM integrated assessment model: a reference internal combustion engine vehicle scenario, an advanced internal combustion engine vehicle scenario, and three alternative fuel vehicle scenarios in which all LDVs are switched to natural gas, electricity, or hydrogen by 2050. The emissions mitigation policy is a global CO 2 emissions price pathway that achieves 450 ppmv CO 2 at the end of the century with reference vehicle technologies. The scenarios demonstrate considerable emissions mitigation potential from LDV technology; with and without emissions pricing, global CO 2 concentrations in 2095 are reduced about 10 ppmv by advanced ICEV technologies and natural gas vehicles, and 25 ppmv by electric or hydrogen vehicles. All technological advances in vehicles are important for reducing the oil demands of LDV transport and their corresponding CO 2 emissions. Among advanced and alternative vehicle technologies, electricity- and hydrogen-powered vehicles are especially valuable for reducing whole-system emissions and total primary energy. - Highlights: → Alternative-fuel LDVs reduce whole-system CO 2 emissions, even without carbon pricing. → Alternative-fuel LDVs enhance the CO 2 mitigation capacity of the transportation sector. → Electric and hydrogen vehicles reduce whole-system primary energy supporting LDV transport.

  1. Assessment and perspectives for the gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Saffar, Ali; Bouchard, Georges; Bros, Thierry; Khayat, Armand; Leger, Sebastien; Nyouki, Evariste; Jamme, Dominique; Delamare, Monique; Remont, Sophie; Hureau, Geoffroy; Poillion, Christophe; Noilhan, Fabrice

    2015-01-01

    This document gathers Power Point presentations proposed by contributors at the 2015 AFG Convention. These contributions comment the data published in the World Energy Outlook 2014 with a focus on gas (shares, sources of demand, unconventional gas production, share and evolution of LNG, competitiveness versus coal, gas to coal switching in Europe), propose an overview of the world gas market with a focus of European gas demand on the medium term, comment the evolution of the gas market on the short term in a context of oil price decrease (evolution of demand, of storage, of production and of imports in Europe), discuss an outlook for gas demand for power, comment recent trends and perspectives for the LNG market (prices, supply/demand balance, influence of price evolution on delivery destinations), propose an assessment of the French gas market (competition in the retail market, world trends, creation of a unique market zone in France, European challenges, regime of access to storage, challenges of energy transition), discuss the role of storage as a tool for supply security, propose an analysis of gas supply safety (its pillars in the perspective of public authorities, associated prospective, aspects related to public service, problems related to storage, safeguard measures, European regulation), propose an overview of the present status and perspectives for the European gas supply, and discuss stress tests and measures on a short term aimed at improving supply security

  2. Long-term manure application increased greenhouse gas emissions but had no effect on ammonia volatilization in a Northern China upland field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Liu, Hongbin; Luo, Jiafa; Wang, Hongyuan; Zhai, Limei; Geng, Yucong; Zhang, Yitao; Li, Jungai; Lei, Qiuliang; Bashir, Muhammad Amjad; Wu, Shuxia; Lindsey, Stuart

    2018-03-22

    The impacts of manure application on soil ammonia (NH 3 ) volatilization and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are of interest for both agronomic and environmental reasons. However, how the swine manure addition affects greenhouse gas and N emissions in North China Plain wheat fields is still unknown. A long-term fertilization experiment was carried out on a maize-wheat rotation system in Northern China (Zea mays L-Triticum aestivum L.) from 1990 to 2017. The experiment included four treatments: (1) No fertilizer (CK), (2) single application of chemical fertilizers (NPK), (3) NPK plus 22.5t/ha swine manure (NPKM), (4) NPK plus 33.7t/ha swine manure (NPKM+). A short-term fertilization experiment was conducted from 2016 to 2017 using the same treatments in a field that had been abandoned for decades. The emissions of NH 3 and GHGs were measured during the wheat season from 2016 to 2017. Results showed that after long-term fertilization the wheat yields for NPKM treatment were 7105kg/ha, which were higher than NPK (3880kg/ha) and NPKM+ treatments (5518kg/ha). The wheat yields were similar after short-term fertilization (6098-6887kg/ha). The NH 3 -N emission factors (EF amm ) for NPKM and NPKM+ treatments (1.1 and 1.1-1.4%, respectively) were lower than NPK treatment (2.2%) in both the long and short-term fertilization treatments. In the long- and short-term experiments the nitrous oxide (N 2 O) emission factors (EF nit ) for NPKM+ treatment were 4.2% and 3.7%, respectively, which were higher than for the NPK treatment (3.5% and 2.5%, respectively) and the NPKM treatment (3.6% and 2.2%, respectively). In addition, under long and short-term fertilization, the greenhouse gas intensities for the NPKM+ treatment were 33.7 and 27.0kg CO 2 -eq/kg yield, respectively, which were higher than for the NPKM treatment (22.8 and 21.1kg CO 2 -eq/kg yield, respectively). These results imply that excessive swine manure application does not increase yield but increases GHG emissions

  3. Integration of the commercial and operational systems for the supply of services related to the transportation of natural gas; Integracao entre sistema comercial e operacional para prestacao de servicos de transporte de gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frisoli, Caetano [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transportes, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Faria, Jose Aurelio Carvalho de; Silva, Mauricio dos Santos [Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil, S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Varon, Rene [Energy Solutions International Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    2003-07-01

    Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia-Brazil S.A. - TBG, In order to perform with efficiency and quality, has always been committed to providing its customers with the best services and support. This commitment has been materialized with the recent implementation of a state-of-the-art technology that allows TBG to automatically manage all of its requests for services and to guarantee the delivery of gas to its customers is done in a safe way, optimizing pipeline capacity. To offer these levels of service, it was necessary to acquire a field proven solution capable of managing all commercial procedures as well as providing the right tools to operation to evaluate the capacity to move gas throughout the pipeline. Therefore the solution also was required to be easily integrated with existing operational and commercial tools such as the SCADA system and SAP R3 software. Reductions of fuel consumption and mitigation of risks against contractual penalties are some of the benefits reached. (author)

  4. Not locked-in? The overlooked impact of new gas-fired generation investment on long-term decarbonisation in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chignell, Simon; Gross, Robert J.K.

    2013-01-01

    This paper contrasts the potential increase in gas-fired power generation in the UK in the period to 2020 with the ambitious decarbonisation goals set forth for this sector. An increase in Combined Cycle Gas Turbine (CCGT) capacity, in particular, only represents a threat to long-term decarbonisation if some ‘lock-in’ exists. It is against this background, and in the interest of challenging the perception of no significant lock-in to gas-fired generation, that this paper identifies investment lock-in as phenomenon of relevance to policy-makers. The paper determines both direct and indirect ways in which investment in significant new CCGT capacity could negatively impact on the likelihood of meeting decarbonisation goals through ‘locking-in’ the existing technological system. It also identifies that the technical lifetime, and not just the capital repayment period, of CCGT assets is relevant in understanding the strength of the lock-in. Finally, a regulatory structure that aligns with the long-term targets in place is identified as providing a clear signal for investors and asset owners that may reduce the risk of ‘investment lock-in’. - Highlights: ► The potential conflict between new CCGT and decarbonisation targets is examined. ► A form of ‘hysteretic lock-in’ associated with CCGT investment is identified. ► Potential effects of ‘lock-in’ from new CCGT investment in the UK are highlighted. ► The paper argues for a clear long-term regulatory structure for new CCGT generation.

  5. Short-term variation in ambient concentrations and gas/particle partitioning of organochlorine pesticides in Izmir, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofuoglu, Aysun; Cetin, Eylem; Bozacioglu, Sevde Seza; Sener, Gaye Devrim; Odabasi, Mustafa

    Twenty successive daytime and nighttime air samples were collected and analyzed for 23 currently used and/banned organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) between 14 and 23 May 2003 in Izmir, Turkey. Average individual OCP concentrations ranged from 5±4 pg m -3 (p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane) to 391±306 pg m -3 (chlorpyrifos) and they were within the ranges previously measured at different sites. Most of the OCPs did not exhibit strong diurnal cycling. The temperature dependence of gas-phase atmospheric concentrations of OCPs investigated using Clausius-Clapeyron plots was statistically significant for β-HCH and endosulfan sulfate ( pgas-phase concentrations). In addition to temperature, the effect of wind speed and direction was also investigated using multiple linear regression analysis and these three parameters together explained the 2% (aldrin) to 72% (endosulfan II) of the variability in gas-phase OCP concentrations. Results of the multiple regression analysis indicated that wind speed was a statistically significant factor for most of the OCPs and wind direction was important for some compounds. The temperature-dependent diurnal cycling of most OCPs was probably masked by the higher wind speeds observed during daytime periods with high temperatures, different source sectors and ongoing sources. The lack of correlation for heptachlor, aldrin, p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p-p'-DDE), and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p-p'-DDT) with temperature, wind speed and direction suggested that their concentrations were affected by long-range transport. The partitioning of OCPs between particle and gas phases was investigated and compared to KOA (octanol/air partition coefficient) absorption model. The overall agreement between experimental and modeled log K p (gas/particle partition coefficient) values was good ( p<0.01, slope=0.94). Prediction of absorption model for particulate percentages was excellent for β-HCH, endosulfan I, and p-p'-DDT. However

  6. Clinical characteristics and patterns of health deficits of centenarians receiving home care and long-term care services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Shannon; Armstrong, Joshua J; Tyas, Suzanne L; Neufeld, Eva

    2017-12-01

    Centenarians (persons aged 100years and older) are one of the fastest growing cohorts in countries across the world. With the increasing prevalence of centenarians and growing amount of clinical information in large administrative health databases, it is now possible to more fully characterize the health of this unique and heterogeneous population. This study described patterns of health deficits in the centenarian population receiving care from community-based home care services and long-term care facilities (LTCFs) in Ontario, Canada. All centenarians who received home care and were assessed using the interRAI-Home Care Assessment instrument between 2007 and 2011 (n=1163) and all centenarians who resided in LTCFs between 2005 and 2011 who were assessed using the interRAI Minimum Data Set (MDS 2.0) (n=2228) were included in this study. Bivariate analyses described the centenarian population while K-means clustering analyses were utilized to identify relatively homogeneous subgroups within this heterogeneous population. The 3391 centenarians were aged 100 to 114 (mean age 101.5years ±1.9 SD) and the majority were women (84.7%). Commonly reported deficits included cognitive impairment, physical impairment, and bladder problems. Centenarians residing in LTCFs were significantly more likely than centenarians receiving home care services to report cognitive or functional impairment, or to exhibit symptoms of depression. The commonalities and uniqueness of four clusters of centenarians are described. Although there is great variability, there is also commonality within the centenarian population. Recognizing patterns within the heterogeneity of centenarians is key to providing high-quality person-centered care and to targeting health promotion and intervention strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Quality of Longer Term Mental Health Facilities in Europe: Validation of the Quality Indicator for Rehabilitative Care against Service Users’ Views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killaspy, Helen; White, Sarah; Wright, Christine; Taylor, Tatiana L.; Turton, Penny; Kallert, Thomas; Schuster, Mirjam; Cervilla, Jorge A.; Brangier, Paulette; Raboch, Jiri; Kalisova, Lucie; Onchev, Georgi; Alexiev, Spiridon; Mezzina, Roberto; Ridente, Pina; Wiersma, Durk; Visser, Ellen; Kiejna, Andrzej; Piotrowski, Patryk; Ploumpidis, Dimitris; Gonidakis, Fragiskos; Caldas-de-Almeida, José Miguel; Cardoso, Graça; King, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Background The Quality Indicator for Rehabilitative Care (QuIRC) is a staff rated, international toolkit that assesses care in longer term hospital and community based mental health facilities. The QuIRC was developed from review of the international literature, an international Delphi exercise with over 400 service users, practitioners, carers and advocates from ten European countries at different stages of deinstitutionalisation, and review of the care standards in these countries. It can be completed in under an hour by the facility manager and has robust content validity, acceptability and inter-rater reliability. In this study, we investigated the internal validity of the QuIRC. Our aim was to identify the QuIRC domains of care that independently predicted better service user experiences of care. Method At least 20 units providing longer term care for adults with severe mental illness were recruited in each of ten European countries. Service users completed standardised measures of their experiences of care, quality of life, autonomy and the unit’s therapeutic milieu. Unit managers completed the QuIRC. Multilevel modelling allowed analysis of associations between service user ratings as dependent variables with unit QuIRC domain ratings as independent variables. Results 1750/2495 (70%) users and the managers of 213 units from across ten European countries participated. QuIRC ratings were positively associated with service users’ autonomy and experiences of care. Associations between QuIRC ratings and service users’ ratings of their quality of life and the unit’s therapeutic milieu were explained by service user characteristics (age, diagnosis and functioning). A hypothetical 10% increase in QuIRC rating resulted in a clinically meaningful improvement in autonomy. Conclusions Ratings of the quality of longer term mental health facilities made by service managers were positively associated with service users’ autonomy and experiences of care

  8. Quality of longer term mental health facilities in Europe: validation of the quality indicator for rehabilitative care against service users' views.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Killaspy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Quality Indicator for Rehabilitative Care (QuIRC is a staff rated, international toolkit that assesses care in longer term hospital and community based mental health facilities. The QuIRC was developed from review of the international literature, an international Delphi exercise with over 400 service users, practitioners, carers and advocates from ten European countries at different stages of deinstitutionalisation, and review of the care standards in these countries. It can be completed in under an hour by the facility manager and has robust content validity, acceptability and inter-rater reliability. In this study, we investigated the internal validity of the QuIRC. Our aim was to identify the QuIRC domains of care that independently predicted better service user experiences of care. METHOD: At least 20 units providing longer term care for adults with severe mental illness were recruited in each of ten European countries. Service users completed standardised measures of their experiences of care, quality of life, autonomy and the unit's therapeutic milieu. Unit managers completed the QuIRC. Multilevel modelling allowed analysis of associations between service user ratings as dependent variables with unit QuIRC domain ratings as independent variables. RESULTS: 1750/2495 (70% users and the managers of 213 units from across ten European countries participated. QuIRC ratings were positively associated with service users' autonomy and experiences of care. Associations between QuIRC ratings and service users' ratings of their quality of life and the unit's therapeutic milieu were explained by service user characteristics (age, diagnosis and functioning. A hypothetical 10% increase in QuIRC rating resulted in a clinically meaningful improvement in autonomy. CONCLUSIONS: Ratings of the quality of longer term mental health facilities made by service managers were positively associated with service users' autonomy and experiences of care

  9. Quality of longer term mental health facilities in Europe: validation of the quality indicator for rehabilitative care against service users' views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killaspy, Helen; White, Sarah; Wright, Christine; Taylor, Tatiana L; Turton, Penny; Kallert, Thomas; Schuster, Mirjam; Cervilla, Jorge A; Brangier, Paulette; Raboch, Jiri; Kalisova, Lucie; Onchev, Georgi; Alexiev, Spiridon; Mezzina, Roberto; Ridente, Pina; Wiersma, Durk; Visser, Ellen; Kiejna, Andrzej; Piotrowski, Patryk; Ploumpidis, Dimitris; Gonidakis, Fragiskos; Caldas-de-Almeida, José Miguel; Cardoso, Graça; King, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The Quality Indicator for Rehabilitative Care (QuIRC) is a staff rated, international toolkit that assesses care in longer term hospital and community based mental health facilities. The QuIRC was developed from review of the international literature, an international Delphi exercise with over 400 service users, practitioners, carers and advocates from ten European countries at different stages of deinstitutionalisation, and review of the care standards in these countries. It can be completed in under an hour by the facility manager and has robust content validity, acceptability and inter-rater reliability. In this study, we investigated the internal validity of the QuIRC. Our aim was to identify the QuIRC domains of care that independently predicted better service user experiences of care. At least 20 units providing longer term care for adults with severe mental illness were recruited in each of ten European countries. Service users completed standardised measures of their experiences of care, quality of life, autonomy and the unit's therapeutic milieu. Unit managers completed the QuIRC. Multilevel modelling allowed analysis of associations between service user ratings as dependent variables with unit QuIRC domain ratings as independent variables. 1750/2495 (70%) users and the managers of 213 units from across ten European countries participated. QuIRC ratings were positively associated with service users' autonomy and experiences of care. Associations between QuIRC ratings and service users' ratings of their quality of life and the unit's therapeutic milieu were explained by service user characteristics (age, diagnosis and functioning). A hypothetical 10% increase in QuIRC rating resulted in a clinically meaningful improvement in autonomy. Ratings of the quality of longer term mental health facilities made by service managers were positively associated with service users' autonomy and experiences of care. Interventions that improve quality of care in these

  10. Terms of transactions monitoring on the French wholesale electricity and gas markets. Public consultation. Synthesis of contributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    In its communication dated 16 April 2008, CRE published its practical methods used to monitor transactions concluded on the French electricity and gas markets. CRE invited any companies to comment on the practical arrangements of such monitoring activities. The monitoring system described by CRE is divided into two steps. In the first step, CRE wants to be able to request any information concerning transactions for physical delivery concluded after 1 January 2007. CRE will make an initial request that will focus on: - for electricity: transactions concluded in 2007 on yearly products for delivery in 2008 and 2009, base-load and peak-load; - for gas: transactions concluded in 2007 on seasonal and yearly products for delivery in 2008 and 2009, base-load and peak-load. The second step, based on feedback received, will see CRE liaise with market players and consider the possibility of setting up systematic procedures to gather transactions data. A final decision will be made by the end of 2008. 17 contributors responded to the public consultation. The remarks made on the practical methods used to gather data can be summarized along the following themes: Preamble: the monitoring principle; Theme 1: scope of transactions monitoring; Theme 2: content and format of requested data; Theme 3: procedures, transmission deadlines and confidentiality issues; Theme 4: stage II of systematic data gathering

  11. Pain, fatigue, function and participation among long-term manual wheelchair users partnered with a mobility service dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Claude; Gagnon, Dany H; Dumont, Frédéric

    2017-11-20

    To assess the effects of a mobility service dog (MSD) on pain, fatigue, wheelchair-related functional tasks, participation and satisfaction among manual wheelchair users over a nine-month period. A longitudinal study with repeated assessment times before and three, six and nine months after intervention was achieved. Intervention consisted in partnering each participant with a MSD. The setting is a well-established provincial service dog training school and participants homes. A convenience sample of 24 long-term manual wheelchair users with a spinal cord injury was involved. Outcome measures were: Wheelchair User's Shoulder Pain Index (WUSPI), Rate of Perceived Exertion (RPE), vitality scale from the SF-36, grip strength, Wheelchair Skills Test (WST), Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM), Reintegration to Normal Living Index (RNLI), Life Space Assessment, Psychosocial Impact of Assistive Devices Scale (PIADS) and Quebec User Evaluation of Satisfaction with assistive Technology (QUEST 2.0). Shoulder and wrist pain as well as fatigue decreased significantly over time with the use of a MSD as evidenced by scores from WUSPI, RPE and SF-36 (feeling less worn out). Manual wheelchair propulsion skills (steep slopes, soft surfaces and thresholds) improved significantly over time as confirmed by the WST. Participation increased significantly over time as revealed by the COPM (for five occupations) and the RNLI (for five items). Satisfaction with the MSD was high over time (QUEST: nine items) and with a high positive psychosocial impact (PIADS: 10 items). MSD represents a valuable mobility assistive technology option for manual wheelchair users. IMPLICATIONS FOR REHABILITATION   For manual wheelchair users partenered with mobility service dog  • Shoulder pain and fatigue significantly decreased and continued to decrease between the third and sixth month and the ninth month.   • Performance with propelling the wheelchair up steep slopes

  12. Natural gas power generation: interruptible gas distribution network regulation; Geracao termoeletrica a gas natural: regulacao do segmento interruptivel de distribuicao de gas canalizado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paula, Claudio Paiva de; Kann, Zevi [Agencia Reguladora de Saneamento e Energia do Estado de Sao Paulo (ARSESP), SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The paper relates studies regarding the natural gas distribution network interruptible branch. This new service can be appropriate for thermal power generation on flexible dispatch mode, as 'take or pay' contracts surplus jobs. The paper indicates no regulatory restraints in an interruptible network implantation. The final conclusion is that interruptible contracts can be an improvement on the distribution business and certainly can accommodate a suitable demand and supply volumes in the long-term gas market balance. (author)

  13. Beware of Data Gaps in Home Care Research: The Streetlight Effect and Its Implications for Policy Making on Long-Term Services and Supports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newquist, Deborah D.; DeLiema, Marguerite; Wilber, Kathleen H.

    2016-01-01

    Policy initiatives increasingly seek greater use of home- and community-based services for older persons and those with chronic care needs, yet large gaps persist in our knowledge of home care, an indispensable component of long-term services and supports. Unrecognized data gaps, including the scope of home care provided by private hire and nonmedical providers, can distort knowledge and poorly inform long-term services and supports policy. The purpose of this article is to examine these gaps by describing the universe of formal home care services and provider types in relationship to major national sources. Findings reveal four distinct home care sectors and that the majority of formal home care is provided in the sectors that are understudied. We discuss the policy implications of data gaps and conclude with recommendations on where to expand and refine home care research. PMID:26062611

  14. Increasing primary health-care services are associated with acute short-term hospitalization of Danes aged 70 years and older

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard Fournaise, Anders; Espensen, Niels; Jakobsen, Søren

    2017-01-01

    an emerging acute disease can be difficult in older adults due to atypical and vague symptoms, but may be expressed by increased contact to health-care providers. Method: During a 12-month period, all 70+-year-old people short-term (Hospital......-term hospitalisations were recorded in 391 patients (mean age 80.6. years [SD 6.8]; females 57%). The subsample included 157 admissions (141 patients, mean age 84.0. years [SD 7.2]; females 74%). Home care service (minutes per month) increased gradually and significantly over the 12 months prior to admission (33......%). Also the number of contacts to primary care physician increased significantly, but only in the last 3. months prior to admission. Conclusion: Prior to an acute short-term admission, home care receiving older adults have significant increases in home care service and PCP contacts and services...

  15. A long-term study of new particle formation in a coastal environment: Meteorology, gas phase and solar radiation implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorribas, M., E-mail: sorribas@ugr.es [Department of Applied Physics, University of Granada, Granada, 18071 (Spain); Andalusian Institute for Earth System Research (IISTA), University of Granada, 18006 (Spain); Adame, J.A. [‘El Arenosillo’ — Atmospheric Sounding Station, Atmospheric Research and Instrumentation Branch, National Institute for Aerospace Technology (INTA), Mazagón, Huelva, 21130 (Spain); Olmo, F.J. [Department of Applied Physics, University of Granada, Granada, 18071 (Spain); Andalusian Institute for Earth System Research (IISTA), University of Granada, 18006 (Spain); Vilaplana, J.M.; Gil-Ojeda, M. [‘El Arenosillo’ — Atmospheric Sounding Station, Atmospheric Research and Instrumentation Branch, National Institute for Aerospace Technology (INTA), Mazagón, Huelva, 21130 (Spain); Alados-Arboledas, L. [Department of Applied Physics, University of Granada, Granada, 18071 (Spain); Andalusian Institute for Earth System Research (IISTA), University of Granada, 18006 (Spain)

    2015-04-01

    New particle formation (NPF) was investigated at a coastal background site in Southwest Spain over a four-year period using a Scanning Particle Mobility Sizer (SMPS). The goals of the study were to characterise the NPF and to investigate their relationship to meteorology, gas phase (O{sub 3}, SO{sub 2}, CO and NO{sub 2}) and solar radiation (UVA, UVB and global). A methodology for identifying and classifying the NPF was implemented using the wind direction and modal concentrations as inputs. NPF events showed a frequency of 24% of the total days analysed. The mean duration was 9.2 ± 4.2 h. Contrary to previous studies conducted in other locations, the NPF frequency reached its maximum during cold seasons for approximately 30% of the days. The lowest frequency took place in July with 10%, and the seasonal wind pattern was found to be the most important parameter influencing the NPF frequency. The mean formation rate was 2.2 ± 1.7 cm{sup −3} s{sup −1}, with a maximum in the spring and early autumn and a minimum during the summer and winter. The mean growth rate was 3.8 ± 2.4 nm h{sup −1} with higher values occurring from spring to autumn. The mean and seasonal formation and growth rates are in agreement with previous observations from continental sites in the Northern Hemisphere. NPF classification of different classes was conducted to explore the effect of synoptic and regional-scale patterns on NPF and growth. The results show that under a breeze regime, the temperature indirectly affects NPF events. Higher temperatures increase the strength of the breeze recirculation, favouring gas accumulation and subsequent NPF appearance. Additionally, the role of high relative humidity in inhibiting the NPF was evinced during synoptic scenarios. The remaining meteorological variables (RH), trace gases (CO and NO), solar radiation, PM{sub 10} and condensation sink, showed a moderate or high connection with both formation and growth rates. - Highlights: • New

  16. The impact of integration of dental services on oral health in long-term care: qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkleman, Gary I; Lawrence, Herenia P; Glogauer, Michael

    2012-06-01

    To qualitatively analyse how integration of dental service in long-term care (LTC) impacts residents and their oral health. Few studies have attempted to merge inductive and deductive data to clarify the significance of the complex psychosocial environment in LTC facilities. Understanding the subjective oral health experience of LTC residents in their social setting is key to uncovering behavioural patterns that may be limiting the oral care provided to LTC residents. A cross-sectional study was performed involving 61 residents in three Ontario LTC facilities. Observations and reflective notes were recorded during open-ended interviews using a structured questionnaire to stimulate conversation topics. This ensured that each resident received the same prompting during the interview process. Inductive analysis was used to identify common patterns and themes within field notes and transcriptions. The major themes identified included oral hygiene, oral discomfort, general health, appearance, dental access, and denture related issues. Oral hygiene and discomfort were the dominating categories within the facilities. Two of the three LTC centres identified in this study failed to provide appropriate oral care for their residents. Future research needs to be directed at prospective studies assessing the effect of oral health education and mandatory dental examinations o entry within LTC centres utilising qualitative and quantitative analyses. © 2010 The Gerodontology Society and John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  17. Quality of regional individual needs assessment agencies regulating access to long term-care services: a client perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Jedeloo

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to determine if and how the outcome quality from a client perspective is related to process characteristics and structure of Regional Individual Needs Assessment Agencies (RIOs regulating access to long-term care services in the Netherlands. Theory: because of decentralised responsibilities, ultimo 1999 85 RIOs were set up. RIOs differ in their structural and process characteristics. This could lead to differences in client quality. Insight into factors relating to client quality (e.g. client satisfaction can improve the needs assessment process. Methods: Eighteen RIOs participated in this study. These RIOs each selected 120 clients, filled in forms about their needs assessment procedures and sent them a questionnaire assessing judgements, experiences and satisfaction with the RIO. Results: We received 1916 RIO-forms and 1062 client questionnaires. Eighty-two percent of the clients were satisfied with the RIO, the percentages not satisfied clients varied from 10 to 29% among items and working procedures. Satisfaction is mostly related to what is actually done for the client. Information aspects and providing choices are important determinants of client quality with the RIO. Conclusion: In improving quality seen from a client perspective, one should focus on what is actually done for the client, rather than looking at the RIOs structure.

  18. Factors Related to Healthcare Service Quality in Long-term Care Hospitals in South Korea: A Mixed-methods Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Minsung; Choi, Mankyu

    2017-10-01

    The environment of long-term care hospitals (LTCHs) is critical to the management of the quality of their services and to patient safety, as highlighted by international studies. However, there is a lack of evidence on this topic in South Korea. This study aimed to examine the factors affecting healthcare quality in LTCHs and to explore the effectiveness of their quality management. This study used a mixed methods approach with quantitative data collected in a national survey and qualitative data from semi-structured interviews with practice-based managers. The samples included 725 nationally representative LTCHs in South Korea for the quantitative analysis and 15 administrators for the in-depth interviews. A higher installation rate of patient-safety and hygiene-related facilities and staff with longer-tenures, especially nurses, were more likely to have better healthcare quality and education for both employees and patients. The need for patient-safety- and hygiene-related facilities in LTCHs that serve older adults reflects their vulnerability to certain adverse events (e.g., infections). Consistent and skillful nursing care to improve the quality of LTCHs can be achieved by developing relevant educational programs for staff and patients, thereby strengthening the relationships between them.

  19. Do High Fidelity Wraparound Services for Youth with Serious Emotional Disturbances Save Money in the Long-Term?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Angela; Marton, James; McLaren, Susan; Feng, Bo; Zhou, Mei

    2017-12-01

    Treating youth with serious emotional disturbances (SED) is expensive often requiring institutional care. A significant amount of recent federal and state funding has been dedicated to expanding home and community-based services for these youth as an alternative to institutional care. High Fidelity Wraparound (Wrap) is an evolving, evidence-informed practice to help sustain community-based placements for youth with an SED through the use of intensive, customized care coordination among parents, multiple child-serving agencies, and providers. While there is growing evidence on the benefits of Wrap, few studies have examined health care spending associated with Wrap participation and none have examined spending patterns after the completion of Wrap. Merging health care spending data from multiple agencies and programs allows for a more complete picture of the health care costs of treating these youth in a system-of-care framework. (i) To compare overall health care spending for youth who transitioned from institutional care into Wrap (the treatment group) versus youth not receiving Wrap (the control group) and (ii) to compare changes in health care spending, overall and by category, for both groups before (the pre-period) and after (the post-period) Wrap participation. The treatment group (N=161) is matched to the control group (N=324) temporally based on the month the youth entered institutional care. Both total health care spending and spending by category are compared for each group pre- and post-Wrap participation. The post-period includes the time in which the youth was receiving Wrap services and one year afterwards to capture long-term cost impacts. In the year before Wrap participation, the treatment group averaged USD 8,433 in monthly health care spending versus USD 4,599 for the control group. Wrap participation led to an additional reduction of USD 1,130 in monthly health care spending as compared to the control group in the post-period. For youth

  20. Ecosystem Services of Tropical Dry Forests: Insights from Long-term Ecological and Social Research on the Pacific Coast of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Manuel Maass

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available In the search for an integrated understanding of the relationships among productive activities, human well-being, and ecosystem functioning, we evaluated the services delivered by a tropical dry forest (TDF ecosystem in the Chamela Region, on the Pacific Coast of Mexico. We synthesized information gathered for the past two decades as part of a long-term ecosystem research study and included social data collected in the past four years using the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA conceptual framework as a guide. Here we identify the four nested spatial scales at which information has been obtained and emphasize one of them through a basin conceptual model. We then articulate the biophysical and socio-economic constraints and drivers determining the delivery of ecosystem services in the Region. We describe the nine most important services, the stakeholders who benefit from those services, and their degree of awareness of such services. We characterize spatial and temporal patterns of the services' delivery as well as trade-offs among services and stakeholders. Finally, we contrast three alternative future scenarios on the delivery of ecosystem services and human well-being. Biophysical and socioeconomic features of the study site strongly influence humanâˆ'ecosystem interactions, the ecosystem services delivered, the possible future trajectories of the ecosystem, and the effect on human well-being. We discuss future research approaches that will set the basis for an integrated understanding of humanâˆ'ecosystem interactions and for constructing sustainable management strategies for the TDF.

  1. Impact of burnout and psychosocial work characteristics on future long-term sickness absence. Prospective results of the Danish PUMA-study among human service workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borritz, Marianne; Christensen, KB; Bültmann, Ute

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to examine if burnout and psychosocial factors predicted long-term sickness absence (>2 weeks) at work unit level. Methods: Data were collected prospectively at 82-work units in human services (PUMA cohort, PUMA: Danish acronym for Burnout, Motivation...... and Job satisfaction) followed up during the proceeding 18 months regarding onset of long-term sickness absence. Questionnaire data regarding burnout and psychosocial factors were aggregated at work unit level. We used Poisson regression models with psychosocial factors and burnout as predictors of long......-term sickness absence for more than 18 months based on data from a national absence register. Results: Long-term sickness absence was predicted by psychosocial factors and by burnout at work unit level. Conclusion: To reduce sickness absence, organizations within human services should improve the psychosocial...

  2. Solar heating, cooling and domestic hot water system installed at Columbia Gas System Service Corporation, Columbus, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The solar energy system installed in the building has 2,978 sq ft of single axis tracking, concentrating collectors and provides solar energy for space heating, space cooling and domestic hot water. A 1,200,000 Btu/hour water tube gas boiler provides hot water for space heating. Space cooling is provided by a 100 ton hot water fired absorption chiller. Domestic hot water heating is provided by a 50 gallon natural gas domestic storage water heater. Extracts from the site files, specification references, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions are included.

  3. Excellent impact performance of PVC pipeline materials in gas distribution networks after many years of service (CD-rom)

    OpenAIRE

    Visser, Roy; Hermkens, R.M.J.; Wolters, Mannes; Weller, J.; Warnet, Laurent; Beckervordersandforth, C.; Verberg, G.H.B.; Kramer, M.

    2008-01-01

    It has been about fifty years ago since the first unplasticized poly(vinyl chloride) (uPVC) pipes were installed for use in gas distribution purposes. Currently, about 22,500 km of uPVC is still in use in the Dutch gas distribution network. The pipes were originally designed for a lifetime of 50 years, but due to positive experiences the question arises if (and how long) the lifetime can be extended without any concessions to safety. This is supported by the data of leak surveys presented in ...

  4. International performance indicators: gas supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-12-01

    This study evaluates the performance of Australian's natural gas utilities against world best practice. In particular, it examines whether Australia's traded goods sector is disadvantaged by the performance of domestic infrastructure service industries. It reports on the operating efficiency of the natural gas industry using Data Envelopment Analysis. It concludes that the Australian gas industry as a whole is performing relatively well in term of operating efficiency and that its prices are comparable with prices in North America, once differences in consumption per customer are taken into consideration. Appendixes 1 and 2 provide a summary of the structure and regulation of the gas supply industry in Australia and selected overseas countries, while the Appendix 3 gives an econometric analysis of the relationships between consumption per customer and residential price-cost margins. refs., tabs., figs

  5. Landfill gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartnell, Gaynor

    2000-01-01

    Following the UK Government's initiative for stimulating renewable energy through the Non-Fossil Fuel Obligation (NFFO), the UK landfill gas industry has more than trebled in size in just 4 years. As a result, UK companies are now in a strong position to offer their skills and services overseas. Ireland, Greece and Spain also resort heavily to disposal to landfill. Particularly rapid growth of the landfill gas market is expected in the OECD-Pacific and NAFTA areas. The article explains that landfill gas is a methane-rich mixture produced by anaerobic decomposition of organic wastes in landfills: under optimum conditions, up to 500 cubic meters of gas can be obtained from 1 tonne of biodegradable waste. Data on the number and capacity of sites in the UK are given. The Landfill Gas Association runs courses to counteract the skills shortage in the UK, and tailored courses for overseas visitors are planned

  6. A long-term study of new particle formation in a coastal environment: meteorology, gas phase and solar radiation implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorribas, M; Adame, J A; Olmo, F J; Vilaplana, J M; Gil-Ojeda, M; Alados-Arboledas, L

    2015-04-01

    New particle formation (NPF) was investigated at a coastal background site in Southwest Spain over a four-year period using a Scanning Particle Mobility Sizer (SMPS). The goals of the study were to characterise the NPF and to investigate their relationship to meteorology, gas phase (O3, SO2, CO and NO2) and solar radiation (UVA, UVB and global). A methodology for identifying and classifying the NPF was implemented using the wind direction and modal concentrations as inputs. NPF events showed a frequency of 24% of the total days analysed. The mean duration was 9.2±4.2 h. Contrary to previous studies conducted in other locations, the NPF frequency reached its maximum during cold seasons for approximately 30% of the days. The lowest frequency took place in July with 10%, and the seasonal wind pattern was found to be the most important parameter influencing the NPF frequency. The mean formation rate was 2.2±1.7 cm(-3) s(-1), with a maximum in the spring and early autumn and a minimum during the summer and winter. The mean growth rate was 3.8±2.4 nm h(-1) with higher values occurring from spring to autumn. The mean and seasonal formation and growth rates are in agreement with previous observations from continental sites in the Northern Hemisphere. NPF classification of different classes was conducted to explore the effect of synoptic and regional-scale patterns on NPF and growth. The results show that under a breeze regime, the temperature indirectly affects NPF events. Higher temperatures increase the strength of the breeze recirculation, favouring gas accumulation and subsequent NPF appearance. Additionally, the role of high relative humidity in inhibiting the NPF was evinced during synoptic scenarios. The remaining meteorological variables (RH), trace gases (CO and NO), solar radiation, PM10 and condensation sink, showed a moderate or high connection with both formation and growth rates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Interdependence of long-term natural gas import contracts and open trade markets in the sense of 'cohabitation'; Zum Zusammenwirken von langfristigen Erdgasimportvertraegen und offenen Handelsplaetzen im Sinne einer ''Cohabitation''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krude, G.; Halstrup, D.; Groeblinghoff, S. [E.ON Ruhrgas AG, Essen (Germany)

    2007-03-15

    Increasing demand for natural gas and decreasing production of natural gas in the EU challenge the European power industry more than ever before to supply the markets with natural gas at acceptable prices and on a long-term basis. In this context, The form, function and potential of future marketing and acquisition models are discussed. The advantages of cohabitation of open trading points and established long-term import contracts, especially in case of increasing dependence on imported energy, should not be left unregarded. (orig.)

  8. The long-term effectiveness of Cognitive Behaviour Therapy for Psychosis (CBTp within a routine psychological therapies service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuelle ePeters

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Randomised Controlled Trials (RCTs have shown the efficacy of CBTp, however few studies have considered its long-term effectiveness in routine services. This study reports the outcomes of clients seen in a psychological therapies clinic, set up following positive results obtained from an RCT (Peters et al. 2010. The aims were to evaluate the effectiveness of CBTp, using data from the service’s routine assessments for consecutive referrals over a 12 year period, and assess whether gains were maintained at a 6+ months’ follow-up. Of the 476 consenting referrals, all clients (N=358 who received ≥5 therapy sessions were offered an assessment at 4 time points (baseline, pre-, mid- and end of therapy on measures assessing current psychosis symptoms, emotional problems, general well-being and life satisfaction. A sub-set (N=113 was assessed at a median of 12 months after finishing therapy. Following the waiting list (median of 3 months clients received individualised, formulation-based CBTp for a median number of 19 sessions from 121 therapists with a range of experience receiving regular supervision. Clients showed no meaningful change on any measure while on the waiting list (Cohen’s d<=0.23. In contrast, highly significant improvements following therapy, all of which were significantly greater than changes during the waiting list, were found on all domains assessed (Cohen’s d: 0.44-0.75. All gains were maintained at follow-up (Cohen’s d: 0.29-0.82, with little change between end of therapy and follow-up (Cohen’s d<=0.18. Drop-out rate from therapy was low (13%. These results demonstrate the positive and potentially enduring impact of psychological therapy on a range of meaningful outcomes for clients with psychosis. The follow-up assessments were conducted on only a sub-set, which may not generalise to the full sample. Nevertheless this study is the largest of its kind in psychosis, and has important implications for the practice of

  9. Europe’s Dependence on Russian Natural Gas: Perspectives and Recommendations for a Long-Term Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    Kovykta  project  is  in  jeopardy  of  having  its  license  revoked.  This  gas  field  in  Eastern  Siberia  is  owned  by  RUSIA   Petroleum,  the...amount stipulated  in the licensing agreement granted to  RUSIA  Petroleum. These reasons are directly attributable  to deliberate actions of the...arrangement  that  cedes  50%  ownership  will  be  struck.  Rosnedra  has  given  RUSIA  Petroleum until May 2007 to be in compliance with the volume of

  10. A Critical Comparison of Alternative Distribution Configurations in Omni-Channel Retailing in Terms of Cost and Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Melacini

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available New opportunities and challenges forced by the ever-increasing importance of the online channel have arisen for retailers. The retailing industry is moving to a new phase, in which the distinctions between traditional and online channels disappear, namely omni-channel (OC retailing. At the same time, the awareness of environmentally sustainable processes has been enhanced around the world and the environmental impact that results from the online order fulfilment process is becoming a key issue for logistics managers. The new challenge is to understand how multiple channels can be synergistically managed to provide a seamless customer experience, taking an economic and environmental perspective simultaneously. Retailers need to define the distribution configuration for serving the online demand, making decisions on the integration level between online and traditional channels. In this paper, we developed an assessment model of the operational costs and greenhouse gas emissions for three distribution configurations in OC retailing. The model was also applied to a real case operating in the consumer electronics industry. Results highlighted that the search for synergies between online and traditional flows in both warehouse and transport activities is a key factor for the economic and environmental sustainability of OC systems.

  11. Time-integrating radon gas measurements in domestic premises: comparison of short-, medium- and long-term exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groves-Kirkby, C.J.; Denman, A.R.; Crockett, R.G.M.; Phillips, P.S.; Woolridge, A.C.; Gillmore, G.K.

    2006-01-01

    To identify the most applicable technology for the short-term assessment of domestic radon levels, comparative assessments of a number of integrating detector types, including track-etch, electret and activated charcoal were undertaken. Thirty-four unremediated dwellings in a high-radon area were monitored using track-etch detectors exposed for one-month and three-month periods. In parallel, one-week measurements were made in the same homes at one-month intervals, using co-located track-etch, charcoal and electret detectors exposed simultaneously, while three of the homes were also monitored by continuous-sampling detectors at hourly intervals over extended periods. Calibration of dose-integrating devices against each other and against continuous-monitoring systems confirmed good responsivity and linearity. Although track-etch, charcoal and electret devices are suitable in principle for one-week measurements, zero-exposure offset and natural radon variability cause many one-week results to be equivocal, necessitating repetition of the measurement. One-week exposures can be reliable indicators in low-radon areas or for new properties, but in high-radon areas, the use of three-month exposures is indicated. This analysis also established confidence limits for short-term measurements

  12. A Long-Term Geothermal Observatory Spanning Subseafloor Gas Hydrates in IODP Hole U1364A, Cascadia Accretionary Prism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, K.; Davis, E.; Heesemann, M.; McGuire, J. J.; Collins, J. A.; O'Brien, J. K.; von der Heydt, K.

    2017-12-01

    We report the configuration of and initial results from a 24-thermistor cable installed to 268 m below seafloor (mbsf) in IODP Hole U1364A in the frontal accretionary prism of the Cascadia subduction zone. The thermistor array spans the gas hydrate stability zone and a clear bottom-simulating reflector at 225-230 mbsf. The thermistor string was deployed in July 2016 along with a seismic-strain observatory into the cased section of a pressure-monitoring Advanced CORK (ACORK) that had been installed in 2010 during IODP Expedition 328. Formation pressures are monitored via permeable screens on the outside of solid steel casing that is sealed at the bottom by a bridge plug and cement up to 302 mbsf. All three observatory systems were connected to the Ocean Networks Canada NEPTUNE cabled observatory Clayoquot Slope node in June of 2017, with the thermistor temperatures being logged by ONC every minute. The thermistor array was designed with concentrated vertical spacing around the BSR and two pressure-monitoring screens at 203 and 244 mbsf, with wider thermistor spacing elsewhere to document the geothermal state up to seafloor. The initial six weeks of data logged via the ONC connection show a generally linear temperature gradient, with temperatures of about 15.8°C at the BSR depth, consistent with methane hydrate stability at that depth and pressure. Sensor temperatures at most depths are quite stable over this period, with the exceptions of two sensors at 76 and 256 mbsf that show slowly rising temperatures; these could be due to cellular convection of borehole fluids, sensor degradation, or formation processes, but this requires a longer time series to resolve. We will report updated results after four more months of data recording through November 2017, along with any correlations to the pressure records. The data are freely available to all registered ONC users via the ONC data management and archiving system.

  13. The Romance and the Reality between Pre-Service Teachers' Beliefs about the Potential Benefits of a Short-Term Study Abroad Programme and Their Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Angela Choi Fung

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative study aimed to explore Hong Kong pre-service teachers' beliefs about the potential benefits of a short-term study abroad programme and their practices. Pre- and post-programme semi-structured interviews and reflective journals were employed to collect data. The findings suggest that the transformation of beliefs into practices…

  14. Ecosystem service availability in view of long-term land-use changes: a regional case study in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frélichová, Jana; Fanta, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 9 (2015), s. 31 ISSN 2332-8878 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415; GA MŠk(CZ) LD13033; GA MŠk(CZ) LD13032 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Cezava * Czech Republic * ecosystems * ecosystem services * landscape * land use * long-term trends * transformation Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography

  15. Impact of Burnout and Psychosocial Work Characteristics on Future Long-Term Sickness Absence. Prospective Results of the Danish PUMA Study Among Human Service Workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borritz, Marianne; Christensen, Karl Bang; Bultmann, Ute; Rugulies, Reiner; Lund, Thomas; Andersen, Ingelise; Villadsen, Ebbe; Diderichsen, Finn; Kristensen, Tage S.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to examine if burnout and psychosocial factors predicted long-term sickness absence (>2 weeks) at work unit level. Methods: Data were collected prospectively at 82-work units in human services (PUMA cohort, PUMA: Danish acronym for Burnout, Motivation and

  16. The Analysis and Comparison of Pre-Service Music Teachers' Attitudes towards the Piano Lesson and Their Sight-Reading Skills in Terms of Certain Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özen, Çagla; Onuray Egilmez, Hatice; Engür, Doruk

    2017-01-01

    This study seeks to analyze pre-service music teachers' attitudes towards the piano lesson and their piano sight-reading skills in terms of academic achievement in the piano lesson, year of study, and gender and reveal the relationship between their attitudes towards the piano lesson and piano sight-reading skills. Descriptive model and…

  17. Serving Impaired Elders in the Community: The Interface of Case Management with Mental Health Services. Texas Project for Elders: Assistance with Long Term Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Nancy L.

    Following a brief introduction, this paper focuses on how the Texas Project for Elders, one of ten sites in the country participatng in the National Long-Term Care Channeling Demonstration Project (Channeling), has taken into account the mental health needs of clients and caregivers both in the development and delivery of services. The clients…

  18. Pre-Service Teachers' Evaluations of Practices in Teaching English to Young Learners in Terms of 21st Century Teacher Qualifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çakir, Abdulvahit; Güngör, Müzeyyen Nazli

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the 3rd year and 4th year pre-service teachers' evaluations of the practices in teaching English to young learners in terms of 21st century teacher qualifications. Employing a mixed methods design, this study includes the qualitative data that come from semi-structured interviewed questions administered to pre-service…

  19. Effect of in-home and community-based services on the functional status of elderly in the long-term care insurance system in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivares-Tirado Pedro

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Japan is setting the pace among aging societies of the world. In 2005, Japan became the country with the highest proportion of elderly persons in the world. To deal with the accelerated ageing population and with an increased demand for long-term care services, in April 2000 the Japanese government introduced a mandatory social Long-Term Care Insurance System (LTCI, making long-term care services a universal entitlement for elderly. Overseas literature suggests that the effectiveness of a home visiting program is uncertain in terms of preventing a decline in the functional status of elderly individuals. In Japan, many studies regarding factors associated with LTC service utilization have been conducted, however, limited evidence about the effect of LTC services on the progression of recipient disability is available. Methods Data were obtained from databases of the LTC insurer of City A. To examine the effect of in-home and community-based services on disability status of recipients, a survival analysis in a cohort of moderately disabled elderly people, was conducted. Results The mean age of participants was 81 years old, and females represented 69% of the participants. A decline or an improvement in functional status, was observed in 43% and 27% of the sample, respectively. After controlling for other variables, women had a significantly greater probability of improving their functional status during all phases of the observation period. The use of “one service” and the amount of services utilized (days/month, were marginally (p =  Conclusions The observed effects of in-home and community-based services on disability transition status were considered fairly modest and weak, in terms of their ability to improve or to prevent a decline in functional status. We suggest two mechanisms to explain these findings. First, disability transition as a measure of disability progression may not be specific enough to assess

  20. Tough sell : forgetting and forgiving are not on the financial service sector's oil and gas investment agenda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georg, A.

    1999-01-01

    A review of the recovery from the year-long low on the oil-price cycle was presented, with special emphasis on the growth potential within the petroleum sector. Although the mood was optimistic at this year's Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers' annual Oil and Gas Investment Symposium, scrutiny from analysts and investors was severe. In today's dynamic market investors are less loyal and companies can no longer ride out the lows. When companies fell short of high investor expectations, they were faced with plunging stocks when investors left. This forced firms to sell assets or to merge with other, more solvent companies. It was noted that the oil and gas industry is among the best of any industrial sector in quality and standardization of disclosure. The advantage of this is that a high degree of disclosure reduces uncertainty which could benefit stock prices. 2 figs

  1. An Evaluation of Short Term Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Soil and Atmosphere Exchange in Response to Controlling Edaphic Factgors of Eucalyptus Plantation, Gujarat, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirmal Kumar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A considerable amount of atmospheric GHG is produced and consumed through soil processes. Soils provide the largest terrestrial store for carbon (C as well as the largest atmospheric CO2 sources through autotrophic and heterotrophic organisms. Soils are also the greatest source (∼60% of CH4 and N2O through microbially mediated processes of methanogensis, nitrification and denitrification. Short term CO2, CH4 and N2O gas fluxes from soil under a Eucalyptus plantation in central Gujarat, Western India were measured for three month duration (February to April, 2013 at fifteen days interval using closed static chamber technique and gas chromatography method. Simultaneously soils were analyzed at 0.0-10, 10-20, and 20-30 cm depth for pH, conductivity, organic carbon, nitrogen, phosphate, sulphate to correlate with gas emissions. The results showed that the soil in our study was a sink of atmospheric CO2, CH4 and N2O which the flux varied from -65.27 to 14.6, -0.005 to 0.07 and -0.03 to 0.33 mg m-2 h-1respectively. CO2 emissions were found maximum as compared to other two gases. Variations in soil N2O emissions could be primarily explained by litter C:N ratio and soil total N stock. Differences in soil CH4 uptake could be mostly attributed to the soil CO2 flux and water filled pore space (WFPS. Soil C:N ratio could largely account for variations in soil CO2 emissions. A strong positive relationship existed between CH4 flux and soil temperature. The N2O flux correlated with WFPS and the global warming potential of N2O is highest compared to other two principal gases. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v3i3.11064 International Journal of Environment Vol.3(3 2014: 59-77

  2. Evaluation of Surface Cleaning Procedures in Terms of Gas Sensing Properties of Spray-Deposited CNT Film: Thermal- and O2 Plasma Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joon Hyub; Song, Min-Jung; Kim, Ki Beom; Jin, Joon-Hyung; Min, Nam Ki

    2016-01-01

    The effect of cleaning the surface of single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) networks by thermal and the O2 plasma treatments is presented in terms of NH3 gas sensing characteristics. The goal of this work is to determine the relationship between the physicochemical properties of the cleaned surface (including the chemical composition, crystal structure, hydrophilicity, and impurity content) and the sensitivity of the SWNT network films to NH3 gas. The SWNT networks are spray-deposited on pre-patterned Pt electrodes, and are further functionalized by heating on a programmable hot plate or by O2 plasma treatment in a laboratory-prepared plasma chamber. Cyclic voltammetry was employed to semi-quantitatively evaluate each surface state of various plasma-treated SWNT-based electrodes. The results show that O2 plasma treatment can more effectively modify the SWNT network surface than thermal cleaning, and can provide a better conductive network surface due to the larger number of carbonyl/carboxyl groups, enabling a faster electron transfer rate, even though both the thermal cleaning and the O2 plasma cleaning methods can eliminate the organic solvent residues from the network surface. The NH3 sensors based on the O2 plasma-treated SWNT network exhibit higher sensitivity, shorter response time, and better recovery of the initial resistance than those prepared employing the thermally-cleaned SWNT networks. PMID:28042843

  3. Evaluation of Surface Cleaning Procedures in Terms of Gas Sensing Properties of Spray-Deposited CNT Film: Thermal- and O2 Plasma Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joon Hyub Kim

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of cleaning the surface of single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT networks by thermal and the O2 plasma treatments is presented in terms of NH3 gas sensing characteristics. The goal of this work is to determine the relationship between the physicochemical properties of the cleaned surface (including the chemical composition, crystal structure, hydrophilicity, and impurity content and the sensitivity of the SWNT network films to NH3 gas. The SWNT networks are spray-deposited on pre-patterned Pt electrodes, and are further functionalized by heating on a programmable hot plate or by O2 plasma treatment in a laboratory-prepared plasma chamber. Cyclic voltammetry was employed to semi-quantitatively evaluate each surface state of various plasma-treated SWNT-based electrodes. The results show that O2 plasma treatment can more effectively modify the SWNT network surface than thermal cleaning, and can provide a better conductive network surface due to the larger number of carbonyl/carboxyl groups, enabling a faster electron transfer rate, even though both the thermal cleaning and the O2 plasma cleaning methods can eliminate the organic solvent residues from the network surface. The NH3 sensors based on the O2 plasma-treated SWNT network exhibit higher sensitivity, shorter response time, and better recovery of the initial resistance than those prepared employing the thermally-cleaned SWNT networks.

  4. An assessment of investment projects in terms of gas and oil sectors of Ukraine’s and Russia’s industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Dzebykh

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the assessment of investment projects with the usage of characteristic examples, taken from gas and oil sectors of the industries, which are of crucial importance for the economies of Ukraine and Russia. These branches of industry are characterized by insufficient definition and complicacy, which necessitates the financial analysis of these sectors in Ukraine and Russia, especially if it is made for the assessment of the investment projects. In the long-term investment budget planning of the company the financial analysis is carried out to determine the investment possibilities, the value of which for the company is more than the money necessary for the ensurance of such possibilities. A few proposed methods can help specialist-analysts to take right decisions concerning investments.

  5. 75 FR 21301 - Office of Clinical and Preventive Services; Elder Care Initiative Long-Term Care Grant Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-23

    ... incorporation of the above elements into a report or other document that guides LTC services/system implementation, including a plan for sustainability. Category 2--Implementation awards will support the following... currently have to guide development of LTC services or programs? a. What do we know about our elder and...

  6. Response of NDVI, biomass, and ecosystem gas exchange to long-term warming and fertilization in wet sedge tundra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boelman, Natalie T; Stieglitz, Marc; Rueth, Heather M; Sommerkorn, Martin; Griffin, Kevin L; Shaver, Gaius R; Gamon, John A

    2003-05-01

    This study explores the relationship between the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), aboveground plant biomass, and ecosystem C fluxes including gross ecosystem production (GEP), ecosystem respiration (ER) and net ecosystem production. We measured NDVI across long-term experimental treatments in wet sedge tundra at the Toolik Lake LTER site, in northern Alaska. Over 13 years, N and P were applied in factorial experiments (N, P and N + P), air temperature was increased using greenhouses with and without N + P fertilizer, and light intensity (photosynthetically active photon flux density) was reduced by 50% using shade cloth. Within each treatment plot, NDVI, aboveground biomass and whole-system CO(2) flux measurements were made at the same sampling points during the peak-growing season of 2001. We found that across all treatments, NDVI is correlated with aboveground biomass ( r(2)=0.84), GEP ( r(2)=0.75) and ER ( r(2)=0.71), providing a basis for linking remotely sensed NDVI to aboveground biomass and ecosystem carbon flux.

  7. 78 FR 60208 - Oil and Gas and Sulphur Operations in the Outer Continental Shelf-Adjustment of Service Fees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    ... (OMB) Circular A-25. Under DOI's implementing policy, BSEE is required to charge the full cost for... produced, final goods and services in the economy for the designated year (e.g., 2012), as contained in the... economy. It will not adversely affect in a material way the economy, productivity, competition, jobs, the...

  8. 77 FR 70434 - Petal Gas Storage, L.L.C., Hattiesburg Industrial Gas Sales, L.L.C.; Notice of Offer of Settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. CP12-464-000] Petal Gas Storage, L.L.C., Hattiesburg Industrial Gas Sales, L.L.C.; Notice of Offer of Settlement Take notice that... aspects of the terms and conditions of the 311 firm storage service offered by Hattiesburg. Petal agrees...

  9. Shale gas, wind and water: assessing the potential cumulative impacts of energy development on ecosystem services within the Marcellus play.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey S Evans

    Full Text Available Global demand for energy has increased by more than 50 percent in the last half-century, and a similar increase is projected by 2030. This demand will increasingly be met with alternative and unconventional energy sources. Development of these resources causes disturbances that strongly impact terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems. The Marcellus Shale gas play covers more than 160,934 km(2 in an area that provides drinking water for over 22 million people in several of the largest metropolitan areas in the United States (e.g. New York City, Washington DC, Philadelphia & Pittsburgh. Here we created probability surfaces representing development potential of wind and shale gas for portions of six states in the Central Appalachians. We used these predictions and published projections to model future energy build-out scenarios to quantify future potential impacts on surface drinking water. Our analysis predicts up to 106,004 new wells and 10,798 new wind turbines resulting up to 535,023 ha of impervious surface (3% of the study area and upwards of 447,134 ha of impacted forest (2% of the study area. In light of this new energy future, mitigating the impacts of energy development will be one of the major challenges in the coming decades.

  10. Shale gas, wind and water: assessing the potential cumulative impacts of energy development on ecosystem services within the Marcellus play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Jeffrey S; Kiesecker, Joseph M

    2014-01-01

    Global demand for energy has increased by more than 50 percent in the last half-century, and a similar increase is projected by 2030. This demand will increasingly be met with alternative and unconventional energy sources. Development of these resources causes disturbances that strongly impact terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems. The Marcellus Shale gas play covers more than 160,934 km(2) in an area that provides drinking water for over 22 million people in several of the largest metropolitan areas in the United States (e.g. New York City, Washington DC, Philadelphia & Pittsburgh). Here we created probability surfaces representing development potential of wind and shale gas for portions of six states in the Central Appalachians. We used these predictions and published projections to model future energy build-out scenarios to quantify future potential impacts on surface drinking water. Our analysis predicts up to 106,004 new wells and 10,798 new wind turbines resulting up to 535,023 ha of impervious surface (3% of the study area) and upwards of 447,134 ha of impacted forest (2% of the study area). In light of this new energy future, mitigating the impacts of energy development will be one of the major challenges in the coming decades.

  11. Qualification of portable well test equipment for sour, low temperature service in the oil and gas industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Georgiev, A.; Williamson, A.I.; Brown, R. [Ammonite Corrosion Engineering Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Production well testing is now increasingly used in deeper, deviated wells with high pressures and temperatures. In order to verify the acceptability of production well testing equipment, the inspection industry uses standards and recommended practices within the API, ASTM, and NACE. The NACE standard MR0175 : sulphide stress cracking resistant metallic materials for oilfield equipment has recently been incorporated with ISO standard 15156. However, there are no guidelines or recognized industry standards for qualifying production well testing equipment in sour, low temperature service. This paper provided a reference source for the qualification of new and existing production well testing equipment in sour environments. The aim of the paper was to outline elements required for the development of a new standard. The guide included a history of sour service materials, and a discussion of low temperature properties. Well testing equipment was described, and examples of non-conformance were presented. 5 refs., 10 figs.

  12. Numerical simulation of the environmental impact of hydraulic fracturing of tight/shale gas reservoirs on near-surface ground water: background, base cases, shallow reservoirs, short-term gas and water transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Researchers examined gas and water transport between a deep tight shale gas reservoir and a shallow overlying aquifer in the two years following hydraulic fracturing, assuming a pre-existing connecting pathway.

  13. Effect of short- and long-term heat stress on the conception risk of dairy cows under natural service and artificial insemination breeding programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüller, L-K; Burfeind, O; Heuwieser, W

    2016-04-01

    The objectives of this retrospective study were to examine the effect of heat stress on natural service and artificial insemination (AI) breeding methods. We investigated the influence of short- and long-term heat stress on the conception risk (CR) of dairy cows bred by natural service or by AI with frozen-thawed or fresh semen. In addition, the relationship between breeding method and parity was determined. Cows bred by AI with frozen-thawed semen exposed to long-term heat stress (mean temperature-humidity index ≥73 in the period 21d before breeding) were 63% less likely to get pregnant compared with cows not exposed to heat stress. Cows bred by AI with fresh semen were 80% less likely to get pregnant during periods of short-term heat stress than during periods without heat stress. Furthermore, multiparous cows bred by AI with frozen-thawed or fresh semen were 22 and 67% less likely to get pregnant, respectively, than primiparous cows. No influence of heat stress or parity was noted on the CR of cows bred by natural service. The present study indicates that the likelihood of dairy cows becoming pregnant is reduced by short- and long-term heat stress depending on the type of semen employed. In particular, CR of cows inseminated with fresh semen is negatively affected by short-term heat stress and CR of cows inseminated with frozen-thawed semen is negatively affected by long-term heat stress. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Survival analysis of increases in care needs associated with dementia and living alone among older long-term care service users in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Huei-Ru; Otsubo, Tetsuya; Imanaka, Yuichi

    2017-08-15

    Japan is known for its long life expectancy and rapidly aging society that there are various demands of older adults need to be fulfilled with, and one of them is long-term care needs. Therefore, Japan implemented the Long-Term Care Insurance in year 2000 for citizens who are above 65-year old and citizens who are above 40-year old in needs of long-term care services. This study was undertaken to longitudinally examine the influence of dementia and living alone on care needs increases among older long-term care insurance service users in Japan. Long-term care insurance claims data were used to identify enrollees who applied for long-term care services between October 2010 and September 2011, and subjects were tracked until March 2015. A Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was conducted to examine increases in care needs over time in months. Cox regression models were used to examine the effects of dementia and living alone on care needs increases. The cumulative survival rates before care needs increased over the 4.5-year observation period were 17.6% in the dementia group and 31.9% in the non-dementia group. After adjusting for age, sex, care needs level, and status of living alone, the risk of care needs increases was found to be 1.5 times higher in the dementia group. Living alone was not a significant risk factor of care needs increases, but people with dementia who lived alone had a higher risk of care needs increases than those without dementia. Dementia, older age, the female sex, and lower care needs levels were associated with a higher risk of care needs increases over the study period. Among these variables, dementia had the strongest impact on care needs increases, especially in persons who lived alone.

  15. Opportunities in independent gas storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniel, R.

    1999-01-01

    The range of business opportunities currently available for the midstream oil and gas business were discussed with particular focus on storage opportunities. Alberta Energy Co. (AEC) Ltd.'s two midstream business units include AEC Pipelines and Gas Processing, and AEC Storage and Hub Services. These two businesses provide the company with good investment returns, stable cash flow, and some significant strategic synergies with their exploration and production businesses. In 1988, the AECO C Hub in southeastern Alberta was created as an outgrowth of AEC's gas production operations on the Suffield block, where they had depleted gas reservoirs with high rock quality suitable for high deliverability storage. With the AECO C Hub, AEC was able to offer firm storage contracts of from 1 to 20 years, and to introduce short term interruptible parking and lending services, title exchange, a spot price index for greater price discovery, and an electronic nomination system. AEC is currently completing construction of their second commercial storage facility, the Wild Goose project, in northern California. D ebottlenecking' the Western Canada supply basin should provide additional opportunities for further expansion not only for AEC but also for other midstream service providers. Opportunities are especially available in the areas of new storage facilities to serve location-specific needs, replacement of declining storage capacity, replacement of retiring facilities, technological optimization of existing facilities, more flexible, higher deliverability facilities and commercial optimization of existing facilities. A map of the hubs and market centres of North America are included. 5 figs

  16. [The Promotion of Resources Integration in Long-Term Care Service: The Experience of Taipei City Hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Meng-Ping; Huang, Chao-Ming; Sun, Wen-Jung; Shih, Chih-Yuan; Hsu, Su-Hsuan; Huang, Sheng-Jean

    2018-02-01

    The home-based medical care integrated plan under Taiwan National Health Insurance has changed from paying for home-based medical care, home-based nursing, home-based respiratory treatment, and palliative care to paying for a single, continuous home-based care service package. Formerly, physician-visit regulations limited home visits for home-based nursing to providing medical related assessments only. This limitation not only did not provide practical assistance to the public but also caused additional problems for those with mobility problems or who faced difficulties in making visits hospital. This 2016 change in regulations opens the door for doctors to step out their 'ivory tower', while offering the public more options to seek medical assistance in the hope that patients may change their health-seeking behavior. The home-based concept that underlies the medical service system is rooted deeply in the community in order to set up a sound, integrated model of community medical care. It is a critical issue to proceed with timely job handover confirmation with the connecting team and to provide patients with continuous-care services prior to discharge through the discharge-planning service and the connection with the connecting team. This is currently believed to be the only continuous home-based medical care integrated service model in the world. This model not only connects services such as health literacy, rehabilitation, home-based medical care, home-based nursing, community palliative care, and death but also integrates community resources, builds community resources networks, and provides high quality community care services.

  17. The Short Term Effectiveness of an Outdoor Environmental Education on Environmental Awareness and Sensitivity of In-Service Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okur-Berberoglu, Emel; Ozdilek, Hasan Göksel; Yalcin-Ozdilek, Sükran

    2015-01-01

    Outdoor education is mostly mentioned in terms of environmental education. The aim of this research is to determine the short term effectiveness of an outdoor environmental education program on biodiversity awareness, environmental awareness and sensitivity to natural environment. The data is collected from an outdoor environmental education…

  18. Gas and Gas Pains

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to produce gas. Often, relatively simple changes in eating habits can lessen bothersome gas. Certain digestive system disorders, ... such as soda and beer, increase stomach gas. Eating habits, such as eating too quickly, drinking through a ...

  19. Health-Related Quality of Life: Expanding a Conceptual Framework to Include Older Adults Who Receive Long-Term Services and Supports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubritsky, Cynthia; Abbott, Katherine M.; Hirschman, Karen B.; Bowles, Kathryn H.; Foust, Janice B.; Naylor, Mary D.

    2013-01-01

    For older adults receiving long-term services and supports (LTSS), health-related quality of life (HRQoL) has emerged as a critical construct to examine because of its focus on components of well-being, which are affected by progressive changes in health status, health care, and social support. HRQoL is a health-focused quality of life (QOL)…

  20. Radon Gas in Ireland Joint Position Statement by the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland and the Health Service Executive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Part, A.M.; Colgan, P.A.; Fenton, D.; Kelly, I.; Long, S.; O'Mahony, M.; Pollard, D.

    2010-04-01

    This position statement is written by the Health Service Executive and the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland with a view to forming and influencing policy in this area. It provides a summary of the health risks associated with radon exposure in Ireland and the steps that can be taken to reduce those risks. It outlines suggested ongoing work to reduce both the population dose from radon and the individual dose to those most at risk and considers future work needed to improve national policy to achieve these objectives

  1. Regional long-term production modeling from a single well test, Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well, Alaska North Slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, B.J.; Kurihara, M.; White, M.D.; Moridis, G.J.; Wilson, S.J.; Pooladi-Darvish, M.; Gaddipati, M.; Masuda, Y.; Collett, T.S.; Hunter, R.B.; Narita, H.; Rose, K.; Boswell, R.

    2011-01-01

    Following the results from the open-hole formation pressure response test in the BPXA-DOE-USGS Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well (Mount Elbert well) using Schlumberger's Modular Dynamics Formation Tester (MDT) wireline tool, the International Methane Hydrate Reservoir Simulator Code Comparison project performed long-term reservoir simulations on three different model reservoirs. These descriptions were based on 1) the Mount Elbert gas hydrate accumulation as delineated by an extensive history-matching exercise, 2) an estimation of the hydrate accumulation near the Prudhoe Bay L-pad, and 3) a reservoir that would be down-dip of the Prudhoe Bay L-pad and therefore warmer and deeper. All of these simulations were based, in part, on the results of the MDT results from the Mount Elbert Well. The comparison group's consensus value for the initial permeability of the hydrate-filled reservoir (k = 0.12 mD) and the permeability model based on the MDT history match were used as the basis for subsequent simulations on the three regional scenarios. The simulation results of the five different simulation codes, CMG STARS, HydrateResSim, MH-21 HYDRES, STOMP-HYD, and TOUGH+HYDRATE exhibit good qualitative agreement and the variability of potential methane production rates from gas hydrate reservoirs is illustrated. As expected, the predicted methane production rate increased with increasing in situ reservoir temperature; however, a significant delay in the onset of rapid hydrate dissociation is observed for a cold, homogeneous reservoir and it is found to be repeatable. The inclusion of reservoir heterogeneity in the description of this cold reservoir is shown to eliminate this delayed production. Overall, simulations utilized detailed information collected across the Mount Elbert reservoir either obtained or determined from geophysical well logs, including thickness (37 ft), porosity (35%), hydrate saturation (65%), intrinsic permeability (1000 mD), pore water

  2. Regional long-term production modeling from a single well test, Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well, Alaska North Slope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Brian J.; Kurihara, Masanori; White, Mark D.; Moridis, George J.; Wilson, Scott J.; Pooladi-Darvish, Mehran; Gaddipati, Manohar; Masuda, Yoshihiro; Collett, Timothy S.; Hunter, Robert B.; Narita, Hideo; Rose, Kelly; Boswell, Ray

    2011-02-01

    Following the results from the open-hole formation pressure response test in the BPXA-DOE-USGS Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well (Mount Elbert well) using Schlumberger's Modular Dynamics Formation Tester (MDT) wireline tool, the International Methane Hydrate Reservoir Simulator Code Comparison project performed long-term reservoir simulations on three different model reservoirs. These descriptions were based on 1) the Mount Elbert gas hydrate accumulation as delineated by an extensive history-matching exercise, 2) an estimation of the hydrate accumulation near the Prudhoe Bay L-pad, and 3) a reservoir that would be down-dip of the Prudhoe Bay L-pad and therefore warmer and deeper. All of these simulations were based, in part, on the results of the MDT results from the Mount Elbert Well. The comparison group's consensus value for the initial permeability of the hydrate-filled reservoir (k = 0.12 mD) and the permeability model based on the MDT history match were used as the basis for subsequent simulations on the three regional scenarios. The simulation results of the five different simulation codes, CMG STARS, HydrateResSim, MH-21 HYDRES, STOMP-HYD, and TOUGH+HYDRATE exhibit good qualitative agreement and the variability of potential methane production rates from gas hydrate reservoirs is illustrated. As expected, the predicted methane production rate increased with increasing in situ reservoir temperature; however, a significant delay in the onset of rapid hydrate dissociation is observed for a cold, homogeneous reservoir and it is found to be repeatable. The inclusion of reservoir heterogeneity in the description of this cold reservoir is shown to eliminate this delayed production. Overall, simulations utilized detailed information collected across the Mount Elbert reservoir either obtained or determined from geophysical well logs, including thickness (37 ft), porosity (35%), hydrate saturation (65%), intrinsic permeability (1000 mD), pore

  3. Factors affecting the entry of for-profit providers into a price regulated market for formal long-term care services: a case study from Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokunaga, Mutsumi; Hashimoto, Hideki

    2013-01-01

    While the distinct behaviors of for-profit and non-profit providers in the healthcare market have been compared in the economic literature, their choices regarding market entry and exit have only recently been debated. Since 2000, when public Long-Term Care Insurance was introduced in Japan, for-profit providers have been able to provide formal long-term homecare services. The aim of this study is to determine which factors have affected market entry of for-profit providers under price regulation and in competition with existing non-profit providers. We used nation-wide panel data from 2002 to 2010, aggregated at the level of local public insurers (n = 1557), a basic area unit of service provision. The number of for-profit providers per elderly population in the area unit was regressed against factors related to local demand and service costs using first-difference linear regression, a fixed effects model, and Tobit regression for robustness checking. Results showed that demand (the number of eligible care recipients) and cost factors (population density and minimum wage) significantly influenced for-profit providers' choice of market entry. These findings indicate that for-profit providers will strategically choose a local market for maximizing profit. We believe that price regulation should be redesigned to incorporate quality of care and market conditions, regardless of the profit status of the providers, to ensure equal access to efficient delivery of long-term care across all regions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Development, validation and application of a process for the generation of long-term stable VOC gas mixtures; Entwicklung, Validierung und Anwendung eines Verfahrens zur Erzeugung langzeitstabiler VOC-Gasgemische

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, Matthias

    2010-07-01

    The development as well as the validation of a gas mixing system (GMS) that enables dynamic and traceable production of stable long-term VOC gas mixtures within the range between a few {mu}g/m{sup 3} and a few 100 {mu}g/m{sup 3}, is discussed. In this method pure liquid substances that are filled into stainless steel bottles are kept separately at a constant temperature, evaporated according to their vapour pressure and removed by a small inert gas flow. They are finally united in a gas mixing chamber. The carrier gas must be as small as possible so that the quasi-equilibrium between the gas space and the liquid phase in the substance bottles will not be disturbed. The carrier gas is assumed to be saturated with substance gas due to a long residence time in the bottles and a fast phase transition. Any concentration level of the gas mixture can be generated by a combination of vaporization temperature, carrier and dilution gas flows. With the GMS a mixture of 25 VOCs was prepared. For 16 compounds stable and reproducible gas concentrations were realized. Due to not completely removed leakage of some substance bottles and the tubing respectively, variation of the concentration of the remaining compounds was found. A sink effect as another reason for this variation could be expelled and the chemical stability of the vaporized substances proved with the exception of some aldehydes. The procedure was successfully applied in a round robin test and a material test. In the latter adsorption of VOCs on building products was scrutinized. In this way the applicability of the GMS could be shown. (orig.)

  5. Energy intensity and greenhouse gas emission of a purchase in the retail park service sector: An integrative approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farreny, Ramon; Gabarrell, Xavier; Rieradevall, Joan

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe the energetic metabolism of a retail park service system under an integrative approach. Energy flow accounting was applied to a case study retail park in Spain, representative of the sector across Europe, after redefining the functional unit to account for both direct energy use (buildings, gardens and outdoor lighting) and indirect energy use (employee and customer transportation). A life cycle assessment (LCA) was then undertaken to determine energy global warming potential (GWP) and some energy intensity and greenhouse gases (GHG) emission indicators were defined and applied. The results emphasise the importance of service systems in global warming policies, as a potential emission of 9.26 kg CO 2 /purchase was obtained for the case study, relating to a consumption of 1.64 KOE of energy, of which 21.9% was spent on buildings and 57.9% on customer transportation. Some strategies to reduce these emissions were considered: increased supply, energy efficiency, changes in distribution of modes of transport, changes in location and changes in the mix of land uses. A combination of all of these elements in a new retail park could reduce GHG emissions by more than 50%, as it is planning strategies, which seem to be the most effective

  6. Integrating Mental Health and Special Education Needs into Comprehensive Service Planning for Juvenile Offenders in Long-Term Custody Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruise, Keith R.; Evans, Lisa J.; Pickens, Isaiah B.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has established that justice-involved youth have higher rates of both learning disabilities and mental health disorders compared to youth in the community. Both need areas raise substantial intervention and rehabilitation concerns that must be addressed via educational and mental health service plans. The current study…

  7. Trends in service time of pacemakers in the Netherlands : A long-term nationwide follow-up study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, L. M.; Leening, M. J. G.; Dijk, W. A.; Hooijschuur, C. A. M.; Stricker, B. H. C.; van Hemel, N. M.

    2017-01-01

    Aims: After decades of experience and strongly improved technology, service time of pacemaker generators is expected to increase. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a retrospective review of a large cohort of patients with a pacemaker. Methods: We reviewed data collected between 1984 and 2006 in

  8. Trends in service time of pacemakers in the Netherlands: A long-term nationwide follow-up study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.M. de Vries (Laura); M.J.G. Leening (Maarten); W.A. Dijk (Arnold); C.A.M. Hooijschuur (C. A M); B.H.Ch. Stricker (Bruno); N.M. van Hemel (Norbert)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractAims After decades of experience and strongly improved technology, service time of pacemaker generators is expected to increase. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a retrospective review of a large cohort of patients with a pacemaker. Methods We reviewed data collected between 1984

  9. An Analysis of Pre-Service Teachers' Attitudes towards Environmental Issues in Terms of Various Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarikaya, Rabia; Saraç, Esra

    2018-01-01

    In this study, the attitudes of the pre-service teachers towards environmental issues are analysed by such variables as gender, the department of education, year, department, taking or not taking environmental education course, participating in any environmental activity, being a member of any environmental organization, and the longest duration…

  10. Long-term effectiveness of the ACCESS program in linking community mental health services to homeless persons with serious mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothbard, Aileen B; Min, So-Young; Kuno, Eri; Wong, Yin-Ling Irene

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the long-term effectiveness of the ACCESS (Access to Community Care and Effective Services and Supports) project on service utilization and continuity of care among homeless persons with serious mental illness. A 3-year longitudinal analysis, using Medicaid claims data, tracked behavioral health service utilization among 146 Medicaid-eligible participants in the Pennsylvania ACCESS program. Utilization patterns of inpatient, outpatient, and emergency department services for psychiatric and substance abuse treatment were examined during the year prior to, during, and one year after the implementation of the ACCESS project. Use of psychiatric ambulatory care significantly increased among intervention participants and remained greater following ACCESS intervention. Better continuity of care following hospitalization was achieved during and after the intervention. The number of days spent hospitalized significantly decreased during the intervention. These results suggest that the ACCESS intervention was effective in linking hard-to-reach homeless persons with serious mental illness to the community mental health service system, and that this effect was maintained after termination of the intervention.

  11. Adaptive long-term monitoring of soil health in metal phytostabilization: ecological attributes and ecosystem services based on soil microbial parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epelde, Lur; Becerril, José M; Alkorta, Itziar; Garbisu, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Phytostabilization is a promising option for the remediation of metal contaminated soils which requires the implementation of long-term monitoring programs. We here propose to incorporate the paradigm of "adaptive monitoring", which enables monitoring programs to evolve iteratively as new information emerges and research questions change, to metal phytostabilization. Posing good questions that cover the chemical, toxicological and ecological concerns associated to metal contaminated soils is critical for an efficient long-term phytostabilization monitoring program. Regarding the ecological concerns, soil microbial parameters are most valuable indicators of the effectiveness of metal phytostabilization processes in terms of recovery of soil health. We suggest to group soil microbial parameters in higher-level categories such as "ecological attributes" (vigor, organization, stability) or "ecosystem services" in order to facilitate interpretation and, most importantly, to provide long-term phytostabilization monitoring programs with the required stability through time against changes in techniques, methods, interests, etc. that will inevitably occur during the monitoring program. Finally, a Phytostabilization Monitoring Card, based on both ecological attributes and ecosystem services, for soil microbial properties is provided.

  12. We can do it : a salute to women in oil and gas services, from roughnecking to entrepreneurship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byfield, M.

    2010-04-15

    The petroleum industry will face labor shortages as the baby boomer generation reaches retirement age. The petroleum industry is becoming a more attractive environment for female workers as a result of improvements in drilling rig technology. This article presented profiles of 5 female workers currently employed within the energy sector. Profiles included a female heavy equipment operator in the oil sands industry who started her career as a labourer; a rig hand who graduated from university as an English major; a field personnel recruiter; an entrepreneur and CEO of a health and safety service company; and an instrument mechanic. The profiles included biographical details as well as summaries of each worker's previous training and experience. Issues related to the recruitment of female workers were discussed, and methods of improving the workplace environment were reviewed. 11 figs.

  13. Heat-pump-centered Integrated Community Energy Systems: systems development, Consolidated Natural Gas Service Company. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, N.R.; Donakowski, T.D.; Foster, R.B.; Sala, D.L.; Tison, R.R.; Whaley, T.P.; Yudow, B.D.; Swenson, P.F.

    1980-01-01

    The Heat-Actuated Heat Pump Centered Integrated Community Energy System (HAHP-ICES) utilizes a gas-fired, engine-driven, heat pump and commercial buildings, and offers several advantages over the more conventional equipment it is intended to supplant. The general non-site-specific application assumes a hypothetical community of one 59,000 ft/sup 2/ office building and five 24-unit, low-rise apartment buildings located in a region with a climate similar to Chicago. This community serves as a starting point - the base case - upon which various sensitivity analyses are performed and through which the performance characteristics of the HAHP are explored. The results of these analyses provided the selection criteria for the site-specific application of the HAHP-ICES concept to a real-world community. The site-specific community consists of 42 townhouses; five 120-unit, low-rise apartment buildings; five 104-unit high-rise apartment buildings; one 124,000 ft/sup 2/ office building; and a single 135,000 ft/sup 2/ retail building located in Monroeville, Pa. The base-case analyses confirmed that the HAHP-ICES has significant potentials for reducing the primary energy consumption and pollutant emissions associated with space conditioning when compared with a conventional system. Primary energy consumption was reduced by 30%, while emission reductions ranged from 39 to 77%. The results of the site-specific analysis indicate that reductions in energy consumption of between 15 and 22% are possible when a HAHP-ICES is selected as opposed to conventional HVAC equipment.

  14. Effects of Feeding Encapsulated Nitrate to Beef Cattle on Ammonia and Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Their Manure in a Short-Term Manure Storage System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chanhee; Araujo, Rafael C; Koenig, Karen M; Hile, Michael L; Fabian-Wheeler, Eileen E; Beauchemin, Karen A

    2016-11-01

    A study was conducted to investigate effects of feeding encapsulated nitrate (EN) to beef cattle on ammonia (NH) and greenhouse gas emissions from their manure. Eight beef heifers were randomly assigned to diets containing 0 (control), 1, 2, or 3% EN (55% forage dry matter; EN replaced encapsulated urea in the control diet and therefore all diets were iso-nitrogenous) in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design. Urine and feces collected from individual animals were reconstituted into manure and incubated over 156 h using a steady-state flux chamber system to monitor NH, methane (CH), carbon dioxide (CO), and nitrous oxide (NO) emissions. Urinary, fecal, and manure nitrate (NO)-N concentration linearly increased ( emissions of NH, CO, and NO (mg head h) were not affected, although NH emission rates tended to be lower ( = 0.070) for EN compared with Control at 0 to 12 h. Cumulative NH, CO, and NO emissions over 156 h were not affected, but CH emissions were less (4.5 vs. 7.4 g head; = 0.027) for EN compared with Control. In conclusion, although NH emissions were initially lower for EN manures, total NH emitted over 156 h was not affected. Dietary EN lowered CH emissions from manure, and, despite greater NO concentrations in EN manure, NO emissions were not affected in this short-term incubation. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  15. Model-based Approach for Long-term Creep Curves of Alloy 617 for a High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Woo Gon; Yin, Song Nan; Kim, Yong Wan

    2008-01-01

    Alloy 617 is a principal candidate alloy for the high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) components, because of its high creep rupture strength coupled with its good corrosion behavior in simulated HTGR-helium and its sufficient workability. To describe a creep strain-time curve well, various constitutive equations have been proposed by Kachanov-Rabotnov, Andrade, Garofalo, Evans and Maruyama, et al.. Among them, the K-R model has been used frequently, because a secondary creep resulting from a balance between a softening and a hardening of materials and a tertiary creep resulting from an appearance and acceleration of the internal or external damage processes are adequately considered. In the case of nickel-base alloys, it has been reported that a tertiary creep at a low strain range may be generated, and this tertiary stage may govern the total creep deformation. Therefore, a creep curve for nickel-based Alloy 617 will be predicted appropriately by using the K-R model that can reflect a tertiary creep. In this paper, the long-term creep curves for Alloy 617 were predicted by using the nonlinear least square fitting (NLSF) method in the K-R model. The modified K-R model was introduced to fit the full creep curves well. The values for the λ and K parameters in the modified K-R model were obtained with stresses

  16. Do patients using long-term liquid oxygen differ from those on traditional treatment with oxygen concentrators and/or compressed gas cylinders? A comparison of two national registers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaanning, J; Strøm, K; Boe, J

    1998-01-01

    Long-term oxygen therapy (LTOT) in patients with chronic hypoxaemia is an expanding field. Traditional stationary oxygen, with and without portable compressed gas cylinders, and portable liquid oxygen equipment is available today. No official guidelines exist for the prescription of liquid oxygen vs traditional oxygen supply in LTOT, although it is generally though that patients receiving liquid oxygen are younger and less seriously affected. The authors tested this hypothesis by comparing register data from two national Scandinavian registers of patients on LTOT in the same time period; one including all the patients on traditional oxygen treatment alone, e.g. concentrators and compressed gas cylinders (n = 1039), the other including all the patients using portable liquid oxygen alone (n = 117). About 80% of the patients in both groups suffered from chrome obstructive pulmonary disease. Younger patients were found in the liquid oxygen group (P gas derangement (mostly statistically significant). They had higher frequency of previous or present oedema (P gas levels.

  17. Evaluation of an integrated system for classification, assessment and comparison of services for long-term care in Europe: the eDESDE-LTC study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador-Carulla, Luis; Alvarez-Galvez, Javier; Romero, Cristina; Gutiérrez-Colosía, Mencia R; Weber, Germain; McDaid, David; Dimitrov, Hristo; Sprah, Lilijana; Kalseth, Birgitte; Tibaldi, Giuseppe; Salinas-Perez, Jose A; Lagares-Franco, Carolina; Romá-Ferri, Maria Teresa; Johnson, Sonia

    2013-06-15

    The harmonization of European health systems brings with it a need for tools to allow the standardized collection of information about medical care. A common coding system and standards for the description of services are needed to allow local data to be incorporated into evidence-informed policy, and to permit equity and mobility to be assessed. The aim of this project has been to design such a classification and a related tool for the coding of services for Long Term Care (DESDE-LTC), based on the European Service Mapping Schedule (ESMS). The development of DESDE-LTC followed an iterative process using nominal groups in 6 European countries. 54 researchers and stakeholders in health and social services contributed to this process. In order to classify services, we use the minimal organization unit or "Basic Stable Input of Care" (BSIC), coded by its principal function or "Main Type of Care" (MTC). The evaluation of the tool included an analysis of feasibility, consistency, ontology, inter-rater reliability, Boolean Factor Analysis, and a preliminary impact analysis (screening, scoping and appraisal). DESDE-LTC includes an alpha-numerical coding system, a glossary and an assessment instrument for mapping and counting LTC. It shows high feasibility, consistency, inter-rater reliability and face, content and construct validity. DESDE-LTC is ontologically consistent. It is regarded by experts as useful and relevant for evidence-informed decision making. DESDE-LTC contributes to establishing a common terminology, taxonomy and coding of LTC services in a European context, and a standard procedure for data collection and international comparison.

  18. Long-term benzodiazepine treatment in patients with psychotic disorders attending a mental health service in rural Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaios Peritogiannis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Long-term benzodiazepine (BZD treatment in patients with mental disorders is widespread in clinical practice, and this is also the case of patients with schizophrenia, although the evidence is weak and BZD prescription is discouraged by guidelines and medical authorities. Data on BZD prescription are usually derived from national or regional databases whereas information on the use of BZD by patients with schizophrenia and related psychoses in general population-based samples is limited. Materials and Methods: Information for 77 patients with psychotic disorders who were regularly attending follow-up appointments with the multidisciplinary Mobile Mental Health Unit of the prefectures of Ioannina and Thesprotia, Northwest Greece, during 1-year period (2015 was obtained from our database. Results: From the total of 77 engaged patients, 30 (39% were regularly prescribed BZDs in the long term, as part of their treatment regimen. Prescribed BZDs were mostly diazepam and lorazepam, in 43.3% of cases each. The mean daily dose of these compounds was 13 mg and 3.77 mg, respectively. Statistical analysis showed a correlation of long-term BZD use with the history of alcohol/substance abuse. Most patients were receiving BZD continuously for several years, and the mean dose was steady within this interval. Conclusions: A large proportion of patients with psychotic disorders were regularly prescribed BZD in long term. It appears that when BZDs are prescribed for some period in the course of a psychotic disorder, their use commonly exceeds the recommended interval and then becomes a regular part of the chronic treatment regimen. Future research should address the factors that may be related to the long-term BZD use by patients with psychotic disorders. Interventions for the reduction of regular BZD prescription should target the primary care setting and all those who treat first episode patients.

  19. British Gas plans global gas unit expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vielvoye, R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on developing a global gas business, a British Gas plc's strategy for evolving a state owned U.K. gas company to a privatized worldwide oil and gas giant. By 2000, BG's global gas business is expected to provide 20% of its revenues, compared with 40% each from its exploration and production operations and its U.K. gas business. The global gas unit (GGU) plans to meet its targets mainly through acquiring holdings in gas transmission and distribution companies around the world. In the 12 months since GGU was established, it has made two such major acquisitions in this area. BG acquired Consumers Gas Co., Ltd., Ontario, Canada's biggest natural gas distribution company, for $943.5 million. It also took a 10% stake in Catalana de Gas SA, Barcelona, the largest privately owned gas utility in Spain and in terms of number of customers, the fourth largest in western Europe. BG also is targeting additional revenues from developing gas fired cogeneration systems in developing countries with gas reserves but no established transmission and distribution systems

  20. Value Retention, Service Life, Use Intensity and Long-Term Productivity of Wood Chippers as Obtained from Contractor Records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Spinelli

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Acknowledging the absence of up-to-date empirical data on the value retention, service life and annual use of chipping machinery, in 2017 the authors surveyed the records kept by 50 contractors offering biomass chipping services. The machine fleet and operations in this survey could be taken as representative for most of Europe, where the biomass sector is well established and is facing further expansion. Data collection included the whole chipping unit, comprised of chipper, carrier and loader. Manually-fed units were excluded from the survey. The data pointed at a service life up to and exceeding 10,000 h and 10 years, which relieved any concerns about poor durability. Value retention was good, and may exceed that of other mainstream forestry equipment. Engine power was the main explanatory variable in any models to predict purchase price and productivity. The effect of this variable could explain most of the variability (>80% in the purchase price and productivity data. Results also pointed at the essential equivalence in price and productivity between PTO-driven (i.e., tractor powered and independent-engine chippers, once differences in engine power are accounted for. However, the distribution of purchase price between different components of the chipping unit was different between the two unit types, with the chipper accounting for a larger proportion of the total investment in independent-engine units. Machine power was also different, with most PTO-driven units being significantly smaller than independent-engine units, due to the limitations of existing tractors. Furthermore, half of the carriers assigned to a PTO-driven unit were subject to flexible use, i.e., they were not solely used for chipping work.

  1. A long term follow-up study from India assessing the risk of diabetes mellitus in service population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, K V S Hari; Patnaik, S K

    The data about the incidence of diabetes is scarce from developing countries. We studied the incidence of type 1 (T1DM) and type 2 DM (T2DM) in a cohort of young military personnel followed for a long duration. The data for this descriptive epidemiologic study was derived from the electronic medical records (EMR) of the male service personnel enrolled between 1990 and 2015. All subjects were recruited before 18 years of age in good health and the onset of DM was derived from the EMR. We calculated the incidence rates as per person years using appropriate statistical methods. Our study population includes 51,217 participants (median age 33 years, range 17-54) with a mean follow up of 12.5 years, giving a cumulative follow up duration of 613,925 person-years (py). A total of 251 patients developed T2DM and 15 patients developed T1DM during the study period. The incidence rate of T2DM was 0.41 per 1000 py and that of T1DM was 2.44 per 100,000 py. Our cohort had low incidence rates of diabetes when compared with other studies from India and abroad. Active military service with good life style measures may offer protection from the DM. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Short- and Long-Term Lead Release after Partial Lead Service Line Replacements in a Metropolitan Water Distribution System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshommes, Elise; Laroche, Laurent; Deveau, Dominique; Nour, Shokoufeh; Prévost, Michèle

    2017-09-05

    Thirty-three households were monitored in a full-scale water distribution system, to investigate the impact of recent (lead service line replacements (PLSLRs). Total and particulate lead concentrations were measured using repeat sampling over a period of 1-20 months. Point-of-entry filters were installed to capture sporadic release of particulate lead from the lead service lines (LSLs). Mean concentrations increased immediately after PLSLRs and erratic particulate lead spikes were observed over the 18 month post-PLSLR monitoring period. The mass of lead released during this time frame indicates the occurrence of galvanic corrosion and scale destabilization. System-wide, lead concentrations were however lower in households with PLSLRs as compared to those with no replacement, especially for old PLSLRs. Nonetheless, 61% of PLSLR samples still exceeded 10 μg/L, reflecting the importance of implementing full LSL replacement and efficient risk communication. Acute concentrations measured immediately after PLSLRs demonstrate the need for appropriate flushing procedures to prevent lead poisoning.

  3. Risk factors for disability progression among Japanese long-term care service users: A 3-year prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, Kuniyasu; Adachi, Takuji; Sasou, Kenji; Suzuki, Tadashi; Yamada, Sumio

    2017-04-01

    To examine the predictive ability of memory deterioration and grip strength for disability progression among those who utilized the home-help service. We prospectively followed a cohort of community-dwelling older people who were aged 65 years or older, certified support level 1-2 or care level 1-2 and home-help service users provided by Consumers' Cooperatives in Aichi and Kanagawa prefecture. Memory capability, grip strength, chronic conditions and other indices were surveyed at baseline. Disability progression was defined as being certified care level 3 or higher, or institutionalization during 3-year follow up. We assessed 417 older adults, of which 386 were included (7.4% excluded). In multivariate Cox regression analyses, a higher eligibility level and memory deterioration were independently associated with a higher hazard ratio. When chronic conditions were entered in the model, cancer and low grip strength were additionally associated. The findings of the present study show that memory deterioration is a risk factor for disability progression. Also, grip strength might be a risk factor with consideration of chronic conditions. The cause-effect relationship of those factors and disability progression would be a future challenging issue. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 568-574. © 2016 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  4. Natural gas; Gas Natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Carlos A.; Moraes, Claudia C.D. [Eletricidade de Sao Paulo S.A. (ELETROPAULO), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Fonseca, Carlos H.F. [Centrais Eletricas de Santa Catarina S.A., Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Silva, Clecio Fabricio da; Alves, Ricardo P. [Companhia Paranaense de Energia (COPEL), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Sposito, Edivaldo Soares; Hulle, Lutero [Espirito Santo Centrais Eletricas S.A. (ESCELSA), Vitoria, ES (Brazil); S. Martins, Icaro da [Centrais Eletricas do Norte do Brasil S.A. (ELETRONORTE), Belem, PA (Brazil); Vilhena, Joao Luiz S. de [Companhia Energetica de Minas Gerais (CEMIG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Fagundes, Zaluar Aquino [Companhia Estadual de Energia Eletrica do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    1996-12-31

    An increase in the consumption of natural gas in Brazil is an expected fact in what concerns energetic planning. This work presents the existing situation in what concerns natural gas utilization in the main world economies, as well as an analysis of the participation of this fuel among the energy final consumption per sources. The Brazilian consumption of natural gas is also analysed as well as the international agreement between Brazil and Bolivia for natural gas commercialization. Some legal, institutional and political aspects related to natural gas commercialization are also discussed. Finally, several benefits to be brought by the utilization of natural gas are presented 10 refs., 3 tabs.

  5. Dynamics of soil gas radon concentration in a high permeable soil based on a long-term high-resolution measurement series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, K. Z.; Horváth, Á.; Jordán, Gy.; Szabó, Cs.

    2012-04-01

    One method of calculating Geogenic Radon Potential (GRP) is to estimate a continuous variable from the equilibrium concentration of 222Rn in soil gas, in kBq/m3 (C∞) and the effective permeability of soil, in m2 (k). These parameters can be determined during field work or can be estimated from other available parameters, such as 226Ra concentration in dry soil (Bq/kg) or porosity, using transfer functions. Assuming short field measurement, temporal variation of soil gas 222Rn concentration (csoilRn) can cause difference of the measured value from C∞ which should be considered during the evaluation. A long-term high-resolution observation can reveal various temporal features such as seasonality in csoilRn. The main aim of this study was to determine the dynamics of csoilRn in terms of trend, periodicity and transient event in a high permeable soil (1.5E-11 m2) during a one year period. We measured the csoilRn in 15 minutes periods for one week in every month using RAD7 radon monitor coupled with soil probe (Durridge Company Inc.). The sampling depth was 80 cm. The measurement site was located in a Budapest urban area, Hungary. The underlying geological formation at the measurement site is Quaternary (upper Pleistocene) fluvial sediment, a Pleistocene diamicton (fluvial sand, gravel, clay). Robust statistical analysis and time series analysis were used for the characterization of radon dynamics in the studied high permeable soil. Our results of statistical analyses showed seasonality in csoilRn. We have observed statistically significant differences of csoilRn between winter (from October to March) and summer measurements (from May to September). Medians of the csoilRn data of summer weeks are lower than those of in winter. According to the Mann-Whitney (Wilcoxon) Test the medians of these two groups are significantly different at the 95% confidence level. The average of the median values for the winter season was 2.5 times higher (7.0 kBq m-3) than for the

  6. Nitrous Oxide and Serious Long-term Morbidity and Mortality in the Evaluation of Nitrous Oxide in the Gas Mixture for Anaesthesia (ENIGMA)-II Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Kate; Myles, Paul S; Kasza, Jessica; Forbes, Andrew; Peyton, Philip J; Chan, Matthew T V; Paech, Michael J; Sessler, Daniel I; Beattie, W Scott; Devereaux, P J; Wallace, Sophie

    2015-12-01

    The Evaluation of Nitrous Oxide in the Gas Mixture for Anaesthesia (ENIGMA)-II trial randomly assigned 7,112 noncardiac surgery patients at risk of perioperative cardiovascular events to 70% N2O or 70% N2 groups. The aim of this follow-up study was to determine the effect of nitrous oxide on a composite primary outcome of death and major cardiovascular events at 1 yr after surgery. One-year follow-up was conducted via a medical record review and telephone interview. Disability was defined as a Katz index of independence in activities of daily living score less than 8. Adjusted odds ratios and hazard ratios were calculated as appropriate for primary and secondary outcomes. Among 5,844 patients evaluated at 1 yr, 435 (7.4%) had died, 206 (3.5%) had disability, 514 (8.8%) had a fatal or nonfatal myocardial infarction, and 111 (1.9%) had a fatal or nonfatal stroke during the 1-yr follow-up period. Exposure to nitrous oxide did not increase the risk of the primary outcome (odds ratio, 1.08; 95% CI, 0.94 to 1.25; P = 0.27), disability or death (odds ratio, 1.07; 95% CI, 0.90 to 1.27; P = 0.44), death (hazard ratio, 1.17; 95% CI, 0.97 to 1.43; P = 0.10), myocardial infarction (odds ratio, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.81 to 1.17; P = 0.78), or stroke (odds ratio, 1.08; 95% CI, 0.74 to 1.58; P = 0.70). These results support the long-term safety of nitrous oxide administration in noncardiac surgical patients with known or suspected cardiovascular disease.

  7. Use of an integrated human health/ecological risk assessment to develop a long-term groundwater/site management plan for a sour gas facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swanson, S.M.; Shaw, R.D.; McClymont, G.; Nadeau, S.

    1995-01-01

    An integrated human health and ecological risk assessment was used to quantify the level of risk associated with the off-site movement of contaminants via groundwater and soils at a medium-sized gas processing facility in southern Alberta. The study incorporated three key aspects: (1) integration; (2) consultation; and, (3) pro-active remedial actions. Integration was complete, beginning with the Problem Formulation stage and progressing through Risk Characterization and Risk Management. This integration was reflected in a multidisciplinary team of hydrogeologists, biologists and human health specialists. Several lessons emerged from the integrated approach: (1) spending 2/3 of the time and resources on Problem Formulation prevented later problems; (2) the different perspectives provided by the various specialists helped reveal the relative importance of pathways and ecological receptors (3) clear, consistent screening procedures for contaminants of concern and receptors were very effective with stakeholders; (4) exposure scenarios that incorporated common-sense situations (although still conservative) contributed to the credibility of the risk analysis; and, (5) an innovative combination of toxicity testing and chemical analysis helped delineate the boundaries of the potentially contaminated area for both human and ecological receptors in a cost effective manner. Consultation included directly affected parties, regulatory personnel and community members. The consultation extended through the project, with key ''buy-in'' points during Problem Formulation and Risk Characterization/Management. Pro-active remedial action included the removal of contaminant sources in the 1980's, a pump-and-treat system and extensive monitoring. These actions showed commitment and set the stage for credible risk-based mitigation and long-term monitoring

  8. Use of an integrated human health/ecological risk assessment to develop a long-term groundwater/site management plan for a sour gas facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swanson, S.M.; Shaw, R.D.; McClymont, G. [Golder Associates, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Nadeau, S. [Imperial Oil Resources, Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

    1995-12-31

    An integrated human health and ecological risk assessment was used to quantify the level of risk associated with the off-site movement of contaminants via groundwater and soils at a medium-sized gas processing facility in southern Alberta. The study incorporated three key aspects: (1) integration; (2) consultation; and, (3) pro-active remedial actions. Integration was complete, beginning with the Problem Formulation stage and progressing through Risk Characterization and Risk Management. This integration was reflected in a multidisciplinary team of hydrogeologists, biologists and human health specialists. Several lessons emerged from the integrated approach: (1) spending 2/3 of the time and resources on Problem Formulation prevented later problems; (2) the different perspectives provided by the various specialists helped reveal the relative importance of pathways and ecological receptors (3) clear, consistent screening procedures for contaminants of concern and receptors were very effective with stakeholders; (4) exposure scenarios that incorporated common-sense situations (although still conservative) contributed to the credibility of the risk analysis; and, (5) an innovative combination of toxicity testing and chemical analysis helped delineate the boundaries of the potentially contaminated area for both human and ecological receptors in a cost effective manner. Consultation included directly affected parties, regulatory personnel and community members. The consultation extended through the project, with key ``buy-in`` points during Problem Formulation and Risk Characterization/Management. Pro-active remedial action included the removal of contaminant sources in the 1980`s, a pump-and-treat system and extensive monitoring. These actions showed commitment and set the stage for credible risk-based mitigation and long-term monitoring.

  9. Rapid and long-term effects of water deficit on gas exchange and hydraulic conductance of silver birch trees grown under varying atmospheric humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellin, Arne; Niglas, Aigar; Õunapuu-Pikas, Eele; Kupper, Priit

    2014-03-24

    Effects of water deficit on plant water status, gas exchange and hydraulic conductance were investigated in Betula pendula under artificially manipulated air humidity in Eastern Estonia. The study was aimed to broaden an understanding of the ability of trees to acclimate with the increasing atmospheric humidity predicted for northern Europe. Rapidly-induced water deficit was imposed by dehydrating cut branches in open-air conditions; long-term water deficit was generated by seasonal drought. The rapid water deficit quantified by leaf (ΨL) and branch water potentials (ΨB) had a significant (P exchange parameters, while inclusion of ΨB in models resulted in a considerably better fit than those including ΨL, which supports the idea that stomatal openness is regulated to prevent stem rather than leaf xylem dysfunction. Under moderate water deficit (ΨL≥-1.55 MPa), leaf conductance to water vapour (gL), transpiration rate and leaf hydraulic conductance (KL) were higher (P higher soil water potential in H treatment. Two functional characteristics (gL, KL) exhibited higher (P higher air humidity exhibit higher sensitivity to rapid water deficit with respect to two characteristics - leaf conductance to water vapour and leaf hydraulic conductance. Disproportionate changes in sensitivity of stomatal versus leaf hydraulic conductance to water deficit will impose greater risk of desiccation-induced hydraulic dysfunction on the plants, grown under high atmospheric humidity, in case of sudden weather fluctuations, and might represent a potential threat in hemiboreal forest ecosystems. There is no trade-off between plant hydraulic capacity and photosynthetic water-use efficiency on short time scale.

  10. Gas and Gas Pains

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gas and gas pains Symptoms & causes Diagnosis & treatment Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  11. Link Worker social prescribing to improve health and well-being for people with long-term conditions: qualitative study of service user perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffatt, Suzanne; Steer, Mel; Lawson, Sarah; Penn, Linda; O'Brien, Nicola

    2017-07-16

    To describe the experiences of patients with long-term conditions who are referred to and engage with a Link Worker social prescribing programme and identify the impact of the Link Worker programme on health and well-being. Qualitative study using semistructured interviews with thematic analysis of the data. Link Worker social prescribing programme comprising personalised support to identify meaningful health and wellness goals, ongoing support to achieve agreed objectives and linkage into appropriate community services. Inner-city area in West Newcastle upon Tyne, UK (population n=132 000) ranked 40th most socioeconomically deprived in England, served by 17 general practices. Thirty adults with long-term conditions, 14 female, 16 male aged 40-74 years, mean age 62 years, 24 white British, 1 white Irish, 5 from black and minority ethnic communities. Most participants experienced multimorbidity combined with mental health problems, low self-confidence and social isolation. All were adversely affected physically, emotionally and socially by their health problems. The intervention engendered feelings of control and self-confidence, reduced social isolation and had a positive impact on health-related behaviours including weight loss, healthier eating and increased physical activity. Management of long-term conditions and mental health in the face of multimorbidity improved and participants reported greater resilience and more effective problem-solving strategies. Findings suggest that tackling complex and long-term health problems requires an extensive holistic approach not possible in routine primary care. This model of social prescribing, which takes into account physical and mental health, and social and economic issues, was successful for patients who engaged with the service. Future research on a larger scale is required to assess when and for whom social prescribing is clinically effective and cost-effective. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless

  12. [Network for Oncological Advisory Service (NOF) - a Pilot Project for (Long-Term) Follow-Up Care of Pediatric Cancer Patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremeike, K; Mohr, A; Kampschulte, R; Bergmann, J; Beil, S; Neuhaus, U; Dierks, M-L; Driftmann, C; Duhr, A; Groeneveld, S; Kaspar, M; Kowollik, G; Miest, H-H; Schene, I; Reinhardt, D

    2016-11-01

    Background: In Germany some 2 000 children and adolescent are diagnosed with cancer every year. Curing rates are increasing and therewith also the number of survivors is growing. Survivors frequently suffer from long-term effects of the disease and its treatment, but long-term follow-up care shows deficits. Method: The Network for oncological advisory service (NOF) started in 11/2013, researching and building up a network of available support in Lower Saxony. A telephone hotline was installed in 01/2014 in order to advice survivors on their problems. At the same time, an interview study on survivors needs was conducted throughout Germany. Results: In the first 2 years, the NOF gave advice to 79 patients. Whilst enquiries of medical or psychological nature were transferred to the cooperation partner, requests on psychosocial and social legal issues are being deled by the NOF due to lack of appropriate partners. The evaluation of 25 interviews shows key issues in long-term after-care: (1) transition from acute therapy to everyday life, (2) problems due to pediatric cancer and therapy, (3) patients perception of own disposition, (4) social reactions towards survivors, (5) structure of long-term follow-up care, (6) information flow. Conclusion: Many survivors suffer from long-term effects of cancer and treatment. The lack of available contact person and being in limbo between cured and simultaneously affected by the cancer treatment and chronic diseases is perceived as being problematic. This translates to various requirements on a patient-oriented long-term care, mainly in the psychosocial field. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Moving Canadian gas - options or confusion?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riha, R.

    1997-01-01

    The question of whether and how much gas carrying capacity is required beyond Chicago was examined. Assuming that the answer is 'yes', how much of the gas should be moved beyond Chicago, and which of the many pipeline options currently available should be chosen, was discussed. PanEnergy, one of the United States' five-largest transporters of natural gas and producers of natural gas liquids, with a base of 37,000 miles of natural gas pipelines, decided to get involved with Spectrum which takes gas away from Chicago, and Excelsior which gets gas into New York City. The Spectrum pipeline is designed to phase-in transport of up to 500,000 Dth/d from the Chicago area to the east coast and other markets served by the PanEnergy pipelines, such as southern Ontario, Kansas City and Memphis. The Excelsior pipeline project has been proposed to get gas into New York City. It is a long term solution designed to meet several years of strong historical and forecasted market growth. At the same time, it is not a new pipeline; it is backed by existing assets and will provide service as early as 1998. 15 figs

  14. Project of law modified by the Senate relative to the electric and gas public utilities and to the electric and gas companies; Projet de loi modifie par le Senat relatif au service public de l'electricite et du gaz et aux entreprises electriques et gazieres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This project of law aims to adapt the electricity and gas sector to the new economical context of opening of the energy markets to competition. It gives to energy companies the internal organization base necessary to warrant a high level of service and a transparent and non-discriminatory access of third parties to transport and distribution networks. These evolutions will allow Electricite de France (EdF) and Gaz de France (GdF) companies to compete on equal terms with their European competitors. It confirms first the prime role of public utility of both companies and then transposes the dispositions of the European directives relative to the organization of EdF and GdF integrated companies. It foresees the creation of two daughter companies for the management of energy transport activities. The project of law foresees also the change of the status of EdF and GdF companies and the reform of the retirement pensions of the personnel. This report presents the modifications added by the Senate to the text of law adopted at first reading by the House of Commons. (J.S.)

  15. Medium-term performance and maintenance of SUDS: a case-study of Hopwood Park Motorway Service Area, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heal, K V; Bray, R; Willingale, S A J; Briers, M; Napier, F; Jefferies, C; Fogg, P

    2009-01-01

    One of the main barriers to implementing SUDS is concern about performance and maintenance costs since there are few well-documented case-studies. This paper summarizes studies conducted between 2000 and 2008 of the performance and maintenance of four SUDS management trains constructed in 1999 at the Hopwood Park Motorway Service Area, central England. Assessments were made of the wildlife value and sedimentation in the SUDS ponds, the hydraulic performance of the coach park management train, water quality in all management trains, and soil/sediment composition in the grass filter strip, interceptor and ponds. Maintenance procedures and costs were also reviewed. Results demonstrate the benefits of a management train approach over individual SUDS units for flow attenuation, water treatment, spillage containment and maintenance. Peak flows, pond sediment depth and contaminant concentrations in sediment and water decreased through the coach park management train. Of the 2007 annual landscape budget of pounds 15,000 for the whole site, the maintenance costs for SUDS only accounted for pounds 2,500 compared to pounds 4,000 for conventional drainage structures. Furthermore, since sediment has been attenuated in the management trains, the cost of sediment removal after the recommended period of three years was only pounds 554 and, if the design is not compromised, less frequent removal will be required in future.

  16. Long-term effects of military service on mental health among veterans of the Vietnam War era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Matthew S; Laditka, Sarah B; Laditka, James N

    2008-06-01

    Comparing outcomes of veterans who served in Vietnam and those who served elsewhere, we examined treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder, treatment of other mental health conditions, psychiatric treatment location, and six mental health well-being measures. The analytic sample consisted of nationally representative data from the 2001 National Survey of Veterans. Analyses included multivariate logistic regression that controlled for sociodemographic characteristics. Of Vietnam War-era veterans in the National Survey of Veterans (N = 7,914), 3,937 served in Vietnam and 3,977 served elsewhere. These veterans were stratified into or = 60 years of age (N = 1,766). Veterans who served in Vietnam had notably poorer mental health than did those who served elsewhere. There were striking mental health differences between younger and older veterans; younger veterans had substantially worse measures of mental health. These results suggest greater resource needs among younger Vietnam War veterans. Clinicians and the Department of Veterans Affairs should focus on mental health services for younger veterans.

  17. Long-term efficacy of a tongue tie service in improving breast feeding rates: A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billington, Jennifer; Yardley, Iain; Upadhyaya, Manasvi

    2018-02-01

    Breast feeding rates in England at 3months of age are approximately 17% for exclusive breast-feeding and 55% for breast-feeds supplemented with formula. Tongue-tie (TT) in infants is cited as a significant cause of difficulty with maintaining breast-feeding. Early treatment and support can improve breast-feeding and allow infants to benefit from the many long-term benefits of breast-feeding. Our aim was to determine BF rates in infants 3months after attending our tongue-tie clinic (TTC). Institutional ethical approval and study approval were obtained. Patients attending the TTC from May to July 2016 were included. Telephone contact was made 3months postprocedure to establish current behaviour. Symptom resolution was recorded as complete resolution (CR), moderate resolution (MoR), or minimal resolution (MiR). Feeding pattern was either exclusively BF or combined breast and formula feeds or exclusively formula fed. 100 infants were included with complete follow-up data on 87 (87% response rate). Median age at release of TT was 17 (2-88) days without any recurrence. Status at 3months was CR (n=70, 80%); MoR (n=13, 15%), and MiR (n=4, 5%). 43 (49%) were exclusively BF, 36 (41%) were supplementing BF with some formula (2/3 by choice and 1/3 owing to insufficient milk production), and 8 (10%) were using only formula milk (7 by choice and 2 owing to ongoing feeding difficulties). Of the 17 mothers still experiencing symptoms, 5 were exclusively breast-feeding, and 8 were persisting with combined feeds. Infants attending our tongue-tie clinic achieved both higher exclusive breastfeeding and combined breast and bottle-feeding when compared to national breast-feeding data at 3months of age. This can facilitate the achievement of long-term breastfeeding, exposing infants and mothers to many of the associated benefits. 4. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A physiotherapy triage assessment service for people with low back disorders: evaluation of short-term outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bath B

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Brenna Bath, Punam PahwaCollege of Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, CanadaPurpose: To determine the short-term effects of physiotherapy triage assessments on self-reported pain, functioning, and general well-being and quality of life in people with low back-related disorders.Methods: Participants with low back–related complaints were recruited from those referred to a spinal triage assessment program delivered by physiotherapists (PTs. Before undergoing the triage assessment, the participants completed a battery of questionnaires covering a range of sociodemographic, clinical, and psychosocial features. The study used the Numeric Pain Rating Scale (NPRS, the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI, and the Medical Outcomes Survey 36-item short-form version 2 (SF-36v2 to assess self-reported pain, function, and quality of life. Baseline measures and variables were analyzed using a descriptive analysis method (ie, proportions, means, medians. Paired samples t-tests or Wilcoxon matched-pair signed-rank tests were used to analyze the overall group differences between the pretest and posttest outcome measures where appropriate.Results: A total of 108 out of 115 (93.9% participants completed the posttest survey. The Physical Component Summary of the SF36v2 was the only measure that demonstrated significant improvement (P < 0.001.Conclusion: A spinal triage assessment program delivered by PTs can be viewed as a complex intervention that may have the potential to affect a wide range of patient-related outcomes. Further research is needed to examine the long-term outcomes and explore potential mechanisms of improvement using a biopsychosocial framework.Keywords: interprofessional practice, quality of life, back pain, orthopedics

  19. Marketing San Juan Basin gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posner, D.M.

    1988-01-01

    Marketing natural gas produced in the San Juan Basin of New Mexico and Colorado principally involves four gas pipeline companies with significant facilities in the basin. The system capacity, transportation rates, regulatory status, and market access of each of these companies is evaluated. Because of excess gas supplies available to these pipeline companies, producers can expect improved take levels and prices by selling gas directly to end users and utilities as opposed to selling gas to the pipelines for system supply. The complexities of transporting gas today suggest that the services of an independent gas marketing company may be beneficial to smaller producers with gas supplies in the San Juan Basin

  20. The long-term hospitalization experience following military service in the 1991 Gulf War among veterans remaining on active duty, 1994–2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Besa

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite more than a decade of extensive, international efforts to characterize and understand the increased symptom and illness-reporting among veterans of the 1991 Gulf War, concern over possible long-term health effects related to this deployment continue. The purpose of this study was to describe the long-term hospitalization experience of the subset of U.S. Gulf War veterans still on active duty between 1994 and 2004. Methods Gulf War veterans on active duty rosters as of October 1, 1994, were identified (n = 211 642 and compared with veterans who had separated from military service and then assessed for attrition at three-year intervals during a 10-year follow-up period, examining demographic and military service characteristics, Gulf War exposure variables, and hospitalization data. Cox proportional hazard modeling was used to evaluate independent predictors of all-cause hospitalization among those still on active duty and to estimate cumulative probability of hospitalization, 1994–2004, by service branch. Results Members of our 1994 active duty cohort were more likely to be officers, somewhat older, and married compared with those who had separated from the military after serving in the 1991 Gulf War. Selected war-related exposures or experiences did not appear to influence separation with the exception of in-theater presence during the brief ground combat phase. Overall the top three diagnostic categories for hospitalizations were musculo-skeletal, injury and poisoning, and digestive disorders. Diseases of the circulatory system and symptoms, signs, and ill-defined conditions increased proportionately over time. In-theater hospitalization was the only significant independent predictor of long-term hospitalization risk among selected war-related exposures or experiences examined. The cumulative probability of hospitalization was highest for Army and lowest for Marines. Conclusion Our results were generally consistent

  1. The long-term hospitalization experience following military service in the 1991 Gulf War among veterans remaining on active duty, 1994-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Tomoko I; Debakey, Samar F; Nagaraj, Barbara E; Bellis, Kimberly S; Smith, Besa; Smith, Tyler C; Gackstetter, Gary D

    2008-02-13

    Despite more than a decade of extensive, international efforts to characterize and understand the increased symptom and illness-reporting among veterans of the 1991 Gulf War, concern over possible long-term health effects related to this deployment continue. The purpose of this study was to describe the long-term hospitalization experience of the subset of U.S. Gulf War veterans still on active duty between 1994 and 2004. Gulf War veterans on active duty rosters as of October 1, 1994, were identified (n = 211 642) and compared with veterans who had separated from military service and then assessed for attrition at three-year intervals during a 10-year follow-up period, examining demographic and military service characteristics, Gulf War exposure variables, and hospitalization data. Cox proportional hazard modeling was used to evaluate independent predictors of all-cause hospitalization among those still on active duty and to estimate cumulative probability of hospitalization, 1994-2004, by service branch. Members of our 1994 active duty cohort were more likely to be officers, somewhat older, and married compared with those who had separated from the military after serving in the 1991 Gulf War. Selected war-related exposures or experiences did not appear to influence separation with the exception of in-theater presence during the brief ground combat phase. Overall the top three diagnostic categories for hospitalizations were musculo-skeletal, injury and poisoning, and digestive disorders. Diseases of the circulatory system and symptoms, signs, and ill-defined conditions increased proportionately over time. In-theater hospitalization was the only significant independent predictor of long-term hospitalization risk among selected war-related exposures or experiences examined. The cumulative probability of hospitalization was highest for Army and lowest for Marines. Our results were generally consistent with a previous hospitalization study of US Gulf War veterans for

  2. 18 CFR 367.4040 - Account 404, Amortization of limited-term property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT Income Statement Chart of Accounts Service Company Operating Income § 367... applicable to amounts included in the service company property accounts for limited-term franchises, licenses... sufficient to distribute the book cost of each investment as evenly as may be over the period of its benefit...

  3. Field Test Program for Long-Term Operation of a COHPAC System for Removing Mercury from Coal-Fired Flue Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. Jean Bustard; Charles Lindsey; Paul Brignac

    2006-05-01

    This document provides a summary of the full-scale demonstration efforts involved in the project ''Field Test Program for Long-Term Operation of a COHPAC{reg_sign} System for Removing Mercury from Coal-Fired Flue Gas''. The project took place at Alabama Power's Plant Gaston Unit 3 and involved the injection of sorbent between an existing particulate collector (hot-side electrostatic precipitators) and a COHPAC{reg_sign} fabric filter (baghouse) downstream. Although the COHPAC{reg_sign} baghouse was designed originally for polishing the flue gas, when activated carbon injection was added, the test was actually evaluating the EPRI TOXECON{reg_sign} configuration. The results from the baseline tests with no carbon injection showed that the cleaning frequency in the COHPAC{reg_sign} unit was much higher than expected, and was above the target maximum cleaning frequency of 1.5 pulses/bag/hour (p/b/h), which was used during the Phase I test in 2001. There were times when the baghouse was cleaning continuously at 4.4 p/b/h. In the 2001 tests, there was virtually no mercury removal at baseline conditions. In this second round of tests, mercury removal varied between 0 and 90%, and was dependent on inlet mass loading. There was a much higher amount of ash exiting the electrostatic precipitators (ESP), creating an inlet loading greater than the design conditions for the COHPAC{reg_sign} baghouse. Tests were performed to try to determine the cause of the high ash loading. The LOI of the ash in the 2001 baseline tests was 11%, while the second baseline tests showed an LOI of 17.4%. The LOI is an indication of the carbon content in the ash, which can affect the native mercury uptake, and can also adversely affect the performance of ESPs, allowing more ash particles to escape the unit. To overcome this, an injection scheme was implemented that balanced the need to decrease carbon injection during times when inlet loading to the baghouse was high and

  4. Long-term trends in US gas supply and prices: 1993 edition of the GRI baseline projection of US energy supply and demand to 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, T.J.

    1993-03-01

    A Summary of the gas supply outlook in the 1993 Edition of the GRI Baseline Projection of U.S. Energy Supply and Demand, adopted as a major input to the planning cycle of the 1994 research and development program, is presented. Significant changes were made in developing the gas supply and price trends for the 1993 edition of the projection. The GRI Hydrocarbon Model was expanded to include the Canadian hydrocarbon resource base. Thus, Canadian and lower-48 gas production and prices were developed on a fully integrated basis in the 1993 projection. The lower-48 hydrocarbon resource estimate was increased, reflecting the results of the recent National Petroleum Council gas study and ongoing GRI resource work. The effects of new technology and practice on drilling costs and exploration efficiency were included for the first time. Appendices include comparisons of supply and price trends

  5. Analysis of Maths Learning Activities Developed By Pre-service Teachers in Terms of the Components of Content, Purpose, Application Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çağla Toprak

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Today- when the influence of the alteration movement done in order to keep up with the age of the educational system is still continuing- the importance of teachers in students’ learning and achieving what is expected from the education system has been stated by the studies conducted (Hazır & Bıkmaz, 2006. Teachers own a critical role in the stage of both preparing teaching materials and using them (Stein & Smith, 1998b; Swan, 2007. When the existing curriculums –in particular, maths and geometry cirriculums- are analyzed, it can be observed that activities are the most significant teaching materials (Bozkurt, 2012. In fact, it is possible to characterize the existing curriculums as activity-based ones (Report of Workshop Examining Content of Primary School Curriculums According to Branches, 2010; Epö, 2005. Therefore, what sort of learning activities there are, what qualities they need to have, how to design and apply them are topics that must be elaborated (Uğurel et al., 2010.  At this point, our study to increase the skills of pre-service teachers during the process of developing activities was conducted with 27 pre-service teachers -19 girls 8 boys- studying in the 4th year in Mathematics Education Department at a state university in the Aegean Region. The activity designs the pre-service teachers developed considering the patterns given after a series of practice were analyzed in documents in terms of the aim of design and the form of practice. As a result of the studies, it is observed that pre-service teachers deal with the topics from the maths curriculum and these topics are of different grade levels. The result of the examination named as target component suggests that activities developed aim firstly at providing learning and this is followed by reinforcing the concepts already learned. It is stated that pre-service teachers prefer mostly small group (cooperative studies in the activities they develop.Key Words:

  6. Impact of long-term conservation management on soil microbial N cycling and greenhouse gas emissions in a humid agroecosystem in West Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeffer, S. M.; Konkel, J. M.; Jin, V.

    2017-12-01

    Conservation practices such as no-tillage, cover crops, and reduced mineral fertilizer application are thought to help mitigate atmospheric greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations through building soil organic matter. However, some studies have shown that both no-till and cover crops can increase GHG emissions, perhaps due to increased microbial activity. It is possible that these results are confounded by perturbations caused when management practices are newly implemented. There is a clear lack of data from long-term sites where experimental plots are well equilibrated to the management systems. Starting in 2016, we measured fluxes of nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) in twelve combinations of tillage (disk, no-till), N fertilizer rate (0, 67 kg N ha-1), and winter cover crops (none, hairy vetch, winter wheat) under continuous cotton production for 35 years. During the cotton growing season, the largest daily fluxes of N2O (36.9±11.9 g N ha-1 d-1) occurred in tilled plots regardless of cover crop or fertilization rate. However, over the entire year, the largest fluxes were observed during winter cover crop growth (63.0±21.4 g N ha-1 d-1). Overall, N2O fluxes were lower in no-till compared to tilled soils, save those under hairy vetch, a nitrogen fixing cover crop. These results, combined with our observation of higher rates of microbial N mineralization and nitrification in no-till and vetch plots, suggest vetch cover crops may stimulate both GHG and inorganic N production. We observed seasonal patterns in CH4 flux with net CH4 production during Spring and early Summer (from 0.2±0.8 to 4.8±3.2 g C ha-1 d-1), switching to net CH4 consumption by late summer (from -6.3±3.4 to 0.8±0.5 g C ha-1 d-1). Cumulative CH4 fluxes suggest that reduced tillage and fertilization may change these agroecosystems from weak sources to weak sinks for CH4. Our results highlight the impact of nitrogen availability on GHG emissions, and the need for improved

  7. A blueprint for community benefit. A CHA-AAHA (Catholic Health Association-American Association of Homes for the Aging) document helps long-term care providers plan for and implement needed services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forschner, B; Trocchio, J

    1993-05-01

    A collaborative effort of the Catholic Health Association (CHA) and the American Association of Homes for the Aging, The Social Accountability Program: Continuing the Community Benefit Tradition of Not-for-Profit Homes and Services for the Aging helps long-term care organizations plan and report community benefit activities. The program takes long-term care providers through five sequential tasks: reaffirming commitment to the elderly and others in the community; developing a community service plan; developing and providing community services; reporting community services; and evaluating the community service role. To help organizations reaffirm commitment, the Social Accountability Program presents a process facilities can use to review their historical roots and purposes and evaluate whether current policies and procedures are consistent with the organizational philosophy. Once this step is completed, providers can develop a community service plan by identifying target populations and the services they need. For facilities developing and implementing such services, the program suggests ways of measuring and monitoring them for budgetary purposes. Once they have implemented services, not-for-profit healthcare organizations must account for their impact on the community. The Social Accountability Program lists elements to be included in community service reports. It also provides guidelines for evaluating these services' effectiveness and the organization's overall community benefit role.

  8. Social support outside work and return to work among women on long-term sick leave working within human service organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englund, Ann-Charlotte Dalheim; Rydström, Ingela; Dellve, Lotta; Ahlstrom, Linda

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the relationships between return to work and social support outside work among women on long-term sick leave from human service organizations. Work is an important part of life and is, in general, considered to be supportive of health and wellbeing. Few studies have thoroughly investigated the importance of aspects of social support outside work for return to work. A cohort of women on long-term sick leave was followed with questionnaires from 2005 to 2012. The availability of social attachment increased the women's work ability, return to work, and vitality significantly more over time. There were positive relationships between return to work and seeking support in terms of emotional support and comfort and expressing unpleasant feelings. Important resources to increase return to work can be found in factors outside work, such as close social relationships and support seeking. Thus, it is important to take the woman's whole life situation into account and not focus solely on aspects related to the workplace. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Natural Gas Acquisition Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — The "NGAP" system is a web based application which serves NGAP GSA users for tracking information details for various natural gas supply chain elements like Agency,...

  10. Natural Gas Market Hubs

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — A hub is a physical transfer point for natural gas where several pipelines are connected. A market center is a hub where the operator offers services that facilitate...

  11. Innovative gas offers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sala, O.; Mela, P.; Chatelain, F.

    2007-01-01

    New energy offers are progressively made available as the opening of gas market to competition becomes broader. How are organized the combined offers: gas, electricity, renewable energies and energy services? What are the marketing strategies implemented? Three participants at this round table present their offer and answer these questions. (J.S.)

  12. Gas assessment and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrier, Jerome; Bouchard, Georges; Al-Saffar, Ali; ); Bros, Thierry; Khayat, Armand; Leger, Sebastien; Nyouki, Evariste; Jamme, Dominique; Remont, Sophie; Delamare, Monique; Hureau, Geoffroy; Poillion, Christophe; Noilhan, Fabrice; Lafon, Madeleine; Lagumina, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    This document reports the content of contributions and debates of the 'Gas assessment and perspectives' convention organised by the AFG (the French Gas Association) in March 2015. After an introduction speech, a contributor proposed a comment of the 'World energy outlook 2014' (discussion of factors related to demand and to supply, pressures related to climate change). A round table discussed the context and overview of the gas market, and more precisely addressed the evolution of the gas European market on the short term (demand, storage, production, imports, LNG market), the gas demand for electricity production (the electricity European market, impact on gas, European perspectives, the gas market, three scenarios of evolution of gas demand, World perspectives), the European gas demand on the medium term (the control of gas price in Europe, the final decline of gas, the assessment of the European energy policy, the divorce between Russia and Europe), the recent trends and perspectives for the LNG market (price evolution, a still comfortable market, LNG back in Europe, demand and supply, LNG in the global energy mix), and an assessment of the French gas market by the CRE (the French Commission on Energy Regulation). A second round table addressed the security of gas supply: status and perspectives for the European gas supply, stress tests and measures on the short term to improve supply security, role of the State in the security of gas supply, storage as a key tool for the security of supply, development of new policy for security of supplies. The last speech stated the point of view of a GrDF manager

  13. TBG's equipment for gas pipeline repair and bypass in service; Equipamentos da TBG para execucao de reparos e bypass em operacao no Gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemgruber, Nelson Arthur Pinto; Vasconcellos, Carlos Renato Aragonez de; Frota, Cristiane Souto [Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil, S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    The Bolivia-Brazil Natural Gas Pipeline - GASBOL - begins in the city of Santa Cruz of La Sierra, in Bolivia, arriving in Canoas (RS), in Brazil, traveling an extension of 3.150 km. TBG is the owner and operator from 2.593 km in Brazilian soil, with maximum nominal diameter 32 inches, capacity of transportations until 30 million cubic meter a day, and MAOP 100 bar. This work presents the main available resources in TBG for repair of the gas pipeline, as clamps for small repairs, bolt-on clamps, equipment for hot tapping and execution of by pass in-service, cold cutter machine, air movers for removal the gas of the line, and movable systems of emergency illumination. The location of the equipment is detailed, the main technical and operational characteristics, as well as aspects observed in simulated accomplished in the operational units of TBG and presents the planning for acquisition of new equipment. (author)

  14. What constitutes successful commissioning of transition from children's to adults' services for young people with long-term conditions and what are the challenges? An interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolehmainen, Niina; McCafferty, Sara; Maniatopoulos, Gregory; Vale, Luke; Le-Couteur, Ann S; Colver, Allan

    2017-09-11

    We explored what constitutes successful commissioning for transition and what challenges are associated with this. We aimed: (1) to identify explicit and implicit organisational structures, processes and relationships that drive commissioning around transition; (2) to identify challenges faced by commissioners; and (3) to develop a conceptual model. A qualitative interview study. Commissioning and provider organisations across primary and secondary care and third sector in England, UK. Representatives (n=14) from clinical commissioning groups, health and well-being boards and local authorities that commission national health services (NHS) for transition from children's to adults' services in England; NHS directors, general practitioners and senior clinicians (n=9); and frontline NHS and third sector providers (n=6). Both commissioners and providers thought successful transition is personalised, coordinated and collaborative with a focus on broad life outcomes and actualised through building pathways and universal services. A multitude of challenges were described, including inconsistent national guidance, fragmented resources, incompatible local processes, lack of clear outcomes and professional roles and relationships. No single specific process of commissioning for transition emerged-instead complex, multi-layered, interactive processes were described. The findings indicate a need to consider more explicitly the impact of national policies and funding streams on commissioning for transition. Commissioners need to require care pathways that enable integrated provision for this population and seek ways to ensure that generalist community providers engage with children with long-term conditions from early on. Future research is needed to identify a core set of specific, meaningful transition outcomes that can be commissioned, measured and monitored.

  15. A pilot-study of a worksite based participatory intervention program: Its acceptability and short-term effects on work climate and attitudes in human service employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nylén, Eva Charlotta; Lindfors, Petra; Ishäll, Lars; Göransson, Sara; Aronsson, Gunnar; Kylin, Camilla; Sverke, Magnus

    2017-01-01

    Psychosocial factors, including job demands and poor resources, have been linked to stress, health problems, and negative job attitudes. However, worksite based interventions and programs targeting psychosocial factors may change employees' perceptions of their work climate and work attitudes. This pilot study describes a newly developed worksite based participatory organizational intervention program that was tested in the social service sector. It is evaluated using participants' perceptions of the intervention to investigate its acceptability as a feature of feasibility and its short-term effects on work climate factors (job demands and resources) and work-related attitudes. Forty employees of a Swedish social service unit provided self-reports before, during, and after the intervention. As for effects, quantitative role overload and social support decreased while turnover intention increased. Responses to an open-ended question showed that participants considered the intervention program valuable for addressing issues relating to the psychosocial work climate. Although the findings are preliminary, it was possible to carry out this worksite based participatory organizational program in this particular setting. Also, the preliminary findings underscore the challenges associated with designing and implementing this type of intervention program, thus adding to the methodological discussion on implementation and evaluation.

  16. TTF stirs market for natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyboom, W.

    2007-01-01

    Recently, the Dutch company Air Products switched from Gasterra to the virtual gas market place TTF, taking along several of its own clients. Gasterra thus lost a major client for high calorific gas. The gas market is in full motion. TitleTransfer Facility is a virtual market place of the operator of the Dutch natural gas transport grid, Gas Transport Services. [mk] [nl

  17. Long-term optimization of the transport sector to address greenhouse gas reduction targets under rapid growth. Application of an energy system model for Gauteng province, South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomaschek, Jan

    2013-12-11

    The transport sector is seen as one of the key factors for driving future energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Especially in developing countries, significant growth in transport demand is expected. Gauteng province, as the economic centre of South Africa and transport hub for the whole of southern Africa, is one emerging urban region that faces rapid growth. However, the province is on its way to playing a leading role for supporting ways to adapt to climate change and mitigate GHG emissions. Conversely, there is a lack of scientific research on the promising measures for GHG mitigation in the transport sector. For the rapidly growing transport sector of the province in particular, research is focused primarily on extending and structuring the road infrastructure. Moreover, it is important that the transport sector is considered as part of the whole energy system, as significant contributions to GHG emissions and the associated costs arise from energy supply, provision and conversion. This research is the first application of an integrated energy system model (i.e. the TIMES-GEECO model) for the optimization of the transport sector of Gauteng. Optimizing energy system models allows finding least-cost measures for various scenarios, by considering dependencies and interlinkages in the energy system as well as environmental constraints. To do so, the transport sector and the energy supply sector had to be incorporated into the model application in terms of the characteristics of a developing urban region, which includes all relevant transport modes, vehicle technologies, fuel options, vehicle-to-grid energy storage, the consideration of road types as well as explicit expansions of the public transport system and income-dependent travel demand modelling. Additionally, GHG mitigation options outside the provincial boundaries were incorporated to allow for mitigation at least cost and to consider regional resource availability. Moreover, in TIMES

  18. Long-term optimization of the transport sector to address greenhouse gas reduction targets under rapid growth. Application of an energy system model for Gauteng province, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomaschek, Jan

    2013-01-01

    The transport sector is seen as one of the key factors for driving future energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Especially in developing countries, significant growth in transport demand is expected. Gauteng province, as the economic centre of South Africa and transport hub for the whole of southern Africa, is one emerging urban region that faces rapid growth. However, the province is on its way to playing a leading role for supporting ways to adapt to climate change and mitigate GHG emissions. Conversely, there is a lack of scientific research on the promising measures for GHG mitigation in the transport sector. For the rapidly growing transport sector of the province in particular, research is focused primarily on extending and structuring the road infrastructure. Moreover, it is important that the transport sector is considered as part of the whole energy system, as significant contributions to GHG emissions and the associated costs arise from energy supply, provision and conversion. This research is the first application of an integrated energy system model (i.e. the TIMES-GEECO model) for the optimization of the transport sector of Gauteng. Optimizing energy system models allows finding least-cost measures for various scenarios, by considering dependencies and interlinkages in the energy system as well as environmental constraints. To do so, the transport sector and the energy supply sector had to be incorporated into the model application in terms of the characteristics of a developing urban region, which includes all relevant transport modes, vehicle technologies, fuel options, vehicle-to-grid energy storage, the consideration of road types as well as explicit expansions of the public transport system and income-dependent travel demand modelling. Additionally, GHG mitigation options outside the provincial boundaries were incorporated to allow for mitigation at least cost and to consider regional resource availability. Moreover, in TIMES

  19. Long-term functionality of rural water services in developing countries: a system dynamics approach to understanding the dynamic interaction of factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Jeffrey P; Javernick-Will, Amy N

    2015-04-21

    Research has shown that sustainability of rural water infrastructure in developing countries is largely affected by the dynamic and systemic interactions of technical, social, financial, institutional, and environmental factors that can lead to premature water system failure. This research employs system dynamics modeling, which uses feedback mechanisms to understand how these factors interact dynamically to influence long-term rural water system functionality. To do this, the research first identified and aggregated key factors from the literature, then asked water sector experts to indicate the polarity and strength between factors through Delphi and cross impact survey questionnaires, and finally used system dynamics modeling to identify and prioritize feedback mechanisms. The resulting model identified 101 feedback mechanisms that were dominated primarily by three- and four-factor mechanisms that contained some combination of the factors: Water System Functionality, Community, Financial, Government, Management, and Technology, implying these factors were the most influential on long-term functionality. These feedback mechanisms were then scored and prioritized, with the most dominant feedback mechanism identified as Water System Functionality-Community-Finance-Management. This study showcases a way for practitioners to better understand the complexities inherent in rural water development using expert opinion and indicates the need for future research in rural water service sustainability that investigates the dynamic interaction of factors in different contexts.

  20. Preparing for successful gas negotiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burrell, D.

    1998-01-01

    The task of understanding and managing all the variables required to optimize the reliability and cost of gas purchases is not an easy one. The following list of recommended steps may help. Study your gas requirements and bills thoroughly. Evaluate all of your options and risks in detail. Set specific goals for your gas needs and management. Negotiate each contract on both a short-term and long-term basis. With increased competition, suppliers have even more incentive to make their clients happy. Make sure that you understand all the details of your new contract including expiration dates, automatic rollover dates, notice requirements for changes and force majeure limitations. Monitor the results of the pricing index that you select to assure that it will provide you the results that you have in mind. Cautiously shop around for the best prices, but keep in mind that it is a small world and price shoppers may find it increasingly hard to get a quote if you change suppliers too often. Don't forget to compare your local LDC with other suppliers. They may have become more competitive and ready to offer more services at less cost than before. Keep in touch with the market changes on a regular basis. Assign the daily management responsibility to a staff person, or outside firm, that has demonstrated a complete understanding of the gas industry and your specific needs. The bottom line is clear when one compares the cost of industrial gas 10 years ago to the current price today. The average burner tip price to industrials/mcf was in a range from $4.50 to $7.00 in the mid-1980's. The mid-1990's average price is in a range from $2.60 to $3.60. This proves that the additional management that is required is well worth the additional effort

  1. Natural gas: conflict of competence between Federal Government and States; Gas natural: conflito de competencias entre os entes da federacao (Uniao versus Estados)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meireles, Jose Antonio de Sousa [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This study examines the regulation of natural gas in Brazil: It is limited to the legal conflict due to the constitution of the republic which determines the distribution of competence between the Federal Government and the States. It introduces the controversy about the limits conferred on the Government by the constitutional law of 1988, related to the transport of natural gas by pipeline, in contrast to the power of states to exploit the services of gas by pipeline. It analyzes the operation of Project Gemini originated by the movement of gas by PETROBRAS in Sao Paulo, without the intervention of the state. The legal opinion favourable to the state argues that the term 'gas delivery services' according to the Brazilian Law leads to the understanding that the use of plural covers all services of gas flowing, without any limitation on the purpose, is a flexible destination (home, companies), or the type of the user. The argument against the state that says these services don't include the supply of gas to companies. In the past one could understand that the energy issue has always been controller by the Government on behalf of the people. It adds up to all this, the economy, high investments and great volume of gas for marketing that makes up the logic of this market, therefore justifying the construction of an own pipeline structure. (author)

  2. Effects of short-term pressure-controlled ventilation on gas exchange, airway pressures, and gas distribution in patients with acute lung injury/ARDS: comparison with volume-controlled ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prella, Maura; Feihl, François; Domenighetti, Guido

    2002-10-01

    The potential clinical benefits of pressure-controlled ventilation (PCV) over volume-controlled ventilation (VCV) in patients with acute lung injury (ALI) or ARDS still remain debated. We compared PCV with VCV in patients with ALI/ARDS with respect to the following physiologic end points: (1) gas exchange and airway pressures, and (2) CT scan intrapulmonary gas distribution at end-expiration. Prospective, observational study. A multidisciplinary ICU in a nonuniversity, acute-care hospital. Ten patients with ALI or ARDS (9 men and 1 woman; age range, 17 to 80 years). Sequential ventilation in PCV and VCV with a constant inspiratory/expiratory ratio, tidal volume, respiratory rate, and total positive end-expiratory pressure; measurement of gas exchange and airway pressures; and achievement of CT sections at lung base, hilum, and apex for the quantitative analysis of lung densities and of aerated vs nonaerated zones. PaO(2), PaCO(2), and PaO(2)/fraction of inspired oxygen ratio levels did not differ between PCV and VCV. Peak airway pressure (Ppeak) was significantly lower in PCV compared with VCV (26 +/- 2 cm H(2)O vs 31 +/- 2 cm H(2)O; p mean +/- SEM). The surface areas of the nonaerated zones as well as the total areas at each section level were unchanged in PCV compared with VCV, except at the apex level, where there was a significantly greater nonaerated area in VCV (11 +/- 2 cm(2) vs 9 +/- 2 cm(2); p mean CT number of each lung (20 lungs from 10 patients) was similar in the two modes, as were the density values at the basal and apical levels; the hilum mean CT number was - 442 +/- 28 Hounsfield units (HU) in VCV and - 430 +/- 26 HU in PCV (p lower Ppeaks through the precise titration of the lung distending pressure, and might be applied to avoid regional overdistension by means of a more homogeneous gas distribution.

  3. The pipeline service obligation under changing LDC purchasing practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neff, S.J.

    1990-01-01

    Historically, interstate natural gas pipelines served as aggregators and transporters of gas supplies from the producing fields to the city-gate. In turn, local distribution companies (LDCs) bought gas from pipelines at the city-gate under long-term sales contracts and resold the gas to retail customers. Once a pipeline/LDC sales relationship was established through a regulated certificate process, the LDC was assured of gas supply up to the level of its contract demand (CD) at just and reasonable rates until abandonment of the pipeline's sales service obligation was granted by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC). During the years of regulated wellhead pricing and limited gas deliverability, pipelines signed long-term take-or-pay contracts with producers to induce them to develop and commit new gas supplies. Those supply cost obligations were reflected in tariff minimum bill provisions. For years, this pipeline/LDC arrangement was mutually beneficial and provided assured firm service. With the load diversity on large interstate pipeline systems and the make-up provisions under take-or-pay clauses, these gas purchase contracts provided supply reliability without negative economic consequence to the pipelines. Then, with the issuance of FERC Order Nos. 380, 436, and 500, LDCs' obligations to purchase gas from pipeline suppliers according to the terms of those long term sales agreements were irrevocably altered. The impacts of those long term sales agreements were irrevocably altered. The impacts of those orders the elimination of minimum bills and the advent of open access transportation caused a serious erosion of the mutual obligations between pipelines and their LDC customers. The result has been a significant loss of pipeline sales markets as LDC customers have chosen alternative supplied, often at the urging of state public utility commissions (PUCs) to lower short-term costs

  4. Supporting adherence for people starting a new medication for a long-term condition through community pharmacies: a pragmatic randomised controlled trial of the New Medicine Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Rachel Ann; Boyd, Matthew J; Salema, Nde-Eshimuni; Davies, James; Barber, Nicholas; Mehta, Rajnikant Laxmishanker; Tanajewski, Lukasz; Waring, Justin; Latif, Asam; Gkountouras, Georgios; Avery, A J; Chuter, Antony; Craig, Christopher

    2016-10-01

    To examine the effectiveness of the New Medicine Service (NMS), a national community pharmacy service to support medicines-taking in people starting a new medicine for a long-term condition, compared with normal practice. Pragmatic patient-level parallel randomised controlled trial, in 46 community pharmacies in England. Patients 1:1 block randomisation stratified by drug/disease group within each pharmacy. 504 participants (NMS: 251) aged 14 years and over, identified in the pharmacy on presentation of a prescription for asthma/chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, hypertension, type 2 diabetes or an anticoagulant/antiplatelet agent. NMS intervention: One consultation 7-14 days after presentation of prescription followed by another 14-21 days thereafter to identify problems with treatment and provide support if needed. Controls received normal practice. Adherence, defined as missing no doses without the advice of a medical professional in the previous 7 days, was assessed through patient self-report at 10 weeks. Intention-to-treat analysis was employed, with outcome adjusted for recruiting pharmacy, NMS disease category, age, sex and medication count. Cost to the National Health Service (NHS) was collected. At 10 weeks, 53 patients had withdrawn and 443 (85%) patients were contacted successfully by telephone. In the unadjusted analysis of 378 patients still taking the initial medicine, 61% (95% CI 54% to 67%) and 71% (95% CI 64% to 77%) patients were adherent in the normal practice and NMS arms, respectively (p=0.04 for difference). In the adjusted intention-to-treat analysis, the OR for increased adherence was 1.67 (95% CI 1.06 to 2.62; p=0.027) in favour of the NMS arm. There was a general trend to reduced NHS costs, albeit, statistically non-significant, for the NMS intervention: saving £21 (95% CI -£59 to £100, p=0.128) per patient. The NMS significantly increased the proportion of patients adhering to their new medicine by about 10%, compared

  5. A Research on Attention Control Levels of the Students at Vocational School of Health Services in terms of Sports and Different Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Ertuğrul ÖZTÜRK

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available It is thought that the high or low attention levels of students affect their achievements in their social, learning and professional lives equivalently. In this case, it is significant to determine the crucial elements for increasing attention control levels. The aim of this study was to examine attention control levels of university students in terms of different variables. In the study a total of 449 students 268 females and 181 males that are studying at services Vocational School of Health, Ataturk University Erzurum have been in cluded. With the aim of collecting data, the ‘Attention Control Scale’ was used. The techniques of frequency distribution, t test and Anova variance analysis have been used in data analysis. The difference between the views of the group has been reviewed c onsidering the 0.05 significance level of P. According to the findings it has been found out that gender, age and family structure do not make a significant difference with attention control levels. When examined in terms of sports participation of the stu dents, types of sports and weekly sporting duration, attention control averages have been found to be significant differences. It has emerged that the students that do sports have higher levels of attention control than those that do not. The fact that the students have high attention control levels in terms of their professions is an important factor. Studies thay may impact on different factors ought to be carried out in order to increase attention control levels of the students, encouraging sports.

  6. Pipelines update : new tolls and new opportunities in gas gathering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shelton, E.

    1999-01-01

    An overview of the new TransCanada energy transmission system was given. TransCanada has ownership interests in seven other North American natural gas pipelines and the integration of former NOVA Gas Transmission, TransCanada Energy Transmission and ANG Pipeline organizations into a single organization is nearing completion. Integration efforts have been driven by TransCanada's commitment to provide customers with lower costs and improved service levels. The service enhancements will include one-stop shopping, customer advisory councils, harmonized design criteria, optimized operations/maintenance, and consistent billing processes. The new toll design which will replace the current postage-stamp pricing regime offered by NGTL was also reviewed, emphasizing key features such as pricing, term linked tolls, interruptible/short term tolls, renewal incentive, risk/reward collar, transition period and new services

  7. A GIS-based Model for Natural Gas Data Conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitik, E.; Seker, D. Z.; Denli, H. H.

    2014-12-01

    In Turkey gas utility sector has undergone major changes in terms of increased competition between gas providers, efforts in improving services, and applying new technological solutions. This paper discusses the challenges met by gas companies to switch from long workflows of gas distribution, sales and maintenance into IT driven efficient management of complex information both spatially and non-spatially. The aim of this study is migration of all gas data and information into a GIS environment in order to manage and operate all infrastructure investments with a Utility Management System. All data conversion model for migration was designed and tested during the study. A flowchart is formed to transfer the old data layers to the new structure based on geodatabase.

  8. The impact of the fuel chemical composition on volatile organic compounds emitted by an in-service aircraft gas turbine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setyan, A.; Kuo, Y. Y.; Brem, B.; Durdina, L.; Gerecke, A. C.; Heeb, N. V.; Haag, R.; Wang, J.

    2017-12-01

    Aircraft emissions received increased attention recently because of the steady growth of aviation transport in the last decades. Aircraft engines substantially contribute to emissions of particulate matter and gaseous pollutants in the upper and lower troposphere. Among all the pollutants emitted by aircrafts, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are particularly important because they are mainly emitted at ground level, posing a serious health risk for people living or working near airports. A series of measurements was performed at the aircraft engine testing facility of SR Technics (Zürich airport, Switzerland). Exhausts from an in-service turbofan engine were sampled at the engine exit plane by a multi-point sampling probe. A wide range of instruments was connected to the common sampling line to determine physico-chemical characteristics of non-volatile particulate matter and gaseous pollutants. Conventional Jet A-1 fuel was used as the base fuel, and measurements were performed with the base fuel doped with two different mixtures of aromatic compounds (Solvesso 150 and naphthalene-depleted Solvesso 150) and an alternative fuel (hydro-processed esters and fatty acids [HEFA] jet fuel). During this presentation, we will show results obtained for VOCs. These compounds were sampled with 3 different adsorbing cartridges, and analyzed by thermal desorption gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (TD-GC/MS, for Tenax TA and Carboxen 569) and by ultra-performance liquid chromatography/ mass spectrometry (UPLC/MS, for DNPH). The total VOC concentration was also measured with a flame ionization detector (FID). In addition, fuel samples were also analyzed by GC/MS, and their chemical compositions were compared to the VOCs emitted via engine exhaust. Total VOCs concentrations were highest at ground idle (>200 ppm C at 4-7% thrust), and substantially lower at high thrust (engine were mainly constituted of alkanes, oxygenated compounds, and aromatics. More than 50 % of the

  9. IT Service

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Means of delivering value to customers by facilitating outcomes customers want to achieve without the ownership of specific costs and risks. The term 'service' is...

  10. Fundamentals of gas counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bateman, J.E.

    1994-01-01

    The operation of gas counters used for detecting radiation is explained in terms of the four fundamental physical processes which govern their operation. These are 1) conversion of neutral radiation into charged particles, 2) ionization of the host gas by a fast charge particle 3) transport of the gas ions to the electrodes and 4) amplification of the electrons in a region of enhanced electric field. Practical implications of these are illustrated. (UK)

  11. Study of the failure in service of a linepipe, helicoidally welded, quality API SL GrB wich conveyed natural gas. Estudio del fallo en servicio de una tuberia soldada helicoidalmente de calidad API SL SrB que transportaba gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez de Saiz-Solabarria, S.; Elices, M.A. (Departamento de Ciencias de los Materiales e Ingenieria Metalurgica, Universidad del Pais Vasco, Bilbao (Spain))

    1994-01-01

    The possible causes are studied which have incidentally provoked a failure in service on a natural gas linepipe run. This pipe has been manufactured with 6 mm-thick-plate-coil helicoidally welded to 273 mm external diameter. The quality of the material is up to standard API 5L for Grade B and an automatic-helicoidally welding procedure has been with simultaneous inflow at both internal and and external surfaces. The failure appears together with deformations and fracture. (Author)

  12. Long-term assessment at field scale of Floating Treatment Wetlands for improvement of water quality and provision of ecosystem services in a eutrophic urban pond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olguín, Eugenia J; Sánchez-Galván, Gloria; Melo, Francisco J; Hernández, Víctor J; González-Portela, Ricardo E

    2017-04-15

    Pollution of urban water bodies requires stringent control measures and the development of low-cost and highly efficient alternative technologies. In contrast to Constructed Wetlands, Floating Treatment Wetlands (FTWs) have the advantage of not requiring large surface of land since they operate in situ. However, there is limited information about their long-term evaluation while operating at field scale. The aim of this work was to assess the performance of FTWs using a combination of Pontederia sagittata and Cyperus papyrus for the improvement of the water quality and provision of ecosystem services of a eutrophic urban pond. The FTWs were built with low-cost material easy to acquire and to ensemble. Two FTWs (17.5m 2 and 33m 2 ) located in Pond 1 within a complex of 4 urban artificial ponds were evaluated for two years. They promoted an increase in the dissolved oxygen (D.O.) within a range of 15 to 67%, a removal of fecal coliforms in the range of 9 to 86% and a nitrate removal in the range of 9 to 76%. The plant productivity reached a maximum of 363g dm m -2 d -1 in the FTW1 and 536g dm m -2 d -1 in the FTW2 during the period March-June 2016. The TKN and the TP content in the plant were in the range of 18.3 to 28.1 and of 0.05 to 0.196gkg -1 dry matter, respectively. In conclusion, the tested FTWs have proved to be a very beneficial low-cost technology for the improvement of water quality and provision of ecosystem services. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Project of law relative to the electricity and gas public utilities and to the power and gas companies; Projet de loi relatif au service public de l'electricite et du gaz et aux entreprises electriques et gazieres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This document is the definitive text of this project of law adopted by the French house of commons. The aim of this law is to allow the administrations to avoid to use their eligibility right with the opening of the electricity and gas markets to competition. It changes the juridical status of the two public utilities Electricite de France (EdF) and Gaz de France (GdF) into two anonymous companies and creates two additional companies for the management of the power and gas networks. It ensures also the transposition of the European directives from June 26, 2003 (2003/54/CE and 2003/55/CE). It contains some proper dispositions and modifies various existing French laws, in particular the law no. 46-628 from April 8, 1946 about the electricity and gas nationalization and the law no. 2000-108 from February 10, 2000 relative to the modernization and development of the electric public utility. (J.S.)

  14. Appropriate levels of service

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wall, K

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The term "services", as used in this article, broadly refers to infrastructure (in particular, civil and electrical engineering infrastructure), and also the infrastructure elements such as schools, clinics and halls. The term "basic services...

  15. Asia Gas Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The Asia region has experienced a period of dynamic growth, both of economies and energy demand. The next fifteen years are likely to see further rapid economic growth in Asia. To fuel this growth energy consumption will also increase rapidly. Of all forms of energy, natural gas demand is likely to grow the fastest. The gas sector will face rapid and dramatic change, creating challenges for the governments of the region. Infrastructure, both for export and domestic consumption of gas, will need to expand significantly. Regional trade in natural gas could triple by 2010. Trade will continue to be dominated by liquefied natural gas (LNG) but pipeline exports will also grow rapidly. Investment needs will be large, putting pressure on governments to look for alternative funding mechanisms. As Asian gas transmission and distribution networks expand and become more interconnected, consumer choice becomes possible. How to encourage and regulate competition will become a vital policy question. As gas consumption increases both in absolute terms, and in terms of its share of energy consumption within particular sectors of the economy (for example, as a fuel for power generation), governments will need to give higher priority to policies dealing with gas security. This study examines the current and possible future role of natural gas in Asia. In particular, it examines in detail the relevant energy policies of six of the key gas producing and consuming economies in the region: Brunei-Darussalam, Chinese Taipei, Indonesia, the Republic of Korea, Malaysia and Thailand. (author). 17 figs., 14 tabs., 7 appends

  16. Productivity improvements in gas distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, M.R.

    1997-01-01

    In 1993, the Hilmer Report resulted in the introduction of the National Competition Policy which, in the case of the gas industry, aims to promote gas-on-gas competition where to date it has been excluded. In response, and to prepare for wide gas industry reform, Gas and Fuel formed three fundamentally different core businesses on 1 July 1996 - Energy Retail, Network, and Contestable Services. In one productivity improvement initiative which is believed to be unique, Gas and Fuel appointed three companies as strategic alliance partners for distribution system maintenance. Gas and Fuel can now concentrate on its core role as asset manager which owns and operates the distribution system while procuring all services from what will become non-regulated businesses. This Paper details this initiative and the benefits which have resulted from overall changes and improvements, and outlines the challenges facing Gas and Fuel in the future. (au)

  17. Evaluation of a pilot service to facilitate discharge of patients with stable long-term mental health needs from secondary to primary care: the role of Primary Care Mental Health Specialists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton-West, Kate; Hotham, Sarah; Yang, Wei; Hedayioglu, Julie; Brigden, Charlotte

    2017-07-01

    Aim We aimed to evaluate a pilot service to facilitate discharge of patients with stable long-term mental health needs from secondary to primary care. Patients with stable long-term mental health conditions are often not discharged from secondary mental health services when no longer needed due to insufficient systems and processes to enable safe, effective, recovery-focussed treatment and support. The Primary Care Mental Health Specialist (PCMHS) Service was developed to address this gap; new PCMHS posts were introduced to act as a conduit for patients being discharged from secondary care and a single point of referral back into secondary care, should it be required. The two-year pilot, across six Clinical Commissioning Groups in South East England, began in March 2013. Interviews were conducted with all PCMHS employed in the pilot service (n=13) and a sample of service users (n=12). The views of professionals working alongside the service, including GPs, Psychiatrists and Mental Health Nurses, were captured using a brief online questionnaire (n=50). Time and Activity Recording Sheets were used to capture data required for economic analysis. Findings Our findings indicate that the service is working well from the perspective of patients; staff employed within the service and professionals working alongside the service. Patients described the service as a 'safety net' they could fall back on in case of difficulties, whereas staff used the analogy of a 'bridge' to describe the way the service improved communication and collaboration between the various professionals and organisations involved in the patient's care. Improvements in well-being were seen to result from increased support for those transitioning from secondary to primary care, a more pro-active approach to relapse prevention and increased engagement in daily activities. Each PCMHS covered 36 patients in a one-month period, with a unit cost of £73.01 per patient.

  18. Is further deregulation of the natural gas industry beneficial : discussion paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoey, P.J. [Anbrer Consulting, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2004-11-01

    Energy market liberalization is a world trend that has prompted the deregulation of natural gas and electricity over the past twenty years in North America. The Ontario Energy Board and the National Energy Board are conducting public hearings on natural gas regulation in response to the request by Canadian energy industries for better regulatory streamlining. The following 5 issues regarding natural gas regulation in Canada have been examined: (1) system gas in a regulated market, (2) natural gas infrastructure investments and capital renewal, (3) improving efficiency in gas regulation, (4) expectations of performance-based regulation (PBR) in the natural gas industry, and (5) the debate whether further deregulation of the natural gas industry is beneficial. This paper examines if a competitive market exists in natural gas distribution and discusses the opportunities for further deregulation of the distribution and storage aspects of the industry. It was noted that the regulatory regime in Ontario will depend on how the Ontario Energy Board deals with issues regarding natural gas storage services. This paper also examines if new storage facilities can charge cost-based or market-based prices as well as the appropriate rate of return on capital to be used to determine those rates. It also examines what the requirement for non-discriminatory access to and from new storage facilities to the Dawn Hub and access to transmission capacity on Union Gas's Dawn to Trafalger pipeline system. Alternative fuels, franchises, bypasses, gated communities, distributed generation, market power and policy issues are the main factors that are considered in assessing the competition in natural gas distribution. It was concluded that further deregulation of the natural gas distribution system in Ontario is not warranted since there is not much possibility in developing a competitive market for distribution services in the short-term. However, the development of storage facilities

  19. Is further deregulation of the natural gas industry beneficial : discussion paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoey, P.J.

    2004-11-01

    Energy market liberalization is a world trend that has prompted the deregulation of natural gas and electricity over the past twenty years in North America. The Ontario Energy Board and the National Energy Board are conducting public hearings on natural gas regulation in response to the request by Canadian energy industries for better regulatory streamlining. The following 5 issues regarding natural gas regulation in Canada have been examined: (1) system gas in a regulated market, (2) natural gas infrastructure investments and capital renewal, (3) improving efficiency in gas regulation, (4) expectations of performance-based regulation (PBR) in the natural gas industry, and (5) the debate whether further deregulation of the natural gas industry is beneficial. This paper examines if a competitive market exists in natural gas distribution and discusses the opportunities for further deregulation of the distribution and storage aspects of the industry. It was noted that the regulatory regime in Ontario will depend on how the Ontario Energy Board deals with issues regarding natural gas storage services. This paper also examines if new storage facilities can charge cost-based or market-based prices as well as the appropriate rate of return on capital to be used to determine those rates. It also examines what the requirement for non-discriminatory access to and from new storage facilities to the Dawn Hub and access to transmission capacity on Union Gas's Dawn to Trafalger pipeline system. Alternative fuels, franchises, bypasses, gated communities, distributed generation, market power and policy issues are the main factors that are considered in assessing the competition in natural gas distribution. It was concluded that further deregulation of the natural gas distribution system in Ontario is not warranted since there is not much possibility in developing a competitive market for distribution services in the short-term. However, the development of storage facilities in

  20. Induced Earthquakes from Long-Term Gas Extraction in Groningen, the Netherlands: Statistical Analysis and Prognosis for Acceptable-Risk Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlek, Charles

    2018-01-16

    Recently, growing earthquake activity in the northeastern Netherlands has aroused considerable concern among the 600,000 provincial inhabitants. There, at 3 km deep, the rich Groningen gas field extends over 900 km 2 and still contains about 600 of the original 2,800 billion cubic meters (bcm). Particularly after 2001, earthquakes have increased in number, magnitude (M, on the logarithmic Richter scale), and damage to numerous buildings. The man-made nature of extraction-induced earthquakes challenges static notions of risk, complicates formal risk assessment, and questions familiar conceptions of acceptable risk. Here, a 26-year set of 294 earthquakes with M ≥ 1.5 is statistically analyzed in relation to increasing cumulative gas extraction since 1963. Extrapolations from a fast-rising trend over 2001-2013 indicate that-under "business as usual"-around 2021 some 35 earthquakes with M ≥ 1.5 might occur annually, including four with M ≥ 2.5 (ten-fold stronger), and one with M ≥ 3.5 every 2.5 years. Given this uneasy prospect, annual gas extraction has been reduced from 54 bcm in 2013 to 24 bcm in 2017. This has significantly reduced earthquake activity, so far. However, when extraction is stabilized at 24 bcm per year for 2017-2021 (or 21.6 bcm, as judicially established in Nov. 2017), the annual number of earthquakes would gradually increase again, with an expected all-time maximum M ≈ 4.5. Further safety management may best follow distinct stages of seismic risk generation, with moderation of gas extraction and massive (but late and slow) building reinforcement as outstanding strategies. Officially, "acceptable risk" is mainly approached by quantification of risk (e.g., of fatal building collapse) for testing against national safety standards, but actual (local) risk estimation remains problematic. Additionally important are societal cost-benefit analysis, equity considerations, and precautionary restraint. Socially and psychologically, deliberate

  1. Long-Term Effectiveness of Two Educational Methods on Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice Toward Palliative Care Consultation Services Among Nursing Staff: A Longitudinal Follow-Up Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Hsueh-Hsing; Wu, Li-Fen; Hung, Yu-Chun; Chu, Chi-Ming; Wang, Kwua-Yun

    2018-05-01

    This experimental study investigated long-term effectiveness of two educational methods on knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) about palliative care consultation services (PCCS) among nurses, recruited from a medical center located in Northern Taiwan in 2015, using a stratified cluster sampling method, with 88 participants in multimedia (experimental) and 92 in traditional paper education (control) group. Data were collected using KAP-PCCS questionnaire before education, immediately after, and 3rd and 6th month after education. Results showed that both K-PCCSI and P-PCCSI significantly increased immediately after, and at the 3rd month after education for the experimental group; the K-PCCSI remained significantly higher for the experimental group at the 6th month. The highest increase in scores for both K-PCCSI and P-PCCSI was observed at the 3rd month. There was no significant change in A-PCCS in both groups after follow-up periods, when compared before education. Therefore, using multimedia every 3 months to continue strengthening their knowledge may increase the referrals of terminal patients to PCCS.

  2. Longer term impact of the mass media campaign to promote the Get Healthy Information and Coaching Service®: increasing the saliency of a new public health program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, Blythe J; Phongsavan, Philayrath; Gebel, Klaus; Banovic, Debbie; Buffett, Kym M; Bauman, Adrian E

    2014-11-01

    The Get Healthy Information and Coaching Service® (GHS) was introduced in New South Wales in February 2009. It used mass reach media advertising and direct mail and/or proactive marketing to recruit participants. This article reports on the long-term impact of the campaign on GHS participation from July 2011 to June 2012. A stand-alone population survey collected awareness, knowledge, and behavioral variables before the first advertising phase, (n = 1,544, August-September 2010), during the advertising period (n = 1,500, February-March 2011; n = 1,500, June-July 2011; n = 1,500, February 2012), and after the advertising period (n = 1,500, June-July 2012). GHS usage data (n = 6,095) were collated during July 2011-June 2012. Unprompted and prompted awareness of GHS mass media significantly increased (0% to 8.0%, p mass media as their referral source were significantly more likely to enroll in the intensive coaching program. Mass media campaigns remain an effective method of promoting a telephone-based statewide lifestyle program. © 2014 Society for Public Health Education.

  3. Factors related to satisfaction with long-term care services among low-income Korean elderly adults: A national cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Chanyeong; Lee, Eunhee; Kim, Hyunjung

    With the growing demand for long-term care (LTC) services, it is increasingly important to explore experience with care. This study examined care satisfaction in a nursing home and at home among low-income elders in South Korea. This cross-sectional study was conducted with 246 elderly recipients of welfare benefits using a proportional stratified sampling method. Two self-reported versions of a questionnaire developed for users of nursing home care and homecare were used. Those at home reported higher care satisfaction than those in nursing homes did. Both users of nursing home care and homecare were less satisfied with the food served. Users of nursing homes had comparatively less satisfaction regarding the daily activities available to them and less autonomy concerning their care decisions. Factors that influenced satisfaction with nursing home care and homecare were the quality of caregivers, care facilities, and physical wellbeing. An approach focused on improving the quality of the care facilities and caregivers could help enhance care satisfaction among low-income Korean elders receiving LTC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Plasticity in gas-exchange physiology of mature Scots pine and European larch drive short- and long-term adjustments to changes in water availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feichtinger, Linda M; Siegwolf, Rolf T W; Gessler, Arthur; Buchmann, Nina; Lévesque, Mathieu; Rigling, Andreas

    2017-09-01

    Adjustment mechanisms of trees to changes in soil-water availability over long periods are poorly understood, but crucial to improve estimates of forest development in a changing climate. We compared mature trees of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and European larch (Larix decidua) growing along water-permeable channels (irrigated) and under natural conditions (control) at three sites in inner-Alpine dry valleys. At two sites, the irrigation had been stopped in the 1980s. We combined measurements of basal area increment (BAI), tree height and gas-exchange physiology (Δ 13 C) for the period 1970-2009. At one site, the Δ 13 C of irrigated pine trees was higher than that of the control in all years, while at the other sites, it differed in pine and larch only in years with dry climatic conditions. During the first decade after the sudden change in water availability, the BAI and Δ 13 C of originally irrigated pine and larch trees decreased instantly, but subsequently reached higher levels than those of the control by 2009 (15 years afterwards). We found a high plasticity in the gas-exchange physiology of pine and larch and site-specific responses to changes in water availability. Our study highlights the ability of trees to adjust to new conditions, thus showing high resilience. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. The Russian gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The Russian Federation holds the world's largest proven natural gas reserves, and produces more natural gas than any other nation. Russian exports of gas to Europe and the other nations of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) have a significant impact on natural gas markets throughout Europe and Asia. The aim of this three part study is to inform the international energy and investment community about the current status of the Russian gas industry and the prospects for its future development through 2010. It is also intended to provide an opportunity for the appropriate authorities in the Russian Federation to assess the needs of the industry and to consider areas for possible collaboration with the international investment community and international organizations in a rapidly changing economic and business environment. The study was prepared by the Energy Branch of the United Nations Department for Development Support and Management Services (UN/DDSMS). It was financed by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). Part I describes Russian gas reserves and potential resources, and overviews the country's gas producing, pipeline and distribution industries. Additionally, it summarizes the markets for Russian natural gas including domestic and external markets. It discusses the primary economics and potential factors that currently impact the Russian gas industry during the Federation's transition toward a market economy. Part II highlights possible directions for the development of the Russian gas resource base, including upstream gas production and downstream marketing in five-, ten- and fifteen-year time frames. It projects export opportunities for Russian Federation gas and evaluates the options for shaping regional and international markets. Part III addresses the legal and regulatory framework and fiscal regime of the Russian gas industry. It also reviews the major investment requirements and the equipment and training needs of the Russian gas

  6. Dosimetry Service

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Cern Staff and Users can now consult their dose records for an individual or an organizational unit with HRT. Please see more information on our web page: http://cern.ch/rp-dosimetry Dosimetry Service is open every morning from 8.30 - 12.00. Closed in the afternoons. We would like to remind you that dosimeters cannot be sent to customers by internal mail. Short-term dosimeters (VCT's) must always be returned to the Service after the use and must not be left on the racks in the experimental areas or in the secretariats. Dosimetry Service Tel. 7 2155 Dosimetry.service@cern.ch http://cern.ch/rp-dosimetry

  7. Gas-on-gas competition in Shanghai

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manuhutu, Chassty; Owen, Anthony D.

    2010-01-01

    -constrained gas market that will continue to rely upon gas supplies from the western provinces and imported LNG. After 2017, the gas market in Shanghai can be regarded as unconcentrated since its HHI fall below 1800 under a very high growth scenario. In terms of RSI, the gas market can be considered competitive at low, moderate and high growth consumption between 2012 and 2015. (author)

  8. A review at the role of storage in energy systems with a focus on Power to Gas and long-term storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blanco, Herib; Faaij, André

    2018-01-01

    A review of more than 60 studies (plus more than 65 studies on P2G) on power and energy models based on simulation and optimization was done. Based on these, for power systems with up to 95% renewables, the electricity storage size is found to be below 1.5% of the annual demand (in energy terms).

  9. Influence of radiolysis and gas-liquid partition of I-131 in accumulated water on late phase source terms at Fukushima NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidaka, Akihide

    2014-01-01

    In the process of core cooling at Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plants accident, large amount of contaminated water was accumulated in the basements of the reactor buildings at Units 1 to 4. The present study estimated the quantities of I-131 and Cs-137 in the water as of late March based on the press-opened data. The estimated ratios of I-131 and Cs-137 quantities to the core inventories are 0.51%, 0.85% at Unit 1, 74%, 38% at Unit 2 and 26%, 18% at Unit 3, respectively. According to the Henry's law, certain fraction of iodine in water could be released to atmosphere due to gas-liquid partition and contribute to increase in the release to environment. A lot of evaluations for I-131 release have been performed so far by severe accident codes such as MELCOR or the reverse estimation with atmospheric dispersion code such as SPEEDI using the monitoring data. The SPEEDI reverse predicted significant release until March 26 while no prediction in MELCOR after March 17. The present study showed that iodine release from accumulated water due to radiolytic conversion from I - to I 2 and gas-liquid partition of I 2 may explain the release between March 17 and 26. This strongly suggests a need for improvement of current MELCOR approach which treats the release only from containment breaks for several days after the core melt. The study also indicates that the release of radioactive iodine from accumulated water in the basements of reactor buildings could become a great concern for the consequence of Fukushima accident. (author)

  10. Status, remaining service-life and quality assurance of PP-materials in flue-gas applications; Status, kvarvarande livslaengd och kvalitetssaekring av PP-material i anlaeggningar foer rening och kondensering av roekgaser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobson, Karin

    2011-10-15

    Background: The project is intended to provide a better understanding of how the service life of PP-materials is affected when used in flue-gas applications. It intends to form a basis for the development of relevant techniques and a methodology from which it is possible to give advice and guidance so that the quality of PP-materials can be ensured for a given desired service life. In addition it aims as being able to assess the status and remaining life of PP-materials in current components. Project outline - An inventory, contact and choice of facilities for closer cooperation. Plants with high proportions of PP in the equipment have been prioritised. - Visits to the chosen sites during shut-down periods for inspection and collection of samples from different PP details for further analysis in the laboratory. Collection of operating data and experiences of the use of PP (operating time/exposure conditions in different parts, component substitutions that have been made, etc.). - Systematic studies of the processes and mechanisms for stabiliser consumption over time. - Developing methods and methodology on which advice and guidance can be based so that the quality of PP-materials can be ensured for a given desired service life. The goal is to be able to assess the status and remaining service-life of the PP-materials in flue-gas applications. Results and Conclusions: It has been found that corrosion is relatively rare and that the main factors limiting the use and longevity of polypropylene are the thermal properties (thermal expansion and heat distortion). Leaching of stabilisers from the material is also commonly found but only a few cases of oxidative degradation, as a result of this, have been observed. An important part of the project has been to develop techniques and methodologies to assure the quality PP-material for a desired service life, and to assess the status and remaining life of the PP- materials in flue-gas applications. To do this, samples that

  11. Shale gas: how to progress. Report July 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clamadieu, Jean-Pierre; Aubagnac, Louis-Paul; Dolle, Julie; Lahet, Jean-Francois; Goffe, Bruno; Le Bihan-Graf, Christine; Rosenblieh, Laure; Puyfaucher, Laetitia

    2014-07-01

    This report proposes a multidisciplinary contribution to the debate on shale gas. It first shows that shale gas is already a reality at the international level, that the American economy has improved its competitiveness with direct consequences for the European economy, and notices that some countries which have been reluctant until now, are now evolving. The second part describes the potential of shale gas in France as important but with still uncertain resources. The authors outline that a status-quo would be a threat for the French industry on the short term. Then, the report proposes answers to some questions raised by the exploitation of shale gas in France in terms of risks related to hydraulic fracturing, to water resources, to methane emissions, to organic volatile compounds present in drilling waters, or in terms of noise and visual pollutions. In its last part, the report discusses how to progress in the assessment of the role of shale gas in the French and European energy mix, in the knowledge of the French underground, in the development of shale gas at the service of competitiveness, and with an ensured progressive and controlled evolution

  12. Long-term effect of biochar application on yield-scaled greenhouse gas emissions in a rice paddy cropping system: A four-year case study in south China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Xiaobo; Li, Yu'e; Wang, Hong; Liu, Chong; Li, Jianling; Wan, Yunfan; Gao, Qingzhu; Fan, Fenliang; Liao, Yulin

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate long-term effect of biochar application on yield-scaled greenhouse gas emissions (YSGE) in a paddy rice cropping system, a 4-year field experiment by static chamber - gas chromatograph method was conducted in South China. Principal component analysis and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and real-time qPCR was used to unravel the microbial mechanisms of biochar addition. Six treatments were included: control (CK), application of 5tha(-1) biochar (BC1), application of 10tha(-1) biochar (BC2), application of 10tha(-1) biochar (BC3), rice straw return at 2400kgha(-1)(RS) and inoculated rice straw return at 2400kgha(-1)(RI). The results indicated that biochar amendment significantly decreased methane (CH4) and gross greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This may primarily be ascribed to the stimulated biodiversity and abundance of methanotrophic microbes, increased soil pH and improved aeration by reducing bulk density after biochar incorporation. Compared with CK, RS and RI, 26.18%, 70.02%, 66.47% of CH4 flux and 26.14%, 70.16%, 66.46% of gross GHG emissions were reduced by biochar (mean of three biochar treatments), respectively. Furthermore, biochar significantly increased harvest index of double rice production (p<0.05). In comparison with CK, RS and RI, 29.14%, 68.04%, 62.28% of YSGE was reduced by biochar, respectively, and the highest biochar addition rate (20tha(-1)) contributed most to the mitigation of GHG emissions (36.24% decrease compared to CK) and improvement of rice yield (7.65% increase compared to CK). Results of our study suggested that long-term application of biochar should be the potential way to mitigate GHGs emissions and simultaneously improve rice productivity in the paddy rice system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Identifying and overcoming implementation challenges: Experience of 59 noninstitutional long-term services and support pilot programs in the Veterans Health Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Jennifer L; Adjognon, Omonyêlé L; Engle, Ryann L; Shin, Marlena H; Afable, Melissa K; Rudin, Whitney; White, Bert; Shay, Kenneth; Lukas, Carol VanDeusen

    2017-01-25

    From 2010 to 2013, the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) funded a large pilot initiative to implement noninstitutional long-term services and supports (LTSS) programs to support aging Veterans. Our team evaluated implementation of 59 VA noninstitutional LTSS programs. The specific objectives of this study are to (a) examine the challenges influencing program implementation comparing active sites that remained open and inactive sites that closed during the funding period and (b) identify ways that active sites overcame the challenges they experienced. Key informant semistructured interviews occurred between 2011 and 2013. We conducted 217 telephone interviews over four time points. Content analysis was used to identify emergent themes. The study team met regularly to define each challenge, review all codes, and discuss discrepancies. For each follow-up interview with the sites, the list of established challenges was used as a priori themes. Emergent data were also coded. The challenges affecting implementation included human resources and staffing issues, infrastructure, resources allocation and geography, referrals and marketing, leadership support, and team dynamics and processes. Programs were able to overcome challenges by communicating with team members and other areas in the organization, utilizing information technology solutions, creative use of staff and flexible schedules, and obtaining additional resources. This study highlights several common challenges programs can address during the program implementation. The most often mentioned strategy was effective communication. Strategies also targeted several components of the organization including organizational functions and processes (e.g., importance of coordination within a team and across disciplines to provide good care), infrastructure (e.g., information technology and human resources), and program fit with priorities in the organization (e.g., leadership support). Anticipating potential pitfalls of

  14. Maritimes natural gas market : an overview and assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booth, G.

    2003-01-01

    In 1987, Canada's National Energy Board (NEB) adopted a market-based procedure (MBP) to assess long-term gas exports. The MPB included monitoring and assessment of Maritimes natural gas markets. The NEB is responsible for interprovincial and international oil and gas pipelines as well as tolls and tariffs on NEB-regulated pipelines. The NEB is also responsible for electricity and natural gas exports and exploration programs on federally regulated lands not covered by an Accord agreement. The province of New Brunswick requested a new set of rules for the export of natural gas from the Maritimes to ensure competitiveness with other jurisdictions. The NEB decided that the public interest is best served by allowing the market to work. It also decided that the developing Maritimes market faces several challenges not faced by buyers in the export market. It was concluded that the market is working reasonably well to meet the needs of domestic consumers. 20 per cent of Scotian gas is being used in the Maritimes and many laterals have been constructed to extend service. Most major population centres have natural gas. However, there is no residential or commercial natural gas service in Nova Scotia, and only limited penetration of natural gas in residential and commercial markets in New Brunswick. Maritimers have a long history of using other fuel options and must make capital investment to switch to natural gas. They must, therefore, be convinced that investment will pay off in fuel savings and other benefits. The NEB will have to improve price transparency and strive for regulatory efficiency and cooperation with other jurisdictions. 2 figs

  15. Gas Storage Technology Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joel L. Morrison; Sharon L. Elder

    2007-06-30

    Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is crucial in meeting the needs of these new markets. To address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created--the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance the operational flexibility and deliverability of the nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost-effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. This report addresses the activities for the quarterly period of April 1, 2007 through June 30, 2007. Key activities during this time period included: (1) Organizing and hosting the 2007 GSTC Spring Meeting; (2) Identifying the 2007 GSTC projects, issuing award or declination letters, and begin drafting subcontracts; (3) 2007 project mentoring teams identified; (4) New NETL Project Manager; (5) Preliminary planning for the 2007 GSTC Fall Meeting; (6) Collecting and compiling the 2005 GSTC project final reports; and (7) Outreach and communications.

  16. Gas Storage Technology Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joel L. Morrison; Sharon L. Elder

    2006-05-10

    Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services, and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet (TCF) over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is critical in meeting the needs of these new markets. In order to address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created--the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance operational flexibility and deliverability of the Nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. This report addresses the activities for the quarterly period of January 1, 2006 through March 31, 2006. Activities during this time period were: (1) Organize and host the 2006 Spring Meeting in San Diego, CA on February 21-22, 2006; (2) Award 8 projects for co-funding by GSTC for 2006; (3) New members recruitment; and (4) Improving communications.

  17. Short- and long-term effects of real-time medication monitoring with short message service (SMS) reminders for missed doses on the refill adherence of people with Type 2 diabetes: evidence from a randomised controlled trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervloet, M.; Dijk, L. van; Bakker, D.H. de; Souverein, P.C.; Santen-Reestman, J.; Vlijmen, B. van; Aarle, M.C.W. van; Hoek, L.S. van der; Bouvy, M.L.

    2014-01-01

    Aims: To investigate short- and long-term effects of real-time monitoring medication use combined with short message service (SMS) reminders for missed doses on refill adherence to oral anti-diabetic medication. Methods: A randomized controlled trial with two intervention groups and one control

  18. Long-term stability of superhydrophilic oxygen plasma-modified single-walled carbon nanotube network surfaces and the influence on ammonia gas detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Sungjoon [Department of Biomicrosystem Technology, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Joonhyub [Department of Control and Instrumentation Engineering, Korea University, 2511 Sejong-ro, Sejong City 339-770 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Chanwon [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 200-701 (Korea, Republic of); Jin, Joon-Hyung, E-mail: jj1023@chol.com [Department of Chemical Engineering, Kyonggi University, 154-42 Gwanggyosan-ro, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon-si, Gyeonggi-do 16227 (Korea, Republic of); Min, Nam Ki, E-mail: nkmin@korea.ac.kr [Department of Biomicrosystem Technology, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-07-15

    Graphical abstract: Superhydrophilic single-walled carbon nanotube obtained by O{sub 2} plasma treatment voluntarily and non-reversibly reverts to a metastable state. This aerobic aging is an essential process to develop a stable carbon nanotube-based sensor. - Highlights: • Superhydrophilic single-walled carbon nanotube network can be obtained by O{sub 2} plasma-based surface modification. • The modified carbon nanotube surface invariably reverts to a metastable state in a non-reversible manner. • Aerobic aging is essential to stabilize the modified carbon nanotube and the carbon nanotube-based sensing device due to minimized sensor-to-sensor variation. - Abstract: Single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) networks are subjected to a low-powered oxygen plasma for the surface modification. Changes in the surface chemical composition and the stability of the plasma-treated SWCNT (p-SWCNT) with aging in air for up to five weeks are studied using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and contact angle analysis. The contact angle decreases from 120° of the untreated hydrophobic SWCNT to 0° for the superhydrophilic p-SWCNT. Similarly, the ratio of oxygen to carbon (O:C) based on the XPS spectra increases from 0.25 to 1.19, indicating an increase in surface energy of the p-SWCNT. The enhanced surface energy is gradually dissipated and the p-SWCNT network loses the superhydrophilic surface property. However, it never revert to the original hydrophobic surface state but to a metastable hydrophilic state. The aging effect on sensitivity of the p-SWCNT network-based ammonia sensor is investigated to show the importance of the aging process for the stabilization of the p-SWCNT. The best sensitivity for monitoring NH{sub 3} gas is observed with the as-prepared p-SWCNT, and the sensitivity decreases as similar as the p-SWCNT loses its hydrophilicity with time goes by. After a large performance degradation during the aging time for about two weeks, the response

  19. Gas chromatography for in situ analysis of a cometary nucleus V. Study of capillary columns' robustness submitted to long-term reduced environmental pressure conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szopa, C; Sternberg, R; Coscia, D; Goesmann, F; Gomes, R; Legrand, S; Jerome, M; Meierhenrich, U J; Raulin, F

    2014-11-14

    With the European Space Agency's Rosetta space mission to comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, a gas chromatograph, part of the COmetary Sampling And Composition (COSAC) experiment, travelled for about 10 years in the interplanetary medium before operating at the surface of the cometary nucleus in November 2014. During its journey in space, the instrument was exposed to the constraining conditions of the interplanetary medium, including reduced environmental pressures. In order to estimate the potential influence of this severe condition on the chromatographic capillary columns, their stationary phase and the subsequent separation capability, a set of flight spare columns were kept under reduced environmental pressure in the laboratory for the same duration as the probe sent to the comet. The columns' analytical performances were evaluated recently and compared to the original ones obtained just before the launch of the Rosetta probe. The results presented here show that the chromatographic performances of the spare chromatographic columns were not altered in time. From this result, it can be expected that the flight instrument will perform nominally for the analysis of the first cometary nucleus sample to be collected ever, and that the preparation of the interpretation of the data to be taken at the cometary surface nucleus can be done through calibration of these spare columns, and other spare components of the instrument. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Natural gas and energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saga, B.P.

    1996-01-01

    This paper relates to energy security by natural gas supply seen in an International Energy Agency perspective. Topics are: Security of supply, what is it; the role gas on the European energy scene; short term security of supply; long term security of supply; future structural and regulatory developments and possible implications for security of supply. 6 figs