WorldWideScience

Sample records for term perspective 1898-1993

  1. Climate, glacier mass balance and runoff (1993-2005) for the Mittivakkat Glacier catchment, Ammassalik Island, SE Greenland, and in a long term perspective (1898-1993)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mernild, Sebastian H.; Kane, D.L.; Hansen, Birger

    2008-01-01

    Climate, glacier mass balance and runoff are investigated in the Low-Arctic Mittivakkat Glacier catchment on Ammassalik Island, Southeast Greenland. High-resolution meteorological data from the catchment covering 1993-2005 and standard synoptic meteorological data from the nearby town of Tasiilaq...... (Ammassalik) from 1898-2005 are used. Within the catchment, gradients and variations are observed in meteorological conditions between the coastal and the glacier areas. During the period 1993-2005 about 15% lower annual solar radiation was observed in the coastal area. Further, decreasing mean annual air...... temperatures (MAAT) occur in the coastal area, indicating an approximately 20-d shorter thawing period. The higher lying glacier area, in contrast, experiences an increasing MAAT, an approximately 40-d longer thawing period and a 60-d longer snow-free period. The Mittivakkat Glacier net mass balance has been...

  2. The organizational advantage of nations : An ecological perspective on the evolution of the motorcycle industry in Belgium, Italy and Japan, 1898-1993

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wezel, FC; Lomi, A

    2003-01-01

    Why do nations succeed in particular industries? Why do certain industries prosper in one country, but languish in others? Several recent attempts to address these core questions in the study of geography and strategy are based on the notion of domestic rivalry as the essence of the persistence of

  3. TIA and Stroke: the long-term perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, I. van

    2006-01-01

    Background Survival after stroke has improved, but little is known about the long-term risk of new vascular events and the functioning of long-term survivors. The main objective of this thesis was to evaluate the long-term perspective of these patients. Methods Two longitudinal studies were carried

  4. Microfinance and rural development: a long-term perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moll, H.A.J.

    2006-01-01

    The long-term perspective on microfinance starts with a discussion of three central issues: first, views and policies, with two opposing views: "credit for target group" and "pushing the financial frontier"; second, the performance of microfinance institutions measured via two objectives: outreach

  5. Term structure models : a perspective from the long rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yao, Yong

    1998-01-01

    Term structure models resulted from dynamic asset pricing theory are discussed by taking a perspective from the long rate. This paper attempts to answer two questions about the long rate: in frictionless markets having no arbitrage, what should the behavior of the long rate be; and, in existing

  6. Long-term perspective underscores need for stronger near-term policies on climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcott, S. A.; Shakun, J. D.; Clark, P. U.; Mix, A. C.; Pierrehumbert, R.; Goldner, A. P.

    2014-12-01

    Despite scientific consensus that substantial anthropogenic climate change will occur during the 21st century and beyond, the social, economic and political will to address this global challenge remains mired in uncertainty and indecisiveness. One contributor to this situation may be that scientific findings are often couched in technical detail focusing on near-term changes and uncertainties and often lack a relatable long-term context. We argue that viewing near-term changes from a long-term perspective provides a clear demonstration that policy decisions made in the next few decades will affect the Earth's climate, and with it our socio-economic well-being, for the next ten millennia or more. To provide a broader perspective, we present a graphical representation of Earth's long-term climate history that clearly identifies the connection between near-term policy options and the geological scale of future climate change. This long view is based on a combination of recently developed global proxy temperature reconstructions of the last 20,000 years and model projections of surface temperature for the next 10,000 years. Our synthesis places the 20th and 21st centuries, when most emissions are likely to occur, into the context of the last twenty millennia over which time the last Ice Age ended and human civilization developed, and the next ten millennia, over which time the projected impacts will occur. This long-term perspective raises important questions about the most effective adaptation and mitigation policies. For example, although some consider it economically viable to raise seawalls and dikes in response to 21st century sea level change, such a strategy does not account for the need for continuously building much higher defenses in the 22nd century and beyond. Likewise, avoiding tipping points in the climate system in the short term does not necessarily imply that such thresholds will not still be crossed in the more distant future as slower components

  7. Visualizing the Structure of Medical Informatics Using Term Co-Occurrence Analysis: II. INSPEC Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Theodore

    2001-01-01

    Term co-occurrence analysis of INSPEC classification codes and thesaurus terms used to index Medical Informatics literature reveals an information science and technology perspective on the field, to accompany the biomedical perspective previously reported. This study continues the search for a better understanding of the structure of Medical…

  8. Long-term condition management: health professionals' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashworth, Natasha; Thompson, Shona

    2011-03-01

    Long-term conditions (LTCs) are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in New Zealand. The burden upon patients and health care services to manage these conditions has prompted calls for primary care to lead the way in early diagnosis and coordination of LTC care. The purpose of this study was to investigate the perspectives of health professionals in a geographically-isolated region of New Zealand regarding current levels of LTC management to provide direction for future service development. Semi-structured, face-to-face interviews conducted in 2009 with 10 purposively sampled health professionals in the primary care field, including four general practitioners, four nurses and two management team personnel, all practising in a regional District Health Board. The resultant data were analysed using a general inductive thematic approach. Three main themes were identified by the health professionals as being key issues pertaining to the management of LTCs. These are discussed as issues pertaining to management, information and communication and leadership. The results showed that LTC management is rated as highly important by health care professionals who are aware of the need to change current delivery methods to improve client outcomes. All those interviewed highlighted issues related to funding as being a significant barrier to implementing innovations in LTC management, including nurse-led services. Plans to develop integrated family health centres, information technology systems and increased collaboration between clinicians were hailed as potential solutions to improving LTC management.

  9. Life of Mary Nzimiro (1898-1993): Lessons for the Future of Women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    She invested her money in real estates, education, and philanthropy. She carved out a place for herself in the annals of South-Eastern Nigeria in the area of commerce, for which there are lessons to be learnt for the enhancement of the future of women entrepreneurship in the South Eastern Region of Nigeria. The data for ...

  10. The stability of the international oil trade network from short-term and long-term perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qingru; Gao, Xiangyun; Zhong, Weiqiong; Liu, Nairong

    2017-09-01

    To examine the stability of the international oil trade network and explore the influence of countries and trade relationships on the trade stability, we construct weighted and unweighted international oil trade networks based on complex network theory using oil trading data between countries from 1996 to 2014. We analyze the stability of international oil trade network (IOTN) from short-term and long-term aspects. From the short-term perspective, we find that the trade volumes play an important role on the stability. Moreover, the weighted IOTN is stable; however, the unweighted networks can better reflect the actual evolution of IOTN. From the long-term perspective, we identify trade relationships that are maintained during the whole sample period to reveal the situation of the whole international oil trade. We provide a way to quantitatively measure the stability of complex network from short-term and long-term perspectives, which can be applied to measure and analyze trade stability of other goods or services.

  11. Short-term tocolytics for preterm delivery – current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haas DM

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available David M Haas, Tara Benjamin, Renata Sawyer, Sara K QuinneyDepartment of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, USAAbstract: Administration of short-term tocolytic agents can prolong pregnancy for women in preterm labor. Prolonging pregnancy has many benefits because it allows for other proven interventions, such as antenatal corticosteroid administration, to be accomplished. This review provides an overview of currently utilized tocolytic agents and the evidence demonstrating their efficacy for prolonging pregnancy by at least 48 hours. General pharmacological principles for the clinician regarding drugs in pregnancy are also briefly discussed. In general, while the choice of the best first-line short-term tocolytic drug is not clear, it is evident that use of these agents has a clear place in current obstetric therapeutics.Keywords: tocolytics, short-term, preterm delivery

  12. Current Perspectives on Long-term Obesity Pharmacotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wharton, Sean

    2016-04-01

    Approximately 1 in 4 adult Canadians are obese and, thus, are at an elevated risk for developing type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and other conditions. Current treatment guidelines recommend that obese individuals lose 5% to 10% of their starting weights to minimize the risk factors for cardiovascular disease and reduce the risk for developing type 2 diabetes or hypertension. All obesity-management strategies involve lifestyle management, but few patients will lose a significant amount of weight and manage to keep it off over the long term using just this strategy. Bariatric surgery is associated with significant long-term weight loss but is restricted to subjects with very high body mass indices, who often wait many years to undergo the procedure. Recent breakthroughs in understanding the mechanisms underlying the development and maintenance of elevated body fat have led to the arrival of new obesity pharmacotherapies. These novel antiobesity therapies, which work by reducing energy intake or through increasing satiety, decreasing hunger, or reducing absorption of calories, may be used indefinitely once patients have demonstrated significant responses (usually defined as ≥5% weight loss) over the first 12 weeks of treatment. To date, 2 long-term obesity pharmacotherapies have been approved and are available in Canada: liraglutide and orlistat. Here, I summarize the mechanisms and clinical features of medications for long-term obesity management that are available in Canada, as well as those available in other jurisdictions or are currently in development. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Long-Term Monitoring Research Needs: A DOE Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, B.; Davis, C. B.

    2002-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Management is responsible for dealing with the nation's legacy of Cold War radioactive and hazardous waste and contamination. Major efforts are underway to deal with this legacy; these are expected to last up to decades and cost up to billions of dollars at some sites. At all sites, however, active remediation must eventually cease; if hazards then remain, the site must enter into a long-term stewardship mode. In this talk we discuss aspects of long-term monitoring pertinent to DOE sites, focusing on challenges to be faced, specific goals or targets to be met, and research needs to be addressed in order to enable DOE to meet its long-term stewardship obligations. DOE LTM research needs fall into three major categories: doing what we can do now much more efficiently; doing things we cannot do now; and proving the validity of our monitoring programs. Given the enormity of the DOE obligations, it will be highly desirable to develop much more efficient monitoring paradigms. Doing so will demand developing autonomous, remote monitoring networks of in situ sensors capable of replacing (or at least supplementing to a large extent) conventional groundwater and soil gas sampling and analysis programs. The challenges involved range from basic science (e.g., inventing in situ sensors for TCE that do not demand routine maintenance) to engineering (attaining superior reliability in data reporting in remote networks) to ergonomics (developing decent ways of selecting and presenting the "right" information from the monitoring network) to regulatory affairs (presenting convincing evidence that the more efficient systems actually provide superior monitoring). We explore these challenges in some detail, focusing on the "long" in long-term monitoring as it applies to DOE sites. Monitoring system performance validation and, ultimately, regulator and stakeholder acceptance of site closure and long-term stewardship plans depend

  14. Advanced design cultures long-term perspective and continuous innovation

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book describes new thinking and practice in Advanced Design (ADD) – design that is not merely highly developed but anticipates the future by envisioning novel products and processes. The focus is especially on the front end of innovation and the search for solutions in complex pioneering processes using design-related tools and practices. The book opens by describing these tools, the approaches that characterize ADD, and its historical dimension. Specific fields in which ADD has flourished are then examined, exploring the dynamics between research and design. The coverage ranges from transportation, lighting, and electrical appliances through to business networks, technology parks, and the development of ground-breaking materials. AdvanceDesign is the name of the research group at the Politecnico di Milano (Italy’s largest technical university) of which the authors are members. It was chosen to reflect both the “advanced”, tangible dimension of design in terms of modern product development, mater...

  15. Who owns the long term? Perspectives from global business leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lévy, Maurice; Eskew, Mike; Bernotat, Wulf H; Barner, Marianne

    2007-01-01

    Day-to-day management is challenging enough for CEOs. How do they manage for the long term as well? We posed that question to four top executives of global companies. According to Maurice Levy, chairman and CEO of Publicis Groupe, building the future is really about building the present and keeping close to the front line--those who deal with your customers and markets. He also attributes his company's success in large part to knowing when to take action: In a market where clients' needs steer your long-term future, timing is everything. UPS Chairman and CEO Mike Eskew emphasizes staying true to your vision and values over the long run, despite meeting obstacles along the way. It took more than 20 years, and many lessons learned, to produce consistent profits in what is today the company's fastest-growing and most profitable business: international small packages. Wulf H. Bernotat, CEO of E.ON, examines the challenges facing business leaders and politicians as they try to balance energy needs against potential environmental damage. He calls for educating people about consumption and waste, and he maintains that a diverse and reliable mix of energy sources is the only way to ensure a secure supply while protecting our environment. Finally, Marianne Barner, the director of corporate communications and ombudsman for children's issues at IKEA, discusses how the company is taking steps to improve the environment and be otherwise socially responsible. For example, it's partnering with NGOs to address child labor issues and, on its own, is working to help mitigate climate change. IKEA's goals include using renewable sources for 100% of its energy needs and cutting its overall energy consumption by 25%.

  16. Language-Learning Motivation during Short-Term Study Abroad: An Activity Theory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Heather Willis

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the development of language-learning motivation during short-term study abroad (SA) for six intermediate-level students of French. Taking an activity theory perspective, findings demonstrated that one of two orientations motivated participants to study or continue studying French at the college level: linguistic motives or…

  17. Topographic evolution of orogens: The long term perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robl, Jörg; Hergarten, Stefan; Prasicek, Günther

    2017-04-01

    The landscape of mountain ranges reflects the competition of tectonics and climate, that build up and destroy topography, respectively. While there is a broad consensus on the acting processes, there is a vital debate whether the topography of individual orogens reflects stages of growth, steady-state or decay. This debate is fuelled by the million-year time scales hampering direct observations on landscape evolution in mountain ranges, the superposition of various process patterns and the complex interactions among different processes. In this presentation we focus on orogen-scale landscape evolution based on time-dependent numerical models and explore model time series to constrain the development of mountain range topography during an orogenic cycle. The erosional long term response of rivers and hillslopes to uplift can be mathematically formalised by the stream power and mass diffusion equations, respectively, which enables us to describe the time-dependent evolution of topography in orogens. Based on a simple one-dimensional model consisting of two rivers separated by a watershed we explain the influence of uplift rate and rock erodibility on steady-state channel profiles and show the time-dependent development of the channel - drainage divide system. The effect of dynamic drainage network reorganization adds additional complexity and its effect on topography is explored on the basis of two-dimensional models. Further complexity is introduced by coupling a mechanical model (thin viscous sheet approach) describing continental collision, crustal thickening and topography formation with a stream power-based landscape evolution model. Model time series show the impact of crustal deformation on drainage networks and consequently on the evolution of mountain range topography (Robl et al., in review). All model outcomes, from simple one-dimensional to coupled two dimensional models are presented as movies featuring a high spatial and temporal resolution. Robl, J., S

  18. Diet and long-term health: an African Diaspora perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomons, Noel W

    2003-01-01

    The life-stage approach, which views the behaviours and exposures of an individual from the preconceptual situation of the parent through pregnancy, infancy, childhood and adolescence, and into the advancing years through adulthood, is the basis of analysis of strategies to improve long-term health. Among the behaviours of note is the dietary selection pattern, conditioning our exposure to nutrients and dietary constituents that influences growth, nutriture, cognitive and physical performance, and disease resistance and susceptibility. The African Diaspora created a population displaced from Africa to the Western Hemisphere as part of the African slave trade from the 16th to 18th centuries. It continues to manifest distinct dietary and lifestyle practices in the context of a health experience that is different both from the population in their African countries of origin and from the other ethnicities in their countries of displacement and current residence. Afro-Americans are more susceptible to a series of diseases and conditions including low birth weight, violence, and HIV/AIDS, as well as the non-communicable diseases: obesity, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, stroke, renal failure, breast cancer, prostate cancer and lead poisoning. The differential nature of dietary practices are conditioned at times by the poverty and marginalisation of the populace, resulting in either disadvantageous or beneficial outcomes relative to others' eating habits. Serious consideration must be given to the possibility that ethnic difference give rise to different requirements and tolerances for essential nutrients and distinct protective or adverse responses to foods and dietary substances. The major challenges to health improvement for the African Diaspora is coming to grips with the policy and programmatic nuances of differential treatment and the effecting the behavioural changes that would be needed in a population skeptical of the motives of media and

  19. Long-term potentiation and long-term depression: a clinical perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy V.P. Bliss

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-term potentiation and long-term depression are enduring changes in synaptic strength, induced by specific patterns of synaptic activity, that have received much attention as cellular models of information storage in the central nervous system. Work in a number of brain regions, from the spinal cord to the cerebral cortex, and in many animal species, ranging from invertebrates to humans, has demonstrated a reliable capacity for chemical synapses to undergo lasting changes in efficacy in response to a variety of induction protocols. In addition to their physiological relevance, long-term potentiation and depression may have important clinical applications. A growing insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying these processes, and technological advances in non-invasive manipulation of brain activity, now puts us at the threshold of harnessing long-term potentiation and depression and other forms of synaptic, cellular and circuit plasticity to manipulate synaptic strength in the human nervous system. Drugs may be used to erase or treat pathological synaptic states and non-invasive stimulation devices may be used to artificially induce synaptic plasticity to ameliorate conditions arising from disrupted synaptic drive. These approaches hold promise for the treatment of a variety of neurological conditions, including neuropathic pain, epilepsy, depression, amblyopia, tinnitus and stroke.

  20. Zero Emission Building And Conversion Factors Between Electricity Consumption And Emissions Of Greenhouse Gases In A Long Term Perspective

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ingeborg Graabak; Bjørn Harald Bakken; Nicolai Feilberg

    2014-01-01

    ...) or not. This paper describes how conversion factors between electricity demand and emissions can be calculated for the European power system in a long term perspective through the application of a large...

  1. ‘Testing’ Elias : aspects of Violence Viewed in Long-Term Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Dunning, Eric

    2011-01-01

    This ‘polemical’ paper is concerned with ‘testing’ key elements of Elias’s theory of ‘civilising processes’ in a non-positivistic sense. More particularly, Elias’s undifferentiated concept of violence is broken down into ten categories, some of which are then used to shed light on war, genocide, crime, punishment and sport seen in long-term perspective. The work of a range of authors who are more or less critical of Elias is next considered and the conclusion reached that, contrary to a commo...

  2. Women's experiences of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy in a short-term perspective--a qualitative content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlviken, Rønnaug M; Fridlund, Bengt; Mathisen, Lars

    2015-06-01

    Takotsubo cardiomyopathy is a reversible condition mimicking acute myocardial infarction. The phenomenon is associated with emotional and physical stressful trigger events. Evidence-based patient counselling should be based on disease-specific knowledge of patient experiences. The aim of the study was to describe women's experiences of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy in a short-term perspective. The study design was explorative and descriptive. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 14 women diagnosed with Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, 1 day to 9 months after hospitalisation. The transcriptions underwent qualitative content analysis. The main theme that emerged was Takotsubo cardiomyopathy as a continuous process of making sense and adapting. To begin with, understanding and coping with signs and symptoms were described as having a diversity of signs and symptoms, taking actions towards signs and symptoms, receiving treatment for suspected ST/non ST-elevation myocardial infarction diagnosis and finally being diagnosed with Takotsubo cardiomyopathy. Understanding the context of illness was expressed as getting treated for Takotsubo cardiomyopathy diagnosis and having previous stressful conditions of life. The changing perspective that emanated was a combination of having prospects and expectations and experiencing limitations. Finally, managing to live with Takotsubo cardiomyopathy was manifested as returning home with the illness and receiving follow-up health care. Information on regaining prior health status and capacity within a short-term perspective may not be accurate. These women struggle and require education and counselling from healthcare professionals to comprehend and manage having a Takotsubo cardiomyopathy diagnosis. Women experiencing Takotsubo cardiomyopathy may be a target group for holistic and individual health care with a longer duration of follow-up. © 2014 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  3. Examining the Influence of Selected Factors on Perceived Co-Op Work-Term Quality from a Student Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewery, David; Nevison, Colleen; Pretti, T. Judene; Cormier, Lauren; Barclay, Sage; Pennaforte, Antoine

    2016-01-01

    This study discusses and tests a conceptual model of co-op work-term quality from a student perspective. Drawing from an earlier exploration of co-op students' perceptions of work-term quality, variables related to role characteristics, interpersonal dynamics, and organizational elements were used in a multiple linear regression analysis to…

  4. Lock-in and change: Distributed generation in Denmark in a long-term perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vleuten, Erik van der; Raven, Rob [Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, Dept. of Technology Management, Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2006-12-15

    There is a renewed attention for distributed generation (DG) in European electricity sectors, but implementing DG is often problematic. This article studies the current relative success of DG in Denmark. We take into account not only recent drivers of change such as energy policy and green activism, but also long-term stability and change in the electricity supply sector. In particular we analyse the lock-in on centralized electricity supply, that still frustrates DG development elsewhere. We discuss three successive national electricity regimes, analysing regime lock-in and change in terms of technologies, actors, institutions and the position of DG. Our analysis shows that Danish energy policy as well as innovative activity by key actors indeed were crucial to the recent DG revival in Denmark. On the other hand, our long-term perspective shows that Danish energy policy and actor strategies were tuned to specifically Danish opportunities and barriers created during earlier regimes. These include experience with wind turbines and CHP as well as urban municipal and rural cooperative involvement. Copying the Danish energy policy model to other countries, regardless of national specific opportunities and barriers, will therefore not guarantee a similar outcome. (Author)

  5. Ethical aspects of a predictive test for Huntington's Disease: A long term perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Petra Lilja; Petersén, Åsa; Graff, Caroline; Edberg, Anna-Karin

    2016-08-01

    A predictive genetic test for Huntington's disease can be used before any symptoms are apparent, but there is only sparse knowledge about the long-term consequences of a positive test result. Such knowledge is important in order to gain a deeper understanding of families' experiences. The aim of the study was to describe a young couple's long-term experiences and the consequences of a predictive test for Huntington's disease. A descriptive case study design was used with a longitudinal narrative life history approach. The study was based on 18 interviews with a young couple, covering a period of 2.5 years; starting 6 months after the disclosure of the test results showing the woman to be a carrier of the gene causing Huntington's disease. Even though the study was extremely sensitive, where potential harm constantly had to be balanced against the benefits, the couple had a strong wish to contribute to increased knowledge about people in their situation. The study was approved by the ethics committee. The results show that the long-term consequences were devastating for the family. This 3-year period was characterized by anxiety, repeated suicide attempts, financial difficulties and eventually divorce. By offering a predictive test, the healthcare system has an ethical and moral responsibility. Once the test result is disclosed, the individual and the family cannot live without the knowledge it brings. Support is needed in a long-term perspective and should involve counselling concerning the families' everyday life involving important decision-making, reorientation towards a new outlook of the future and the meaning of life. As health professionals, our ethical and moral responsibility thus embraces not only the phase in direct connection to the actual genetic test but also a commitment to provide support to help the family deal with the long-term consequences of the test. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Interpersonal and group processes in long-term spaceflight crews: perspectives from social and organizational psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dion, Kenneth L

    2004-07-01

    The issues of interpersonal and group processes in long-term spacecrews from the perspectives of social and organizational psychology are considered here. A contrast between the Amundsen vs. Scott expeditions to the South Pole 90 yrs. ago highlights the importance of personnel selection and attention to interpersonal and group dynamics in expeditions to extreme and dangerous environments, such as long-term spaceflights today. Under the rubric of personnel selection, some further psychological "select-in" and "select-out" criteria are suggested, among them implicit measures of human motivation, intergroup attitudes ("implicit" and "explicit" measures of prejudice, social dominance orientation, and right-wing authoritarianism), attachment styles, and dispositional hardiness. The situational interview and the idea of "selection for teams," drawn from current advances in organizational psychology, are recommended for selecting members for future spacecrews. Under the rubrics of interpersonal and group processes, the social relations model is introduced as a technique for modeling and understanding interdependence among spacecrew members and partialling out variance in behavioral and perceptual data into actor/perceiver, partner/target, and relationship components. Group cohesion as a multidimensional construct is introduced, along with a consideration of the groupthink phenomenon and its controversial link to cohesion. Group composition issues are raised with examples concerning cultural heterogeneity and gender composition. Cultural value dimensions, especially power distance and individual-collectivism, should be taken into account at both societal and psychological levels in long-term space missions. Finally, intergroup processes and language issues in crews are addressed. The recategorization induction from the common ingroup identity model is recommended as a possible intervention for overcoming and inhibiting intergroup biases within spacecrews and between space

  7. The Relationship between Transformational Leadership and Organizational Commitment in Nonprofit Long Term Care Organizations: The Direct Care Worker Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Jeanette A.

    2015-01-01

    The United States population is rapidly aging, and retaining direct care workers (DCWs) will continue to be a workforce concern for the industry in addressing the demand for long term care services. To date, scant literature exists that addresses the DCW perspective of leadership behaviors and their influence on organizational commitment. To…

  8. A Perspective on Long-Term Recovery Following the Fukushima Nuclear Accident - 12075

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, S.Y. [Environmental Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (United States)

    2012-07-01

    , and (8) government policies, among others. This paper offers a perspective on this likely long and arduous journey toward establishing a 'new normal' that will ultimately take shape. Toward this end, it is important to evaluate the 'optimization' process advocated by the international community in achieving long-term recovery from this particularly fateful event in Fukushima. In the process, experience and lessons learned from past events will be fully evaluated and considered. (author)

  9. Perspective directions optimization of process of long-term preparation of young sportsmen (on the example of team games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksimenko I.G.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of work consisted of formulation of perspective directions optimization of the system of long-term preparation of young sportsmen, traditionally folded in Ukraine. In the article on the basis of analysis of materials foreign and domestic literary and Internet-sources, and also analysis of practical experience of leading specialists an attempt to generalize theoretical-and-methodical positions of the system of long-term preparation of reserve in team games is undertaken. The state of problem, related to optimization of process of preparation of young sportsmen is considered, and the possible ways of decision of the folded problem are offered.

  10. The long-term effect of perspective change on the emotional intensity of autobiographical memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiguchi, Takahiro; Nonaka, Saori

    2014-01-01

    Autobiographical memories can be recalled from either a field (first-person) or an observer (third-person) perspective. Previous studies have reported that field-to-observer perspective change reduced the emotional intensity of recalled events. In the present study, we examined whether this effect has a long duration by employing follow-up measurements. The participants were asked to recall the same events repeatedly across three sessions (S1, S2, and S3): S2 was conducted about three days after S1, and S3 was conducted about four weeks after S2. The results showed a reduction in the emotional intensity of the recalled events when the perspective was changed from field to observer at S2. More importantly, this reduction in emotional intensity persisted until S3. These effects were not observed under observer-to-field perspective change at S2. These results suggest that observer perspective taking can cause plastic change in the autobiographical memory system.

  11. Perspectives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    regards scientific funding4. He never had a big institute in the modern sense and did not dispose of large funds or large numbers of people5. Conflict between Bernal and. Perspectives ... The problems of being a “polytropic scientist” have increased enormously. ... as ever for managing populations. People with power are.

  12. Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarone, Elaine

    2013-01-01

    The topic of this "Perspectives" column is "Requiring a Proficiency Level as a Requirement for U.S. K-12 Teacher Licensure." In 1998, the American Council of Teachers of Foreign Languages (ACTFL) began to work with the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE), which accredits teacher education programs…

  13. Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kussmann, Martin; Morine, Melissa J; Hager, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    We review here the status of human type 2 diabetes studies from a genetic, epidemiological, and clinical (intervention) perspective. Most studies limit analyses to one or a few omic technologies providing data of components of physiological processes. Since all chronic diseases are multifactorial...

  14. Perspective

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tamara Shefer

    maintaining safe school environments. This perspective paper outlines the NSSF's approach to preventing school violence. Keywords: national school safety framework, violence prevention, South African schools, school safety. INTRODUCTION. Schools should be safe places for teaching and learning, free of violence and ...

  15. Long-Term Impact of Acute, Critical Illness and Admission to an Intensive Care Unit. Perspectives of Patients and Partners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ågård, Anne Sophie

    2013-01-01

    -ching, advocating, and managing. The spouses often required comprehensive sick leave related to problems that arose because of the patients’ critical illness and hospital admission. As a couple, patients and caregivers sought to regain partnership balances. The study identified three types of couples......ENGLISH SUMMARY The focus of the study was to describe post-ICU recovery as seen from the perspective of ICU survivors and their spouses in a Danish setting. The aims were to describe the trajectories of the participating patients and spouses and generate theoretical accounts of their main concerns......-term trajectories of ICU survivors and the concrete challenges facing the patients and their partners after ICU discharge, particularly as seen from their own perspectives. In this longitudinal grounded theory study, data were collected from dyad and focus group interviews with 18 previously healthy ICU survivors...

  16. Two Perspectives on Proportional Relationships: Extending Complementary Origins of Multiplication in Terms of Quantities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckmann, Sybilla; Izsák, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we present a mathematical analysis that distinguishes two distinct quantitative perspectives on ratios and proportional relationships: variable number of fixed quantities and fixed numbers of variable parts. This parallels the distinction between measurement and partitive meanings for division and between two meanings for…

  17. Moral Values Education in Terms of Graduate University Students' Perspectives: A Jordanian Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrar, Amani

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on how moral values differ and vary according to variants such as education, culture, thoughts, religion, gender and family relations. It handles the issue of moral education in Jordan, from the perspective of graduate students in Petra University. Since we are facing new challenges in this era and region of the world, we are…

  18. The Long-Term Effects of the Youth Crime Prevention Program "New Perspectives" on Delinquency and Recidivism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Sanne L A; Hoeve, Machteld; Asscher, Jessica J; Stams, Geert Jan J M

    2018-01-01

    New Perspectives (NP) aims to prevent persistent criminal behavior. We examined the long-term effectiveness of NP and whether the effects were moderated by demographic and delinquency factors. At-risk youth aged 12 to 19 years were randomly assigned to the intervention group (NP, n = 47) or care as usual (CAU, n = 54). Official and self-report data were collected to assess recidivism. NP was not more effective in reducing delinquency levels and recidivism than CAU. Also, no moderator effects were found. The overall null effects are discussed, including further research and policy implications.

  19. Reflections on full reserve banking and sustainability in a long term perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    2015-01-01

    is to introduce full reserve banking (or related arrangements), but the idea meets with substantial criticism from some Keynesian economists who are also concerned about environment and distribution. The intention with this paper is to provide an overview of the main participants and the key arguments...... in the debate on full reserve banking and to discuss whether the proposal is useful from a sustainability perspective. It is also discussed whether other proposals are more promising, either as alternatives or in combination with full reserve banking, and what the potential is for political mobilisation based...

  20. Early skin-to-skin contact for healthy full-term infants after vaginal and caesarean delivery : A qualitative study on clinician perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, Inez; Callaghan-Koru, Jennifer A.; Alaofin, Oluwatope; Argani, Cynthia H.; Farzin, Azadeh

    2016-01-01

    Aims and objectives: This study aims to provide insight into key factors from a clinician's perspective that influence uninterrupted early skin-to-skin contact after vaginal and caesarean delivery of healthy full-term infants. Background: Early skin-to-skin contact of healthy full-term infants

  1. Perspectives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-10-24

    Oct 24, 2012 ... was another example of the humanist enterprise of restoring an ancient classic to ... King George III and placed in the Windsor Palace Library. It ...... Lan- kesteriana 8 81–88. Huguet-Termes T 2001 New World Materia Medica in Spanish. Renaissance medicine: From scholarly reception to practical impact.

  2. The Effectiveness of a "Break Experiment" from a Long-Term Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westlander, Gunnela; Pingel, Birgit

    1997-01-01

    The study reports the results of a follow-up evaluation, conducted in 1994, of the impact of a training program for female unskilled metal workers that was implemented at the end of the 1970s. The program was designed to promote occupational skills development, and was first evaluated in 1979. On both occasions of evaluation the investment in training was examined from two perspectives, those of the training participants and management. Data were collected through semistructured personal interviews with key members of personnel management and through a group conversation session with a majority of the original course attendees. Supplementary background information was obtained from documents and records maintained by the organization. At some points, there was a convergence of views on the significance of the training program for occupational skills development, at others a divergence. These convergences and divergences are finally discussed and the findings of the study are related to other research on this particular kind of intervention.

  3. Short- and long-term rhythmic interventions: perspectives for language rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schön, Daniele; Tillmann, Barbara

    2015-03-01

    This paper brings together different perspectives on the investigation and understanding of temporal processing and temporal expectations. We aim to bridge different temporal deficit hypotheses in dyslexia, dysphasia, or deafness in a larger framework, taking into account multiple nested temporal scales. We present data testing the hypothesis that temporal attention can be influenced by external rhythmic auditory stimulation (i.e., musical rhythm) and benefits subsequent language processing, including syntax processing and speech production. We also present data testing the hypothesis that phonological awareness can be influenced by several months of musical training and, more particularly, rhythmic training, which in turn improves reading skills. Together, our data support the hypothesis of a causal role of rhythm-based processing for language processing and acquisition. These results open new avenues for music-based remediation of language and hearing impairment. © 2015 New York Academy of Sciences.

  4. Encountering local inhabitants' perspectives in terms of authenticity: The example of rural tourism in southern Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Weidinger

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Effects of globalisation and various standardisation processes in everyday life are currently reflected through individuals’ quests for encountering authenticity. The paper interrogates in which particular ways local inhabitants evaluate rural localities with regard to authenticity by means of local architectural styles and filmic representations. Empirical findings from two qualitative studies carried out in rural Southern Germany are presented. The studies were comprised of qualitative interviews with local inhabitants and representatives in tourism, politics and heritage conservation together with a film analysis of a popular Heimat film shot in the Bavarian forest. Results reveal locals’ critique of modern architectural styles such as “Tuscan houses” as inauthentic, whereby a link between architecture and regional identity (“archidentity” cannot be established. However, the film analysis brings forth locals’ congruities between filmic representations and their lived spaces. In sum, locals’ perspectives on authentication processes can contribute to re-evaluate localities that are mainly shaped by idealised images for tourism purposes.

  5. The acid-base balance of peatlands: a short-term perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urban, N.R.; Baley, S.E.

    1986-10-01

    Acidity budgets for an artificially acidified and an unacidified peatland in mid-continental North America are dominated by the production and export of organic acids. A fraction (about 50%) of these acids are neutralized by alkalinity from atmospheric deposition and upland run-off. the acid applied to the experimentally acidified site is neutralized by uptake of nitrate and sulfate. Short-term measurements show that nitrate is taken up rapidly in surface layers of moss while sulfate penetrates more deeply into the peat. Sulfate retention within the two sites ranges from 56 to 70% on an annual basis. Stripping of basic cations is shown to result from acid application to base-rich peat. These results suggest that short-term effects of acid deposition on peatlands will be slight, but long-term site acidification is possible. 36 refs.

  6. Vitamin D and the Promotion of Long-Term Metabolic Health from a Programming Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saranya Palaniswamy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies linking vitamin D and long-term metabolic health have generated much debate. Recommendations for the intake of vitamin D by the general public and by the health care professionals have been complicated by a number of inconsistencies in the literature. These caveats relate to the methodological approaches, differences in the populations (and the species of study, and the definitions used for thresholds of vitamin D status. This review addresses current evidence available for assessing the potential programming of long-term metabolic health of offspring by maternal vitamin D status in pregnancy. It summarizes knowledge on the early origins of metabolic health and analyzes evidence for an association between the vitamin D status in pregnancy and maternal and fetal health status. In addition, we analyze the link between the regulation of inflammation and the vitamin D status in the general population to inform on the general mechanisms through which early vitamin D might affect the programming of long-term health. The evidence suggests an association between the vitamin D status in early life and the programming of long-term health. However, to the best of our knowledge, the current finding is insufficient to draw a final conclusion for evidence-based preventive actions. The data warrant replication in prospective studies and additional research substantiating the causal factors and pathways.

  7. Constructional Morphology and Exaptation as Perspectives for a Term Project in Paleontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelson, Carl Victor

    1991-01-01

    Describes an assignment in a paleontology course built around constructional morphology and the role of adaptation and exaptation in evolution. Students investigate the constructional morphology of a group of fossils that interests them. Findings are presented in an oral presentation and in a term paper. (27 references) (PR)

  8. Short and long-term results of transluminal coronary interventions: an angiographic perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.P. Foley (David)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractPercutaneous Transluminal Coronary Angioplasty (PTCA) is the original term describing the technique of alleviating coronary artery narrowings by inflating a short balloon (8 - 45 mm long) mounted on a long hollow plastic catheter, which is introdllced to the coronary artery over a thin

  9. Which Terms Should Be Used to Describe Autism? Perspectives from the UK Autism Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Lorcan; Hattersley, Caroline; Molins, Bonnie; Buckley, Carole; Povey, Carol; Pellicano, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Recent public discussions suggest that there is much disagreement about the way autism is and should be described. This study sought to elicit the views and preferences of UK autism community members--autistic people, parents and their broader support network--about the terms they use to describe autism. In all, 3470 UK residents responded to an…

  10. Short-Term Study Abroad: Perspectives on Speaking Gains and Language Contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Todd A.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that study abroad has a positive effect on second language (L2) learning outcomes for students who spend at least a semester abroad. It is unclear, however, whether a short-term experience also has a measurable impact on L2 development. The present study examines the relationship between speaking proficiency gains made…

  11. Workplace Violence and Safety Issues in Long-Term Medical Care Facilities: Nurses' Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bankole K. Fasanya

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: WPV is an epidemic problem that affects all health-care professionals. The findings of this study could help long-term medical care facilities' management identify the areas to focus on mitigating, controlling, and/or eliminating incidents of WPV.

  12. Perspectives on the Termination of Debt Review in Terms of Section ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, a debt review in terms of section 86 does not end or lapse automatically if a specific event fails to occur or upon the expiry of a specific time period. Before a credit provider can enforce a credit agreement that is the subject of a pending debt review, the debt review must be terminated in accordance with section ...

  13. Specific language impairment in the long-term perspective – the importance of assessment procedures, reading skills, and communicative competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Richterová

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to provide a review of the literature regarding the treatment of specific language impairment (SLI in the long-term perspective. We develop the paper along the three issues we consider to be of the most importance in relation to counseling practice with SLI children and young people: the importance of assessment procedures of SLI, the importance of reading skills in the lives of SLI children and adults, and the importance of the quality of communication competence of SLI people for their social life. The review draws on international research mainly; however, the paper also aims to show how the three target issues are represented in the Czech research related literature.

  14. Romantic relationships and alcohol use: A long-term, developmental perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauer, Amy J; Pettit, Gregory S; Samek, Diana R; Lansford, Jennifer E; Dodge, Kenneth A; Bates, John E

    2016-08-01

    This study considers the developmental origins of alcohol use in young adulthood. Despite substantial evidence linking committed romantic relationships to less problematic alcohol use in adulthood, the uniformity of these protective benefits across different romantic relationships is unclear. Further, the extent to which the establishment and maintenance of these romantic relationships is preceded by earlier adolescence alcohol use remains unknown. To address these gaps in the literature, the current study utilized multitiple-dimensional, multiple-informant data spanning 20 years on 585 individuals in the Child Development Project. Findings from both variable- and person-centered analyses support a progression of associations predicting adolescent alcohol use (ages 15-16), drinking, and romantic relationships in early adulthood (ages 18-25), and then problematic young adult alcohol use (age 27). Although adolescent alcohol use predicted greater romantic involvement and turnover in early adulthood, romantic involvement, but not turnover, appeared to reduce the likelihood of later problematic drinking. These findings remained robust even after accounting for a wide array of selection and socialization factors. Moreover, characteristics of the individuals (e.g., gender) and of their romantic relationships (e.g., partner substance use problems and romantic relationship satisfaction) did not moderate these findings. Findings underscore the importance of using a developmental-relational perspective to consider the antecedents and consequences of alcohol use early in the life span.

  15. Two decades of numerical modelling to understand long term fluvial archives: Advances and future perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldkamp, A.; Baartman, J. E. M.; Coulthard, T. J.; Maddy, D.; Schoorl, J. M.; Storms, J. E. A.; Temme, A. J. A. M.; van Balen, R.; van De Wiel, M. J.; van Gorp, W.; Viveen, W.; Westaway, R.; Whittaker, A. C.

    2017-06-01

    The development and application of numerical models to investigate fluvial sedimentary archives has increased during the last decades resulting in a sustained growth in the number of scientific publications with keywords, 'fluvial models', 'fluvial process models' and 'fluvial numerical models'. In this context we compile and review the current contributions of numerical modelling to the understanding of fluvial archives. In particular, recent advances, current limitations, previous unexpected results and future perspectives are all discussed. Numerical modelling efforts have demonstrated that fluvial systems can display non-linear behaviour with often unexpected dynamics causing significant delay, amplification, attenuation or blurring of externally controlled signals in their simulated record. Numerical simulations have also demonstrated that fluvial records can be generated by intrinsic dynamics without any change in external controls. Many other model applications demonstrate that fluvial archives, specifically of large fluvial systems, can be convincingly simulated as a function of the interplay of (palaeo) landscape properties and extrinsic climate, base level and crustal controls. All discussed models can, after some calibration, produce believable matches with real world systems suggesting that equifinality - where a given end state can be reached through many different pathways starting from different initial conditions and physical assumptions - plays an important role in fluvial records and their modelling. The overall future challenge lies in the development of new methodologies for a more independent validation of system dynamics and research strategies that allow the separation of intrinsic and extrinsic record signals using combined fieldwork and modelling.

  16. Janus at the Crossroads: Perspectives on Long-term Care Trajectories for Older Women With Dementia in a Canadian Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloutier, Denise S; Penning, Margaret J

    2017-02-01

    Janus, the two-faced, Roman god of beginnings and transitions, is used as a metaphor to explore our personal narratives and our quantitative research on the experiences of older women with dementia in long-term care (LTC). Two research questions are addressed: (a) How do our quantitative data map onto our mothers' experiences? (b) What lessons do our mothers' experiences offer for the care of older women with dementia? Informed by a life-course perspective, we triangulate administrative data on 3,717 women with dementia receiving LTC in British Columbia, Canada, with personal narratives-the stories of our mothers who made the transition from home care into residential (nursing home) care. Our quantitative data reveal that the home care to residential care transition is the most common LTC trajectory for women with dementia who are most likely to be widowed and living alone in suburban areas. On entry into residential care, they exhibit greater frailty in terms of activities of daily living, cognition, aggression, and incontinence. Our personal narrative data on our mothers reveals that the relatively straightforward pathways through LTC for women with dementia, are often considerably more complex in a real-world context. Attention is drawn to the public and private services, hospitalization patterns, and substantial communication gaps experienced by our moms and families. A life-course perspective, and qualitative and quantitative data facilitate understanding the care journeys-health and service trajectories of older women with dementia. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Variable Renewable Energy in Long-Term Planning Models: A Multi-Model Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, Wesley [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Frew, Bethany [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mai, Trieu [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sun, Yinong [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bistline, John [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Knoxville, TN (United States); Blanford, Geoffrey [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Knoxville, TN (United States); Young, David [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Knoxville, TN (United States); Marcy, Cara [U.S. Energy Information Administration, Washington, DC (United States); Namovicz, Chris [U.S. Energy Information Administration, Washington, DC (United States); Edelman, Risa [US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Washington, DC (United States); Meroney, Bill [US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Washington, DC (United States); Sims, Ryan [US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Washington, DC (United States); Stenhouse, Jeb [US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Washington, DC (United States); Donohoo-Vallett, Paul [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States)

    2017-11-01

    Long-term capacity expansion models of the U.S. electricity sector have long been used to inform electric sector stakeholders and decision-makers. With the recent surge in variable renewable energy (VRE) generators — primarily wind and solar photovoltaics — the need to appropriately represent VRE generators in these long-term models has increased. VRE generators are especially difficult to represent for a variety of reasons, including their variability, uncertainty, and spatial diversity. This report summarizes the analyses and model experiments that were conducted as part of two workshops on modeling VRE for national-scale capacity expansion models. It discusses the various methods for treating VRE among four modeling teams from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The report reviews the findings from the two workshops and emphasizes the areas where there is still need for additional research and development on analysis tools to incorporate VRE into long-term planning and decision-making. This research is intended to inform the energy modeling community on the modeling of variable renewable resources, and is not intended to advocate for or against any particular energy technologies, resources, or policies.

  18. Pediatric Cancer Patients' Treatment-Related Distress and Longer-Term Anxiety: An Individual Differences Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trentacosta, Christopher J; Harper, Felicity W K; Albrecht, Terrance L; Taub, Jeffrey W; Phipps, Sean; Penner, Louis A

    Although distress during treatment procedures and longer-term treatment-related anxiety are among the most common cancer-related stressors for children and their families, they are not invariant. This study examined whether individual differences in temperament and personality play a role in how children respond to treatment procedures. Attention control, a facet of the effortful control dimension of temperament, and the personality attribute ego-resilience were hypothesized to predict lower levels of distress during procedures. Moreover, ego-resilience and distress during procedures were hypothesized to account for indirect associations between attention control and longer-term treatment-related anxiety. Child gender was examined as a potential moderator of these relationships. Participants were 147 children undergoing treatment for pediatric cancer and their parents. At baseline, parents reported on children's effortful control and ego-resilience. Multiple raters assessed children's distress during multiple cancer-related procedures. Treatment-related anxiety was measured 3 and 9 months after the last assessed treatment procedure. Attention control was linked to ego-resilience and lower levels of distress, and these variables, in turn, accounted for indirect associations between attention control and treatment-related anxiety. Associations involving ego-resilience were stronger for boys than girls. Attention control plays an important role in children's immediate and longer-term responses to cancer-related medical procedures. Medical staff should consider individual differences in child temperament and personality when considering the nature and extent of support to provide to pediatric cancer patients and their families.

  19. Variable Renewable Energy in Long-Term Planning Models: A Multi-Model Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, Wesley J. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Frew, Bethany A. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mai, Trieu T. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sun, Yinong [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bistline, John [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States); Blanford, Geoffrey [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States); Young, David [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States); Marcy, Cara [Energy Information Administration, Washington, DC (United States); Namovicz, Chris [Energy Information Administration, Washington, DC (United States); Edelman, Risa [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States); Meroney, Bill [Environmental Protection Agency; Sims, Ryan [Environmental Protection Agency; Stenhouse, Jeb [Environmental Protection Agency; Donohoo-Vallett, Paul [U.S. Department of Energy

    2017-11-03

    Long-term capacity expansion models of the U.S. electricity sector have long been used to inform electric sector stakeholders and decision makers. With the recent surge in variable renewable energy (VRE) generators - primarily wind and solar photovoltaics - the need to appropriately represent VRE generators in these long-term models has increased. VRE generators are especially difficult to represent for a variety of reasons, including their variability, uncertainty, and spatial diversity. To assess current best practices, share methods and data, and identify future research needs for VRE representation in capacity expansion models, four capacity expansion modeling teams from the Electric Power Research Institute, the U.S. Energy Information Administration, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory conducted two workshops of VRE modeling for national-scale capacity expansion models. The workshops covered a wide range of VRE topics, including transmission and VRE resource data, VRE capacity value, dispatch and operational modeling, distributed generation, and temporal and spatial resolution. The objectives of the workshops were both to better understand these topics and to improve the representation of VRE across the suite of models. Given these goals, each team incorporated model updates and performed additional analyses between the first and second workshops. This report summarizes the analyses and model 'experiments' that were conducted as part of these workshops as well as the various methods for treating VRE among the four modeling teams. The report also reviews the findings and learnings from the two workshops. We emphasize the areas where there is still need for additional research and development on analysis tools to incorporate VRE into long-term planning and decision-making.

  20. Organic wastes decomposition technology, perspective for long-term autonomous missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viacheslav, Ilyin; Korshunov, Denis; Mardanov, Robert; Starkova, Lyubov; Deshevaya, Elena; Smirnov, Igor

    mesophylic association was used. Prevalence of cultures for purification was depended on pH of culture liquors. Chemical content of gaseous phase of cul-ture liquors was also studied. As it comes from chromatomass spectrometry data there was tremendous decrease of organic admixtures in liquid products of biodegradation after purifi-cation by fungal and bacterial cultures. These cultures were capable to support sustainable growth, feeding by metabolites of bacteria, which perform primary biodegradation. Also there was evaluated prospective of application of biofuel cells in the process of biotransformation of different substrates. Application of electrogenic bacteria could be perspective approach in wastes biodegradation technology.

  1. An evaluation study of the determinants of future perspective and global Quality of Life in Spanish long-term premenopausal early-stage breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arraras, Juan Ignacio; Illarramendi, Jose Juan; Salgado, Esteban; de la Cruz, Susana; Asin, Gemma; Manterola, Ana; Ibañez, Berta; Zarandona, Uxue; Dominguez, Miguel Angel; Vera, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    Quality of life (QL) is important in premenopausal long-term breast cancer survivors. In this study we assessed QL and factors associated with future perspective and global QL in premenopausal early-stage long-term breast cancer survivors from Spain. 243 premenopausal stage I-IIIA relapse-free breast cancer patients who had received surgery 5-20 years previously completed EORTC QLQ-C30 and QLQ-BR23 questionnaires once during follow-up. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed. QL mean scores were high in most areas (> 80 in functioning; perspective were emotional and social functioning, fatigue, breast symptom, and body image. The main factors for global QL were fatigue, pain and physical functioning, and emotional and social functioning. The best logistic model to explain future perspective associated high emotional and social functioning and low breast symptoms with a lower risk of low future perspective (R(2) = 0.56). Higher scores in physical and emotional functioning and lower scores in fatigue were associated with a lower risk of low global QL (R(2) = 0.50). Psychological, social, and physical factors were found to be possible determinants of global QL and future perspective. QL in premenopausal early-stage long-term breast cancer survivors may benefit from multidisciplinary treatment.

  2. A long-term perspective on anthropogenic activities and management strategies in a prairie wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, J. M.; Hobbs, W.; LaFrancois, T.; Edlund, M.; Theissen, K. M.; Zimmer, K.; Hanson, M.

    2012-12-01

    Multiple stressors to shallow lake/wetland ecosystems have the ability to control the relative stability of alternative states (clear, macrophyte-dominated or turbid, algal dominated). As a consequence, the use of remedial biomanipulations to induce trophic cascades and shift a turbid lake to a clear state is often only a temporary solution. Here we show the instability of short-term manipulations in the shallow Lake Christina (a Class V wetland in the prairie ecoregion of western Minnesota, USA) is governed by the long-term state following a regime shift in the lake. During the modern, managed period of the lake, three top-down manipulations (fish kills) were undertaken inducing temporary (5-10 years) unstable clear-water states. Paleoecological remains of diatoms, along with proxies of primary production (total chlorophyll a and total organic carbon accumulation rate) and trophic state (total P) from sediment records clearly show a single regime shift in the lake during the early 1950s; following this shift, the functioning of the lake ecosystem is dominated by a persistent turbid state. We find that multiple stressors contributed to the regime shift. First, the lake began to eutrophy (from agricultural land use and/or increased waterfowl populations), leading to a dramatic increase in primary production. Soon after, the construction of a dam in 1936 effectively doubled the depth of the lake, compounded by increases in regional humidity; this resulted in an increase in planktivorous and benthivorous fish reducing phytoplankton grazers. These factors further conspired to increase the stability of a turbid regime during the modern managed period, such that switches to a clear-water state were inherently unstable and the lake consistently returned to a turbid state. We conclude that while top-down manipulations have had measurable impacts on the lake state, they have not been effective in providing a return to an ecosystem similar to the stable historical period

  3. Analysing long-term changes of everyday life in an environmental perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    2004-01-01

    time of 35 years. In spite of technologically induced reductions in the average environmental impact of each monetary unit spent on consumption, it is hard to keep up with the quantitative increase and, in particular, to cope with accumulated problems like the greenhouse effect and to make room...... for increasing consumption in developing countries. This problem of ever increasing quantities of consumption ought to be placed high on the sustainable development agenda, and it calls for research on the dynamics behind the growth to improve the possibilities for curbing it. A real challenge in relation...... to this issue is that the increases in consumption are imperceptible and that most people in the industrialized countries are preoccupied with managing their everyday lives and do not experience that they live in any kind of extreme luxury. Some years ago I wrote a paper dealing with this issue in general terms...

  4. Long-term perspectives on giant earthquakes and tsunamis at subduction zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satake, K.; Atwater, B.F.; ,

    2007-01-01

    Histories of earthquakes and tsunamis, inferred from geological evidence, aid in anticipating future catastrophes. This natural warning system now influences building codes and tsunami planning in the United States, Canada, and Japan, particularly where geology demonstrates the past occurrence of earthquakes and tsunamis larger than those known from written and instrumental records. Under favorable circumstances, paleoseismology can thus provide long-term advisories of unusually large tsunamis. The extraordinary Indian Ocean tsunami of 2004 resulted from a fault rupture more than 1000 km in length that included and dwarfed fault patches that had broken historically during lesser shocks. Such variation in rupture mode, known from written history at a few subduction zones, is also characteristic of earthquake histories inferred from geology on the Pacific Rim. Copyright ?? 2007 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

  5. Human impact on fish sensory systems in the long term: an evolutionary perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakon, Harold H

    2015-01-01

    Humans have severely impacted global ecosystems and this shows few signs of abating. Many aspects of an animal's biology, including its sensory systems, may be adversely influenced by pollutants and environmental noise. This review focuses on whether and/or how various environmental disturbances disrupt the sensory systems of fishes. As critical as it is to document and understand the current effects of the human footprint, it is also important to consider how organisms might adapt to these impacts over the long term. The present paper outlines the sources of genetic and genomic variation upon which natural selection can act and then reviews examples of known genetic contributions of variation in fish chemosensory, visual and acoustico-lateralis systems. © 2014 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  6. Two Centuries of State Involvement in the Dutch Agro sector: An Assessment of Policy in a Long-term Historical Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haas, de M.A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the development of Dutch government policies on the agro sector in a long-term historical perspective. Agro policies touch upon a wide range of matters, from export, competitiveness and employment to sustainability, animal welfare and food security, Unsurprisingly, they are a

  7. Home-Based Palliative Care for Children With Incurable Cancer: Long-term Perspectives of and Impact on General Practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Geest, Ivana M M; Bindels, Patrick J E; Pluijm, Saskia M F; Michiels, Erna M C; van der Heide, Agnes; Pieters, Rob; Darlington, Anne-Sophie E; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry M

    2017-03-01

    Although a large percentage of children with advanced-stage cancer die at home, remarkably little information is available regarding the experience of general practitioners (GPs) with respect to providing home-based palliative care to children with incurable cancer. The objective of this study was to explore the perspectives of GPs who care for children with advanced-stage cancer in a home-based setting. In this cross-sectional study, 144 GPs who provided home-based palliative care to 150 children with incurable cancer from 2001 through 2010 were invited to complete a questionnaire addressing their perspectives regarding: 1) symptom management, 2) collaboration with other health care professionals, 3) the child's death and care after death, and 4) impact of having provided palliative care, scored on distress thermometer (range 0-10). A total of 112 GPs (78%) responded, and 91 GPs completed the questionnaire for 93 patients. The median interval between the child's death and completing the questionnaire was seven years. The most prevalent symptoms reported in the patients were fatigue (67%) and pain (61%). Difficulties with communicating with (14%), coordinating with (11%), collaborating with (11%), and contacting (2%) fellow members of the multidisciplinary treatment team were rare. Hectic (7%) and shocking (5%) situations and panic (2%) around the child's death were rare. GPs reported feelings of sadness (61%) and/or powerlessness (43%) around the time of the patient's death, and they rated their own distress level as relatively high during the terminal phase (median score 6, range 0-9.5). The majority of GPs (94%) reported that they ultimately came to terms with the child's death. In general, GPs appear to be satisfied with the quality of home-based palliative care that they provide pediatric patients with incurable cancer. Communication among health care professionals is generally positive and is considered important. Finally, although the death of a pediatric

  8. Future Perspective and Long-Term Strategy of the Indian EO Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Mukund; Jayaraman, V.; Sridhara Murthi, K. R.; Kasturirangan, K.

    EO technology development will continue to have profound effects on spatial information activities, as we are seeing it today - the changing demand of GIS technology to understanding processes around us and its representation as maps. In the longer term, information needs will drive further RS and GIS technological developments - creating stringent demands for technology solutions for spatial data capture, integration and representation. The emergence of Spatial Business from the highly volatile and dynamic synergy of information, technology and access will see a truly Spatial Society. EO will have a major impact on day-to-day life of nations, communities and even an individual. It will become the One-stop source for information - spatial information at that - thus enabling not only development oriented activities but also Business GIS, quality research and Info-savvy communities. Internationally, there will be a mix of Government and Commercial satellites vying to provide information services to a wide variety of users. EO satellites are also becoming smaller, efficient and less costlier. Almost 5-6 commercial systems will orbit around the Earth in the foreseeable future to generate massive, seamless archives of high-resolution panchromatic and multispectral images - almost reducing the need for aerial surveys for photography and mapping. Reaching resolution of cm level and covering narrower and more spectral bands, the trend is to IMAGE the Earth in its entirety and organize Image Infrastructures. The race will be to imaginatively capture the market with the fullest archive of the globe and cater to any imaging demand of users. One will also see efficient satellite operations that will enable imaging any part of the globe with minimum turn-around time - reaching concepts of IMAGING ON DEMAND. The need of the hour is looking forward now towards how the EO technology can adapt itself to the changing scenario and the steps to be taken to sustain use of EO data it in

  9. Impact of growing costs on the profitability of crop production in Poland in the mid-term perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldona SKARŻYŃSKA

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Main aim of this paper was to demonstrate the impact of cultivation intensity on economic of selected activities of crop production in Poland. The projection of income of these activities in mid-term perspective, i.e. in 2016, has also been developed. Studies have shown that for cultivation technology of low intensity, as compared to high, the economic results of examined activities were more favourable. The profitability of production, expressed as a ratio of the value of production to economic costs, was higher by 10.0 to 52.7%. According to the projection results, in the highly intensive cultivation, high costs and dynamics of growth, stronger than growth of income, had a negative impact on the level of income. It is expected, even with an exceptionally high yield, income level will be lower than in the cultivation of low intensity. The results show that the use of technological progress can reduce a negative impact of chemicals on the environment while maintaining the high economic efficiency of production.

  10. [Cooperation and client perspective are the terms for success; reflection on the cost-effectiveness of psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos de Wael, N

    There is a growing interest in the cost-effectiveness of psychiatry in general. How do client organisations regard this growing interest? AIM: To discuss the cost-effectiveness of psychiatry in general seen from the perspective of the patient/civilian and his or her environment. METHOD: A critical appraisal of cost-effectiveness in psychiatry on the basis of a case-study and relevant developments in society. RESULTS: The increasing interest in the cost-effectiveness of psychiatry should be seen as a positive development, but we must be aware of the complexity of the factors involved and of the complications that are linked to this increased interest. One complication is that the societal benefits of psychiatry are being reduced to mere economic efficacy and another complication is that there is less concern about the benefits to the patient in terms of reduced psychiatric suffering and speedier recovery. Yet another problem is the increasing involvement of ethical issues. CONCLUSION: The cost-efficiency of psychiatry can never be assessed in isolation, i.e. as a separate issue; it depends totally on effective cooperation with the patient, his or her immediate environment and partners and fellow-citizens. The importance of the client needs to be recognised as the binding element and all efforts should be directed towards strengthening the bond between the patient/citizen and the persons in his or her immediate environment.

  11. Phenotypic responses of chickens to long-term, bidirectional selection for juvenile body weight--historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunnington, E A; Honaker, C F; McGilliard, M L; Siegel, P B

    2013-07-01

    A long-term selection experiment for high (HWS) and low (LWS) BW at 8 wk of age (BW8) was conducted in White Plymouth Rock chickens. Over 54 generations of selection, responses to bidirectional selection were profound. Increase in BW8 in line HWS was linear, and there was a significant quadratic response in line LWS for BW at both 4 and 8 wk of age. Although there is no indication that line HWS has come close to approaching a selection limit in more than 50 generations, selection limits occurred in line LWS chickens at generation 48 for females and generation 50 for males. Evidence also exists that one or more beneficial mutations have occurred in line HWS, aiding in progressive increases in BW8 over generations. Analyses of ratios of BW at 4 wk of age with those at 8 wk of age (ratio 4/8) revealed that LWS females grew proportionately faster through 4 wk of age than LWS males or HWS chickens. Comparisons of the selected lines with contemporary lines in which selection had been relaxed (discontinued) indicated that, in line HWS, the relaxed lines generally regressed toward original (preselection) values, suggesting that the linear response to single-trait selection was at least partially due to continued genetic variance. In LWS chickens, a series of plateaus in selection response occurred, but relaxed contemporary lines still regressed toward preselection values for BW8. In spite of the length of this selection experiment (54 generations), genetic variance and beneficial mutations have allowed continued, linear response to selection for increased BW8. Response to selection for decreased BW8 has been tempered by physiological barriers that have decreased survival of young chicks or the ability of females to reproduce. These findings are discussed in a historical perspective.

  12. Providing a children's palliative care service in the community through fixed-term grants: the staff perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beringer, A J; Eaton, N M; Jones, G L

    2007-09-01

    Children's palliative care services have recently been awarded fixed-term grants, aimed at improving the provision of care for children with life-limiting conditions in the community. We report findings of a qualitative study to investigate the experience of a cohort of community children's nurses from teams involved in setting up or extending community-based children's palliative care services. The purpose of the study was to identify factors that affect service delivery, from the staff perspective, and to suggest ways of promoting their sustainable development. Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with 21 nurses from 12 different teams providing palliative care for children at home and in hospices. Participants were questioned about the services they provided and their own roles in that provision. NVIVO qualitative data analysis software was used to explore themes arising from the transcribed recorded interviews. Key findings were the importance of physical location in facilitating multidisciplinary communication, the importance of defining role boundaries between existing and new providers of children's palliative care, and the potentially detrimental impact of insecure funding on referral patterns and recruitment to posts. Staff named the opportunity to offer direct 'hands-on' care to families, access to work-based support and networking opportunities as important factors in helping them cope with the stresses involved in managing finite resources and the emotional challenges of their work. The maintenance of a mixed caseload with a significant proportion of direct care, provision of ongoing support and clearly defined roles are recommended as means of bolstering the ability of staff to develop their services. The deliberate locating of services to enhance communication between staff and guidance on the preparation of funding applications may further contribute to the sustainability of these services.

  13. Circumferential fusion is dominant over posterolateral fusion in a long-term perspective: cost-utility evaluation of a randomized controlled trial in severe, chronic low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soegaard, Rikke; Bünger, Cody E; Christiansen, Terkel

    2007-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: Cost-utility evaluation of a randomized, controlled trial with a 4- to 8-year follow-up. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the incremental cost per quality-adjusted-life-year (QALY) when comparing circumferential fusion to posterolateral fusion in a long-term, societal perspective. SUMMARY...... OF BACKGROUND DATA: The cost-effectiveness of circumferential fusion in a long-term perspective is uncertain but nonetheless highly relevant as the ISSLS prize winner 2006 in clinical studies reported the effect of circumferential fusion superior to the effect of posterolateral fusion. A recent trial found...... no significant difference between posterolateral and circumferential fusion reporting cost-effectiveness from a 2-year viewpoint. METHODS: A total of 146 patients were randomized to posterolateral or circumferential fusion and followed 4 to 8 years after surgery. The mean age of the cohort was 46 years (range...

  14. Perspectives of older people living in long-term care facilities and of their family members toward advance care planning discussions: a systematic review and thematic synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Mignani V; Ingravallo F; Mariani E; Chattat R

    2017-01-01

    Veronica Mignani,1 Francesca Ingravallo,1 Elena Mariani,2 Rabih Chattat2 1Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, University of Bologna, Via Irnerio, Bologna, Italy; 2Department of Psychology, University of Bologna, Viale Berti Pichat, Bologna, Italy Objective: We aimed to search and synthesize qualitative studies exploring the perspectives of older people living in long-term care facilities and of their family members about advance care planning (ACP) discussions. Methods: The enhanci...

  15. A Comparative Analysis of the Department of Defense (DoD) Passive Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Policy and Perspective in Terms of Site Implementations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    boost from the ratification of EPC in 2003 which encouraged some of the biggest retailers in the world, namely Albertsons, Metro, Target, Tesco , Wal...transportation perspective, according to Trish Young, the Deputy Director, Strategy and Policy for USTRANSCOM: As the Department of Defense In...technology – better supply chain visibility and inventory management – will be realized only by devising a long-term strategy beyond compliance. What is

  16. A prospective study of short- and long-term cosmetic outcome after reduction mammaplasty from three different perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breiting, Line Bro; Henriksen, Trine Foged; Kalialis, Louise Vennegaard

    2012-01-01

    Numerous studies have examined the outcome of reduction mammaplasty. This study evaluates the cosmetic outcome after reduction mammaplasty from the perspective of the patient, a ward surgeon, and a private practitioner in plastic surgery, and analyzes which factors influence it.......Numerous studies have examined the outcome of reduction mammaplasty. This study evaluates the cosmetic outcome after reduction mammaplasty from the perspective of the patient, a ward surgeon, and a private practitioner in plastic surgery, and analyzes which factors influence it....

  17. Long-term perspectives of European energy policy - the Energy Roadmap 2050 of the European Union; Langfristperspektiven der europaeischen Energiepolitik. Die Energy Roadmap 2050 der Europaeischen Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthes, Felix C. [Oeko Institut e.V., Berlin (Germany)

    2012-01-15

    Aside from diverse event-related or short or medium-term oriented activities, for the European Union the year 2011 was marked by fundamental work on the long-term perspectives of European energy and climate policy. In the course of the year the European Commission published three so-called roadmaps, all oriented to the time horizon of 2050 and dedicated, amongst other goals, to identifying possible paths of development for the energy markets. This is the first time that a consistent, even if in some points debatable, analysis framework for long-term energy and climate policy in the context of the EU has been presented, and it certainly creates a new basis in qualitative terms.

  18. Family caregiver perspectives on social relations of elderly residents with dementia in small-scale versus traditional long-term care settings in the Netherlands and Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rooij, Alida H P M; Luijkx, Katrien G; Spruytte, Nele; Emmerink, Peggy M J; Schols, Jos M G A; Declercq, Anja G

    2012-11-01

    To provide insight into family caregiver perspectives on social relations within the 'caregiving triangle' between family caregiver, professional caregiver and elderly resident with dementia. Results were compared between traditional versus small-scale long-term care settings in the Netherlands and Belgium. Residential dementia care is shifting towards a more holistic and person-centred approach. Until now, little is known about family caregiver perspectives. A quasi-experimental longitudinal design. This study was part of a larger research project focusing on the quality of life of residents with dementia in traditional and small-scale settings (n = 179). This study focused on family caregivers related to these residents (n = 64). They filled in a questionnaire containing 25 items (baseline and after 12 months) related to their perspectives on the interaction within the 'caregiving triangle'. Analyses were performed using mixed models and logistic regression. Compared to traditional settings, family caregivers of relatives with dementia living in small-scale settings had more contact with the professional caregivers, were more satisfied with this contact and felt that staff paid more attention to their feelings as family members. They also reported that staff showed better listening skills towards the residents. Furthermore, compared to those in Belgium, family caregivers in the Netherlands perceived staff to be less hurried and more accepting of help from family and felt that staff more often takes the resident seriously. In the move towards more person-centred care for residents with dementia, this study finds preliminary evidence for the importance of integrating the family perspective. Gaining more insight into the perspectives of family caregivers on the social relations within the 'caregiving triangle' may provide knowledge about the importance of the social system surrounding elderly residents with dementia and can provide pointers for future research.

  19. Long-Term Sustainability from the Perspective of Cullet Recycling in the Container Glass Industry: Evidence from Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Mario Testa; Ornella Malandrino; Maria Rosaria Sessa; Stefania Supino; Daniela Sica

    2017-01-01

    Glass manufacturing is a high-volume process, during which large substance quantities are transformed into commercial products, and significant amounts of non-renewable resources and energy (i.e., thermal fuels and electrical power) are consumed. The main purpose of this study is to give a critical explanation of the performance of the Italian container glass industry from the perspective of cullet being recycled, to outline the opportunities for transition towards circular business models th...

  20. [Needs and quality of counseling in long-term care : User perspective on counseling services in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englert, N; Oetting-Roß, C; Büscher, A

    2017-01-13

    A wide range of counseling services with a variety of counseling purposes have been established in Germany to support care recipients and their relatives; however, there is a lack of quality criteria that are based on the counseling needs from the user's perspective. To summarize empirical knowledge on counseling needs and quality of counseling services from the user perspective and identification of counseling-specific understanding of users. A literature search was conducted in the databases CareLit®, LIVIVO and SpringerLink with additional online research via Google and MetaGer. Analysis of the literature and discussion on the state of research. A trustful relationship between counselor and user as well as the orientation to the user's individual situation are key elements of counseling that have been found helpful; however, a differentiated view of the diverse user groups and counseling purposes is lacking. In order to include the user's perspective in conceptual approaches for counseling and to define user-generated quality criteria, further scientific research is needed regarding the counseling needs of different user groups. Consideration must be given to particular care situations that involve various counseling purposes. Particularly vulnerable groups need special support in working out their counseling needs.

  1. Do study circles and a nutritional care policy improve nutritional care in a short- and long-term perspective in special accommodations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Westergren

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Disease-related malnutrition is a major health problem in the elderly population and management issues are under-explored. Objectives: What is the prevalence of undernutrition-risk (UN-risk, underweight, and overweight in special accommodations (SAs? Do study circles and a nutritional care policy (NCP improve the precision in nutritional care (NC and decrease the prevalence of under- and overweight in a short- and/or long-term perspective?Design: Quasi-experimental pre- and post-intervention design with three experimental groups and one control group (CG. Setting: SAs. Participants: In 2005 (Time 1 – T1, 1726 (90.4% residents agreed to participate; in 2007 (Time 2 – T2, 1,526 (81.8%; and in 2009 (Time 3 – T3, 1,459 (81.3% residents participated. Interventions: Experimental groups: between T1 and T2 the first period of study circles was conducted in one municipality; between T2 and T3 a second period of study circles in another municipality was conducted; after T1 a NCP was implemented in one municipality. CG: residents in three municipalities. Measurements: Under- and overweight were defined based on BMI. Risk of undernutrition was defined as involving any of: involuntary weight loss, low BMI, and/or eating difficulties. The ‘precision in NC’ describes the relationship between nutritional treatment (protein- and energy-enriched food (PE-food and/or oral supplements and UN-risk. Results: The prevalence of UN-risk varied between 64 and 66%, underweight between 25 and 30%, and overweight between 30 and 33% in T1–T3. At T2 the prevalence of underweight was significantly lower in the first period study circle municipality, and at T3 in the second period study circle municipality compared to in the CG. The precision in NC was higher in a short-term perspective in the study circle municipalities and both in a short- and long-term perspective in the NCP municipality. At T3 between 54 and 70% of residents at UN-risk did not

  2. EDITORIAL: Perspectives Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewhurst, Richard

    2011-05-01

    In this issue, we are delighted to publish the second in a series of articles under the banner of Perspectives. The series commenced in late 2008, when Udo Kaatze [1] published an article about the powerful technique of dielectric spectrometry for liquid measurements. In addition to examining the very wide frequency range from 10-6 Hz to 10-13 Hz, an outline of possible future developments was presented. Some challenging tasks for the future were briefly outlined. The format of the article was different to the usual style of a contributed paper or review article. Instead, it represented a short summary of recent work in the field and offered a viewpoint of an expert in the area. Its commentary noted several milestones that had been recently achieved, and then looked to the future. The Perspective format allowed the author to provide some opinion about the challenges of the future not normally permitted in a Topical Review. The journal now intends to publish several more Perspectives. For example, in this issue David Birch [2] presents a Perspective about another important measurement science, namely fluorescence detections and their future directions. These are based on an old technique which provided the basis for detecting the presence of molecular species. Successful research led to an understanding and description of the phenomenon of molecular fluorescence in terms of excited state energies, transitions, symmetries and rate parameters. More recently, using fluorescence as a probe, and with the exploitation of new technologies, new applications have included the study of protein, vision, photosynthesis, membranes and DNA. Indeed nowhere has fluorescence had more impact than in the biosciences. Once again, the intention of the Perspective article has been to highlight recent milestones within the field. Importantly, it also indicates some of the future challenges. Such Perspectives are an occasional series. They are not intended to deflect from the balance of

  3. The ability to pay for long-term care in the Netherlands : A life-cycle perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hussem, Arjen; van Ewijk, Casper; ter Rele, Harry; Wong, Albert

    This paper uses synthetic life-cycle paths at the individual level to analyze the distribution of long-term care expenditures in the Netherlands. Using a comprehensive set of administrative data 20,000 synthetic life-cycle paths of household income and long-term care costs are constructed using the

  4. Multiple perspectives on quality of life for residents with dementia in long term care facilities: protocol for a comprehensive Australian study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beattie, Elizabeth; O'Reilly, Maria; Moyle, Wendy; Chenoweth, Lynn; Fetherstonhaugh, Deirdre; Horner, Barbara; Robinson, Andrew; Fielding, Elaine

    2015-10-01

    Dementia is a chronic illness without cure or effective treatment, which results in declining mental and physical function and assistance from others to manage activities of daily living. Many people with dementia live in long term care facilities, yet research into their quality of life (QoL) was rare until the last decade. Previous studies failed to incorporate important variables related to the facility and care provision or to look closely at the daily lives of residents. This paper presents a protocol for a comprehensive, multi-perspective assessment of QoL of residents with dementia living in long term care in Australia. A secondary aim is investigating the effectiveness of self-report instruments for measuring QoL. The study utilizes a descriptive, mixed methods design to examine how facility, care staff, and resident factors impact QoL. Over 500 residents with dementia from a stratified, random sample of 53 facilities are being recruited. A sub-sample of 12 residents is also taking part in qualitative interviews and observations. This national study will provide a broad understanding of factors underlying QoL for residents with dementia in long term care. The present study uses a similar methodology to the US-based Collaborative Studies of Long Term Care (CS-LTC) Dementia Care Study, applying it to the Australian setting.

  5. Cognitive sequelae of methanol poisoning involve executive dysfunction and memory impairment in cross-sectional and long-term perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezdicek, O; Michalec, J; Vaneckova, M; Klempir, J; Liskova, I; Seidl, Z; Janikova, B; Miovsky, M; Hubacek, J; Diblik, P; Kuthan, P; Pilin, A; Kurcova, I; Fenclova, Z; Petrik, V; Navratil, T; Pelclova, D; Zakharov, S; Ruzicka, E

    2017-03-01

    Methanol poisoning leads to lesions in the basal ganglia and subcortical white matter, as well as to demyelination and atrophy of the optic nerve. However, information regarding cognitive deficits in a large methanol sample is lacking. The principal aim of the present study was to identify the cognitive sequelae of methanol poisoning and their morphological correlates. A sample of 50 patients (METH; age 48 ± 13 years), 3-8 months after methanol poisoning, and 57 control subjects (CS; age 49 ± 13 years) were administered a neuropsychological battery. Forty-six patients were followed in 2 years' perspective. Patients additionally underwent 1.5T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Three biochemical and toxicological metabolic markers and a questionnaire regarding alcohol abuse facilitated the classification of 24 patients with methanol poisoning without alcohol abuse (METHna) and 22 patients with methanol poisoning and alcohol abuse (METHa). All groups were compared to a control group of similar size, and matched for age, education, premorbid intelligence level, global cognitive performance, and level of depressive symptoms. Using hierarchical multiple regression we found significant differences between METH and CS, especially in executive and memory domains. METHa showed a similar pattern of cognitive impairment with generally more severe executive dysfunction. Moreover, all METH patients with extensive involvement on brain MRI (lesions in ≥2 anatomical regions) had a more severe cognitive impairment. From a longitudinal perspective, we did not find any changes in their cognitive functioning after 2 years' follow-up. Our findings suggest that methanol poisoning is associated with executive dysfunction and explicit memory impairment, supposedly due to basal ganglia dysfunction and disruption of frontostriatal circuitry proportional to the number of brain lesions, and that these changes are persistent after 2 years' follow-up. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All

  6. Identifying sources of strength: resilience from the perspective of older people receiving long-term community care.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.M Janssen; Prof.dr. Tine van Van Regenmortel; T.A. Abma

    2011-01-01

    This study seeks to explore the sources of strength giving rice to resilience among older people. Twenty-nine in-depth interviews were conducted with older people who receive long-term community care. The interviews were subjected to a thematic content analysis. The findings suggest that the main

  7. Subject-Verb Agreement and Verbal Short-Term Memory: A Perspective from Greek Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalioti, Marina; Stavrakaki, Stavroula; Manouilidou, Christina; Talli, Ioanna

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the performance of school age Greek-speaking children with SLI on verbal short-term memory (VSTM) and Subject-Verb (S-V) agreement in comparison to chronological age controls and younger typically developing children. VSTM abilities were assessed by means of a non-word repetition task (NRT) and an elicited production task,…

  8. The Long-Term Effects of Parental Divorce on the Mental Health of Young Adults: A Developmental Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase-Lansdale, P. Lindsay; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examined effects on young adults (23 years) of parental divorce during childhood and adolescence using data from Britain's longitudinal National Child Development study. Found that divorce had a moderate, long-term negative impact on young adults' mental health; the relative risk of serious emotional disorders increased in the aftermath of…

  9. Perspectives of the use of experience of preparation of reserve in cyclic disciplines in the system of the long-term training in team games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksimenko I.G.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of work to define approaches to the construction of long-term preparation of reserve in cyclic disciplines. Also to ground perspective directions of their use in a training process in the playing types of sport. Questioning, conversations and questionnaires of leading specialists (17 trainers and sportsmen is conducted (80 athletes. It is marked that one of lacks of the traditional system of preparation of sportsmen is the insufficient providing of training process information technologies. It is set that in the cyclic types of sport the sharp is enough there is a problem of planning of loadings in macrocycle of training of young sportsmen. It is rotined that to the features of construction of training process in cyclic kinds it is necessary to take application of individual approach. The possible ways of decision of problem of optimization of long-term training of reserve are presented in sporting games. Attention is accented on the necessity of realization in practice of theoretical positions which are related to all of the stages of the long-term training.

  10. Perspectives of older people living in long-term care facilities and of their family members toward advance care planning discussions: a systematic review and thematic synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignani, Veronica; Ingravallo, Francesca; Mariani, Elena; Chattat, Rabih

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to search and synthesize qualitative studies exploring the perspectives of older people living in long-term care facilities and of their family members about advance care planning (ACP) discussions. The enhancing transparency in reporting the synthesis of qualitative research (ENTREQ) framework was used to guide the review and report its results. PubMed, CINAHL, and PsycINFO were searched for studies published between January 2000 and November 2015. All included studies were assessed for comprehensiveness of reporting, and a thematic synthesis of their results was performed. The nine included studies differed in terms of qualitative method used, comprehensiveness of reporting, and geographical origin. The thematic synthesis led to the identification of four main themes: 1) plans already made; 2) end-of-life care and decision-making; 3) opinions and attitudes toward ACP; and 4) how, when, about what, and with whom to do ACP. Despite their willingness to be involved in a shared decision-making process, older residents and their families still have little experience with ACP. In view of implementing ACP for elders living in long-term care facilities, it would be important to rethink ACP and also to incorporate their nonmedical preferences, according to their own priorities.

  11. Patient and provider perspectives on improving the linkage of HIV-positive pregnant women to long-term HIV care and treatment in eastern Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Haneefa; Kyeyagalire, Robert; Lunsford, Sarah Smith

    2014-01-01

    Despite strong evidence that antiretroviral therapy (ART) reduces the risk of mother-to-child transmission of HIV and improves the health of HIV-positive mothers, many HIV-positive pregnant women do not enrol into long-term HIV care and treatment. This study examined barriers and facilitators to the linkage of HIV-positive pregnant women from antenatal care (ANC) to long-term HIV care from patient and provider perspectives, following the implementation of a collaborative quality improvement project in Eastern Uganda. It also solicited recommendations for improving linkages to HIV care. Structured interviews were conducted with 11 health providers and 48 HIV-positive mothers enrolled in HIV care. Facilitators to linking HIV-positive pregnant women to long-term HIV care identified included support from expert clients, escorted referrals, same-day HIV care registration, and coordination between ANC and HIV services. Barriers reported included shortages in HIV testing kits and fear of social, physical and medical consequences. Participants recommended integration of ANC and HIV services, reduction in waiting times, HIV counselling by expert clients, and community-based approaches for improving linkages to HIV care. Linking HIV-positive pregnant women to HIV care can be improved through deliberate implementation of quality improvement interventions in facilities to address barriers to access and provide stronger support and community mobilisation.

  12. Opportunities Matter: Exploring Youth’s Perspectives on Their Long-Term Participation in an Urban 4-H Youth Development Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa M. Ferrari

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This article highlights a study which explored youths’ perspectives on their long-term involvement at Adventure Central, a comprehensive 4-H youth development program based at an urban park facility. We conducted four focus groups with 16 youth between the ages of 12 and 16 who had participated in the program between three and seven years. The youth experienced a wide range of opportunities including nature-related activities, jobs at park facilities, and travel. They spoke positively of their experiences and described how they benefited from their participation. Novelty, challenge, and leadership were key features of these opportunities. The youth noted the connection between learning and fun. In the process, they learned new skills, such as teamwork and public speaking, and developed personal qualities, such as responsibility, that helped them as they were growing up, transferred to other settings, and would benefit them in the future. Findings from this study suggest some clear implications for youth development professionals.

  13. Long-Term Sustainability from the Perspective of Cullet Recycling in the Container Glass Industry: Evidence from Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Testa

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Glass manufacturing is a high-volume process, during which large substance quantities are transformed into commercial products, and significant amounts of non-renewable resources and energy (i.e., thermal fuels and electrical power are consumed. The main purpose of this study is to give a critical explanation of the performance of the Italian container glass industry from the perspective of cullet being recycled, to outline the opportunities for transition towards circular business models that stimulate innovation in new sectors based on reverse-cycle activities for recycling. In 2015, disparate performances have been achieved as regards the container glass recycling rate in northern, central, and southern Italy, accounting for around 73%, 64%, and 55%, respectively. In fact, only northern Italy is in line with European targets, as by 2025 it will only need to increase its current performance by two percentage points, unlike central and southern Italy that will have to increase performance by, respectively, 11% and 20%. This shows a need to improve the efficiency of municipal waste collection systems in central and southern Italy, where undifferentiated waste still holds appreciable amounts of glass. Consequently, we propose several improvement channels, from the revision of waste legislation to the re-engineering of waste management supply chains.

  14. A coupled human-Earth model perspective on long-term trends in the global marine fishery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, E. D.; Carozza, D. A.; Bianchi, D.

    2017-01-01

    The global wild marine fish harvest increased fourfold between 1950 and a peak value near the end of the 20th century, reflecting interactions between anthropogenic and ecological forces. Here, we examine these interactions in a bio-energetically constrained, spatially and temporally resolved model of global fisheries. We conduct historical hindcasts with the model, which suggest that technological progress can explain most of the 20th century increase of fish harvest. In contrast, projections extending this rate of technological progress into the future under open access suggest a long-term decrease in harvest due to over-fishing. Climate change is predicted to gradually decrease the global fish production capacity, though our model suggests that this is of secondary importance to social and economic factors. Our study represents a novel way to integrate human-ecological interactions within a single model framework for long-term simulations. PMID:28345669

  15. A coupled human-Earth model perspective on long-term trends in the global marine fishery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, E. D.; Carozza, D. A.; Bianchi, D.

    2017-03-01

    The global wild marine fish harvest increased fourfold between 1950 and a peak value near the end of the 20th century, reflecting interactions between anthropogenic and ecological forces. Here, we examine these interactions in a bio-energetically constrained, spatially and temporally resolved model of global fisheries. We conduct historical hindcasts with the model, which suggest that technological progress can explain most of the 20th century increase of fish harvest. In contrast, projections extending this rate of technological progress into the future under open access suggest a long-term decrease in harvest due to over-fishing. Climate change is predicted to gradually decrease the global fish production capacity, though our model suggests that this is of secondary importance to social and economic factors. Our study represents a novel way to integrate human-ecological interactions within a single model framework for long-term simulations.

  16. Practitioner perspectives on strategies to promote longer-term benefits of acupuncture or counselling for depression: a qualitative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh MacPherson

    Full Text Available Non-pharmacological interventions for depression may help patients manage their condition. Evidence from a recent large-scale trial (ACUDep suggests that acupuncture and counselling can provide longer-term benefits for many patients with depression. This paper describes the strategies practitioners reported using to promote longer-term benefits for their patients.A qualitative sub-study of practitioners (acupuncturists and counsellors embedded in a randomised controlled trial. Using topic guides, data was collected from telephone interviews and a focus group, altogether involving 19 counsellors and 17 acupuncturists. Data were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using thematic content analysis.For longer-term impact, both acupuncturists and counsellors encouraged insight into root causes of depression on an individual basis and saw small incremental changes as precursors to sustained benefit. Acupuncturists stressed the importance of addressing concurrent physical symptoms, for example helping patients relax or sleep better in order to be more receptive to change, and highlighted the importance of Chinese medicine theory-based lifestyle change for lasting benefit. Counsellors more often highlighted the importance of the therapeutic relationship, emphasising the need for careful "pacing" such that the process and tools employed were tailored and timed for each individual, depending on the "readiness" to change. Our data is limited to acupuncture practitioners using the principles of traditional Chinese medicine, and counsellors using a humanistic, non-directive and person-centred approach.Long-term change appears to be an important focus within the practices of both acupuncturists and counsellors. To achieve this, practitioners stressed the need for an individualised approach with a focus on root causes.

  17. Practitioner perspectives on strategies to promote longer-term benefits of acupuncture or counselling for depression: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPherson, Hugh; Newbronner, Liz; Chamberlain, Ruth; Richmond, Stewart J; Lansdown, Harriet; Perren, Sara; Hopton, Ann; Spilsbury, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Non-pharmacological interventions for depression may help patients manage their condition. Evidence from a recent large-scale trial (ACUDep) suggests that acupuncture and counselling can provide longer-term benefits for many patients with depression. This paper describes the strategies practitioners reported using to promote longer-term benefits for their patients. A qualitative sub-study of practitioners (acupuncturists and counsellors) embedded in a randomised controlled trial. Using topic guides, data was collected from telephone interviews and a focus group, altogether involving 19 counsellors and 17 acupuncturists. Data were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using thematic content analysis. For longer-term impact, both acupuncturists and counsellors encouraged insight into root causes of depression on an individual basis and saw small incremental changes as precursors to sustained benefit. Acupuncturists stressed the importance of addressing concurrent physical symptoms, for example helping patients relax or sleep better in order to be more receptive to change, and highlighted the importance of Chinese medicine theory-based lifestyle change for lasting benefit. Counsellors more often highlighted the importance of the therapeutic relationship, emphasising the need for careful "pacing" such that the process and tools employed were tailored and timed for each individual, depending on the "readiness" to change. Our data is limited to acupuncture practitioners using the principles of traditional Chinese medicine, and counsellors using a humanistic, non-directive and person-centred approach. Long-term change appears to be an important focus within the practices of both acupuncturists and counsellors. To achieve this, practitioners stressed the need for an individualised approach with a focus on root causes.

  18. An organizational perspective on the long-term sustainability of a nursing best practice guidelines program: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleiszer, Andrea R; Semenic, Sonia E; Ritchie, Judith A; Richer, Marie-Claire; Denis, Jean-Louis

    2015-12-03

    Many healthcare innovations are not sustained over the long term, wasting costly implementation efforts and often desperately-needed initial improvements. Although there have been advances in knowledge about innovation implementation, there has been considerably less attention focused on understanding what happens following the early stages of change. Research is needed to determine how to improve the 'staying power' of healthcare innovations. As almost no empirical knowledge exists about innovation sustainability in nursing, the purpose of our study was to understand how a nursing best practice guidelines (BPG) program was sustained over a long-term period in an acute healthcare centre. We conducted a qualitative descriptive case study to examine the program's sustainability at the nursing department level of the organization. The organization was a large, urban, multi-site acute care centre in Canada. The patient safety-oriented BPG program, initiated in 2004, consisted of an organization-wide implementation of three BPGs: falls prevention, pressure ulcer prevention, and pain management. Data were collected eight years following program initiation through 14 key informant interviews, document reviews, and observations. We developed a framework for the sustainability of healthcare innovations to guide data collection and content analysis. Program sustainability entailed a combination of three essential characteristics: benefits, institutionalization, and development. A constellation of 11 factors most influenced the long-term sustainability of the program. These factors were innovation-, context-, leadership-, and process-related. Three key interactions between factors influencing program sustainability and characteristics of program sustainability accounted for how the program had been sustained. These interactions were between: leadership commitment and benefits; complementarity of leadership actions and both institutionalization and development; and a

  19. Ischemic long-term-potentiation (iLTP): perspectives to set the threshold of neural plasticity toward therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, Maximilian; Vlachos, Andreas; Maggio, Nicola

    2015-10-01

    The precise role of neural plasticity under pathological conditions remains not well understood. It appears to be well accepted, however, that changes in the ability of neurons to express plasticity accompany neurological diseases. Here, we discuss recent experimental evidence, which suggests that synaptic plasticity induced by a pathological stimulus, i.e., ischemic long-term-potentiation (iLTP) of excitatory synapses, could play an important role for post-stroke recovery by influencing the post-lesional reorganization of surviving neuronal networks.

  20. Negotiated risk and resident autonomy: Frontline care staff perspectives on culture change in long term care in Nova Scotia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Emily

    2016-08-12

    Regulating risk, freedom of action, and autonomy in decision making are problems shared by both caregivers and residents in long term care settings, and may become the subject of tension and constant negotiation. This study focuses on long term care staff and management perceptions of day to day life in a care community which has gone through a culture change transition, where small residentially scaled households replace large instutional models of care. In each household, the setting is considered to be home for the 8-12 residents, creating a major shift of roles for the caregivers; they are, in essence, coming into a home rather than institutional environment as a place of work. This potentially changes the dynamics of both patterns of work for caregivers and patterns of daily living for residents. Participant observations and care staff interviews. Several key themes emrged which include: teamwork; the culture of care; regulating risk; the physical environment and care staff empowerment. An unexpected outcome was the consensus among care staff that it is they who feel at home while working in the care households, leading to empowerment in their work roles and a deeper understanding of the importance of their role in the lives of the residents.

  1. Barriers and enablers to returning to work from long-term sickness absence: Part I-A quantitative perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Board, Belinda J; Brown, Jennifer

    2011-04-01

    Long-term sickness absence (LTSA) in the United Kingdom labor market has become a major health issue in recent years. In contrast to short-term sickness absence, rates for LTSA have been on the increase. This paper, part 1 of a two-part paper, identifies individual domain barriers to returning to work (RTW) from LTSA across the work disability timeline in the UK labor market. This is a retrospective cohort study of 6,246 workers from an occupationally diverse Police Force within the UK using a large administrative database. A series of chi-squared analyses were conducted to analyze the between and within group associations. Next, multiple logistic regression analyses using the Enter method were performed to develop a predictive model for RTW and Absence Phase. Findings substantiated the presence of individual domain barriers to RTW and predictors of RTW outcome and established the absence phase specificity of a number of risk factors of prolonged work disability. In particular, injury/illness especially mental ill health (MIH), physical job demands, sex, and number of episodes of LTSA are significant individual domain barriers to RTW and represent important risk factors for prolonged work disability. Duration of work disability is associated with medical diagnosis, especially MIH, physical job demands, sex, and number of LTSA episodes. Findings also support the importance of using the outcome measure of absence phase of risk factors in addition to RTW outcome. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Evolutionist approach of upstream activities competitiveness of the petroleum industry in a long term perspective; Approche evolutionniste de la competitivite des activites amont de la filiere petroliere dans une perspective de long terme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dos Santos, E.M.

    1997-01-24

    The purpose of this work is to analyze the concept of competitiveness of companies and nations in the upstream sector of the international oil industry, trying to identify the possibilities of future development of this sector as well as the interactions that may exist between different actors such as governments, consumers and oil companies to boost or re-launch the competitive position of their enterprises and countries in the international context of the industry. In order to attain that, we analyze the developments of the most important economic attributes that characterize the oil activity as well as its most crucial political aspects. We develop a model of `oil competition` and a definition of `oil competitiveness` that take clearly into consideration both the differences between various oil actors and the dynamic aspects linked to the evolution of the oil industry. We do so by constructing an evolutionist model of competition and competitiveness. This approach emulates a `biological process` where firms and the economic environment interact with each other within a process similar to `natural selection` with the survival of the fittest. This evolutionist model adopts some analytical instruments established by Michael Porter, from the University of Harvard, to interpret the changes and the dissimilarities of behavior of various oil actors as well as to explain their respective role in the new oil world that is being organized. Thus, we introduce the notions of `dominant form of competition` and `generic strategy of enterprises`. Then, we use our methodology to analyze the past of the oil industry (the stability and the instability). We conclude this work by discussing about the future evolution of the oil activities in the context of a new long term cycle of investment for the sector. (author).

  3. Short- and long-term effects of fraternity and sorority membership on heavy drinking: a social norms perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sher, K J; Bartholow, B D; Nanda, S

    2001-03-01

    This study sought to determine whether the well-established relation between fraternity/sorority (Greek) membership and heavy alcohol use persists beyond the college years and whether some common third variables might account for the relation between Greek status and heavy drinking. During each of 4 years of college and 1 additional year, young adults (N = 319) completed measures of alcohol use, personality, alcohol expectancies, and environmental influences on drinking. Throughout the college years, Greeks consistently drank more heavily than non-Greeks. Statistically controlling for previous alcohol use did not eliminate this effect. However, Greek status did not predict postcollege heavy drinking levels. Also, perceived peer norms for heavy drinking mediated the relation between Greek affiliation and heavy alcohol use. Results are discussed in terms of situational determinants of heavy alcohol involvement in young adults.

  4. Characterizing the therapeutic response to deep brain stimulation for treatment resistant depression: a single center long-term perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea L Crowell

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The number of depressed patients treated with deep brain stimulation is relatively small. However, experience with this intervention now spans more than 10 years at some centers, with study subjects typically monitored closely. Here we describe one center’s evolving impressions regarding optimal patient selection for deep brain stimulation of the subcallosal cingulate as well as observations of short- and long-term patterns in antidepressant response and mood reactivity. A consistent time course of therapeutic response with distinct behavioral phases is observed. Early phases are characterized by changes in mood reactivity and a transient and predictable worsening in self ratings prior to stabilization of response. It is hypothesized that this characteristic recovery curve reflects the timeline of neuroplasticity in response to DBS. Further investigation of these emerging predictable psychiatric, biological, and psychosocial patterns will both improve treatment optimization and enhance understanding and recognition of meaningful DBS antidepressant effects.

  5. GENDER BIAS AND CHILD LABOR: SPAIN, LATIN AMERICA AND DEVELOPING COUNTRIES FROM A LONG-TERM COMPARATIVE PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enriqueta Camps-Cura

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, several historical scenarios are compared, each very different to the each other in both institutional and geographical terms. What they have in common is the relative poverty of part of the population. This approach allows combining micro historical analysis (in the Catalan case with a macro comparative approach in developing countries. Through these micro historical and macro regression analyses we obtain the result that adult women’s skills and real wages are a key factor when we wish to explain the patterns of child labor. While female real wages increased sharply in 19th century Catalonia, we obtain very different results in the case of developing countries. This gender bias is identified as one of the very significant effects of human capital which held by women and helps to explain why in some cases children continue to work and also why some parts of the world continue to be poor according to our regression analysis.

  6. Future electricity generation: An economic and environmental life cycle perspective on near-, mid- and long-term technology options and policy implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergerson, Joule Andrea

    This thesis evaluates the cost and environmental tradeoffs of current and future electricity generation options from a life cycle perspective. Policy and technology options are considered for each critical time horizon (near-, mid-, and long-term). The framework developed for this analysis is a hybrid life cycle analysis which integrates several models and frameworks including process and input-output life cycle analysis, an integrated environmental control model, social costing, forecasting and future energy scenario analysis. The near-term analysis shows that several recent LCA studies of electricity options have contributed to our understanding of the technologies available and their relative environmental impacts. Several promising options could satisfy our electricity demands. Other options remain unproven or too costly to encourage investment in the near term but show promise for future use (e.g. photovoltaic, fuel cells). Public concerns could impede the use of some desirable technologies (e.g. hydro, nuclear). Finally, less tangible issues such as intermittency of some renewable technologies, social equity and visual and land use impacts, while difficult to quantify, must be considered in the investment decision process. In the mid-term analysis, this thesis explores alternative methods for transport of coal energy. A hybrid life cycle analysis is critical for evaluating the cost, efficiency and environmental tradeoffs of the entire system. If a small amount of additional coal is to be shipped, current rail infrastructure should be used where possible. If entirely new infrastructure is required, the mine mouth generation options are cheaper but have increased environmental impact due to the increased generation required to compensate for transmission line losses. Gasifying the coal to produce methane also shows promise in terms of lowering environmental emissions. The long-term analysis focuses on the implications of a high coal use future. This scenario

  7. Perspectives of older people living in long-term care facilities and of their family members toward advance care planning discussions: a systematic review and thematic synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mignani V

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Veronica Mignani,1 Francesca Ingravallo,1 Elena Mariani,2 Rabih Chattat2 1Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, University of Bologna, Via Irnerio, Bologna, Italy; 2Department of Psychology, University of Bologna, Viale Berti Pichat, Bologna, Italy Objective: We aimed to search and synthesize qualitative studies exploring the perspectives of older people living in long-term care facilities and of their family members about advance care planning (ACP discussions. Methods: The enhancing transparency in reporting the synthesis of qualitative research (ENTREQ framework was used to guide the review and report its results. PubMed, CINAHL, and PsycINFO were searched for studies published between January 2000 and November 2015. All included studies were assessed for comprehensiveness of reporting, and a thematic synthesis of their results was performed. Results: The nine included studies differed in terms of qualitative method used, comprehensiveness of reporting, and geographical origin. The thematic synthesis led to the identification of four main themes: 1 plans already made; 2 end-of-life care and decision-making; 3 opinions and attitudes toward ACP; and 4 how, when, about what, and with whom to do ACP. Conclusion: Despite their willingness to be involved in a shared decision-making process, older residents and their families still have little experience with ACP. Practical implications: In view of implementing ACP for elders living in long-term care facilities, it would be important to rethink ACP and also to incorporate their nonmedical preferences, according to their own priorities. Keywords: advance care planning, frail elderly, caregivers, residential facilities, qualitative research

  8. Long-term perspectives of technical and social development in Germany. Visions for research and technology policy; Langfristige Perspektiven technischer und gesellschaftlicher Entwicklung in Deutschland. Visionen fuer die Forschungs- und Technologiepolitik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baron, W.; Zweck, A.

    1995-12-01

    This publication contains six contributions discussing the medium- and long-term perspectives of technical, social and economic development in Germany. (UA) [Deutsch] Die vorliegende Publikation enthaelt 6 Vortraege, die sich mit mittel- und langfristigen Perspektiven der technischen, sozialen und wirtschaftlichen Entwicklung in Deutschland befassen. (UA)

  9. [Review and perspective of a long-term follow-up of two cohorts of workers heavily exposed to asbestos].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamoux, Alain

    2015-01-01

    National screening programs for detection of breast, colon and cervical cancers have been set up in France. Occupational cancers are excluded from these programs. Surveillance is left to the initiative of former employees who can initiate post-professional medical monitoring. This study describes an experience of such monitoring organised by the health insurance in collaboration with "victims". The long term follow-up, every two years, of 324 workers directly and heavily exposed to asbestos confirms the high risk of developing lung cancer, mesothelioma or asbestosis, the latter at times rapidly evolving. The early discovery of 3 bronchopulmonary cancers points to the interest of an annual or biannual routine screening. While new imaging techniques reduce by a factor of 8 irradiation, without significantly affecting the diagnostic capacity, the health benefit provided by annual monitoring scanner in heavy smokers favors an early detection program for lung cancers. The population targeted for such a screening (active or former smoker with pleural plaques) should be defined in more detail. The increasingly frequent observation of lung or pleural changes besides the populations at risk should also be considered. Therefore the detecting procedures applied to those workers indirectly or discontinuously exposed should be reassessed (only 1 TDM at 60 y, or on retirement, for the relevant occupations). These data suggest that the recommendation HAS 2010 for post-professional screening of workers occupationally exposed to asbestos should be reconsidered, particularly in case of pleural plaques. An organized screening program needs to be overhauled.

  10. Designing HR Organizational Structures in terms of the HR Business Partner Model Principles from the Perspective of Czech Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Stříteský

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes new trends related to the concepts contained in HR organizational structures within Czech organizations. In addition, it describes the specifics of the roles played by HR in those organizations which have transformed their HR departments in terms of the principles of the HR Business Partner Model, both in theory based on available resources, and at the practical level based on the results of primary examination. The goal of this paper is to present the key perceptions of the changes made in the HR structure within the organizations, as well as the impact of these changes on the effectiveness of the HR departments concerned. Another goal of the paper is to summarize the responsibilities of the newly created position known as the HR Business Partner in these organizations as well as the demands placed upon the personnel employed in the HR Business Partner role. The paper offers conclusions based on the results of both quantitative and qualitative surveys. It also contains a case study of one organization which has one of the best transformed HR departments, and whose services are classified, by internal clients, as being of high quality.

  11. Innovative Perspective: Gadolinium-Free Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Long-Term Follow-Up after Kidney Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Eijs, Mick J. M.; van Zuilen, Arjan D.; de Boer, Anneloes; Froeling, Martijn; Nguyen, Tri Q.; Joles, Jaap A.; Leiner, Tim; Verhaar, Marianne C.

    2017-01-01

    Since the mid-1980s magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been investigated as a non- or minimally invasive tool to probe kidney allograft function. Despite this long-standing interest, MRI still plays a subordinate role in daily practice of transplantation nephrology. With the introduction of new functional MRI techniques, administration of exogenous gadolinium-based contrast agents has often become unnecessary and true non-invasive assessment of allograft function has become possible. This raises the question why application of MRI in the follow-up of kidney transplantation remains restricted, despite promising results. Current literature on kidney allograft MRI is mainly focused on assessment of (sub) acute kidney injury after transplantation. The aim of this review is to survey whether MRI can provide valuable diagnostic information beyond 1 year after kidney transplantation from a mechanistic point of view. The driving force behind chronic allograft nephropathy is believed to be chronic hypoxia. Based on this, techniques that visualize kidney perfusion and oxygenation, scarring, and parenchymal inflammation deserve special interest. We propose that functional MRI mechanistically provides tools for diagnostic work-up in long-term follow-up of kidney allografts. PMID:28559850

  12. Innovative Perspective: Gadolinium-Free Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Long-Term Follow-Up after Kidney Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mick J. M. van Eijs

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the mid-1980s magnetic resonance imaging (MRI has been investigated as a non- or minimally invasive tool to probe kidney allograft function. Despite this long-standing interest, MRI still plays a subordinate role in daily practice of transplantation nephrology. With the introduction of new functional MRI techniques, administration of exogenous gadolinium-based contrast agents has often become unnecessary and true non-invasive assessment of allograft function has become possible. This raises the question why application of MRI in the follow-up of kidney transplantation remains restricted, despite promising results. Current literature on kidney allograft MRI is mainly focused on assessment of (sub acute kidney injury after transplantation. The aim of this review is to survey whether MRI can provide valuable diagnostic information beyond 1 year after kidney transplantation from a mechanistic point of view. The driving force behind chronic allograft nephropathy is believed to be chronic hypoxia. Based on this, techniques that visualize kidney perfusion and oxygenation, scarring, and parenchymal inflammation deserve special interest. We propose that functional MRI mechanistically provides tools for diagnostic work-up in long-term follow-up of kidney allografts.

  13. Uncertainties in satellite remote sensing of aerosols and impact on monitoring its long-term trend: a review and perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Li

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available As a result of increasing attention paid to aerosols in climate studies, numerous global satellite aerosol products have been generated. Aerosol parameters and underlining physical processes are now incorporated in many general circulation models (GCMs in order to account for their direct and indirect effects on the earth's climate, through their interactions with the energy and water cycles. There exists, however, an outstanding problem that these satellite products have substantial discrepancies, that must be lowered substantially for narrowing the range of the estimates of aerosol's climate effects. In this paper, numerous key uncertain factors in the retrieval of aerosol optical depth (AOD are articulated for some widely used and relatively long satellite aerosol products including the AVHRR, TOMS, MODIS, MISR, and SeaWiFS. We systematically review the algorithms developed for these sensors in terms of four key elements that influence the quality of passive satellite aerosol retrieval: calibration, cloud screening, classification of aerosol types, and surface effects. To gain further insights into these uncertain factors, the NOAA AVHRR data are employed to conduct various tests, which help estimate the ranges of uncertainties incurred by each of the factors. At the end, recommendations are made to cope with these issues and to produce a consistent and unified aerosol database of high quality for both environment monitoring and climate studies.

  14. China's Building Energy Use: A Long-Term Perspective based on a Detailed Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eom, Jiyong; Clarke, Leon E.; Kim, Son H.; Kyle, G. Page; Patel, Pralit L.

    2012-01-13

    We present here a detailed, service-based model of China's building energy use, nested in the GCAM (Global Change Assessment Model) integrated assessment framework. Using the model, we explore long-term pathways of China's building energy use and identify opportunities of reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The inclusion of a structural model of building energy demands within an integrated assessment framework represents a major methodological advance. It allows for a structural understanding of the drivers of building energy consumption while simultaneously considering the other human and natural system interactions that influence changes in the global energy system and climate. We also explore a range of different scenarios to gain insights into how China's building sector might evolve and what the implications might be for improved building energy technology and carbon policies. The analysis suggests that China's building energy growth will not wane anytime soon, although technology improvement will put downward pressure on this growth. Also, regardless of the scenarios represented, the growth will involve the continued, rapid electrification of the buildings sector throughout the century, and this transition will be accelerated by the implementation of carbon policy.

  15. Identifying sources of strength: resilience from the perspective of older people receiving long-term community care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Bienke M; Van Regenmortel, Tine; Abma, Tineke A

    2011-09-01

    This study seeks to explore the sources of strength giving rise to resilience among older people. Twenty-nine in-depth interviews were conducted with older people who receive long-term community care. The interviews were subjected to a thematic content analysis. The findings suggest that the main sources of strength identified among older people were constituted on three domains of analysis; the individual-, interactional and contextual domain. The individual domain refers to the qualities within older people and comprises of three sub-domains, namely beliefs about one's competence, efforts to exert control and the capacity to analyse and understand ones situation. Within these subdomains a variety of sources of strength were found like pride about ones personality, acceptance and openness about ones vulnerability, the anticipation on future losses, mastery by practising skills, the acceptance of help and support, having a balanced vision on life, not adapting the role of a victim and carpe-diem. The interactional domain is defined as the way older people cooperate and interact with others to achieve their personal goals. Sources of strength on this domain were empowering (in)formal relationships and the power of giving. Lastly, the contextual domain refers to a broader political-societal level and includes sources of strength like the accessibility of care, the availability of material resources and social policy. The three domains were found to be inherently linked to each other. The results can be used for the development of positive, proactive interventions aimed at helping older people build on the positive aspects of their lives.

  16. Long-term impacts of forest ditching on non-aquatic biodiversity: conservation perspectives for a novel ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remm, Liina; Lõhmus, Piret; Leis, Mare; Lõhmus, Asko

    2013-01-01

    Artificial drainage (ditching) is widely used to increase timber yield in northern forests. When the drainage systems are maintained, their environmental impacts are likely to accumulate over time and along accompanying management, notably after logging when new forest develops on decayed peat. Our study provides the first comprehensive documentation of long-term ditching impacts on terrestrial and arboreal biodiversity by comparing natural alder swamps and second-generation drained forests that have evolved from such swamps in Estonia. We explored species composition of four potentially drainage-sensitive taxonomic groups (vascular plants, bryophytes, lichens, and snails), abundance of species of conservation concern, and their relationships with stand structure in two-ha plots representing four management types (ranging from old growth to clearcut). We found that drainage affected plot-scale species richness only weakly but it profoundly changed assemblage composition. Bryophytes and lichens were the taxonomic groups that were most sensitive both to drainage and timber-harvesting; in closed stands they responded to changed microhabitat structure, notably impoverished tree diversity and dead-wood supply. As a result, natural old-growth plots were the most species-rich and hosted several specific species of conservation concern. Because the most influential structural changes are slow, drainage impacts may be long hidden. The results also indicated that even very old drained stands do not provide quality habitats for old-growth species of drier forest types. However, drained forests hosted many threatened species that were less site type specific, including early-successional vascular plants and snails on clearcuts and retention cuts, and bryophytes and lichens of successional and old forests. We conclude that three types of specific science-based management tools are needed to mitigate ditching effects on forest biodiversity: (i) silvicultural techniques to

  17. Long-Term Impacts of Forest Ditching on Non-Aquatic Biodiversity: Conservation Perspectives for a Novel Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remm, Liina; Lõhmus, Piret; Leis, Mare; Lõhmus, Asko

    2013-01-01

    Artificial drainage (ditching) is widely used to increase timber yield in northern forests. When the drainage systems are maintained, their environmental impacts are likely to accumulate over time and along accompanying management, notably after logging when new forest develops on decayed peat. Our study provides the first comprehensive documentation of long-term ditching impacts on terrestrial and arboreal biodiversity by comparing natural alder swamps and second-generation drained forests that have evolved from such swamps in Estonia. We explored species composition of four potentially drainage-sensitive taxonomic groups (vascular plants, bryophytes, lichens, and snails), abundance of species of conservation concern, and their relationships with stand structure in two-ha plots representing four management types (ranging from old growth to clearcut). We found that drainage affected plot-scale species richness only weakly but it profoundly changed assemblage composition. Bryophytes and lichens were the taxonomic groups that were most sensitive both to drainage and timber-harvesting; in closed stands they responded to changed microhabitat structure, notably impoverished tree diversity and dead-wood supply. As a result, natural old-growth plots were the most species-rich and hosted several specific species of conservation concern. Because the most influential structural changes are slow, drainage impacts may be long hidden. The results also indicated that even very old drained stands do not provide quality habitats for old-growth species of drier forest types. However, drained forests hosted many threatened species that were less site type specific, including early-successional vascular plants and snails on clearcuts and retention cuts, and bryophytes and lichens of successional and old forests. We conclude that three types of specific science-based management tools are needed to mitigate ditching effects on forest biodiversity: (i) silvicultural techniques to

  18. Changing perspectives in pre-existing diabetes and obesity in pregnancy: maternal and infant short- and long-term outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbour, Linda A

    2014-08-01

    Climbing obesity rates in women have propelled the increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in pregnancy, and an increasing number of women with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) are also affected by obesity. Increasing recognition that an intrauterine environment characterized by obesity, insulin resistance, nutrient excess, and diabetes may be fueling the obesity epidemic in children has created enormous pressure to re-examine the conventional wisdom of our current approaches. Compelling data in pregnancies complicated by diabetes, in particular those accompanied by insulin resistance and obesity, support a fetal programming effect resulting in increased susceptibility to metabolic disease for the offspring later in life. Recent data also underscore the contribution of obesity, lipids, and lesser degrees of hyperglycemia on fetal fat accretion, challenging the wisdom of current gestational weight gain recommendations with and without diabetes. The risks of adverse pregnancy outcomes in T2DM are at least as high as in T1DM and there remains controversy about the ideal glucose treatment targets, the benefit of different insulin analogues, and the role of continuous glucose monitoring in T1DM and T2DM. It has become unmistakably evident that achieving optimal outcomes in mothers with diabetes is clearly impacted by ideal glycemic control but goes far beyond it. The intrauterine metabolic environment seems to have long-term implications on the future health of the offspring so that the effectiveness of our current approaches can no longer be simply measured by whether or not maternal glucose values are at goal.

  19. Long-term impacts of forest ditching on non-aquatic biodiversity: conservation perspectives for a novel ecosystem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liina Remm

    Full Text Available Artificial drainage (ditching is widely used to increase timber yield in northern forests. When the drainage systems are maintained, their environmental impacts are likely to accumulate over time and along accompanying management, notably after logging when new forest develops on decayed peat. Our study provides the first comprehensive documentation of long-term ditching impacts on terrestrial and arboreal biodiversity by comparing natural alder swamps and second-generation drained forests that have evolved from such swamps in Estonia. We explored species composition of four potentially drainage-sensitive taxonomic groups (vascular plants, bryophytes, lichens, and snails, abundance of species of conservation concern, and their relationships with stand structure in two-ha plots representing four management types (ranging from old growth to clearcut. We found that drainage affected plot-scale species richness only weakly but it profoundly changed assemblage composition. Bryophytes and lichens were the taxonomic groups that were most sensitive both to drainage and timber-harvesting; in closed stands they responded to changed microhabitat structure, notably impoverished tree diversity and dead-wood supply. As a result, natural old-growth plots were the most species-rich and hosted several specific species of conservation concern. Because the most influential structural changes are slow, drainage impacts may be long hidden. The results also indicated that even very old drained stands do not provide quality habitats for old-growth species of drier forest types. However, drained forests hosted many threatened species that were less site type specific, including early-successional vascular plants and snails on clearcuts and retention cuts, and bryophytes and lichens of successional and old forests. We conclude that three types of specific science-based management tools are needed to mitigate ditching effects on forest biodiversity: (i silvicultural

  20. From the female perspective: Long-term effects on quality of life of a program for women with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Noreen M; Gong, Z Molly; Wang, Si Jian; Valerio, Melissa A; Bria, William F; Johnson, Timothy R

    2010-04-01

    Although, among adults, asthma predominates in women, the role of sex and gender in asthma has only recently been studied. Moreover, only one study has focused on the management of asthma by women, reporting that 1 year subsequent to an intervention addressing sex and gender role factors, women's asthma status was improved. Data from a 2-year postintervention follow-up were assessed to determine whether there were longer-term effects on the asthma status and quality of life (QoL) of the participants. A randomized controlled design was used in which female patients with asthma, who were receiving services at the University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, Michigan (2002-2006), were assigned to either a control group or a female-oriented intervention group that focused on management challenges related to sex and gender role factors. Data were collected at baseline and 2 years' postintervention (2008) by telephone interview and review of medical records. Measures included asthma-related QoL, health care and medication use for asthma, level of self-regulation, self-confidence in managing the condition, sex and gender role-related asthma problems, and days of missed work or school because of asthma. Data were analyzed using both generalized estimating equations logistic regression and log-linear regression. The mean (SD) age of the 808 women participating in the study was 48.2 (13.1) years in the intervention group and 48.7 (14.3) years in the control group, and the percentage of minority participants was 15.8% and 16.3%, respectively. Despite randomization, women in the intervention group had more persistent asthma at baseline. At 2 years' postrandomization, the only significant difference in health care use was associated with scheduled office visits; no other significant health care use differences were evident. However, the women in the intervention group had a significantly greater decrease of asthma symptoms with sexual activity (P = 0.01) and greater

  1. Switching memory perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Shazia; Justice, Lucy V; Loveday, Catherine; Conway, Martin A

    2017-11-01

    The perspective in which memories were spontaneously recalled, field (original perspective) or observer (see oneself in the memory), was examined for both recent and remote memories. Recent memories were dominated by field perspective whilst remote memories were dominated by observer perspective. Further, field memories contained reliably more episodic detail than observer memories. After a 1-week interval, the same memories were recalled again but with a switched memory perspective. Switching from an observer to a field perspective did not reliably increase the amount of episodic details in a memory. Switching from field to observer perspective did, however, reliably reduce the number of episodic details. These findings suggest that memories may be represented in long-term memory with a fixed perspective, either field or observer, which can be temporarily altered sometimes changing the nature of a memory, i.e. how much detail remains accessible. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparing treatment team and the patients’ perspectives regarding euthanasia (white death in conscious patients connected to ventilator with long term ICU stay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Ali Naji

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available With the current status of the technological and medical knowledge advancements the subject of the quality of death and the way one dies has become remarkably important. Such findings have also had their own influences. Therefore, the present study with the objective of comparing the treatment team and the patients’ perspectives regarding euthanasia in conscious patients connected to ventilator with long term ICU stays. the present research is an analytical-descriptive study which has dealt with the comparison of the 123 points of view from a treatment team (physicians and nurses with 100 patients points of view in one of the therapy centers in Gilan Province based on the availability method. The data have been collected by making use of the questionnaires. The data were then analyzed through the use of SPSS software and the application of Spearman, Mann Whitney and Kruskal Wallis Utests as well. The results indicated that that the study population significantly opposed the conduction of euthanasia of any sort respective to the treatment team. There was not observed any significant statistical difference between the matched obtained scores from the general overview of the euthanasia in the studied patients based on the demographic variables (gender, age, education level and hospital stay duration (P>0.05 in the entire cases. From the other side, according to the treatment team education level the results are indicative that the higher the education level of the treatment team the rate of euthanasia acceptance by them would be higher as well. considering the changes and evolutions advancement pace in the current era regarding technology, culture and other cases the medical sciences cannot be excluded from such a principle and the treatment team as the leaders in health area can enhance their care services through attracting the trust and confidence of the patients as the main treatment centers clients.

  3. Keep going in adversity - using a resilience perspective to understand the narratives of long-term social assistance recipients in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marttila, Anneli; Johansson, Eva; Whitehead, Margaret; Burström, Bo

    2013-01-22

    In Sweden, means-tested social assistance serves as a temporary, last resort safety net. However, increasing numbers of people are receiving it for longer periods and about a third has assistance for more than a year. The aim of this study was to explore the ways social assistance recipients manage long lasting adversity and their roles as active, rather than passive, agents in this process, using a resilience perspective. The study is based on thirteen in-depth interviews with long-term social assistance recipients from diverse areas in Stockholm County. The interviews were guided by narrative inquiry to interpret and construct stories of experiences and are part of a larger qualitative study exploring experiences of living on social assistance in Sweden. Experiences of cumulative adversity during many years compounded recipients' difficulties in finding ways out of hardship. They had different strategies to deal with adversities, and many had underlying "core problems", including mental health problems, which had not been properly resolved. Recipients' showed resistance in adverse situations. Some made attempts to find ways out of hardship, whereas others struggled mainly to achieve a sense of mastering life. They received important support from individual professionals in different authorities, but mostly the help from the welfare system was fragmented. Social assistance recipients in this study demonstrated agency in ways of managing long lasting difficulties, sometimes caused by "core problems", which were often accumulated into complex difficulties. Resilience was about keeping going and resisting these difficulties. To find ways out of social assistance required help from different welfare agencies and professionals and was hindered by the fragmentation of services. This study shows that there is a need for more long-term personalised, comprehensive support, including interventions both to increase individual well-being and self-esteem and to open up

  4. Keep going in adversity – using a resilience perspective to understand the narratives of long-term social assistance recipients in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marttila Anneli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction In Sweden, means-tested social assistance serves as a temporary, last resort safety net. However, increasing numbers of people are receiving it for longer periods and about a third has assistance for more than a year. The aim of this study was to explore the ways social assistance recipients manage long lasting adversity and their roles as active, rather than passive, agents in this process, using a resilience perspective. Method The study is based on thirteen in-depth interviews with long-term social assistance recipients from diverse areas in Stockholm County. The interviews were guided by narrative inquiry to interpret and construct stories of experiences and are part of a larger qualitative study exploring experiences of living on social assistance in Sweden. Results Experiences of cumulative adversity during many years compounded recipients’ difficulties in finding ways out of hardship. They had different strategies to deal with adversities, and many had underlying “core problems”, including mental health problems, which had not been properly resolved. Recipients’ showed resistance in adverse situations. Some made attempts to find ways out of hardship, whereas others struggled mainly to achieve a sense of mastering life. They received important support from individual professionals in different authorities, but mostly the help from the welfare system was fragmented. Conclusions Social assistance recipients in this study demonstrated agency in ways of managing long lasting difficulties, sometimes caused by “core problems”, which were often accumulated into complex difficulties. Resilience was about keeping going and resisting these difficulties. To find ways out of social assistance required help from different welfare agencies and professionals and was hindered by the fragmentation of services. This study shows that there is a need for more long-term personalised, comprehensive support, including

  5. Rethinking the cognitive revolution from a neural perspective: how overuse/misuse of the term 'cognition' and the neglect of affective controls in behavioral neuroscience could be delaying progress in understanding the BrainMind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromwell, Howard Casey; Panksepp, Jaak

    2011-10-01

    Words such as cognition, motivation and emotion powerfully guide theory development and the overall aims and goals of behavioral neuroscience research. Once such concepts are accepted generally as natural aspects of the brain, their influence can be pervasive and long lasting. Importantly, the choice of conceptual terms used to describe and study mental/neural functions can also constrain research by forcing the results into seemingly useful 'conceptual' categories that have no discrete reality in the brain. Since the popularly named 'cognitive revolution' in psychological science came to fruition in the early 1970s, the term cognitive or cognition has been perhaps the most widely used conceptual term in behavioral neuroscience. These terms, similar to other conceptual terms, have potential value if utilized appropriately. We argue that recently the term cognition has been both overused and misused. This has led to problems in developing a usable shared definition for the term and to promotion of possible misdirections in research within behavioral neuroscience. In addition, we argue that cognitive-guided research influenced primarily by top-down (cortical toward subcortical) perspectives without concurrent non-cognitive modes of bottom-up developmental thinking, could hinder progress in the search for new treatments and medications for psychiatric illnesses and neurobehavioral disorders. Overall, linkages of animal research insights to human psychology may be better served by bottom-up (subcortical to cortical) affective and motivational 'state-control' perspectives, simply because the lower networks of the brain are foundational for the construction of higher 'information-processing' aspects of mind. Moving forward, rapidly expanding new techniques and creative methods in neuroscience along with more accurate brain concepts, may help guide the development of new therapeutics and hopefully more accurate ways to describe and explain brain-behavior relationships

  6. Avoiding terminological confusion between the notions of 'biometrics' and 'biometric data' : An investigation into the meanings of the terms from a European data protection and a scientific perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jasserand, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    This article has been motivated by an observation: the lack of rigor by European bodies when they use scientific terms to address data protection and privacy issues raised by biometric technologies and biometric data. In particular, they improperly use the term ‘biometrics’ to mean at the same time

  7. Long-term efficacy of current thyroid prophylaxis and future perspectives on thyroid protection during I-131-metaiodobenzylguanidine treatment in children with neuroblastoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clement, S. C.; van Rijn, R. R.; van Eck-Smit, B. L. F.; van Trotsenburg, A. S. P.; Caron, H. N.; Tytgat, G. A. M.; van Santen, H. M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Treatment with I-131-MIBG is associated with significant thyroid damage. This study was undertaken to investigate the long-term efficacy of current thyroid prophylaxis, to explore the relationship between thyroid dysfunction and thyroid volume after exposure to I-131-MIBG and to evaluate the

  8. Long-term efficacy of current thyroid prophylaxis and future perspectives on thyroid protection during I-131-metaiodobenzylguanidine treatment in children with neuroblastoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clement, S. C.; van Rijn, R. R.; van Eck-Smit, B. L. E.; van Trotsenburg, A. S. P.; Caron, H. N.; Tytgat, G. A. M.; van Santen, H. M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/238668959

    Purpose Treatment with I-131-MIBG is associated with significant thyroid damage. This study was undertaken to investigate the long-term efficacy of current thyroid prophylaxis, to explore the relationship between thyroid dysfunction and thyroid volume after exposure to I-131-MIBG and to evaluate the

  9. A Watershed Cooperative Addresses Short and Long-Term Perspectives for the Management of Harmful Algae at a Southwestern Ohio Drinking Water Reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    The multi-agency East Fork Watershed Cooperative (EFWCoop) has focused discussion and consequent leveraged monitoring efforts to understand how to ensure water safety in the short term. The EFWCoop is also collecting the dense data sets required to consider potential options for...

  10. Attention, Working Memory, and Long-Term Memory in Multimedia Learning: An Integrated Perspective Based on Process Models of Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweppe, Judith; Rummer, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive models of multimedia learning such as the Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning (Mayer 2009) or the Cognitive Load Theory (Sweller 1999) are based on different cognitive models of working memory (e.g., Baddeley 1986) and long-term memory. The current paper describes a working memory model that has recently gained popularity in basic…

  11. What factors are most relevant to the assessment of work ability of employees on long-term sick leave? The physicians' perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekkers-Sánchez, Patricia M; Wind, Haije; Sluiter, Judith K; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W

    2013-07-01

    To reach insurance physician (IPs) consensus on factors that must be taken into account in the assessment of the work ability of employees who are sick-listed for 2 years. A Delphi study using online questionnaires was conducted from October 2010 to March 2011. One hundred and two insurance physicians reached a consensus on important factors for return to work (RTW) of employees on long-term sick leave; from those factors, the most relevant for the assessment of work ability was determined. From a total of 22 relevant factors considered for the return to work of long-term sick-listed employees, consensus was reached on nine relevant factors that need to be taken into account in the assessment of the work ability of employees on long-term sick leave. Relevant factors that support return to work are motivation, attitude towards RTW, assessment of cognitions and behaviour, vocational rehabilitation in an early stage and instruction for the sick-listed employee to cope with his disabilities. Relevant factors that hinder RTW are secondary gain from illness, negative perceptions of illness, inefficient coping style and incorrect advice of treating physicians regarding RTW. Non-medical personal and environmental factors may either hinder or promote RTW and must be considered in the assessment of the work ability of long-term sick-listed employees. Assessment of work ability should start early during the sick leave period. These factors may be used by IPs to improve the quality of the assessment of the work ability of employees on long-term sick leave.

  12. Perspectives for hydropower stations in Switzerland: long-term competitiveness and possibilities for improvement; Perspektiven fuer die Wasserkraftwerke in der Schweiz. Langfristige Wettbewerbsfaehigkeit und moegliche Verbesserungspotenziale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filippini, M.; Banfi, S. [Istituto di Microeconomia e Economia Pubblica, MecoP, Universita della Svizzera Italiana, Lugano (Switzerland); Luchsinger, C.; Wild, J.; Balmer, M.; Grand, D.; Henkels, L.; Semadeni, M. [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETHZ), Centre for Energy Policy and Economics (CEPE), Zuerich (Switzerland); Gnansounou, E. [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL), Laboratoire de systemes energetiques (LASEN), Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2001-07-01

    This first general study - which has the character of a preliminary study - examines the questions if the liberalisation of the electricity market will have a negative effect on the competitiveness of hydropower in the long-term and what measures can be taken against such effects. Long-term competitiveness is defined as the ability of a business in this sector to make investments in renewal in the long-term, i.e. after its concessions have expired. The three main aims of the study are: 1. Assessment of the long-term competitiveness of the sector and identification of the factors which could either have a negative effect on it or improve it, 2. Analysis of cost structures and presentation of measures through which the long-term competitiveness of the sector can be reinforced, 3. Presentation of possible political measures to be taken in this business area in order to improve the long-term competitiveness of hydropower stations. The study identifies the most important factors that determine future competitiveness as being the market prices for electricity and capital costs (depreciation and interest on own and borrowed capital). Further, water fees, taxes and regulations concerning residual water flow can be of great importance for investment decisions, in particular for those enterprises that operate close to their profitability limits. The results of the analysis indicate that, in the future, a considerable number of enterprises must be reckoned with that will refrain from renewing their plant. Such outcomes depend, of course, on developments in electricity market prices, specific investment costs, rates of interest and other economic, political, and legal conditions. Making a prognosis about the development of such parameters is linked with a high degree of uncertainty. By means of sensitivity calculations and the definition of various scenarios, attempts are made to take these uncertainties into account . Finally, the study makes reference to the fact that

  13. LightForce Photon-pressure Collision Avoidance: Efficiency Analysis in the Current Debris Environment and Long-Term Simulation Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan Y.; Nelson, Bron; Carlino, Roberto; Perez, Andres D.; Faber, Nicolas; Henze, Chris; Karacahoglu, Arif G.; O'Toole, Conor; Swenson, Jason; Stupl, Jan

    2015-01-01

    This work provides an efficiency analysis of the LightForce space debris collision avoidance scheme in the current debris environment and describes a simulation approach to assess its impact on the long-term evolution of the space debris environment. LightForce aims to provide just-in-time collision avoidance by utilizing photon pressure from ground-based industrial lasers. These ground stations impart minimal accelerations to increase the miss distance for a predicted conjunction between two objects. In the first part of this paper we will present research that investigates the short-term effect of a few systems consisting of 10kW class lasers directed by 1.5 m diameter telescopes using adaptive optics. The results found such a network of ground stations to mitigate more than 85 percent of conjunctions and could lower the expected number of collisions in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) by an order of magnitude. While these are impressive numbers that indicate LightForce's utility in the short-term, the remaining 15 percent of possible collisions contain (among others) conjunctions between two massive objects that would add large amount of debris if they collide. Still, conjunctions between massive objects and smaller objects can be mitigated. Hence we choose to expand the capabilities of the simulation software to investigate the overall effect of a network of LightForce stations on the long-term debris evolution. In the second part of this paper, we will present the planed simulation approach for that effort.

  14. Home-based Functional Electrical Stimulation for long-term denervated human muscle: History, basics, results and perspectives of the Vienna Rehabilitation Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut Kern

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We will here discuss the following points related to Home-based Functional Electrical Stimulation (h-b FES as treatment for patients with permanently denervated muscles in their legs: 1. Upper (UMN and lower motor neuron (LMN damage to the lower spinal cord; 2. Muscle atrophy/hypertrophy versus processes of degeneration, regeneration, and recovery; 3. Recovery of twitch- and tetanic-contractility by h-b FES; 4. Clinical effects of h-b FES using the protocol of the “Vienna School”; 5. Limitations and perspectives. Arguments in favor of using the Vienna protocol include: 1. Increased muscle size in both legs; 2. Improved tetanic force production after 3-5 months of percutaneous stimulation using long stimulus pulses (> 100 msec of high amplitude (> 80 mAmp, tolerated only in patients with no pain sensibility; 3. Histological and electron microscopic evidence that two years of h-b FES return muscle fibers to a state typical of two weeks denervated muscles with respect to atrophy, disrupted myofibrillar structure, and disorganized Excitation-Contraction Coupling (E-CC structures; 4. The excitability never recovers to that typical of normal or reinnervated muscles where pulses less than 1 msec in duration and 25 mAmp in intensity excite axons and thereby muscle fibres. It is important to motivate these patients for chronic stimulation throughout life, preferably standing up against the load of the body weight rather than sitting. Only younger and low weight patients can expect to be able to stand-up and do some steps more or less independently. Some patients like to maintain the h-b FES training for decades. Limitations of the procedure are obvious, in part related to the use of multiple, large surface electrodes and the amount of time patients are willing to use for such muscle training.

  15. Parents' perspectives of life challenges experienced by long-term paediatric brain tumour survivors: work and finances, daily and social functioning, and legal difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, A Fuchsia; Hasan, Haroon; Bobinski, Mary Anne; Nurcombe, Wendy; Olson, Robert; Parkinson, Maureen; Goddard, Karen

    2014-09-01

    Paediatric brain tumour survivors (PBTS) are at high risk for medical, neurocognitive and psychological sequelea during adulthood. Details illustrating the types and breadth of these chronic sequelae are essential to fully comprehend their impact on daily living. This study describes Canadian parents of PBTS perspectives of life challenges experienced by their now adult son or daughter related to work and finances, daily and social functioning, and legal difficulties. Parents of PBTS completed an anonymous online exploratory survey. Forty-six of 60 invited parents completed the survey. Parents reported that PBTS experienced difficulty gaining or sustaining employment (65 %) because of their health and/or a disability and employers reticence to hire and adequately support PBTS. Independent living was considered unaffordable for PBTS who received a disability allowance (82 %) and those who were employed (50 %). Thirty percent indicated their family experienced hardship because of PBTS medical expenses, which were usually paid for out of pocket (76 %). Although the majority of PBTS were independent with daily tasks and social functioning, a subgroup required continuous support. Forty percent of employed PBTS received limited assistance to accommodate their special needs. Parents indicated their son or daughter had been the victim of theft, fraud or assault (37 %), and commonly considered them vulnerable, in need of protection and feared for their future safety. Research that further illuminates the hardships facing PBTS and informs the development of support and resources to address PBTS vulnerabilities is warranted. PBTS are at risk for unemployment, financial challenges and legal difficulties, which appear to be poorly addressed by health and social programs.

  16. National Perspective of Health Outcomes of 8- to 11-Year-Old Children Born Prematurely and Their Full-Term Peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Michelle M

    2016-01-01

    The specific aim of this study was to evaluate the health sequelae of preterm birth on children 8 to 11years of age as compared to same age children born at term; selected variables include special health care needs, chronic conditions, and caregiver perception of health. A secondary data analysis was conducted to evaluate the health outcomes of children 8 to 11years of age who were born prematurely compared to a sample of children born at term. The 2011/2012 National Survey of Children's Health (NSCH) is a nationally representative telephone interview survey of parents/caregivers of children 0 to 17years of age. Preterm birth was determined by parent report of birth more than 3weeks early. Utilizing the Children with Special Health Care Needs (CSHCN) Screener, 35% of children born prematurely, compared to 24% of children born at term were identified as having a special health care need. The 5 most prevalent conditions were the same in both groups of 8 to 11year old children and in the larger total sample of children 2 to 17years of age. However 82% of children born prematurely were described by parents as having excellent or very good health. Premature birth places children at increased risk for conditions that impede the crucial activities of childhood (education, psychosocial development and play). These conditions may require both medications and increased health care services. Understanding the relationship between preterm birth and ongoing health risks has the potential to inform the health care providers' ability to provide care that maximizes the potential of children born prematurely. Health care providers need to be cognizant of this risk, utilizing early screening and encouraging intervention and family supports. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluating the systematic implementation of the 'Let Me Decide' advance care planning programme in long term care through focus groups: staff perspectives.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cornally, Nicola

    2015-11-01

    The \\'Let Me Decide\\' Advance Care Planning (LMD-ACP) programme offers a structured approach to End-of-Life (EoL) care planning in long-term care for residents with and without capacity to complete an advance care directive\\/plan. The programme was implemented in three homes in the South of Ireland, with a view to improving quality of care at end of life. This paper will present an evaluation of the systematic implementation of the LMD-ACP programme in the homes.

  18. A unit-level perspective on the long-term sustainability of a nursing best practice guidelines program: An embedded multiple case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleiszer, Andrea R; Semenic, Sonia E; Ritchie, Judith A; Richer, Marie-Claire; Denis, Jean-Louis

    2016-01-01

    Best practice guidelines are a tool for narrowing research-to-practice gaps and improving care outcomes. There is some empirical understanding of guideline implementation in nursing settings, yet there has been almost no consideration of the longer-term sustainability of guideline-based practice improvements. Many healthcare innovations are not sustained, underscoring the need for knowledge about how to promote their survival. To understand how a nursing best practice guidelines program was sustained on acute healthcare center nursing units. We undertook a qualitative descriptive case study of an organization-wide nursing best practice guidelines program with four embedded nursing unit subcases. The setting was a large, tertiary/quaternary urban health center in Canada. The nursing department initiated a program to enhance patient safety through the implementation of three guidelines: falls prevention, pressure ulcer prevention, and pain management. We selected four inpatient unit subcases that had differing levels of program sustainability at an average of almost seven years post initial program implementation. Data sources included 39 key informant interviews with nursing leaders/administrators and frontline nurses; site visits; and program-related documents. Data collection and content analysis were guided by a framework for the sustainability of healthcare innovations. Program sustainability was characterized by three elements: benefits, routinization, and development. Seven key factors most accounted for the differences in the level of program sustainability between subcases. These factors were: perceptions of advantages, collaboration, accountability, staffing, linked levels of leadership, attributes of formal unit leadership, and leaders' use of sustainability activities. Some prominent relationships between characteristics and factors explained long-term program sustainability. Of primary importance was the extent to which unit leaders used sustainability

  19. A long term (1667-1860) perspective on impacts of fishing and environmental variability on fisheries for herring, eel, and whitefish in the Limfjord, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, B.; Holm, P.; MacKenzie, Brian

    2007-01-01

    This investigation reconstructs the development of major fisheries for her-ring, eel and whitefish in the Limfjord estuary, Denmark ca. 1667-1860, and then evaluates how their long-term dynamics have been influenced by some key fishery and environmental developments. The commercially most important...... fishery was for herring, Clupea harengus, which spawned in the Limfjord. This fishery underwent large changes in these centuries. High landings occurred in two periods in the early 18th and again in the early 19th centuries, when 4000-8000 metric tonnes were caught annually. In 1830, the fishery collapsed...

  20. VISIONARY THINKER: LEADERSHIP AND MANAGEMENT IN WORKS OF MARY P. FOLLETT – LONG-TERM PERSPECTIVE IN THE COMPANIES OF THE REPUBLIC OF SERBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srdjan Nikezic

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In her lectures, Mary P. Follett pointed to key moments of leadership, management, group membership, coordination and participation as relevant elements for the exploration of human relations that are of interest today in the same way as they were eighty years ago. Model of thinking applied by Mary P. Follett is deeply linked to current strong needs for the creation of leadership and management professions that are linked to changes and long term strategic goals of big companies and world economy as a whole.

  1. Radiocesium in migratory aquatic game birds using contaminated U.S. Department of Energy reactor-cooling reservoirs: A long-term perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennamer, Robert A; Oldenkamp, Ricki E; Leaphart, James C; King, Joshua D; Bryan, A Lawrence; Beasley, James C

    2017-05-01

    Low-level releases of radiocesium into former nuclear reactor cooling-reservoirs on the U.S. Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina, USA, dating primarily to the late 1950s and early 1960s, have allowed examination of long-term contaminant attenuation in biota occupying these habitats. Periodic collections of migratory game birds since the 1970s have documented (137)Cs (radiocesium) activity concentrations in birds of SRS reservoirs, including mainly Par Pond and Pond B. In this study, during 2014 and 2015 we released wild-caught American coots (Fulica americana) and ring-necked ducks (Aythya collaris) onto Pond B. We made lethal collections of these same birds with residence times ranging from 32 to 173 days to examine radiocesium uptake and estimate the rate of natural attenuation. The two species achieved asymptotic whole-body activity concentrations of radiocesium at different times, with ring-necked ducks requiring almost three times longer than the 30-35 days needed by coots. We estimated ecological half-life (Te) for Pond B coots over a 28-yr period as 16.8 yr (95% CI = 12.9-24.2 yr). Pond B coot Te was nearly four times longer than Te for coots at nearby Par Pond where radiocesium bioavailability had been constrained for decades by pumping of potassium-enriched river water into that reservoir. Te could not be estimated from long-term data for radiocesium in Pond B diving ducks, including ring-necked ducks, likely because of high variability in residence times of ducks on Pond B. Our results highlight the importance: (1) for risk managers to understand site-specific bio-geochemistry of radiocesium for successful implementation of countermeasures at contaminated sites and (2) of residence time as a critical determinant of observed radiocesium activity concentrations in highly mobile wildlife inhabiting contaminated habitats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Short and Long-Term Perspectives: The Impact on Low-Income Consumers of Forecasted Energy Price Increases in 2008 and A Cap & Trade Carbon Policy in 2030

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenberg, Joel Fred [ORNL

    2008-01-01

    The Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration (EIA) recently released its short-term forecast for residential energy prices for the winter of 2007-2008. The forecast indicates increases in costs for low-income consumers in the year ahead, particularly for those using fuel oil to heat their homes. In the following analysis, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has integrated the EIA price projections with the Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) for 2001 in order to project the impact of these price increases on the nation's low-income households by primary heating fuel type, nationally and by Census Region. The report provides an update of bill estimates provided in a previous study, "The Impact Of Forecasted Energy Price Increases On Low-Income Consumers" (Eisenberg, 2005). The statistics are intended for use by policymakers in the Department of Energy's Weatherization Assistance Program and elsewhere who are trying to gauge the nature and severity of the problems that will be faced by eligible low-income households during the 2008 fiscal year. In addition to providing expenditure forecasts for the year immediately ahead, this analysis uses a similar methodology to give policy makers some insight into one of the major policy debates that will impact low-income energy expenditures well into the middle decades of this century and beyond. There is now considerable discussion of employing a cap-and-trade mechanism to first limit and then reduce U.S. emissions of carbon into the atmosphere in order to combat the long-range threat of human-induced climate change. The Energy Information Administration has provided an analysis of projected energy prices in the years 2020 and 2030 for one such cap-and-trade carbon reduction proposal that, when integrated with the RECS 2001 database, provides estimates of how low-income households will be impacted over the long term by such a carbon reduction policy.

  3. Long-term efficacy of current thyroid prophylaxis and future perspectives on thyroid protection during {sup 131}I-metaiodobenzylguanidine treatment in children with neuroblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clement, S.C. [University of Amsterdam, Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, Emma Children' s Hospital, Academic Medical Center, PO box 22660, Amsterdam (Netherlands); University of Amsterdam, Department of Pediatric Oncology, Emma Children' s Hospital, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Rijn, R.R. van [University of Amsterdam, Department of Radiology, Emma Children' s Hospital, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Eck-Smit, B.L.F. van [University of Amsterdam, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Trotsenburg, A.S.P. van [University of Amsterdam, Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, Emma Children' s Hospital, Academic Medical Center, PO box 22660, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Caron, H.N.; Tytgat, G.A.M. [University of Amsterdam, Department of Pediatric Oncology, Emma Children' s Hospital, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Santen, H.M. van [Wilhelmina Children' s Hospital, University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2015-04-01

    Treatment with {sup 131}I-MIBG is associated with significant thyroid damage. This study was undertaken to investigate the long-term efficacy of current thyroid prophylaxis, to explore the relationship between thyroid dysfunction and thyroid volume after exposure to {sup 131}I-MIBG and to evaluate the possible negative effects of {sup 131}I{sup -} on the parathyroid glands. Of 81 long-term surviving patients with neuroblastoma treated with {sup 131}I-MIBG during the period 1999-2012, 24 were finally evaluated. Patients received thyroxine (T4), methimazole and potassium iodide as thyroid protection. In all patients (para)thyroid function was evaluated and ultrasound investigation of the (para)thyroid gland(s) was performed. Thyroid dysfunction was defined as a plasma thyrotropin concentration >5.0 mU/L (thyrotropin elevation, TE) or as the use of T4 at the time of follow-up. Hyperparathyroidism was defined as a serum calcium concentration above the age-related reference range in combination with an inappropriately high parathyroid hormone level. At a median follow-up of 9.0 years after {sup 131}I-MIBG treatment, thyroid disorders were seen in 12 patients (50 %; 9 with TE, 5 with a thyroid nodule and 1 patient was subsequently diagnosed with differentiated thyroid carcinoma). No significant risk factors for the occurrence of thyroid damage could be identified. In 14 of 21 patients (67 %) in whom thyroid volume could be determined, the volume was considered small (<-2SD) for age and gender. Patients treated with T4 at the time of follow-up had significantly smaller thyroid volumes for age than patients without T4 treatment (p = 0.014). None of the patients was diagnosed with hyperparathyroidism. Thyroid protection during treatment with {sup 131}I-MIBG needs attention and must be further improved, as thyroid disorders are still frequently seen despite current thyroid prophylaxis. Reduced thyroid volume in neuroblastoma survivors may be related to previous {sup 131}I

  4. Heart transplantation in pediatric population and in adults with congenital heart disease: long-term follow-up, critical clinical analysis, and perspective for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azeka, E; Jatene, M; Galas, F R B; Tanamati, C; Penha, J; Benvenuti, L; Miura, N; Junior, J O C

    2014-01-01

    Heart transplantation is a treatment option for children as well as for adults with congenital heart disease. To report the experience of a tertiary center with heart transplant program in pediatric population and in adults with congenital heart disease. The study consisted of the evaluation of pediatric as well as adult patients undergoing heart transplantation for congenital heart disease. We evaluated the following indication and complications such as renal dialysis, graft vascular disease, tumors and survival. From October 1992 to November 2013, 134 patients had transplantation, and there were 139 transplantations and 5 retransplantations. The immunosuppression regimen is based on calcineurin inhibitors and cytostatic drugs. The type of heart disease indicated for transplantation was cardiomyopathies in 70% and congenital heart disease in 30%. Of these 134 patients, 85 patients were alive. Actuarial survival is 77.4%, 69.6%, 59.3% at 1, 5, and 10 years after transplantation. Three patients underwent renal transplantation, 1 patient is in renal dialysis, and 8.2% of patients had post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease. Two patients had retransplantation for graft vascular disease; 1 of them required a simultaneous kidney transplant and died 30 days after the procedure and 1 patient is clinically well 2 years after retransplantation. Heart transplantation in children and in adults with congenital heart disease is a promising therapeutic option and enables long-term survival for these patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems. Perspectives on the geological and hydrological aspects of long-term release scenario analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stottlemyre, J.A.; Wallace, R.W.; Benson, G.L.; Zellmer, J.T.

    1980-06-01

    Information that may be relevant to individuals involved with analyzing long-term release scenarios of specific repositories for nuclear waste is presented. The bulk of the information is derived from recent studies in West Germany and the United States. Emphasis is on the specific geological and hydrological phenomena that, alone or in concert, could potentially perturb the area around specific repository sites. Research is continuing on most of the topics discussed within this report. Because research is ongoing, statements and conclusions described in this document are subject to change. The main topics of this report are: (1) fracturing, (2) geohydrology, (3) magmatic activity, and (4) geomorphology. Therefore, the site-specific nature of the problem cannot be overemphasized. As an example of how one might combine the many synergistic and time-dependent parameters into a concise format the reader is referred to A Conceputal Simulation Model for Release Scenario Analysis of a Hypothetical Site in Columbia Plateau Basalts, PNL-2892. For additional details on the topics in this report, the reader is referred to the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) consultant report listed in the bibliography.

  6. Care staff and family member perspectives on quality of life in people with very severe dementia in long-term care: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clare, Linda; Quinn, Catherine; Hoare, Zoe; Whitaker, Rhiannon; Woods, Robert T

    2014-12-09

    Little is known about the quality of life of people with very severe dementia in long-term care settings, and more information is needed about the properties of quality of life measures aimed at this group. In this study we explored the profiles of quality of life generated through proxy ratings by care staff and family members using the Quality of Life in Late-stage Dementia (QUALID) scale, examined factors associated with these ratings, and further investigated the psychometric properties of the QUALID. Proxy ratings of quality of life using the QUALID were obtained for 105 residents with very severe dementia, categorised as meeting criteria for Functional Assessment Staging (FAST) stages 6 or 7, from members of care staff (n = 105) and family members (n = 73). A range of resident and staff factors were also assessed. Care staff and family member ratings were similar but were associated with different factors. Care staff ratings were significantly predicted by resident mood and awareness/responsiveness. Family member ratings were significantly predicted by use of antipsychotic medication. Factor analysis of QUALID scores suggested a two-factor solution for both care staff ratings and family member ratings. The findings offer novel evidence about predictors of care staff proxy ratings of quality of life and demonstrate that commonly-assessed resident variables explain little of the variability in family members' proxy ratings. The findings provide further information about the psychometric properties of the QUALID, and support the applicability of the QUALID as a means of examining quality of life in very severe dementia.

  7. Cardiovascular risk in post-myocardial infarction patients: nationwide real world data demonstrate the importance of a long-term perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jernberg, Tomas; Hasvold, Pål; Henriksson, Martin; Hjelm, Hans; Thuresson, Marcus; Janzon, Magnus

    2015-05-14

    Long-term disease progression following myocardial infarction (MI) is not well understood. We examined the risk of subsequent cardiovascular events in patients discharged after MI in Sweden. This was a retrospective, cohort study linking morbidity, mortality, and medication data from Swedish national registries. Of 108 315 patients admitted to hospital with a primary MI between 1 July 2006 and 30 June 2011 (index MI), 97 254 (89.8%) were alive 1 week after discharge and included in this study. The primary composite endpoint of risk for non-fatal MI, non-fatal stroke, or cardiovascular death was estimated for the first 365 days post-index MI and Day 366 to study completion. Risk and risk factors were assessed by Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazards modelling, respectively. Composite endpoint risk was 18.3% during the first 365 days post-index MI. Age [60-69 vs. 80 vs. <60 years: 3.96 (3.78-4.15)], prior MI [1.44 (1.40-1.49)], stroke [1.49 (1.44-1.54)], diabetes [1.37 (1.34-1.40)], heart failure [1.57 (1.53-1.62)] and no index MI revascularisation [1.88 (1.83-1.93)] were each independently associated with a higher risk of ischaemic events or death. For patients without a combined endpoint event during the first 365 days, composite endpoint risk was 20.0% in the following 36 months. Risk of cardiovascular events appeared high beyond the first year post-MI, indicating a need for prolonged surveillance, particularly in patients with additional risk factors. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. A longitudinal perspective on the study of specific language impairment: the long-term follow-up of an Italian child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipriani, P; Bottari, P; Chilosi, A M; Pfanner, L

    1998-01-01

    Most of the literature on children with specific language impairment (SLI) is centred on the study of cross-sectional samples and little is known on how language develops in these children--that is, whether it occurs along steps and modes analogous to those observed in normal acquisition, the only difference being significant slowness, or following rather idiosyncratic courses leading to atypical results. This paper presents findings from a longitudinal study of the acquisition of formal aspects of Italian grammar in a child with severe SLI of the so-called phonologic-syntactic subtype or grammatical SLI. The analysis concerns a set of morphosyntactic phenomena sufficiently differentiated in terms of both grammatical properties and modes of acquisition in normal development, so as to offer a panorama that approximates to what can be thought of as an overall morphosyntactic competence: (1) free morphology (prepositions, clitics and articles); (2) bound morphology (verb inflection); (3) WH movement (questions and relative clauses) and (4) the evolution of complex sentences. These phenomena will be dealt with in four independent studies. This paper argues that each domain or even each sub-domain presents its own set of properties, some of which are common to other domains but some of which are not. The results reveal the existence of important dissociations among the various domains and even within specific sub-domains. These dissociations may be ascribed to deficits affecting specific properties of functors or constructions. The picture that emerges is one in which the deficit involves, rather than morphology in the strict sense of a bare set of paradigmatic forms, some properties or components of syntax which are involved in the use, not only of certain morphemes, but of certain extended syntactic constructions as well. This result will be checked against the most widely held current theoretical approaches to SLI.

  9. Perspectives on the Termination of Debt Review in Terms of Section 86(10 of the National Credit Act 34 of 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C van Heerden

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The National Credit Act 34 of 2005 (the NCA aims to address and prevent the overindebtedness of consumers and to provide mechanisms for resolving over-indebtedness based on the principle of satisfaction by the consumer of all his obligations. In this regard it provides inter alia for the mechanism of debt review, during which a debt counsellor reviews the debt situation of a consumer in order to determine if the consumer is over-indebted and to attempt to assist the consumer in obtaining debt relief in the form of a consensual debt re-arrangement agreement or court-ordered debt re-structuring. A pending debt review has serious consequences. It bars a consumer from entering into further credit agreements and creates a moratorium on debt enforcement by the credit provider. However, a debt review in terms of section 86 does not end or lapse automatically if a specific event fails to occur or upon the expiry of a specific time period. Before a credit provider can enforce a credit agreement that is the subject of a pending debt review, the debt review must be terminated in accordance with section 86(10 and certain other requirements must be met. If a debt review is incorrectly terminated in accordance with section 86(10, the enforcement proceedings instituted thereafter will be unlawful and premature. In practice the debt review process – and specifically the termination thereof – are problematic as there appears to be uncertainty, as a result of the sparse provisions of section 86(10, regarding exactly when a debt review can be terminated. Uncertainty exists regarding the scope of a debt review and whether it should be afforded a narrow or broad interpretation, which will inevitably affect the cut-off date for termination. This article attempts to address some of these issues.

  10. International Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Kenn; Habermann, Ulla; Chowdhury, Omar Faruque; Guerra, Iraida Manzanilla

    1998-01-01

    Includes "Introduction to International Perspectives" (Allen); "Volunteerism in the Welfare State: The Case of Denmark" (Habermann); "Grassroots Organizing in Bangladesh" (Chowdhury); and "Volunteerism in Latin America" (Guerra). (SK)

  11. A prospective study of short- and long-term cosmetic outcome after reduction mammaplasty from three different perspectives: the patient, a department surgeon, and an independent private practitioner in plastic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breiting, Line Bro; Henriksen, Trine Foged; Kalialis, Louise Vennegaard; Gramkow, Christina; Høyer, Anette Pernille

    2012-08-01

    Numerous studies have examined the outcome of reduction mammaplasty. This study evaluates the cosmetic outcome after reduction mammaplasty from the perspective of the patient, a ward surgeon, and a private practitioner in plastic surgery, and analyzes which factors influence it. The material stems from a Danish quality assurance program in the public health care system. Nonparametric statistics and logistic regression were used to compare cosmetic outcomes and possible confounding. Over 80 percent of the patients evaluated the short- and long-term cosmetic outcome as good or very good. The surgeons and especially the private practitioner were more critical. The evaluation of breast features also differs between patients and surgeons. The main issue for patients is symmetry. With time, patients and the private practitioner become more critical about the scars. Surgeons are most concerned about nipple bottoming out. Predictive factors for surgeons were the patient's age, body mass index, and postoperative complications. Evaluation by patients was, in addition to complications, influenced by the preoperative information given, confidence in the treatment, and the overall course on the ward. Patients evaluate cosmetic outcome significantly more favorably than surgeons and especially the private practitioner. They are also concerned about different breast features. Decreased nipple sensation does not influence the patient's evaluation. Evaluation by the surgeons depends on more objective measures than does evaluation by the patients. One must not underestimate the importance of factors such as preoperative information about the surgery and complications, together with proper and qualified care. Therapeutic, II.

  12. The Social Role of Engineers: A Philosophical Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesilind, P. Aarne

    1991-01-01

    The perspectives that distinguish engineers and the public they serve and the educational implications of those perspectives are discussed. The philosophies of utilitarianism, ethical egoism, positivism, and idealism are presented in terms of engineers and the public. (KR)

  13. Participation: the insider's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Margaret

    2010-09-01

    The insider-outsider distinction is discussed in the context of people with disabilities. Insiders to disability are likely to have different subjective responses to life situations than do those who experience disability as onlookers. The importance of including the insider's perspective is discussed with respect to assessing participation in terms of setting goals, evaluating programs, setting research agendas, and conducting needs assessments. In terms of incorporating the insider's subjective response to participation into assessment, it is argued that both importance and salience are required to reflect the person's values and goals fully. A review of a sample of currently used assessment approaches is provided with a focus on how each instrument either incorporates or fails to incorporate the insider's perspective on participation. A distinction is made between instruments that tap into the perspective of a specific person at the point of assessment versus those that substitute a perspective based on discussions by groups of insiders, such as emerges from focus groups. Copyright 2010 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Distance : between deixis and perspectivity

    OpenAIRE

    Meermann, Anastasia; Sonnenhauser, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Discussing exemplary applications of the notion of distance in linguistic analysis, this paper shows that very different phenomena are described in terms of this concept. It is argued that in order to overcome the problems arising from this mixup, deixis, distance and perspectivity have to be distinguished and their interrelations need to be described. Thereby, distance emerges as part of a recursive process mediating between situation-bound deixis and discourse-level perspectivity. This is i...

  15. Managing natural resources : A social learning perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maarleveld, M.; Dangbégnon, C.

    1999-01-01

    This article presents a social learning perspective as a means to analyze and facilitate collective decision making and action in managed resource systems such as platforms. First, the social learning perspective is developed in terms of a normative and analytical framework. The normative framework

  16. SEARCH and a computational perspective of evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kargupta, H.

    1996-05-01

    This paper develops an alternate perspective of natural evolution using the SEARCH (Search Envisioned As Relation and Class Hierarchizing) framework (Kargupta, 1995). Some problems of existing views about evolutionary computation are noted. An attempt is made to fulfill these deficiencies using a new computational perspective of gene expression based on a decomposition of blackbox optimization in terms of relations, classes, samples, and partial ordering.

  17. System and Actor Perspectives on Sociotechnical Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Bruijn, J.A.; Herder, P.M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses the complexity of analyzing and designing sociotechnical systems: systems that involve both complex physical-technical systems and networks of interdependent actors. It is shown that, although a hard system perspective and an actor perspective differ greatly in terms of

  18. Physical and mental health in patients and spouses after intensive care of severe sepsis: a dyadic perspective on long-term sequelae testing the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosendahl, Jenny; Brunkhorst, Frank M; Jaenichen, Doreen; Strauss, Bernhard

    2013-01-01

    To examine the physical and mental long-term consequences of intensive care treatment for severe sepsis in patients and their spouses under consideration of a dyadic perspective using the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model. Prospective study. Patients and spouses who had requested advice from the German Sepsis Aid's National Helpline were invited to participate. We included 55 patients who survived severe sepsis and their spouses an average of 55 months after ICU discharge. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Short Form-12 Health Survey, the Posttraumatic Stress Scale-10, and the Giessen Subjective Complaints List-24 were used. The Actor-Partner Interdependence Model was tested using multilevel modeling with the actor effect representing the impact of a person's posttraumatic stress symptoms on his or her own mental health-related quality of life and the partner effect characterized by the impact of a person's posttraumatic stress symptoms on his or her partner's mental health-related quality of life. A significant proportion of patients and spouses (26%-42%) showed clinically relevant scores of anxiety and depression; approximately two thirds of both, patients and spouses, reported posttraumatic stress symptoms defined as clinically relevant. Compared with normative samples, patients reported greater anxiety, poorer mental and physical health-related quality of life, and greater exhaustion; spouses had an impaired mental health-related quality of life and increased anxiety. Testing the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model revealed that posttraumatic stress symptoms were related to patients' (β = -0.71, 95% confidence interval -0.88 to -0.54) and spouses' (β = -0.62, 95% confidence interval -0.79 to -0.46) own mental health-related quality of life. Posttraumatic stress symptoms further influenced the mental health-related quality of life of the respective other (β = -0.18, 95% confidence interval -0.35 to -0.003 for patients; β = -0.15, 95

  19. Construyendo una Red Chilena para Estudios Socioecológicos a Largo Plazo: Avances, enfoques y relevancia Building a Chilean Network for Long-Term Socio-Ecological Research: Advances, perspectives and relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHRISTOPHER B ANDERSON

    2010-03-01

    estos trabajos compilados contribuyan a la consolidación de la aproximación de LTSER en el sur de Sudamérica dentro de la comunidad académica y también para una mayor integración entre la academia y la sociedad.Since their formal inception in 1980, long-term ecological research (LTER programs have served as a successful organizing framework to create research agendas and funding mechanisms that allow scientists to address meaningful ecological phenomena at the scales they occur. In its 30 years of existence, LTER has expanded its geographic range (currently the International LTER network has more than 40 country members with sites on every continent and disciplinary foci (principally encompassing the natural and social sciences and leading some to call for a name change to long-term socio-ecological research - LTSER. Nonetheless, the temperate and subantarctic biomes of southern South America have lacked formalized long-term research sites and networks. Yet, at the same time, numerous uncoordinated long-term research efforts exist in both Chile and Argentina, and in 2008, the Institute of Ecology and Biodiversity launched Chile’s first concerted effort to link three existing sites (Fray Jorge Forest National Park - 33° S, Senda Darwin Biological Station - 43° S, and Omora Ethnobotanical Park - 55° S. Here, we present a special feature of the Revista Chilena de Historia Natural, dedicated to LTSER, with the aim of 1 providing a synthesis of some of the most emblematic cases of long-term socio-ecological research in Chile; 2 demonstrating the value of these efforts for the integration of research, education and social outcomes, such as decision making; and 3 offering the perspective of a broad array of participants involved in these initiatives, including graduate students and associated programs from Ibero-America and North America. It is our hope that these compiled works will contribute to the consolidation of the LTSER approach in southern South America

  20. Term Context

    OpenAIRE

    Bancerek Grzegorz

    2015-01-01

    Two construction functors: simple term with a variable and compound term with an operation and argument terms and schemes of term induction are introduced. The degree of construction as a number of used operation symbols is defined. Next, the term context is investigated. An x-context is a term which includes a variable x once only. The compound term is x-context iff the argument terms include an x-context once only. The context induction is shown and used many times. As a key concept, the co...

  1. Term Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bancerek Grzegorz

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Two construction functors: simple term with a variable and compound term with an operation and argument terms and schemes of term induction are introduced. The degree of construction as a number of used operation symbols is defined. Next, the term context is investigated. An x-context is a term which includes a variable x once only. The compound term is x-context iff the argument terms include an x-context once only. The context induction is shown and used many times. As a key concept, the context substitution is introduced. Finally, the translations and endomorphisms are expressed by context substitution.

  2. Natural analog studies: Licensing perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradbury, J.W. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-09-01

    This report describes the licensing perspective of the term {open_quotes}natural analog studies{close_quotes} as used in CFR Part 60. It describes the misunderstandings related to its definition which has become evident during discussions at the U.S Nuclear Regulatory Commission meetings and tries to clarify the appropriate applications of natural analog studies to aspects of repository site characterization.

  3. Comparative Perspectives on Literacy Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, Brian V.

    Three possible directions for literacy research in the United Kingdom (UK), in terms of three comparative perspectives are (1) cross-cultural, (2) academic/practitioner, and (3) adult/school. Walter Ong's argument that with the advent of writing human consciousness and ways of thinking were altered fundamentally, underlies many of the claims for…

  4. Long term stability of power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kundur, P.; Gao, B. [Powertech Labs. Inc., Surrey, BC (Canada)

    1994-12-31

    Power system long term stability is still a developing subject. In this paper we provide our perspectives and experiences related to long term stability. The paper begins with the description of the nature of the long term stability problem, followed by the discussion of issues related to the modeling and solution techniques of tools for long term stability analysis. Cases studies are presented to illustrate the voltage stability aspect and plant dynamics aspect of long term stability. (author) 20 refs., 11 figs.

  5. Perspectives on reactor safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haskin, F.E. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering; Camp, A.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-03-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) maintains a technical training center at Chattanooga, Tennessee to provide appropriate training to both new and experienced NRC employees. This document describes a one-week course in reactor, safety concepts. The course consists of five modules: (1) historical perspective; (2) accident sequences; (3) accident progression in the reactor vessel; (4) containment characteristics and design bases; and (5) source terms and offsite consequences. The course text is accompanied by slides and videos during the actual presentation of the course.

  6. Digitisation Perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Rikowski, R

    2011-01-01

    This book examines various views and perspectives on digitisation. Topics covered include electronic theses, search engine technology, digitisation in Africa, citation indexing, reference services, the Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition, new media, and scholarly publishing. The final chapter explores virtual libraries, and poses some interesting questions for possible futures. The book will be of particular interest to information professionals, educators, librarians, academics and I.T. and knowledge experts.

  7. Religious architecture: anthropological perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkaaik, O.

    2013-01-01

    Religious Architecture: Anthropological Perspectives develops an anthropological perspective on modern religious architecture, including mosques, churches and synagogues. Borrowing from a range of theoretical perspectives on space-making and material religion, this volume looks at how religious

  8. Aging Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodore D Cosco

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite the proliferation of successful ageing (SA research, the literature is dominated by researcher-driven Anglophone conceptualisations. To date, lay perspectives of SA have not been examined in Europe or Turkey. The current study aims to conduct a mixed-methods examination of conceptualisations of SA in seven underrepresented countries. Using snowball sampling via social media sites, an online survey consisting of established closed-ended and open-ended items – translated into seven languages – was administered. Grounded theory methods and descriptive statistics were used to analyse qualitative and quantitative data, respectively.

  9. Cosmic Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, S. K.; Mallik, D. C. V.; Vishveshwara, C. V.

    2008-07-01

    1. Astronomy in ancient and medieval China Joseph Needham; 2. Indian astronomy: an historical perspective B. V. Subbarayappa; 3. Making of astronomy in ancient India Debiprasad Chattopadhyaya; 4. The impact of astronomy on the development of western science Jean-Claude Pecker; 5. Man and the Universe Hubert Reeves; 6. Understanding the Universe - challenges and directions in modern observational astronomy Harlan Smith, Jr: 7. Frontiers in cosmology Fred Hoyle; 8. Did the Universe originate in a big bang? Jayant Narlikar; 9. The dark matter problem Bernard Carr; 10. Geometry and the Universe C. V. Vishveshwara; 11. The origin and evolution of life Cyril Ponnamperuma; 12. The anthropic principle: self selection as an adjunct to natural selection Brandon Carter; 13. Astrology and science: an examination of the evidence Ivan Kelly, Roger Culver and Peter Loptson; 14. Astronomy and science fiction Allen Janis.

  10. Amiodarone: an emergency medicine perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Simone E

    2002-12-01

    Amiodarone is a highly efficacious antiarrhythmic agent for many cardiac arrhythmias, ranging from atrial fibrillation to malignant ventricular rhythm disturbances. Significant interest has developed in recent years with the publication of randomized controlled trials supporting the efficacy of amiodarone over placebo and lignocaine for improving survival to hospital in patients with shock-resistant ventricular fibrillation. Amiodarone has complex pharmacological and pharmacokinetic properties. It has significant long-term adverse effects, but short-term administration of intravenous amiodarone is generally well tolerated. This article will explore issues related to the clinical use of amiodarone from an emergency medicine perspective.

  11. Quantum crystallography: A perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Lou; Matta, Chérif F

    2017-11-14

    Extraction of the complete quantum mechanics from X-ray scattering data is the ultimate goal of quantum crystallography. This article delivers a perspective for that possibility. It is desirable to have a method for the conversion of X-ray diffraction data into an electron density that reflects the antisymmetry of an N-electron wave function. A formalism for this was developed early on for the determination of a constrained idempotent one-body density matrix. The formalism ensures pure-state N-representability in the single determinant sense. Applications to crystals show that quantum mechanical density matrices of large molecules can be extracted from X-ray scattering data by implementing a fragmentation method termed the kernel energy method (KEM). It is shown how KEM can be used within the context of quantum crystallography to derive quantum mechanical properties of biological molecules (with low data-to-parameters ratio). © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. The Importance of Early Experiences: Clinical, Research, and Policy Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeanah, Charles H.

    2009-01-01

    The degree to which early adverse experiences exert long term effects on development and how much early adversity may be overcome through subsequent experiences are important mental health questions. The clinical, research and policy perspectives on these questions lead to different answers. From a clinical perspective, change is always possible,…

  13. Decentralization process in Venezuela, under perspective of mayors elected for the term 2000-2004 El proceso de descentralización de Venezuela, desde la perspectiva de los alcaldes electos para el período 2000-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaira Josefina REVERÓN ESCOBAR

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the process of decentralization in Venezuela, under mayors’ perspective, elected for the period 2000-2004. Our main goal is to identify the vision they have over such an important process that theoretically strengthens, supports, and enhances the democratic system. We contrast decentralization theory (which states that if there is not democracy at levels of government closer to the citizens-municipal government-democracy is not sustained over real bases with what Venezuelan mayors exposed about the facts observed in the nation in this sense. Our hypothesis is that the concepts and visions that the mayors expressed must coincide with the theory sustaining decentralization in general and particularly decentralization in Venezuela, which must coincide with their praxis in their municipalities. We concluded that the positive perspectives and visions as the negatives or pessimistic ones stated by the interviewed mayors coincided with theory supporting decentralization in different countries and with the evaluations of decentralization that have been conducted in different nations. Venezuelan decentralization process is not different from those that have been discovered in other countries in this sense. It seems to be that the decentralization policy in Venezuela enjoys the same virtues and suffers the same problems that decentralization policies in other countries. El presente trabajo aborda el proceso de descentralización en Venezuela visto desde la perspectiva de los alcaldes electos para el período 2000-2004. El interés es identificar la visión que tienen éstos sobre tan importante proceso que, teóricamente, sustenta, soporta y fortalece el sistema democrático. Se contrastan los fundamentos teóricos esgrimidos sobre las bondades de las políticas descentralizadoras que parten del supuesto teórico de que si no hay democracia en los niveles del gobierno que están más cerca del ciudadano (el gobierno municipal la

  14. New perspectives for heavy flavour physics from the lattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommer, R. [John von Neumann-Institut fuer Computing NIC/DESY, Zeuthen (Germany)

    2009-06-15

    Heavy flavours represent a challenge for lattice QCD. We discuss it in very general terms. We give an idea of the significant recent progress which opens up good perspectives for high precision first principles QCD computations for flavour physics. (orig.)

  15. Long-term Hydroclimate and Pacific Salmon Population Linkages Across a Headwater-to-Coast Continuum in Northern British Columbia, Canada: A Perspective From Multiple Tree-Ring Proxy Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, C.; Smith, D. J.; Edwards, T.; Prowse, T.

    2016-12-01

    Ongoing climate change is expected to have lasting impacts on the runoff behaviour of rivers in northern British Columbia, Canada. Of particular concern is the loss of mountain snowpack and greater rainfall totals altering hydrograph characteristics. Sustained deviations in seasonal streamflow will pose significant challenges for effective watershed management. These ongoing changes highlight the importance of improving our understanding of the long-term biophysical linkages between the storage and release of water and downstream freshwater ecosystems. Such integrated research is particularly relevant to fisheries management as fluctuations in populations of Pacific salmon represent a complex and management-relevant biophysical issue in northern Canada. Unfortunately, hydroclimate and salmon productivity records in this region are sparse and of short duration, constraining our understanding of the impact of climate-induced hydrologic changes and biological responses to the last century. Proxy records derived from tree-rings provide annually or seasonally resolved data and have played a prominent role in attempts to establish how hydroclimate has varied in the past. The objective of my doctoral research is to reconstruct the prehistoric hydroclimate and salmon population trends in the Skeena, Nass and Stikine Watersheds using multiple tree-ring proxies to investigate the long-term biophysical linkages extending across a headwater-to-coast continuum in northern British Columbia, Canada. Ring-width, wood density and stable isotope chronologies using a number of mid-to high-elevation tree species will be constructed across each basin and sub-basin area for the purposes of reconstrucing the predominent temperature and precipiation signature that influence streamflow. Preliminary tree-ring δ18O and δ13C-isotope results indicate a strong negative association with mean monthly relative humidity values, suggesting a physiological control by moisture loss. The results of

  16. Putting the sharing economy into perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frenken, Koen|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/207145253; Schor, Juliet

    We develop a conceptual framework that allows us to define the sharing economy and its close cousins and we understand its sudden rise from an economic-historic perspective. We then assess the sharing economy platforms in terms of the economic, social and environmental impacts. We end with

  17. A Multimodal Perspective on Textuality and Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewitt, Carey

    2007-01-01

    Textuality is often thought of in linguistic terms; for instance, the talk and writing that circulate in the classroom. In this paper I take a multimodal perspective on textuality and context. I draw on illustrative examples from school Science and English to examine how image, colour, gesture, gaze, posture and movement--as well as writing and…

  18. How Many Impulsivities? A Discounting Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Leonard; Myerson, Joel

    2013-01-01

    People discount the value of delayed and uncertain outcomes, and how steeply individuals discount is thought to reflect how impulsive they are. From this perspective, steep discounting of delayed outcomes (which fails to maximize long-term welfare) and shallow discounting of probabilistic outcomes (which fails to adequately take risk into account)…

  19. Putting the sharing economy into perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frenken, Koen|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/207145253; Schor, Juliet

    2017-01-01

    We develop a conceptual framework that allows us to define the sharing economy and its close cousins and we understand its sudden rise from an economic-historic perspective. We then assess the sharing economy platforms in terms of the economic, social and environmental impacts. We end with

  20. The Anthropocene: A Planetary Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbar, A. D.; Hartnett, H. E.; York, A.; Selin, C.

    2016-12-01

    The Anthropocene is a new planetary epoch defined by the emergence of human activity as one of the most important driving forces on Earth, rivaling and also stressing the other systems that govern the planet's habitability. Public discussions and debates about the challenges of this epoch tend to be polarized. One extreme denies that humans have a planetary-scale impact, while the other wishes that this impact could disappear. The tension between these perspectives is often paralyzing. Effective adaptation and mitigation requires a new perspective that reframes the conversation. We propose a planetary perspective according to which this epoch is the result of a recent major innovation in the 4 ­billion ­year history of life on Earth: the emergence of an energy-intensive planetary civilization. The rate of human energy use is already within an order of magnitude of that of the rest of the biosphere, and rising rapidly, and so this innovation is second only to the evolution of photosynthesis in terms of energy capture and utilization by living systems. Such energy use has and will continue to affect Earth at planetary scale. This reality cannot be denied nor wished away. From this pragmatic perspective, the Anthropocene is not an unnatural event that can be reversed, as though humanity is separate from the Earth systems with which we are co-evolving. Rather, it is an evolutionary transition to be managed. This is the challenge of turning a carelessly altered planet into a carefully designed and managed world, maintaining a "safe operating space" for human civilization (Steffen et al., 2011). To do so, we need an integrated approach to Earth systems science that considers humans as a natural and integral component of Earth's systems. Insights drawn from the humanities and the social sciences must be integrated with the natural sciences in order to thrive in this new epoch. This type of integrated perspective is relatively uncontroversial on personal, local, and even

  1. Perspectives on bioeconomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Alfredo; Wohlgemuth, Roland; Twardowski, Tomasz

    2018-01-25

    The insight provided by the authors of this special issue on bioeconomy give a reassuring sign of optimism, vitality and strong will to make bioeconomy a success story. Key to these advances will be inventing and shaping our future and the cooperation of people who will create new scientific and technological discoveries, developments and their implementation into industrial practice. The vibrant global megatrend bioeconomy is developing along various dimensions depending on natural and social conditions, economic development and political objectives. As value chains from producer countries and regions to their corresponding customers are interconnected globally and bioeconomies are diverse, constructive dialogues and agreed social consensus are therefore relevant worldwide. Mapping and engineering the uncharted territories of the molecular transformations, which are key to the bioeconomy, represents a great opportunity for the molecular and engineering sciences to bring in their important contributions. The development of smart bioeconomies needs excellence in science-based concepts, long-term support of innovative and mission-oriented research and a subtle equilibrium between science push and market and social pull. On the policy front, coherent and science-based policy decisions embracing bioeconomy and being consistent with each other are needed. From a global perspective, bioeconomy topics should be included in the international and national agendas on sustainable development goals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Sustainable winegrowing: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariani A

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Angela Mariani,1 Antonella Vastola2 1Department of Economic and Legal Studies, University Parthenope, Naples, 2School of Agricultural, Forestry, Food and Environmental Sciences, University of Basilicata, Potenza, Italy Abstract: The winegrowing sector worldwide is strongly committed to improving environmental and social sustainability. The aim of this work, based on a literature review, is to highlight current sustainability perspectives and the related main issues. There is a broad consensus that the challenge to achieve a greater spread of sustainable practices is to enhance environmental and social sustainability while maintaining economic viability. From the producers' point of view, the priority is to bridge the still substantial knowledge gaps in terms of perceived environmental benefits, economic benefits, and costs. Thus, an increased research effort focusing on the costs and benefits of different winegrowing practices and technical assistance with implementation might support their diffusion. Moreover, targeted marketing strategies are needed to: enhance consumers' involvement and their attitude toward sustainable wine; improve understanding and use of sustainable labels and claims; and raise awareness of some environmental credentials of wine packaging, mainly with reference to lightweight glass bottles. Keywords: winegrower, sustainability, wine, consumer, marketing strategies

  3. Students’ Perspectives on Bullying

    OpenAIRE

    Forsberg, Camilla

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present thesis was to listen to, examine and conceptualise students’ perspectives on bullying. Students’ perspectives have not been commonly heard in research and less qualitative research has been conducted. This study contributes with students’ perspectives on bullying using semi-structured interviews with students from fourth-to eighth grade. This thesis includes four studies. The aim with paper I was to investigate how bystander actions in bullying situations and reasons be...

  4. Future energy perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halsnaes, K.; Christensen, J.M. [Risoe National Lab., Systems Analysis Dept., Roskilde (Denmark)

    2002-10-01

    Future energy perspectives: 1) The global energy consumption will continue to grow primarily in developing countries, their share of global energy consumption will grow from approx. 35% in 1990 to 60% in 2050. 2) Policy focus will be primarily on environmental concerns in the industrial countries and on energy for development and access to energy for the poor in developing countries. 3) With global climate concerns and the implementation of the Kyoto protocol, global environment issues will have increased prominence in energy sector priorities. 4) Fossil fuel resources are on a global level still abundant and prices are expected to be relatively low in the short to medium term. 5) Energy supply security has for geopolitical reasons become an increasing concern especially in the US and the EU. 6) Significant investments are required to ensure development of new clean energy technologies for introduction in the medium to long term. 7) Market reforms are being implemented in almost all regions of the world changing both the investment and policy regimes. 8) International studies (IPCC and WEC) have analysed several alternative energy scenarios Alternative policies and priorities can lead to a wide range of different energy futures. 9) WEC middle scenario B, from 1990 to 2050; predicts growth in GDP 3.5 times and primary energy consumption 2.2 times and CO{sub 2} 1.5 times. This scenario is expecting supply to be dominated by fossil fuel (80% in 1990 and still 65% in 2050), with high share of natural gas and nuclear with slow growth in renewable energy. 10) A more radical scenario (C1) is expecting renewable energy such as biomass, solar and wind to contribute 27% in 2050; declining oil and coal; increased use of natural gas and a minor contribution from nuclear. A development path like this require significant near-term investments in technology research and development. 11) The large increase in global energy demand in the next century will require large investments

  5. Shifting visual perspective during retrieval shapes autobiographical memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Jacques, Peggy L; Szpunar, Karl K; Schacter, Daniel L

    2017-03-01

    The dynamic and flexible nature of memories is evident in our ability to adopt multiple visual perspectives. Although autobiographical memories are typically encoded from the visual perspective of our own eyes they can be retrieved from the perspective of an observer looking at our self. Here, we examined the neural mechanisms of shifting visual perspective during long-term memory retrieval and its influence on online and subsequent memories using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Participants generated specific autobiographical memories from the last five years and rated their visual perspective. In a separate fMRI session, they were asked to retrieve the memories across three repetitions while maintaining the same visual perspective as their initial rating or by shifting to an alternative perspective. Visual perspective shifting during autobiographical memory retrieval was supported by a linear decrease in neural recruitment across repetitions in the posterior parietal cortices. Additional analyses revealed that the precuneus, in particular, contributed to both online and subsequent changes in the phenomenology of memories. Our findings show that flexibly shifting egocentric perspective during autobiographical memory retrieval is supported by the precuneus, and suggest that this manipulation of mental imagery during retrieval has consequences for how memories are retrieved and later remembered. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A typology of loss and damage perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Emily; James, Rachel A.; Jones, Richard G.; Young, Hannah R.; Otto, Friederike E. L.

    2017-10-01

    Loss and Damage (L&D) has been the subject of contentious debate in international climate policy for several decades. Recently, formal mechanisms on L&D have been established, but arguably through unclear language. This ambiguity is politically important, but researchers and practitioners require clearer understandings of L&D. Here we report on the first in-depth empirical study of actor perspectives, including interviews with 38 key stakeholders in research, practice, and policy. We find points of agreement and also important distinctions in terms of: the relationship between L&D and adaptation, the emphasis on avoiding versus addressing L&D, the relevance of anthropogenic climate change, and the role of justice. A typology of four perspectives is identified, with different implications for research priorities and actions to address L&D. This typology enables improved understanding of existing perspectives and so has potential to facilitate more transparent discussion of the options available to address L&D.

  7. Challenges and perspectives in quantitative NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraudeau, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    This perspective article summarizes, from the author's point of view at the beginning of 2016, the major challenges and perspectives in the field of quantitative NMR. The key concepts in quantitative NMR are first summarized; then, the most recent evolutions in terms of resolution and sensitivity are discussed, as well as some potential future research directions in this field. A particular focus is made on methodologies capable of boosting the resolution and sensitivity of quantitative NMR, which could open application perspectives in fields where the sample complexity and the analyte concentrations are particularly challenging. These include multi-dimensional quantitative NMR and hyperpolarization techniques such as para-hydrogen-induced polarization or dynamic nuclear polarization. Because quantitative NMR cannot be dissociated from the key concepts of analytical chemistry, i.e. trueness and precision, the methodological developments are systematically described together with their level of analytical performance. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Perspectives on Information

    CERN Document Server

    Ramage, Magnus

    2011-01-01

    This book presents an insider's perspective on information in a wide range of disciplines, from quantum physics to library science. It reflects the diversity of understanding of information within these disciplines, but also brings clarity and coherence to the different perspectives through promoting information as a unifying concept.

  9. Archives: Perspectives in Education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 17 of 17 ... Archives: Perspectives in Education. Journal Home > Archives: Perspectives in Education. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. 1 - 17 of 17 Items ...

  10. Distortion in Perspective Projection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelso, Robert P., Sr.

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents a unique approach in associating perspective projection with the image beheld by the eye and demonstrates that all graphical and photographic perspective projections must contain distortion when compared to the image beheld by the eye. (Contains 8 figures.)

  11. Relational Perspectives on Leading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Relational Perspectives on Leading discusses leadership from a relational and social constructionism perspective as practiced on an everyday basis between people. The book pursues a fast growing, practice-based approach - particularly within the Anglo-Saxon parts of the world - to organization...

  12. Relational Perspectives on Leading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mette Vinther; Rasmussen, Jørgen Gulddahl

    2015-01-01

    Relational Perspectives on Leading discusses leadership from a relational and social constructionism perspective as practiced on an everyday basis between people. The book pursues a fast growing, practice-based approach - particularly within the Anglo-Saxon parts of the world - to organization...

  13. Reaching New Heights in Astronomy - ESO Long Term Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Zeeuw, T.

    2016-12-01

    A comprehensive description of ESO in the current global astronomical context, and its plans for the next decade and beyond, are presented. This survey covers all aspects of the Organisation, including the optical-infrared programme at the La Silla Paranal Observatory, the submillimetre facilities ALMA and APEX, the construction of the 39-metre European Extremely Large Telescope and the science operation of these facilities. An extension of the current optical/infrared/submillimetre facilities into multi-messenger astronomy has been made with the decision to host the southern Cherenkov Telescope Array at Paranal. The structure of the Organisation is presented and the further development of the staff is described within the scope of the long-range financial planning. The role of Chile is highlighted and expansion of the number of Member States beyond the current 15 is discussed. The strengths of the ESO model, together with challenges as well as possible new opportunities and initiatives, are examined and a strategy for the future of ESO is outlined.

  14. Terrestrial Solar Power Plants - Current Perspectives and Long Term Visions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faiman, D.

    2004-12-01

    For terrestrial photovoltaic systems to be viable alternatives to satellite-borne solar generators, two conditions are necessary: Low-cost power generation and low-loss power transmission. This review will deal mainly with the power generation aspect of Very Large Scale terrestrial PV systems, for which it will be argued that system costs of less than $1000/kW may be achievable via the use of concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) technology. Such system costs should be directly competitive with fossil-fuelled ground-based power plants without the need for subsidies. As such, they could be readily integrated into the existing terrestrial grid systems in appropriate parts of the world. Regarding the transmission aspect, technological improvements are to be expected in low-loss long- distance cables - possibly via the discovery of hightemperature superconducting materials. This could enable the creation of a trans-equatorial power grid that, like satellite-borne systems, would ensure that the sun always shines on the generators. Key words: terrestrial solar energy, photovoltaics, dishconcentrators, low-cost electricity

  15. Long-term Ecological Research: Coweeta History and Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne T. Swank; Judith L. Meyer; Deyree A. Crossley

    2001-01-01

    The Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory-Institute of Ecology cooperative research program is one of the longest continuous collaborations on forest-ecosystem structure and function between a federal agency and academia in the country. Formally established in 1968, the program continues to mature in scientific scope, interdisciplinary expertise, administrative challenges,...

  16. Towards a Post-Antropocene Perspective on the Welfare City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braae, Ellen Marie; Bøggild, Signe Sophie

    2015-01-01

    of the anthropocene, we examine the welfare city’s materialisation in a wider perspective, as a relational assemblage of culturally significant landscapes, organised and administered by various institutions, legislations and vocabularies, to structure and stage a national vision of the good life. We coin this as ‘the...... green heritage’; an umbrella term bridging the gap between perspectives of the anthropocentric, the anthropocene and a possible post-anthropocene era, both challenged and driven by climate change and urbanisation....

  17. Global Climate Change: Three Policy Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-26

    the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system”; and to preparing “national action plans” to...through the ecological lens, lives and such values as intergenerational equity should not be quantified as a commodity.68 What people need are...ethical perspective in terms of the ecological values that global climate change threatens. Believes that values such as intergenerational equity

  18. Cardiorenal Syndrome: The Clinical Cardiologists’ Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Eric J.; Dellsperger, Kevin C.

    2011-01-01

    The term cardiorenal syndrome has evolved over the years. The understanding of the interactions between these two organ systems has led to better recognition and treatment strategies. As cardiovascular mortality is high in individuals with renal dysfunction, it is imperative to understand the pathophysiology behind the disease process. This knowledge may better serve these patients with this syndrome and improve their outcomes. In this review, we examine the key issues of the cardiorenal syndrome from a cardiologist's perspective. PMID:22258462

  19. Perspectives in Pig Science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiseman, J.; Varley, M.A.; Kemp, B.

    2003-01-01

    Perspectives in Pig Science features a collection of papers on five key areas: breeding and genetics; management, marketing and meat quality; health and welfare; reproduction and reproductive management; nutrition.

  20. A Matter of Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-21

    OUTCOMES. Based on the theoretical work of Jean Piaget and George Herbert Mead regarding perspective-taking capability enabling non-egocentric...discussion and comparison of theories and models of Piaget , Lawrence Kohlberg and Robert Selman, see Joseph Anthony Rodriguez’ dissertation, ―The...Development: A Sullivan- Piaget Perspective, Phoenix ed. (University of Chicago Press, 1982), 9. 27 Perrine Ruby and Jean Decety, ―How Would You Feel Versus

  1. Disciplinary Perspectives on Archaeoastronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCluskey, Stephen C.

    This chapter examines the contributions of major academic disciplines to archaeoastronomy, beginning with a consideration of several indicators of the participation of scholars from various fields. We then consider examples of research from astronomy and the physical sciences; anthropology, archaeology, and the social sciences; and the historical disciplines to see how they reflect their disciplinary perspectives. The questions drawn from these varied disciplinary perspectives stimulate different strands of research, enriching the study of astronomies in cultures.

  2. Ecological Perspectives in HCI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blevis, Eli; Bødker, Susanne; Flach, John

    The aim of the workshop is to provide a forum for researchers and practitioners to discuss the present and future of ecological perspectives in HCI. The participants will reflect on the current uses and interpretations of “ecology” and related concepts in the field. The workshop will assess...... the potential of ecological perspectives in HCI for supporting rich and meaningful analysis, as well as innovative design, of interactive technologies in real-life contexts...

  3. Community matrons improve health: patients' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Kerri; Ryder, Sherrie; Gousy, Mamood

    2007-10-01

    Community matrons are integral to the government's plans to reduce hospital bed-use by people with long-term conditions. Community matrons have been given the role of case managing the very high intensity users in an attempt to reduce emergency bed days through preventing admissions and early discharge and through working closely with their patients to develop personalized plans of care and to support and encourage patients to take more control of their condition. To date there has been little research from the patients' perspective into whether community matrons are achieving their aim. This series of two articles reports on an evaluation of a community matron service, which was initiated over two years ago, from the perspective of the patient. This second article reports on the patients' perspective on how the community matron's involvement has improved their health and what patients' perceived to be important about the community matron service. The findings indicate that patients' value the community matrons understanding of their individual experiences of long-term conditions; the clinical skills to address and give patients confidence that their conditions could be managed; and the availability of the community matrons to the patients. These aspects of the community matron's role seemed to help the patients to feel safe and secure, improved their quality of life and ultimately increased the confidence and control they felt over their long-term conditions.

  4. A Semiotic Perspective on Legal Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Lates

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Language, generally, the legal one, in particular, is subject to mandatory rules ofspecialization of the semantic system of terms andstatements. The pressure of the tradition of thelegal act proves to be an inhibiting factor of itsbecoming, being relevant perspective of the issuer,being seen either as a legislator, either as a practitioner in the system: the new technological mobilityrequires major rethinking, even a move of emphasisfrom the transmitter the receiver, which meansthat the first one must consider the translatability of terms in widely used languages for effectivecommunication in the new contexts.

  5. Term Graph Rewriting and Parallel Term Rewriting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Corradini

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between Term Graph Rewriting and Term Rewriting is well understood: a single term graph reduction may correspond to several term reductions, due to sharing. It is also known that if term graphs are allowed to contain cycles, then one term graph reduction may correspond to infinitely many term reductions. We stress that this fact can be interpreted in two ways. According to the "sequential interpretation", a term graph reduction corresponds to an infinite sequence of term reductions, as formalized by Kennaway et.al. using strongly converging derivations over the complete metric space of infinite terms. Instead according to the "parallel interpretation" a term graph reduction corresponds to the parallel reduction of an infinite set of redexes in a rational term. We formalize the latter notion by exploiting the complete partial order of infinite and possibly partial terms, and we stress that this interpretation allows to explain the result of reducing circular redexes in several approaches to term graph rewriting.

  6. Visual perspective in remembering and episodic future thought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Kathleen B; Wooldridge, Cynthia L; Rice, Heather J; Berg, Jeffrey J; Szpunar, Karl K

    2016-01-01

    According to the constructive episodic simulation hypothesis, remembering and episodic future thinking are supported by a common set of constructive processes. In the present study, we directly addressed this assertion in the context of third-person perspectives that arise during remembering and episodic future thought. Specifically, we examined the frequency with which participants remembered past events or imagined future events from third-person perspectives. We also examined the different viewpoints from which third-person perspective events were remembered or imagined. Although future events were somewhat more likely to be imagined from a third-person perspective, the spatial viewpoint distributions of third-person perspectives characterizing remembered and imagined events were highly similar. These results suggest that a similar constructive mechanism may be at work when people remember events from a perspective that could not have been experienced in the past and when they imagine events from a perspective that could not be experienced in the future. The findings are discussed in terms of their consistency with--and as extensions of--the constructive episodic simulation hypothesis.

  7. Shifting visual perspective during memory retrieval reduces the accuracy of subsequent memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcotti, Petra; St Jacques, Peggy L

    2018-03-01

    Memories for events can be retrieved from visual perspectives that were never experienced, reflecting the dynamic and reconstructive nature of memories. Characteristics of memories can be altered when shifting from an own eyes perspective, the way most events are initially experienced, to an observer perspective, in which one sees oneself in the memory. Moreover, recent evidence has linked these retrieval-related effects of visual perspective to subsequent changes in memories. Here we examine how shifting visual perspective influences the accuracy of subsequent memories for complex events encoded in the lab. Participants performed a series of mini-events that were experienced from their own eyes, and were later asked to retrieve memories for these events while maintaining the own eyes perspective or shifting to an alternative observer perspective. We then examined how shifting perspective during retrieval modified memories by influencing the accuracy of recall on a final memory test. Across two experiments, we found that shifting visual perspective reduced the accuracy of subsequent memories and that reductions in vividness when shifting visual perspective during retrieval predicted these changes in the accuracy of memories. Our findings suggest that shifting from an own eyes to an observer perspective influences the accuracy of long-term memories.

  8. Complexity Perspectives on Language, Communication and Society

    CERN Document Server

    Bastardas-Boada, Albert

    2013-01-01

    The “language-communication-society” triangle defies traditional scientific approaches. Rather, it is a phenomenon that calls for an integration of complex, transdisciplinary perspectives, if we are to make any progress in understanding how it works. The highly diverse agents in play are not merely cognitive and/or cultural, but also emotional and behavioural in their specificity. Indeed, the effort may require building a theoretical and methodological body of knowledge that can effectively convey the characteristic properties of phenomena in human terms. New complexity approaches allow us to rethink our limited and mechanistic images of human societies and create more appropriate emo-cognitive dynamic and holistic models. We have to enter into dialogue with the complexity views coming out of other more ‘material’ sciences, but we also need to take steps in the linguistic and psycho-sociological fields towards creating perspectives and concepts better fitted to human characteristics. Our understanding...

  9. Experimental design research approaches, perspectives, applications

    CERN Document Server

    Stanković, Tino; Štorga, Mario

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a new, multidisciplinary perspective on and paradigm for integrative experimental design research. It addresses various perspectives on methods, analysis and overall research approach, and how they can be synthesized to advance understanding of design. It explores the foundations of experimental approaches and their utility in this domain, and brings together analytical approaches to promote an integrated understanding. The book also investigates where these approaches lead to and how they link design research more fully with other disciplines (e.g. psychology, cognition, sociology, computer science, management). Above all, the book emphasizes the integrative nature of design research in terms of the methods, theories, and units of study—from the individual to the organizational level. Although this approach offers many advantages, it has inherently led to a situation in current research practice where methods are diverging and integration between individual, team and organizational under...

  10. The emergence of partnering in construction practice: an activity theory perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartmann, Andreas; Bresnen, Mike

    2011-01-01

    Over the last decades, interest has increased enormously in collaborative arrangements subsumed under the term partnering. Recent critics have stated that prescriptive approaches dominate the discussion on partnering in construction. There is a lack of multiple perspectives on the partnering

  11. A Learning Style Perspective to Investigate the Necessity of Developing Adaptive Learning Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gwo-Jen Hwang; Han-Yu Sung; Chun-Ming Hung; Iwen Huang

    2013-01-01

    .... However, few studies have been conducted to investigate if students have the ability to choose the best-fit e-learning systems or content presentation styles for themselves in terms of learning style perspective...

  12. Looking Ahead Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zierath, Juleen R; Wallberg-Henriksson, Harriet

    2015-01-01

    The health-promoting benefits of exercise have been recognized for centuries, yet the molecular and cellular mechanisms for the acute and chronic adaptive response to a variety of physical activities remain incompletely described. This Perspective will take a forward view to highlight emerging...

  13. Perspectives on Peace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bents, Richard; Trygestad, JoAnn

    Students assessed as having different personality types were queried concerning their perspectives on peace. Two hundred seventy-five students (ages 14-18) from Poland, West Germany, and the United States defined peace and indicated the degree of influence they felt they have on the future. Differences in definitions of peace, optimism, and degree…

  14. Hyperemesis gravidarum: current perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Fergus P; Lutomski, Jennifer E; Greene, Richard A

    2014-01-01

    Hyperemesis gravidarum is a complex condition with a multifactorial etiology characterized by severe intractable nausea and vomiting. Despite a high prevalence, studies exploring underlying etiology and treatments are limited. We performed a literature review, focusing on articles published over the last 10 years, to examine current perspectives and recent developments in hyperemesis gravidarum. PMID:25125986

  15. — THE PATIENT'S PERSPECTIVE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine pregnant women's perspective of violence against them and to establish the main perpetrators inthe society. ... The prevalence of physical violence among pregnant women was 17/233 = 7.3% and the prevalence of sexual violence .... tend to protect their partner's image and find it difficult to readily.

  16. Perspectives in Education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Perspectives in Education is a professional, peer-reviewed journal that encourages the submission of previously unpublished articles on contemporary educational issues. As a journal that represents a variety of cross-disciplinary interests, both theoretical and practical, it seeks to stimulate debate on a wide range of topics.

  17. Feminist Counseling: A Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Alison

    1975-01-01

    This article attempts to show that feminist counseling is part of the larger feminist perspective. The author maintains that to be a non-sexist counselor is not enough. Counselors need to encourage a feminist viewpoint in clients. The article describes how this might be done. (EJT)

  18. Perspective, May 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achieve, Inc., 2009

    2009-01-01

    "Perspective" is a monthly e-newsletter presenting news and views from Achieve. This month's issue commences with a commentary assessing the meaning of college- and career-readiness. In doing so, it addresses some of the questions Achieve gets asked most frequently, including: What subjects are most important in defining "Readiness"? What does…

  19. Perspective, May 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achieve, Inc., 2010

    2010-01-01

    "Perspective" is a monthly e-newsletter presenting news and views from Achieve. This month's issue commences with a report presenting the recommendations made by Achieve to the Senate HELP (Health, Education, Labor and Pensions) Committee for the improvement of the college and career readiness of all students. This issue also reports:…

  20. Social Perspective Taking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    an examination of the developmental states of childhood ( Piaget , 1924), scales of moral development (Kohlberg, 1969), and their combination into...sequence: The cognitive - developmental approach to socialization. In D. A. Goslin (Ed.), Handbook of socialization theory and research. Chicago: Rand...exchange or reversal. Taken together, many of the definitions and developmental theories of perspective taking incorporate an individual’s

  1. Perspectives in Education: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Guidelines. Guidelines to authors can be found on the journal's own site here: http://www.perspectives-in-education.com/pages.aspx?PID=10. Alternatively, see below: Information for Authors. Submission of articles. PiE invites submissions in the following categories: Research articles. Contributors are encouraged to ...

  2. A Different Perspective

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    BOOK REVIEW. A Different Perspective. Sushan Konar. An Introductory Course of Statistical. Mechanics. Palash B Pal. Narosa Publishing. Pages: 394, 2008, Price:| 334. An Introductory Course of Statistical Me- chanics [1] is a pedagogic textbook primarily meant for graduate and advanced undergradu- ate physics students ...

  3. Primary Index Term Secondary Index Term Tertiary Index term ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    chaubey

    Tertiary Index term. Geosciences. Solid earth. Tectonics. Structural Geology. Geodynamics. Seismology. Exploration geophysics. Seismic hazards. Geomagnetism. Mineralogy. Petrology. Metamorphic. Igneous. Sedimentary. Fossil fuels. Petroleum and coal. Isotope geology. Geochronology. Isotope geology. Landform and.

  4. The trans-generational perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiola Fortuna

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the most significant contributions on the trans-generational perspective, starting from purely psychoanalytic concepts that are consistent with this perspective.In recent years the trans-generational perspective has been the subject of growing attention both inside and outside the world of psychoanalysis. The evocative phrase "let the time in the consulting room" has aroused the interest of many therapists and stimulated the search for new perspectives that are ableto provide appropriate responses, in front of the clinic’s new questions.Finally, this work dedicate attention to possible links between the psychosomatic and trans generational perspective: a search scope susceptible to interesting developments.

  5. Perspectives East and West

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken-ichi Sasaki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The object of this paper is to elucidate the sense of space peculiar to Japanese sensibility. To accomplish this task I consult not only paintings but also waka, distinctively Japanese poetry. I also compare the structures of Japanese and Western perspective in order to highlight the distinctive features of the Japanese sense of space. In China and Japan, traditional landscape painting was called sansui painting, literally, painting of “mountains and waters,” unlike fūkei painting, which is a modern adaptation of the Western notion of landscape. Landscape as sansui is characterized by its vitalistic conception: the cosmic space is filled with ki, a vital and spiritual element. This view is reflected in the Japanese notion of keshiki (literally, color of ki, another word meaning landscape, to which I pay particular attention because it is a vernacular word and expresses the genuine Japanese sense of space, differentiated even from the Chinese perspective found in Sansui paintings. Such a space as keshiki was to be felt rather than seen. The notion of the picturesque was associated in Japan with a spatial extent. It is a concept closely related to a humid climate that produces much fog or haze. A typical description is found in the Tale of Genji. It is in waka, from the thirteenth century, that we find the first expression of Japanese perspective, which consists the combination of a tactile, sometimes auditory close range with the visual, distant range, yet without a middle range (which is obscured by fog. This is very different from Western geometrical perspective, which is essentially constituted by the middle range relating the close continuously to the distant. In painting, this Japanese perspective was realized for the first time in ukiyo-e, particularly in the work of Hokusai and Hiroshige. I assume that this composition was transplanted to the Western world during the fashion for “japonisme,” and now determines the basic

  6. A communication training perspective on AND versus DNR directives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Tomer T; Coyle, Nessa

    2015-04-01

    From a communication perspective, the term "do not resuscitate" (DNR) is challenging to use in end-of-life discussions because it omits the goals of care. An alternative, "Allow Natural Death" (AND), has been proposed as a better way of framing this palliative care discussion. We present a case where a nurse unsuccessfully discusses end-of-life goals of care using the term DNR. Subsequently, with the aid of a communication trainer, he is coached to successfully use the term "AND" to facilitate this discussion and advance his goal of palliative care communication and planning. We contrast the advantages and disadvantages of the term AND from the communication training perspective and suggest that AND-framing language replace DNR as a better way to facilitate meaningful end-of-life communication. One well-designed, randomized, controlled simulation study supports this practice. We also consider the communication implications of "natural" versus "unnatural" death.

  7. What Is Happy Death? From the Perspective of Happiness Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong-Kyu

    2018-01-01

    This paper is to review what is happy death from the perspective of happiness education. To discuss this study logically, four research questions are addressed. First, what is the concept of human death? Second, what are life and death from the Eastern and the Western religious viewpoints? Third, what is happy death in terms of happiness…

  8. Khomeini's Argument for His Islamic Republic: A Relationist Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matelski, Marilyn J.

    Noting that the terms used by the Western media in describing the establishment of the Islamic Republic in Iran by the Ayatollah Khomeini have created the impression that the Ayatollah is both irrational and inhumane, this paper argues from contemporary eclectic rhetorical theory--that "rationality" is a function of perspective--to…

  9. Children's Adjustment Following Divorce: Risk and Resilience Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Joan B.; Emery, Robert E.

    2003-01-01

    Reviews the empirical literature on the longer-term adjustment of children of divorce from the perspective of (a) the stressors and elevated risks that divorce presents for children and (b) protective factors associated with better adjustment. The resiliency demonstrated by the majority of children is discussed, as are controversies regarding the…

  10. Pursuing Information: A Conversation Analytic Perspective on Communication Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burch, Alfred R.

    2014-01-01

    Research on second language (L2) communication strategies over the past three decades has concerned itself broadly with defining their usage in terms of planning and compensation, as well as with the use of taxonomies for coding different types of strategies. Taking a Conversation Analytic (CA) perspective, this article examines the fine-grained…

  11. Forest gene conservation from the perspective of the international community

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Hosny El-Lakany

    2017-01-01

    conservation of forest genetic resources (FGR). After presenting internationally adopted definitions of some terms related to FGR, the characteristics of the current state of FGR conservation from a global perspective are summarized. Many international and regional organizations and institutions are engaged in the conservation of FGR at degrees ranging from...

  12. Collective memory : A perspective from (experimental) clinical psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessel, Ineke; Moulds, Michelle L.

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers the concept of collective memory from an experimental clinical psychology perspective. Exploration of the term collective reveals a broad distinction between literatures that view collective memories as a property of groups (collectivistic memory) and those that regard these

  13. Governance, Globalization, and Political Economy: Perspectives from Canadian Adult Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    The concept of governance has become increasingly popular over the past 15 years signifying its growing acceptance in a number of key sectors of society. Is governance a neutral term that is merely a synonym for government, or does it signify a shift to neoliberalism? Working from a political-economy perspective, this article will explore the…

  14. Perspectives on Information Literacy: A Framework for Conceptual Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addison, Colleen; Meyers, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Information literacy, 40 years since the term was coined, remains a conceptually contested aspect of library and information science research. This paper uses a review of the literature related to the concept of information literacy to identify three different perspectives, their historical origins, and connection to library and information…

  15. Engagement beyond Interruption: A Performative Perspective on Listening and Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRae, Chris; Nainby, Keith

    2015-01-01

    This article presents an understanding of listening as a performative and pedagogical act. Moving beyond existing theories of listening in communication and education studies that frame listening as a selective and incremental act, this article considers listening in terms of a performance studies and critical education studies perspective. An…

  16. Customer Value Controlling ¨C Combining Different Value Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Andreas Kramer; Thomas Burgartz

    2015-01-01

    The article begins by presenting a model for the structuring of customer data which can be used to demonstrate the value of data in different forms of aggregation. Since Customer Value plays a crucial role in this model the term is examined more closely. As part of a value-based customer relationship management critical parameters are customer benefits and customer profitability. Both perspectives are included in the term Customer Value. A segmentation approach is shown which integrates the k...

  17. Descriptions of membrane mechanics from microscopic and effective two-dimensional perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomholt, Michael Andersen; Miao, L.

    2006-01-01

    the membrane appears as a thin layer of finite thickness and with highly inhomogeneous material and force distributions in its transverse direction, and an effective, two-dimensional perspective, in which the membrane is treated as an infinitely thin surface, with effective material and mechanical properties......Mechanics of fluid membranes may be described in terms of the concepts of mechanical deformations and stresses or in terms of mechanical free-energy functions. In this paper, each of the two descriptions is developed by viewing a membrane from two perspectives: a microscopic perspective, in which....... A connection between these two perspectives is then established. Moreover, the functional dependence of the variation in the mechanical free energy of the membrane on its mechanical deformations is first studied in the microscopic perspective. The result is then used to examine to what extent different...

  18. Visual perspective in autobiographical memories: reliability, consistency, and relationship to objective memory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siedlecki, Karen L

    2015-01-01

    Visual perspective in autobiographical memories was examined in terms of reliability, consistency, and relationship to objective memory performance in a sample of 99 individuals. Autobiographical memories may be recalled from two visual perspectives--a field perspective in which individuals experience the memory through their own eyes, or an observer perspective in which individuals experience the memory from the viewpoint of an observer in which they can see themselves. Participants recalled nine word-cued memories that differed in emotional valence (positive, negative and neutral) and rated their memories on 18 scales. Results indicate that visual perspective was the most reliable memory characteristic overall and is consistently related to emotional intensity at the time of recall and amount of emotion experienced during the memory. Visual perspective is unrelated to memory for words, stories, abstract line drawings or faces.

  19. Terms of trade and Russian economic development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgy Idrisov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses economic development trends in Russia in late 2014 and 2015 and reviews the basic mechanisms of how changes in the terms of trade affect the economic development of countries from a historical perspective and with a particular focus on those changes in the Russian economy that occurred in late 2014 and 2015. The authors demonstrate that structural reforms aimed at diversification of production and exports are necessary for sustainable economic development, for social stability and for reducing the impact of variability in the terms of trade on the Russian economy. During periods of instability in the government agenda's measures for the real and financial sectors, it is necessary not only to compensate economic agents losses caused by changes in the terms of trade but also to improve the economic structure and to develop and enhance the stability of the financial markets.

  20. EDITORIAL: INVENTING NEW PERSPECTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editor Al-Jami'ah: Journal of Islamic Studies

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available One impact of globalization is that contemporary issues will rapidly come to fore. In fact, they frequently do not derive from Islamic knowledge or Islamic ethics. They even often do not go with Islamic identities. In sum, such issues will become a challenge for Islamic studies. Due to the challenges, it is notable to pose a question: whether viewpoints having been exercised by scholars in Islamic studies are workable for strong globalization stream or vice versa? Seemingly, if the perspectives do not stand for new global phenomenon, Islamic studies will be marginalized or put aside by both muslims and others. Accordingly, this is because of worldly affairs demand. Given this, efforts leading to the invention of new perspectives are urgent.

  1. Perspectives on reactor safety. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haskin, F.E. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering; Camp, A.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hodge, S.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Engineering Technology Div.

    1997-11-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) maintains a technical training center at Chattanooga, Tennessee to provide appropriate training to both new and experienced NRC employees. This document describes a one-week course in reactor safety concepts. The course consists of five modules: (1) the development of safety concepts; (2) severe accident perspectives; (3) accident progression in the reactor vessel; (4) containment characteristics and design bases; and (5) source terms and offsite consequences. The course text is accompanied by slides and videos during the actual presentation of the course.

  2. Can Diabetes Heal?- From Observations to Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasi, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes, both type 1 and type 2, is considered a chronic incurable disease. Complete cure would bring enormous benefits in terms of both the prevention of complications and reduction of the very high resulting social cost. Recent advances in the study of autoimmune mechanisms for type 1 and some non-medical therapeutic approaches for type 2 shed light on the pathophysiology and induce optimism concerning a possible cure in the not-too-distant future. This perspective highlights the main mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology of the two forms of diabetes, as the latest research has revealed, and the resulting possible therapeutic strategies that may be involved in obtaining a cure.

  3. The Dialectic Psychology perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveros M., Ricardo; Facultad de Psicología, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú

    2014-01-01

    The present paper exposes the dialectic psychology perspectives in the twentieth first century Peru. We ponder about the dialectics psychology denomination, connecting them to other denominations used in the materialist psychology trend. We analyze the relations between dialectics psychology and social neuroscience, delimiting both the psychological sciences field and the neuroscience field. We develop issues from the emancipator project of dialectics psychology, precising personal developmen...

  4. The Polyvagal Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Porges, Stephen W.

    2006-01-01

    The Polyvagal Theory introduced a new perspective relating autonomic function to behavior that included an appreciation of autonomic nervous system as a “system,” the identification of neural circuits involved in the regulation of autonomic state, and an interpretation of autonomic reactivity as adaptive within the context of the phylogeny of the vertebrate autonomic nervous system. The paper has two objectives: First, to provide an explicit statement of the theory; and second, to introduce t...

  5. Investigative Journalism: global perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Price, Stuart

    2017-01-01

    This volume contains the work of nine members or associates of the Media Discourse Group. Investigative Journalism: Global Perspectives presents a theoretical and practical guide to contemporary international investigative journalism to outline principles of modern investigative work in the digital world. A diverse range of contributions from academics, journalists, and activists interrogate wide ranging issues such as state power, freedom of speech and social justice, as well as exploring...

  6. Ethical Perspectives on Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Sojková, Eva

    2008-01-01

    In my paper I examine the practice of advertising from ethical perspective. The paper informs about the ethical regulation of advertising practice in Czech Republic and highlights its interconnection with legislative regulation. It also introduces the work of the Committee for advertising {--} the first organization for auto-regulation of advertising in Eastern Europe {--} whose goal is to ensure honest, legal, decent, truthful practice of advertising in Czech Republic. In the main part of my...

  7. Time perspective: temporal extension, time estimation, and impulsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennings, C J; Burns, A M

    1998-07-01

    It has been proposed that time perspective is an important variable that can, in part, explain the differences between people in terms of the development of self-control. One corollary of this position is that time perspective is somehow related to systematic biases in the way people perceive the passage of time. Such a bias may or may not be augmented by an association between time perspective and impulsivity. Two studies were conducted using measures of temporal extension, time estimation, and impulsivity. In general, no consistent effects were found. Neither time perspective nor impulsivity was related to any characteristic pattern of errors. In the second study, time perspective (mediated by age) was associated with predicting very brief time estimation scores, but not longer time estimation periods. It was concluded that whatever the mechanism might be that underlies the purported effect between time perspective and self-control, it is not related to a differential ability to perceive time moving more or less quickly.

  8. Refined characterization of student perspectives on quantum physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Baily

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The perspectives of introductory classical physics students can often negatively influence how those students later interpret quantum phenomena when taking an introductory course in modern physics. A detailed exploration of student perspectives on the interpretation of quantum physics is needed, both to characterize student understanding of physics concepts, and to inform how we might teach traditional content. Our previous investigations of student perspectives on quantum physics have indicated they can be highly nuanced, and may vary both within and across contexts. In order to better understand the contextual and often seemingly contradictory stances of students on matters of interpretation, we interviewed 19 students from four introductory modern physics courses taught at the University of Colorado. We find that students have attitudes and opinions that often parallel the stances of expert physicists when arguing for their favored interpretations of quantum mechanics, allowing for more nuanced characterizations of student perspectives in terms of three key interpretive themes. We present a framework for characterizing student perspectives on quantum mechanics, and demonstrate its utility in interpreting the sometimes contradictory nature of student responses to previous surveys. We further find that students most often vacillate in their responses when what makes intuitive sense to them is not in agreement with what they consider to be a correct response, underscoring the need to distinguish between the personal and the public perspectives of introductory modern physics students.

  9. A modern political education. Nonviolent perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia SECCI

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available he article deals with a nonviolent perspective of political education and with some theories that may conjugate these two domains: Nonviolent Culture and Political Education. Methodologically an approach rooted in the theoretical and bibliographical research has been privileged. The discourse investigates the causes of the actual political disaffection, and follows the purpose to highlight the irrevocable role of a structured nonviolent perspective (like Gandhi’s one, in the rehabilitation of politics. Nonviolence does not remove Marxist elements of legitimation in their entirety – as Gramsci’s theory will highlight – provided that they correspond the “conquest of violence” that needs to succeed first and foremost in the “intimate” individual’s awareness. Moreover, the importance of contemporary ecological theories, which embed the nonviolent perspective in a general epistemological view, will be also discussed to reaffirm the crucial significance of the latter. Through this path, different authors, hailing from diverse backgrounds, such as philosophical, pedagogical and anthropological studies, show meaningful affinities and matching points, presenting, in some case, political education in terms of education and training of the “political emotions”. The reflection highlights the relevance of an expanded political participation and experimentation through praxis, as ways of an actual political education, in the belief that emphasizing the pedagogic dimension of political activity, means nothing less than searching for its deepest fundament.

  10. Academic knowing in/through double perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margareta Melin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the cultures and learning practices of four academic schools with an expressed wish to bridge the gap between traditional academic and arts or journalistic practices. Pierre Bourdieu, the French sociologist, termed them allodoxic, in that they challenge the traditional academic way of thinking and doing. Results from two research projects, spanning over 5 years, employing a multitude of methods, have been used in this article. The results show that these challenging bridging attempts create conflictual cultures. First, faculties with different backgrounds are employed and they bring with them their respective habitus and doxa (Bourdieu, which is manifested in their different epistemologies, doxas. Despite a strong will to work interdisciplinarily, conflicts (destructive arise particularly around epistemological and pedagogic issues. Second, I show that students at these schools have had double-perspective learning, through theoretical and practice-based methods, despite little help from their lecturers who have high ideals but little actual knowledge themselves of working in/through a double perspective. In many cases, through trial-and-error processes, students have appropriated embodied knowledge of a double perspective, which has given them surplus value when compared with learning through only traditional academic learning practices. It gives reflexive insights and understandings as well as transferrable skills highly useful in professional life. I finally argue that allodoxic conflictual cultures actually construct new ways of knowing through continuous discussions and meetings between faculties with different competences.

  11. [Nursing care perspectives and foresights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecordier, Didier; Jovic, Ljiljana

    2016-12-01

    As a continuation of its work and of the seminar on nursing sciences education in 2014, the “Association de recherche en soins infirmiers” (Arsi) organized a seminar on the 3rd and-4th of June 2016 in Nantes entitled : “nursing : perspectives and foresights”. More than fifty participants from the francophone area representing various sectors of practice : clinical, teaching, management and students gathered to debate and produce benchmarks to support the development of nursing sciences in France and to draw future directions for clinical practice and training. The successive sessions made it possible to reflect, to confront opinions, to make proposals and to identify the terms of the problematic of care and nursing knowledge today and the methodological elements relating to foresight. At the end of this very creative seminar, new avenues of reflection emerged shifting our usual look at the nurse profession. Orientations for training and practice have been defined with different stakes depending on the level of training and professional commitment. The strong links between professional, scientific and academic discipline have also been clarified, highlighting the importance to hold a high theoretical and scientific requirement, rigorous clinical practice, strong professional commitment and effective leadership.

  12. Human compulsivity: A perspective from evolutionary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Dan J; Hermesh, Haggai; Eilam, David; Segalas, Cosi; Zohar, Joseph; Menchon, Jose; Nesse, Randolph M

    2016-05-01

    Biological explanations address not only proximal mechanisms (for example, the underlying neurobiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder), but also distal mechanisms (that is, a consideration of how particular neurobiological mechanisms evolved). Evolutionary medicine has emphasized a series of explanations for vulnerability to disease, including constraints, mismatch, and tradeoffs. The current paper will consider compulsive symptoms in obsessive-compulsive and related disorders and behavioral addictions from this evolutionary perspective. It will argue that while obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is typically best conceptualized as a dysfunction, it is theoretically and clinically valuable to understand some symptoms of obsessive-compulsive and related disorders in terms of useful defenses. The symptoms of behavioral addictions can also be conceptualized in evolutionary terms (for example, mismatch), which in turn provides a sound foundation for approaching assessment and intervention. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Une perspective interactionniste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joëlle Morrissette

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Cet article vise à montrer l’intérêt de puiser à la sociologie pour conduire des recherches dans le domaine de l’éducation. Plus précisément, il sera question de la contribution d’une perspective interactionniste pour appréhender un objet attaché à l’évaluation des apprentissages des élèves. Comme on le verra, s’inspirer en particulier d’auteurs attachés à la tradition de l’interactionnisme symbolique amène à se situer en marge des manières de dire et de faire habituelles des investigations portant sur cet objet, de la phase de problématisation à celle de l’analyse, au profit d’un point de vue (resocialisant et contextualisant. Pour illustrer le propos, je prendrai appui sur le format d’une recherche ayant documenté le savoir-faire d’un groupe d’enseignantes du primaire en matière d’évaluation formative, et ayant adopté une perspective interactionniste comme posture générale de recherche.An Interactionist PerspectiveAn Alternative Approach to Learning AssessmentThis article aims to show the usefulness of drawing from sociology to conduct research in the field of education. Specifically, it discusses the contribution of an interactionist perspective in understanding the objects attached to student learning assessment. As we shall see, drawing especially from authors working in the tradition of Symbolic Interactionism leads us outside the usual ways of thinking and doing in investigations related to assessment objects, from problematization to analysis, in favour of a (resocializing and contextualizing perspective. To illustrate this point, I will examine the format of a study documenting the expertise of a group of elementary school teachers with regard to formative assessment, and having an interactionist perspective as its basis of research.Una perspectiva interaccionista: otro punto de vista sobre la evaluación del aprendizajeEste artículo tiene como objetivo el demostrar el interés de

  14. The architect's perspective on the tour and map perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulou, Athina

    2015-09-01

    Literature in linguistics suggests that when people are asked to provide an oral spatial description, they usually provide a body-centered narrative; they adopt a Tour Perspective, that is, an imaginary tour of the space rather than a Map Perspective, that is, a description focused on spatial relations as seen from above (Linde and Labov in Language 51(1):924-939, 1975; Howald in Discursive constraints on space in narrative: evidence from guilty plea discourse, eVox 3, 2009). I conducted a pilot experiment to address the following questions: Does the formal knowledge of architects--their familiarity with plan drawings and maps--override the tendency to adopt the tour perspective? Does the tour perspective depend on the actual experience of space? Twenty-two graduate students in architecture were asked to respond to the following questions: (1) "Can you describe the layout of your apartment?" (2) "Can you describe the layout of an ideal apartment?" In the responses to the first question most participants used the tour perspective. In the responses to the second question most participants used the map perspective. The results provide evidence that architects' formal knowledge does not override the preference of the tour perspective in descriptions of experienced space. Moreover, that the tour perspective is associated with the actual experience of space.

  15. Children's pain perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteve, R; Marquina-Aponte, V

    2012-05-01

    Previous studies on children's pain perspectives remain limited to English-speaking populations. An exploratory cross-sectional descriptive design was used to investigate the developmental progression of children's pain perspectives, including their pain experience, its definition and attributes, causality and coping. The Children's Pain Perspectives Inventory was applied to 180 healthy Spanish children. A coding system was developed following the content analysis method. Three age groups were compared: 4-6 years, corresponding to the Piagetian pre-operational stage of cognitive development; 7-11 years, corresponding to stage of concrete operations; and 12-14 years, corresponding to the period of early formal operations. In children between 4 and 6, the predominant narratives related to physical injuries, the notion of causality and the definition of pain. In children between 7 and 11, the predominant narratives were those in which pain was described as a sensation in one part of the body. The view of pain as having an emotional basis significantly increased with age and was more frequent in adolescents. In contrast, children between 4-6 and 7-11 indicated that pain occurs spontaneously. The denial of any positive aspects of pain significantly decreased with age; some children between 7 and 11 referred to the 'possibility of relief', while the view that pain is a 'learning experience' was significantly more frequent among adolescents aged between 12 and 14 years. The use of cognitive strategies to control pain significantly increased with age. Between 12 and 14 years of age, adolescents communicate pain by non-verbal behaviour and reported that they do not express demands for relief. There was a progression from concrete to more complex notions of pain as age increased. These results may be of use to health professionals and parents to understand how children at various developmental stages express and cope with pain and to develop tools that effectively assess and

  16. Cooperative strategies European perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Killing, J Peter

    1997-01-01

    Cooperative Strategies: European Perspectives is one of three geographically targeted volumes in which the contributors present the most current research on topics such as advances in theories of cooperative strategies, the formation of cooperative alliances, the dynamics of partner relationships, and the role of information and knowledge in cooperative alliances. Blending conceptual insights with empirical analyses, the contributors highlight commonalities and differences across national, cultural, and trade zones. The chapters in this volume are anchored in a wide set of theoretical approaches, conceptual frameworks, and models, illustrating how rich the area of cooperative strategies is for scholarly inquiry.

  17. Kolmogorov in perspective

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    The editorial board for the History of Mathematics series has selected for this volume a series of translations from two Russian publications, Kolmogorov in Remembrance and Mathematics and its Historical Development. This book, Kolmogorov in Perspective, includes articles written by Kolmogorov's students and colleagues and his personal accounts of shared experiences and lifelong mathematical friendships. The articles combine to give an excellent personal and scientific biography of this important mathematician. There is also an extensive bibliography with the complete list of Kolmogorov's works-including the articles written for encyclopedias and newspapers. The book is illustrated with photographs and includes quotations from Kolmogorov's letters and conversations, uniquely reflecting his mathematical tastes and opinions.

  18. Perspectives on ontology learning

    CERN Document Server

    Lehmann, J

    2014-01-01

    Perspectives on Ontology Learning brings together researchers and practitioners from different communities − natural language processing, machine learning, and the semantic web − in order to give an interdisciplinary overview of recent advances in ontology learning.Starting with a comprehensive introduction to the theoretical foundations of ontology learning methods, the edited volume presents the state-of-the-start in automated knowledge acquisition and maintenance. It outlines future challenges in this area with a special focus on technologies suitable for pushing the boundaries beyond the c

  19. Nuclear safety in perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, K.; Sjöberg, B.M.D.; Lauridsen, Kurt

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the NKS/SOS-1 project has been to enhance common understanding about requirements for nuclear safety by finding improved means of communicat-ing on the subject in society. The project, which has been built around a number of seminars, wassupported by limited research in three sub......-projects: Risk assessment Safety analysis Strategies for safety management The report describes an industry in change due to societal factors. The concepts of risk and safety, safety management and systems forregulatory oversight are de-scribed in the nuclear area and also, to widen the perspective, for other...

  20. Rowing competitions and perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Alfinio; Bernhardt, Stephen A.; Shipman, Henry L.

    2015-02-01

    This paper is about integrating the use of graphing technology (specifically, GeoGebra) with principles of motion, principles of perspective, and the concept of vanishing points to model a dynamic event. Students were asked to analyse video images of a rowing competition filmed with a single camera positioned perpendicular to the race. The fixed position of the camera in such races makes it difficult to determine whether a scull closer to the camera is actually overtaking another, more distant scull. The paper illustrates how students in their first year at the university can integrate the use of technology, science, mathematics, and writing to solve a real world problem involving motion.

  1. Perspective and Spatiality in the Modern Age

    OpenAIRE

    Fausto Fraisopi

    2016-01-01

    the domain of Art critique and becoming a philosophical argument. How can we think of Perspective as symbolic Form? Is Perspective really a symbolic form? Why is Perspective so important? Because at the beginning of the Modern Age, Perspective as spiritual figure grounds many symbolic or even many scientific constructions. We could we say that perspective open the foundation of modern science as such. The “Geometrization” of Vision, beginning with perspective, will be for us the interpretativ...

  2. Russian oil policy under Putin in perspective; La politique petroliere Russe sous Poutine en perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossiaud, S. [Universite Pierre Mendes-France, Lab. d' Economie de la Production et de l' Integration Internationale, CNRS, 38 - Grenoble (France)

    2009-07-15

    This article intends to explain and evaluate the interactions between the three developments which have structured the Russian oil industry since the beginning of V. Putin's second presidential term of office: the slowing down in production growth as well as the absolute decline of the latter observed in 2008, the reorganization of this industry marked by the increasing role of public oil companies and, finally, the adjustments made to the contractual arrangements surrounding the activities of the upstream oil sector. It has shown, on one hand, that the decline in current production is the result of the exhaustion of short term strategies by private Russian companies, and on the other hand, that the contract adjustments are insufficient to allow the Russian companies to adjust to more long term strategies. From this perspective, the increased role played by public oil companies can be analysed as an organisational response to this institutional dead-end. (author)

  3. Short-Term and Long-Term Educational Mobility of Families: A Two-Sex Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xi; Mare, Robert D

    2017-02-01

    We use a multigenerational perspective to investigate how families reproduce and pass their educational advantages to succeeding generations. Unlike traditional mobility studies that have typically focused on one-sex influences from fathers to sons, we rely on a two-sex approach that accounts for interactions between males and females-the process in which males and females mate and have children with those of similar educational statuses and jointly determine the educational status attainment of their offspring. Using data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, we approach this issue from both a short-term and a long-term perspective. For the short term, grandparents' educational attainments have a direct association with grandchildren's education as well as an indirect association that is mediated by parents' education and demographic behaviors. For the long term, initial educational advantages of families may benefit as many as three subsequent generations, but such advantages are later offset by the lower fertility of highly educated persons. Yet, all families eventually achieve the same educational distribution of descendants because of intermarriages between families of high- and low-education origin.

  4. Four EIS Perspectives: A literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pries-Heje, Jan; Svejvig, Per

    A literature review of the Enterprise Information Systems literature reveals a number of recurring issues. We identify and detail four different perspectives that together categorizes the topics found. The first being a technical-rational perspective. The second being a social perspective....... The third being a more political and emergent perspective. Fourth, we identify a design-oriented perspective. We categorize the literature on EIS using these four perspectives, and for each perspective we identify core issues. Finally we discuss how the four perspectives complement each other....

  5. Plastic mulching in agriculture. Trading short-term agronomic benefits for long-term soil degradation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmetz, Zacharias; Wollmann, Claudia; Schaefer, Miriam; Buchmann, Christian; David, Jan; Tröger, Josephine; Muñoz, Katherine; Frör, Oliver; Schaumann, Gabriele Ellen

    2016-04-15

    Plastic mulching has become a globally applied agricultural practice for its instant economic benefits such as higher yields, earlier harvests, improved fruit quality and increased water-use efficiency. However, knowledge of the sustainability of plastic mulching remains vague in terms of both an environmental and agronomic perspective. This review critically discusses the current understanding of the environmental impact of plastic mulch use by linking knowledge of agricultural benefits and research on the life cycle of plastic mulches with direct and indirect implications for long-term soil quality and ecosystem services. Adverse effects may arise from plastic additives, enhanced pesticide runoff and plastic residues likely to fragment into microplastics but remaining chemically intact and accumulating in soil where they can successively sorb agrochemicals. The quantification of microplastics in soil remains challenging due to the lack of appropriate analytical techniques. The cost and effort of recovering and recycling used mulching films may offset the aforementioned benefits in the long term. However, comparative and long-term agronomic assessments have not yet been conducted. Furthermore, plastic mulches have the potential to alter soil quality by shifting the edaphic biocoenosis (e.g. towards mycotoxigenic fungi), accelerate C/N metabolism eventually depleting soil organic matter stocks, increase soil water repellency and favour the release of greenhouse gases. A substantial process understanding of the interactions between the soil microclimate, water supply and biological activity under plastic mulches is still lacking but required to estimate potential risks for long-term soil quality. Currently, farmers mostly base their decision to apply plastic mulches rather on expected short-term benefits than on the consideration of long-term consequences. Future interdisciplinary research should therefore gain a deeper understanding of the incentives for farmers

  6. Intersectional perspectives on intimate technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Marie Louise Juul; Hansen, Lone Koefoed

    In this text, we discuss if and how an intersectional perspective on design may be critically practiced from a privileged position. More precisely, we ask how intersectional perspectives on race, gender and class may be useful in reflecting on and critically intervening in a privileged, Northern...

  7. Expanded Perspectives on Autonomous Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxford, Rebecca L.

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores two general perspectives on autonomous learners: psychological and sociocultural. These perspectives introduce a range of theoretically grounded facets of autonomous learners, facets such as the self-regulated learner, the emotionally intelligent learner, the self-determined learner, the mediated learner, the socioculturally…

  8. Teaching with a Global Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Percy

    2012-01-01

    The benefits of teaching from a global perspective far outweigh the disadvantages. Teaching from a global perspective provides the employer with global workers. Such teaching produces students who possess the knowledge of languages, culture, social systems, dress, religion, and cultural norms, as well as skills for employment in the global…

  9. Sensory imagination and narrative perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grünbaum, Thor

    2013-01-01

    I argue that we can clarify and explain an important form of focalization or narrative perspective by the structure of perspective in sensory imagination. Understanding focalization in this way enables us to see why one particular form of focalization has to do with the representation of perceptu...

  10. Providing Southern Perspectives on CSR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Søren; Kothuis, Bas

    The article seeks to contribute to the SMEs and CSR literature in developing countries by providing; a) a ‘Southern’ SME perspective, which includes the voices of managers and workers, b) a perspective of CSR, which opens up to informal CSR practices that SMEs undertake, and c) an analysis...

  11. European Cyber Security Perspectives 2015

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baloo, J.; Geveke, H.G.; Paulissen, W.; Vries, H. de

    2015-01-01

    Following the success of last year’s publication, we are proud to present the second edition of our European Cyber Security Perspectives report. Through this collection of articles, we aim to share our different perspectives and insights, the latest developments and achievements in the field of

  12. Action Research in European perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard

    2004-01-01

    The article gives an overview of how different Italian and Danish contributions to action research can be viewed in an European perspective.......The article gives an overview of how different Italian and Danish contributions to action research can be viewed in an European perspective....

  13. Toxicology ontology perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Barry; Apic, Gordana; Carthew, Philip; Clark, Dominic; Cook, David; Dix, Ian; Escher, Sylvia; Hastings, Janna; Heard, David J; Jeliazkova, Nina; Judson, Philip; Matis-Mitchell, Sherri; Mitic, Dragana; Myatt, Glenn; Shah, Imran; Spjuth, Ola; Tcheremenskaia, Olga; Toldo, Luca; Watson, David; White, Andrew; Yang, Chihae

    2012-01-01

    The field of predictive toxicology requires the development of open, public, computable, standardized toxicology vocabularies and ontologies to support the applications required by in silico, in vitro, and in vivo toxicology methods and related analysis and reporting activities. In this article we review ontology developments based on a set of perspectives showing how ontologies are being used in predictive toxicology initiatives and applications. Perspectives on resources and initiatives reviewed include OpenTox, eTOX, Pistoia Alliance, ToxWiz, Virtual Liver, EU-ADR, BEL, ToxML, and Bioclipse. We also review existing ontology developments in neighboring fields that can contribute to establishing an ontological framework for predictive toxicology. A significant set of resources is already available to provide a foundation for an ontological framework for 21st century mechanistic-based toxicology research. Ontologies such as ToxWiz provide a basis for application to toxicology investigations, whereas other ontologies under development in the biological, chemical, and biomedical communities could be incorporated in an extended future framework. OpenTox has provided a semantic web framework for the implementation of such ontologies into software applications and linked data resources. Bioclipse developers have shown the benefit of interoperability obtained through ontology by being able to link their workbench application with remote OpenTox web services. Although these developments are promising, an increased international coordination of efforts is greatly needed to develop a more unified, standardized, and open toxicology ontology framework.

  14. Perspective Taking in Workplaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zappalà Salvatore

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Workplaces are often described as places in which individuals are motivated by their self-interests and in which negative events like time pressure, anxiety, conflict with co-workers, miscomprehensions, difficulties in solving problems, not-transmitted or not-exchanged information that lead to mistakes, and in some cases to injuries, stress or control, are part of everyday life (Dormann & Zapf, 2002; Schabracq, Winnubst and Cooper, 2003. Such situations are often the result of the limited comprehension of needs, skills, or information available to colleagues, supervisors, subordinates, clients or providers. However, workplaces are also places in which employees take care of clients, support colleagues and subordinates (Rhoades & Eisenberger, 2002, are enthusiastic about their job (Bakker et al., 2008, are motivated by leaders that encourage employees to transcend their own self-interests for the good of the group or the organization and provide them with the confidence to perform beyond expectations (Bass, 1997. Thus positive relationships at work are becoming a new interdisciplinary domain of inquiry (Dutton & Ragins, 2006. Within this positive relationships framework, in this paper we focus on a positive component of workplaces, and particularly on an individual cognitive and emotional process that has an important role in the workplace because it facilitates interpersonal relations and communications: it is the perspective taking process. In order to describe perspective taking, we will refer to some empirical studies and particularly to the review published by Parker, Atkins and Axtell in 2008 on the International Review of Industrial and Organizational Psychology.

  15. Perspectives on Agile Coaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Steven; Lundh, Erik; Davies, Rachel; Eckstein, Jutta; Larsen, Diana; Vilkki, Kati

    There are many perspectives to agile coaching including: growing coaching expertise, selecting the appropriate coach for your context; and eva luating value. A coach is often an itinerant who may observe, mentor, negotiate, influence, lead, and/or architect everything from team organization to system architecture. With roots in diverse fields ranging from technology to sociology coaches have differing motivations and experience bases. This panel will bring together coaches to debate and discuss various perspectives on agile coaching. Some of the questions to be addressed will include: What are the skills required for effective coaching? What should be the expectations for teams or individu als being coached? Should coaches be: a corporate resource (internal team of consultants working with multiple internal teams); an integral part of a specific team; or external contractors? How should coaches exercise influence and au thority? How should management assess the value of a coaching engagement? Do you have what it takes to be a coach? - This panel will bring together sea soned agile coaches to offer their experience and advice on how to be the best you can be!

  16. Altered Perspectives: Immersive Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipman, J. S.; Webley, P. W.

    2016-12-01

    Immersive environments provide an exciting experiential technology to visualize the natural world. Given the increasing accessibility of 360o cameras and virtual reality headsets we are now able to visualize artistic principles and scientific concepts in a fully immersive environment. The technology has become popular for photographers as well as designers, industry, educational groups, and museums. Here we show a sci-art perspective on the use of optics and light in the capture and manipulation of 360o images and video of geologic phenomena and cultural heritage sites in Alaska, England, and France. Additionally, we will generate intentionally altered perspectives to lend a surrealistic quality to the landscapes. Locations include the Catacombs of Paris, the Palace of Versailles, and the Northern Lights over Fairbanks, Alaska. Some 360o view cameras now use small portable dual lens technology extending beyond the 180o fish eye lens previously used, providing better coverage and image quality. Virtual reality headsets range in level of sophistication and cost, with the most affordable versions using smart phones and Google Cardboard viewers. The equipment used in this presentation includes a Ricoh Theta S spherical imaging camera. Here we will demonstrate the use of 360o imaging with attendees being able to be part of the immersive environment and experience our locations as if they were visiting themselves.

  17. Psychological Perspectives on Interrogation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrij, Aldert; Meissner, Christian A; Fisher, Ronald P; Kassin, Saul M; Morgan, Charles A; Kleinman, Steven M

    2017-11-01

    Proponents of "enhanced interrogation techniques" in the United States have claimed that such methods are necessary for obtaining information from uncooperative terrorism subjects. In the present article, we offer an informed, academic perspective on such claims. Psychological theory and research shows that harsh interrogation methods are ineffective. First, they are likely to increase resistance by the subject rather than facilitate cooperation. Second, the threatening and adversarial nature of harsh interrogation is often inimical to the goal of facilitating the retrieval of information from memory and therefore reduces the likelihood that a subject will provide reports that are extensive, detailed, and accurate. Third, harsh interrogation methods make lie detection difficult. Analyzing speech content and eliciting verifiable details are the most reliable cues to assessing credibility; however, to elicit such cues subjects must be encouraged to provide extensive narratives, something that does not occur in harsh interrogations. Evidence is accumulating for the effectiveness of rapport-based information-gathering approaches as an alternative to harsh interrogations. Such approaches promote cooperation, enhance recall of relevant and reliable information, and facilitate assessments of credibility. Given the available evidence that torture is ineffective, why might some laypersons, policymakers, and interrogation personnel support the use of torture? We conclude our review by offering a psychological perspective on this important question.

  18. Long Term Incentives for Residential Customers Using Dynamic Tariff

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Shaojun; Wu, Qiuwei; Nielsen, Arne Hejde

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews several grid tariff schemes, including flat tariff, time-of-use, time-varying tariff, demand charge and dynamic tariff (DT), from the perspective of the long term incentives. The long term incentives can motivate the owners of flexible demands to change their energy consumption...... behavior in such a way that the power system operation issues, such as system balance and congestion, can be alleviated. From the comparison study, including analysis and case study, the DT scheme outperforms the other tariff schemes in terms of cost saving and network operation condition improving....

  19. A Study on Education and the Organization of School Libraries in the Perspective of Total Quality Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cengiz Aslan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The arrangement of enriched school libraries (Z Library established by the Republic of Turkey Ministry of National Education are analyzed in the perspective of total quality management in terms of institutionalization and supervision, goals and productivity.

  20. Outsider Indigenous Research: Dancing the Tightrope Between Etic and Emic Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicia Darling

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available With an example of a single study, I describe the strategic application of etic and emic approaches (in outsider research to incorporate more insider perspectives. I introduce an iterative methodological model that instantiates the etic and emic theories into methodological practices. The model centers on the concept of methodological flexibility (methods that flex to accommodate insider perspectives. Reframing the balancing etic and emic perspectives in terms of the iterative model and methodological flexibility achieves two goals. Firstly, it supports the process of researcher reflexivity. Secondly, it enables a practical discussion of methodological adaptations that encourage emic perspectives throughout all phases of a study: design, data collection, and analysis. Drawing from my mixed methods study in the Yucatán, I further describe the model for balancing the two polar perspectives. Practical methodological recommendations made could inform other studies conducted by outsiders in indigenous or other communities. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs160364

  1. Economic terms and beyond how researchers in specialised varieties of English can benefit from focusing on terms

    CERN Document Server

    Resche, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    This book, which is aimed at researchers in specialised varieties of English, provides an illustration of how linguists can use terms, i.e. the expression of concepts in specialised fields, as entry points to explore any specialised domain, whether academic or professional, and to get acquainted with its history, its culture, and the evolution of the ideas that have nurtured it. Choosing the field of economics as an example, the author approaches terms from a diachronic, descriptive and contextual perspective, focusing on neonyms, metaphorical, ambiguous or indeterminate terms, as well as inte

  2. Perspectives on globalisation

    OpenAIRE

    Leen, Maura

    2002-01-01

    Read before the Society, 18 April 2002 The level of public and political debate on the subject of globalisation has grown considerably in recent years. However, as the term enters popular vocabulary, terms such as pro- or anti-globalisation obscure the issues at hand. This paper seeks to engage in a meaningful way with the subject, with particular emphasis on policy advocacy and issues of economic justice. Firstly, the dimensions and interpretations of globalisation are exam...

  3. Urban Landscape Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Steiner

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Cities present significant opportunities for new landscape perspectives that can help inform conservation and development decisions. Early in the twenty-first century, the majority of the planet’s population became urban as more people lived in city-regions for the first time in our history. As the global population increases, so does this urbanization. The environmental challenges of population and urban growth are profound. Landscapes represent a synthesis of natural and cultural processes. Cities are certainly cultural phenomena. Historically, cities provided refuge from nature. The expanding field of urban ecology, coupled with landscape ecology, can enhance how the dual natural and cultural dimensions of landscapes in cities are understood. Furthermore, concepts such as ecosystem services and green infrastructure are proving useful for urban landscape planning and design. Examples from Dayton, Ohio; Brooklyn, New York; and Austin, Texas are presented.

  4. Perspectives in shape analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Bruckstein, Alfred; Maragos, Petros; Wuhrer, Stefanie

    2016-01-01

    This book presents recent advances in the field of shape analysis. Written by experts in the fields of continuous-scale shape analysis, discrete shape analysis and sparsity, and numerical computing who hail from different communities, it provides a unique view of the topic from a broad range of perspectives. Over the last decade, it has become increasingly affordable to digitize shape information at high resolution. Yet analyzing and processing this data remains challenging because of the large amount of data involved, and because modern applications such as human-computer interaction require real-time processing. Meeting these challenges requires interdisciplinary approaches that combine concepts from a variety of research areas, including numerical computing, differential geometry, deformable shape modeling, sparse data representation, and machine learning. On the algorithmic side, many shape analysis tasks are modeled using partial differential equations, which can be solved using tools from the field of n...

  5. A Social Psychological Perspective:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi; Westerling, Allan

    2008-01-01

    institutionalised individualism and interconnectedness. The focus is on the vertical and horizontal relationships within the socio-cultural psychological framework combining positioning theory with the  life course perspectives. Moreover there is focus on the diaspora processes for the South Asian young adults....... The paper analyses the discourses of intergenerational care as they intersect with everyday life practices and psychological realities of persons. The results indicate changes in the care pattern and deals with the dilemmas of solidarity, which are in contrast to dominant discourses of generations...... of agency with the changing societal structures and the diaspora context is confirmed. Key words: intergenerational care, individualisation, social network analysis, socio-cultural psychology, modernisation...

  6. Framing of decision problem in short and long term and probability perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Wielicka-Regulska

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumer preferences are dependent on problem framing and time perspective. For experiment’s participants avoiding of losses was less probable in distant time perspective than in near term. On the contrary, achieving gains in near future was less probable than in remote time. One may expect different reactions when presenting problem in terms of gains than in terms of losses. This can be exploited in promotion of highly desired social behaviours like savings for retirement, keeping good diet, investing in learning, and other advantageous activities that are usually put forward by consumers.

  7. Equational term graph rewriting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Z.M. Ariola (Zena); J.W. Klop (Jan Willem)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractWe present an equational framework for term graph rewriting with cycles. The usual notion of homomorphism is phrased in terms of the notion of bisimulation, which is well-known in process algebra and concurrency theory. Specifically, a homomorphism is a functional bisimulation. We prove

  8. Dynamic term structure models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Martin Møller; Meldrum, Andrew

    This paper studies whether dynamic term structure models for US nominal bond yields should enforce the zero lower bound by a quadratic policy rate or a shadow rate specification. We address the question by estimating quadratic term structure models (QTSMs) and shadow rate models with at most four...

  9. Toyotarity. Term, model, range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Borkowski

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The Toyotarity and BOST term was presented in the chapter. The BOST method allows to define relations between material resources and human resources and between human resources and human resources (TOYOTARITY. This term was also invented by the Author (and is legally protected. The idea of methodology is an outcome of 12 years of work.

  10. RxTerms

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — RxTerms is a drug interface terminology derived from RxNorm for prescription writing or medication history recording (e.g. in e-prescribing systems, PHRs). RxTerms...

  11. Association between Early Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Symptoms and Current Verbal and Visuo-Spatial Short-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Chiang, Huey-Ling

    2013-01-01

    Deficits in short-term memory are common in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but their current ADHD symptoms cannot well predict their short-term performance. Taking a developmental perspective, we wanted to clarify the association between ADHD symptoms at early childhood and short-term memory in late childhood and…

  12. The importance of recycling in a climate perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenzel, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    An overview of the greenhouse gas implications of material recovery and recycling is presented for a variety of materials, i.e. steel, aluminium, glass, plastics, wood, paper and cardboard, aggregates and wood. The benefits of recycling in terms of greenhouse gas reductions are quantified and set...... in perspective to other measures. It is shown that the present aluminium recycling alone in a country like Denmark saves greenhouse gas emission equivalent to heating of over half a million family houses. Assumptions and system boundaries are often discussed in the quantification of the benefits of recycling...... recycling. It is argued that biomass should be considered a constrained resource in a long term perspective, and that the marginal for the use of biomass is either a fossil resource or an arable land resource. In both cases, use of biomass draws on a marginal with high greenhouse gas implications...

  13. Green Mobility in a Managerial Perspective Green Mobility in una prospettiva manageriale

    OpenAIRE

    Pasquale Boccagna

    2011-01-01

    The Green Mobility concept involves great affair of technological, sociology-cultural and political innovation. This may be analyzed in a managerial perspective on the background of the Resource Based Theory and its VRIO framework on the hypothesis that the community  organization management works in directions of social and economical growth in a perspective of social as environmental long term sustainability.

    The basic assumption of th...

  14. Shared leadership : A post-heroic perspective on leadership as a collective construction

    OpenAIRE

    Crevani, Lucia; Lindgren, Monica; Packendorff, Johann

    2007-01-01

    Within the field of leadership practices, there is an emergent movement towards viewing leadership in terms of collaboration between two or more persons. At the same time, traditional literature on leadership and organization theory has been dominated almost exclusively by the perspective that leadership is something that is exercised by a single person—the idea of unitary command (Pearce & Manz, 2005). This has been challenged by the theoretical perspective of postheroic leadership, of w...

  15. Social metabolism in Czech and Czechoslovak territory in historical perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Kušková, Petra

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation is based on the conceptual framework of social metabolism and it applies methods of Material and Energy Flow Analysis and Ecological Footprint. It studies interactions between human activities and natural environment in Czech/Czechoslovak territory from the historical perspective (after the division of Czechoslovakia for Czechia and Slovakia together). The term of social metabolism is a metaphor inspired by biology. Society or human economy similarly to a living organism whi...

  16. Researching strategy practices: a genealogical social theory perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Rasche, Andreas; Chia, Robert C. H.

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the meaning and significance of the term `social practice' and its relation to strategy-as-practice research from the perspective of social theory. Although our remarks are also applicable to other practice-based discussions in management, we discuss strategy practices as a case in point and thus contribute to the strategy-as-practice literature in three ways. First, instead of simply accepting the existence of a unified `practice theory', we outline a genealogical analysi...

  17. Medium-Term Oil Market Report 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    How much oil will the world consume in 2012? What role will OPEC play in global oil production? Will biofuels become an important part of the oil market? How will the refinery sector cope? The International Energy Agency (IEA) Medium-Term Oil Market Report tackles these questions, adopting a perspective that goes beyond the traditional short-term market analysis provided in the IEA Oil Market Report. Drawing on current futures curves and the investment threshold for upstream projects, the Medium-Term Oil Market Report analyses how global demand and supply balances may develop. By assessing all firmly planned upstream and downstream projects worldwide, this report forecasts supply and demand potential for crude and petroleum products over the next five years. The results provide an invaluable insight into vital issues such as surplus production capacity and product supply. An essential report for all policymakers, market analysts, energy experts and anyone interested in understanding and following oil market trends, the Medium-Term Oil Market Report is a further element of the strong commitment of the IEA to improving and expanding the quality, timeliness and accuracy of energy data and analysis.

  18. Medium-Term Oil Market Report 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    How much oil will the world consume in 2011? What role will OPEC play in global oil production? Will biofuels become an important part of the oil market? The International Energy Agencys (IEA) Medium-Term Oil Market Report tackles these questions, adopting a perspective that goes beyond the traditional short-term market analysis provided in the IEAs monthly Oil Market Report. Drawing on current futures curves and the investment threshold for upstream projects, the Medium-Term Oil Market Report analyses how global demand and supply balances may develop in the next five years. The forecasts look in detail at product demand and the supply potential from all the firmly planned individual upstream and downstream projects around the world. The results provide invaluable insights on vital issues such as surplus production capacity and product supply. The rapid pace of change in the oil market means that forecasts can become outdated very quickly. This interim update provides the opportunity to rebase the data and forecasts in the annual Medium-Term Oil Market Report and to discuss and analyse new issues affecting the oil industry. Policymakers, market analysts, energy experts and anyone interested in understanding and following trends in the oil market should find this report extremely useful.

  19. Perspective-taking in comprehension, production, and memory: An individual differences approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryskin, Rachel A; Benjamin, Aaron S; Tullis, Jonathan; Brown-Schmidt, Sarah

    2015-10-01

    The ability to take a different perspective is central to a tremendous variety of higher level cognitive skills. To communicate effectively, we must adopt the perspective of another person both while speaking and listening. To ensure the successful retrieval of critical information in the future, we must adopt the perspective of our own future self and construct cues that will survive the passage of time. Here we explore the cognitive underpinnings of perspective-taking across a set of tasks that involve communication and memory, with an eye toward evaluating the proposal that perspective-taking is domain-general (e.g., Wardlow, 2013). We measured participants' perspective-taking ability in a language production task, a language comprehension task, and a memory task in which people generated their own cues for the future. Surprisingly, there was little variance common to the 3 tasks, a result that suggests that perspective-taking is not domain-general. Performance in the language production task was predicted by a measure of working memory, whereas performance in the cue-generation memory task was predicted by a combination of working memory and long-term memory measures. These results indicate that perspective-taking relies on differing cognitive capacities in different situations. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. [Research and perspectives in parasitology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qi-jun; Yin, Ji-gang

    2007-08-01

    This article reviews the recent achievements in parasitology including new diagnostic techniques, molecular mechanism of parasitic pathogenesis, drug resistance, antigenic variation, parasite genomics and proteomics. The perspective development in the area is also discussed.

  1. Naturalism and the Experiential Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Markic

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses varieties of naturalism and the fundamental disagreement about reductionism versus perspectivism. The central part of the article focuses on Andrej Ule’s idea about experiential perspective and the possibility of naturalizing the mind. I must confess I am not able to pin down all his suggestions about how to accommodate experiential perspectivity in nature, but I certainly find his ideas thought-provoking and inspiring.

  2. Researcher perspectives on class size reduction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Graue

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This article applies to class size research Grant and Graue’s (1999 position that reviews of research represent conversations in the academic community. By extending our understanding of the class size reduction conversation beyond published literature to the perspectives of researchers who have studied the topic, we create a review that includes political histories of, contextual details about, and assumptions undergirding the conversation. We find divergent (and sometimes competing perspectives on identifying beneficiaries of class size reduction (or CSR and the correct context in which to view CSR research. By contrasting the logic and assumptions embedded in pupil-teacher ratio (PTR, class size (CS, and class size reduction studies, we conclude that sometimes research conflates these constructs and their associated theories of action, and such distortion poorly serves the needs of policymakers and stakeholders in education. We recommend that future inquiry focus on mechanisms of change, particularly instruction—both in terms of instructional strategies that capitalize on the resource of a smaller group and the types of support needed for teacher and administrator professional development.

  3. Perspectives of drug treatment of obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Halpern

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The perspectives in the pharmacological treatment of obesitycan be classified in two classes: drugs already in the market,in advanced clinical trial or in final approval, or drugs in earlydevelopment. Among the first class are antiepileptic drugslike topiramate (although it was studied for obesity treatmentit was descontinued for this indication because of the highdrop-out rate in clinical trials and zonisamide (with someshort term studies in obese adults; antidepressives likebupropion (that leads to weight reduction and also diminishesthe weight gain associated to smoking cessation andradafaxine (a bupropion metabolite, without reported trials inobese subjects; glucagon-like peptide-1 analogues like exenatide(exendin-4, pramlintide and liraglutide (with studiesin type 2 diabetic obese subjects and the selective blockerof the cannabinoid-1 receptor, rimonabant, with a large bodyof studies (Rimonabant in Obesity, RIO-Europe, RIO-NorthAmerica, RIO-Lipids and RIO-Diabetes, involving more than6.600 patients with obesity, with and without diabetes, beingan important perspective of treatment for obesity andmetabolic syndrome. In early phase of development, we canreport some energy balance modulators like neuropeptide Yantagonists, melanocortin agonists, leptine and its analoguesand ciliary neurotrophic factor (axokine; termogenic agentslike agonists of the beta-3 adrenergic receptor, uncouplingagents of the mithocondrial membrane and peripheralmodulators of the energy balance (cholecystokinine.

  4. Marketing perspectives of hospital pharmacy directors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grauer, D W; Pathak, D S

    1983-06-01

    The familiarity of hospital pharmacy directors (HPDs) with various marketing concepts for the development of pharmaceutical services was assessed. A questionnaire was designed to assess whether (1) HPDs seek input from relevant publics when evaluating or designing pharmaceutical services; (2) HPDs use marketing concepts in the development and implementation of pharmaceutical programs; and (3) marketing perspectives of HPDs differ depending on their institutional affiliations and personal characteristics. The questionnaire was sent to 320 HPDs in seven states. A total of 158 unable questionnaires were received. In response to the questions concerning input from relevant publics, HPDs agreed that they should seek input from all relevant publics with the exception of third-party agencies and patients. HPDs put more emphasis on obtaining information for evaluating existing programs and designing long-term plans from physicians, nurses, patients, and hospital administrators and less emphasis on understanding the needs of third-party agencies. HPDs seem to use marketing concepts in the development and implementation of pharmaceutical programs. HPDs indicated a clear perception of pharmacy goals, target segments among relevant publics, and a dynamic orientation toward changes in the health-care marketplace. Hospital size, level of pharmaceutical education, and years of administrative experience were found to influence the marketing perspectives of HPDs. HPDs were familiar with marketing concepts, and a favorable climate seems to exist for transferring marketing approaches to the hospital pharmacy setting.

  5. The Kyoto protocol in a global perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matjaž Koman

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available

    The global climate has changed notably since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution. Atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gasses (GHG have increased dramatically followed by an increase in global average temperature. In order to avoid negative potential outcomes of global warming, countries have adopted the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change that has so far been ratified by 192 countries. In 1997 the Kyoto Protocol, a binding GHG reduction plan, was adopted and entered into force in 2005. But several countries, including the USA, have had doubts about the potential negative consequences of the planned 5% global joint reduction of GHG. However, studies generally show that on a macroeconomic level: (1 welfare loss in terms of GDP and lost growth in EU is low; (2 it differs among economies; and (3 permit trading and permit price (in either global or regional markets is highly correlated with the welfare loss. The main objective of the paper is to describe the attitudes and responses to the Kyoto Protocol from a global perspective. The paper has three objectives. First, to provide an overview of global greenhouse gas emissions and the big drivers behind these emissions. Second, to present where different countries, both developed and less developed countries, such as India, China and the countries of South-east Europe currently stand as regards their efforts to achieve the Kyoto Protocol requirements. Third, to analyse the responses and attitudes to the Kyoto Protocol from a country development perspective.

  6. Universities' Engagement with Vocationalism: Historical Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pericles 'asher' Rospigliosi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to explore the historical context of vocationalism in universities. It is based on an analysis of the history of the university from a vocational perspective. It looks for evidence of vocational engagement in the activities of universities over time, taking a long view from the birth of the Western University in the Middle Ages to the 1980s with the emergence of current issues of vocationalism in university education. It adopts a chronological perspective initially and then a thematic one. The main findings are: (1 vocationalism in university education is as old as the Western University itself, (2 there is evidence from the start of the Western University of vocational engagement in terms of the provision of vocationally relevant subjects, vocationally relevant skills and the development of vocationally relevant attitudes, (3 whereas most graduate employers used to be concerned with the vocationally relevant knowledge, skills and attitudes students acquired on their degree courses, most are now more concerned with graduate capacity and disposition to learn within their employment after graduation and (4 subject-centred education is compatible with university education that supports the vocational aspirations of students.

  7. Eliminating the xy Term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberti, Joseph V.

    1979-01-01

    A process for eliminating the xy term in a quadratic equation in two variables is presented. The author feels this process will be within the reach of more high school students than more commonly used methods. (MK)

  8. Long-term collections

    CERN Multimedia

    Collectes à long terme

    2007-01-01

    The Committee of the Long Term Collections (CLT) asks for your attention for the following message from a young Peruvian scientist, following the earthquake which devastated part of her country a month ago.

  9. Perspective View, Garlock Fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    California's Garlock Fault, marking the northwestern boundary of the Mojave Desert, lies at the foot of the mountains, running from the lower right to the top center of this image, which was created with data from NASA's shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), flown in February 2000. The data will be used by geologists studying fault dynamics and landforms resulting from active tectonics. These mountains are the southern end of the Sierra Nevada and the prominent canyon emerging at the lower right is Lone Tree canyon. In the distance, the San Gabriel Mountains cut across from the leftside of the image. At their base lies the San Andreas Fault which meets the Garlock Fault near the left edge at Tejon Pass. The dark linear feature running from lower right to upper left is State Highway 14 leading from the town of Mojave in the distance to Inyokern and the Owens Valley in the north. The lighter parallel lines are dirt roads related to power lines and the Los Angeles Aqueduct which run along the base of the mountains.This type of display adds the important dimension of elevation to the study of land use and environmental processes as observed in satellite images. The perspective view was created by draping a Landsat satellite image over an SRTM elevation model. Topography is exaggerated 1.5 times vertically. The Landsat image was provided by the United States Geological Survey's Earth Resources Observations Systems (EROS) Data Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota.Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11,2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed

  10. Observer perspective imagery with stuttering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Robyn; Menzies, Ross; Packman, Ann; O'Brian, Sue; Onslow, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Adults who stutter are at risk of developing a range of psychological conditions. Social anxiety disorder is the most common anxiety disorder associated with stuttering. Observer perspective imagery is one cognitive process involved in the maintenance of some anxiety disorders. This involves viewing images as if looking at the self from the perspective of another. In contrast, the field perspective involves looking out from the self at the surrounding environment. The purpose of this study was to assess the presence of observer perspective imagery with stuttering. The authors administered the Hackmann, Surawy and Clark (1998) semi-structured interview to 30 adults who stutter and 30 controls. Group images and impressions were compared for frequency, perspective recalled and emotional valence. The stuttering group was significantly more likely than controls to recall images and impressions from an observer rather than a field perspective for anxious situations. It is possible the present results could reflect the same attentional processing bias that occurs with anxiety disorders in the non-stuttering population. These preliminary results provide an explanation for the persistence of conditions such as social anxiety disorder with stuttering. Clinical implications are discussed.

  11. Understanding anatomical terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, L A; Natrajan, M; Kothari, M L

    1996-01-01

    Words are our masters and words are our slaves, all depending on how we use them. The whole of medical science owes its origin to Greco-Roman culture and is replete with terms whose high sound is not necessarily accompanied by sound meaning. This is even more the case in the initial, pre-clinical years. Anatomical terminology seems bewildering to the initiate; and maybe that is a reason why love of anatomy as a subject does not always spill over through later years. Employing certain classifications of the origin of the anatomical terms, we have prepared an anthology that we hope will ease the student's task and also heighten the student's appreciation of the new terms. This centers on revealing the Kiplingian "how, why, when, where, what, and who" of a given term. This presentation should empower students to independently formulate a wide network of correlations once they understand a particular term. The article thus hopes to stimulate students' analytic and synthetic faculties as well. A small effort can reap large rewards in terms of enjoyment of the study of anatomy and the related subjects of histology, embryology, and genetics. It is helpful to teachers and students alike. This exercise in semantics and etymology does not demand of the student or his teacher any background in linguistics, grammar, Greek, Latin, Sanskrit, anatomy, or medicine.

  12. Online Radicalization: Bangladesh Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    develop a sustainable counter radicalization mechanism without impinging citizens’ democratic rights. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Bangladesh, cyber, online, social... sustainable counter radicalization mechanism without impinging citizens’ democratic rights. v ACKNOWLEDGMENTS At first, I would like to convey my... restaurant in the Dhaka diplomatic zone that became a lead story in the world media. The Government of Bangladesh claims the militants to be home-grown

  13. Perspective: Louisville Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lott, Debra

    2010-01-01

    Louisville, Kentucky is an eclectic town of architectural styles from Greek revival to Renaissance Revival to Post modernism, not to mention an entire street dedicated to artsy mom and pop stores. Louisville is second only to the New York City Soho district in terms of the number of its cast-iron facades. Many of these building's fronts have…

  14. Systematic perspectives on diverging mathematical orientations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.F.M. Strauss

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The popular view that mathematics is “objective” and “neutral” in the sense that it does not know different standpoints is contradicted by the factual state of modern mathematics. In the light of the dominant one-sided trends in the history of mathe-matics, fluctuating between arithmeticism and a geometrisation of this discipline, this article explores some provisional starting-points for a different view. This third option is explored by investigating some features of an acknowledgement of the uniqueness of number and space without neglecting the inter-aspectual connections between these two modal functions. An argument is advanced regarding the inevitability of employing analogical (or elementary basic concepts, and this perspective is articulated in terms of the theory of modal aspects. Numerical and spatial terms are discussed and eventually focused on a deepened understanding of the meaning of infinity. In addition to a brief look at the circularity present in the arithmeticist claim that mathematics could be fully arithmetised (Grünbaum, attention is also asked for the agreement between Aristotle and Cantor regarding the nature of continuity – assessed in terms of the irreducibility of the numerical and spatial aspects of reality. Finally a characterisation is given of the ontological assumpt-ions of intuitionism and axiomatic formalism.

  15. Scientific literacy and the social constructivist perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antić Slobodanka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The term scientific literacy is already common in our educational rhetoric. Although the term is widely used, there are no papers that analyse the definition of the term and the rangeitencompasses in Serbia. If scientific literacy is a necessary outcome of education, this analysis is an important base for designing the teaching/learning process which is intended to develop such an outcome. Therefore, this paper provides an analysis of the concept of scientific literacy (SL, the different viewpoints on SL and the nature of the concept. Furthermore, five key lines as courses of action in the teaching/learning process, necessary for the development of these competencies, are defined: appreciation ofstudents' previous knowledge, encouragement of students' basic functional literacy and reading comprehension skills, the development of students' understanding of the socio-cultural perspective on the origin and use of scientific knowledge and technological products, and practicing of scientific research, either through school science or science applied in the context of cooperation between school and the local community, i.e. in the socio-cultural background where students live.

  16. The ethnic category from a linguistic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Răzvan Săftoiu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I put forward an analysis from a linguistic perspective of an ethnic category in Romania that is defined by at least two terms: gypsy and Romany. The concept of category refers to the members of a particular group that sets apart from other groups by a set of specific elements acknowledged at the level of a larger community. In interaction, individuals frequently use categories and the set of features that a certain category is characterized by, since it is easier to deal with sets of knowledge than with references for each individual separately. The analysis is based on a series of expressions and phrases, proverbs and jokes which were (or still are getting about in the Romanian space and which delineated, at the level of the collective mentality, the image of an ethnic category whose name (still oscillates between two terms. The texts were grouped depending on the different stereotypes associated with the ethnic category under discussion, by highlighting the pejorative connotations of the uses of the term gypsy in relation to the ethnic category Romany, a significance-free category that can be ‘filled up’ by elements that can sketch a positive image.

  17. Muckle–Wells syndrome: clinical perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran TA

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Tu-Anh Tran Department of Pediatrics, Nîmes University Hospital, INSERM U1183, Montpellier-Nîmes University, Nîmes, France Abstract: Muckle–Wells syndrome (MWS is a rare autoinflammatory disorder. It is due to NLRP3 gene mutations, responsible for excessive caspase-1 activation and interleukin 1β processing. MWS is the intermediate phenotype of severity of cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome. Urticarial rash, conjunctivitis, recurrent fever, arthralgia, and fatigue are the main clinical manifestations of MWS. Yet, sensorineural hearing loss and renal amyloidosis can occur after long term evolution. Patients’ quality of life has been drastically improved with the advent of IL-1 inhibitors. This review reports recent findings in MWS, particularly genotype/phenotype correlation, and discusses the clinical perspectives of this disease in a time of efficient treatment. Keywords: Muckle–Wells syndrome, anti-interleukin 1, anakinra, rilonacept, canakinumab, clinical presentation, cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome, CAPS, NLRP3 gene

  18. An information-theoretic perspective on teleconnections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Arthur M.

    2013-10-01

    A classical paradigm for terrestrial climate variability involves remote sea surface temperature forcing, communicated to receptor regions via atmospheric teleconnections. Here the teleconnection link is abstracted in terms of Shannon's information-theoretic measure "channel capacity." An upper bound on the channel capacity for December-January-February (DJF) seasonal precipitation teleconnections with sea surface temperature in the NINO3.4 region, when both variables are tercile-quantized, is estimated as 1 bit, meaning that it is only marginally possible to distinguish reliably between two NINO3.4 input states on the basis of observed precipitation output amounts, the central tercile acting principally to degrade reliability. A relationship between the channel capacity in a continuous model and the correlation coefficient is established; the corresponding nonlinear transformation provides a useful shift in perspective on the communication of information as such via teleconnections.

  19. Communicators' perspective on snow avalanche risk communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charriere, M. K. M.; Bogaard, T.; Mostert, E.

    2014-12-01

    Among all the natural hazards, snow avalanches are the only ones for which a public danger scale is globally used. It consists of 5 levels of danger displayed with a given number and colour and for each of them, behavioural advices are provided. Even though this is standardized in most of the countries affected by this natural hazard, the tools (usually websites or smartphone applications) with which the information is disseminated to the general pubic differs, particularly in terms of target audience and level of details. This study aims at gathering the perspectives of several communicators that are responsible for these communication practices. The survey was created to assess how and why choices were made in the design process of the communication tools and to determine how their effectiveness is evaluated. Along with a review of existing avalanche risk communication tools, this study provides guidelines for communication and the evaluation of its effectiveness.

  20. INTERDISCIPLINARY PERSPECTIVES ON INDIVIDUAL CONSUMPTION DECISION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Andreea STROE

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In a world were consumer is attacked by information and the decisional process is hampered by the multitudine of choices, the consumption can be explained through a multidisciplinary approach that can integrate also the economic and psychological variables. People are faced with having to choose one option out of many desirable choices, thus their options are evaluated in terms of missed opportunities instead of the opportunity's potential. In this playground appears the regret aversion that can paralyze the action of the consumer and recreate the frame in which this acts. That is why, this area has been approached through a multidiciplinary perspective that can explain better the decisional process of the buyer that can act also in a subjective and non-linear way ante and post-factum decision making.

  1. Is Exercise Really Medicine? An Evolutionary Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Daniel E

    2015-01-01

    An evolutionary perspective helps evaluate the extent to which exercise is medicine and to explain the exercise paradox: why people tend to avoid exercise despite its benefits. Many lines of evidence indicate that humans evolved to be adapted for regular, moderate amounts of endurance physical activity into late age. However, because energy from food was limited, humans also were selected to avoid unnecessary exertion, and most anatomical and physiological systems evolved to require stimuli from physical activity to adjust capacity to demand. Consequently, selection never operated to cope with the long-term effects of chronic inactivity. However, because all adaptations involve trade-offs, there is no evolutionary-determined dose or type of physical activity that will optimize health. Furthermore, because humans evolved to be active for play or necessity, efforts to promote exercise will require altering environments in ways that nudge or even compel people to be active and to make exercise fun.

  2. Neurobiology of Consciousness: Current Research and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Płonka Beata

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Scientific, objective approach to consciousness has allowed to obtain some experimental data concerning brain activity, ignoring, however, the longstanding philosophical tradition. Spectacular development of neuroscience which has been observed recently made this dissonance particularly noticeable. The paper addresses the main problems of discrepancy between neurobiological research and philosophical perspective. Current opinions concerning neural correlates and models of consciousness are discussed, as well as the problems of working memory, attention, self, and disorders of consciousness. A new neurobiological approach to describe brain function in terms of brain connectivity (so-called connectome is also presented. Finally, the need to introduce at least some aspects of philosophical approach directly into neurobiological research of consciousness is postulated.

  3. A gestalt-experiential perspective on resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engle, David; Holiman, Marjorie

    2002-02-01

    The authors present background on the gestalt-experiential understanding of resistance, conceptualized to be either resistance to awareness or resistance to contact. The authors discuss why they do not use the term resistance and describe the phenomena as a client's self-protective attempt to avoid the anxiety necessitated by change. Such resistant behaviors occur outside a client's awareness and often result in an ambivalence or conflict about change. The authors also describe using in-session experiments as a way to engage with the client in exploring such a state of ambivalence or conflict. Finally, they respond to the case studies presented elsewhere in this issue and propose intervention strategies consistent with the gestalt-experiential perspective. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  4. Project communication in a strategic internal perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramsing, Line B.

    2008-01-01

    in communication and the trends and perspectives in contemporary project management. Findings - The term project communication is emerging in the literature on project management and has a very limited place in the literature on external corporate communication. In the literature on internal corporate......Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to discus the concept of project communication. What is currently understood by project communication? How and to what degree is it being discussed within the field of corporate communication and project management? And finally, what is the potential...... of interpersonal project communication? Design/methodology/approach - Based on a literature review of the two above mentioned fields of research the discussion of the potential of interpersonal project communication is put in relation to concepts of power relations in an organisation, use of networks...

  5. New perspectives in ecotoxicology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Simon A.; Kimball, Kenneth D.; McDowell, William H.; Kimball, Sarah F.

    1984-09-01

    The task of regulating potentially harmful chemicals in the environment is presently hindered by the lack of appropriate concepts and methods for evaluating the effects of anthropogenic chemicals on ecosystems. Toxicity tests at the molecular and physiological levels have been used successfully as indicators of adverse effects on test organisms and have been extrapolated to humans to establish a basis for risk assessment. However, laboratory measurements of effects upon individuals do not translate readily into potential effects upon natural populations, in part because natural populations interact with other populations and with the physical environment. Even more difficult to assess are the deleterious impacts of anthropogenic chemicals on ecosystems, because of effects on species interactions, diversity, nutrient cycling, productivity, climatic changes, and other processes. Effects on ecosystems resulting from chemical stresses are outside the realm of classical toxicology, and an ecosystem-level perspective is essential for the consideration of such effects; but the science that deals with ecosystem-level effects, ecotoxicology, is still developing. This article synthesizes the topics discussed at a workshop on ecotoxicology held by the Ecosystems Research Center at Cornell University. Topics covered include: the regulatory framework in which ecotoxicological research must be applied; ecosystem modification of toxicant fate and transport; how ecosystem composition, structure, and function are influenced by chemicals; methods currently available for predicting the effects of chemicals at the ecosystem level; and recommendations on research needs to enhance the state of the science of ecotoxicology.

  6. Nuclear safety in perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, K. [Karinta-Konsult HB (Sweden); Sjoeberg, B.M.D. [Norwegian Univ. of Scince and Technology (Norway); Larudisen, K. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); Wahlstroem, B. [VTT Automation (Finland)

    2002-06-01

    The aim of the NKS/SOS-1 project has been to enhance common understanding about requirements for nuclear safety by finding improved means of communicating on the subject in society. The project, which has been built around a number of seminars, was supported by limited research in three sub-projects: 1) Risk assessment, 2) Safety analysis, and 3) Strategies for safety management. The report describes an industry in change due to societal factors. The concepts of risk and safety, safety management and systems for regulatory oversight are described in the nuclear area and also, to widen the perspective, for other industrial areas. Transparency and public participation are described as key elements in good risk communication, and case studies are given. Environmental Impact Assessment and Strategic Environmental Assessment are described as important overall processes within which risk communication can take place. Safety culture, safety indicators and quality systems are important concepts in the nuclear safety area are very useful, but also offer important challenges for the future. They have been subject to special attention in the project. (au)

  7. Politics: An Islamic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rashid Moten

    1993-11-01

    Full Text Available Muslim societies in all of their social and cultural variety are, as Donald E. Smith points out, ‘organic’ societies characterized by organic religious systems. In these societies, religion tends to permeate all institutions rather than to be differentiated and/or autonomous. The vast body of literature produced since the departure of the colonialists from the Muslim lands suggests, however, either the implicit existence of the dichotomy or at least the feasibility and advisability of radical separation between the spiritual and temporal realms. The seriousness of the issue, evidenced by an outpouring of studies, calls for an examination of the linkage between the two realms through textual (Qur’an and Hadith, intellectual (ideas of Muslim thinkers and historical evidence. Only in such a manner can the dynamics of the relationship between Islam and politics be understood and a determination made of what has changed and what has remained unchanged. This entails, first, an understanding of the meaning and nature of politics from the Western perspective to facilitate a comparison...

  8. IBS: An epigenetic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinan, Timothy G; Cryan, John; Shanahan, Fergus; Keeling, P W Napoleon; Quigley, Eamonn M M

    2010-08-01

    IBS is a common and debilitating disorder. The pathophysiology of IBS is poorly understood and is currently viewed as a biopsychosocial disorder with symptoms mediated via the brain-gut axis. Epidemiological studies of IBS point to risk factors such as familial clustering, sexual abuse and other forms of childhood trauma, low birth weight and gastrointestinal infection. Epigenetics focuses on the complex and dynamic interaction between the DNA sequence, DNA modifications and environmental factors, all of which combine to produce the phenotype. Studies in animal models of early stress and in humans who have experienced childhood trauma or abuse suggest that these events can lead to long-lasting epigenetic changes in the glucocorticoid receptor gene brought about by hypermethylation of a key regulatory component. Animal studies also indicate that the microbiota has a pivotal role in programming the core stress system, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the immune system through epigenetic mechanisms. In this Perspectives, an epigenetic model of IBS is presented that incorporates many of the current findings regarding IBS, including proinflammatory markers, neuroendocrine alterations and links with both psychosocial stress and stress related to infection. We conclude that applying epigenetic methodology to this common and disabling disorder may help unravel its complex pathophysiology and lead to more effective treatments.

  9. Sustainability. An economic perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Steven R. [Department of Economics and Center for Sustainable Systems Studies, Miami University, Oxford, OH (United States)

    2005-06-15

    The economic perspective of sustainability focuses on the trade off of current consumption for future consumption. This was the question that faced the economists of the late 19th century such as Malthus who noticed growth in the population outpaced that of food. Yet, Malthusian prediction of famine and disaster did not come to pass due to technological innovation. There was a substitution of created capital (machines) for natural capital (labor and land). Thus, whether created- and natural capital are substitute or complementary goods is key to sustainability. Many economists believe we can maintain current consumption and that technological innovation will take care of the needs of future generations. However other economists believe that created capital and natural capital are complementary goods; as we consume more created capital, we will also have to consume more natural capital. The relationship between natural and created capital has an impact on what policies and incentives we consider for the preservation of opportunities for future generations. If they are substitutes, current efforts need to focus on development of new technologies which will allow us to do more with less. If they are complements we need to consider efforts of preservation and conservation. We understand that we cannot have our cake and eat it too. The debate is whether we emphasize finding a new way to bake more cake, or carefully consume the cake we have.

  10. Astrobiology: Future Perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Owen, Toby; Becker, Luann; Blank, Jen; Brucato, John; Colangeli, Luigi; Derenne, Sylvie; Dutrey, Anne; Despois, Didier; Lazcano, Antonio; Robert, Francois

    2005-01-01

    Astrobiology, a new exciting interdisciplinary research field, seeks to unravel the origin and evolution of life wherever it might exist in the Universe. The current view of the origin of life on Earth is that it is strongly connected to the origin and evolution of our planet and, indeed, of the Universe as a whole. We are fortunate to be living in an era where centuries of speculation about the two ancient and fundamental problems: the origin of life and its prevalence in the Universe are being replaced by experimental science. The subject of Astrobiology can be approached from many different perspectives. This book is focused on abiogenic organic matter from the viewpoint of astronomy and planetary science and considers its potential relevance to the origins of life on Earth and elsewhere. Guided by the review papers in this book, the concluding chapter aims to identify key questions to motivate future research and stimulate astrobiological applications of current and future research facilities and space mi...

  11. Goldenhar syndrome: current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogusiak, Katarzyna; Puch, Aleksandra; Arkuszewski, Piotr

    2017-10-01

    Progress in medical branches that has taken place since the first child with Goldenhare syndrome (GS) had been described in 1952 by Maurice Goldenhar, facilitated better understanding of this congenital defect. It also gave new perspectives and the opportunity to achieve satisfactory treatment results, mainly due to development of surgical techniques. Based on the literature and own experience, we discussed the phenotype of presentation of GS, ethiopathogenesis, genetic counselling and treatment with particular emphasis on surgery correction of hemifacial microsomia. The spectrum of GS abnormalities ranges from mild to severe ones and include patients with barely noticeable facial asymmetry to very pronounced facial defect with more or less severe abnormalities of internal organs and/or skeleton. It is characterized most commonly by impaired development of eyes, ears, lips, tongue, palate, mandible, maxilla, zygomatic and orbital structures and deformations of the teeth structures. Ethiopathogenesis is multifactorial and dependent on genetic and environmental factors but there are still many unknowns about the syndrome which should be revealed. Patients with GS due to a large variety of abnormalities and different severity of symptoms pose a challenge for clinicians. All of this necessitate an individual approach to each single patient and involvement a team of specialists in treatment planning. It is a complex, long-lasting, multidisciplinary process and should be divided into stages, according to patient's age, as well as the extent and severity of observed abnormalities. Neonatologists and pediatricians are involved in care of these patients from the onset.

  12. Multiple Perspectives / Multiple Readings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Biggs

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available People experience things from their own physical point of view. What they see is usually a function of where they are and what physical attitude they adopt relative to the subject. With augmented vision (periscopes, mirrors, remote cameras, etc we are able to see things from places where we are not present. With time-shifting technologies, such as the video recorder, we can also see things from the past; a time and a place we may never have visited.In recent artistic work I have been exploring the implications of digital technology, interactivity and internet connectivity that allow people to not so much space/time-shift their visual experience of things but rather see what happens when everybody is simultaneously able to see what everybody else can see. This is extrapolated through the remote networking of sites that are actual installation spaces; where the physical movements of viewers in the space generate multiple perspectives, linked to other similar sites at remote locations or to other viewers entering the shared data-space through a web based version of the work.This text explores the processes involved in such a practice and reflects on related questions regarding the non-singularity of being and the sense of self as linked to time and place.

  13. Organizational Climate Assessment: a Systemic Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argentero, Piergiorgio; Setti, Ilaria

    A number of studies showed how the set up of an involving and motivating work environment represents a source for organizational competitive advantage: in this view organizational climate (OC) research occupies a preferred position in current I/O psychology. The present study is a review carried out to establish the breadth of the literature on the characteristics of OC assessment considered in a systemic perspective. An organization with a strong climate is a work environment whose members have similar understanding of the norms and practices and share the same expectations. OC should be considered as a sort of emergent entity and, as such, it can be studied only within a systemic perspective because it is linked with some organizational variables, in terms of antecedents (such as the organization's internal structure and its environmental features) and consequences (such as job performance, psychological well-being and withdrawal) of the climate itself. In particular, when employees have a positive view of their organizational environment, consistently with their values and interests, they are more likely to identify their personal goals with those of the organization and, in turn, to invest a greater effort to pursue them: the employees' perception of the organizational environment is positively related to the key outcomes such as job involvement, effort and performance. OC analysis could also be considered as an effective Organizational Development (OD) tool: in particular, the Survey Feedback, that is the return of the OC survey results, could be an effective instrument to assess the efficacy of specific OD programs, such as Team Building, TQM and Gainsharing. The present study is focused on the interest to investigate all possible variables which are potential moderators of the climate - outcome relationship: therefore future researches in the OC field should consider a great variety of organizational variables, considered in terms of antecedents and effects

  14. Does narrative perspective influence readers’ perspective-taking? An empirical study on free indirect discourse, psycho-narration and first-person narration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna Salem

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available It is often assumed that narrating a story from the protagonist’s perspective increases the readers’ inclination to take over this perspective. In a questionnaire study, we examined to which degree different textual modes of narration (a increase the degree to which the reader can generally relate to the protagonist (what we will call 'relatedness', (b make the reader prone to imagine the scene from the 'spatial point-of-view 'of the protagonist, and (c enhance the psychological perspective-taking of the reader, measured as 'identification 'with the protagonist. We employed two different types of texts—one literary and one non-literary—and tested them in four different modes of narration: free indirect discourse, psycho-narration, first-person narration and external focalization. In terms of the 'relatedness 'between the reader and protagonist and 'spatial perspective-taking 'the largest differences (descriptively occurred between external focalization and psycho-narration ('p'& .05 for 'relatedness', 'p'& .05 for 'spatial perspective-taking' and between external focalization and first-person narration ('p'& .05 for 'relatedness', for 'spatial perspective-taking p'& .1. 'Identification', measured with items from a questionnaire on reading experience (Appel et al. 2002, was highest for first-person narration. Here, the difference between first-person narration and external focalization turned out significant only after including dispositional empathy, thematic interest for the text and attention during reading as covariates. Results for the other two perspective-taking measures were unaffected by the inclusion of the same covariates. In conclusion, our data show that first-person and psycho-narration increased the tendency to take over the perspective of the protagonist, but FID did not.   This article is part of the special collection: Perspective Taking

  15. ENTREPRENEURSIPH IN ROMANIA. A BEHAVIORAL ECONOMICS PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neațu Alina-Maria

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Economics provides insight into how entrepreneurship influences growth and development and, on the other hand, how the macro structure of a region or country impacts the type and abundance of entrepreneurship. Economic analysis provides insights for scholars, guides practitioners and policymakers. From a broader perspective, economic theories guide the understanding of human behaviors and the constant quest toward realization, comprehension and improvement of human condition. Moreover, behavioral economics combines insights of psychology, sociology and economics in trying to better understand and predict human decision-making. At the intersection of economic studies with social sciences, behavioral economics succeeds to demonstrate, using laboratory tests and experiments, that on a shorter term people are quite capable to perform profitable economic computations and adopt rational behaviors, but on a long term run they easily become fallible in performing rational mental accounting and are vulnerable to several factors such as emotions, certain mass-manipulation techniques, lack of self control or procrastination, etc. Extended research in the field of behavioral economics reports many other various behavioral anomalies that may have the ability to explain seemingly irrational and unpredictable responses of individuals, in general, and entrepreneurs, in particular – especially when finding themselves in conditions of risk, uncertainty or incomplete information. Furthermore, the elevated consistency of these abnormalities suggests that they are divergent only to our traditional models, but that they could otherwise be the norm. The present article seeks to explain how such insights from behavioral economics may help us better understand and enhance our perspective on entrepreneurship, what are some of the most frequent biases characteristic to entrepreneurial behavior and decision-making, accounting as most notable for the field of

  16. Expected Term Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buraschi, Andrea; Piatti, Ilaria; Whelan, Paul

    hypothesis. Finally, we use ex-ante spanned subjective beliefs to evaluate several reduced-form and structural models. We find support for heterogeneous beliefs models and also uncover a number of statistically significant relationships in favour of alternative rational expectations models once the effect......This paper studies the properties of bond risk premia in the cross-section of subjective expectations. We exploit an extensive dataset of yield curve forecasts from financial institutions and document a number of novel findings. First, contrary to evidence presented for stock markets but consistent......-primary dealers. Third, we reject the null hypothesis that subjective expected bond returns are constant. When predicting long term rates, however, primary dealers have no information advantage. This suggests that a key source of variation in long-term bonds are risk premia and not short- term rate variation...

  17. Providers’ perspectives on collaboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Bruner

    2011-08-01

    satisfaction with decisions for the patient, and those with high school reported the lowest satisfaction with decisions for the patient. Respondents with a graduate degree had the most positive views of interprofessional relationships, whilst those with either a high school degree or bachelor's degree had the most negative views of interprofessional relationships. ANOVAs by professional role revealed the least positive views of collaboration for provider groups with lower levels of education, with upper administration reporting the most positive views on collaboration.Conclusion: Although the discussion generated by the focus groups was expected to facilitate communication, and research has suggested that communication between providers facilitates collaboration, only one subscale evaluating providers' views of collaboration positively and significantly changed after the focus group discussion. The wide range of views on collaboration suggests there are diverse perspectives on collaboration among the staff based on professional roles and levels of education, with upper administration and those with higher levels of education reporting the most positive views of collaboration and staff with lower levels of education reporting more negative views of collaboration. A major limitation of this study was a low time two return among support staff, comprised of primarily African American women. Due to their marginalized professional and racial status, future research needs to explore the perspectives of this important and often overlooked group of staff.

  18. Providers’ perspectives on collaboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Bruner

    2011-08-01

    satisfaction with decisions for the patient, and those with high school reported the lowest satisfaction with decisions for the patient. Respondents with a graduate degree had the most positive views of interprofessional relationships, whilst those with either a high school degree or bachelor's degree had the most negative views of interprofessional relationships. ANOVAs by professional role revealed the least positive views of collaboration for provider groups with lower levels of education, with upper administration reporting the most positive views on collaboration. Conclusion: Although the discussion generated by the focus groups was expected to facilitate communication, and research has suggested that communication between providers facilitates collaboration, only one subscale evaluating providers' views of collaboration positively and significantly changed after the focus group discussion. The wide range of views on collaboration suggests there are diverse perspectives on collaboration among the staff based on professional roles and levels of education, with upper administration and those with higher levels of education reporting the most positive views of collaboration and staff with lower levels of education reporting more negative views of collaboration. A major limitation of this study was a low time two return among support staff, comprised of primarily African American women. Due to their marginalized professional and racial status, future research needs to explore the perspectives of this important and often overlooked group of staff.

  19. Contralateral prophylactic mastectomy: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao K

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Katharine Yao,1 Mark Sisco,2 Isabelle Bedrosian3 1Division of Surgical Oncology, Department of Surgery, 2Division of Plastic Surgery, Department of Surgery, NorthShore University HealthSystem, Evanston, IL, 3Department of Surgery, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA Abstract: There has been an increasing trend in the use of contralateral prophylactic mastectomy (CPM in the United States among women diagnosed with unilateral breast cancer, particularly young women. Approximately one-third of women ,40 years old are undergoing CPM in the US. Most studies have shown that the CPM trend is mainly patient-driven, which reflects a changing environment for newly diagnosed breast cancer patients. The most common reason that women choose CPM is based on misperceptions about CPM’s effect on survival and overestimation of their contralateral breast cancer (CBC risk. No prospective studies have shown survival benefit to CPM, and the CBC rate for most women is low at 10 years. Fear of recurrence is also a big driver of CPM decisions. Nonetheless, studies have shown that women are mostly satisfied with undergoing CPM, but complications and subsequent surgeries with reconstruction have been associated with dissatisfaction with CPM. Studies on surgeon’s perspectives on CPM are sparse but show that the most common reasons surgeons discuss CPM with patients is because of a suspicious family history or for a patient who is a confirmed BRCA mutation carrier. Studies on the cost–effectiveness of CPM have been conflicting and are highly dependent on patient’s quality of life after CPM. Most recent guidelines for CPM are contradictory. Future areas of research include the development of interventions to better inform patients about CPM, modification of the guidelines to form a more consistent statement, longer term studies on CBC risk and CPM’s effect on survival, and prospective studies that track the psychosocial effects of CPM on body image and

  20. Leadership: a new perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jooste, Karien

    2004-05-01

    This overview article aimed at outlining the image of an effective future-orientated nurse leader in the health care context through a pragmatic approach. The future nurse leaders on different levels in health care institutions is challenged in the current health care environment of culturally diverse countries, such as South Africa. This article should make all nursing leaders more aware of their important role in taking the lead in challenges faced in the current health service environment. Leaders have the essentials of authority, power and influence to lead followers to their goals. The use of these essentials has changes from the past, to the present and into the future health care environment. Different changes and challenges are facing nurse leaders and they need to implement an effective leadership style in a complex health care environment. This overview article focuses on key elements of an effective future leader using a conceptual framework as departure, incorporating relevant literature. It analyses and evaluates the efficiency of past and present roles of authority, power and influence in leadership and summarizes a new perspective of a future nurse leader. Solutions and future actions are indicated for the future role of the nurse leader. The past, present and future leadership setting, role of authority, power and influence in leadership, components of the arch of leadership and solutions to effective leadership in a future dimension is all domains that is presented with the intention of motivating future nurse leaders. It was identified that a different kind of leader should emerge to lead in a new way, different from those leadership styles that we have known in the past. The 21st century is a new timeframe and different timeframes demand different leadership approaches.

  1. Atypical depression: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łojko D

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Dorota Łojko,1 Janusz K Rybakowski1,2 1Department of Adult Psychiatry, 2Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poznan, Poland Abstract: The history and present status of the definition, prevalence, neurobiology, and treatment of atypical depression (AD is presented. The concept of AD has evolved through the years, and currently, in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM, Fifth Edition, the specifier of depressive episode with atypical feature is present for both diagnostic groups, that is, depressive disorders and bipolar and related disorders. This specifier includes mood reactivity, hyperphagia, hypersomnia, leaden paralysis, and interpersonal rejection sensitivity. Prevalence rates of AD are variable, depending on the criteria, methodology, and settings. The results of epidemiological studies using DSM criteria suggest that 15%–29% of depressed patients have AD, and the results of clinical studies point to a prevalence of 18%–36%. A relationship of AD with bipolar depression, seasonal depression, and obesity has also been postulated. Pathogenic research has been mostly focused on distinguishing AD from melancholic depression. The differences have been found in biochemical studies in the areas of hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis, inflammatory markers, and the leptin system, although the results obtained are frequently controversial. A number of findings concerning such differences have also been obtained using neuroimaging and neurophysiological and neuropsychological methods. An initial concept of AD as a preferentially monoamine oxidase inhibitor-responsive depression, although confirmed in some further studies, is of limited use nowadays. Currently, despite numerous drug trials, there are no comprehensive treatment guidelines for AD. We finalize the article by describing the future research perspectives for the definition, neurobiology, and treatment. A better

  2. Atypical depression: current perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łojko, Dorota; Rybakowski, Janusz K

    2017-01-01

    The history and present status of the definition, prevalence, neurobiology, and treatment of atypical depression (AD) is presented. The concept of AD has evolved through the years, and currently, in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), Fifth Edition, the specifier of depressive episode with atypical feature is present for both diagnostic groups, that is, depressive disorders and bipolar and related disorders. This specifier includes mood reactivity, hyperphagia, hypersomnia, leaden paralysis, and interpersonal rejection sensitivity. Prevalence rates of AD are variable, depending on the criteria, methodology, and settings. The results of epidemiological studies using DSM criteria suggest that 15%–29% of depressed patients have AD, and the results of clinical studies point to a prevalence of 18%–36%. A relationship of AD with bipolar depression, seasonal depression, and obesity has also been postulated. Pathogenic research has been mostly focused on distinguishing AD from melancholic depression. The differences have been found in biochemical studies in the areas of hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis, inflammatory markers, and the leptin system, although the results obtained are frequently controversial. A number of findings concerning such differences have also been obtained using neuroimaging and neurophysiological and neuropsychological methods. An initial concept of AD as a preferentially monoamine oxidase inhibitor-responsive depression, although confirmed in some further studies, is of limited use nowadays. Currently, despite numerous drug trials, there are no comprehensive treatment guidelines for AD. We finalize the article by describing the future research perspectives for the definition, neurobiology, and treatment. A better specification of diagnostic criteria and description of clinical picture, a genome-wide association study of AD, and establishing updated treatment recommendations for this clinical phenomenon should be

  3. Measurement of Driving Terms

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, F; Faus-Golfe, A

    2001-01-01

    In 2000 a series of MDs has been performed at the SPS to measure resonance driving terms. Theory predicts that these terms can be determined by harmonic analysis of BPM data recorded after applying single kicks at various amplitudes. Strong sextupoles were introduced to create a sizeable amount of nonlinearities. Experiments at injection energy (26 GeV) with single bunch as well as one experiment at 120 GeV with 84 bunches were carried out. The expected nonlinear content is compared to the experimenteal observation.

  4. The primacy of social over visual perspective-taking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moll, Henrike; Kadipasaoglu, Derya

    2013-09-10

    In this article, we argue for the developmental primacy of social over visual perspective-taking. In our terminology, social perspective-taking involves some understanding of another person's preferences, goals, intentions etc. which can be discerned from temporally extended interactions, including dialog. As is evidenced by their successful performance on various reference disambiguation tasks, infants in their second year of life first begin to develop such skills. They can, for example, determine which of two or more objects another is referring to based on previously expressed preferences or the distinct quality with which these objects were jointly explored. The pattern of findings from developmental research further indicates that this ability emerges sooner than analogous forms of visual perspective-taking. Our explanatory account of this developmental sequence highlights the primary importance of joint attention and the formation of common ground with others. Before children can develop an awareness of what exactly is seen or how an object appears from a particular viewpoint, they must learn to share attention and build common "experiential" ground. Learning about others' as well as one's own "snapshot" perspectives in a literal, i.e., optical sense of the term, is a secondary step that affords an abstraction from all (prior) pragmatic involvement with objects.

  5. The Primacy of Social over Visual Perspective-Taking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrike eMoll

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we argue for the developmental primacy of social over visual perspective-taking. In our terminology, social perspective-taking involves some understanding of another person’s preferences, goals, intentions etc. which can be discerned from temporally extended interactions, including dialogue. As is evidenced by their successful performance on various reference disambiguation tasks, infants in their second year of life first begin to develop such skills. They can, for example, determine which of two or more objects another is referring to based on previously expressed preferences or the distinct quality with which these objects were jointly explored. The pattern of findings from developmental research further indicates that this ability emerges sooner than analogous forms of visual perspective-taking. Our explanatory account of this developmental sequence highlights the primary importance of joint attention and the formation of common ground with others. Before children can develop an awareness of what exactly is seen or how an object appears from a particular viewpoint, they must learn to share attention and build common experiential ground. Learning about others’ as well as one’s own snapshot perspectives in a literal, i.e., optical sense of the term, is a secondary step that affords an abstraction from all (prior pragmatic involvement with objects.

  6. Perspectives on Bay–Delta Science and Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Healey

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available doi: https://doi.org/10.15447/sfews.2016v14iss4art6The State of Bay–Delta Science 2008 highlighted seven emerging perspectives on science and management of the Delta. These perspectives had important effects on policy and legislation concerning management of the Delta ecosystem and water exports. From the collection of papers that make up the State of Bay–Delta Science 2016, we derive another seven perspectives that augment those published in 2008. The new perspectives address nutrient and contaminant concentrations in Delta waters, the failure of the Delta food web to support native species, the role of multiple stressors in driving species toward extinction, and the emerging importance of extreme events in driving change in the ecosystem and the water supply. The scientific advances that underpin these new perspectives were made possible by new measurement and analytic tools. We briefly discuss some of these, including miniaturized acoustic fish tags, sensors for monitoring of water quality, analytic techniques for disaggregating complex contaminant mixtures, remote sensing to assess levee vulnerability, and multidimensional hydrodynamic modeling. Despite these new tools and scientific insights, species conservation objectives for the Delta are not being met. We believe that this lack of progress stems in part from the fact that science and policy do not incorporate sufficiently long-term perspectives. Looking forward half a century was central to the Delta Visioning process, but science and policy have not embraced this conceptual breadth. We are also concerned that protection and enhancement of the unique cultural, recreational, natural resource, and agricultural values of the Delta as an evolving place, as required by the Delta Reform Act, has received no critical study and analysis. Adopting wider and longer science and policy perspectives immediately encourages recognition of the need for evaluation, analysis, and public discourse on

  7. Long-Term Collections

    CERN Multimedia

    Comité des collectes à long terme

    2011-01-01

    It is the time of the year when our fireman colleagues go around the laboratory for their traditional calendars sale. A part of the money of the sales will be donated in favour of the long-term collections. We hope that you will welcome them warmly.

  8. Perspectives of physiome research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chae Hun Leem

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Physiome is an area of physiology to generate a whole system by analyzing and integrating scattered and discrete information. The term “physiome” was first introduced by James B. Bassingthwaight in 1993, and officially announced by the International Union of Physiological Societies as the new field to be accomplished in the 21st century. In this review, I introduce the concepts of physiome, why physiome should be pursued, what kind of strategy is necessary to form physiome, and how physiome can be used.

  9. Putting it in Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kasper Løvborg; Winschiers-Theophilus, Heike; Rodil, Kasper

    2012-01-01

    As part of a long-term research and co-design project we are creating a 3D visualization interface for an indigenous knowledge (IK) management system with rural dwellers of the Herero tribe in Namibia. Evaluations of earlier prototypes and theories on cultural differences in perception led us...... on representation and recognition of objects and places in their everyday environment. We report how the findings from the study have informed design decisions for our particular system while also suggesting that certain viewing angles for 3D visualizations could be more suitable for the Herero and similar rural...

  10. A New Perspective on Thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Lavenda, Bernard H

    2010-01-01

    Dr. Bernard H. Lavenda has written A New Perspective on Thermodynamics to combine an old look at thermodynamics with a new foundation. The book presents a historical perspective, which unravels the current presentation of thermodynamics found in standard texts, and which emphasizes the fundamental role that Carnot played in the development of thermodynamics. A New Perspective on Thermodynamics will: Chronologically unravel the development of the principles of thermodynamics and how they were conceived by their discoverers Bring the theory of thermodynamics up to the present time and indicate areas of further development with the union of information theory and the theory of means and their inequalities. New areas include nonextensive thermodynamics, the thermodynamics of coding theory, multifractals, and strange attractors. Reintroduce important, yet nearly forgotten, teachings of N.L. Sardi Carnot Highlight conceptual flaws in timely topics such as endoreversible engines, finite-time thermodynamics, geometri...

  11. A perspective on obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ruth W; Broadnax, Pier A

    2003-01-01

    This article represents another approach to the topic of obesity in African-American women. It will not give the usual statistical data on obesity in African American women, because as African-American women, it is known that a greater majority is at risk. Instead the article represents a historical, cultural and psychosocial journey in attempting to understand obesity in African-American women from this perspective. The following thoughts are reflective of interactions with African-American women who have struggled with their weight and who have strived to understand the dynamics of their dilemma of being overweight and/or obese in America. This article explains that obesity in African-American women is more than an alteration in ones physiological processes. For some African-American women obesity is the essence of ones being and it has had a deleterious impact on them. Obesity in the African-American woman is not as simplistic as perceived. It is more than the management of the intake of food. Obesity is also more than the type of food that African-American women prepare and consume. Obesity in this sense maybe linked to the very essence of the women's cultural, historical and psychosocial well being. Being large can be a familial characteristic bearing no connection to the consumption and preparation of food. Important to the latter concept, and essential to the understanding of obesity in African-American women, it needs to be remembered that food may have many symbolic meanings. The symbols may be of a cultural and psychological nature and could be consciously unknown to the individual. Whatever the situation, it needs to be clear that for many African-Americans, obesity is not merely a medical problem. Being obese in America, and particularly for African-American women, has a far-reaching effect. It has reek havoc on the cultural psyche of the African-American women. The popular cultural concept conveyed by all types of media, is one of being thin and

  12. Countries, Within-Country Regions, and Multiple-Country Regions in International Management: A Functional, Institutional, and Critical Event (FICE) Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Mikael; Peterson, Mark F.

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the focused issue by offering a functional, institutional and critical event or FICE perspective on the relationship between cultural boundaries and the boundaries of modern nation states (termed countries here). Our perspective draws from three kinds of theory that suggest how...

  13. Patient perspectives of telemedicine quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LeRouge CM

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cynthia M LeRouge,1 Monica J Garfield,2 Alan R Hevner3 1Saint Louis University, St Louis, MO, 2Bentley University, Waltham, MA, 3University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA Background: The purpose of this study was to explore the quality attributes required for effective telemedicine encounters from the perspective of the patient.Methods: We used a multi-method (direct observation, focus groups, survey field study to collect data from patients who had experienced telemedicine encounters. Multi-perspectives (researcher and provider were used to interpret a rich set of data from both a research and practice perspective.Results: The result of this field study is a taxonomy of quality attributes for telemedicine service encounters that prioritizes the attributes from the patient perspective. We identify opportunities to control the level of quality for each attribute (ie, who is responsible for control of each attribute and when control can be exerted in relation to the encounter process. This analysis reveals that many quality attributes are in the hands of various stakeholders, and all attributes can be addressed proactively to some degree before the encounter begins.Conclusion: Identification of the quality attributes important to a telemedicine encounter from a patient perspective enables one to better design telemedicine encounters. This preliminary work not only identifies such attributes, but also ascertains who is best able to address quality issues prior to an encounter. For practitioners, explicit representation of the quality attributes of technology-based systems and processes and insight on controlling key attributes are essential to implementation, utilization, management, and common understanding. Keywords: patient perspective, technology service encounters, health care operations, telemedicine, quality, field study, mixed methodology

  14. Plastic mulching in agriculture. Trading short-term agronomic benefits for long-term soil degradation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinmetz, Zacharias; Wollmann, Claudia; Schaefer, Miriam; Buchmann, Christian; David, Jan [Institute for Environmental Sciences, Group of Environmental and Soil Chemistry, University of Koblenz-Landau, Fortstraße 7, 76829 Landau (Germany); Tröger, Josephine [Department of Psychology, University of Koblenz-Landau, Fortstraße 7, 76829 Landau (Germany); Interdisciplinary Research Group on Environmental Issues, University of Koblenz-Landau, Fortstraße 7, 76829 Landau (Germany); Muñoz, Katherine [Institute for Environmental Sciences, Group of Environmental and Soil Chemistry, University of Koblenz-Landau, Fortstraße 7, 76829 Landau (Germany); Interdisciplinary Research Group on Environmental Issues, University of Koblenz-Landau, Fortstraße 7, 76829 Landau (Germany); Frör, Oliver [Institute for Environmental Sciences, Group of Environmental Economics, University of Koblenz-Landau, Fortstraße 7, 76829 Landau (Germany); Schaumann, Gabriele Ellen, E-mail: schaumann@uni-landau.de [Institute for Environmental Sciences, Group of Environmental and Soil Chemistry, University of Koblenz-Landau, Fortstraße 7, 76829 Landau (Germany)

    2016-04-15

    Plastic mulching has become a globally applied agricultural practice for its instant economic benefits such as higher yields, earlier harvests, improved fruit quality and increased water-use efficiency. However, knowledge of the sustainability of plastic mulching remains vague in terms of both an environmental and agronomic perspective. This review critically discusses the current understanding of the environmental impact of plastic mulch use by linking knowledge of agricultural benefits and research on the life cycle of plastic mulches with direct and indirect implications for long-term soil quality and ecosystem services. Adverse effects may arise from plastic additives, enhanced pesticide runoff and plastic residues likely to fragment into microplastics but remaining chemically intact and accumulating in soil where they can successively sorb agrochemicals. The quantification of microplastics in soil remains challenging due to the lack of appropriate analytical techniques. The cost and effort of recovering and recycling used mulching films may offset the aforementioned benefits in the long term. However, comparative and long-term agronomic assessments have not yet been conducted. Furthermore, plastic mulches have the potential to alter soil quality by shifting the edaphic biocoenosis (e.g. towards mycotoxigenic fungi), accelerate C/N metabolism eventually depleting soil organic matter stocks, increase soil water repellency and favour the release of greenhouse gases. A substantial process understanding of the interactions between the soil microclimate, water supply and biological activity under plastic mulches is still lacking but required to estimate potential risks for long-term soil quality. Currently, farmers mostly base their decision to apply plastic mulches rather on expected short-term benefits than on the consideration of long-term consequences. Future interdisciplinary research should therefore gain a deeper understanding of the incentives for farmers

  15. Choosing a Breast Prosthesis: A Survivor's Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Request Permissions Choosing a Breast Prosthesis: A Survivor’s Perspective Andrea Zinn June 16, 2015 · Amber Bauer, ASCO ... body image breast cancer coping decision making patient perspective survivorship tips Related Resources: Breast Cancer - Introduction Talking ...

  16. Project Management – Multi-perspective Leadership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Eva

    2014-01-01

    ”Project Management – Multi-perspective Leadership” af Hans Mikkelsen og Jens Ove Riis - anmeldelse......”Project Management – Multi-perspective Leadership” af Hans Mikkelsen og Jens Ove Riis - anmeldelse...

  17. Preeclampsia: an obstetrician's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosser, Mary L; Katz, Nadine T

    2013-05-01

    Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-specific syndrome that usually develops after 20 weeks gestation. The exact pathogenic mechanisms remain uncertain and are likely multifactorial. Preeclampsia is a heterogeneous condition with potentially maternal and fetal consequences. As part of the spectrum of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, preeclampsia may progress rapidly and is a leading cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. In the United States, the incidence of preeclampsia has increased. Clinical manifestations are highly variable and may occur antepartum, intrapartum, or postpartum. Hypertension and proteinuria are the traditional hallmarks for the diagnosis of preeclampsia. These signs may occur with or without multisystem dysfunction and fetal involvement. Risk factors have been identified for the development of preeclampsia; however, ideal methods for prevention, screening, and treatment remain elusive. Preeclampsia resolves after delivery of the fetus, but patients may still have hypertension postpartum. Women and fetuses affected by preeclampsia are at higher risk of developing long-term health issues. There appear to be risk factors common to hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and cardiovascular disease seen later in adulthood. Physicians providing healthcare to women are urged to recognize potential risk factors that arise from patient obstetric histories so that optimal long-term health surveillance is provided. Copyright © 2013 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Providing Southern Perspectives on CSR

    OpenAIRE

    Jeppesen, Søren; Kothuis, Bas

    2014-01-01

    The article seeks to contribute to the SMEs and CSR literature in developing countries by providing; a) a ‘Southern’ SME perspective, which includes the voices of managers and workers, b) a perspective of CSR, which opens up to informal CSR practices that SMEs undertake, and c) an analysis of the key institutional issues affecting the CSR practices of SMEs. It presents perceptions of CSR practices among 21 SMEs in the garment industry in South Africa, based on 40 interviews with managers and ...

  19. THE PERSPECTIVE OF INNOVATION CLUSTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion CERTAN

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper studied the perspective, particularities and advantages of innovation clusters, the impact of innovation clusters on the country economics. The successful examples of cluster formation on the global level are been considered. The paper indicated the necessities of conversion the economy of Republic of Moldova to the innovation way of development, the necessities of using scientific achievements in the real sector of economy, the necessities of science, technology and innovation. There are allocated perspective industries, which can be prospective for innovative enterprises in Republic of Moldova. The paper is identified priorities for the clusters creation in Moldova.

  20. Dealing with the multidimensionality of sustainability through the use of multiple perspectives - a theoretical framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lönngren, Johanna; Svanström, Magdalena; Ingerman, Åke; Holmberg, John

    2016-05-01

    The concept of perspectives is important in discussions about the multidimensionality of sustainability problems and the need to consider many different aspects when dealing with them. This paper aims to facilitate discussions among both educators and researchers about didactical approaches to developing students' abilities to deal with the multidimensionality of sustainability challenges through the use of multiple perspectives. For this purpose, a theoretical framework was developed that describes perspectives in terms of a set of general characteristics, as well as a number of ways in which students can develop and reflect on perspectives. Development of the framework was supported by a qualitative content analysis of transcripts from interviews with undergraduate engineering students in Sweden.

  1. Changing perspective: The role of vestibular signals

    OpenAIRE

    Deroualle, Diane; Borel, Liliane; Deveze, Arnaud; Lopez, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Social interactions depend on mechanisms such as the ability to take another person's viewpoint, i.e. visuo-spatial perspective taking. However, little is known about the sensorimotor mechanisms underpinning perspective taking. Because vestibular signals play roles in mental rotation and spatial cognition tasks and because damage to the vestibular cortex can disturb egocentric perspective, vestibular signals stand as important candidates for the sensorimotor foundations of perspective taking....

  2. Life support and euthanasia, a perspective on Shaw's new perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Jacob; Rodogno, Raffaele

    2011-02-01

    It has recently been suggested by Shaw (2007) that the distinction between voluntary active euthanasia, such as giving a patient a lethal overdose with the intention of ending that patient's life, and voluntary passive euthanasia, such as removing a patient from a ventilator, is much less obvious than is commonly acknowledged in the literature. This is argued by suggesting a new perspective that more accurately reflects the moral features of end-of-life situations. The argument is simply that if we consider the body of a mentally competent patient who wants to die, a kind of 'unwarranted' life support, then the distinction collapses. We argue that all Shaw has provided is a perspective that makes the conclusion that there is little distinction between voluntary active euthanasia and voluntary passive euthanasia only seemingly more palatable. In doing so he has yet to convince us that this perspective is superior to other perspectives and thus more accurately reflects the moral features of the situations pertaining to this issue.

  3. Experimental manipulations of perspective taking and perspective switching in expressive writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seih, Yi-Tai; Chung, Cindy K; Pennebaker, James W

    2011-08-01

    Previous studies suggest that those who naturally vary their pronoun use over the course of expressive writing subsequently report the greatest improvements in physical and mental health. To explore possible perspective taking or perspective switching effects, two studies manipulated writing perspectives about emotional events from either a first-person, second-person, or third-person perspective. In Study 1, 55 students were randomly assigned to one of the three writing perspectives and were asked to write from the same perspective for three 5-minute writing sessions. In Study 2, 129 students wrote for three 5-minute sessions, one from each perspective in a counterbalanced order. The results showed that writing from a first-person perspective conferred more perceived benefits and was associated with using more cognitive mechanism words, whether engaged in perspective taking or perspective switching.

  4. A perspective on nonstationarity and water management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, R.M.

    2011-01-01

    This essay offers some perspectives on climate-related nonstationarity and water resources. Hydrologists must not lose sight of the many sources of nonstationarity, recognizing that many of them may be of much greater magnitude than those that may arise from climate change. It is paradoxical that statistical and deterministic approaches give us better insights about changes in mean conditions than about the tails of probability distributions, and yet the tails are very important to water management. Another paradox is that it is difficult to distinguish between long-term hydrologic persistence and trend. Using very long hydrologic records is helpful in mitigating this problem, but does not guarantee success. Empirical approaches, using long-term hydrologic records, should be an important part of the portfolio of research being applied to understand the hydrologic response to climate change. An example presented here shows very mixed results for trends in the size of the annual floods, with some strong clusters of positive trends and a strong cluster of negative trends. The potential for nonstationarity highlights the importance of the continuity of hydrologic records, the need for repeated analysis of the data as the time series grow, and the need for a well-trained cadre of scientists and engineers, ready to interpret the data and use those analyses to help adjust the management of our water resources.

  5. Manager Perspectives on Communication and Public ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    We argue that public engagement is crucial to achieving lasting ecological success in aquatic restoration efforts, and that the most effective public engagement mechanisms are what we term iterative mechanisms. Here we look to a particular social-ecological system – the restoration community in Rhode Island, U.S.A. and the rivers, wetlands, marshes, and estuaries, and their related species, that they work to protect – to better understand land managers’ perspectives on public engagement in restoration processes. Adopting an inductive approach to critical discourse analysis of interviews with 27 local, state, and federal restoration managers and the forms of public interaction they described, we identify three distinct models of public engagement in natural resources management employed by managers: unidirectional; bidirectional; and iterative. While unidirectional and bidirectional mechanisms can help managers achieve short-term ecological successes, we suggest that adopting an iterative approach can improve the quality of stakeholder and learning interactions and, subsequently, foster lasting ecological successes. We argue that managers can design deliberately for public engagement mechanisms that are best suited to projects in particular social-ecological systems in order to create restoration projects that achieve ecological, learning, and stakeholder successes. We attempt to synthesize the lessons learned from efforts at public engagement in restoratio

  6. An ontogenetic perspective on individual differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senner, Nathan R; Conklin, Jesse R; Piersma, Theunis

    2015-09-07

    Phenotypic differences among individuals can arise during any stage of life. Although several distinct processes underlying individual differences have been defined and studied (e.g. parental effects, senescence), we lack an explicit, unified perspective for understanding how these processes contribute separately and synergistically to observed variation in functional traits. We propose a conceptual framework based on a developmental view of life-history variation, linking each ontogenetic stage with the types of individual differences originating during that period. In our view, the salient differences among these types are encapsulated by three key criteria: timing of onset, when fitness consequences are realized, and potential for reversibility. To fill a critical gap in this framework, we formulate a new term to refer to individual differences generated during adulthood-reversible state effects. We define these as 'reversible changes in a functional trait resulting from life-history trade-offs during adulthood that affect fitness', highlighting how the adult phenotype can be repeatedly altered in response to environmental variation. Defining individual differences in terms of trade-offs allows explicit predictions regarding when and where fitness consequences should be expected. Moreover, viewing individual differences in a developmental context highlights how different processes can work in concert to shape phenotype and fitness, and lays a foundation for research linking individual differences to ecological and evolutionary theory. © 2015 The Author(s).

  7. Interdisciplinary perspectives on abstracts for information retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soon Keng Chan

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the abstract genre from the perspectives of English for Specific Purposes (ESP practitioners and information professionals. It aims to determine specific interdisciplinary interests in the abstract, and to explore areas of collaboration in terms of research and pedagogical practices. A focus group (FG comprising information professionals from the Division of Information Studies, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, convened for a discussion on the subject of abstracts and abstracting. Two major issues that have significant implications for ESP practices emerged during the discussion. While differences in terms of approach to and objectives of the abstract genre are apparent between information professionals and language professionals, the demands for specific cognitive processes involved in abstracting proved to be similar. This area of similarity provides grounds for awareness raising and collaboration between the two disciplines. While ESP practitioners need to consider adding the dimension of information science to the rhetorical and linguistic scaffolding that they have been providing to novice-writers, information professionals can contribute useful insights about the qualities of abstracts that have the greatest impact in meeting the end-users' needs in information search.

  8. Geography Education for "An Attainable Global Perspective"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Phil; Pawson, Eric; Solem, Michael; Ray, Waverly

    2014-01-01

    This article considers approaches to promoting global perspectives as both cognitive and affective learning outcomes within geography education. Particular attention is paid to the work of Robert Hanvey, who proposed "An Attainable Global Perspective" in the 1970s, which explicitly ties to the content and perspectives embedded in…

  9. Why Adoptees Search: An Existential Treatment Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jago Krueger, Mary J.; Hanna, Fred J.

    1997-01-01

    Frames the adult adoptee's search for biological roots in an existential treatment perspective. This perspective is proposed as a practical approach to understanding the complexities of the adoption experience and an adoptee's desire to search. Reviews adoption practices, existential perspectives (e.g., death), and clinical implications. Provides…

  10. The Multi-perspective Process Explorer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mannhardt, Felix; De Leoni, Massimiliano; Reijers, Hajo A.

    2015-01-01

    Organizations use process mining techniques to analyze event data recorded by their information systems. Multi-perspective process mining techniques make use of data attributes attached to events to analyze processes from multiple perspectives. Applying those multi-perspective process mining

  11. Half term report

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    This week marks the mid-point of my mandate as Director General, so what better time to take stock of the last two and a half years and look forward to the next?    On the surface, the report is good. The LHC is performing well, Council has just approved our medium term plan, and the there seem to be few clouds on CERN’s long-term horizon. It’s precisely at times like this, however, that complacency would be most dangerous. The world is still in the grip of an economic crisis, and recovery in our Member States is slow. CERN is still in debt, as are our social security systems. We are working on this, but these factors need constant and careful attention. While we need to remain vigilant, I’d like to focus on the positives for my mid term message. Let’s start with the LHC. The machine’s performance this year has been fantastic. We achieved our target luminosity for the year in June, which augurs well for the summer conferences. I don&r...

  12. Travel Abroad: A Study of the Perceived Influence of High School Students' Experiences of Short-Term Travel or Study Abroad Prior to College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angwenyi, David Matara

    2014-01-01

    Students who participate in a short-term travel experience program of 4 weeks or less develop a sense of global citizenship. High school students who spend time traveling abroad might seek to address global issues, not only from a local perspective, but also from a global perspective. The Troika Study guided this study. Using qualitative…

  13. The land management perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2006-01-01

    paradigm. In many countries, and especially developing countries and countries in transition, the national capacity to manage land rights, restrictions and responsibilities is not well developed in terms of mature institutions and the necessary human resources and skills. In this regard, the capacity......Land management is the process by which the resources of land are put into good effect. Land management encompasses all activities associated with the management of land that are required to achieve sustainable development. The concept of land includes properties and natural resources and thereby...... encompasses the total natural and built environment. Land Administration Systems (LAS) are institutional frameworks complicated by the tasks they must perform, by national cultural, political and judicial settings, and by technology. This paper facilitates an overall understanding of the land management...

  14. Arctic tipping points in an Earth system perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassmann, Paul; Lenton, Timothy M

    2012-02-01

    We provide an introduction to the volume The Arctic in the Earth System perspective: the role of tipping points. The terms tipping point and tipping element are described and their role in current science, general debates, and the Arctic are elucidated. From a wider perspective, the volume focuses upon the role of humans in the Arctic component of the Earth system and in particular the envelope for human existence, the Arctic ecosystems. The Arctic climate tipping elements, the tipping elements in Arctic ecosystems and societies, and the challenges of governance and anticipation are illuminated through short summaries of eight publications that derive from the Arctic Frontiers conference in 2011 and the EU FP7 project Arctic Tipping Points. Then some ideas based upon resilience thinking are developed to show how wise system management could ease pressures on Arctic systems in order to keep them away from tipping points.

  15. Automotive Painting Technology A Monozukuri-Hitozukuri Perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Salazar, Abraham; Saito, Kozo

    2013-01-01

    This book offers unique and valuable contributions to the field. It offers breadth and inclusiveness. Most existing works on automotive painting cover only a single aspect of this complex topic, such as the chemistry of paint or paint booth technology. Monozukuri and Hitozukuri are Japanese terms that can be translated as “making things” and “developing people” but their implications in Japanese are richer and more complex than this minimal translation would indicate. The Monozukuri-Hitozukuri perspective is drawn from essential principles on which the Toyota approach to problem-solving and continuous improvement is based. From this perspective, neither painting technology R&D nor painting technology use in manufacturing can be done successfully without integrating technological and human concerns involved with making and learning in the broadest sense, as the hyphen is meant to indicate. The editors provide case studies and examples -- drawn from Mr. Toda’s 33 years of experience with automotiv...

  16. Understanding the IT/business partnership - a business process perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siurdyban, Artur

    2014-01-01

    From a business process perspective, the business value of information technologies (IT) stems from how they improve or enable business processes. At the same time, in the field of strategic IT/business alignment, the locus of discussion has been how IT/business partnerships enhance the value of IT....... Despite this apparent relationship, the business process perspective has been absent from the IT/business alignment discussion. In this paper, we use the case of an industrial company to develop a model for understanding IT/business partnerships in business process terms. Based on our findings, we define...... these partnerships by allocating responsibilities between central IT and the local business during two stages of a process lifecycle: formation and standardization. The significance of the findings lies in how the model’s configuration leads to different types of IT units’ process centricity. This in turn affects...

  17. Youth Perspectives on Sexual Health Workshops: Informing Future Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashdown, Heather; Jalloh, Chelsea; Wylie, John L

    2015-11-01

    Newcomer and street-involved youth provided their perspective on the design and content of a sexual education workshop. Following the workshop, focus group discussions were held with 80 youth from four youth-serving agencies. Youth expressed increased levels of confidence and empowerment, consistent with recent criticism that a focus on specific behaviors as intervention outcome measures may miss important psychosocial changes in participants. Some youth views on cultural adaptation of workshops were not consistent with current views expressed by some adult educators, highlighting the need to ensure a youth perspective is captured during intervention development. Finally, the dichotomous views that youth expressed regarding workshop activities emphasizes a research gap related to how best to adapt interventions to different cognitive capacities, literacy levels, and learning styles. Information of this kind is relevant in terms of knowledge translation from youth to program planners and educators. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Donor milk: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliani F

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Francesca Giuliani,1 Ilaria Rovelli,1 Chiara Peila,1 Stefania Alfonsina Liguori,2 Enrico Bertino,1 Alessandra Coscia1 1SCDU Neonatologia, Dipartimento di Scienze Pediatriche e dell'Adolescenza, Università degli Studi di Torino, Torino, Italy; 2SC Neonatologia, Ospedale Maria Vittoria, Torino, Italy Abstract: Mother's own milk is widely recognized as the optimal feeding for term infants, but increasing evidence exists of its benefits also for sick and preterm infants in neonatal intensive care units. However, the nutritional needs for appropriate growth and neurodevelopmental outcomes of such a particular population of infants should be attentively evaluated, considering also the indication to an appropriate fortification of human milk. The target is to achieve growth potential for preterm newborns while ensuring good metabolic outcomes and normal neurological development. When mother's milk is unavailable or in short supply, donor human milk (DHM represents the second best choice and, although somewhat modified by the Holder pasteurization process, it preserves many benefits when compared to formula, as documented by more and more reports, randomized controlled trials, and meta-analyses published in the past few years. Evidence exists of the protection exerted by DHM from necrotizing enterocolitis, while further studies are required to look at possible beneficial effects regarding infections, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, long-term cardiovascular risk factors, feeding tolerance, neurological outcome, and allergy. Finally, the concern that the use of DHM might decrease preterm infant breastfeeding is being raised. Conversely, publications exist showing that the use of DHM in the neonatal unit increases breastfeeding rates at discharge for infants of very low birth weight. Keywords: human milk, preterm infant feeding, milk bank, breast milk, mother's own milk, pasteurized human milk, fortification

  19. Nanomedicine a soft matter perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Pan, Dipanjan

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a broad introduction to soft matters for nanomedicinal applications, with a deeper discussion of the individual modalities for molecular imaging. It includes a general introduction to the opportunities provided by this technology in chemistry, materials, biology and nanomedicine. It is designed and written with the perspective that anyone, with or without previous knowledge of nanotechnology, would benefit.

  20. Multidisciplinary Perspectives on Literacy Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, Richard, Ed.; And Others

    This collection of conference papers explores the application of a range of different disciplinary perspectives to studying literacy, drawing not only on newer linguistic and cognitive psychological orientations, but also on cultural anthropology, sociolinguistics, reader-response theory, critical theory, and poststructuralist theory. The…

  1. Mathematical Induction: Deductive Logic Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Hamide

    2016-01-01

    Many studies mentioned the deductive nature of Mathematical Induction (MI) proofs but almost all fell short in explaining its potential role in the formation of the misconceptions reported in the literature. This paper is the first of its kind looking at the misconceptions from the perspective of the abstract of the deductive logic from one's…

  2. University Rankings in Critical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusser, Brian; Marginson, Simon

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses global postsecondary ranking systems by using critical-theoretical perspectives on power. This research suggests rankings are at once a useful lens for studying power in higher education and an important instrument for the exercise of power in service of dominant norms in global higher education. (Contains 1 table and 1…

  3. Faculty Perspectives on Administrator Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bess, James L.

    The sources of faculty perspectives on the personal effectiveness of administrators are analyzed. It is proposed that faculty will be predisposed to see administrators in different lights, depending on structural elements in decision making and the orientation of the faculty members. Attention is directed to Talcott Parson's theory for classifying…

  4. Nanomanufacturing-Perspective and applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, F. Z.; Zhang, X. D.; Gao, W.W.

    2017-01-01

    Nanomanufacturing involves scaled-up, reliable, and cost-effective manufacturing of nanoscale materials, structures, devices, and systems. Nanomanufacturing methods can be classified into top-down and bottom-up approaches, including additive, subtractive, and replication/mass conservation processes......, and outlines the research perspectives and the current application status of nanomanufacturing fundamentals and key technologies....

  5. A psychological perspective on money

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijleveld, E.H.; Aarts, H.A.G.; Bijleveld, E.H.; Aarts, H.A.G.

    2014-01-01

    A thriving field of inquiry, the psychological science of money has recently witnessed an upsurge in research attention. In the present volume, we bring together and integrate a number of theoretical perspectives on the question of ‘how does money affect people’s mind, brain, and behavior?’

  6. Vesicoureteral reflux: A historical perspective

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    K.N. DeCotiis

    2016-12-28

    Dec 28, 2016 ... Vesicoureteral reflux: A historical perspective. K.N. DeCotiisa,∗. , F.J. Pennab, M.A. Koylec, A.A. Caldamonea a The Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, 2 Dudley Street, Suite 174, Providence, RI 02905, USA b Dartmouth | Geisel School of Medicine, Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, ...

  7. Psycholinguistics: A Second Language Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, Evelyn Marcussen

    Perspectives of the field of psycholinguistics and second language research are examined to provide a broader understanding of language learning and language behavior. Psycholinguistics, which uses the approaches of psychology and linguistics is defined as the search for an understanding of how humans comprehend and produce language. Based on the…

  8. Beauty and health: anthropological perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edmonds, A.

    2008-01-01

    This essay, written as a 'teaser' for an up-coming symposium, reflects on how human beauty can be understood from an anthropological and medical anthropological perspective. First, it considers how aesthetic and healing rationales can conflict or merge in a variety of medical technologies and health

  9. Complexity Leadership: A Theoretical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltaci, Ali; Balci, Ali

    2017-01-01

    Complex systems are social networks composed of interactive employees interconnected through collaborative, dynamic ties such as shared goals, perspectives and needs. Complex systems are largely based on "the complex system theory". The complex system theory focuses mainly on finding out and developing strategies and behaviours that…

  10. HPLC: Early and Recent Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karger, Barry L.

    1997-01-01

    Provides a perspective on what it was like in the early days of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and several of the key developments. Focuses on the advances in HPLC generally, and more specifically for the biological sciences, that were necessary for the method to reach the preeminent stage of today. Contains 20 references. (JRH)

  11. PLANT BIOTECHNOLOGY: PERSPECTIVES FOR DEVELOPING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LA BIOTECHNOLOGIE VEGETALE: PERSPECTIVES D'AVENIR DES PAYS EN DEVELOPPEMENT ENTRE 2002 ET 2025. Au cours des 30 premires annes du 3me millnium, la demande mondiale en nourriture va doubler. Pour produire assez de denres alimentaires et assurer de bonnes rcoltes, partout dans le monde les ...

  12. Perspectives on the Anorectic Student.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papalia, Anthony; Bode, Jacquelyn

    1981-01-01

    Studies the anorectic student who is becoming more evident on the college campus, and who often evokes strong emotional response. Stresses that realistic perspectives be maintained by college counselors and administrators. Explains the characteristics of anorexia nervosa and provides guidelines for responding to the student. (Author)

  13. Perspectives on science and art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Bevil R; Livingstone, Margaret S

    2007-08-01

    Artists try to understand how we see, sometimes explicitly exploring rules of perspective or color, visual illusions, or iconography, and conversely, scientists who study vision sometimes address the perceptual questions and discoveries raised by the works of art, as we do here.

  14. A Neuroscience Perspective on Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, Dendy; Norrgran, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    We briefly discuss memory types and three modern principles of neuroscience: 1) Protein growth at the synapse, 2) the three-brain theory, and 3) the interplay of the hippocampus, the neocortex, and the prefrontal cortex. To illustrate the potential of this perspective, four applications of these principles are provided.

  15. Drugs in society: European perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fountain, J.; Korf, D.J.

    2007-01-01

    This unique overview of the variation in the ways recreational and other drugs are used across Europe includes critical reflections on current drug policy. Contributions from a wide range of professionals and academics in different countries offer a truly international perspective on the European

  16. China from a regional perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    The paper explains the political economic background for China's insertion to the world system. It furthermore expands on a critical perspective on China's soft power strategy. It goes on to discuss China's foreign policy strategy towards Southeast Asia and China's rivalry with the US in the region....

  17. Food Sharing: An Evolutionary Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinman, Saul

    Food altruism and the consumption of food are examined from a sociological perspective which assumes that humans share food as inclusive fitness actors. Inclusive fitness implies the representation of an individual's genes in future generations through his own or others' offspring. The discussion includes characteristics of food sharing among kin…

  18. Selected advances and future perspectives

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abdelaziz Ghanemi

    2014-10-18

    Oct 18, 2014 ... Alzheimer's disease therapies: Selected advances and future perspectives. Abdelaziz Ghanemi *. Key Laboratory of Animal Models and Human Disease Mechanisms of Chinese Academy of Sciences & Yunnan Province,. Kunming Institute of Zoology, Kunming, Yunnan 650223, China. University of ...

  19. TIME: MEANINGS, PERSPECTIVES AND APPROACHES

    OpenAIRE

    Hanen KHANCHEL; Karim BEN KAHLA

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides a brief review of the literature related to time. First, the paper discusses ways that individuals represent time. Then the quantitative and the qualitative perspectives of time are discussed. Temporal dimensions in organizations, such as time orientation, polychronicity, and time urgency, are described. The paper may provide implications for academics whose research is related to behaviour over time

  20. Clinical Perspectives on Autobiographical Memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Autobiographical memory plays a key role in psychological well-being, and the field has been investigated from multiple perspectives for more than thirty years. One large body of research has examined the basic mechanisms and characteristics of autobiographical memory during general cognition, an...

  1. Perspectives on Mentoring Novice Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Greiner

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction to themed issue, vol 4, No 3 of Global Eduction Review. “Perspectives on Mentoring Novice Teachers,” Beginning teachers are confronted with specific challenges for which intensive internships for students in teacher education cannot prepare novice additional further support.

  2. Future time perspective and health behaviors: temporal framing of self-regulatory processes in physical exercise and dietary behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gellert, Paul; Ziegelmann, Jochen P; Lippke, Sonia; Schwarzer, Ralf

    2012-04-01

    Limitations in perceived lifetime can undermine long-term goal striving. Planning is supposed to translate intentions into health behaviors and to operate as a compensatory strategy to overcome goal striving deficits associated with a limited time perspective. Two longitudinal studies were conducted examining the compensatory role of planning: an online survey on fruit and vegetable consumption (N = 909; 16-78 years; follow-up at 4 months) and a questionnaire study on physical exercise in older adults (N = 289; 60-95 years, over a half-year period). Intentions, planning, and behavior were measured in a behavior-specific, future time perspective in a generic manner. Planning mediated between intentions and both health behaviors. Time perspective operated as a moderator, indicating that in individuals with a more limited time perspective, a stronger effect of planning on health behaviors emerged. Planning as a self-regulatory strategy may compensate for a limited time perspective.

  3. Greek paideia and terms of probability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Leon Parada

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses three aspects of the conceptual framework for a doctoral dissertation research in process in the field of Mathematics Education, in particular, in the subfield of teaching and learning basic concepts of Probability Theory at the College level. It intends to contrast, sustain and elucidate the central statement that the meanings of some of these basic terms used in Probability Theory were not formally defined by any specific theory but relate to primordial ideas developed in Western culture from Ancient Greek myths. The first aspect deals with the notion of uncertainty, with that Greek thinkers described several archaic gods and goddesses of Destiny, like Parcas and Moiras, often personified in the goddess Tyche—Fortuna for the Romans—, as regarded in Werner Jaeger’s “Paideia”. The second aspect treats the idea of hazard from two different approaches: the first approach deals with hazard, denoted by Plato with the already demythologized term ‘tyche’ from the viewpoint of innate knowledge, as Jaeger points out. The second approach deals with hazard from a perspective that could be called “phenomenological”, from which Aristotle attempted to articulate uncertainty with a discourse based on the hypothesis of causality. The term ‘causal’ was opposed both to ‘casual’ and to ‘spontaneous’ (as used in the expression “spontaneous generation”, attributing uncertainty to ignorance of the future, thus respecting causal flow. The third aspect treated in the paper refers to some definitions and etymologies of some other modern words that have become technical terms in current Probability Theory, confirming the above-mentioned main proposition of this paper.

  4. Explaining consumer choice: coming to terms with intentionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxall, Gordon R

    2007-06-01

    Any attempt to understand the nature of behaviorism as a philosophy of science, to depict the essence of its distinctive explanatory system, or to delimit the scope of its capacity to explicate behavior, requires an appreciation of how its practitioners use language. Three behaviorist theories that are especially relevant to the explanation of economic behavior - radical behaviorism, teleological behaviorism, and picoeconomics - provide a necessary array of theoretical perspectives in that each contributes uniquely to understanding consumer choice. Despite the differences that separate them at a methodological level, and the internecine disputes in which their adherents sometimes address one another, these three perspectives play complementary roles in the depiction of everyday consumer behavior. Moreover, this combination of behavior theories owes much to the way in which each has responded to the challenge of intentional explanation. In order to demonstrate this, the paper proposes a framework of analysis which portrays the essential differences between intentional explanation and the extensional approach towards which many behaviorists have striven, and argues that while radical behaviorism scrupulously avoids intentional terms, teleological behaviorism and picoeconomics have in differing ways come to terms with the necessity of combining a behaviorist perspective with the explanatory value of intentional terminology. This continuum of explanations is applied to recent findings of consumer behavior analysis on consumer choice in natural environments.

  5. Hospice nurses' perspectives of spirituality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiew, Lay Hwa; Kwee, Jian Hui; Creedy, Debra K; Chan, Moon Fai

    2013-10-01

    To explore Singapore hospice nurses' perspectives of spirituality and spiritual care. A descriptive, cross-sectional design was used. Spiritual care is integral to providing quality end-of-life care. However, patients often report that this aspect of care is lacking. Previous studies suggest that nurses' neglect of this aspect of care could be attributed to poor understanding of what spirituality is and what such care entails. This study aimed to explore Singapore hospice nurses' perspectives about spirituality and spiritual care. A convenience sample of hospice nurses was recruited from the eight hospices in Singapore. The survey comprised two parts: the participant demographic details and the Spirituality Care-Giving Scale. This 35-item validated instrument measures participants' perspectives about spirituality and spiritual care. Sixty-six nurses participated (response rate of 65%). Overall, participants agreed with items in the Spiritual Care-Giving Scale related to Attributes of Spiritual Care; Spiritual Perspectives; Spiritual Care Attitudes; and Spiritual Care Values. Results from general linear model analysis showed statistically significant main effects between race, spiritual affiliation and type of hospice setting, with the total Spiritual Care-Giving Scale score and four-factor scores. Spirituality was perceived to be universal, holistic and existential in nature. Spiritual care was perceived to be relational and centred on respecting patients' differing faiths and beliefs. Participants highly regarded the importance of spiritual care in the care of patients at end-of-life. Factors that significantly affected participants' perspectives of spirituality and spiritual care included race, spiritual affiliation and hospice type. Study can clarify values and importance of spirituality and care concepts in end-of-life care. Accordingly, spirituality and care issues can be incorporated in multi-disciplinary team discussions. Explicit guidelines regarding

  6. Eisenmenger syndrome: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nashat H

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Heba Nashat,1–3 Aleksander Kempny,1–3 Colm McCabe,1 Laura C Price,1–3 Carl Harries,1 Rafael Alonso-Gonzalez,1–3 Michael A Gatzoulis,1–3 Stephen J Wort,1–3 Konstantinos Dimopoulos1–3 1Adult Congenital Heart Centre and National Centre for Pulmonary Hypertension, Royal Brompton Hospital, 2National Heart and Lung Institute (NHLI, Imperial College, 3National Institute for Health Research (NIHR Cardiovascular Biomedical Research Unit, Royal Brompton Hospital and National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College, London, UK Abstract: Eisenmenger syndrome (ES is the most severe form of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH related to congenital heart disease (CHD. It results from a cardiac defect allowing significant systemic-to-pulmonary (left-to-right shunting, which triggers the development of pulmonary vascular disease (PVD if the defect is not repaired in a timely fashion. Once severe PVD has developed, the defect cannot be repaired. With advances in pediatric cardiology and surgery, the prevalence of ES is steadily falling in developed countries; nonetheless, there will always be patients who are unsuitable for repair at the time of diagnosis, or emigrating from countries with less advanced healthcare, who will develop ES. ES is a multisystem disorder causing chronic hypoxemia and reduced cardiac output resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. While lung (plus defect repair or combined heart and lung transplantation is thought be the definitive treatment for ES, transplant organs are a limited resource and long-term results are still suboptimal. PAH pharmacotherapy was, until quite recently, largely directed at symptomatic relief and had no impact on morbidity and mortality. Targeted PAH therapies have recently been proven to be beneficial in various forms of PAH in terms of functional status, progression of disease, and prognosis. Data on the effect of PAH therapies in the ES cohort remain limited, but available studies

  7. Long-term research challenges in wind energy – a research agenda by the European Academy of Wind Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Kuik, G. A. M.; Peinke, Joachim; Nijssen, R.

    2016-01-01

    , this eawe document takes a longer-term perspective, addressing the scientific knowledge base that is required to develop wind energy beyond the applications of today and tomorrow. In other words, this long-term research agenda is driven by problems and curiosity, addressing basic research and fundamental...

  8. Generic Skills from Qur'anic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddig Ahmad

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Generic skills are defined as a set of skills that are directly related and needed for the working environment. Employers prefer to recruit officials who are competent in interpersonal communication, leadership skill, team work, oral and written skills. They are reluctant to employ graduates lacking certain necessary skills. This reveals the fact that there is a serious gap between the skills that are required by the employers and the skills that the graduates possess. Therefore, this research is focused on five aspects of generic skills namely; communication, team work, problem solving, lifelong learning and self-esteem. From Qur’anic perspective, the same terms have been used except minor differences in using various terms. The thematic approach is used when discussing these aspects from the Qur’an. The findings showed that the ways of effective communication are represented by terms of qawl sadid, qawl ma`ruf, qawl baligh, qawl maysur, qawl karim and qawl layyin. For collective work, ta`aruf and tafahum, as the pre-requisites, should be practiced via ta`awun and takaful. For problem solving, four methods are adapted from the Qur’an such as reflection of the past, observation, demonstration and asking questions. For lifelong learning, the establishment of learning institutions and the self-motivation of learners are two pre-requisites that should be undertaken for its accomplishment. They could be practiced through open learning system, consultation and hands-on learning. Last but not least, for personality development could be built up through physical training, spiritual training and mental training.

  9. Empathy and visual perspective-taking performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattan, Bradley D; Rotshtein, Pia; Quinn, Kimberly A

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which visual perspective-taking performance is modulated by trait-level empathy. Participants completed a third-person visual perspective-taking task in which they judged the perspectives of two simultaneously presented avatars, designated "Self" and "Other." Depending on the trial, these avatars either held the same view (i.e., congruent) or a different view (i.e., incongruent). Analyses focused on the relationship between empathy and two perspective-taking phenomena: Selection between competing perspectives (i.e., perspective-congruence effects) and prioritization of the Self avatar's perspective. Empathy was related to improved overall performance on this task and a reduced cost of selecting between conflicting perspectives (i.e., smaller perspective-congruence effects). This effect was asymmetric, with empathy (i.e., empathic concern) levels predicting reduced interference from a conflicting perspective, especially when adopting the Self (vs. Other) avatar's perspective. Taken together, these results highlight the importance of the self-other distinction and mental flexibility components of empathy.

  10. Epilepsy: Indian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandanavana Subbareddy Santhosh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There are 50 million people living with epilepsy worldwide, and most of them reside in developing countries. About 10 million persons with epilepsy are there in India. Many people with active epilepsy do not receive appropriate treatment for their condition, leading to large treatment gap. The lack of knowledge of antiepileptic drugs, poverty, cultural beliefs, stigma, poor health infrastructure, and shortage of trained professionals contribute for the treatment gap. Infectious diseases play an important role in seizures and long-term burden causing both new-onset epilepsy and status epilepticus. Proper education and appropriate health care services can make tremendous change in a country like India. There have been many original researches in various aspects of epilepsy across India. Some of the geographically specific epilepsies occur only in certain regions of our country which have been highlighted by authors. Even the pre-surgical evaluation and epilepsy surgery in patients with drug-resistant epilepsy is available in many centers in our country. This article attempts to provide a complete preview of epilepsy in India.

  11. IUGR Management: New Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Giuliano

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the Study. Analyzing velocimetric (umbilical artery, UA; ductus venosus, DV; middle cerebral artery, MCA and computerized cardiotocographic (cCTG (fetal heart rate, FHR; short term variability, STV; approximate entropy, ApEn parameters in intrauterine growth restriction, IUGR, in order to detect early signs of fetal compromise. Population Study. 375 pregnant women assisted from the 28th week of amenorrhea to delivery and monitored through cCTG and Doppler ultrasound investigation. The patients were divided into three groups according to the age of gestation at the time of delivery, before the 34th week, from 34th to 37th week, and after the 37th week. Data were analyzed in relation to the days before delivery and according to the physiology or pathology of velocimetry. Statistical analysis was performed through the t-test, chi-square test, and Pearson correlation test (P<0.05. Our results evidenced an earlier alteration of UA, DV, and MCA. The analysis between cCTG and velocimetric parameters (the last distinguished into physiological and pathological values suggests a possible relation between cCTG alterations and Doppler ones. The present study emphasizes the need for an antenatal testing in IUGR fetuses using multiple surveillance modalities to enhance prediction of neonatal outcome.

  12. Current perspectives on ranibizumab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedania VS

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Vaidehi S Dedania,1 Sophie J Bakri21Department of Ophthalmology, Albany Medical Center, Lions Eye Institute, Albany, NY, USA; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USABackground: This review summarizes the Phase III studies addressing intravitreal ranibizumab treatment in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD, macular edema (ME from retinal vein occlusion (RVO, and diabetic ME (DME.Results: The data from 12 major Phase III studies: six studies in patients with neovascular AMD, two studies in patients with ME from RVO, and four studies in patients with DME demonstrate significant improvement in vision in patients undergoing treatment with intravitreal ranibizumab over patients receiving no treatment or receiving only grid laser. These effects are achieved with low incidences of ocular and nonocular adverse events.Conclusion: Intravitreal ranibizumab is a highly effective and safe therapy for improving vision and reducing vision loss in patients with neovascular AMD, ME from RVO, and DME. Patients generally require long-term treatment although some data show that frequency of treatment necessary to maintain visual outcomes decreases over time.Keywords: age-related macular degeneration, branch retinal vein occlusion, central retinal vein occlusion, diabetic macular edema, intravitreal, macular edema

  13. Mentorship: an international perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, John; Bøhler, Ann; Hansen, Grethe Storm; Kauffeldt, Anders; Welander, Eva; Santos, Margarida Reis; Thorarinsdottir, Kristin; Ziarko, Ewa

    2007-11-01

    This paper is an account of a project funded by the European Union as a Leonardo da Vinici pilot project which aimed to produce a framework for a programme which prepares qualified nurses for their role as mentor of the student nurse. Representatives from universities in Norway, Sweden, Iceland, Poland, Portugal and the United Kingdom were the partner countries. The project was developed through the establishment of a series of common meetings sequentially held in each of the partner countries. The aim of these meetings was to devise a common curriculum for the preparation of mentors of students, when in practice, thereby sharing views, experiences and expectations. Initially, the group established a common philosophy specifically theory and practice were seen as a single entity with theory being both related to and drawn from practice. Reflection and reflection on practice was also seen as important; an inductive model which emphasized the dialectical relationship between theory (abstract thinking), practice (concrete experiences), reflected observation (induction) and active experimentation (deduction) and serve to reduce the gap between theory and practice. The process evolved rather than was a predetermined plan but on reflection the process involved several stages: the first lay in the identification of a common understanding of terms and a shared common philosophy. A framework is then devised which allows the partner countries to develop their programme according to local and national needs.

  14. Working Women: Indian Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dharmendra MEHTA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In India, due to unprecedented rise in the cost of living, ris-ing prices of commodities, growing expenses on children ed-ucation, huge rate of unemployment, and increasing cost of housing properties compel every Indian family to explore all the possible ways and means to increase the household income. It is also witnessed that after globalization Indian women are able to get more jobs but the work they get is more casual in nature or is the one that men do not prefer to do or is left by them to move to higher or better jobs. Working women refers to those in paid employment. They work as lawyers, nurses, doctors, teachers and secretaries etc. There is no profession today where women are not employed. University of Oxford’s Professor Linda Scott recently coined the term the Double X Economy to describe the global economy of women. The present paper makes an attempt to discuss issues and challenges that are being faced by Indian working women at their respective workstations.

  15. Rape: an Asian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadesan, K

    2001-06-01

    Rape is one of the fastest growing violent crimes in many parts of the world. Rape laws have been amended in most countries in an attempt to cope with the proliferation of this crime. Even though the legal definition of rape and the procedural laws have been amended, rape remains a serious problem in both the developed and developing nations. In some countries the offence of rape carries severe punishment sometimes even the death sentence. In many jurisdictions the term 'sexual penetration' is being used instead of 'sexual intercourse'. Sexual penetration includes sexual intercourse, anal intercourse, cunnilingus, fellatio or any other intrusions involving any part of a human body or of any object into the genital or anal opening of a person's body. In many countries rape and other sexual offences have been replaced with a series of gender neutral and graded offences with appropriate punishments. Medical examination can provide independent, scientific, corroborative evidence that may be of value to the court in arriving at a judgement. Doctors should have a clear understanding of different rape laws in order to apprectiate the various issues involved. Special knowledge, skill and experience are essential to conduct a good-quality medical examination. There is a dearth of trained forensic physicians in many Asian countries. However, managing a rape victim (survivor) goes for beyond proving the case in a court of law. There should be an adequate rehabilitation programme available to the victims to help them cope.

  16. Long-Term Collections

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    45 years helping in developing countries! CERN personnel have been helping the least fortunate people on the planet since 1971. How? With the Long-Term Collections! Dear Colleagues, The Staff Association’s Long-Term Collections (LTC) Committee is delighted to share this important milestone in the life of our Laboratory with you. Indeed, whilst the name of CERN is known worldwide for scientific discoveries, it also shines in the many humanitarian projects which have been supported by the LTC since 1971. Several schools and clinics, far and wide, carry its logo... Over the past 45 years, 74 projects have been supported (9 of which are still ongoing). This all came from a group of colleagues who wanted to share a little of what life offered them here at CERN, in this haven of mutual understanding, peace and security, with those who were less fortunate elsewhere. Thus, the LTC were born... Since then, we have worked as a team to maintain the dream of these visionaries, with the help of regular donat...

  17. Long-Term Collection

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    Dear Colleagues, As previously announced in Echo (No. 254), your delegates took action to draw attention to the projects of the Long-Term Collections (LTC), the humanitarian body of the CERN Staff Association. On Tuesday, 11 October, at noon, small Z-Cards were widely distributed at the entrances of CERN restaurants and we thank you all for your interest. We hope to have achieved an important part of our goal, which was to inform you, convince you and find new supporters among you. We will find out in the next few days! An exhibition of the LTC was also set up in the Main Building for the entire week. The Staff Association wants to celebrate the occasion of the Long-Term Collection’s 45th anniversary at CERN because, ever since 1971, CERN personnel have showed great support in helping the least fortunate people on the planet in a variety of ways according to their needs. On a regular basis, joint fundraising appeals are made with the Directorate to help the victims of natural disasters around th...

  18. Collectes à long terme

    CERN Multimedia

    Collectes à long terme

    2014-01-01

    En cette fin d’année 2014 qui approche à grands pas, le Comité des Collectes à Long Terme remercie chaleureusement ses fidèles donatrices et donateurs réguliers pour leurs contributions à nos actions en faveur des plus démunis de notre planète. C’est très important, pour notre Comité, de pouvoir compter sur l’appui assidu que vous nous apportez. Depuis plus de 40 ans maintenant, le modèle des CLT est basé principalement sur des actions à long terme (soit une aide pendant 4-5 ans par projet, mais plus parfois selon les circonstances), et sa planification demande une grande régularité de ses soutiens financiers. Grand MERCI à vous ! D’autres dons nous parviennent au cours de l’année, et ils sont aussi les bienvenus. En particulier, nous tenons à remercier...

  19. Current Challenges for K-12 Dance Education and Development: Perspectives from Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risner, Doug

    2007-01-01

    From an administrative perspective, this article investigates equity issues in dance education, and current challenges and opportunities for leadership in postsecondary dance programs involved in teacher education and certification. Although dance education is varied in content and environment, much is shared in terms of common goals for gender…

  20. What Makes an Excellent Lecturer? Academics' Perspectives on the Discourse of "Teaching Excellence" in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Margaret; Su, Feng

    2017-01-01

    In the context of the Teaching Excellence Framework (TEF), we examine academics' perspectives on the discourse of "teaching excellence" based on an empirical study with 16 participants from five post-1992 universities. The article reports the findings on academics' views of the term and concept of "teaching excellence",…

  1. What Does Research Say about Social Perspective-Taking Interventions for Students with HFASD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southall, Candice; Campbell, Jonathan M.

    2015-01-01

    The term "theory of mind" (ToM) was introduced by Premack and Woodruff as the ability to infer mental states of others. Many researchers believe that social deficits seen in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are directly linked to deficits in ToM or the inability to realize that others' perspectives are different from…

  2. Coins, money and exchange in the Roman world. A cultural-economic perspective.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, J.G.

    2005-01-01

    Until now, the Roman economy has been discussed primarily in economic terms. After the vehement debate between substantivist and formalists in the 1960s and 1970s, most historians and archaeologists have embraced an essentially substantivist perspective. Although this outlook has proven its value,

  3. Precalculus Teachers' Perspectives on Using Graphing Calculators: An Example from One Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadeniz, Ilyas; Thompson, Denisse R.

    2018-01-01

    Graphing calculators are hand-held technological tools currently used in mathematics classrooms. Teachers' perspectives on using graphing calculators are important in terms of exploring what teachers think about using such technology in advanced mathematics courses, particularly precalculus courses. A descriptive intrinsic case study was conducted…

  4. An Exploratory Study of Elementary Classroom Teachers' Physical Activity Promotion from a Social Learning Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Collin A.; Buchan, Heather; Perreault, Melanie; Doan, Rob; Doutis, Panayiotis; Weaver, Robert Glenn

    2015-01-01

    Despite its recommended use, physical activity promotion in the academic classroom (PAPAC) has received little attention in terms of the factors that help to facilitate it. In this study, a social learning perspective was adopted to examine the role of physical activity biographies in generalist classroom teachers' (CTs) PAPAC. CTs (N = 213) were…

  5. Workplace Learning from a Socio-Cultural Perspective: Creating Developmental Space during the General Practice Clerkship

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Zwet, J.; Zwietering, P. J.; Teunissen, P. W.; van der Vleuten, C. P. M.; Scherpbier, A. J. J. A.

    2011-01-01

    Workplace learning in undergraduate medical education has predominantly been studied from a cognitive perspective, despite its complex contextual characteristics, which influence medical students' learning experiences in such a way that explanation in terms of knowledge, skills, attitudes and single determinants of instructiveness is unlikely to…

  6. Family and Staff Perspectives on Service Use for Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities in Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMorris, Carly A.; Weiss, Jonathan A.; Cappelletti, Gabriella; Lunsky, Yona

    2013-01-01

    Carers of individuals with an intellectual disability are often responsible for managing their children's psychiatric crises when they arise. The purpose of this study was to examine the experiences of families using crisis and short-term transitional supports from the perspectives of families and of crisis and transitional support staff. Three…

  7. Impact of Occupational Socialization on the Perspectives and Practices of Sport Pedagogy Doctoral Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hong-Min; Curtner-Smith, Matthew D.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of occupational socialization on the perspectives and practices of sport pedagogy doctoral students in terms of physical education (PE) teaching and physical education teacher education (PETE). Participants were 12 students. Data were collected through formal and informal interviews,…

  8. Early Curricular Experiences with Nonnumeric Quantities, Evidence of an Enduring Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venenciano, Linda

    2017-01-01

    In this study we explore possible long-term effects of an adaptation of the El'konin­-Davydov elementary grades curriculum, Measure Up or MU. The objectives for the study are to assess how students relate an equation of nonnumeric quantities to a length representation, and if former MU students develop and retain a perspective characteristic of…

  9. Snacking now or later? Individual differences in following intentions or habits explained by time perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onwezen, M.C.; Riet, J.P. van 't; Dagevos, H.; Sijtsema, S.J.; Snoek, H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Even when individuals are aware of long-term health effects of their diet, and form healthy intentions, they often engage in relatively unhealthy snacking habits. Some individuals fall back on unhealthy habits more easily than others. We aim to explore whether time perspective can explain why some

  10. Snacking now or later? Individual differences in following intentions or habits explained by time perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onwezen, M.C.; Riet, van 't J.; Dagevos, H.; Sijtsema, S.J.; Snoek, H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Even when individuals are aware of long-term health effects of their diet, and form healthy intentions, they often engage in relatively unhealthy snacking habits. Some individuals fall back on unhealthy habits more easily than others. We aim to explore whether time perspective can explain why

  11. Divergent Perspectives and Differing Logics: The Case for Affirmative Action in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rout, Bharat Chandra

    2012-01-01

    Affirmative action (AA) is one of the most suitable mechanisms to promote equity and social justice in education in India. This essay deals with the impact of the different conceptualizations of AA in terms of its vision and the historic approaches to social inequalities in India. Primarily focusing on the various perspectives of affirmative…

  12. FL Vocabulary Learning of Undergraduate English Majors in Western China: Perspective, Strategy Use and Vocabulary Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Baicheng

    2009-01-01

    The present study, by use of questionnaire and vocabulary tests, has investigated the foreign language vocabulary learning situation of 481 undergraduates in terms of their perspective of vocabulary learning, strategy use and vocabulary size. Based on the questionnaire investigation and vocabulary level tests, the characteristics of the subjects'…

  13. Bedtime procrastination: a self-regulation perspective on sleep insufficiency in the general population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroese, Floor|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313869871; Evers, Catharine|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/280594232; Adriaanse, Marieke|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304823023; de Ridder, Denise|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070706174

    2016-01-01

    Getting insufficient sleep has serious consequences in terms of mental and physical health. The current study is the first to approach insufficient sleep from a self-regulation perspective by investigating the phenomenon of bedtime procrastination: going to bed later than intended, without having

  14. A Learning Style Perspective to Investigate the Necessity of Developing Adaptive Learning Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Sung, Han-Yu; Hung, Chun-Ming; Huang, Iwen

    2013-01-01

    Learning styles are considered to be one of the factors that need to be taken into account in developing adaptive learning systems. However, few studies have been conducted to investigate if students have the ability to choose the best-fit e-learning systems or content presentation styles for themselves in terms of learning style perspective. In…

  15. Regionalism and the Unity of International Law from a Positivist Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Hoogh, André; Aznar, Mariano J; Footer, Mary E

    This contribution aims to consider regionalism and the unity of international law from a practical, legal positivist perspective. The analysis will focus on the interrelationship in terms of validity, sources, and questions of (non-)application and conflict. A tentative conclusion is that

  16. Term rewriting with traversal functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J. Vinju (Jurgen); M.G.J. van den Brand (Mark); P. Klint (Paul)

    2003-01-01

    htmlabstractTerm rewriting is an appealing technique for performing program analysis and program transformation. Tree (term) traversal is frequently used but is not supported by standard term rewriting. We extend many-sorted, first-order term rewriting with traversal functions that automate tree

  17. Intergroup visual perspective-taking: Shared group membership impairs self-perspective inhibition but may facilitate perspective calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Austin J; Todd, Andrew R

    2017-09-01

    Reasoning about what other people see, know, and want is essential for navigating social life. Yet, even neurodevelopmentally healthy adults make perspective-taking errors. Here, we examined how the group membership of perspective-taking targets (ingroup vs. outgroup) affects processes underlying visual perspective-taking. In three experiments using two bases of group identity (university affiliation and minimal groups), interference from one's own differing perspective (i.e., egocentric intrusion) was stronger when responding from an ingroup versus an outgroup member's perspective. Spontaneous perspective calculation, as indexed by interference from another's visual perspective when reporting one's own (i.e., altercentric intrusion), did not differ across target group membership in any of our experiments. Process-dissociation analyses, which aim to isolate automatic processes underlying altercentric-intrusion effects, further revealed negligible effects of target group membership on perspective calculation. Meta-analytically, however, there was suggestive evidence that shared group membership facilitates responding from others' perspectives when self and other perspectives are aligned. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Current perspectives on rosuvastatin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu M

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Miao Hu, Brian Tomlinson Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong Abstract: Rosuvastatin is one of the most potent statins available for reducing circulating low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C levels, which enables more high-risk patients to achieve their lipid goals. Its favorable balance of effects on atherogenic and protective lipoproteins and its pleiotropic effects, including anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects and improvement in endothelial dysfunction, are associated with slowing of progression of atherosclerosis within the artery wall and have been translated into clinical benefits for cardiovascular outcomes. This review provides an update on the safety and the efficacy of rosuvastatin in recent large clinical trials. It appears that rosuvastatin has a beneficial effect on the progression of atherosclerosis across the clinical dosage range of 2.5–40 mg. It reduced cardiovascular events in relatively low-risk subjects with elevated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and normal low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. As with other statins, rosuvastatin did not show overall benefit in terms of survival in patients with heart failure, but certain clinical or biochemical markers reflecting underlying disease characteristics may help to identify subgroups of patients that benefit from statin therapy. In patients with end-stage renal disease undergoing chronic hemodialysis, rosuvastatin had no effect on reducing cardiovascular events. Although there is a slightly increased risk of incident diabetes with this class of agents, the absolute benefits of statin therapy on cardiovascular events overweigh the risk in patients with moderate or high cardiovascular risk or with documented cardiovascular disease. As with other statins, rosuvastatin is an appropriate therapy in addition to antihypertensive treatment to reduce cardiovascular risk in hypertensive patients. Keywords

  19. A behaviorist perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treisman, Glenn J; Clark, Michael R

    2011-01-01

    Chronic pain is a sensory experience that produces suffering and functional impairment and is the result of both sensory input as well as secondary adaptation of the nervous system. The sensitization of the nervous system to pain is influenced by physical activity (or inactivity) and medication exposure. Medication taking and physical activity are behaviors that are increased or decreased by positive and negative reinforcement. Patients often have comorbid psychiatric conditions at presentation, including addictions, mood disorders, personality vulnerabilities and life circumstances that amplify their disability and impede their recovery. Behavioral conditioning contributes to chronic pain disorders in the form of both classical (Pavlov) and operant (Skinner) conditioning that increases the experience of pain, the liability to ongoing injury, the central amplification of pain, the use of reinforcing medications such as opiates and benzodiazepines, and behaviors associated with disability. The term 'abnormal illness behavior' has been used to describe behaviors that are associated with illness but are not explained physiologically. Behavioral conditioning often amplifies these abnormal behaviors in patients with chronic pain. Addiction can also be seen as a behavior that is reinforced and conditioned. The same factors that amplify abnormal illness behaviors also increase the liability to addiction. Psychiatric comorbidities also complicate and amplify abnormal illness behaviors and addictive behaviors and further contribute to the disability of chronic pain patients. Model interventions that reinforce healthy behaviors and extinguish illness behaviors are effective in patients with addictions and chronic pain. Maladaptive behaviors including addictive behaviors can be used as targets for classical and operant conditioning techniques, and these techniques are demonstrably effective in patients with chronic pain and addictions. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. EXIST Perspective for SFXTs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubertini, Pietro; Sidoli, L.; Sguera, V.; Bazzano, A.

    2009-12-01

    Supergiant Fast X-ray Transients (SFXTs) are one of the most interesting (and unexpected) results of the INTEGRAL mission. They are a new class of HMXBs displaying short hard X-ray outbursts (duration less tha a day) characterized by fast flares (few hours timescale) and large dinamic range (10E3-10E4). The physical mechanism driving their peculiar behaviour is still unclear and highly debated: some models involve the structure of the supergiant companion donor wind (likely clumpy, in a spherical or non spherical geometry) and the orbital properties (wide separation with eccentric or circular orbit), while others involve the properties of the neutron star compact object and invoke very low magnetic field values (B 1E14 G, magnetars). The picture is still highly unclear from the observational point of view as well: no cyclotron lines have been detected in the spectra, thus the strength of the neutron star magnetic field is unknown. Orbital periods have been measured in only 4 systems, spanning from 3.3 days to 165 days. Even the duty cycle seems to be quite different from source to source. The Energetic X-ray Imaging Survey Telescope (EXIST), with its hard X-ray all-sky survey and large improved limiting sensitivity, will allow us to get a clearer picture of SFXTs. A complete census of their number is essential to enlarge the sample. A long term and continuous as possible X-ray monitoring is crucial to -(1) obtain the duty cycle, -(2 )investigate their unknown orbital properties (separation, orbital period, eccentricity),- (3) to completely cover the whole outburst activity, (4)-to search for cyclotron lines in the high energy spectra. EXIST observations will provide crucial informations to test the different models and shed light on the peculiar behaviour of SFXTs.

  1. Misophonia: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cavanna AE

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Andrea E Cavanna,1–3 Stefano Seri3,4 1Department of Neuropsychiatry, Birmingham and Solihull Mental Health NHS Foundation Trust and University of Birmingham, Birmingham, 2Sobell Department of Motor Neuroscience and Movement Disorders, Institute of Neurology, University College London, London, 3School of Life and Health Sciences, Aston Brain Centre, Wellcome Trust Laboratory for MEG Studies, Aston University, 4Children’s Epilepsy Surgery Programme, The Birmingham Children’s Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Birmingham, UK Abstract: Misophonia is characterized by a negative reaction to a sound with a specific pattern and meaning to a given individual. In this paper, we review the clinical features of this relatively common yet underinvestigated condition, with focus on co-occurring neurodevelopmental disorders. Currently available data on the putative pathophysiology of the condition can inform our understanding and guide the diagnostic process and treatment approach. Tinnitus retraining therapy and cognitive behavior therapy have been proposed as the most effective treatment strategies for reducing symptoms; however, current treatment algorithms should be validated in large population studies. At the present stage, competing paradigms see misophonia as a physiological state potentially inducible in any subject, an idiopathic condition (which can present with comorbid psychiatric disorders, or a symptomatic manifestation of an underlying psychiatric disorder. Agreement on the use of standardized diagnostic criteria would be an important step forward in terms of both clinical practice and scientific inquiry. Areas for future research include phenomenology, epidemiology, modulating factors, neurophysiological underpinnings, and treatment trials. Keywords: misophonia, selective sound sensitivity syndrome, hyperacusis, neurodevelopmental disorders, Tourette syndrome, obsessive-compulsive spectrum

  2. Long-term ecophysiological responses to climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesgaard, Kristine Stove; Ro-Poulsen, Helge

    Plant physiology is affected by climate change. Acclimations of photosynthetic processes are induced by short-term changes in climatic conditions. Further acclimation can be caused by longterm adjustments to climate change due to ecosystem-feedbacks. The aim of this PhD was to investigate plant...... physiological responses to climate change in a seasonal and long-term perspective. The effects of elevated CO2, passive night time warming and periodic summer drought as single factor and in combination, on plant physiology were investigated in the long-term multifactorial field experiment CLIMAITE in a Danish....... However, in both seasons the stimulation of photosynthesis was maintained in elevated CO2. No effect of warming was found in either of the seasons, but drought was found to counterbalance the CO2-induced stimulation of photosynthesis during warm season (Paper II). Besides the study of seasonality, long...

  3. Antiviral therapy: a perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahidi Bonjar AH

    2016-02-01

    s recovery to a large extent depends on their general health status. EVAC would be for single use and appropriately disposed of after each detoxification procedure. When sufficient research has yielded positive results in animal models, EVAC could be used as a supportive treatment in humans along with conventional antiviral therapies. EVAC would not be suitable for all viral infections, but could be expected to decrease the casualties resulting from blood-borne viral infections. The EVAC approach would be efficient in terms of time, effort, and expenditure in the research and treatment of blood-borne viral infections. Keywords: blood, virus, infection, antiviral, sepsis, HIV, Ebola

  4. Preface: long-term response of a forest watershed ecosystem, clearcutting in the Southern Appalachians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne Swank; Jackson Webster

    2014-01-01

    Our North American forests are no longer the wild areas of past centuries; they are an economic and ecological resource undergoing changes from both natural and management disturbances. A watershed-scale and long-term perspective of forest ecosystem responses is requisite to understanding and predicting cause and effect relationships. This book synthesizes...

  5. In the wake of liberalisation: long-term developments in the EU air transport market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burghouwt, G.; de Wit, J.G.

    2015-01-01

    Using a 24-year analysis period (1990-2013), a new perspective is offered on long-term first- and second-order developments following liberalisation of the intra-EU air transport market. The focus of the analysis is on supply-side issues, such as airline output, structure of supply, yields, business

  6. Short term memory and working memory in blind versus sighted children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Withagen, A.; Kappers, A.M.L.; Vervloed, M.P.J.; Knoors, H.; Verhoeven, L.

    2013-01-01

    There is evidence that blind people may strengthen their memory skills to compensate for absence of vision. However, which aspects of memory are involved is open to debate and a developmental perspective is generally lacking. In the present study, we compared the short term memory (STM) and working

  7. Political Youth Education in Germany. Presenting a Qualitative Study on Its Biographically Long-Term Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balzter, Nadine; Ristau, Yan; Schröder, Achim

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: There is an impact analysis presented, which explores the long-term effect of extra-curricular political youth education from the perspective of participants. Methods: The former participants retell their own education and life stories about five years later. Life stories were then interpreted in the course of research workshops and…

  8. Complex perspectives on learning objectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørcke, Anne Mette; Wichmann-Hansen, Gitte; Guldbrand Nielsen, Dorte

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To understand core curriculum design and involvement of stakeholders.METHODS Twelve homogeneous focus group interviews with a total of 88 students, house officers, seniordoctors and nurses concerning an undergraduate emergency medicine curriculum. Following content coding of transcripts...... opposite perspectives: objectives as context-free theory-based rules versus objectives as personal practice-based guidelines. The students favoured theory-based objectives, which should be defined by experts conclusively as minimum levels and checklists. The senior doctors preferred practice......-based objectives, which should be decided in a collaborative, local, continuous process, and should be expressed as ideals and expectations. The house officers held both perspectives. Adding to complexity, participants also interpreted competence inconsistently and mixed concepts such as knowledge, observation...

  9. Euthanasia, National and International Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rustin-Petru Ciasc

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The topic of euthanasia can be defined and analyzed upon considering several perspectives, such as the legal, religious, historical, philosophical, medical or ethical ones. This article attempts to supply a brief presentation of these perspectives, indicating the existing trends and standpoints at world level in connection to perceptions regarding the phenomenon mentioned, exemplified by opinions described in the doctrine and relevant jurisprudence. At the same time, in this article I will try to indicate the weak spots of the Romanian legislation in the euthanasia area, upon supplying some proposals for legislative intervention. Concomitantly, it should appear the idea that not the right to die per se is to receive motivations and be included in the law, but the duty to live. This should be done first by drafting an adequate law to the terminal states that would guide their medical practice and comply with the world legislative trends.

  10. Computer systems a programmer's perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Bryant, Randal E

    2016-01-01

    Computer systems: A Programmer’s Perspective explains the underlying elements common among all computer systems and how they affect general application performance. Written from the programmer’s perspective, this book strives to teach readers how understanding basic elements of computer systems and executing real practice can lead them to create better programs. Spanning across computer science themes such as hardware architecture, the operating system, and systems software, the Third Edition serves as a comprehensive introduction to programming. This book strives to create programmers who understand all elements of computer systems and will be able to engage in any application of the field--from fixing faulty software, to writing more capable programs, to avoiding common flaws. It lays the groundwork for readers to delve into more intensive topics such as computer architecture, embedded systems, and cybersecurity. This book focuses on systems that execute an x86-64 machine code, and recommends th...

  11. College students' multiple stereotypes of lesbians: A cognitive perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, Wendy; Harwood, Jake; Hummert, Mary Lee

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines stereotypes of lesbians held by college students. Multiple stereotypes are elicited from a free response trait listing task, followed by a sorting task. The results of the sorting task are submitted to cluster analysis and multidimensional scaling to reveal the complexity of cognitive representations of this group. Eight types are described, reflecting underlying distinctions between positive perceptions (e.g., lipstick lesbian, career-oriented feminist) and negative perceptions (e.g., sexually deviant, angry butch) and also between relative strength and weakness. The research is discussed in terms of cognitive perspectives on stereotyping and gender inversion theory. Suggestions for future research are provided.

  12. Infrared thermography applied to transport infrastructures monitoring: outcomes and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumoulin, J.; Crinière, A.

    2017-05-01

    Long term monitoring of transport infrastructures by infrared thermography has been studied and tested on different structures. A first standalone infrared system architecture developed is presented and discussed. Results obtained with such system on different Civil Engineering structures are presented. Some data processing approaches and inverse thermal model for data analysis are introduced and discussed. Lessons learned from experiments carried out in outdoor with such system are listed and analyzed. Then, a new generation of infrared system architecture is proposed. Finally, conclusions and perspectives are addressed.

  13. Perspectives on the Integration of Facebook Into Higher Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, Lillian

    2013-01-01

    preliminary findings. I would like to discuss how social media like Facebook could be integrated into teaching approaches; this integration could be discussed in terms of whether or not it is beneficial for educational collaboration and sharing perspectives within a problem-based learning approach....... of these cases, where the teacher presents “unlimited supervision” using Facebook as a tool to support the initiated activity of online supervision unlimited. There have so far been two iterations in this case, and in this paper I will try to both illustrate how the case has progressed and give a view of my...

  14. Sexual harassment in tertiary institutions: A comparative perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Janice

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sexual harassment is not a new phenomenon in tertiary institutions. It has been receiving considerable attention in research and the media and public awareness has increased dramatically. However, the term sexual harassment is not used uniformly across the globe because countries have defined it differently. Consequently, prevalence of sexual harassment in education varies across cultures. This paper examines sexual harassment from a comparative perspective. It specifically focuses on the definition of sexual harassment, incidence of sexual harassment of students in tertiary institutions, effects of sexual harassment on victims; and victims’ responses to sexual harassment. It also offers suggestions for curtailing sexual harassment in these institutions.

  15. Fixed-term Employment and Fertility: Theory and Evidence from German Micro Data

    OpenAIRE

    Auer, Wolfgang; Danzer, Natalia; Rainer, Helmut

    2013-01-01

    In Germany, it has become conventional wisdom that the economic uncertainty associated fixed-term employment contracts prevents young couples from realizing their desire to have children. From a research perspective, it is however far from clear whether fixed-term contracts are the obstacle to family formation that the public a priori expect them to be. In this paper, we first develop a simple dynamic bargaining model that allows us to ask theoretically: under what conditions will couples cho...

  16. Patient perspectives of telemedicine quality

    OpenAIRE

    LeRouge, Cynthia M; Garfield, Monica J; Hevner, Alan R

    2014-01-01

    Cynthia M LeRouge,1 Monica J Garfield,2 Alan R Hevner3 1Saint Louis University, St Louis, MO, 2Bentley University, Waltham, MA, 3University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA Background: The purpose of this study was to explore the quality attributes required for effective telemedicine encounters from the perspective of the patient.Methods: We used a multi-method (direct observation, focus groups, survey) field study to collect data from patients who had experienced telemedicine encounters. ...

  17. Image encryption a communication perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Abd El-Samie, Fathi E; Elashry, Ibrahim F; Shahieen, Mai H; Faragallah, Osama S; El-Rabaie, El-Sayed M; Alshebeili, Saleh A

    2013-01-01

    Presenting encryption algorithms with diverse characteristics, Image Encryption: A Communication Perspective examines image encryption algorithms for the purpose of secure wireless communication. It considers two directions for image encryption: permutation-based approaches encryption and substitution-based approaches.Covering the spectrum of image encryption principles and techniques, the book compares image encryption with permutation- and diffusion-based approaches. It explores number theory-based encryption algorithms such as the Data Encryption Standard, the Advanced Encryption Standard,

  18. Optical networks a practical perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Ramaswami, Rajiv

    2001-01-01

    This fully updated and expanded second edition of Optical Networks: A Practical Perspective succeeds the first as the authoritative source for information on optical networking technologies and techniques. Written by two of the field's most respected individuals, it covers componentry and transmission in detail but also emphasizes the practical networking issues that affect organizations as they evaluate, deploy, or develop optical solutions. This book captures all the hard-to-find information on architecture, control and management, and other communications topics that

  19. Intersectional perspective in elderly care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Cuesta

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Earlier research has shown that power relationships at workplaces are constructed by power structures. Processes related to power always influence the working conditions for (in this study in elderly care the working groups involved. Power structures are central for intersectional analysis, in the sense that the intersectional perspective highlights aspects such as gender and ethnicity (subjective dimensions and interrelates them to processes of power (objective dimension. This qualitative study aims to explore in what way an intersectional perspective could contribute to increased knowledge of power structures in a nursing home where the employees were mostly immigrants from different countries. By using reflexive dialogues related to an intersectional perspective, new knowledge which contributes to the employees’ well-being could develop. Narrative analysis was the method used to conduct this study. Through a multi-stage focus group on six occasions over 6 months, the staff were engaged in intersectional and critical reflections about power relationship with the researchers, by identifying patterns in their professional activities that could be connected to their subjectivities (gender, ethnicity, etc.. The result of this study presents three themes that express the staff's experiences and connect these experiences to structural discrimination. 1 Intersectionality, knowledge, and experiences of professionalism; 2 Intersectionality, knowledge, and experiences of collaboration; and 3 Intersectionality, knowledge, and experiences of discrimination. The result demonstrates that an intersectional perspective reinforces the involved abilities, during the conversations, into being clear about, for example, their experiences of discrimination, and consequently developing a better understanding of their professionalism and collaboration. Such deeper reflections became possible through a process of consciousness raising, strengthening the employee

  20. Other perspectives on nuclear power

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvoy, Augustin

    2012-09-01

    In his reply to Brian Drummond's letter on "Proper perspective and nuclear power" (August p19), I am surprised that Paul Grant allowed Drummond's reference to the Nestorenko et al. publication (2009 Annals New York Acad. Sciences 1181) to pass unchallenged. This document, with its claim that the Chernobyl accident has already killed several hundred thousand people (the figure of 985,000 is mentioned), was published without peer review and has since been disowned by the New York Academy of Sciences.

  1. Feminism and nursing: historical perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunting, S; Campbell, J C

    1990-07-01

    Feminists have often criticized nursing for lack of commitment to women's movements. This article addresses the contradictions and conflicts in the relationship of feminism and nursing from a historical perspective. Different feminist epistemologies, those of enlightened liberal, cultural, and radical feminism, are examined historically and their relevance to nursing is discussed. A reflexive theory, proposed by Harding, is used to conceptualize the differing responses, feminist and nonfeminist, of women and nurses, as alternative reactions to the many types of patriarchy they have encountered.

  2. Clinical Perspectives on Autobiographical Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Watson, Lynn A.; Berntsen, Dorthe

    2015-01-01

    Autobiographical memory plays a key role in psychological well-being, and the field has been investigated from multiple perspectives for over thirty years. One large body of research has examined the basic mechanisms and characteristics of autobiographical memory during general cognition, and another body has studied what happens to it during psychological disorders, and how psychological therapies targeting memory disturbances can improve psychological well-being. This edited collection revi...

  3. Cyberaddictions: toward a psychosocial perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suissa, Amnon Jacob

    2014-12-01

    The concept of cyberaddiction is far from being unanimously accepted by scientists (Ko, Yen, Yen, Chen, & Chen, 2012; Pezoa-Jares, Espinoza-Luna & Vasquez-Medina, 2012; Nadeau & et al. 2011; Perraton, Fusaro & Bonenfant, 2011. The same is true of addiction to videogames (Hellman, Schoenmakers, Nordstrom, & Van Holst 2013); Coulombe (2010); or to Facebook (Andreassen et al. 2012; Levard & Soulas, 2010). While certain researchers wished to see this condition included in the DSM-5, others question the operational and practical basis for the diagnostic criteria (Block, 2008). Through a review of litterature and results from research findings; the aim of this article is to propose a psychosocial perspective for the cyberaddiction phenomenon. By a psychosocial perspective, we mean the inclusion of social determinants (weak social ties, social exclusion, hyper individualism, poverty, unemployment, etc) and not only the individual characteristics associated with the disease model in the addiction field. To what extent social conditions and cyberaddiction behaviors constitute a potential pathology ? Can we include a psychosocial approach to gain a more general picture of this contemporary issue? In response to these questions, a contextualization and an attempt to define cyberaddiction will be followed by an analysis of some major issues in the development of this type of addiction. As a conclusion, a demonstration of the cycle of addiction on how people develop addictions, including cyberaddictions, will be done within a psychosocial perspective in order to seize the multifactorial aspects of this addiction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change Adaptation—A Sustainable Development Systems Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom R. Burns

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the concepts of sustainability and sustainable development in relation to disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation. We conceptualize sustainability from a social systemic perspective, that is, from a perspective that encompasses the multiple functionalities of a social system and their interrelationships in particular environmental contexts. The systems perspective is applied in our consideration and analysis of disaster risk reduction (DRR, climate change adaptation (CCA, and sustainable development (SD. Section “Sustainability and Sustainable Development” introduces briefly sustainability and sustainable development, followed by a brief presentation of the theory of complex social systems (Section “Social System Model”. The theory conceptualizes interdependent subsystems, their multiple functionalities, and the agential and systemic responses to internal and external stressors on a social system. Section “Case Studies of Response to Stressors” considers disaster risk reduction (DRR and climate change adaptation (CCA, emerging in response to one or more systemic stressors. It illustrates these with disaster risk reduction in the cases of food and chemical security regulation in the EU. CCA is illustrated by initiatives and developments on the island of Gotland, Sweden and in the Gothenburg Metropolitan area, which go beyond a limited CCA perspective, taking into account long-term sustainability issues. Section “Sustainable Development as a Societal Development System” discusses the limitations of DRR and CCA, not only their technical limitations but economic, socio-cultural, and political limitations, as informed from a sustainability perspective. It is argued that DRRs are only partial subsystems and must be considered and assessed in the context of a more encompassing systemic perspective. Part of the discussion is focused on the distinction between sustainable and non-sustainable DRRs and

  5. New perspectives on vulnerability using emic and etic approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiers, J

    2000-03-01

    New perspectives on vulnerability using emic and etic approaches The concept of vulnerability has not been developed theoretically from a nursing perspective. It has been viewed epidemiologically as population-based relative risk with little consideration of its experiential qualities. The purpose of this paper is to analyse critically the use of the term vulnerability using elements of concept clarification and a critical literature review. A new perspective of vulnerability is offered based on differentiating between the concepts of risk and experience. Risk consists of assumptions from etic or external evaluation of relative danger while lived experience informs an emic or personal interpretation. Assumptions related to the etic view include normative social values, objective harm and endangerment, and social sanction for intervention. An emic view of vulnerability is based on experiential perception of challenge to personal integrity and the universal and mutual nature of the phenomenon. Questions about the evaluation of harm, potential for growth, subjectivity and objectivity, social sanction and capacity for action, can help clarify the range between these two dimensions.

  6. Handbook of mechanical engineering terms

    CERN Document Server

    Ramalingam, KK

    2009-01-01

    About the Book: The Handbook of Mechanical Engineering terms contains short, precise definitions of about four thousand terms. These terms have been collected from different sources, edited and grouped under twenty six parts and given alphabetically under each part for easy reference. The book will be a source of guidance and help to the students, staff and practising engineers in understanding and updating the subject matter. Contents: The Handbook of Mechanical Engineering terms contains short, precise definitions of about four thousand terms. These terms have been collected from differ

  7. Evaluation and analysis of term scoring methods for term extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verberne, S.; Sappelli, M.; Hiemstra, D.; Kraaij, W.

    2016-01-01

    We evaluate five term scoring methods for automatic term extraction on four different types of text collections: personal document collections, news articles, scientific articles and medical discharge summaries. Each collection has its own use case: author profiling, boolean query term suggestion,

  8. A profession termed Journalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Fernández Areal, Ph. D.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available New technologies can foster the impression that journalism, as a profession will become extinct probably in a short term. Anybody can have access to any information sources as well as to transmit – through Internet- all sorts of messages at an unusual speed, and this fact seems to support the idea that no technical training will be needed in the future not even an specific cultural background will be required, much less an university degree or qualification that ensures a responsible and appropriate practice of the modern social communication. The Federation of Journalists Associations in Spain (FAPE in its Draft of the Professional Statute is in favor of a graduated or qualified profession at an university level, and its Commission for Complaints has been developing a successful work regarding the professional self-regulation and self-control for the benefit of society. Therefore, there are good reasons for being optimist. Journalism, as a profession, is not going to disappear, and maybe it is time to consider it, really, as an academic qualified profession.

  9. LONG TERM COLLECTIONS

    CERN Multimedia

    STAFF ASSOCIATION

    2010-01-01

    ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The Long-Term Collections (CLT) committee would like to warmly thank its faithful donors who, year after year, support our actions all over the world. Without you, all this would not be possible. We would like to thank, in particular, the CERN Firemen’s Association who donated 5000 CHF in the spring thanks to the sale of their traditional calendar, and the generosity of the CERN community. A huge thank you to the firemen for their devotion to our cause. And thank you to all those who have opened their door, their heart, and their purses! Similarly, we warmly thank the CERN Yoga Club once again for its wonderful donation of 2000 CHF we recently received. We would also like to tell you that all our projects are running well. Just to remind you, we are currently supporting the activities of the «Réflexe-Partage» Association in Mali; the training centre of «Education et Développement» in Abomey, Benin; and the orphanage and ...

  10. The Process Perspective on Trust in Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagd, Søren

    Several trust researchers have pointed to the relevance of the process perspective for understanding trust in organizations. In this paper I review the attempts to apply the process perspective in trust research distinguishing between a soft and a strong process perspective. It appears that nearly......’s history? A few examples of studies applying a strong process perspective to trust in organizations is discussed.  Summarising, I argue that the process perspective, in general, may contribute furthering the understanding of the complexities of the development of trust over time and that the strong process...... all process oriented trust researchers have applied the weak process perspective having studied questions like: how trust processes get started; how the trust process may grow and develop over time; and how to understand the qualitative transformations of trust in the course of a relationship...

  11. Cassava; African perspective on space agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Naomi; Njemanze, Philip; Nweke, Felix; Space Agriculture Task Force, J.; Katayama, Naomi; Yamashita, Masamichi

    Looking on African perspective in space agriculture may contribute to increase diversity, and enforce robustness for advanced life support capability. Cassava, Manihot esculentaand, is one of major crop in Africa, and could be a candidate of space food materials. Since resource is limited for space agriculture in many aspects, crop yield should be high in efficiency, and robust as well. The efficiency is measured by farming space and time. Harvest yield of cassava is about 41 MJ/ m2 (70 ton/ha) after 11 months of farming. Among rice, wheat, potato, and sweet potato, cassava is ranked to the first place (40 m2 ) in terms of farming area required to supply energy of 5 MJ/day, which is recommended for one person. Production of cassava could be made under poor condition, such as acidic soil, shortage of fertilizer, draught. Laterite, similar to Martian regolith. Propagation made by stem cutting is an advantage of cassava in space agriculture avoiding entomophilous or anemophilous process to pollinate. Feature of crop storage capability is additional factor that determines the efficiency in the whole process of agriculture. Cassava root tuber can be left in soil until its consumption. Cassava might be an African contribution to space agriculture.

  12. Coalition command and control: a Canadian perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charpentier, Robert; Demers, David; Gouin, Denis; McCann, Carol; Nourry, Gerard; Pigeau, Ross; Smith, Donald L.; Vezina, Guy; Walker, Robert S.

    1998-08-01

    Canada has been, and remains, committed to participating in coalition operations to promote peace and stability in the post-Cold War world. However, coalition operations challenge traditional command and control concepts, from both the technological and the human perspectives. In the short term, Canada is working closely with traditional NATO and ABCA allies to ensure that the next generation of automated C2 information systems are able to exchange information effectively through structured messages, gateways and standardized data models. Canada is also conducting R&D, and participating in collaborative experiments, to evolve the next generation of systems to permit richer, more dynamic information sharing, along the lines of the Internet and World Wide Web. However, information technology alone will not solve the problems of coalition operations. Research needs to be undertaken to understand task assignment and information flow among coalition partners at the process or operational level. Research is also required at the human level, where differences between coalition partners in culture, personal values, military expectations, religions, and societal values are proving to be less tractable than differences in message formats and communication protocols.

  13. Aphasia and literacy—the insider's perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjellén, Emma; Laakso, Katja

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Few studies have investigated how people with aphasia (PWA) experience literacy skills. Taking the insider's perspective is a way to increase understanding of the individual experiences of literacy among PWA, which may have clinical implications. Aims To describe how literacy, i.e., reading and writing, is experienced in everyday life by PWA and to gain insight into the part played by literacy skills in their lives. Methods & Procedures A qualitative descriptive research approach was taken. In‐depth interviews were conducted with 12 PWA (six women and six men) who had all lived with aphasia for at least 6 months post‐stroke. The interviews were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Outcomes & Results One overarching theme emerged from the data: literacy as an ongoing recovery process. Based on this overarching theme, two subthemes were identified: changes in conditions for literacy (experiences of reading and writing initially post‐onset compared with experiences at the time of the interview); and facing expectations about literacy (participants’ own and other people's expectations of them in terms of literacy). Conclusions & Implications The findings are important at a general level in that they indicate that PWA are able to articulate their individual experiences and thoughts about literacy, i.e., reading and writing. Specifically, PWA in this study experience literacy as playing an essential part in their lives and the findings imply that personal experiences are important in the design of reading and writing interventions in speech and language therapy. PMID:28039933

  14. Personality from a cognitive-biological perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuman, Yair

    2014-12-01

    The term "personality" is used to describe a distinctive and relatively stable set of mental traits that aim to explain the organism's behavior. The concept of personality that emerged in human psychology has been also applied to the study of non-human organisms from birds to horses. In this paper, I critically review the concept of personality from an interdisciplinary perspective, and point to some ideas that may be used for developing a cognitive-biological theory of personality. Integrating theories and research findings from various fields such as cognitive ethnology, clinical psychology, and neuroscience, I argue that the common denominator of various personality theories are neural systems of threat/trust management and their emotional, cognitive, and behavioral dimensions. In this context, personality may be also conceived as a meta-heuristics both human and non-human organisms apply to model and predict the behavior of others. The paper concludes by suggesting a minimal computational model of personality that may guide future research.

  15. Chromoplast differentiation: current status and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egea, Isabel; Barsan, Cristina; Bian, Wanping; Purgatto, Eduardo; Latché, Alain; Chervin, Christian; Bouzayen, Mondher; Pech, Jean-Claude

    2010-10-01

    Chromoplasts are carotenoid-accumulating plastids conferring color to many flowers and fruits as well as to some tubers and roots. Chromoplast differentiation proceeds from preexisting plastids, most often chloroplasts. One of the most prominent changes is remodeling of the internal membrane system associated with the formation of carotenoid-accumulating structures. During the differentiation process the plastid genome is essentially stable and transcriptional activity is restricted. The buildup of the chromoplast for specific metabolic characteristics is essentially dependent upon the transcriptional activity of the nucleus. Important progress has been made in terms of mediation of the chloroplast-to-chromoplast transition with the discovery of the crucial role of the Or gene. In this article we review recent developments in the structural, biochemical and molecular aspects of chromoplast differentiation and also consider the reverse differentiation of chromoplasts into chloroplast-like structures during the regreening process occurring in some fruit. Future perspectives toward a full understanding of chromoplast differentiation include in-depth knowledge of the changes occurring in the plastidial proteome during chromoplastogenesis, elucidation of the role of hormones and the search for signals that govern the dialog between the nuclear and the chromoplastic genome.

  16. Reforming Educational Reform: A Democratic Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, J.

    2005-05-01

    This essay examines the status of educational reform in the United States as represented by the current Bush administration's program titled "No Child Left Behind" (NCLB). Employing the techniques of critical theory and logical analysis, contemporary reform efforts are compared with other, more progressive, educational reform movements in an effort to gain perspective and conceptual "traction" as it were, in differentiating such movements. Criteria are established for the assessment and evaluation of reform movements. These are employed in judging the efficacy of NCLB's aim, content, and methods, as well as the results of its program following four years of implementation. The merits of the centrality of standardized testing, pre-ordained curricular content, and exclusively didactic teaching methodologies are criticized, along with the extra-school societal forces which ordain these and determine their prominence in the NCLB program. The essentialism adopted by NCLB is, moreover, evaluated in the light of pragmatic, phenomenological, and postmodern educational theory. Arguing that the school is always and inevitably an instrument of societal forces, interests, and groups, it is contended that these not only be acknowledged, but that avenues be formalized for a thorough going and continuous educational "conversation," to borrow Rorty's term, for an amicable resolution of the issues of education's aim(s), content, and methods.

  17. Financial Planning for Retirement: A Psychosocial Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Topa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Retirement is a time of life that has grown ever longer in the developed world, and the number of pensioners has increased accordingly, questioning the strength of Social Security systems and the social safety net in general. Financial Planning for Retirement (FRP consists of the series of activities involved in the accumulation of wealth to cover needs in the post-retirement stage of life. The negative short-, mid-, and long-term consequences of inadequate Financial Planning for Retirement do not only affect individuals, but also their extended families, homes, eventually producing an unwanted impact on the entire society. The Capacity-Willingness-Opportunity Model has been proposed to understand FPR, combined with Intentional Change Theory, a framework for understanding the process, antecedents and consequences of FPR. From this perspective, we propose this promising model, but there are a large number of variables that have not been included that offer novel ways to deepen our understanding of FPR. A focus on each dimension of the model, the role of age and psychosocial variables associated with demographic indicators such as gender, health status, and migration, allow us to provide a proposal of scientific advancement of FPR.

  18. Mucoadhesive films as perspective oral dosage form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landová, Hana; Daněk, Zdeněk; Gajdziok, Jan; Vetchý, David; Stembírek, Jan

    2013-02-01

    Mucoadhesion is a specific phenomenon of creating bonds during intimate contact between biological surfaces covered by a mucus layer and a mucoadhesive material. In recent years come to the forefront of interest in the pharmaceutical industry modern dosage forms based on this specific process. Films (discs, patches) composed of mucoadhesive polymers (cellulose derivatives, polyacrylates, polyoxyethylene, etc.) prepared by established methods (solvent casting, hot melt extrusion, etc.) could be perspective candidates for oral administration of many drugs due to their flexibility and comfortable use. In addition, they can circumvent the relatively short residence time of conventional oral dosage forms on the mucosa and provide a precisely measured drug dose to the application site. Moreover, they can also help to protect the wound surface, thus help to reduce pain and improve effectiveness of the therapy. The aim of this article is to give an overview about the principles of creation of mucoadhesive bonds and about novel dosage form - mucoadhesive films in terms of their composition, preparation and practical usage. oral mucosa mucoadhesion principles mucoadhesive dosage forms films patches discs.

  19. Therapeutic gene editing: delivery and regulatory perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Gayong; Kim, Dongyoon; Park, Gyu Thae; Jin, Hyerim; Suh, Soo-Kyung; Oh, Yu-Kyoung

    2017-06-01

    Gene-editing technology is an emerging therapeutic modality for manipulating the eukaryotic genome by using target-sequence-specific engineered nucleases. Because of the exceptional advantages that gene-editing technology offers in facilitating the accurate correction of sequences in a genome, gene editing-based therapy is being aggressively developed as a next-generation therapeutic approach to treat a wide range of diseases. However, strategies for precise engineering and delivery of gene-editing nucleases, including zinc finger nucleases, transcription activator-like effector nuclease, and CRISPR/Cas9 (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-associated nuclease Cas9), present major obstacles to the development of gene-editing therapies, as with other gene-targeting therapeutics. Currently, viral and non-viral vectors are being studied for the delivery of these nucleases into cells in the form of DNA, mRNA, or proteins. Clinical trials are already ongoing, and in vivo studies are actively investigating the applicability of CRISPR/Cas9 techniques. However, the concept of correcting the genome poses major concerns from a regulatory perspective, especially in terms of safety. This review addresses current research trends and delivery strategies for gene editing-based therapeutics in non-clinical and clinical settings and considers the associated regulatory issues.

  20. Biogas production: current state and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiland, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of energy crops, residues, and wastes is of increasing interest in order to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions and to facilitate a sustainable development of energy supply. Production of biogas provides a versatile carrier of renewable energy, as methane can be used for replacement of fossil fuels in both heat and power generation and as a vehicle fuel. For biogas production, various process types are applied which can be classified in wet and dry fermentation systems. Most often applied are wet digester systems using vertical stirred tank digester with different stirrer types dependent on the origin of the feedstock. Biogas is mainly utilized in engine-based combined heat and power plants, whereas microgas turbines and fuel cells are expensive alternatives which need further development work for reducing the costs and increasing their reliability. Gas upgrading and utilization as renewable vehicle fuel or injection into the natural gas grid is of increasing interest because the gas can be used in a more efficient way. The digestate from anaerobic fermentation is a valuable fertilizer due to the increased availability of nitrogen and the better short-term fertilization effect. Anaerobic treatment minimizes the survival of pathogens which is important for using the digested residue as fertilizer. This paper reviews the current state and perspectives of biogas production, including the biochemical parameters and feedstocks which influence the efficiency and reliability of the microbial conversion and gas yield.

  1. Financial Planning for Retirement: A Psychosocial Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topa, Gabriela; Lunceford, Gregg; Boyatzis, Richard E

    2017-01-01

    Retirement is a time of life that has grown ever longer in the developed world, and the number of pensioners has increased accordingly, questioning the strength of Social Security systems and the social safety net in general. Financial Planning for Retirement (FRP) consists of the series of activities involved in the accumulation of wealth to cover needs in the post-retirement stage of life. The negative short-, mid-, and long-term consequences of inadequate Financial Planning for Retirement do not only affect individuals, but also their extended families, homes, eventually producing an unwanted impact on the entire society. The Capacity-Willingness-Opportunity Model has been proposed to understand FPR, combined with Intentional Change Theory, a framework for understanding the process, antecedents and consequences of FPR. From this perspective, we propose this promising model, but there are a large number of variables that have not been included that offer novel ways to deepen our understanding of FPR. A focus on each dimension of the model, the role of age and psychosocial variables associated with demographic indicators such as gender, health status, and migration, allow us to provide a proposal of scientific advancement of FPR.

  2. Perspective: Mechanochemistry of biological and synthetic molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarov, Dmitrii E.

    2016-01-01

    Coupling of mechanical forces and chemical transformations is central to the biophysics of molecular machines, polymer chemistry, fracture mechanics, tribology, and other disciplines. As a consequence, the same physical principles and theoretical models should be applicable in all of those fields; in fact, similar models have been invoked (and often repeatedly reinvented) to describe, for example, cell adhesion, dry and wet friction, propagation of cracks, and action of molecular motors. This perspective offers a unified view of these phenomena, described in terms of chemical kinetics with rates of elementary steps that are force dependent. The central question is then to describe how the rate of a chemical transformation (and its other measurable properties such as the transition path) depends on the applied force. I will describe physical models used to answer this question and compare them with experimental measurements, which employ single-molecule force spectroscopy and which become increasingly common. Multidimensionality of the underlying molecular energy landscapes and the ensuing frequent misalignment between chemical and mechanical coordinates result in a number of distinct scenarios, each showing a nontrivial force dependence of the reaction rate. I will discuss these scenarios, their commonness (or its lack), and the prospects for their experimental validation. Finally, I will discuss open issues in the field.

  3. Radio-graphene in Theranostic Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Do Won

    2017-03-01

    Owing to its unique physicochemical properties such as high surface area, notable biocompatibility, robust mechanical strength, high thermal conductivity, and ease of functionalization, 2D-layered graphene has received tremendous attention as a futuristic nanomaterial and its-associated research has been rapidly evolving in a variety of fields. With the remarkable advances of graphene especially in the biomedical realm, in vivo evaluation techniques to examine in vivo behavior of graphene are largely demanded under the hope of clinical translation. Many different types of drugs such as the antisense oligomer and chemotherapeutics require optimal delivery conveyor and graphene is now recognized as a suitable candidate due to its simple and high drug loading property. Termed as 'radio-graphene', radioisotope-labeled graphene approach was recently harnessed in the realm of biomedicine including cancer diagnosis and therapy, contributing to the acquisition of in vivo information for targeted drug delivery. In this review, we highlight current examples for bioapplication of radiolabeled graphene with brief perspectives on future strategies in its extensive bio- or clinical applications.

  4. Perspectives on recycling centres and future developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engkvist, I-L; Eklund, J; Krook, J; Björkman, M; Sundin, E

    2016-11-01

    The overall aim of this paper is to draw combined, all-embracing conclusions based on a long-term multidisciplinary research programme on recycling centres in Sweden, focussing on working conditions, environment and system performance. A second aim is to give recommendations for their development of new and existing recycling centres and to discuss implications for the future design and organisation. Several opportunities for improvement of recycling centres were identified, such as design, layout, ease with which users could sort their waste, the work environment, conflicting needs and goals within the industry, and industrialisation. Combining all results from the research, which consisted of different disciplinary aspects, made it possible to analyse and elucidate their interrelations. Waste sorting quality was recognized as the most prominent improvement field in the recycling centre system. The research identified the importance of involving stakeholders with different perspectives when planning a recycling centre in order to get functionality and high performance. Practical proposals of how to plan and build recycling centres are given in a detailed checklist. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Rational suicide: philosophical perspectives on schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Jeanette

    2010-02-01

    Suicide prevention is a National Health Service priority in the United Kingdom. People with mental illness are seen to represent one of the most vulnerable groups for suicide and recent British Government policy has focused on prevention and management of perceived risk. This approach to suicide prevention is constructed under a biomedical model of psychiatry, which maintains that suicidal persons suffer from some form of disease or irrational drive towards self-destruction. Many react to the idea of self-inflicted death with instinctive revulsion, which has prevented serious discussion of the concept of rational suicide, particularly in relation to those with schizophrenia. The idea that there may be circumstances in which suicide can be viewed as rational is discussed within the biomedical approach to ethics and wider literature primarily in relation to physical disease, terminal states and chronic pain. It is not deemed a viable choice for those who are considered 'non-autonomous' due to the controlling forces of mental illness. I propose that suicide is not a consequence of mental illness per se, and that it may be seen as a rational response to a realistic perspective on the course and consequences of living with schizophrenia. The denial of dialogue about the validity of suicidal ideation for people with schizophrenia has led to negative consequences for people with serious mental illness in terms of justice and recognition of person-hood.

  6. Vitamin D supplementation: a pharmacologic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boullata, Joseph I

    2010-11-01

    Vitamin D supplementation is expected to increase as clinicians try to optimize their patients' vitamin D status. This review integrates newer information into a perspective on vitamin D disposition and effect. Vitamin D is being considered for indications beyond bone health. The limited dose-response data vary by indication, but generally target a goal serum 25(OH)D concentration of 80-120 nmol/l. Although oral vitamin D is adequately absorbed, distributed, metabolized, and utilized before being excreted, these factors may vary with baseline vitamin D status, genetic polymorphism, and the form of vitamin D being administered. Additionally, the responses to vitamin D can be tissue-specific and are not always well described. There is still a need to better characterize the disposition and effect of vitamin D supplementation. Data will need to be more specific to the therapeutic indication and demonstrate health outcomes. Long-term effects of high-dose supplementation at the tissue level will be especially important to describe.

  7. Ethnozoology in Brazil: current status and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alves Rômulo RN

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ancient connections between animals and human are seen in cultures throughout the world in multiple forms of interaction with the local fauna that form the core of Ethnozoology. Historically, ethnozoological publications grew out of studies undertaken in academic areas such as zoology, human ecology, sociology and anthropology - reflecting the interdisciplinary character of this discipline. The rich fauna and cultural diversity found in Brazil, with many different species of animals being used for an extremely wide diversity of purposes by Amerindian societies (as well as the descendents of the original European colonists and African slaves, presents an excellent backdrop for examining the relationships that exist between humans and other animals. This work presents a historical view of ethnozoological research in Brazil and examines its evolution, tendencies, and future perspectives. In summary, literature researches indicated that ethnozoology experienced significant advances in recent years in Brazil, although from a qualitative point of view improvement is still needed in terms of methodological procedures, taxonomic precision, and the use of quantitative techniques. A wide range of methodologies and theories are available in different areas of learning that can be put to good use in ethnozoological approaches if the right questions are asked. The challenges to studying ethnozoology in Brazil are not insignificant, and the tendencies described in the present study may aid in defining research strategies that will maintain the quantitative growth observed in the recent years but likewise foster needed qualitative improvements.

  8. The CAST experiment: status and perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrer Ribas, Esther

    2009-01-01

    The status of the solar axion search with the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) will be discussed. Results from the first part of CAST phase II where the magnet bores were filled with \\hefour gas at variable pressure in order to scan \\ma up to 0.4 eV will be presented. From the absence of excess X-rays when the magnet was pointing to the Sun, we set a typical upper limit on the axion-photon coupling of $\\gag \\lesssim 2.17 \\times10^{-10}$GeV$^{-1}$ at 95% CL for \\ma$<0.4$ eV, the exact result depending on the pressure setting. Our search for axions with masses up to about 1.2 eV using \\hethree as a buffer gas is, since last year, in progress in the second part of CAST phase II. Expectations for sensibilities will be given. Near future perspectives as well as more long term options for a new helioscope experiment will be evoked.

  9. Radio-graphene in theranostic perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Do Won [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    Owing to its unique physicochemical properties such as high surface area, notable biocompatibility, robust mechanical strength, high thermal conductivity, and ease of functionalization, 2D-layered graphene has received tremendous attention as a futuristic nanomaterial and its-associated research has been rapidly evolving in a variety of fields. With the remarkable advances of graphene especially in the biomedical realm, in vivo evaluation techniques to examine in vivo behavior of graphene are largely demanded under the hope of clinical translation. Many different types of drugs such as the antisense oligomer and chemotherapeutics require optimal delivery conveyor and graphene is now recognized as a suitable candidate due to its simple and high drug loading property. Termed as ‘radio-graphene’, radioisotope-labeled graphene approach was recently harnessed in the realm of biomedicine including cancer diagnosis and therapy, contributing to the acquisition of in vivo information for targeted drug delivery. In this review, we highlight current examples for bioapplication of radiolabeled graphene with brief perspectives on future strategies in its extensive bio- or clinical applications.

  10. NEGLECTED TROPICAL DISEASES IN BIOSOCIAL PERSPECTIVE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Melissa; Polman, Katja; Allen, Tim

    2016-09-01

    The term 'neglected tropical diseases' (NTDs) points to the need for a biosocial perspective. Although 'diseases' are widely understood as biological phenomena, 'neglect' is inherently social. Social priorities, social relations and social behaviour profoundly influence the design, implementation and evaluation of control programmes. Yet, these dimensions of neglect are, themselves, neglected. Instead, emphasis is being placed on preventive chemotherapy - a technical, context-free approach which relies almost entirely on the mass distribution of drugs, at regular intervals, to populations living in endemic areas. This article reflects on the processes which have enabled an NTD 'brand' identity to emerge, and it comments on a disquieting disengagement with some of the more critical insights about the consequences of mass drug administration. Building on the work of biosocial scholars studying other aspects of health and disease, a more adequate, evidence-based approach is delineated. Developing such an approach is an iterative process, requiring on-going engagement with both biological and social insights as they emerge. Considerable theoretical, methodological and political challenges lie ahead, but it is essential they are overcome, if the sustainable control of NTDs is to become a reality.

  11. Evolving Perspectives on Lyme Borreliosis in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperling, JLH; Middelveen, MJ; Klein, D; Sperling, FAH

    2012-01-01

    With cases now documented in every province, Lyme borreliosis (LB) is emerging as a serious public health risk in Canada. Controversy over the contribution of LB to the burden of chronic disease is maintained by difficulty in capturing accurate Canadian statistics, especially early clinical cases of LB. The use of dogs as sentinel species demon-strates that potential contact with Borrelia burgdorferi spirochetes, as detected by C6 peptide, extends across the country. Dissemination of infected ticks by migratory birds and rapid establishment of significant levels of infection have been well described. Canadian public health response has focused on identification of established populations of the tick vectors, Ixodes scapularis and I. pacificus, on the assumption that these are the only important vectors of the disease across Canada. Strains of B. burgdorferi circulating in Canada and the full range of their reservoir species and coinfections remain to be explored. Ongoing surveys and historical records demonstrate that Borrelia-positive Ixodes species are regu-larly present in regions of Canada that have previously been considered to be outside of the ranges of these species in re-cent modeling efforts. We present data demonstrating that human cases of LB are found across the nation. Consequently, physician education and better early diagnoses are needed to prevent long term sequelae. An international perspective will be paramount for developing improved Canadian guidelines that recognize the complexity and diversity of Lyme borreliosis. PMID:23091570

  12. Enacting outsourcing: An innovation process perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedikte Borgström

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Much research has been done on outsourcing. However, we still know little about outsourcing based on a social process view on innovation. Outsourcing is an innovation as a logistics-related process that is perceived as new by the adopter. We will explore and analyse an outsourcing idea, its development and implementation, from an innovation perspective. The development is studied in a qualitative, long-term process study. The analysis draws on Hoholm’s (2009 model of innovation processes. It extends the applicability of this innovation model and its methodology of following the action into logistics and supply chain management (SCM research. The outsourcing process is an innovation that develops in a rational way based on the incremental process because of its actor-network and simultaneous reflection. Interactions and confrontations come about because of involved contrary forces such as competing objectives. The model explains the practice of SCM innovation and increases the understanding of dynamics and complexity. The process study brings insights to cause-effect relations in the development of outsourcing that are consequential to innovative logistics and SCM.

  13. Electric retail market options: The customer perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadley, S.W.; Hillsman, E.L.

    1995-07-01

    This report describes various options that are now available for retail electric customers, or that may become available during the next few years as the electric utility industry restructures. These options include different ways of meeting demand for energy services, different providers of service or points of contact with providers, and different pricing structures for purchased services. Purpose of this document is to examine these options from the customer`s perspective: how might being a retail electric customer in 5--10 years differ from now? Seizing opportunities to reduce cost of electric service is likely to entail working with different service providers; thus, transaction costs are involved. Some of the options considered are speculative. Some transitional options include relocation, customer-built/operated transmission lines, municipalization, self-generation, and long-term contracts with suppliers. All these may change or diminish in a restructured industry. Brokers seem likely to become more common unless restructuring takes the form of mandatory poolcos (wholesale). Some options appear robust, ie, they are likely to become more common regardless of how restructuring is accomplished: increased competition among energy carriers (gas vs electric), real-time pricing, etc. This report identified some of the qualitative differences among the various options. For customers using large amounts of electricity, different alternatives are likely to affect greatly service price, transaction costs, tailoring service to customer preferences, and risks for customer. For retail customers using small amounts of electricity, there may be little difference among the options except service price.

  14. Reframing assessment research: through a practice perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Boud, David; Dawson, Phillip; Bearman, Margaret; Bennett, Sue; Joughin, Gordon; Molloy, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Assessment as a field of investigation has been influenced by a limited number of perspectives. These have focused assessment research in particular ways that have emphasised measurement, or student learning or institutional policies. The aim of this paper is to view the phenomenon of assessment from a practice perspective drawing upon ideas from practice theory. Such a view places assessment practices as central. This perspective is illustrated using data from an empirical study of assessmen...

  15. Definitions of Health Terms: Fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/definitions/fitnessdefinitions.html Definitions of Health Terms: Fitness To use the sharing features on this page, ... you can do to stay fit. Understanding these fitness terms can help you make the most of ...

  16. Talking Glossary of Genetic Terms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Y Z Test Your Knowledge Talking Glossary of Genetic Terms Designed to help learners at any level ... in a reference paper. The Talking Glossary of Genetic Terms The Human Genome Defined by Professionals at ...

  17. Nonlinear Terms of MHD Equations for Homogeneous Magnetized Shear Flow

    CERN Document Server

    Dimitrov, Z D; Hristov, T S; Mishonov, T M

    2011-01-01

    We have derived the full set of MHD equations for incompressible shear flow of a magnetized fluid and considered their solution in the wave-vector space. The linearized equations give the famous amplification of slow magnetosonic waves and describe the magnetorotational instability. The nonlinear terms in our analysis are responsible for the creation of turbulence and self-sustained spectral density of the MHD (Alfven and pseudo-Alfven) waves. Perspectives for numerical simulations of weak turbulence and calculation of the effective viscosity of accretion disks are shortly discussed in k-space.

  18. Life Cycle Assessment of an Advanced Bioethanol Technology in the Perspective of Constrained Biomass Availability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Karsten; Thyø, Kathrine Anker; Wenzel, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    of alternative uses. In this perspective, we show that for the case of a new advanced bioethanol technology, in terms of reducing greenhouse emissions and fossil fuel dependency, more is lost than gained when prioritizing biomass or land for bioethanol. Technology pathways involving heat and power production and...... of whether a global or European perspective is applied, the amount of biomass, which can become available for bioethanol or other energy uses, will be physically and economically constrained. This implies that use of biomass or land for bioethanol production will most likely happen at the expense...

  19. Perspective switching using theories and interpretations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, W.M. [Mitre Corp., Bedford, MA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    An important aspect of intelligence is the ability to switch perspectives. In the course of reasoning about a particular subject matter, it can be convenient to change from one perspective of the subject matter to another perspective, which is often at a different level of abstraction. For example, in some situations it may be advantageous to view a building as a collection of floors and in other situations as a collection of wings. If the arrangement of the rooms is not important for the task at hand, the building might be viewed as simply an unstructured collection of rooms. These are three perspectives on how a building can be decomposed. Utilizing multiple perspectives and freeing moving from one to another is a powerful method for both managing complexity and organizing knowledge. The key idea behind this method is to always employ the {open_quotes}right{close_quotes} perspective for each reasoning task. This talk will address the following two questions: (1) What logical machinery is needed to formalize perspective switching? (2) How can knowledge associated with one perspective be retrieved for use with another perspective?

  20. Innovations and research perspectives; Innovations et perspectives de recherche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    This conference day was organized by the air-conditioning engineering section of the French association of thermal engineers. This book of proceedings contains 7 papers entitled: `Clima 2000: conclusions and perspectives`; `normative approach of the different aspects of ambience comfort`; `progress of the local discomfort evaluation methods`; `towards a global approach of air conditioning of buildings`; `simulation of the energy behaviour of industrial entities. Statement of real actions and methodological evolutions`; `modeling and simulation: state-of-the-art`; `automatized generation of a thermal and aeraulic simulation in buildings`. (J.S.)