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Sample records for term oxidation due

  1. Greenhouse effect due to atmospheric nitrous oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yung, Y. L.; Wang, W. C.; Lacis, A. A.

    1976-01-01

    The greenhouse effect due to nitrous oxide in the present atmosphere is about 0.8 K. Increase in atmospheric N2O due to perturbation of the nitrogen cycle by man may lead to an increase in surface temperature as large as 0.5 K by 2025, or 1.0 K by 2100. Other climatic effects of N2O are briefly discussed.

  2. Long-Term Stability of Oxide Nanowire Sensors via Heavily Doped Oxide Contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Hao; Takahashi, Tsunaki; Kanai, Masaki; Zhang, Guozhu; He, Yong; Nagashima, Kazuki; Yanagida, Takeshi

    2017-12-22

    Long-term stability of a chemical sensor is an essential quality for long-term collection of data related to exhaled breath, environmental air, and other sources in the Internet of things (IoT) era. Although an oxide nanowire sensor has shown great potential as a chemical sensor, the long-term stability of sensitivity has not been realized yet due to electrical degradation under harsh sensing conditions. Here, we report a rational concept to accomplish long-term electrical stability of metal oxide nanowire sensors via introduction of a heavily doped metal oxide contact layer. Antimony-doped SnO 2 (ATO) contacts on SnO 2 nanowires show much more stable and lower electrical contact resistance than conventional Ti contacts for high temperature (200 °C) conditions, which are required to operate chemical sensors. The stable and low contact resistance of ATO was confirmed for at least 1960 h under 200 °C in open air. This heavily doped oxide contact enables us to realize the long-term stability of SnO 2 nanowire sensors while maintaining the sensitivity for both NO 2 gas and light (photo) detections. The applicability of our method is confirmed for sensors on a flexible polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) substrate. Since the proposed fundamental concept can be applied to various oxide nanostructures, it will give a foundation for designing long-term stable oxide nanomaterial-based IoT sensors.

  3. Oxidation of eugenol by purified human term placental peroxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, R; Kulkarni, K A; Kulkarni, A P

    2000-01-01

    The oxidation of eugenol by purified human term placental peroxidase (HTPP) was examined. Spectral analyses indicated that, similar to horseradish peroxidase, HTPP is capable of catalyzing the oxidation of eugenol. The accumulated stable product in the reaction medium due to eugenol oxidation by HTPP was tentatively identified as quinone methide of eugenol (EQM). The EQM formation exhibited a pH optimum of 8.0 and was dependent on incubation time, amount of HTPP and the concentration of both eugenol and hydrogen peroxide. The specific activity of approx 2.8 micromoles of EQM/min/mg protein was observed with different preparations of HTPP. The EQM formation was significantly suppressed by glutathione and ascorbic acid. The classical peroxidase inhibitors viz. potassium cyanide and sodium azide blocked the reaction in a concentration manner. Collectively, the results suggest that eugenol may undergo peroxidative metabolism in human placenta. Copyright 2000 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.

  4. Dry oxidation behaviour of metallic containers during long term interim storages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desgranges, C.; Terlain, A.; Bertrand, N.; Gauvain, D.

    2004-01-01

    Low-alloyed steels or carbon steels are considered candidate materials for the fabrication of some nuclear waste package containers for long term interim storage. The containers are required to remain retrievable for centuries. One factor limiting their performance on this time scale is corrosion. The estimation of the metal thickness lost by dry oxidation over such long periods requires the construction of reliable models from short-time experimental data. Two complementary approaches for modelling dry oxidation have been considered. First, basic models following simple analytical laws from classical oxidation theories have been adjusted on the apparent activation energy of oxidation deduced from experimental data. Their extrapolation to long oxidation periods confirms that the expected damage due to dry oxidation could be small. Second, a numerical model able to take in consideration several mechanisms controlling the oxide scale growth is under development. Several preliminary results are presented. (authors)

  5. Model for low temperature oxidation during long term interim storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desgranges, Clara; Bertrand, Nathalie; Gauvain, Danielle; Terlain, Anne [Service de la Corrosion et du Comportement des Materiaux dans leur Environnement, CEA/Saclay - 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Poquillon, Dominique; Monceau, Daniel [CIRIMAT UMR 5085, ENSIACET-INPT, 31077 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France)

    2004-07-01

    For high-level nuclear waste containers in long-term interim storage, dry oxidation will be the first and the main degradation mode during about one century. The metal lost by dry oxidation over such a long period must be evaluated with a good reliability. To achieve this goal, modelling of the oxide scale growth is necessary and this is the aim of the dry oxidation studies performed in the frame of the COCON program. An advanced model based on the description of elementary mechanisms involved in scale growth at low temperatures, like partial interfacial control of the oxidation kinetics and/or grain boundary diffusion, is developed in order to increase the reliability of the long term extrapolations deduced from basic models developed from short time experiments. Since only few experimental data on dry oxidation are available in the temperature range of interest, experiments have also been performed to evaluate the relevant input parameters for models like grain size of oxide scale, considering iron as simplified material. (authors)

  6. Model for low temperature oxidation during long term interim storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desgranges, Clara; Bertrand, Nathalie; Gauvain, Danielle; Terlain, Anne; Poquillon, Dominique; Monceau, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    For high-level nuclear waste containers in long-term interim storage, dry oxidation will be the first and the main degradation mode during about one century. The metal lost by dry oxidation over such a long period must be evaluated with a good reliability. To achieve this goal, modelling of the oxide scale growth is necessary and this is the aim of the dry oxidation studies performed in the frame of the COCON program. An advanced model based on the description of elementary mechanisms involved in scale growth at low temperatures, like partial interfacial control of the oxidation kinetics and/or grain boundary diffusion, is developed in order to increase the reliability of the long term extrapolations deduced from basic models developed from short time experiments. Since only few experimental data on dry oxidation are available in the temperature range of interest, experiments have also been performed to evaluate the relevant input parameters for models like grain size of oxide scale, considering iron as simplified material. (authors)

  7. Honey bee (Apis mellifera) drones survive oxidative stress due to increased tolerance instead of avoidance or repair of oxidative damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li-Byarlay, Hongmei; Huang, Ming Hua; Simone-Finstrom, Michael; Strand, Micheline K; Tarpy, David R; Rueppell, Olav

    2016-10-01

    Oxidative stress can lead to premature aging symptoms and cause acute mortality at higher doses in a range of organisms. Oxidative stress resistance and longevity are mechanistically and phenotypically linked; considerable variation in oxidative stress resistance exists among and within species and typically covaries with life expectancy. However, it is unclear whether stress-resistant, long-lived individuals avoid, repair, or tolerate molecular damage to survive longer than others. The honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) is an emerging model system that is well-suited to address this question. Furthermore, this species is the most economically important pollinator, whose health may be compromised by pesticide exposure, including oxidative stressors. Here, we develop a protocol for inducing oxidative stress in honey bee males (drones) via Paraquat injection. After injection, individuals from different colony sources were kept in common social conditions to monitor their survival compared to saline-injected controls. Oxidative stress was measured in susceptible and resistant individuals. Paraquat drastically reduced survival but individuals varied in their resistance to treatment within and among colony sources. Longer-lived individuals exhibited higher levels of lipid peroxidation than individuals dying early. In contrast, the level of protein carbonylation was not significantly different between the two groups. This first study of oxidative stress in male honey bees suggests that survival of an acute oxidative stressor is due to tolerance, not prevention or repair, of oxidative damage to lipids. It also demonstrates colony differences in oxidative stress resistance that might be useful for breeding stress-resistant honey bees. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Childhood Craniopharyngioma with Hypothalamic Obesity - No Long-term Weight Reduction due to Rehabilitation Programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterkenburg, A. S.; Hoffmann, A.; Gebhardt, U.; Waldeck, E.; Springer, S.; Mueller, H. L.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Severe obesity due to hypothalamic involvement has major impact on prognosis in long-term survivors of childhood craniopharyngioma. The long-term effects of rehabilitation efforts on weight development and obesity in these patients are not analyzed up to now. Patients and Methods: 108

  9. Childhood Craniopharyngioma with Hypothalamic Obesity - No Long-term Weight Reduction due to Rehabilitation Programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterkenburg, A. S.; Hoffmann, A.; Gebhardt, U.; Waldeck, E.; Springer, S.; Mueller, H. L.

    Background: Severe obesity due to hypothalamic involvement has major impact on prognosis in long-term survivors of childhood craniopharyngioma. The long-term effects of rehabilitation efforts on weight development and obesity in these patients are not analyzed up to now. Patients and Methods: 108

  10. Fractal and variability analysis of simulations in ozone level due to oxides of nitrogen and sulphur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Rashmi; Pruthi, Dimple

    2017-10-01

    Air pollution refers to the release of pollutants into the air. These pollutants are detrimental to human the planet as a whole. Apart from causing respiratory infections and pulmonary disorders, rising levels of Nitrogen Dioxide is worsening ozone pollution. Formation of Ground-level ozone involves nitrogen oxides and volatile gases in the sunlight. Volatile gases are emitted from vehicles primarily. Ozone is harmful gas and its exposure can trigger serious health effects as it damages lung tissues. In order to decrease the level of ozone, level of oxides leading to ozone formation has to be dealt with. This paper deals with the simulations in ozone due to oxides of nitrogen and sulphur. The data from Central Pollution Control Board shows positive correlation for ozone with oxides of sulphur and nitrogen for RK Puram, Delhi in India where high concentration of ozone has been found. The correlation between ozone and sulphur, nitrogen oxides is moderate during summer while weak during winters. Ozone with nitrogen and sulphur dioxide follow persistent behavior as Hurst exponent is between 0.5 and 1. The fractal dimension for Sulphur dioxide is 1.4957 indicating the Brownian motion. The behavior of ozone is unpredictable as index of predictability is close to zero.

  11. Amnioinfusion in term labor with low amniotic fluid due to rupture of membranes: a new indication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miño, M; Puertas, A; Miranda, J A; Herruzo, A J

    1999-01-01

    The null hypothesis was that the use of intrapartum amnioinfusion to induce term labor because of premature rupture of membranes when labor was complicated by low amniotic fluid volume due to vaginal loss would not improve fetal heart rate patterns, decrease the incidence of operative delivery, or improve neonatal acid-base status. 200 term pregnancies with low amniotic fluid due to vaginal loss were randomly chosen to receive intrapartum amnioinfusion or standard obstetric care without amnioinfusion. Fetal heart rate pattern, method of delivery and neonatal acid-base status were compared with Student's t test, chi-squared analysis, Mann-Whitney U- or Fisher's exact test. When amnioinfusion was used, the fetuses had lower rates of variable (74 vs. 91%, Pamnioinfusion, and babies in this group had lower rates of neonatal acidemia of arterial (22 vs. 36%, PAmnioinfusion improved fetal heart rate pattern, lowered the incidence of operative delivery, and improved neonatal acid-base status in term labor complicated by low amniotic fluid due to vaginal loss.

  12. Dystrophic Cutaneous Calcification and Metaplastic Bone Formation due to Long Term Bisphosphonate Use in Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Murat Tatlı

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bisphosphonates are widely used in the treatment of breast cancer with bone metastases. We report a case of a female with breast cancer presented with a rash around a previous mastectomy site and a discharge lesion on her right chest wall in August 2010. Biopsy of the lesion showed dystrophic calcification and metaplastic bone formation. The patient’s history revealed a long term use of zoledronic acid for the treatment of breast cancer with bone metastasis. We stopped the treatment since we believed that the cutaneous dystrophic calcification could be associated with her long term bisphosphonate therapy. Adverse cutaneous events with bisphosphonates are very rare, and dystrophic calcification has not been reported previously. The dystrophic calcification and metaplastic bone formation in this patient are thought to be due to long term bisphosphonate usage.

  13. Short-term and long-term effects of transient exogenous cortisol manipulation on oxidative stress in juvenile brown trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birnie-Gauvin, Kim; Peiman, Kathryn S.; Larsen, Martin Hage

    2017-01-01

    available for physiological functions like defence against oxidative stress. Using brown trout (Salmo trutta), we evaluated the short-term (2 weeks) and long-term (4 months over winter) effects of exogenous cortisol manipulations (versus relevant shams and controls) on the oxidative status of wild juveniles...

  14. Methane oxidation in an intensively cropped tropical rice field soil under long-term application of organic and mineral fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, D R; Babu, Y Jagadeesh; Datta, A; Adhya, T K

    2007-01-01

    Methane (CH4) oxidation is the only known biological sink process for mitigating atmospheric and terrestrial emissions of CH4, a major greenhouse gas. Methane oxidation in an alluvial soil planted to rice (Oryza sativa L.) under long-term application of organic (compost with a C/N ratio of 21.71), and mineral fertilizers was measured in a field-cum-laboratory incubation study. Oxidation rates were quantified in terms of decrease in the concentration of CH4 in the headspace of incubation vessels and expressed as half-life (t(1)2) values. Methane oxidation rates significantly differed among the treatments and growth stages of the rice crop. Methane oxidation rates were high at the maximum tillering and maturity stages, whereas they were low at grain-filling stage. Methane oxidation was low (t(1)2) = 15.76 d) when provided with low concentration of CH4. On the contrary, high concentration of CH4 resulted in faster oxidation (t(1)2) = 6.67 d), suggesting the predominance of "low affinity oxidation" in rice fields. Methane oxidation was stimulated following the application of mineral fertilizers or compost implicating nutrient limitation as one of the factors affecting the process. Combined application of compost and mineral fertilizer, however, inhibited CH4 oxidation probably due to N immobilization by the added compost. The positive effect of mineral fertilizer on CH4 oxidation rate was evident only at high CH4 concentration (t(1)2 = 4.80 d), while at low CH4 concentration their was considerable suppression (t(1) = 17.60 d). Further research may reveal that long-term application of fertilizers, organic or inorganic, may not inhibit CH4 oxidation.

  15. Honey bee (Apis mellifera) drones survive oxidative stress due to increased tolerance instead of avoidance or repair of oxidative damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxidative stress can lead to premature aging symptoms and cause acute mortality at higher doses in a range of organisms. Oxidative stress resistance and longevity are mechanistically and phenotypically linked: considerable variation in oxidative stress resistance exists among and within species and ...

  16. The indirect global warming potential and global temperature change potential due to methane oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boucher, Olivier; Collins, Bill; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Shine, Keith P

    2009-01-01

    Methane is the second most important anthropogenic greenhouse gas in the atmosphere next to carbon dioxide. Its global warming potential (GWP) for a time horizon of 100 years is 25, which makes it an attractive target for climate mitigation policies. Although the methane GWP traditionally includes the methane indirect effects on the concentrations of ozone and stratospheric water vapour, it does not take into account the production of carbon dioxide from methane oxidation. We argue here that this CO 2 -induced effect should be included for fossil sources of methane, which results in slightly larger GWP values for all time horizons. If the global temperature change potential is used as an alternative climate metric, then the impact of the CO 2 -induced effect is proportionally much larger. We also discuss what the correction term should be for methane from anthropogenic biogenic sources.

  17. Stochastic health effects assessment due to short-term external exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raicevic, J.J.; Raskob, W.; Merkle, M.; Ninkovic, M.M.

    2001-01-01

    The new model for calculation of stochastic health effects is presented in this paper. The exposure pathways which are briefly considered are the short-term external exposure due to passage of the radioactive cloud (cloudshine) and the short-term external exposure due to radioactive material deposited on skin and clothes (skin contamination). The quantitative assessment of stochastic effects is expressed in numbers of deaths, which are given as a functions of the time at the accident, and age at death, what on the other side enables estimation of the number of deaths within the specified range of the time/age parameters. That means the model calculates the number of deaths within one particular year, summed up over all ages at deaths, or vice versa, it finds the number of deaths within the specified range of ages at death, summed up over all observation times. Results presented in this paper are implemented in the module LATEHEAL, which is incorporated in RODOS, a new European system for decision support for nuclear emergencies. (author)

  18. Microstructural investigation of the oxide formed on TP 347H FG during long-term steam oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansson, Anette Nørgaard; Danielsen, Hilmar Kjartansson; Grumsen, Flemming Bjerg

    2010-01-01

    The long-term oxidation behaviour of TP347H FG in ultra supercritical steam conditions was assessed by exposing the steel in test superheater loops in a Danish coal-fired power plant and characterising the oxide layer with reflective light and electron microscopy. Double layered oxide scales formed...... during steam oxidation. TEM investigations reveal that the inner oxide layer consists of particles of metallic Ni/Fe and Fe-Cr spinel in the interior of the former alloy grains and a compact layer of Fe-Cr spinel and Cr2O3 along the former alloy grain boundaries. The morphology suggests that the inner...

  19. Long term population dose due to radon (Rn-222) released from uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambers, D.B.; Lower, L.M.; Stager, R.H.

    2001-01-01

    The results of a study undertaken by the European Commission on the external costs (environmental and social) of various energy production systems is likely to be influential in determining how the European Union will develop its energy supply systems. The estimated costs for nuclear power from the study will be based on the findings of the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), with the costs being dominated by the estimated long term (10,000 y) population doses due to radon (Rn-222) released from mill tailings. UNSCEAR developed a central estimate of 150 person-Sv per GW y and a range of 1 to 1,000 person-Sv per GW y. However, the generic data available to and being used by UNSCEAR are dated and are not appropriate for the current and planned future conditions in the uranium production industry, with the result that the estimated external costs of nuclear power (specifically, the doses due to radon emitted from mill tailings) are overestimated. The Uranium Institute sponsored a study to estimate long term population doses based on the most recent 1993 UNSCEAR methodology, but using data that would be more appropriate to the current major uranium production facilities. Site-specific information obtained from the owners/operators and the Uranium Institute included: present and proposed tailings management plans; tailings volumes and areas; ore grades and reserves; measurements and estimates of radon emission rates; and population densities. Tailings at closed facilities that no longer contribute to uranium production were not evaluated since it was assumed that these radon sources need not be considered in evaluating the external costs of current and future nuclear power production. Based on the same approach as UNSCEAR, but using a more sophisticated air dispersion model, and more site-specific data relative to existing sites and proposed tailings management practices, radon emission rates and population densities (that

  20. Bilateral Incomplete Atypical Femoral Fracture due to Long-Term Bisphosphonate Use: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel Başaran

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Although the overall safety profile of bisphosphonates (BP is favorable, adverse effects associated with long-term use have came up during recent years. In this report, a case of bilateral incomplete atypical femoral fracture (AFF due to prolonged BP use was presented. A 69-year-old patient, who has been in surgical menopause for 20 years and was started on BP following vertebral fracture almost 10 years ago, was admitted with thigh pain, which was increased two weeks ago. On physical examination, she had antalgic gait, increased thoracic kyphosis and tenderness to percussion over the thoracolumbar region. Lateral cortical thickness in the subtrochanteric region of both femurs and cortical radiolucency on the left femur were observed on plain radiography. Loss of height in L3 and L4 vertebrae was detected on vertebral radiography. Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OHD], parathyroid hormone, alkaline phosphatase and calcium levels, along with osteoporosis markers were all within the normal ranges. As the patient was diagnosed with AFF, BP therapy was terminated and vitamin D-calcium supplementation was continued. Since she did not have severe pain, conservative management (limited weight bearing, using a walking stick was recommended for 3 months. Teriparatide therapy was started and she was discharged with recommendations. AFF, which is a rare disorder, should be kept in mind in patients on long-term BP treatment who are admitted with thigh pain and, necessary interventions should be tailored before the occurrence of complete fracture.

  1. Gender differences in patients starting long-term home mechanical ventilation due to obesity hypoventilation syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm, Andreas; Midgren, Bengt; Janson, Christer; Lindberg, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS) is often diagnosed late. The aim of this study was to analyse gender differences at initiation of long-term mechanical ventilation (LTMV) in patients with (OHS), to analyse gender differences in treatment effect and to study how the prescription of LTMV due to OHS has changed over time. Data on patients on LTMV due to OHS between 1996 and 2014 were obtained from Swedevox, a nationwide health quality registry of patients on LTMV in Sweden. When starting LTMV, women were generally older (age 64.4 ± 11.2 vs. 60.1 ± 12.1 years, p obese (BMI 43.0 ± 8.2 vs. 41.5 ± 7.9 kg/m2, p differ. During the study period, the age of patients at the initiation of LTMV rose by 3.4 years/decade (P = 0.001) in women and with 1.9 years/decade (P = 0.048) in men but there were no significant changes in BMI (P = 0.425). Diagnosis of OHS is more delayed in women and as a consequence the disease is more advanced when diagnosed. In spite of this, there is no gender difference in survival rate in patients with OHS treated with LTMV. More and older patients with OHS nowadays gain access to LTMV. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Reduced coupling of oxidative phosphorylation in vivo precedes electron transport chain defects due to mild oxidative stress in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P Siegel

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress and mitochondrial function are at the core of many degenerative conditions. However, the interaction between oxidative stress and in vivo mitochondrial function is unclear. We used both pharmacological (2 week paraquat (PQ treatment of wild type mice and transgenic (mice lacking Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1(-/- models to test the effect of oxidative stress on in vivo mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle. Magnetic resonance and optical spectroscopy were used to measure mitochondrial ATP and oxygen fluxes and cell energetic state. In both models of oxidative stress, coupling of oxidative phosphorylation was significantly lower (lower P/O at rest in vivo in skeletal muscle and was dose-dependent in the PQ model. Despite this reduction in efficiency, in vivo mitochondrial phosphorylation capacity (ATPmax was maintained in both models, and ex vivo mitochondrial respiration in permeabilized muscle fibers was unchanged following PQ treatment. In association with the reduced P/O, PQ treatment led to a dose-dependent reduction in PCr/ATP ratio and increased phosphorylation of AMPK. These results indicate that oxidative stress uncouples oxidative phosphorylation in vivo and results in energetic stress in the absence of defects in the mitochondrial electron transport chain.

  3. Long-term effects of early parental loss due to divorce on the HPA axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Miki; Peleg, Ido; Koren, Danny; Aner, Hamotal; Klein, Ehud

    2007-04-01

    We investigated the long-term effects of divorce and early separation from one parent on HPA axis reactivity, in young adults without psychopathology. Participants were 44 young subjects, 22 whose parents divorced before they reached age 10, and 22 controls. Psychiatric symptomatology was measured with the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI), family perceived stress by the Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS), and bonding by the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI). Assessment of HPA axis function included baseline morning cortisol and ACTH and cortisol response to a CRH stimulation test. No baseline or stimulated group differences were observed for ACTH. Cortisol levels were consistently but insignificantly lower in the divorce group throughout the CRH stimulation reaching statistical significance only at 5 min (p<0.03). Group by time effect reached a trend level (p<0.06). A correlation was found between psychiatric symptomatology and PBI scores; however, both parameters did not correlate with HPA axis activity. A significant correlation was found between DAS scores and ACTH. A regression model revealed a contributing effect for both family stress and child-parent bonding to stimulated ACTH levels. These preliminary findings suggest that even in the absence of adult psychopathology, a history of childhood separation from one parent due to divorce may lead to detectable, albeit mild, long-term alterations in HPA axis activity. Furthermore, they suggest that level of stress at home and parental bonding are important determinants of this effect. It is likely that divorce has significant and sustained effects on children's HPA axis only in the context of a traumatic separation.

  4. Leakage Current Degradation Due to Ion Drift and Diffusion in Tantalum and Niobium Oxide Capacitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuparowitz Martin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available High temperature and high electric field applications in tantalum and niobium capacitors are limited by the mechanism of ion migration and field crystallization in a tantalum or niobium pentoxide insulating layer. The study of leakage current (DCL variation in time as a result of increasing temperature and electric field might provide information about the physical mechanism of degradation. The experiments were performed on tantalum and niobium oxide capacitors at temperatures of about 125°C and applied voltages ranging up to rated voltages of 35 V and 16 V for tantalum and niobium oxide capacitors, respectively. Homogeneous distribution of oxygen vacancies acting as positive ions within the pentoxide layer was assumed before the experiments. DCL vs. time characteristics at a fixed temperature have several phases. At the beginning of ageing the DCL increases exponentially with time. In this period ions in the insulating layer are being moved in the electric field by drift only. Due to that the concentration of ions near the cathode increases producing a positively charged region near the cathode. The electric field near the cathode increases and the potential barrier between the cathode and insulating layer decreases which results in increasing DCL. However, redistribution of positive ions in the insulator layer leads to creation of a ion concentration gradient which results in a gradual increase of the ion diffusion current in the direction opposite to the ion drift current component. The equilibrium between the two for a given temperature and electric field results in saturation of the leakage current value. DCL vs. time characteristics are described by the exponential stretched law. We found that during the initial part of ageing an exponent n = 1 applies. That corresponds to the ion drift motion only. After long-time application of the electric field at a high temperature the DCL vs. time characteristics are described by the exponential

  5. Management of full term pregnant patient with paroxysmal hypertension due to incidental pheochromocytoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sahu*

    2013-12-01

    Case Description: A 25-year-old, full-term pregnant woman diagnosed with pre-eclampsia was referred to our tertiary care hospital with severe resistant hypertension. Her blood pressure remained labile despite the usual medications, which led to the suspicion of an underlying endocrinological problem. Further biochemical and radiological investigations confirmed the diagnosis of pheochromocytoma. The patient was invasively monitored and treated with alpha blockade, beta blocker, and vasodilators in ICU. On the fifth day, she went into spontaneous labour with confirmed rupture of the membranes. The labour was augmented with intravenous oxytocin 2U in 500 ml solution of Ringer’s lactate. A nitro-glycerine basal infusion was started and titrated to control BP during labour to keep the blood pressure below 160/90 mmHg. An injection of Phentolamine drip and beta blocker esmolol was kept ready, to control the wide fluctuation of blood pressure. She delivered a live, healthy, male infant weighing 2.5 Kg. She was kept in the ICU for 72 h with epidural patient-controlled analgesia (EPCA. The patient was not keen for a resection of the adrenal tumour immediately after delivery. She was discharged with medical management, with a further plan for surgery in due course. With a multidisciplinary team approach (gynaecologist, anaesthesiologist, endocrinologist, and surgeon, proper planning, and adequate preoperative medical management; pheochromocytoma in pregnancy can be managed successfully.

  6. EVALUATION OF RADIONUCLIDE ACCUMULATION IN SOIL DUE TO LONG-TERM IRRIGATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Wesley Wu

    2006-01-01

    Radionuclide accumulation in soil due to long-term irrigation is an important part of the model for predicting radiation dose in a long period of time. The model usually assumes an equilibrium condition in soil with a constant irrigation rate, so that radionuclide concentration in soil does not change with time and can be analytically solved. This method is currently being used for the dose assessment in the Yucca Mountain project, which requires evaluating radiation dose for a period of 10,000 years. There are several issues associated with the method: (1) time required for the equilibrium condition, (2) validity of constant irrigation rate, (3) agricultural land use for a long period of time, and (4) variation of a radionuclide concentration in water. These issues are evaluated using a numerical method with a simple model built in the GoldSim software. Some key radionuclides, Tc-99, Np-237, Pu-239, and Am-241 are selected as representative radionuclides. The results indicate that the equilibrium model is acceptable except for a radionuclide that requires long time to accumulate in soil and that its concentration in water changes dramatically with time (i.e. a sharp peak). Then the calculated dose for that radionuclide could be overestimated using the current equilibrium method

  7. Similarity-based distortion of visual short-term memory is due to perceptual averaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubé, Chad; Zhou, Feng; Kahana, Michael J; Sekuler, Robert

    2014-03-01

    A task-irrelevant stimulus can distort recall from visual short-term memory (VSTM). Specifically, reproduction of a task-relevant memory item is biased in the direction of the irrelevant memory item (Huang & Sekuler, 2010a). The present study addresses the hypothesis that such effects reflect the influence of neural averaging under conditions of uncertainty about the contents of VSTM (Alvarez, 2011; Ball & Sekuler, 1980). We manipulated subjects' attention to relevant and irrelevant study items whose similarity relationships were held constant, while varying how similar the study items were to a subsequent recognition probe. On each trial, subjects were shown one or two Gabor patches, followed by the probe; their task was to indicate whether the probe matched one of the study items. A brief cue told subjects which Gabor, first or second, would serve as that trial's target item. Critically, this cue appeared either before, between, or after the study items. A distributional analysis of the resulting mnemometric functions showed an inflation in probability density in the region spanning the spatial frequency of the average of the two memory items. This effect, due to an elevation in false alarms to probes matching the perceptual average, was diminished when cues were presented before both study items. These results suggest that (a) perceptual averages are computed obligatorily and (b) perceptual averages are relied upon to a greater extent when item representations are weakened. Implications of these results for theories of VSTM are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Oxidative stress due to radiation in CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor cells. Protection by IGF-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floratou, K.; Karakantza, M.; Giannopoulou, E.; Antonacopoulou, A.; Adonakis, G.; Kardamakis, D.; Matsouka, P.

    2012-01-01

    Radiation exerts direct as well as indirect effects on DNA through the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Irradiated hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) experience DNA strand breaks, favoring genetic instability, due to ROS generation. Our aim was to study the effect of a range of radiation doses in HPCs and the possible protective mechanisms activated by insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). ROS generation was evaluated, in the presence or absence of IGF-1 in liquid cultures of human HPCs-CD34 + irradiated with 1-, 2- and 5-Gy X-rays, using a flow cytometry assay. Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) expression was studied by western blot analysis and visualized by an immunofluorescence assay. Apoptosis was estimated using the following assays: Annexin-V assay, DNA degradation assay, BCL-2/BAX mRNA and protein levels and caspase-9 protein immunofluorescence visualization. Viability and clonogenic potential were studied in irradiated HPCs. The generation of superoxide anion radicals at an early and a late time point was increased, while the hydrogen peroxide generation at a late time point was stable. IGF-1 presence further enhanced the radiation-induced increase of MnSOD at 24 h post irradiation. IGF-1 inhibited the mitochondria-mediated pathway of apoptosis by regulating the m-RNA and protein expression of BAX, BCL-2 and the BCL-2/BAX ratio and by decreasing caspase-9 protein expression. IGF-1 presence in culture media of irradiated cells restored the clonogenic capacity and the viability of HPCs as well. In conclusion, IGF-1 protects HPCs-CD34 + from radiation effects, by eliminating the oxidative microenvironment through the enhancement of MnSOD activation and by regulating the mitochondria-mediated pathway of apoptosis. (author)

  9. Inhibition of Direct Electrolytic Ammonia Oxidation Due to a Change in Local pH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zöllig, Hanspeter; Morgenroth, Eberhard; Udert, Kai M.

    2015-01-01

    Electrochemical ammonia oxidation has gained a lot of attention recently as an efficient method for ammonia removal from wastewater, for the use in ammonia-based fuel cells and the production of high purity hydrogen. Thermally decomposed iridium oxide films (TDIROF) have been shown to be catalytically active for direct ammonia oxidation in aqueous solutions if NH 3 is present. However, the process was reported to be rapidly inhibited on TDIROF. Herein, we show that this fast inhibition of direct ammonia oxidation does not result from surface poisoning by adsorbed elemental nitrogen (N ads ). Instead, we propose that direct ammonia oxidation and oxygen evolution can lead to a drop of the local pH at the electrode resulting in a low availability of the actual reactant, NH 3 . The hypothesis was tested with cyclic voltammetry (CV) experiments on stagnant and rotating disk electrodes (RDE). The CV experiments on the stagnant electrode revealed that the decrease of the ammonia oxidation peaks was considerably reduced by introducing an idle phase at open circuit potential between subsequent scans. Furthermore, the polarization of the TDIROF electrode into the hydrogen evolution region (HER) resulted in increased ammonia oxidation peaks in the following anodic scans which can be explained with an increased local pH after the consumption of protons in the HER. On the RDE, the ammonia oxidation peaks did not decrease in immediately consecutive scans. These findings would not be expected if surface poisoning was responsible for the fast inhibition but they are in good agreement with the proposed mechanism of pH induced limitation by the reactant, NH 3 . The plausibility of the mechanism was also supported by our numerical simulations of the processes in the Nernstian diffusion layer. The knowledge about this inhibition mechanism of direct ammonia oxidation is especially important for the design of electrochemical cells for wastewater treatment. The mechanism is not only

  10. Does increased Nitric Oxide production and oxidative stress due to high fat diet affect cardiac function after myocardial infarction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Aghajani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background &Objectives: High fat (HF diet by affecting the oxidative stress and nitric oxide (NO production may lead to different effects on function of the heart after myocardial infarction (MI. In the present study we aimed to address the hypothesis that high release of NO by activated macrophages affects LV function after MI.Methods: The animals were randomly divided into four groups comprising each of 10 rats: 1 Sham; 2 MI; 3 Sham+ HF diet; 4 MI+ HF diet. Animals fed with HF diet 30 days before sham and MI surgery. MI was induced by permanent ligation of left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD. Nitric oxide (NO production of peritoneal macrophages, the concentrations of MDA in the heart and the infarct size were measured.Results: Our study indicated that HF has adverse effects on myocardium and it may increase NO production as well as oxidative stress, resulting in augmentation of infarct size.Conclusion: Our results add to our knowledge that HF diet was associated with overproduction of NO by peritoneal macrophages and ROS that lead to development of infarct size and adverse remodeling.

  11. Long term steam oxidation of TP 347H FG in power plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansson, Anette Nørgaard; Korcakova, Leona; Hald, John

    2005-01-01

    The long term oxidation behaviour of TP 347H FG at ultra supercritical steam conditions was assessed by exposing the steel in test superheater loops in a Danish coal-fired power plant. The steamside oxide layer was investigated with scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive Xray diffract......The long term oxidation behaviour of TP 347H FG at ultra supercritical steam conditions was assessed by exposing the steel in test superheater loops in a Danish coal-fired power plant. The steamside oxide layer was investigated with scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive Xray...

  12. Impact of pH on hydrogen oxidizing redox processes in aquifers due to gas intrusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzgen, Adrian; Berta, Marton; Dethlefsen, Frank; Ebert, Markus; Dahmke, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    Hydrogen production from excess energy and its storage can help increasing the efficiency of solar and wind in the energy mix. Therefore, hydrogen needs large-scale intermediate storage independent of the intended later use as hydrogen gas or as reactant to produce methane in the Sabatier process. A possible storage solution is using the geological subsurface such as caverns built in salt deposits or aquifers that are not used for drinking water production. However, underground storage of hydrogen gas potentially leads to accidental gas leakages into near-surface potable aquifers triggering subsequent geochemical processes. These leakages pose potential risks that are currently not sufficiently understood. To close this gap in knowledge, a high-pressure laboratory column system was used to simulate a hydrogen gas intrusion into a shallow aquifer. Water and sediment were gained from a sandy Pleistocene aquifer near Neumünster, Germany. In the first stage of the experiment, 100% hydrogen gas was used to simulate dissolved hydrogen concentrations between 800 and 4000 µM by varying pH2 between 2 and 15 bars. pH values rose to between 7.9 and 10.4, partly due to stripping CO2 from the groundwater used during H2 gas addition. In a second stage, the pH was regulated in a range of 6.7 to 7.9 by using a gas mixture of 99% H2 and 1% CO2 at 5 bars of total gas pressure. Observed processes included hydrogen oxidation, sulfate reduction, acetogenesis, formate production, and methanogenesis, which were independent of the hydrogen concentration. Hydrogen oxidation and sulfate reduction showed zeroth order reaction rates and rate constants (106 to 412 µM/h and 12 to 33 µM/h, respectively) in the pH range between 8 and 10. At pH levels between 7 and 8, both reactions started out faster near the column's inflow but then seemed limited towards the columns outflow, suggesting the dependence of sulfate reduction on the pH-value. Acetogenesis dominated the pH range between 8 and 10

  13. Morphological Changes of Yeast Cells due to Oxidative Stress by Mercury and Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Su Hyoun; Ryu, Tae Ho; Kim, Jin Kyu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-05-15

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is one of the most important microorganisms employed in industry. Growth rate, mutation, and environmental conditions affect yeast size and shape distributions but, in general, the influence of spatial variations in large-scale bioreactors is not considered. Ionizing radiation induces DNA double strand breaks in the nucleus, In addition, it causes lipid peroxidation, ceramide generation, and protein oxidation in the membrane, cytoplasm, and nucleus. Metal ions are essential to life. However, some metals such as mercury are harmful, even when present at trace amounts. Toxicity of mercury arises mainly from its oxidizing properties. As a metal ion, it induces an oxidative stress or predisposes cells to an oxidative stress, with considerable damage to proteins, lipids and DNA. In this work, we investigated to effect of ionizing radiation (IR) and mercury chloride (II) on cell morphology.

  14. On the mechanical stress of Zr, Zry, and other materials due to the formation of oxide layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, P.

    1977-06-01

    Several mechanisms are indicated which during oxidation of sheets, tubes, and cylinders of pure metals and alloys might lead to plastic deformation of the remaining uncorroded cross section. Some experimental methods are described which allow evaluation of stresses occurring in oxide layers. The main reason for the creep deformation of flat and tubular specimens made of Zr and Zr alloys lies in the stresses that arise from volume increase due to the growth of oxide layers. Plastic deformations of the sheet metal specimens can be up to 100% and are anisotropic. In tubular specimens the changes in geometry (axial, radial) are much smaller in the course of oxidation and attain 2% at the maximum for Zr- or Zry-tubes and go up to 10% for Ta-tubes when no differential pressure is applied simultaneously. (orig.) [de

  15. [Short-term and medium-term efficacy of mesotherapy in patients with lower back pain due to spondyloarthrosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, Paola Emilia; Ronconi, Gianpaolo; Viscito, Rossella; Maggi, Loredana; Bertolini, Carlo; Ljoka, Concetta; Ferriero, Giorgio; Foti, Calogero

    2017-01-01

    Mesotherapy is an intradermal treatment for patients with local pain. The literature describes the efficacy of mesotherapy in the treatment of musculoskeletal disorders measuring a reduction of analgesic drug intake and of healthcare spending. The aim of this study was to measure the effects of mesotherapy on pain and disability in patients with low back pain due to spondyloarthrosis.

  16. Event terms in the response spectra prediction equation and their deviation due to stress drop variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawase, H.; Nakano, K.

    2015-12-01

    We investigated the characteristics of strong ground motions separated from acceleration Fourier spectra and acceleration response spectra of 5% damping calculated from weak and moderate ground motions observed by K-NET, KiK-net, and the JMA Shindokei Network in Japan using the generalized spectral inversion method. The separation method used the outcrop motions at YMGH01 as reference where we extracted site responses due to shallow weathered layers. We include events with JMA magnitude equal to or larger than 4.5 observed from 1996 to 2011. We find that our frequency-dependent Q values are comparable to those of previous studies. From the corner frequencies of Fourier source spectra, we calculate Brune's stress parameters and found a clear magnitude dependence, in which smaller events tend to spread over a wider range while maintaining the same maximum value. We confirm that this is exactly the case for several mainshock-aftershock sequences. The average stress parameters for crustal earthquakes are much smaller than those of subduction zone, which can be explained by their depth dependence. We then compared the strong motion characteristics based on the acceleration response spectra and found that the separated characteristics of strong ground motions are different, especially in the lower frequency range less than 1Hz. These differences comes from the difference between Fourier spectra and response spectra found in the observed data; that is, predominant components in high frequency range of Fourier spectra contribute to increase the response in lower frequency range with small Fourier amplitude because strong high frequency component acts as an impulse to a Single-Degree-of-Freedom system. After the separation of the source terms for 5% damping response spectra we can obtain regression coefficients with respect to the magnitude, which lead to a new GMPE as shown in Fig.1 on the left. Although stress drops for inland earthquakes are 1/7 of the subduction

  17. A case of osteomalacia due to deranged mineral balance caused by saccharated ferric oxide and short-bowel syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomoto, Hiroshi; Miyoshi, Hideaki; Nakamura, Akinobu; Nagai, So; Kitao, Naoyuki; Shimizu, Chikara; Atsumi, Tatsuya

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Saccharated ferric oxide has been shown to lead to elevation of fibroblast growth factor 23, hypophosphatemia, and, consequently, osteomalacia. Moreover, mineral imbalance is often observed in patients with short-bowel syndrome to some degree. Patient concerns: A 62-year-old woman with short-bowel syndrome related with multiple resections of small intestines due to Crohn disease received regular intravenous administration of saccharated ferric oxide. Over the course of treatment, she was diagnosed with tetany, which was attributed to hypocalcemia. Additional assessments of the patient revealed not only hypocalcemia, but also hypophosphatemia, hypomagnesemia, osteomalacia, and a high concentration of fibroblast growth factor 23 (314 pg/mL). Diagnoses: We diagnosed her with mineral imbalance-induced osteomalacia due to saccharated ferric oxide and short-bowel syndrome. Interventions: Magnesium replacement therapy and discontinuation of saccharated ferric oxide alone. Outcomes: These treatments were able to normalize her serum mineral levels and increase her bone mineral density. Lessons: This case suggests that adequate evaluation of serum minerals, including phosphate and magnesium, during saccharated ferric oxide administration may be necessary, especially in patients with short-bowel syndrome. PMID:28953654

  18. Long-term stability of oxidative stress biomarkers in human serum.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Eugène H J M; Beekhof, Piet K; Viezeliene, Dale; Muzakova, Vladimira; Skalicky, Jiri

    2017-01-01

    The storage time and storage temperature might affect stability of oxidative stress biomarkers, therefore, they have to be analyzed after long-term storage of serum samples. The stability of three biomarkers reflecting oxidative stress: reactive oxygen metabolites (ROM) for hydroperoxides, total

  19. Oxidative Stress in the Developing Rat Brain due to Production of Reactive Oxygen and Nitrogen Species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wilhelm, Jiří; Vytášek, Richard; Uhlík, Jiří; Vajner, Luděk

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 2016, č. 2016 (2016), č. článku 5057610. ISSN 1942-0900 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP303/11/0298 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : oxidative stress * developing rat brain * lipid peroxidation Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 4.593, year: 2016

  20. Renal Oxidative Stress Induced by Long-Term Hyperuricemia Alters Mitochondrial Function and Maintains Systemic Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Cristóbal-García

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We addressed if oxidative stress in the renal cortex plays a role in the induction of hypertension and mitochondrial alterations in hyperuricemia. A second objective was to evaluate whether the long-term treatment with the antioxidant Tempol prevents renal oxidative stress, mitochondrial alterations, and systemic hypertension in this model. Long-term (11-12 weeks and short-term (3 weeks effects of oxonic acid induced hyperuricemia were studied in rats (OA, 750 mg/kg BW, OA+Allopurinol (AP, 150 mg/L drinking water, OA+Tempol (T, 15 mg/kg BW, or vehicle. Systolic blood pressure, renal blood flow, and vascular resistance were measured. Tubular damage (urine N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase and oxidative stress markers (lipid and protein oxidation along with ATP levels were determined in kidney tissue. Oxygen consumption, aconitase activity, and uric acid were evaluated in isolated mitochondria from renal cortex. Short-term hyperuricemia resulted in hypertension without demonstrable renal oxidative stress or mitochondrial dysfunction. Long-term hyperuricemia induced hypertension, renal vasoconstriction, tubular damage, renal cortex oxidative stress, and mitochondrial dysfunction and decreased ATP levels. Treatments with Tempol and allopurinol prevented these alterations. Renal oxidative stress induced by hyperuricemia promoted mitochondrial functional disturbances and decreased ATP content, which represent an additional pathogenic mechanism induced by chronic hyperuricemia. Hyperuricemia-related hypertension occurs before these changes are evident.

  1. Long-term sickness absence from work due to physical inactivity: A registry-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høgsbro, Cecilie; Davidsen, Michael; Sørensen, Jan

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between leisure-time physical inactivity and long-term sickness absence in a representative sample of individuals aged 16-54 years, within the labour market and in good health. It was hypothesised that physically inactive individuals have a higher risk of long-term sickness absence and longer duration of sickness absence. The study population was identified from the National Health and Morbidity Survey, 2010. Weekly data on long-term sickness absence were obtained from the National Register on Social Transfer Payments (the DREAM registry). The association of incidence and duration of long-term sickness absence with physical inactivity was explored using logistic and Poisson regression. Data were fitted to models with levels of physical activity, demographic, social and lifestyle characteristics as independent variables. A combined hurdle model was used to estimate the difference in mean number of absence weeks. Logistic regression showed that physically inactive individuals had a 27% higher incidence of long-term sickness absence compared with physically active individuals. The Poisson regression showed that long-term sickness absence was only slightly shorter (1 week less) for moderately active individuals compared with inactive individuals. The hurdle model estimated longer absence periods for inactive individuals (additional 2.5 weeks) in comparison with moderately and highly active individuals. The study showed that physically inactive individuals have a higher incidence of long-term absence and that physically inactive individuals have longer periods with sickness absence than moderately and highly active individuals. When adjustments for social and health behaviour were included, the estimated associations became statistically insignificant.

  2. Oxidative Stress at High Temperatures in Lactococcus lactis Due to an Insufficient Supply of Riboflavin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Jun; Shen, Jing; Solem, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Lactococcus lactis MG1363 was found to be unable to grow at temperatures above 37°C in a defined medium without riboflavin, and the cause was identified to be dissolved oxygen introduced during preparation of the medium. At 30°C, growth was unaffected by dissolved oxygen and oxygen was consumed...... riboflavin to the medium, it was possible to improve growth and oxygen consumption at 37°C, and this also normalized the [ATP]-to-[ADP] ratio. A codon-optimized redox-sensitive green fluorescent protein (GFP) was introduced into L. lactis and revealed a more oxidized cytoplasm at 37°C than at 30°C....... These results indicate that L. lactis suffers from heat-induced oxidative stress at increased temperatures. A decrease in intracellular flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), which is derived from riboflavin, was observed with increasing growth temperature, but the presence of riboflavin made the decrease smaller...

  3. Estriol-induced fibrinolysis due to the activation of plasminogen to plasmin by nitric oxide synthesis in platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jana, Pradipta; Maiti, Smarajit; Kahn, Nighat N; Sinha, Asru K

    2015-04-01

    Estriol, an oestrogen, at 0.6 nmol/l was reported to inhibit ADP-induced platelet aggregation through nitric oxide synthesis. As nitric oxide has been reported to cause fibrinolysis due to the activation of plasminogen to plasmin, the role of estriol as a fibrinolytic agent was investigated. Also, the mechanism of estriol-induced nitric oxide synthesis in anucleated platelets was investigated. The estriol-induced lysis of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) clot was determined by photography of the clot lysis and by the assay of fibrin degradation products in the lysate and was obtained by SDS-PAGE. Nitric oxide was determined by methemoglobin method. The platelet membrane protein was isolated from the platelets by using Triton X-100 (0.05% v/v). The binding of estriol to the protein was determined by Scatchard plot by using an ELISA for estriol. Estriol at 0.6 nmol/l was found to lyse the clotted PRP due to fibrinolysis that produced fibrin degradation products in the lysate. The amino acid analysis of the platelet membrane protein, which resembles with nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity, was activated nearly 10-fold over the control in the presence of estriol and was identified to be a human serum albumin precursor (Mr. 69 kDa) that binds to estriol with Kd1 of 6.0 × 10 mol/l and 39 ± 2 molecules of estriol bound the NOS molecule. The estriol-induced nitric oxide is capable of inducing fibrinolysis of the clotted PRP. The binding of estriol to platelet membrane NOS activated the enzyme in the absence of DNA in the platelet.

  4. Long-term oxidation of Zr-2.5 wt% Nb alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, B.

    1976-09-01

    A long-term study of the oxidation of Zr-2.5 wt% Nb alloys in water, steam, air and fused nitrate/nitrite salt has been carried out as a function of material batch, degree of cold-work, and heat treatment. Examination after oxidation was by weight gain, optical microscopy, replica electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, oxide impedance measurements, mercury porosimetry and metallographic sectioning. The results are compared with other published work and some hypothetical oxidation mechanisms are proposed and discussed. (author)

  5. Long-Term Cyclic Oxidation Behavior of Wrought Commercial Alloys at High Temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Bingtao [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2003-01-01

    The oxidation resistance of a high-temperature alloy is dependent upon sustaining the formation of a protective scale, which is strongly related to the alloying composition and the oxidation condition. The protective oxide scale only provides a finite period of oxidation resistance owing to its eventual breakdown, which is especially accelerated under thermal cycling conditions. This current study focuses on the long-term cyclic oxidation behavior of a number of commercial wrought alloys. The alloys studied were Fe- and Ni-based, containing different levels of minor elements, such as Si, Al, Mn, and Ti. Oxidation testing was conducted at 1000 and 1100 C in still air under both isothermal and thermal cycling conditions (1-day and 7-days). The specific aspects studied were the oxidation behavior of chromia-forming alloys that are used extensively in industry. The current study analyzed the effects of alloying elements, especially the effect of minor element Si, on cyclic oxidation resistance. The behavior of oxide scale growth, scale spallation, subsurface changes, and chromium interdiffusion in the alloy were analyzed in detail. A novel model was developed in the current study to predict the life-time during cyclic oxidation by simulating oxidation kinetics and chromium interdiffusion in the subsurface of chromia-forming alloys.

  6. Bias due to withdrawal in long-term randomised trials in COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestbo, Jørgen; Anderson, Julie Anne; Calverley, Peter Mark Anthony

    2011-01-01

    Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) are considered the least biased method for evaluating drug efficacy and several large long-term RCTs in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease have been published. These usually include drugs with symptomatic benefits and have significant withdrawal rates....

  7. Short-term and long-term effects of transient exogenous cortisol manipulation on oxidative stress in juvenile brown trout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birnie-Gauvin, Kim; Peiman, Kathryn S; Larsen, Martin H; Aarestrup, Kim; Willmore, William G; Cooke, Steven J

    2017-05-01

    In the wild, animals are exposed to a growing number of stressors with increasing frequency and intensity, as a result of human activities and human-induced environmental change. To fully understand how wild organisms are affected by stressors, it is crucial to understand the physiology that underlies an organism's response to a stressor. Prolonged levels of elevated glucocorticoids are associated with a state of chronic stress and decreased fitness. Exogenous glucocorticoid manipulation reduces an individual's ability to forage, avoid predators and grow, thereby limiting the resources available for physiological functions like defence against oxidative stress. Using brown trout ( Salmo trutta ), we evaluated the short-term (2 weeks) and long-term (4 months over winter) effects of exogenous cortisol manipulations (versus relevant shams and controls) on the oxidative status of wild juveniles. Cortisol caused an increase in glutathione over a 2 week period and appeared to reduce glutathione over winter. Cortisol treatment did not affect oxidative stress levels or low molecular weight antioxidants. Cortisol caused a significant decrease in growth rates but did not affect predation risk. Over-winter survival in the stream was associated with low levels of oxidative stress and glutathione. Thus, oxidative stress may be a mechanism by which elevated cortisol causes negative physiological effects. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  8. Development of dose calculation program (DBADOSE) incorporating alternative source term due to design basis accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Young Jig; Nam, Ki Mun; Lee, Yu Jong; Chung, Chan Young

    2003-01-01

    Source terms presented in TID-14844 and Regulatory Guide 1.4 have been used for radiological analysis of design basis accidents for licensing existing pressurized water reactor (PWR). However, more realistic and physically-based source term based on results of study and experiments for about 30 years after the publication of TID-14844 was developed and presented in NUREG-1465 published by U.S NRC in 1995. In addition, ICRP has revised dose concepts and criteria through the publication of ICRP-9, 26, 60 and recommended effective dose concepts rather than critical organ concept since the publication of ICRP-26. Accordingly, multipurpose computer program called DBADOSE incorporating alternative source terms in NUREG-1465 and effective dose concepts in ICRP-60 was developed. Comparison of results of DBADOSE with those of POSTDBA and STARDOSE was performed and verified and no significant difference and inaccuracy were found. DBADOSE will be used to evaluate accidental doses for licensing application according to the domestic laws that are expected to be revised in the near future

  9. WIDESPREAD CUTANEOUS LESIONS DUE TO Sporothrix schenckii IN A PATIENT UNDER A LONG TERM STEROIDS THERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SEVERO Luiz Carlos

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of sporotrichosis in a woman presenting 63 cutaneous lesions distributed all over the tegument is related. The patient had both humoral (Immunoglobulins and cellular (Lymphocytes subpopulations immunity within normal limits, but was under treatment with steroid during a long time (Prednisone 10 mg daily for 2 years, due to a sciatic pain. In addition a review of the Brazilian literature on this type of lesions was carried out and commented.

  10. Increased mobility of metal oxide nanoparticles due to photo and thermal induced disagglomeration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongxu Zhou

    Full Text Available Significant advances have been made on our understanding of the fate and transport of engineered nanomaterials. One unexplored aspect of nanoparticle aggregation is how environmental stimuli such as light exposure and temperature variations affect the mobility of engineered nanoparticles. In this study, TiO(2, ZnO, and CeO(2 were chosen as model materials for investigating the mobility of nanoparticles under three external stimuli: heat, light and sonication. Sunlight and high power sonication were able to partially disagglomerate metal oxide clusters, but primary particles bonded by solid state necks were left intact. A cycle of temperature increase from 25°C to 65°C and then decrease back was found to disagglomerate the compact clusters in the heating phase and reagglomerate them as more open fractal structures during the cooling phase. A fractal model summing the pair-wise DLVO interactions between primary particles within two fractal agglomerates predicts weak attractions on the order of a few kT. Our study shows that common environmental stimuli such as light exposure or temperature variation can disagglomerate nanoparticle clusters and enhance their mobility in open waters. This phenomenon warrants attention since it is likely that metal oxide nanoparticles will experience these natural stimuli during their transport in the environment.

  11. The Effects of Age on Short-Term Memory Loss due to Proactive Interference

    OpenAIRE

    Alisha Berkauzer

    2011-01-01

    This project focused on how proactive interference affects the short-term memory of people based on their age. The goal was to find the prime age for learning information and storing it in one's memory. Seven people from ages fifteen to forty were tested individually, using a set color pattern, in order to see how well each individual could remember the different color patterns as difficulty of the pattern increased. The obtained data was fitted by the polynomial regression. The “fitted...

  12. Long-Term Gynecological Outcomes in Women with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia due to 21-Hydroxylase Deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannsen, T H; Ripa, Caroline P.L.; Carlsen, E

    2010-01-01

    Background. Our knowledge on long-term outcome in CAH remains incomplete. Methods. In a prospective study (33 CAH patients, 33 age-matched controls), reproductive outcomes, self-rating of genital appearance and function, and sexuality were correlated to degree of initial virilisation, genotype.......3-10.8] versus 2.8 [0.6-10.8], P = .09) than controls. Satisfaction with genital appearance was lower and negatively correlated to degree of initial virilisation (r(s) = ≤-0.39, P ≤ .05). More patients had never had intercourse (P = .001), and age at 1st intercourse was higher (18 yrs versus 16 yrs, P = .02...

  13. Long term mineralogical changes in salt formations due to water and brine interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbert, H.J.; Brewitz, W.

    1996-01-01

    Four very common long term mineralogical changes in salt formations are discussed in the view of the safety considerations for underground repositories. Two of these processes, the 'Hartsalz' and 'Carnallite' dissolution were studied in two scale in situ experiments. The results are presented and compared with the results of the geochemical modelling with the computer code EQ3/6. Furthermore the reactions leading to the formation of the gypsum cap rock on the top of the Zechstein salt formations and to the polyhalitization of anhydrite are discussed. Geological field observations and mineral assemblages agree well with the results of the geochemical modelling employing the Pitzer formalism along with the Harvie, Moller and Weare database. We conclude that once the mechanisms of the chemical reactions are well understood it becomes possible to evaluate realistically whether such processes, when encountered in the repository, are still active or whether they are finished. It also becomes possible to estimate the volume changes associated with the reactions and thus the impact of these reactions on the integrity and the geomechanical stability of the salt formation. The intimate knowledge of the reaction mechanisms of the short and long term changes in the mineralogical assemblages and the associated brine chemistry is a first prerequisite for the correct evaluation of the origin of brines. Thus, it is essential for the correct assessment of the hazards which brine inflows may pose for the safety of a repository in salt formations. (authors). 8 refs., 14 figs., 8 tabs

  14. Long-term results of endoscopic stenting and surgical drainage for biliary stricture due to chronic pancreatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, M. E.; Rauws, E. A.; van Gulik, T. M.; Gouma, D. J.; Tytgat, G. N.; Huibregtse, K.

    1996-01-01

    A retrospective evaluation was made of the long-term results of endoscopic stenting in 58 patients with benign biliary stricture due to chronic pancreatitis. Immediate relief of jaundice and cholestasis was achieved in all patients after endoscopic stent insertion. Median follow-up was 49 months.

  15. Reliability and degradation of oxide VCSELs due to reaction to atmospheric water vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dafinca, Alexandru; Weidberg, Anthony R.; McMahon, Steven J.; Grillo, Alexander A.; Farthouat, Philippe; Ziolkowski, Michael; Herrick, Robert W.

    2013-03-01

    850nm oxide-aperture VCSELs are susceptible to premature failure if operated while exposed to atmospheric water vapor, and not protected by hermetic packaging. The ATLAS detector in CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has had approximately 6000 channels of Parallel Optic VCSELs fielded under well-documented ambient conditions. Exact time-to-failure data has been collected on this large sample, providing for the first time actual failure data at use conditions. In addition, the same VCSELs were tested under a variety of accelerated conditions to allow us to construct a more accurate acceleration model. Failure analysis information will also be presented to show what we believe causes corrosion-related failure for such VCSELs.

  16. The Effects of Age on Short-Term Memory Loss due to Proactive Interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisha Berkauzer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This project focused on how proactive interference affects the short-term memory of people based on their age. The goal was to find the prime age for learning information and storing it in one's memory. Seven people from ages fifteen to forty were tested individually, using a set color pattern, in order to see how well each individual could remember the different color patterns as difficulty of the pattern increased. The obtained data was fitted by the polynomial regression. The “fitted” curve shows that as age increases, the individual's performance in memorizing the more difficult patterns decreases. Also, the peaked level of memory performance was found to be 24 for our experimental data.

  17. Oxidative Stress at High Temperatures in Lactococcus lactis Due to an Insufficient Supply of Riboflavin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Shen, Jing

    2013-01-01

    Lactococcus lactis MG1363 was found to be unable to grow at temperatures above 37°C in a defined medium without riboflavin, and the cause was identified to be dissolved oxygen introduced during preparation of the medium. At 30°C, growth was unaffected by dissolved oxygen and oxygen was consumed quickly. Raising the temperature to 37°C resulted in severe growth inhibition and only slow removal of dissolved oxygen. Under these conditions, an abnormally low intracellular ratio of [ATP] to [ADP] (1.4) was found (normally around 5), which indicates that the cells are energy limited. By adding riboflavin to the medium, it was possible to improve growth and oxygen consumption at 37°C, and this also normalized the [ATP]-to-[ADP] ratio. A codon-optimized redox-sensitive green fluorescent protein (GFP) was introduced into L. lactis and revealed a more oxidized cytoplasm at 37°C than at 30°C. These results indicate that L. lactis suffers from heat-induced oxidative stress at increased temperatures. A decrease in intracellular flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), which is derived from riboflavin, was observed with increasing growth temperature, but the presence of riboflavin made the decrease smaller. The drop was accompanied by a decrease in NADH oxidase and pyruvate dehydrogenase activities, both of which depend on FAD as a cofactor. By overexpressing the riboflavin transporter, it was possible to improve FAD biosynthesis, which resulted in increased NADH oxidase and pyruvate dehydrogenase activities and improved fitness at high temperatures in the presence of oxygen. PMID:23913422

  18. Short- and long-term mortality due to sepsis in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Orit; Abramovich, Ella; Dreiher, Jacob; Novack, Victor; Abu-Shakra, Mahmoud

    2017-06-01

    Severe infections and sepsis are common among patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and are associated with increased morbidity and mortality risks. To determine whether RA is an independent risk factor for short- and long-term mortality in patients admitted to an Intensive Care Unit (ICU) with sepsis. A retrospective age- and sex-matched cohort study, based on data of the SEPSIS-ISR Registry, an ongoing study that collects data on all patients admitted with the diagnosis of sepsis to the ICUs of 7 large hospitals during the period 2002-2012. The primary outcomes of the study were the 30-day and 3-years survival rates. A total of 124 RA patients and 248 non-RA patients (mean age 71 years; 64.5% female) were included. Primary site of infection as well as pathogens distributions were similar between the two groups. Severe sepsis and septic shock were diagnosed in 92% vs. 84% (p = 0.03) and 50% versus 39% (p = 0.06) of the RA patients and non-RA, respectively. 30-day survival rates were similar between groups, whereas 3-year survival rate in 30-day survivors was significantly lower among RA patients (34.9%) compared to non-RA patients (55.7%) (p = 0.01). In multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression, RA was found to be a significant independent risk factor for 3-year mortality in 30-day survivors (hazard ratio 1.63 95% confidence interval 1.03-1.63; p = 0.04). RA is an independent risk factor for 3-year mortality, but not short-term mortality following ICU admission with sepsis.

  19. Long-term consequences of arsenic poisoning during infancy due to contaminated milk powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grandjean Philippe

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Arsenic toxicity is a global health problem affecting many millions of people. The main source of exposure is drinking water contaminated by natural geological sources. Current risk assessment is based on the recognized carcinogenicity of arsenic, but neurotoxic risks have been overlooked. In 1955, an outbreak of arsenic poisoning occurred among Japanese infants, with more than 100 deaths. The source was contaminated milk powder produced by the Morinaga company. Detailed accounts of the Morinaga dried milk poisoning were published in Japanese only, and an overview of this poisoning incident and its long-term consequences is therefore presented. From analyses available, the arsenic concentration in milk made from the Morinaga milk powder is calculated to be about 4–7 mg/L, corresponding to daily doses slightly above 500 μg/kg body weight. Lower exposures would result from using diluted milk. Clinical poisoning cases occurred after a few weeks of exposure, with a total dose of about 60 mg. This experience provides clear-cut evidence for hazard assessment of the developmental neurotoxicity. At the present time, more than 600 surviving victims, now in their 50s, have been reported to suffer from severe sequelae, such as mental retardation, neurological diseases, and other disabilities. Along with more recent epidemiological studies of children with environmental arsenic exposures, the data amply demonstrate the need to consider neurotoxicity as a key concern in risk assessment of inorganic arsenic exposure.

  20. Clomipramine counteracts lipid raft disturbance due to short-term muscle disuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryndina, Irina G; Shalagina, Maria N; Sekunov, Alexey V; Zefirov, Andrei L; Petrov, Alexey M

    2018-01-18

    Disuse-induced skeletal muscle dysfunction is a serious consequence of long-term spaceflight, numerous diseases and conditions for which treatment possibilities are still strictly limited. We have previously shown that acute hindlimb suspension (HS)-mediated disuse disrupts membrane lipid rafts in the unloaded muscle. Here, we investigated whether pretreatment of rats with the inhibitor of acid sphingomyelinase, clomipramine (1.25mg/g/day, intramuscularly, for 5days before HS), is able to hinder the loss in lipid raft integrity in response to 12h of HS. Clomipramine pretreatment significantly counteracted the decrease in labeling of the plasma membranes with lipid raft markers (fluorescent cholera toxin B subunit and bodipy-GM1-ganglioside) specifically in the junctional regions of the suspended soleus muscle. This was associated with: a) enhancing raft disrupting potential of exogenous sphingomyelinase in the junctional membranes; b) prevention of both ceramide accumulation and cholesterol loss; c) prevention of decline in nicotinic acetylcholine receptor labeling in the unloaded muscle. Our data suggest that sphingomyelinase-mediated raft disturbance serves as one of the earlier events in HS effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Irreversible muscle damage in bodybuilding due to long-term intramuscular oil injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banke, I J; Prodinger, P M; Waldt, S; Weirich, G; Holzapfel, B M; Gradinger, R; Rechl, H

    2012-10-01

    Intramuscular oil injections generating slowly degrading oil-based depots represent a controversial subject in bodybuilding and fitness. However they seem to be commonly reported in a large number of non-medical reports, movies and application protocols for 'site-injections'. Surprisingly the impact of long-term (ab)use on the musculature as well as potential side-effects compromising health and sports ability are lacking in the medical literature. We present the case of a 40 year old male semi-professional bodybuilder with systemic infection and painful reddened swellings of the right upper arm forcing him to discontinue weightlifting. Over the last 8 years he daily self-injected sterilized sesame seed oil at numerous intramuscular locations for the purpose of massive muscle building. Whole body MRI showed more than 100 intramuscular rather than subcutaneous oil cysts and loss of normal muscle anatomy. 2-step septic surgery of the right upper arm revealed pus-filled cystic scar tissue with the near-complete absence of normal muscle. MRI 1 year later revealed the absence of relevant muscle regeneration. Persistent pain and inability to perform normal weight training were evident for at least 3 years post-surgery. This alarming finding indicating irreversible muscle mutilation may hopefully discourage people interested in bodybuilding and fitness from oil-injections. The impact of such chronic tissue stress on other diseases like malignancy remains to be determined. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Conduction band-edge d-states in high-k dielectrics due to Jahn-Teller term splittings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucovsky, G.; Fulton, C.C.; Zhang, Y.; Luning, J.; Edge, L.; Whitten, J.L.; Nemanich, R.J.; Schlom, D.G.; Afanase'v, V.V.

    2005-01-01

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) is used to study conduction band edge electronic structure of high-k transition metal (TM) and trivalent lanthanide series rare earth (RE) oxide dielectrics. Empty TM/RE d-states are studied by intra-atomic transitions originating in core level spin-orbit split p-states, and conduction band states are studied in inter-atomic transitions which originate in the oxygen atom 1s core level state. In non-crystalline Zr and Hf silicate alloys, the local bonding symmetry, or crystal field splits these d-states into doubly and triply degenerate features. In nano-crystalline oxides, there are additional d-state splittings due to contributions of more distant neighbors that completely remove d-state degeneracies via the Jahn-Teller effect mechanism. This gives rise to highly localized band edge states that are electronically active in photoconductivity, internal photoemission, and act as bulk traps in metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) devices

  3. Evaluation of oxidative status in short-term exercises of adolescent athletes

    OpenAIRE

    K Karacabey; A Atas; D Zeyrek; A Cakmak; R Kurkcu; F Yamaner

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of short-term exercise on total antioxidant status (TAS), lipid hydroperoxide (LOOHs), total oxidative status (TOS) and oxidative stress index (OSI) in adolescent athletes. A total of 62 adolescent participated in the study. Athletes were trained regularly 3 days a week for 2 hours. All subjects followed a circuit exercise program. Blood samples were collected just before and immediately after the exercise program. Antioxidant status was evalu...

  4. Role of nitric oxide in long-term potentiation of the rat medial vestibular nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, S; Pettorossi, V E

    2000-01-01

    In rat brainstem slices, we investigated the role of nitric oxide in long-term potentiation induced in the ventral portion of the medial vestibular nuclei by high-frequency stimulation of the primary vestibular afferents. The nitric oxide scavenger [2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide ] and the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester were administered before and after induction of potentiation. Both drugs completely prevented long-term potentiation, whereas they did not impede the potentiation build-up, or affect the already established potentiation. These results demonstrate that the induction, but not the maintenance of vestibular long-term potentiation, depends on the synthesis and release into the extracellular medium of nitric oxide. In addition, we analysed the effect of the nitric oxide donor sodium nitroprusside on vestibular responses. Sodium nitroprusside induced long-term potentiation, as evidenced through the field potential enhancement and unit peak latency decrease. This potentiation was impeded by D, L-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid, and was reduced under blockade of synaptosomal platelet-activating factor receptors by ginkgolide B and group I metabotropic glutamate receptors by (R,S)-1-aminoindan-1, 5-dicarboxylic acid. When reduced, potentiation fully developed following the washout of antagonist, demonstrating an involvement of platelet-activating factor and group I metabotropic glutamate receptors in its full development. Potentiation induced by sodium nitroprusside was also associated with a decrease in the paired-pulse facilitation ratio, which persisted under ginkgolide B, indicating that nitric oxide increases glutamate release independently of platelet-activating factor-mediated presynaptic events. We suggest that nitric oxide, released after the activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors, acts as a retrograde messenger leading to an enhancement of glutamate release to a

  5. Hydrogen doping of Indium Tin Oxide due to thermal treatment of hetero-junction solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritzau, Kurt-Ulrich, E-mail: kurt-ulrich.ritzau@ise.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems (ISE), Heidenhofstrasse 2, 79110 Freiburg (Germany); Behrendt, Torge [Infineon Technologies, Max-Planck-Straße 5, 59581 Warstein (Germany); Palaferri, Daniele [Laboratoire Matériaux et Phénomènes Quantiques, Université Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, CNRS—UMR 7162, 75013 Paris (France); Bivour, Martin; Hermle, Martin [Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems (ISE), Heidenhofstrasse 2, 79110 Freiburg (Germany)

    2016-01-29

    Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) layers in silicon hetero junction solar cells change their electrical and optical properties when exposed to temperature treatments. Hydrogen which effuses from underlying amorphous silicon layers is identified to dope the ITO layer. This leads to an additional increase in conductivity. In this way an almost isolating ITO can become degenerately doped through temperature treatments. The resulting carrier density in the range of 10{sup 20} cm{sup −3} leads to a substantial increase in free carrier absorption, which in turn leads to an increased parasitic absorption in the cell device. Thus hydrogen effusion in silicon hetero-junction (SHJ) solar cells does not only affect the degradation of amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) passivation of crystalline silicon (c-Si), but also the electrical and optical properties of both front and back ITO layers. This leads to the further design rule for SHJ solar cells, meaning that ITO properties have to be optimized in the state after modification during temperature treatment. - Highlights: • ITO is additionally doped by heat treatment of silicon hetero-junction solar cells. • The discovered effect turns an almost isolating ITO into a degenerately doped TCO. • TCO properties have to be considered as measured in the final cell.

  6. Long-term changes to flood conditions due to varying management strategies, Rock River, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredrick, K. C.

    2015-12-01

    The Rock River is a 300-mile tributary of the Mississippi River in southern Wisconsin. Its source is a protected migratory bird habitat called the Horicon National Wildlife Refuge. Below the refuge, the Rock River flows through mostly rural, agricultural areas, with wide floodplain of mixed land use. Between the dam at Horicon and a hydroelectric dam in Watertown, WI, lie the townships of Lebanon, Ashippun, and Ixonia. These rural townships boast productive agricultural lands of mostly corn, soybeans, and alfalfa. Large portions of their land are within the floodplain, underlain by vast expanses of outwash sands and gravels, glaciolacustrine deposits, and tills. Throughout the region, spring floods are common from snowmelt and spring rain. These annual floods may be exacerbated by frozen ground and slow infiltration, making it an accepted part of life for residents. Over the last 8 years, and possibly as many as 20, this segment of the Rock River has seen an increase in flooding both in periodicity and retention of flood waters. Due to the delicate habitat of the wildlife refuge and the commissioned hydroelectric installation at the upper dam in Watertown, the residents and local governments of the Lebanon/Ashippun/Ixonia segment of the river have mostly been left to their own devices to monitor and manage flood events. Lebanon Township has been recording water levels for several years. Recent events at the hydroelectric plant seem to indicate that it may be playing a more important role in the flooding. High water events and flood retention do not correlate well with precipitation for the region. It appears that releases at the dam, or periods of water retention, are driving the long flooding periods upstream. Negative impacts to the region from the flooding include property damage, loss of arable land, and environmental effects.

  7. Evaluation of oxidative status in short-term exercises of adolescent athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Karacabey

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of short-term exercise on total antioxidant status (TAS, lipid hydroperoxide (LOOHs, total oxidative status (TOS and oxidative stress index (OSI in adolescent athletes. A total of 62 adolescent participated in the study. Athletes were trained regularly 3 days a week for 2 hours. All subjects followed a circuit exercise program. Blood samples were collected just before and immediately after the exercise program. Antioxidant status was evaluated by measuring the TAS level in the plasma. Oxidative status was evaluated by measuring the total peroxide level. The percentage ratio of TAS to total peroxide level was accepted as the OSI. Plasma triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL, HDL and VLDL were measured by automated chemical analyzer using commercially available kits.There was a significant increase in TOS (p<0.05 and OSI (p<0.01 levels and a significant decrease in TAS levels (p<0.01 compared to the resting state. There were no significant changes in LOOHs levels before and after the short-term exercise. After short-term exercise, the balance between oxidative stress and antioxidant status moves towards oxidative stress as a result of increasing oxidants and decreasing antioxidants.

  8. Orbital Kondo effect due to assisted hopping: Superconductivity, mass enhancement in Cooper oxides with apical oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zawadowski, A.; Penc, K.; Zimanyi, G.

    1991-07-01

    Orbital Kondo effect is treated in a model, where additional to the conduction band there are localized orbitals with energy not very far from the Fermi energy. If the hopping between the conduction band and the localized heavy orbitals depends on the occupation of the conduction band orbital then orbital Kondo correlation occurs. The assisted hopping vertex is enhanced due to the Coulomb interaction between the heavy orbital and the conduction band. The enhanced hopping results in mass enhancement and attractive interaction in the conduction band. The superconductivity transition temperature is calculated. The models of this type can be applied to the high-T c superconductors where the non-bonding oxygen orbitals of the apical oxygens play the role of heavy orbitals. For an essential range of the parameters the T c obtained is about 100K. (author). 22 refs, 9 figs

  9. Disrupted fat distribution and composition due to medium-chain triglycerides in mice with a β-oxidation defect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucci, Sara; Flögel, Ulrich; Sturm, Marga; Borsch, Elena; Spiekerkoetter, Ute

    2011-08-01

    Because of the enhanced recognition of inherited long-chain fatty acid oxidation disorders by worldwide newborn screening programs, an increasing number of asymptomatic patients receive medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) supplements to prevent the development of cardiomyopathy and myopathy. MCT supplementation has been recognized as a safe dietary intervention, but long-term observations into later adulthood are still not available. We investigated the consequences of a prolonged MCT diet on abdominal fat distribution and composition and on liver fat. Mice with very-long-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency (VLCAD(-/-)) were supplemented for 1 y with a diet in which MCTs replaced long-chain triglycerides without increasing the total fat content. The dietary effects on abdominal fat accumulation and composition were analyzed by in vivo (1)H- and (13)C-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (9.4 Tesla). After 1 y of MCT supplementation, VLCAD(-/-) mice accumulated massive visceral fat and had a dramatic increase in the concentration of serum free fatty acids. Furthermore, we observed a profound shift in body triglyceride composition, ie, concentrations of physiologically important polyunsaturated fatty acids dramatically decreased. (1)H-Magnetic resonance spectroscopy analysis and histologic evaluation of the liver also showed pronounced fat accumulation and marked oxidative stress. Although the MCT-supplemented diet has been reported to prevent the development of cardiomyopathy and skeletal myopathy in fatty acid oxidation disorders, our data show that long-term MCT supplementation results in a severe clinical phenotype similar to that of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and the metabolic syndrome.

  10. Relaxation of Si-SiO2 interfacial stress in bipolar screen oxides due to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witczak, S.C.; Galloway, K.F.; Schrimpf, R.D.; Suehle, J.S.

    1995-01-01

    Current gain degradation due to ionizing radiation in complementary single-crystalline emitter bipolar transistors was found to grow progressively worse upon subjecting the transistors to repeated cycles of radiation exposure and high-temperature anneal. The increase in radiation sensitivity is independent of the emitter polarity or geometry and is most dramatic between the first and second radiation and anneal cycles. In parallel with the current gain measurements, samples from a monitor wafer simulating the screen oxide region above the extrinsic base in the npn transistors were measured for mechanical stress while undergoing similar cycles of irradiation and anneal. The oxide on the monitor wafer consisted of a 45 nm thermal layer and a 640 nm deposited layer. The results indicate that ionizing radiation helped relieve compressive stress at the Si surface. The magnitude of the stress change due to radiation is smaller than the stress induced by the emitter contact metallization followed by a post-metallization anneal. Correlation of radiation sensitivity in the bipolar transistors and mechanical stress in the monitor wafer suggests that mechanical stress may be influential in determining the radiation hardness of bipolar transistors and lends validation to previously reported observations that Si-SiO 2 interfaces are increasingly more susceptible to radiation damage with decreasing Si compressive stress. Possible mechanisms for the observed changes in stress and their effect on the radiation sensitivity of the bipolar transistors are discussed

  11. Short-term effects of electronic and tobacco cigarettes on exhaled nitric oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marini, Sara; Buonanno, Giorgio; Stabile, Luca; Ficco, Giorgio

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the short-term respiratory effects due to the inhalation of electronic and conventional tobacco cigarette-generated mainstream aerosols through the measurement of the exhaled nitric oxide (eNO). To this purpose, twenty-five smokers were asked to smoke a conventional cigarette and to vape an electronic cigarette (with and without nicotine), and an electronic cigarette without liquid (control session). Electronic and tobacco cigarette mainstream aerosols were characterized in terms of total particle number concentrations and size distributions. On the basis of the measured total particle number concentrations and size distributions, the average particle doses deposited in alveolar and tracheobronchial regions of the lungs for a single 2-s puff were also estimated considering a subject performing resting (sitting) activity. Total particle number concentrations in the mainstream resulted equal to 3.5 ± 0.4 × 10 9 , 5.1 ± 0.1 × 10 9 , and 3.1 ± 0.6 × 10 9 part. cm −3 for electronic cigarettes without nicotine, with nicotine, and for conventional cigarettes, respectively. The corresponding alveolar doses for a resting subject were estimated equal to 3.8 × 10 10 , 5.2 × 10 10 and 2.3 × 10 10 particles. The mean eNO variations measured after each smoking/vaping session were equal to 3.2 ppb, 2.7 ppb and 2.8 ppb for electronic cigarettes without nicotine, with nicotine, and for conventional cigarettes, respectively; whereas, negligible eNO changes were measured in the control session. Statistical tests performed on eNO data showed statistically significant differences between smoking/vaping sessions and the control session, thus confirming a similar effect on human airways whatever the cigarette smoked/vaped, the nicotine content, and the particle dose received. - Highlights: • Electronic cigarettes (with and without nicotine) mainstream aerosols were analyzed; • Particle number concentrations and size distributions

  12. Short-term effects of electronic and tobacco cigarettes on exhaled nitric oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marini, Sara, E-mail: s.marini@unicas.it [Department of Civil and Mechanical Engineering, University of Cassino and Southern Lazio, Cassino (Italy); Buonanno, Giorgio [Department of Civil and Mechanical Engineering, University of Cassino and Southern Lazio, Cassino (Italy); Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane (Australia); Stabile, Luca; Ficco, Giorgio [Department of Civil and Mechanical Engineering, University of Cassino and Southern Lazio, Cassino (Italy)

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the short-term respiratory effects due to the inhalation of electronic and conventional tobacco cigarette-generated mainstream aerosols through the measurement of the exhaled nitric oxide (eNO). To this purpose, twenty-five smokers were asked to smoke a conventional cigarette and to vape an electronic cigarette (with and without nicotine), and an electronic cigarette without liquid (control session). Electronic and tobacco cigarette mainstream aerosols were characterized in terms of total particle number concentrations and size distributions. On the basis of the measured total particle number concentrations and size distributions, the average particle doses deposited in alveolar and tracheobronchial regions of the lungs for a single 2-s puff were also estimated considering a subject performing resting (sitting) activity. Total particle number concentrations in the mainstream resulted equal to 3.5 ± 0.4 × 10{sup 9}, 5.1 ± 0.1 × 10{sup 9}, and 3.1 ± 0.6 × 10{sup 9} part. cm{sup −3} for electronic cigarettes without nicotine, with nicotine, and for conventional cigarettes, respectively. The corresponding alveolar doses for a resting subject were estimated equal to 3.8 × 10{sup 10}, 5.2 × 10{sup 10} and 2.3 × 10{sup 10} particles. The mean eNO variations measured after each smoking/vaping session were equal to 3.2 ppb, 2.7 ppb and 2.8 ppb for electronic cigarettes without nicotine, with nicotine, and for conventional cigarettes, respectively; whereas, negligible eNO changes were measured in the control session. Statistical tests performed on eNO data showed statistically significant differences between smoking/vaping sessions and the control session, thus confirming a similar effect on human airways whatever the cigarette smoked/vaped, the nicotine content, and the particle dose received. - Highlights: • Electronic cigarettes (with and without nicotine) mainstream aerosols were analyzed; • Particle number

  13. The effect of sepsis and short-term exposure to nitrous oxide on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is recognised that prolonged anaesthesia with nitrous oxide (N20) induces megaloblastic anaemia by oxidising vitamin B12 To determine whether sepsis aggravates the effect of H20 on haemopoiesis 5 patients with severe sepsis, who required surgery and were exposed to short-term (45 - 105 minutes) N20 anaesthesia, ...

  14. Long-term outcome of acute prosthetic joint infections due to gram-negative bacilli treated with retention of prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaén, N; Martínez-Pastor, J C; Muñoz-Mahamud, E; García-Ramiro, S; Bosch, J; Mensa, J; Soriano, A

    2012-09-01

    To update the clinical information of the 47 patients with a prosthetic joint infection due to Gram-negative bacilli included in a previous study and to reassess the predictors of failure after a longer follow-up. Using the electronic files of our hospital, all the information regarding readmissions to the hospital, new surgical procedures and the reason for the new surgery (infection, aseptic loosening), and the last visit in the hospital were registered. The medical chart of the 35 patients that were considered in remission in the previous publication was reviewed. In 30 patients no clinical evidence of failure was detected and no additional surgery on the previously infected prosthesis was necessary and they were considered in long-term remission. In 5 cases a late complication was identified. One case had a reinfection due to coagulase-negative staphylococci after 22 months from the open debridement and required a 2-stage revision surgery. The other 4 cases developed an aseptic loosening and it was necessary to perform a 1-stage exchange. Receiving a fluoroquinolone when all the Gram-negatives involved in the infection were susceptible to fluoroquinolones was the only factor associated with remission in the univariate analysis (p=0.002). After a long-term follow-up, our results support the importance of using fluoroquinolones in acute PJI due to Gram-negative bacilli.

  15. Accelerated Rates of Nitrogen Cycling and N2O Production in Salt Marsh Sediments due to Long-Term Fertilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, X.; Ji, Q.; Angell, J.; Kearns, P.; Bowen, J. L.; Ward, B. B.

    2014-12-01

    Intensified sedimentary production of nitrous oxide (N2O), one of the most potent greenhouse gases, is one of the many possible environmental consequences of elevated nitrogen (N) loading into estuarine ecosystems. This study investigates the response to over 40 years of fertilization of nitrogen removal processes in the sediments of the Great Sippewissett Marsh in Falmouth, MA. Sediment slurries were incubated (1.5 hr) with trace amounts (fertilized sediments (0.89 nmol hr-1 g-1 wet weight) was 30-fold higher than in unfertilized sediments. The ratio of N2O to N2 production was also significantly higher in fertilized sediments (2.9%) than in unfertilized sediments (1.2%). This highlights the disproportionally large effect of long-term fertilization on N2O production in salt marsh sediments. The reduced oxygen level and higher ammonium concentrations in situ probably contributed to the significant rise in N2O production as a result of long-term fertilization. When detected, anammox and coupled nitrification-denitrification accounted for 10% and 14% of the total N2 production in fertilized sediments (30.5 nmol hr-1 g-1 wet weight), respectively, whereas neither was detected in unfertilized sediments. Thus these experiments indicate that N loading has important effects on multiple N cycle processes that result in N loss and N2O production.

  16. Test plan for long-term, low-temperature oxidation of spent fuel, Series 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einziger, R.E.

    1986-06-01

    Preliminary studies indicated the need for more spent fuel oxidation data in order to determine the probable behavior of spent fuel in a tuff repository. Long-term, low-temperature testing was recommended in a comprehensive technical approach to: (1) confirm the findings of the short-term thermogravimetric analyses scoping experiments; (2) evaluate the effects of variables such as burnup, atmospheric moisture and fuel type on the oxidation rate; and (3) extend the oxidation data base ot representative repository temperatures and better define the temperature dependence of the operative oxidation mechanisms. This document presents the Series 1 test plan to study, on a large number of samples, the effects of atmospheric moisture and temperature on oxidation rate and phase formation. Tests will run for up to two years, use characterized fragmented, and pulverized fuel samples, cover a temperature range of 110 0 C to 175 0 C and be conducted with an atmospheric moisture content rangeing from 0 C to approx. 80 0 C dew point. After testing, the samples will be examined and made available for leaching testing

  17. Long term performance degradation analysis and optimization of anode supported solid oxide fuel cell stacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parhizkar, Tarannom; Roshandel, Ramin

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A degradation based optimization framework is developed. • The cost of electricity based on degradation of solid oxide fuel cells is minimized. • The effects of operating conditions on degradation mechanisms are investigated. • Results show 7.12% lower cost of electricity in comparison with base case. • Degradation based optimization is a beneficial concept for long term analysis. - Abstract: The main objective of this work is minimizing the cost of electricity of solid oxide fuel cell stacks by decelerating degradation mechanisms rate in long term operation for stationary power generation applications. The degradation mechanisms in solid oxide fuel cells are caused by microstructural changes, reactions between lanthanum strontium manganite and electrolyte, poisoning by chromium, carburization on nickel particles, formation of nickel sulfide, nickel coarsening, nickel oxidation, loss of conductivity and crack formation in the electrolyte. The rate of degradation mechanisms depends on the cell operating conditions (cell voltage and fuel utilization). In this study, the degradation based optimization framework is developed which determines optimum operating conditions to achieve a minimum cost of electricity. To show the effectiveness of the developed framework, optimization results are compared with the case that system operates at its design point. Results illustrate optimum operating conditions decrease the cost of electricity by 7.12%. The performed study indicates that degradation based optimization is a beneficial concept for long term performance degradation analysis of energy conversion systems.

  18. Iron oxides dynamics in a subtropical Brazilian Paleudult under long-term no-tillage management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Vasconcellos Inda

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Replacing conventional tillage (CT with no-tillage (NT management alters the pedoenvironment and the rate of topsoil processes, with possible effects on dissolution processes associated with iron oxides and therefore soil mineralogy. This study aimed to determine the effect of NT on the content and distribution of types of iron oxides in a Rhodic Paleudult in southern Brazil. Soil samples were collected at eight depths within the 0.00-0.80 m layer under CT and NT in a long-term experiment (21 years. Mineralogical identification was conducted by X-ray diffraction (XRD, and the Fe content related to specific types of iron oxides determined by selective dissolution and diffuse-reflectance spectroscopy. Kaolinite, quartz, goethite, hematite, and maghemite were identified in the clay fraction. In the NT-managed soil, there was a decrease in the content of crystalline iron oxides and an increase in the content of poorly crystalline iron oxides with increasing proximity to the soil surface. These results suggest that iron oxides are rearranged in this soil by reductive dissolution of the crystalline types and neoformation of metastable ferrihydrite in topsoil layers, which should be assessed further in laboratory studies.

  19. Impaired oxidative capacity due to decreased CPT1b levels as a contributing factor to fat accumulation in obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ratner, Cecilia; Madsen, Andreas Nygaard; Kristensen, Line Vildbrad

    2015-01-01

    In order to characterize mechanisms responsible for fat accumulation we used a selectively bred obesity-prone (OP) and obesity-resistant (OR) rat model, where the rats were fed a Western diet for 76 days. Body composition was assessed by MRI scans and as expected the OP rats developed a higher...... likewise had higher RER values indicating that this trait may be a primary and contributing factor to their obese phenotype. When the adult obese rats were exposed to the orexigenic and adipogenic hormone ghrelin, we observed increased RER values in both OP and OR rats, while OR rats were more sensitive...... to ghrelin's orexigenic effects as well as ghrelin-induced attenuation of activity and energy expenditure. Thus, increased fat accumulation characterizing obesity may be caused by impaired oxidative capacity due to decreased carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1b levels in the white adipose tissue, while ghrelin...

  20. The long-term hemodynamic changes of liver and spleen after partial splenic embolization for portal hypertension due to cirrhosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xinyuan; Geng Huijie; Wang Baocai; Zhang Xinfang; Du Ruiqing; Wang Lijing; Yin Shumei

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To observe the long-term hemodynamic changes of liver and spleen after partial splenic embolization (PSE) in patients with portal hypertension due to cirrhosis. Methods: PSE was performed in 1720 patients with portal hypertension and hypersplenism due to cirrhosis. The survival rate of 1 - 5 years and the cause of death were observed. The preoperative and postoperative hemodynamics of both the liver and spleen, the blood picture, splenic size and the complications in 600 patients who survived over five years and had integrated document were retrospectively analyzed and compared. Results Obvious changes in hemodynamics at different time after PSE were seen. The frequency and the volume of gastrointestinal bleeding were obviously decreased, while the leucocyte and platelet count was markedly increased. The spleen size began to reduce two months after PSE, which became very obvious in three months. The difference in above items between pre-PSE and post-PSE was statistically significant (P < 0.01). Conclusion: PSE can definitely improve hepatic and splenic hemodynamics, reduce the pressure of portal vein, alleviate hypersplenism and reduce the occurrence of gastrointestinal bleeding, elongate the life span and improve the living quality. With obvious and reliable long-term efficacy and fewer complications, PSE is a minimallyinvasive, safe and effective therapy. (authors)

  1. Auditory agnosia due to long-term severe hydrocephalus caused by spina bifida - specific auditory pathway versus nonspecific auditory pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qing; Kaga, Kimitaka; Hayashi, Akimasa

    2011-07-01

    A 27-year-old female showed auditory agnosia after long-term severe hydrocephalus due to congenital spina bifida. After years of hydrocephalus, she gradually suffered from hearing loss in her right ear at 19 years of age, followed by her left ear. During the time when she retained some ability to hear, she experienced severe difficulty in distinguishing verbal, environmental, and musical instrumental sounds. However, her auditory brainstem response and distortion product otoacoustic emissions were largely intact in the left ear. Her bilateral auditory cortices were preserved, as shown by neuroimaging, whereas her auditory radiations were severely damaged owing to progressive hydrocephalus. Although she had a complete bilateral hearing loss, she felt great pleasure when exposed to music. After years of self-training to read lips, she regained fluent ability to communicate. Clinical manifestations of this patient indicate that auditory agnosia can occur after long-term hydrocephalus due to spina bifida; the secondary auditory pathway may play a role in both auditory perception and hearing rehabilitation.

  2. Oxidative stress markers in hypertensive states of pregnancy: preterm and term disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesia Olha Kurlak

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Discussion continues as to whether de novo hypertension in pregnancy with significant proteinuria (pre-eclampsia; PE and non-proteinuric new hypertension (gestational hypertension; GH are parts of the same disease spectrum or represent different conditions. Non-pregnant hypertension, pregnancy and PE are all associated with oxidative stress. We have established a 6 weeks post-partum clinic for women who experienced a hypertensive pregnancy. We hypothesized that PE and GH could be distinguished by markers of oxidative stress; thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS and antioxidants (ferric ion reducing ability of plasma; FRAP. Since the severity of PE and GH is greater pre-term, we also compared pre-term and term disease. Fifty-eight women had term PE, 23 pre-term PE, 60 had term GH and 6 pre-term GH, 11 pre-existing (essential hypertension (EH without PE. Limited data were available from normotensive pregnancies (n=7 and non-pregnant controls (n=14. There were no differences in postpartum TBARS or FRAP between hypertensive states; TBARS (P=0.001 and FRAP (P=0.009 were lower in plasma of non-pregnant controls compared to recently-pregnant women. Interestingly FRAP was higher in preterm than term GH (P=0.013. In PE and GH, TBARS correlated with low density lipoprotein (LDL-cholesterol (P=0.036; this association strengthened with inclusion of EH ((P=0.011. The 10 year Framingham index for cardiovascular risk was positively associated with TBARS (P=0.003.Oxidative stress profiles do not differ between hypertensive states but appear to distinguish between recently-pregnant and non-pregnant states. This suggests that pregnancy may alter vascular integrity with changes remaining 6 weeks postpartum. LDL-cholesterol is a known determinant of oxidative stress in cardiovascular disease and we have shown this association to be present in hypertensive pregnancy further emphasizing that such a pregnancy may be revealing a pre-existing cardiovascular

  3. Improved Long-Term Stability of Transparent Conducting Electrodes Based on Double-Laminated Electrosprayed Antimony Tin Oxides and Ag Nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koo B.-R.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We fabricated double-laminated antimony tin oxide/Ag nanowire electrodes by spin-coating and electrospraying. Compared to pure Ag nanowire electrodes and single-laminated antimony tin oxide/Ag nanowire electrodes, the double-laminated antimony tin oxide/Ag nanowire electrodes had superior transparent conducting electrode performances with sheet resistance ~19.8 Ω/□ and optical transmittance ~81.9%; this was due to uniform distribution of the connected Ag nanowires because of double lamination of the metallic Ag nanowires without Ag aggregation despite subsequent microwave heating at 250°C. They also exhibited excellent and superior long-term chemical and thermal stabilities and adhesion to substrate because double-laminated antimony tin oxide thin films act as the protective layers between Ag nanowires, blocking Ag atoms penetration.

  4. CT findings and prognosis of 70 full-term infants having spasm due to hypoxic ischemic encephalography following asphyxia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogita, Yasutoki; Kawakami, Tadashi; Tsunei, Mikio; Ohta, Yuko; Sone, Yoshiharu; Akamatsu, Hiroshi

    1984-01-01

    Relationship between cranial CT findings and prognosis at 12 months or more after birth was studied in 70 full-term (appropriate for date and large for date) infants who had spasm due to hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy following neonatal asphyxia. There was correlation between the prognosis of the infants and neonatal CT findings showing slight and marked low density areas in the brain parenchyma. However, it was sometimes difficult to estimate the prognosis when the low density area was moderate on CT. Therefore, follow-up CT at one and six months and one year after birth was required to examine changes in low density areas for the estimation of prognosis. The prognosis was unfavorable in cases of the disease accompanied by hemorrhage in the brain parenchyma or cerebral ventricle, persistent cerebral edema on neonatal CT, and low density areas in the atrophied brain by the follow-up CT. There was no consistent relationship between subarachnoid hemorrhage and the prognosis. (Namekawa, K.)

  5. Long-term sickness absence due to mental disorders is associated with individual features and psychosocial work conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Silvestre da Silva-Junior

    Full Text Available Sickness absence is a socioeconomic global burden. In Brazil, mental disorders are the third leading cause of social security benefits payments. The aim of the present study was to compare factors associated with long-term sickness absence between workers who claimed social benefits due to mental disorders or by other causes. We investigated individual features and occupational characteristics. In addition, we evaluated psychosocial factors at work assessed by the Demand-Control-Support (DCS and Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI models, and whether they were associated with long-term sickness absence due to mental disorders (LTSA-MD.The present case-control study was conducted in São Paulo, Brazil. The sample (n = 385 included workers on sick leave for more than 15 days. Cases were the participants with disabling psychiatric illnesses, and controls were the ones with other disabling diseases. Interviews were conducted to assess individual features (sociodemographic data, health habits/lifestyle, health conditions and occupational characteristics. The participants' perception of exposure to dimensions of the DCS and ERI models was also recorded. Multiple logistic regressions were performed to evaluate the association between independent variables and LTSA-MD.All the regression analyses showed that LTSA-MD was associated with female sex, self-reported white skin color, higher education level, high tobacco consumption, high alcohol intake, two or more comorbidities, exposure to violence at work, high job strain and low social support at work, effort-reward imbalance and high overcommitment to work. LTSA-MD was associated with separate and combined DCS and ERI stress models.Individual features and work conditions were associated with LTSA-MD. Combined analysis of stress models showed that psychosocial factors at work were significantly associated with LTSA-MD. Resourceful use of this information may contribute to the implementation of preventive

  6. Long-term sickness absence due to mental disorders is associated with individual features and psychosocial work conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Junior, João Silvestre da; Fischer, Frida Marina

    2014-01-01

    Sickness absence is a socioeconomic global burden. In Brazil, mental disorders are the third leading cause of social security benefits payments. The aim of the present study was to compare factors associated with long-term sickness absence between workers who claimed social benefits due to mental disorders or by other causes. We investigated individual features and occupational characteristics. In addition, we evaluated psychosocial factors at work assessed by the Demand-Control-Support (DCS) and Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) models, and whether they were associated with long-term sickness absence due to mental disorders (LTSA-MD). The present case-control study was conducted in São Paulo, Brazil. The sample (n = 385) included workers on sick leave for more than 15 days. Cases were the participants with disabling psychiatric illnesses, and controls were the ones with other disabling diseases. Interviews were conducted to assess individual features (sociodemographic data, health habits/lifestyle, health conditions) and occupational characteristics. The participants' perception of exposure to dimensions of the DCS and ERI models was also recorded. Multiple logistic regressions were performed to evaluate the association between independent variables and LTSA-MD. All the regression analyses showed that LTSA-MD was associated with female sex, self-reported white skin color, higher education level, high tobacco consumption, high alcohol intake, two or more comorbidities, exposure to violence at work, high job strain and low social support at work, effort-reward imbalance and high overcommitment to work. LTSA-MD was associated with separate and combined DCS and ERI stress models. Individual features and work conditions were associated with LTSA-MD. Combined analysis of stress models showed that psychosocial factors at work were significantly associated with LTSA-MD. Resourceful use of this information may contribute to the implementation of preventive actions and

  7. SU-E-T-279: Dose Enhancement Effect Due to Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles Employed as Radiation Protectants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouyang, Z; Altundal, Y; Sajo, E [Univ Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, MA (United States); Ngwa, W [Univ Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, MA (United States); Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The goal of radiotherapy is to maximize radiation dose to diseased cells while minimizing radiation damage to normal tissues. In order to minimize damage to normal tissues, cerium oxide nanoparticles (nanoceria) are currently considered as a radioprotectant. However, some studies have reported concerns that nanoceria can also lead to radiotherapy dose enhancement due to the high atomic number of cerium, especially when used in conjunction with kV energy and brachytherapy sources. In this study, this concern is investigated to determine if the concentrations of nanoceria employed in in-vivo studies to confer radioprotection can engender a significant dose enhancement. Methods: Radiation with energies ranging from 50kVp to 140kVp is investigated in this work along with brachytherapy sources Pd-103 and I-125. A previously established theoretical model is used to calculate the dose enhancement factor (DEF). In this model, each cell is assumed to be a voxel of size (10 µm, 10 µm, 10 µm) with nanoceria homogeneously distributed among them. Electron energy loss formula of Cole is used to calculate energy (and hence dose) deposited by photoelectrons and Auger electrons in each tissue voxel due to irradiation of nanoceria. The DEF is defined as the ratio of the dose with and without nanoparticles. Results: DEF calculation results are smaller than 1.02 with dosages of nanoceria smaller than 0.645 mg/g, which is shown to be sufficiently protective by some previous in-vitro and in-vivo experiments. The brachytherapy sources show higher DEF’s than kVp radiations. DEF peaks are consistent with K shell and L shell energies of cerium, 40 keV and 6 keV, respectively. Conclusion: The results show that for sufficiently radioprotective concentrations of nanoceria, there will be minimal DEF when used in conjunction with clinically applicable kV energy radiotherapy sources or brachytherapy sources.

  8. The protective effect of N-acetylcysteine on oxidative stress in the brain caused by the long-term intake of aspartame by rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finamor, Isabela A; Ourique, Giovana M; Pês, Tanise S; Saccol, Etiane M H; Bressan, Caroline A; Scheid, Taína; Baldisserotto, Bernardo; Llesuy, Susana F; Partata, Wânia A; Pavanato, Maria A

    2014-09-01

    Long-term intake of aspartame at the acceptable daily dose causes oxidative stress in rodent brain mainly due to the dysregulation of glutathione (GSH) homeostasis. N-Acetylcysteine provides the cysteine that is required for the production of GSH, being effective in treating disorders associated with oxidative stress. We investigated the effects of N-acetylcysteine treatment (150 mg kg(-1), i.p.) on oxidative stress biomarkers in rat brain after chronic aspartame administration by gavage (40 mg kg(-1)). N-Acetylcysteine led to a reduction in the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, lipid hydroperoxides, and carbonyl protein levels, which were increased due to aspartame administration. N-Acetylcysteine also resulted in an elevation of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase activities, as well as non-protein thiols, and total reactive antioxidant potential levels, which were decreased after aspartame exposure. However, N-acetylcysteine was unable to reduce serum glucose levels, which were increased as a result of aspartame administration. Furthermore, catalase and glutathione S-transferase, whose activities were reduced due to aspartame treatment, remained decreased even after N-acetylcysteine exposure. In conclusion, N-acetylcysteine treatment may exert a protective effect against the oxidative damage in the brain, which was caused by the long-term consumption of the acceptable daily dose of aspartame by rats.

  9. Short-Term Caloric Restriction Suppresses Cardiac Oxidative Stress and Hypertrophy Caused by Chronic Pressure Overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobara, Miyuki; Furumori-Yukiya, Akiko; Kitamura, Miho; Matsumura, Mihoko; Ohigashi, Makoto; Toba, Hiroe; Nakata, Tetsuo

    2015-08-01

    Caloric restriction (CR) prevents senescent changes, in which reactive oxygen species (ROS) have a critical role. Left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. We examined whether CR alters cardiac redox state and hypertrophy from chronic pressure overload. Male c57BL6 mice were subjected to ascending aortic constriction (AAC) with ad libitum caloric intake (AL + AAC group) or 40% restricted caloric intake (CR + AAC group). CR was initiated 2 weeks before AAC and was continued for 4 weeks. Two weeks after constriction, AAC increased LV wall thickness, impaired transmitral flow velocity, and augmented myocyte hypertrophy and fibrosis, in association with enhancement of BNP and collagen III expressions in the AL + AAC group. In the AL + AAC group, oxidative stress in cardiac tissue and mitochondria were enhanced, and NADPH oxidase activity and mitochondrial ROS production were elevated. These changes were significantly attenuated in the CR + AAC group. Additionally, in antioxidant systems, myocardial glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities were enhanced in the CR + AAC group. Chronic pressure overload increased cardiac oxidative damage, in association with cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis. Short-term CR suppressed oxidative stress and improved cardiac function, suggesting that short-term CR could be a useful strategy to prevent pressure overload-induced cardiac injury. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Oxidative stress and myocardial dysfunction in young rabbits after short term anabolic steroids administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germanakis, Ioannis; Tsarouhas, Konstantinos; Fragkiadaki, Persefoni; Tsitsimpikou, Christina; Goutzourelas, Nikolaos; Champsas, Maria Christakis; Stagos, Demetrios; Rentoukas, Elias; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M

    2013-11-01

    The present study focuses on the short term effects of repeated low level administration of turinabol and methanabol on cardiac function in young rabbits (4 months-old). The experimental scheme consisted of two oral administration periods, lasting 1 month each, interrupted by 1-month wash-out period. Serial echocardiographic evaluation at the end of all three experimental periods was performed in all animals. Oxidative stress markers have also been monitored at the end of each administration period. Treated animals originally showed significantly increased myocardial mass and systolic cardiac output, which normalized at the end of the wash out period. Re-administration led to increased cardiac output, at the cost though of a progressive myocardial mass reduction. A dose-dependent trend towards impaired longitudinal systolic, diastolic and global myocardial function was also observed. The adverse effects were more pronounced in the methanabol group. For both anabolic steroids studied, the low dose had no significant effects on oxidative stress markers monitored, while the high dose created a hostile oxidative environment. In conclusion, anabolic administration has been found to create a possible deleterious long term effect on the growth of the immature heart and should be strongly discouraged especially in young human subjects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Recovery of humoral immunity parameters in mice under a long-term action of tritium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirillova, E.N.; Man'ko, V.M.; Muksinova, K.N.

    1986-01-01

    Using the mice-males of the CBA line at the age of 10-12 weeks and body mass of 20-23 g the recovery value of quantitative and qualitative factors of humoral immunity under a long-term action of tritium oxide which has been injected during 6 months in the quantity of 370 kBq per 1g of body mass (cumulative dose 8.73 Gy). The long-term internal mice irradiation with tritium oxide resulted in marked devastation of central and peripheral organs of immune system. An earlier and complete recovery of cells quantity in the bone marrow and spleen, recover up to 50% in lymphnodes and minimum repopulation (from 10 to 20%) in thymus as compared with tested animals of the same age is pointed out. In experimental mice CFU 5 pool decrease in bone marrow and spleen is found. CFUs content in the spleen recovered up to the norm, whereas in the bone marrow it constituted not more than 55% of the control. Deep function injury of V-lymphocyte and T - helper precursors the activity of which has not recovered during the whole observation period. The long-term tritium oxide intake lead to antibodies production suppression (by 30-50%), the tendency to the decrease of antibody formation of these animals has been conserved up to the end of life. The functional activity of T - suppressors in humoral response to thymus-dependent antigen during the remote periods upon long-term irradiation decreased more than twice

  12. Colour due to Cr3+ ions in oxides: a study of the model system MgO:Cr3+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aramburu, J A; García-Fernández, P; Moreno, M; García-Lastra, J M; Barriuso, M T

    2013-01-01

    Seeking to understand why the cubic centre in MgO:Cr 3+ has the same 10Dq value as emerald, ab initio cluster and periodic supercell calculations have been performed. It is found that the equilibrium Cr 3+ –O 2− distance, R, in MgO:Cr 3+ is equal to 2.03 Å and thus 0.06 Å higher than that measured for the emerald. Calculations carried out on the isolated CrO 6 9- complex at R = 2.03 Å give 10Dq = 14 510 cm −1 , which is 10% smaller than the experimental figure for MgO:Cr 3+ . Nevertheless, when the internal electric field, E R (r), due to the rest of the lattice ions is also taken into account, the calculated 10Dq = 16 210 cm −1 coincides with the experimental value. Accordingly, the colour shift for different oxides doped with Cr 3+ can be well understood on the basis of this extrinsic contribution to 10Dq usually ignored in a ligand field description. The calculated electrostatic potential, V R (r), related to E R (r), is found to be attractive when the electronic density is lying along 〈110〉 directions and |r| > 1 Å driven by the first shell of twelve Mg 2+ ions. The action of V R (r) upon the CrO 6 9- complex slightly decreases the energy of t 2g (xy,xz,yz) orbitals with respect to that for e g (3z 2 − r 2 ,x 2 − y 2 ) orbitals, thus enhancing the 10Dq value by 0.2 eV. However, the addition of V R (r) induces very small changes in the electronic density, a relevant fact that is related to the 2 E( 2g 3 ) → 4 A 2 (t 2g 3 ) emission energy being nearly independent of the host lattice along the series of Cr 3+ -doped oxides. (paper)

  13. Long-term vegetarians have low oxidative stress, body fat, and cholesterol levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi Kyung; Cho, Sang Woon; Park, Yoo Kyoung

    2012-04-01

    Excessive oxidative stress and abnormal blood lipids may cause chronic diseases. This risk can be reduced by consuming an antioxidant- and fiber-rich vegetarian diet. We compared biomarkers of oxidative stress, antioxidant capacity, and lipid profiles of sex- and age-matched long-term vegetarians and omnivores in Korea. Forty-five vegetarians (23 men and 22 women; mean age, 49.5 ± 5.3 years), who had maintained a vegetarian diet for a minimum of 15 years, and 30 omnivores (15 men and 15 women; mean age, 48.9 ± 3.6 years) participated in this study. Their 1-day, 24-h recall, and 2-day dietary records were analyzed. Oxidative stress was measured by the levels of diacron reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROM). Antioxidant status was determined by the biological antioxidant potential (BAP) and levels of endogenous antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase. We observed that vegetarians had a significantly lower body fat percentage (21.6 ± 6.4%) than that of omnivores (25.4 ± 4.6%; P vegetarians than those in omnivores (331.82 ± 77.96 and 375.80 ± 67.26 Carratelli units; P vegetarians and omnivores were 173.73 ± 31.42 mg/dL and 193.17 ± 37.89 mg/dL, respectively (P vegetarians and omnivores, respectively, indicating that vegetarians had significantly lower lipid levels. Thus, oxidative stress, body fat, and cholesterol levels were lower in long-term vegetarians than those in omnivores.

  14. Anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria gain antibiotic resistance during long-term acclimatization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zheng-Zhe; Zhang, Qian-Qian; Guo, Qiong; Chen, Qian-Qian; Jiang, Xiao-Yan; Jin, Ren-Cun

    2015-09-01

    Three broad-spectrum antibiotics, amoxicillin (AMX), florfenicol (FF) and sulfamethazine (SMZ), that inhibit bacteria via different target sites, were selected to evaluate the acute toxicity and long-term effects on anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) granules. The specific anammox activity (SAA) levels reduced by approximately half within the first 3 days in the presence of antibiotics but no nitrite accumulation was observed in continuous-flow experiments. However, the SAA levels and heme c content gradually recovered as the antibiotic concentrations increased. Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) analysis suggested that anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria gradually developed a better survival strategy during long-term acclimatization, which reduced the antibiotic stress via increased EPS secretion that provided a protective 'cocoon.' In terms of nitrogen removal efficiency, anammox granules could resist 60 mg-AMX L(-1), 10 mg-FF L(-1) and 100 mg-SMZ L(-1). This study supported the feasibility of using anammox granules to treat antibiotic-containing wastewater. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Everyday hassles and uplifts among women on long-term sick-leave due to stress-related disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Gun; Eklund, Mona; Erlandsson, Lena-Karin

    2012-05-01

    A balance between different experiences of occupations in everyday life is important for well-being. The study aim was to describe hassles and uplifts in everyday occupations among women on long-term sick-leave due to stress-related disorders. The sample consisted of 77 women and experiences were collected by the THU-5 instrument. The statements were analysed using quantitative content analysis. Data were categorized into three domains of hassles concerning oneself, doings, and social and physical context. The same domains occurred among the uplifts. Hassles were mostly generated by disturbing people around the women and by their limited body functions. The women were uplifted by supportive social relationships and by performing relaxing and calming occupations. The study illuminates the strong need for social support among women on sick-leave, as well as their low level of energy, which was an obvious obstacle for performing occupations. It is suggested that, in order to increase well-being in the target group, the occupational therapist should meet their need for occupations that match their current level of energy. The challenge for the client is to avoid remaining in a pattern of low-demand occupations without exceeding her/his capacity and returning to an unhealthy pattern of occupations.

  16. Short-term effects of ambient air pollution on emergency room admissions due to cardiovascular causes in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yuxia; Zhao, Yuxin; Yang, Sixu; Zhou, Jianding; Xin, Jinyuan; Wang, Shigong; Yang, Dandan

    2017-11-01

    Ambient air pollution has been a major global public health issue. A number of studies have shown various adverse effects of ambient air pollution on cardiovascular diseases. In the current study, we investigated the short-term effects of ambient air pollution on emergency room (ER) admissions due to cardiovascular causes in Beijing from 2009 to 2012 using a time-series analysis. A total of 82430 ER cardiovascular admissions were recorded. Different gender (male and female) and age groups (15yrs ≤ age pollutant model. Three major pollutants (SO 2 , NO 2 and PM 10 ) had lag effects of 0-2 days on cardiovascular ER admissions. The relative risks (95% CI) of per 10 μg/m 3 increase in PM 10 , SO 2 and NO 2 were 1.008 (0.997-1.020), 1.008(0.999-1.018) and 1.014(1.003-1.024), respectively. The effect was more pronounced in age ≥65 and males in Beijing. We also found the stronger acute effects on the elderly and females at lag 0 than on the younger people and males at lag 2. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Simulation of short-term fluctuations in gamma exposure rate due to radioactive cloud released from nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, Yoichi; Shikata, Hiroshi; Ishida, Kenji; Ohba, Tachimori.

    1981-01-01

    The measured γ-exposure rate around nuclear power plants is due mainly to natural causes and radioactive clouds emitted from the plants. An exposure calculation method based on puff model has been already proposed to identify the plant contributions and to estimate values in response to short-term fluctuations of meteorological condition and the release rate. However, the calculation method by this model consumes a lot of computer time, since the calculation requires a three-dimensional integration of the distribution of the concentration from each puff. Hence, we propose a simplified method using approximate polynominal equations and interpolations. The computer time needed for the calculation with the simplified method is reduced to 1/30 of that required by the previous method. The calculation results by simplified method are compared with those by the previous method and with the measured exposure rate less natural background. The results of two different methods are in good agreement. The calculated exposure rate is within the range from half to twice as much as the measured exposure rate less background. (author)

  18. Comparison of the Effects of Pre-training Administration of Zinc Oxide and ‎Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles on Long-term Memory of Adult Male Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Issapare

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Zinc oxide nanoparticles are one of the most widely used nanoparticles in fields of industry, medicine, pharmaceutical sciences, cosmetics, and nutrition. Multiple studies have demonstrated the negative effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles on the nervous system, while others have revealed their enhancing effects on the activity of nerve cells, involved in memory processes. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles and zinc oxide on long-term memory of mice. METHODS: In this experimental study, 49 NMRI adult male mice, with the mean weight of 25±5 g, were randomly divided into seven groups, each consisting of seven mice: control group, three treatment groups receiving zinc oxide nanoparticles (1, 2.5, and 5 mg/kg of  zinc oxide nanoparticles, respectively, and three treatment groups receiving zinc oxide (1, 2.5, and 5 mg/kg of zinc oxide, respectively. Intraperitoneal injections were performed before training (electric shock. Passive avoidance memory of mice was evaluated, using the Step-Down device. The latency time to descend the platform was regarded as an indicator of memory on days 1, 3, and 7 following training. FINDINGS: Pre-training administration of zinc oxide nanoparticles and zinc oxide at a dose of 2.5 mg/kg yielded no effects on the motor activity of mice. However, a significant decline was reported in the latency time to descend the platform on days 1, 3, and 7 following training (58±17, 45±13, and 39±14 in the zinc oxide group and 93±18, 62±12, and 14±3 in the nano zinc oxide group, respectively (p<0.01 however, the dosage of 5 mg/kg had less significant short-term effects (130±38, 49±14, and 68±10 in the zinc oxide group and 132±46, 41±13, and 58±24 in the nano zinc oxide group, respectively. Also, the dosage of 1 mg/kg was almost ineffective. CONCLUSION: The results showed that weakened long-term memory, caused by zinc oxide administration, is not

  19. New insights of seismic disturbances due to wind turbines - long and short term measurements in SW Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zieger, Toni; Ritter, Joachim

    2017-04-01

    Within the scope of the project "TremAc", we present new insights of ground motion disturbances due to wind turbines (WTs) in the vicinity of the town of Landau, SW Germany. The main goal of this project, which is funded by the German Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy, is the detection of influences from WTs on human health and buildings in an interdisciplinary way. The interaction between WTs, humans, infrastructure (incl.seismic stations) becomes more and more an important role with the increase of installed WTs. We present averaged one hour long PSD-spectra in a frequency range from 0.5 Hz to 7 Hz depending on the wind speed before and after the installation of characteristic WTs, especially for seismic borehole stations, during one month measurements. The results show a clear increase of the ground motion and a related disturbance of the seismic recordings. The station threshold for signal detection below 2 Hz is reduced after the installation of a new wind farm in the area around Landau. This effect occurs even up to distances to the WTs of more than 5 kilometers. The increasing noise level depends also clearly on wind speed, which indicate also the WT origin related with the signals. Using short-term measurements during few hours, we are able to determine the maximum of the PSD values for different discrete frequencies as function of distance to the next WT and to fit a power-law decay curve proportional to 1/rb to the data. In this way we can differentiate between near- and far-field effects of the seismic wave propagation of WTs. A clear frequency dependent decay can be observed, for which high frequencies are more attenuated than lower frequencies, probably due to scattering processes. The new results will help for a better understanding of WTs as a seismic noise source and their interaction with nearby seismic stations and other infrastructure. Seismic data were provided by "Erdbebendienst Südwest", "Federal Institute for Geosciences and

  20. Graphene as a long-term metal oxidation barrier: worse than nothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schriver, Maria; Regan, William; Gannett, Will J; Zaniewski, Anna M; Crommie, Michael F; Zettl, Alex

    2013-07-23

    Anticorrosion and antioxidation surface treatments such as paint or anodization are a foundational component in nearly all industries. Graphene, a single-atom-thick sheet of carbon with impressive impermeability to gases, seems to hold promise as an effective anticorrosion barrier, and recent work supports this hope. We perform a complete study of the short- and long-term performance of graphene coatings for Cu and Si substrates. Our work reveals that although graphene indeed offers effective short-term oxidation protection, over long time scales it promotes more extensive wet corrosion than that seen for an initially bare, unprotected Cu surface. This surprising result has important implications for future scientific studies and industrial applications. In addition to informing any future work on graphene as a protective coating, the results presented here have implications for graphene's performance in a wide range of applications.

  1. Improving long term oxidation protection for {gamma}-TiAl substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bobzin, K.; Schlaefer, T.; Bruehl, M.; Linke, T.F. [Thermisches Spritzen, Institut fuer Oberflaechentechnik (IOT), RWTH Aachen University (Germany); Warda, T.

    2011-11-15

    In previous work, a thermal spray multilayer system consisting of Zirconia (ZrO{sub 2}) and MCrAlY top coat showed promising results regarding the oxidation behavior of the Gamma Titanium Aluminides substrates tested, which encouraged further research activities. Diffusion of substrate material was successfully inhibited by a ceramic Zirconia coating. A building up of a dense and stable oxide layer could be achieved by additional application of an MCrAlY top coat, leading to improved oxidation resistance and thus showing feasibility. In this work the main focus for development was put on enhancing adhesion and lowering residual stresses of the coatings in order to allow long term and cyclic testing without delamination taking place. Being a very brittle material, Gamma Titanium Aluminides require special surface treatment to enable roughening which is crucial for a strong mechanical bond between substrate and coating. Alternatives to conventional grit blasting as a standard preparation method were investigated. These were micro-abrasive blasting and blasting at elevated temperature ({approx}300-550 C) to allow a more ductile behavior. The paper will highlight the implications by means of these measures and will also show the present development status of the multilayer system. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  2. Long-term oxidization and phase transition of InN nanotextures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dražic Goran

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The long-term (6 months oxidization of hcp-InN (wurtzite, InN-w nanostructures (crystalline/amorphous synthesized on Si [100] substrates is analyzed. The densely packed layers of InN-w nanostructures (5-40 nm are shown to be oxidized by atmospheric oxygen via the formation of an intermediate amorphous In-O x -N y (indium oxynitride phase to a final bi-phase hcp-InN/bcc-In2O3 nanotexture. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy and selected area electron diffraction are used to identify amorphous In-O x -N y oxynitride phase. When the oxidized area exceeds the critical size of 5 nm, the amorphous In-O x -N y phase eventually undergoes phase transition via a slow chemical reaction of atomic oxygen with the indium atoms, forming a single bcc In2O3 phase.

  3. Oxidative stress and total antioxidant status in term newborns and their mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Wilinska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The peripartum period and delivery are considered critical for maintaining a balance between the production of free oxygen radicals and functional incompetence of the antioxidant system of a foetus and a neonate. [b]Objective.[/b] The aim of the study was to evaluate the oxidoreductive state of mothers and their newborns immediately after delivery and in the first few days after birth. [b]Method.[/b] Eighty-five mothers and their healthy, term newborns were included into the prospective study. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS in maternal placenta and milk, as well as blood and urine of the neonates on the first and third day after birth, were examined. [b]Results.[/b] Elevated levels of TBARS were found in maternal placenta and neonatal blood on the third day after birth, but low concentrations were observed in maternal milk. On the contrary, total antioxidant status (TAS showed a declining tendency in neonatal blood and an increasing tendency in breast milk. Markers of oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity were independent of the mode of delivery. [b]Conclusions.[/b] Values of oxidative stress markers in mothers and newborns immediately after birth were elevated and increased further during the first few days of neonatal life. Breast milk was the only nutritional substance with high antioxidant activity. At the same time, TBARS levels in breast milk decreased, which might indicate its protective role in reducing oxidative stress in newborns.

  4. Short-term effects of ambient air pollution on emergency room admissions due to cardiovascular causes in Beijing, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Yuxia; Zhao, Yuxin; Yang, Sixu; Zhou, Jianding; Xin, Jinyuan; Wang, Shigong; Yang, Dandan

    2017-01-01

    Ambient air pollution has been a major global public health issue. A number of studies have shown various adverse effects of ambient air pollution on cardiovascular diseases. In the current study, we investigated the short-term effects of ambient air pollution on emergency room (ER) admissions due to cardiovascular causes in Beijing from 2009 to 2012 using a time-series analysis. A total of 82430 ER cardiovascular admissions were recorded. Different gender (male and female) and age groups (15yrs ≤ age <65 yrs and age ≥ 65 yrs) were also examined by single model and multiple-pollutant model. Three major pollutants (SO 2 , NO 2 and PM 10 ) had lag effects of 0–2 days on cardiovascular ER admissions. The relative risks (95% CI) of per 10 μg/m 3 increase in PM 10 , SO 2 and NO 2 were 1.008 (0.997–1.020), 1.008(0.999–1.018) and 1.014(1.003–1.024), respectively. The effect was more pronounced in age ≥65 and males in Beijing. We also found the stronger acute effects on the elderly and females at lag 0 than on the younger people and males at lag 2. - Highlights: • Significant associations were found between air pollution and emergency admissions of cardiovascular diseases. • Air pollutants had lag effects on age and gender groups. • Stronger effects of air pollutants were observed for age ≥65 yrs and males. • More acute effects of air pollutants were found for age ≥65 yrs and females. - Air pollutants had significant lag effects on different age and gender groups. The effects were more pronounced in age ≥65 and males in Beijing, China.

  5. Prognostic power of biomarkers for short-term mortality in the elderly patients seen in Emergency Departments due to infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julián-Jiménez, Agustín; Yañez, María Cecilia; González-Del Castillo, Juan; Salido-Mota, Manuel; Mora-Ordoñez, Begoña; Arranz-Nieto, María Jesús; Chanovas-Borras, Manuel R; Llopis-Roca, Ferrán; Mòdol-Deltell, Josep María; Muñoz, Gema

    2017-12-27

    To analyse and compare 30-day mortality prognostic power of several biomarkers (C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, lactate, suPAR and pro-adremomedullin) in elderly patients seen in Emergency Departments (ED) due to infections. Secondly, if these could improve the prognostic accuracy of sepsis criteria (systemic inflammatory response syndrome and quick Sepsis-related Organ Failure Assessment [qSOFA]). A prospective, observational, multicentre and analytical study. Patients aged 75 years and older who were treated for infection in the ED of 8 participating hospitals were enrolled consecutively. An assessment was made of 25 independent variables (epidemiological, comorbidity, functional, clinical and analytical variables) that could influence short-term mortality (at 30 days). The study included 136 patients, 13 (9.5%) of whom died within 30 days of visiting the ED. MR-proADM is the biomarker with the best area under the curve ROC to predict 30-day mortality (0.864; 95% CI 0.775-0.997; P2.07nmol/l, sensitivity of 77% and specificity of 96%. The qSOFA score≥2 had an area under the curve ROC of 0.763 (95% CI 0.623-0.903; P=.002), sensitivity of 76% and specificity of 75%. The mixed model (MR-proADM plus qSOFA≥2) improved the area under the curve ROC to 0.878 (95% CI 0.749-1; P2.07nmol/l) increased the predictive power of qSOFA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  6. Dry corrosion prediction of radioactive waste containers in long term interim storage: mechanisms of low temperature oxidation of pure iron and numerical simulation of an oxide scale growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertrand, N.

    2006-10-01

    In the framework of research on long term behaviour of radioactive waste containers, this work consists on the one hand in the study of low temperature oxidation of iron and on the other hand in the development of a numerical model of oxide scale growth. Isothermal oxidation experiments are performed on pure iron at 300 and 400 C in dry and humid air at atmospheric pressure. Oxide scales formed in these conditions are characterized. They are composed of a duplex magnetite scale under a thin hematite scale. The inner layer of the duplex scale is thinner than the outer one. Both are composed of columnar grains, that are smaller in the inner part. The outer hematite layer is made of very small equiaxed grains. Markers and tracers experiments show that a part of the scale grows at metal/oxide interface thanks to short-circuits diffusion of oxygen. A model for iron oxide scale growth at low temperature is then deduced. Besides this experimental study, the numerical model EKINOX (Estimation Kinetics Oxidation) is developed. It allows to simulate the growth of an oxide scale controlled by mixed mechanisms, such as anionic and cationic vacancies diffusion through the scale, as well as metal transfer at metal/oxide interface. It is based on the calculation of concentration profiles of chemical species and also point defects in the oxide scale and in the substrate. This numerical model does not use the classical quasi-steady-state approximation and calculates the future of cationic vacancies at metal/oxide interface. Indeed, these point defects can either be eliminated by interface motion or injected in the substrate, where they can be annihilated, considering sinks as the climb of dislocations. Hence, the influence of substrate cold-work can be investigated. The EKINOX model is validated in the conditions of Wagner's theory and is confronted with experimental results by its application to the case of high temperature oxidation of nickel. (author)

  7. Short-Term Exposure to Air Pollution and Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress: The Framingham Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenyuan; Wilker, Elissa H; Dorans, Kirsten S; Rice, Mary B; Schwartz, Joel; Coull, Brent A; Koutrakis, Petros; Gold, Diane R; Keaney, John F; Lin, Honghuang; Vasan, Ramachandran S; Benjamin, Emelia J; Mittleman, Murray A

    2016-04-28

    Short-term exposure to elevated air pollution has been associated with higher risk of acute cardiovascular diseases, with systemic oxidative stress induced by air pollution hypothesized as an important underlying mechanism. However, few community-based studies have assessed this association. Two thousand thirty-five Framingham Offspring Cohort participants living within 50 km of the Harvard Boston Supersite who were not current smokers were included. We assessed circulating biomarkers of oxidative stress including blood myeloperoxidase at the seventh examination (1998-2001) and urinary creatinine-indexed 8-epi-prostaglandin F2α (8-epi-PGF2α) at the seventh and eighth (2005-2008) examinations. We measured fine particulate matter (PM2.5), black carbon, sulfate, nitrogen oxides, and ozone at the Supersite and calculated 1-, 2-, 3-, 5-, and 7-day moving averages of each pollutant. Measured myeloperoxidase and 8-epi-PGF2α were loge transformed. We used linear regression models and linear mixed-effects models with random intercepts for myeloperoxidase and indexed 8-epi-PGF2α, respectively. Models were adjusted for demographic variables, individual- and area-level measures of socioeconomic position, clinical and lifestyle factors, weather, and temporal trend. We found positive associations of PM2.5 and black carbon with myeloperoxidase across multiple moving averages. Additionally, 2- to 7-day moving averages of PM2.5 and sulfate were consistently positively associated with 8-epi-PGF2α. Stronger positive associations of black carbon and sulfate with myeloperoxidase were observed among participants with diabetes than in those without. Our community-based investigation supports an association of select markers of ambient air pollution with circulating biomarkers of oxidative stress. © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  8. Quality of life among post-menopausal women due to oxidative stress boosted by dysthymia and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Rodríguez, Martha A; Castrejón-Delgado, Lizett; Zacarías-Flores, Mariano; Arronte-Rosales, Alicia; Mendoza-Núñez, Víctor Manuel

    2017-01-03

    Menopause is the onset of aging in women. During this process, some women experience physical changes that may impact upon their psychological and social status, also affecting their quality of life. Furthermore, several psychological changes following menopause have been shown to act as pro-oxidant, but the association between the psychological status that modify the quality of life and oxidative stress in postmenopausal women is still unclear. The aim of this study was to determinate the relationship between oxidative stress with psychological disturbances, low self-esteem, depressive mood and anxiety, and quality of life in the postmenopausal women. We carried out a cross-sectional study with101 premenopausal and 101 postmenopausal women from Mexico City. As markers of oxidative stress we measured plasma lipoperoxide levels, erythrocyte superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities, and total antioxidant status. We calculate a stress score as global oxidative stress status, with cut-off values for each parameter; this score range from 0 to 6, representing the severity of markers modifications. All the women were rated using the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory, the Zung Self-Rating Anxiety and the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scales, and the WHO Quality of Life-brief. The postmenopausal women with low quality of life in the WHO Quality of Life-brief and their subscales had higher stress score compared with premenopausal women with high quality of life (p Life-brief scores (r = -0.266, p Life-brief, after adjusted for pro-oxidant factors. Zung Self-Rating Anxiety and Zung Self-Rating Depression Scales scores also contribute to increase lipoperoxides levels, but not significant. Our findings suggest that oxidative stress is increased in postmenopausal women with psychological disturbances and low quality of life.

  9. Impact of short-term dietary modification on postprandial oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bloomer Richard J

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have recently reported that short-term (21-day dietary modification in accordance with a stringent vegan diet (i.e., a Daniel Fast lowers blood lipids as well as biomarkers of oxidative stress. However, this work only involved measurements obtained in a fasted state. In the present study, we determined the postprandial response to a high-fat milkshake with regards to blood triglycerides (TAG, biomarkers of oxidative stress, and hemodynamic variables before and following a 21-day Daniel Fast. Methods Twenty-two subjects (10 men and 12 women; aged 35 ± 3 years completed a 21-day Daniel Fast. To induce oxidative stress, a milkshake (fat = 0.8 g·kg-1; carbohydrate = 1.0 g·kg-1; protein = 0.25 g·kg-1 was consumed by subjects on day one and day 22 in a rested and 12-hour fasted state. Before and at 2 and 4 h after consumption of the milkshake, heart rate (HR and blood pressure were measured. Blood samples were also collected at these times and analyzed for TAG, malondialdehyde (MDA, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP, nitrate/nitrite (NOx, and Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC. Results A time effect was noted for HR (p = 0.006, with values higher at 2 hr post intake of the milkshake as compared to pre intake (p p = 0.02, and a trend for lower systolic blood pressure was noted (p = 0.07. Time effects were noted for TAG (p = 0.001, MDA (p 2O2 (p p p p p = 0.02, which was higher post fast as compared to pre fast. No pre/post fast × time interactions were noted (p > 0.05, with the area under the curve from pre to post fast reduced only slightly for TAG (11%, MDA (11%, H2O2 (8%, and AOPP (12%, with a 37% increase noted for NOx. Conclusion Partaking in a 21-day Daniel Fast does not result in a statistically significant reduction in postprandial oxidative stress. It is possible that a longer time course of adherence to the Daniel Fast eating plan may be needed to observe significant

  10. Sudden Death Due to Coronary Artery Lesions Long-term After the Arterial Switch Operation: A Systematic Review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijk, Sebastiaan W.H.; van der Stelt, Femke; ter Heide, Henriëtte; Schoof, Paul H.; Doevendans, Pieter A.F.M.; Meijboom, Folkert J.; Breur, Johannes M.P.J.

    2017-01-01

    Background The arterial switch operation (ASO) is the preferred procedure for children with dextrotransposition of the great arteries or Taussig-Bing anomaly. Short- as well as long-term outcome of ASO are excellent, but coronary artery stenoses are reported as a common long-term complication. It

  11. Study on the use of oxidant scrubbers for elimination of interferences due to nitrogen dioxide in analysis of atmospheric dimethylsulfide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigues Beatriz A.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, oxidant scrubbers were evaluated for their ability to prevent sampling losses of dimethylsulfide caused by reactions with nitrogen dioxide. Various compounds and mixtures were used in the preparation of the oxidant scrubbers. An automatic flow analysis device was used to compare scrubbing efficiency for nitrogen dioxide. Among the scrubbers tested, the best were shown to be the one made with filter paper or glass wool coated with iron (II sulfate, sulfuric acid and pyrogallic acid, and the one made from with paper coated with triethanolamine. The results obtained under laboratory conditions, using dimethylsulfide standard gas, and in field experiments confirmed that these scrubbers are suitable for the prevention of oxidation during sampling.

  12. A case of osteomalacia due to deranged mineral balance caused by saccharated ferric oxide and short-bowel syndrome: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomoto, Hiroshi; Miyoshi, Hideaki; Nakamura, Akinobu; Nagai, So; Kitao, Naoyuki; Shimizu, Chikara; Atsumi, Tatsuya

    2017-09-01

    Saccharated ferric oxide has been shown to lead to elevation of fibroblast growth factor 23, hypophosphatemia, and, consequently, osteomalacia. Moreover, mineral imbalance is often observed in patients with short-bowel syndrome to some degree. A 62-year-old woman with short-bowel syndrome related with multiple resections of small intestines due to Crohn disease received regular intravenous administration of saccharated ferric oxide. Over the course of treatment, she was diagnosed with tetany, which was attributed to hypocalcemia. Additional assessments of the patient revealed not only hypocalcemia, but also hypophosphatemia, hypomagnesemia, osteomalacia, and a high concentration of fibroblast growth factor 23 (314 pg/mL). We diagnosed her with mineral imbalance-induced osteomalacia due to saccharated ferric oxide and short-bowel syndrome. Magnesium replacement therapy and discontinuation of saccharated ferric oxide alone. These treatments were able to normalize her serum mineral levels and increase her bone mineral density. This case suggests that adequate evaluation of serum minerals, including phosphate and magnesium, during saccharated ferric oxide administration may be necessary, especially in patients with short-bowel syndrome.

  13. Tolerance of spermatogonia to oxidative stress is due to high levels of Zn and Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fritzie T Celino

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Spermatogonia are highly tolerant to reactive oxygen species (ROS attack while advanced-stage germ cells such as spermatozoa are much more susceptible, but the precise reason for this variation in ROS tolerance remains unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using the Japanese eel testicular culture system that enables a complete spermatogenesis in vitro, we report that advanced-stage germ cells undergo intense apoptosis and exhibit strong signal for 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine, an oxidative DNA damage marker, upon exposure to hypoxanthine-generated ROS while spermatogonia remain unaltered. Activity assay of antioxidant enzyme, superoxide dismutase (SOD and Western blot analysis using an anti-Copper/Zinc (Cu/Zn SOD antibody showed a high SOD activity and Cu/Zn SOD protein concentration during early spermatogenesis. Immunohistochemistry showed a strong expression for Cu/Zn SOD in spermatogonia but weak expression in advanced-stage germ cells. Zn deficiency reduced activity of the recombinant eel Cu/Zn SOD protein. Cu/Zn SOD siRNA decreased Cu/Zn SOD expression in spermatogonia and led to increased oxidative damage. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data indicate that the presence of high levels of Cu/Zn SOD and Zn render spermatogonia resistant to ROS, and consequently protected from oxidative stress. These findings provide the biochemical basis for the high tolerance of spermatogonia to oxidative stress.

  14. Amorphous iron–chromium oxide nanoparticles with long-term stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iacob, Mihail [“Petru Poni” Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Iasi 700487 (Romania); Institute of Chemistry of ASM, Academiei str. 3, Chisinau 2028, Republic of Moldova (Moldova, Republic of); Cazacu, Maria, E-mail: mcazacu@icmpp.ro [“Petru Poni” Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Iasi 700487 (Romania); Turta, Constantin [Institute of Chemistry of ASM, Academiei str. 3, Chisinau 2028, Republic of Moldova (Moldova, Republic of); Doroftei, Florica [“Petru Poni” Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Iasi 700487 (Romania); Botko, Martin; Čižmár, Erik; Zeleňáková, Adriana; Feher, Alexander [Institute of Physics, Faculty of Science, P.J. Šafárik University, Park Angelinum 9, SK-04154 Košice (Slovakia)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Fe–Cr oxide nanoparticles with pre-established metals ratio were obtained. • The amorphous state and its long-term stability were highlighted by X-ray diffraction. • The average diameter of dried nanoparticles was 3.5 nm, as was estimated by TEM, AFM. • In hexane dispersion, nanoparticles with diameter in the range 2.33–4.85 nm were found. • Superparamagnetic state of NPs co-exists with diamagnetism of the organic layer. - Abstract: Iron–chromium nanoparticles (NPs) were obtained through the thermal decomposition of μ{sub 3}-oxo heterotrinuclear (FeCr{sub 2}O) acetate in the presence of sunflower oil and dodecylamine (DA) as surfactants. The average diameter of the NPs was 3.5 nm, as estimated on the basis of transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy images. Both techniques revealed the formation of roughly approximated spheres with some irregularities and agglomerations in larger spherical assemblies of 50–100 nm. In hexane, NPs with diameters in the 2.33–4.85 nm range are individually dispersed, as emphasized by dynamic light scattering measurements. The amorphous nature of the product was emphasized by X-ray powder diffraction. The study of the magnetic properties shows the presence of superparamagnetic state of iron–chromium oxide NPs and the diamagnetic contribution from DA layer forming a shell of NPs.

  15. Oxidative stress in duckweed (Lemna minor L.) caused by short-term cadmium exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Razinger, Jaka [Department for Environmental Technologies and Biomonitoring, Institute of Physical Biology, Veliko Mlacevo 59, SI-1290 Grosuplje (Slovenia)], E-mail: jaka@ifb.si; Dermastia, Marina [National Institute of Biology, Vecna pot 111, p.p. 141, SI-1001 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Biotechnical Faculty, Department of Biology, University of Ljubljana, Vecna pot 111, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Koce, Jasna Dolenc [Biotechnical Faculty, Department of Biology, University of Ljubljana, Vecna pot 111, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Zrimec, Alexis [Department for Environmental Technologies and Biomonitoring, Institute of Physical Biology, Veliko Mlacevo 59, SI-1290 Grosuplje (Slovenia)

    2008-06-15

    The mechanisms of plant defence against cadmium toxicity have been studied by short-term exposure of Lemna minor L. (common duckweed) to concentrations of CdCl{sub 2} ranging from 0 to 500 {mu}M. High accumulation of cadmium was observed (12,320 {+-} 2155 {mu}g g{sup -1} at 500 {mu}M CdCl{sub 2}), which caused a gradual decrease of plant growth, increased lipid peroxidation, and weakened the entire antioxidative defence. Total glutathione concentration decreased significantly; however, the concentration of oxidized glutathione remained stable. The responses of four antioxidant enzymes showed that catalase was the most inhibited after CdCl{sub 2} exposure, ascorbate peroxidase and guaiacol peroxidase moderately, and glutathione reductase least. The total antioxidative potential revealed an induced antioxidative network at 0.1 {mu}M CdCl{sub 2} (137 {+-} 13.2% of the control) and its reduction to only 47.4 {+-} 4.0% of the control at higher cadmium concentrations. The possible application of the examined biomarkers in ecotoxicological research is discussed. - The increase of total antioxidative potential at low cadmium concentration is one of the mechanisms that helps duckweed to cope with cadmium-induced oxidative stress.

  16. Oxidative stress in duckweed (Lemna minor L.) caused by short-term cadmium exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razinger, Jaka; Dermastia, Marina; Koce, Jasna Dolenc; Zrimec, Alexis

    2008-01-01

    The mechanisms of plant defence against cadmium toxicity have been studied by short-term exposure of Lemna minor L. (common duckweed) to concentrations of CdCl 2 ranging from 0 to 500 μM. High accumulation of cadmium was observed (12,320 ± 2155 μg g -1 at 500 μM CdCl 2 ), which caused a gradual decrease of plant growth, increased lipid peroxidation, and weakened the entire antioxidative defence. Total glutathione concentration decreased significantly; however, the concentration of oxidized glutathione remained stable. The responses of four antioxidant enzymes showed that catalase was the most inhibited after CdCl 2 exposure, ascorbate peroxidase and guaiacol peroxidase moderately, and glutathione reductase least. The total antioxidative potential revealed an induced antioxidative network at 0.1 μM CdCl 2 (137 ± 13.2% of the control) and its reduction to only 47.4 ± 4.0% of the control at higher cadmium concentrations. The possible application of the examined biomarkers in ecotoxicological research is discussed. - The increase of total antioxidative potential at low cadmium concentration is one of the mechanisms that helps duckweed to cope with cadmium-induced oxidative stress

  17. Long-term treatment of anterior pituitary cells with nitric oxide induces programmed cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velardez, Miguel Omar; Poliandri, Ariel Hernán; Cabilla, Jimena Paula; Bodo, Cristian Carlos Armando; Machiavelli, Leticia Inés; Duvilanski, Beatriz Haydeé

    2004-04-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) plays a complex role in modulating programmed cell death. It can either protect the cell from apoptotic death or mediate apoptosis, depending on its concentration and the cell type and/or status. In this study, we demonstrate that long-term exposition to NO induces cell death of anterior pituitary cells from Wistar female rats. DETA NONOate (Z)-1-[2-(2-aminoethyl)-N-(2-ammonioethyl)amino]diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolate, 1 mm], a NO donor that releases NO for an extended period of time, decreased cellular viability and prolactin release from primary cultures of anterior pituitary cells. Morphological studies showed an increase in the number of cells with chromatin condensation and nuclear fragmentation at 24 and 48 h after DETA/NO exposure. DNA internucleosomal fragmentation was also observed at the same time. Reversibility of the NO effect on cellular viability and prolactin release was observed only when the cells were incubated with DETA/NO for less than 6 h. Most apoptotic cells were immunopositive for prolactin, suggesting a high susceptibility of lactotrophs to the effect of NO. The cytotoxic effect of NO is dependent of caspase-9 and caspase-3, but seems to be independent of oxidative stress or nitrosative stress. Our results show that the exposition of anterior pituitary cells to NO for long periods induces programmed cell death of anterior pituitary cells.

  18. The effect of long-term oxidation on the rheological properties of polymer modified asphalts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yonghong Ruan; Richard R. Davison; Charles J. Glover [Texas A & M University, College Station, TX (United States). Department of Chemical Engineering

    2003-10-01

    The effect of long-term aging on rheological properties of polymer modified asphalt binders was studied. Modifiers included diblock poly(styrene-b-butadiene) rubber, triblock poly(styrene-b-butadiene-b-styrene), and tire rubber. Asphalt aging was carried out either at 60{sup o}C in a controlled environmental room or at 100{sup o}C in a pressure aging vessel (AASHTO Provisional Standards, 1993). Both dynamic shear properties and extensional properties were investigated. Polymer modification resulted in increased asphalt complex modulus at high temperatures, decreased asphalt complex modulus at low temperatures, broadened relaxation spectra, and improved ductility. Oxidative aging decreased asphalt temperature susceptibility, damaged the polymer network in binders, further broadened the relaxation spectrum, and diminished polymer effectiveness in improving asphalt ductility. 27 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Optimization of a model of red blood cells for the study of anti-oxidant drugs, in terms of concentration of oxidant and phosphate buffer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau, A; Lahet, J-J; Lenfant, F; Bouyer, F; Petitjean, M; Chaillot, B; Freysz, M

    2005-08-01

    The aggression of erythrocytes by an oxidative stress induces hemolysis. This paper aims to valid a model of erythrocytes in terms of composition of the phosphate buffer solution and of concentration of a well-known oxidant, AAPH. Three compositions of phosphate buffer solution are mixed with three concentrations of oxidant. The influence of these two parameters on hemolysis is independently studied by a variance analysis and a Kruskal-Wallis test when ANOVA is not available. The hemolysis rate increases with time at fixed oxidant concentration, but is not influenced by the composition of the buffer solution. The highest hemolysis rate, 90%, was only measured within 2 h with the highest oxidant concentration. If we retain this concentration of oxidant, the lower concentration of the buffer can by eliminated by a significant less hemolysis and the highest concentration of the buffer can by chosen in regard of the better precision for a similar hemolysis compared to the mean buffer. We hope to study the effect of anti-oxidant agent with such a model of erythrocytes.

  20. Effects of short term and long term Extremely Low Frequency Magnetic Field on depressive disorder in mice: Involvement of nitric oxide pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madjid Ansari, Alireza; Farzampour, Shahrokh; Sadr, Ali; Shekarchi, Babak; Majidzadeh-A, Keivan

    2016-02-01

    Previous reports on the possible effects of Extremely Low Frequency Magnetic Fields (ELF MF) on mood have been paradoxical in different settings while no study has yet been conducted on animal behavior. In addition, it was shown that ELF MF exposure makes an increase in brain nitric oxide level. Therefore, in the current study, we aimed to assess the possible effect(s) of ELF MF exposure on mice Forced Swimming Test (FST) and evaluate the probable role of the increased level of nitric oxide in the observed behavior. Male adult mice NMRI were recruited to investigate the short term and long term ELF MF exposure (0.5 mT and 50 Hz, single 2h and 2 weeks 2h a day). Locomotor behavior was assessed by using open-field test (OFT) followed by FST to evaluate the immobility time. Accordingly, NΩ-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester 30 mg/kg was used to exert anti-depressant like effect. According to the results, short term exposure did not alter the immobility time, whereas long term exposure significantly reduces immobility time (pmice, whereas short term exposure has no significant effect. Also, reversing the anti-depressant activity of L-NAME indicates a probable increase in the brain nitric oxide. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Long-term corrosion inhibition mechanism of microarc oxidation coated AZ31 Mg alloys for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, Yanhong; Bandopadhyay, Sukumar; Chen, Cheng-fu; Ning, Chengyun; Guo, Yuanjun

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The corrosion behavior is significantly affected by the long-term immersion. ► The degradation is inhibited due to the corrosion product layer. ► The corrosion resistance is enhanced by optimized MAO electrolyte concentrations. ► The corrosion inhibition mechanism is presented by a Flash animation. - Abstract: This paper addresses the long-term corrosion behavior of microarc oxidation coated Mg alloys immersed in simulated body fluid for 28 days. The coatings on AZ31 Mg alloys were produced in the electrolyte of sodium phosphate (Na 3 PO 4 ) at the concentration of 20 g/L, 30 g/L and 40 g/L, respectively. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and optical micrograph were used to observe the microstructure of the samples before and after corrosion. The composition of the MAO coating and corrosion products were determined by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). Corrosion product identification showed that hydroxyapatite (HA) was formed on the surface of the corroded samples. The ratio of Ca/P in HA determined by the X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) technique showed that HA is an acceptable biocompatible implant material. The potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were employed to characterize the corrosion rate and the electrochemical impedance. The corrosion resistance of the coated Mg alloys can be enhanced by optimizing the electrolyte concentrations for fabricating samples, and is enhanced after immersing the coated samples in simulated body fluid for more than 14 days. The enhanced corrosion resistance after long-term immersion is attributed to a corrosion product layer formed on the sample surface. The inhibition mechanism of the corrosion process is discussed and presented with an animation

  2. Long-term changes in soil erosion due to forest fires. A rainfall simulation approach in Eastern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, Artemi; Keesstra, Saskia; Pereira, Paulo; Matrix-Solera, Jorge; Giménez-Morera, Antonio; Úbeda, Xavier; Francos, Marcos; Alcañiz, Meritxell; Jordán, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    Soils are affected by the impacts of wildfires (Dlapa et al., 2013; Pereira et al., 2014; Tsibart et al., 2014; Dlapa et al., 2015, Hedo et al., 2015; Tessler et al., 2015). Soil erosion rates are highly affected by forest fires due to the removal of the above ground vegetation, the heat impact on the soil, the reduction of the organic matter, the ash cover, and the changes introduced by the rainfall on the soil surface (Lasanta and Cerdà, 2005; Mataix-Solera et al., 2011; Novara et al., 2011; Novara et al., 2013; Keesstra et al., 2014; Hedo et al., 2015; Pereira, 2015). Most of the research carried out on forest fire affected land paid attention to the "window of disturbance", which is the period that the soil losses are higher than before the forest fire and that last for few years (Cerdà, 1998a; Cerdà 1998b, Pérez-Cabello et al., 2011; Bodí et al., 2011; Bodí et al., 2012; Pereira et al., 2013: Pereira et al., 2015). However, the spatial and temporal variability of soil erosion is very high as a result of the uneven temporal and spatial distribution of the rainfall (Novara et al., 2011; Bisantino et al., 2015; Gessesse et al., 2015; Ochoa et al., 2015), and the window of disturbance cannot be easily found under natural rainfall. In order to understand the evolution of soil erosion after forest fires it is necessary to monitor fire affected sites over a long period of time, which will enable the assessment of the period affected by the window of disturbance (see Cerdà and Doerr, 2005). However, it is also possible to do measurements and experiments in areas with a different fire history. This will give us information about the temporal changes in soil erosion after forest fire. To reduce the spatial variability of rainfall we can use simulated rainfall that can be applied at multiple site with the same rainfall intensity and duration. For this purpose rainfall simulation can be of great help, in the laboratory (Moreno et al., 2014; Sadegui et al., 2015

  3. Fatty Acid Incubation of Myotubues from Humans with Type 2 Diabetes Leads to Enhanced Release of Beta Oxidation Products Due to Impaired Fatty Acid Oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wensaas, Andreas J; Rustan, Arild C; Just, Marlene

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Increased availability of fatty acids is important for accumulation of intracellular lipids and development of insulin resistance in human myotubes. It is unknown whether different types of fatty acids like eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) or tetradecylthioacetic acid (TTA) influence...... these processes. Research Design and Methods: We examined fatty acid and glucose metabolism, and gene expression in cultured human skeletal muscle cells from control and T2D individuals after four days preincubation with EPA or TTA. Results: T2D myotubes exhibited reduced formation of CO(2) from palmitic acid (PA....... EPA markedly enhanced TAG accumulation in myotubes, more pronounced in T2D cells. TAG accumulation and fatty acid oxidation were inversely correlated only after EPA preincubation, and total level of acyl-CoA was reduced. Glucose oxidation (CO(2) formation) was enhanced and lactate production decreased...

  4. Altered contractile response due to increased beta3-adrenoceptor stimulation in diabetic cardiomyopathy: the role of nitric oxide synthase 1-derived nitric oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amour, Julien; Loyer, Xavier; Le Guen, Morgan; Mabrouk, Nejma; David, Jean-Stéphane; Camors, Emmanuel; Carusio, Nunzia; Vivien, Benoît; Andriantsitohaina, Ramaroson; Heymes, Christophe; Riou, Bruno

    2007-09-01

    In the diabetic heart, the positive inotropic response to beta-adrenoceptor stimulation is altered and beta1 and beta2 adrenoceptors are down-regulated, whereas beta3 adrenoceptor is up-regulated. In heart failure, beta3-adrenoceptor stimulation induces a negative inotropic effect that results from endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS3)-derived nitric oxide production. The objective of our study was to investigate the role of beta3-adrenoceptor in diabetic cardiomyopathy. beta-Adrenergic responses were investigated in vivo (dobutamine echocardiography) and in vitro (left ventricular papillary muscle) in healthy and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The effect of beta3-adrenoceptor inhibition on the inotropic response was studied in vitro. Immunoblots and NOS activities were performed in heart homogenates (electron paramagnetic resonance) and isolated cardiomyocytes. Data are mean percentage of baseline +/- SD. The impaired positive inotropic effect was confirmed in diabetes both in vivo (121 +/- 15% vs. 160 +/- 16%; P < 0.05) and in vitro (112 +/- 5% vs. 179 +/- 15%; P < 0.05). In healthy rat, the positive inotropic effect was not significantly modified in presence of beta3-adrenoceptor antagonist (174 +/- 20%), nonselective NOS inhibitor (N -nitro-l-arginine methylester [l-NAME]; 183 +/- 19%), or selective NOS1 inhibitor (vinyl-l-N-5-(1-imino-3-butenyl)-l-ornithine [l-VNIO]; 172 +/- 13%). In diabetes, in parallel with the increase in beta3-adrenoceptor protein expression, the positive inotropic effect was partially restored by beta3-adrenoceptor antagonist (137 +/- 8%; P < 0.05), l-NAME (133 +/- 11%; P < 0.05), or l-VNIO (130 +/- 13%; P < 0.05). Nitric oxide was exclusively produced by NOS1 within diabetic cardiomyocytes. NOS2 and NOS3 proteins were undetectable. beta3-Adrenoceptor is involved in altered positive inotropic response to beta-adrenoceptor stimulation in diabetic cardiomyopathy. This effect is mediated by NOS1-derived nitric oxide in diabetic

  5. Long-Term Synaptic Plasticity Emulated in Modified Graphene Oxide Electrolyte Gated IZO-Based Thin-Film Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi; Wen, Juan; Guo, Liqiang; Wan, Xiang; Du, Peifu; Feng, Ping; Shi, Yi; Wan, Qing

    2016-11-09

    Emulating neural behaviors at the synaptic level is of great significance for building neuromorphic computational systems and realizing artificial intelligence. Here, oxide-based electric double-layer (EDL) thin-film transistors were fabricated using 3-triethoxysilylpropylamine modified graphene oxide (KH550-GO) electrolyte as the gate dielectrics. Resulting from the EDL effect and electrochemical doping between mobile protons and the indium-zinc-oxide channel layer, long-term synaptic plasticity was emulated in our devices. Synaptic functions including long-term memory, synaptic temporal integration, and dynamic filters were successfully reproduced. In particular, spike rate-dependent plasticity (SRDP), one of the basic learning rules of long-term plasticity in the neural network where the synaptic weight changes according to the rate of presynaptic spikes, was emulated in our devices. Our results may facilitate the development of neuromorphic computational systems.

  6. Short- and Long-Term Effects of Prenatal Exposure to Iron Oxide Nanoparticles: Influence of Surface Charge and Dose on Developmental and Reproductive Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin R. Di Bona

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs are commonly utilized for biomedical, industrial, and commercial applications due to their unique properties and potential biocompatibility. However, little is known about how exposure to iron oxide NPs may affect susceptible populations such as pregnant women and developing fetuses. To examine the influence of NP surface-charge and dose on the developmental toxicity of iron oxide NPs, Crl:CD1(ICR (CD-1 mice were exposed to a single, low (10 mg/kg or high (100 mg/kg dose of positively-charged polyethyleneimine-Fe2O3-NPs (PEI-NPs, or negatively-charged poly(acrylic acid-Fe2O3-NPs (PAA-NPs during critical windows of organogenesis (gestation day (GD 8, 9, or 10. A low dose of NPs, regardless of charge, did not induce toxicity. However, a high exposure led to charge-dependent fetal loss as well as morphological alterations of the uteri (both charges and testes (positive only of surviving offspring. Positively-charged PEI-NPs given later in organogenesis resulted in a combination of short-term fetal loss (42% and long-term alterations in reproduction, including increased fetal loss for second generation matings (mice exposed in utero. Alternatively, negatively-charged PAA-NPs induced fetal loss (22% earlier in organogenesis to a lesser degree than PEI-NPs with only mild alterations in offspring uterine histology observed in the long-term.

  7. Long-term outcome following trans-jugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt for variceal bleeding due to portal hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Jinguo; Zhang Shutian; Feng Zitan; Zhou Guifen; Pan Xinyuan; Liang Zhihui

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To study the 6-year outcome following trans-jugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPSS) for variceal bleeding due to portal hypertension. Methods: 65 patients, 51 males, 14 females, aged 35-72 years old with averaged 4.5 years, have been undergone TIPSS because of portal hypertension due to cirrhosis or Budd-Chiari syndrome. The portal pressures were measured before and after TIPSS. Follow-up study was done by color Doppler sonography or Barium esophageal radiography for 3 months to 6 years (averaged 18 months). Repeated interventional treatments were done in cases of restenosis of the shunts. Results: There were 0, 2, 10, 5, 0 cases of recurrent bleeding after 3 months, 6 months, 1 year, 2 year and 3-6 year following TIPSS respectively. Stenosis occurred in shunt paths due to thrombosis or smooth muscle cell proliferation or neo-intimal hyperplasia were relieved after thrombolytic therapy and repeated balloon angioplasty or stent plant among most of them. 2 were failed due to serious stenosis. 7 cases died, 2 of massive bleeding, 1 of the other cause and 4 of hepatic cancer. The other patients are getting well. Conclusions: Although there were very high rates of restenosis (34%), but most of them could be treated again with interventional therapy, and in kept patency effectively. TIPSS is a still practical valuable management for massive gastric bleeding

  8. Repeated short-term stress synergizes the ROS signalling through up regulation of NFkB and iNOS expression induced due to combined exposure of trichloroethylene and UVB rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Farrah; Sultana, Sarwat

    2012-01-01

    Restraint stress is known to catalyse the pathogenesis of the variety of chronic inflammatory disorders. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of repeated short-term stress (RRS) on cellular transduction apart from oxidative burden and early tumour promotional biomarkers induced due to combined exposure of trichloroethylene (TCE) and Ultra-violet radiation (UVB). RRS leads to the increase in the expression of the stress responsive cellular transduction elements NFkB-p65 and activity of iNOS in the epidermal tissues of mice after toxicant exposure. RRS augments the steep depletion of the cellular antioxidant machinery which was evidenced by the marked depletion in GSH (Glutathione and GSH dependant enzymes), superoxide dismutase and catalase activity that were observed at significance level of P stressed animals and down regulation of DT-diaphorase activity (P short-term stress in the toxic response of TCE and UVB radiation.

  9. Factors Associated with Long-Term Sickness Absence Due to Mental Disorders: A Cohort Study of 7.112 Patients during the Spanish Economic Crisis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Real

    Full Text Available Mental health problems are very common and often lead to prolonged sickness absence, having serious economic repercussions for most European countries. Periods of economic crisis are important social phenomena that are assumed to increase sickness absence due to mental disorders, although research on this topic remains scarce. The aim of this study was to gather data on long-term sickness absence (and relapse due to mental disorders in Spain during a period of considerable socio-economic crisis.Relationships were analyzed (using chi-squared tests and multivariate modelling via binary logistic regression between clinical, social/employment-related and demographic factors associated and long-term sickness absence (>60 consecutive days due to mental disorders in a cohort of 7112 Spanish patients during the period 2008-2012.Older age, severe mental disorders, being self-employed, having a non-permanent contract, and working in the real estate and construction sector were associated with an increased probability of long-term sickness absence (gender had a mediating role with respect to some of these variables. Relapses were associated with short-term sick leave (return to work due to 'improvement' and with working in the transport sector and public administration.Aside from medical factors, other social/employment-related and demographic factors have a significant influence on the duration of sickness absence due to mental disorders.

  10. Stimulation of the cardiac myocyte Na+-K+ pump due to reversal of its constitutive oxidative inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, Karin K M; Liu, Chia-Chi; Hamilton, Elisha J; Garcia, Alvaro; Fry, Natasha A; Hannam, William; Figtree, Gemma A; Rasmussen, Helge H

    2015-08-15

    Protein kinase C can activate NADPH oxidase and induce glutathionylation of the β1-Na(+)-K(+) pump subunit, inhibiting activity of the catalytic α-subunit. To examine if signaling of nitric oxide-induced soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC)/cGMP/protein kinase G can cause Na(+)-K(+) pump stimulation by counteracting PKC/NADPH oxidase-dependent inhibition, cardiac myocytes were exposed to ANG II to activate NADPH oxidase and inhibit Na(+)-K(+) pump current (Ip). Coexposure to 3-(5'-hydroxymethyl-2'-furyl)-1-benzylindazole (YC-1) to stimulate sGC prevented the decrease of Ip. Prevention of the decrease was abolished by inhibition of protein phosphatases (PP) 2A but not by inhibition of PP1, and it was reproduced by an activator of PP2A. Consistent with a reciprocal relationship between β1-Na(+)-K(+) pump subunit glutathionylation and pump activity, YC-1 decreased ANG II-induced β1-subunit glutathionylation. The decrease induced by YC-1 was abolished by a PP2A inhibitor. YC-1 decreased phosphorylation of the cytosolic p47(phox) NADPH oxidase subunit and its coimmunoprecipitation with the membranous p22(phox) subunit, and it decreased O2 (·-)-sensitive dihydroethidium fluorescence of myocytes. Addition of recombinant PP2A to myocyte lysate decreased phosphorylation of p47(phox) indicating the subunit could be a substrate for PP2A. The effects of YC-1 to decrease coimmunoprecipitation of p22(phox) and p47(phox) NADPH oxidase subunits and decrease β1-Na(+)-K(+) pump subunit glutathionylation were reproduced by activation of nitric oxide-dependent receptor signaling. We conclude that sGC activation in cardiac myocytes causes a PP2A-dependent decrease in NADPH oxidase activity and a decrease in β1 pump subunit glutathionylation. This could account for pump stimulation with neurohormonal oxidative stress expected in vivo. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  11. Asthma Exacerbations and Symptom Variability in Children Due to Short-term Ambient Air Pollution Changes in Ostrava, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Velická, H.; Puklová, V.; Keder, J.; Brabec, Marek; Malý, Marek; Bobák, M.; Kotlík, B.; Jiřík, V.; Janout, V.; Kazmarová, H.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 4 (2015), s. 292-298 ISSN 1210-7778 Grant - others:GA MZd(CZ) NT14608 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : asthma * air pollution * short-term exposure * respiratory symptoms * children Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 0.525, year: 2015 http://apps.szu.cz/svi/cejph/show.php?kat=archiv/2015-4-03

  12. Antibiotic resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains with increased mutation frequency due to inactivation of the DNA oxidative repair system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandsberg, Lotte F; Ciofu, Oana; Kirkby, N

    2009-01-01

    ,8-dihydro-8-oxodeoxyguanosine) than PAO1 after exposure to PMNs, and they developed resistance to antibiotics more frequently. The mechanisms of resistance were increased β-lactamase production and overexpression of the MexCD-OprJ efflux-pump. Mutations in either the mutT or the mutY gene were found...... in resistant HP clinical isolates from patients with CF, and complementation with wild-type genes reverted the phenotype. In conclusion, oxidative stress might be involved in the development of resistance to antibiotics. We therefore suggest the possible use of antioxidants for CF patients to prevent...

  13. Frontal Phonological Agraphia and Acalculia with Impaired Verbal Short-Term Memory due to Left Inferior Precentral Gyrus Lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Yasuhisa; Furukawa, Emi; Kurihara, Masanori; Sugimoto, Izumi

    2018-01-01

    We report a patient with phonological agraphia (selective impairment of kana [Japanese phonetic writing] nonwords) and acalculia (mental arithmetic difficulties) with impaired verbal short-term memory after a cerebral hemorrhage in the opercular part of the left precentral gyrus (Brodmann area 6) and the adjacent postcentral gyrus. The patient showed phonemic paragraphia in five-character kana nonword writing, minimal acalculia, and reduced digit and letter span. Mental arithmetic normalized after 8 months and agraphia recovered to the normal range at 1 year after onset, in parallel with an improvement of the auditory letter span score from 4 to 6 over a period of 14 months and in the digit span score from 6 to 7 over 24 months. These results suggest a close relationship between the recovery of agraphia and acalculia and the improvement of verbal short-term memory. The present case also suggests that the opercular part of the precentral gyrus constitutes the phonological route in writing that conveys phonological information of syllable sequences, and its damage causes phonological agraphia and acalculia with reduced verbal short-term memory.

  14. Frontal Phonological Agraphia and Acalculia with Impaired Verbal Short-Term Memory due to Left Inferior Precentral Gyrus Lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhisa Sakurai

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We report a patient with phonological agraphia (selective impairment of kana [Japanese phonetic writing] nonwords and acalculia (mental arithmetic difficulties with impaired verbal short-term memory after a cerebral hemorrhage in the opercular part of the left precentral gyrus (Brodmann area 6 and the adjacent postcentral gyrus. The patient showed phonemic paragraphia in five-character kana nonword writing, minimal acalculia, and reduced digit and letter span. Mental arithmetic normalized after 8 months and agraphia recovered to the normal range at 1 year after onset, in parallel with an improvement of the auditory letter span score from 4 to 6 over a period of 14 months and in the digit span score from 6 to 7 over 24 months. These results suggest a close relationship between the recovery of agraphia and acalculia and the improvement of verbal short-term memory. The present case also suggests that the opercular part of the precentral gyrus constitutes the phonological route in writing that conveys phonological information of syllable sequences, and its damage causes phonological agraphia and acalculia with reduced verbal short-term memory.

  15. Blast induces oxidative stress, inflammation, neuronal loss and subsequent short-term memory impairment in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, H J; Sajja, V S S S; Vandevord, P J; Lee, Y W

    2013-12-03

    Molecular and cellular mechanisms of brain injury after exposure to blast overpressure (BOP) are not clearly known. The present study hypothesizes that pro-oxidative and pro-inflammatory pathways in the brain may be responsible for neuronal loss and behavioral deficits following BOP exposure. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were anesthetized and exposed to calibrated BOP of 129.23±3.01kPa while controls received only anesthesia. In situ dihydroethidium fluorescence staining revealed that BOP significantly increased the production of reactive oxygen species in the brain. In addition, real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, immunofluorescence staining and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay demonstrated a significant up-regulation of mRNA and protein expressions of pro-inflammatory mediators, such as interferon-γ and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, in brains collected from BOP-exposed animals compared with the controls. Furthermore, immunoreactivity of neuronal nuclei in brains indicated that fewer neurons were present following BOP exposure. Moreover, novel object recognition paradigm showed a significant impairment in the short-term memory at 2weeks following BOP exposure. These results suggest that pro-oxidative and pro-inflammatory environments in the brain could play a potential role in BOP-induced neuronal loss and behavioral deficits. It may provide a foundation for defining a molecular and cellular basis of the pathophysiology of blast-induced neurotrauma (BINT). It will also contribute to the development of new therapeutic approaches selectively targeting these pathways, which have great potential in the diagnosis and therapy of BINT. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Long-term follow-up observation of patients with chronic radiation sickness due to external irradiation treated with thymopeptide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Shenyong; Sun Wenji; Zhang Aizhen; Ye Anfang

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To provide the clinical data and prognosis judgement, the authors observed the results and progression of 11 cases of chronic radiation sickness due to external irradiation treated with thymopeptide. Methods: The clinical symptoms, hematopoiesis, T lymphocyte percentage and chromosome aberration rate were used as the judgement indexes for recovery from the chronic radiation sickness. Results: Thymopeptide treatment greatly improved the neurasthenic syndrome and increased the T lymphocyte percentage (P 0.05), and improvement of neurasthenic syndrome occurred 3.5 years after they left radiation work or diminished the exposure level. 5 to 8 years after, bone marrow hematopoiesis also restored to the normal level. However, the chromosome aberration rate restored to the normal level 10 years after. Conclusion: According to the judgement criteria, the chronic radiation sickness due to external radiation exposure can recover and thymopeptide is a helpful and simple means to treat it

  17. Evaluation of different nitrous oxide production models with four continuous long-term wastewater treatment process data series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spérandio, Mathieu; Pocquet, Mathieu; Guo, Lisha; Ni, Bing-Jie; Vanrolleghem, Peter A; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2016-03-01

    Five activated sludge models describing N2O production by ammonium oxidising bacteria (AOB) were compared to four different long-term process data sets. Each model considers one of the two known N2O production pathways by AOB, namely the AOB denitrification pathway and the hydroxylamine oxidation pathway, with specific kinetic expressions. Satisfactory calibration could be obtained in most cases, but none of the models was able to describe all the N2O data obtained in the different systems with a similar parameter set. Variability of the parameters can be related to difficulties related to undescribed local concentration heterogeneities, physiological adaptation of micro-organisms, a microbial population switch, or regulation between multiple AOB pathways. This variability could be due to a dependence of the N2O production pathways on the nitrite (or free nitrous acid-FNA) concentrations and other operational conditions in different systems. This work gives an overview of the potentialities and limits of single AOB pathway models. Indicating in which condition each single pathway model is likely to explain the experimental observations, this work will also facilitate future work on models in which the two main N2O pathways active in AOB are represented together.

  18. Long-term operation of a solid oxide cell stack for coelectrolysis of steam and CO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agersted, Karsten; Chen, Ming; Blennow, Peter

    2016-01-01

    of synthetic fuels such as methane, methanol or DME. Previously we have reported electrolysis operation of solid oxide cell stacks for periods up to about 1000 hours. In this work, operation of a Haldor Topsoe 8-cell stack (stack design of 2014) in co-electrolysis mode for 6000 hours is reported. The stack....... Initial operation at 700 oC and -0.25 A/cm2 lasted for only 120 hours due to severe degradation of the bottom cell. Regaining the stack performance was realized by increasing the operation temperature to 750 oC. After reactivation, the stack showed negligible degradation at 750 oC and -0.25 A/cm2...... and about 1.4 %/1000 h performance degradation at 750 oC and -0.5 A/cm2. This study demonstrates feasibility of long-term co-electrolysis operation via SOEC stacks and of careful temperature variation as a tool to regain the stack performance....

  19. Pre-Interventional Kynurenine Predicts Medium-Term Outcome after Contrast Media Exposure Due to Coronary Angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichetzeder, Christoph; Heunisch, Fabian; Einem, Gina von; Tsuprykov, Oleg; Kellner, Karl-Heinz; Dschietzig, Thomas; Kretschmer, Axel; Hocher, Berthold

    2017-01-01

    Contrast induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) remains a serious complication of contrast media enhanced procedures like coronary angiography. There is still a lack of established biomarkers that help to identify patients at high risk for short and long-term complications. The aim of the current study was to evaluate plasma kynurenine as a predictive biomarker for CI-AKI and long-term complications, measured by the combined endpoint "major adverse kidney events" (MAKE) up to 120 days after CM application. In this prospective cohort study 245 patients undergoing coronary angiography were analyzed. Blood samples were obtained at baseline, 24h and 48h after contrast media (CM) application to diagnose CI-AKI. Patients were followed for 120 days for adverse clinical events including death, the need for dialysis, and a doubling of plasma creatinine. Occurrence of any of these events was summarized in the combined endpoint MAKE. Preinterventional plasma kynurenine was not associated with CI-AKI. Patients who later developed MAKE displayed significantly increased preinterventional plasma kynurenine levels (p<0.0001). ROC analysis revealed that preinterventional kynurenine is highly predictive for MAKE (AUC=0.838; p<0.0001). The optimal cutoff was found at ≥3.5 µmol/L Using this cutoff, the Kaplan-Meier estimator demonstrated that concentrations of plasma kynurenine ≥3.5 µmol/L were significantly associated with a higher prevalence of MAKE until follow up (p<0.0001). This association remained significant in multivariate Cox regression models adjusted for relevant factors of long-term renal outcome. Preinterventional plasma kynurenine might serve as a highly predictive biomarker for MAKE up to 120 days after coronary angiography. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Pre-Interventional Kynurenine Predicts Medium-Term Outcome after Contrast Media Exposure Due to Coronary Angiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Reichetzeder

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Contrast induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI remains a serious complication of contrast media enhanced procedures like coronary angiography. There is still a lack of established biomarkers that help to identify patients at high risk for short and long-term complications. The aim of the current study was to evaluate plasma kynurenine as a predictive biomarker for CI-AKI and long-term complications, measured by the combined endpoint "major adverse kidney events" (MAKE up to 120 days after CM application. Methods: In this prospective cohort study 245 patients undergoing coronary angiography were analyzed. Blood samples were obtained at baseline, 24h and 48h after contrast media (CM application to diagnose CI-AKI. Patients were followed for 120 days for adverse clinical events including death, the need for dialysis, and a doubling of plasma creatinine. Occurrence of any of these events was summarized in the combined endpoint MAKE. Results: Preinterventional plasma kynurenine was not associated with CI-AKI. Patients who later developed MAKE displayed significantly increased preinterventional plasma kynurenine levels (p<0.0001. ROC analysis revealed that preinterventional kynurenine is highly predictive for MAKE (AUC=0.838; p<0.0001. The optimal cutoff was found at ≥3.5 µmol/L Using this cutoff, the Kaplan-Meier estimator demonstrated that concentrations of plasma kynurenine ≥3.5 µmol/L were significantly associated with a higher prevalence of MAKE until follow up (p<0.0001. This association remained significant in multivariate Cox regression models adjusted for relevant factors of long-term renal outcome. Conclusion: Preinterventional plasma kynurenine might serve as a highly predictive biomarker for MAKE up to 120 days after coronary angiography.

  1. Short- and long-term changes in sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L. gene expression due to postharvest jasmonic acid treatment - Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucilene Silva de Oliveira

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Jasmonic acid is a natural plant hormone that induces native defense responses in plants. Sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L. root unigenes that were differentially expressed 2 and 60 days after a postharvest jasmonic acid treatment are presented. Data include changes in unigene expression relative to water-treated controls, unigene annotations against nonredundant (Nr, Swiss-Prot, Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG, and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG protein databases, and unigene annotations with Gene Ontology (GO terms. Putative defense unigenes are compiled and annotated against the sugarbeet genome. Differential gene expression data were generated by RNA sequencing. Interpretation of the data is available in the research article, “Jasmonic acid causes short- and long-term alterations to the transcriptome and the expression of defense genes in sugarbeet roots” (K.K. Fugate, L.S. Oliveira, J.P. Ferrareze, M.D. Bolton, E.L. Deckard, F.L. Finger, 2017 [1]. Public dissemination of this dataset will allow further analyses of the data.

  2. Long-term evolution of electron distribution function due to nonlinear resonant interaction with whistler mode waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artemyev, Anton V.; Neishtadt, Anatoly I.; Vasiliev, Alexei A.

    2018-04-01

    Accurately modelling and forecasting of the dynamics of the Earth's radiation belts with the available computer resources represents an important challenge that still requires significant advances in the theoretical plasma physics field of wave-particle resonant interaction. Energetic electron acceleration or scattering into the Earth's atmosphere are essentially controlled by their resonances with electromagnetic whistler mode waves. The quasi-linear diffusion equation describes well this resonant interaction for low intensity waves. During the last decade, however, spacecraft observations in the radiation belts have revealed a large number of whistler mode waves with sufficiently high intensity to interact with electrons in the nonlinear regime. A kinetic equation including such nonlinear wave-particle interactions and describing the long-term evolution of the electron distribution is the focus of the present paper. Using the Hamiltonian theory of resonant phenomena, we describe individual electron resonance with an intense coherent whistler mode wave. The derived characteristics of such a resonance are incorporated into a generalized kinetic equation which includes non-local transport in energy space. This transport is produced by resonant electron trapping and nonlinear acceleration. We describe the methods allowing the construction of nonlinear resonant terms in the kinetic equation and discuss possible applications of this equation.

  3. Budd-Chiari syndrome due to prothrombotic disorder: mid-term patency and efficacy of endovascular stents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelage, Jean-Pierre; Denys, Alban; Sibert, Annie; Menu, Yves [Department of Radiology, Hopital Beaujon, AP-HP, 100 Boulevard du General Leclerc, 92110 Clichy (France); Valla, Dominique [Department of Hepatology, Hopital Beaujon, AP-HP, 100 Boulevard du General Leclerc, 92110 Clichy (France); Sauvanet, Alain; Belghiti, Jacques [Department of Surgery, Hopital Beaujon, AP-HP, 100 Boulevard du General Leclerc, 92110 Clichy (France)

    2003-02-01

    Our objective was to evaluate efficacy and patency of metallic stent placement for symptomatic Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS) due to prothrombotic disorders. Eleven patients with proved BCS due to prothrombotic disorders were referred for endovascular treatment because of refractory ascites (n=9), abdominal pain (n=8), jaundice (n=6), and/or gastrointestinal bleeding (n=4). Stents were inserted for stenosed hepatic vein (n=7), inferior vena cava (n=2), or mesenterico-caval shunt (n=2). Clinical efficacy and stent patency was evaluated by clinical and Doppler follow-up. After a mean follow-up of 21 months, 6 patients had fully patent stents without reintervention (primary stent patency: 55%). Two patients with hepatic vein stenosis had stent thrombosis and died 4 months after procedure. Restenosis occurred in 3 cases (2 hepatic vein and 1 mesenterico-caval shunt stenosis) and were successfully treated by balloon angioplasty (n=2) and addition of new stents (n=1) leading to a 82% secondary stent patency. Of 9 patients with patent stent, 7 were asymptomatic (77%) at the end of the study. Stent placement is a safe and effective procedure to control of symptomatic BCS. Prothrombotic disorder does not seem to jeopardize patency in anticoagulated patients. (orig.)

  4. Inversed relationship between CD44 variant and c-Myc due to oxidative stress-induced canonical Wnt activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Go J.; Saya, Hideyuki

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •CD44 variant8–10 and c-Myc are inversely expressed in gastric cancer cells. •Redox-stress enhances c-Myc expression via canonical Wnt signal. •CD44v, but not CD44 standard, suppresses redox stress-induced Wnt activation. •CD44v expression promotes both transcription and proteasome degradation of c-Myc. •Inversed expression pattern between CD44v and c-Myc is often recognized in vivo. -- Abstract: Cancer stem-like cells express high amount of CD44 variant8-10 which protects cancer cells from redox stress. We have demonstrated by immunohistochemical analysis and Western blotting, and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, that CD44 variant8-10 and c-Myc tend to show the inversed expression manner in gastric cancer cells. That is attributable to the oxidative stress-induced canonical Wnt activation, and furthermore, the up-regulation of the downstream molecules, one of which is oncogenic c-Myc, is not easily to occur in CD44 variant-positive cancer cells. We have also found out that CD44v8-10 expression is associated with the turn-over of the c-Myc with the experiments using gastric cancer cell lines. This cannot be simply explained by the model of oxidative stress-induced Wnt activation. CD44v8-10-positive cancer cells are enriched at the invasive front. Tumor tissue at the invasive area is considered to be composed of heterogeneous cellular population; dormant cancer stem-like cells with CD44v8-10 high / Fbw7 high / c-Myc low and proliferative cancer stem-like cells with CD44v8-10 high / Fbw7 low / c-Myc high

  5. Inversed relationship between CD44 variant and c-Myc due to oxidative stress-induced canonical Wnt activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Go J., E-mail: medical21go@yahoo.co.jp; Saya, Hideyuki

    2014-01-10

    Highlights: •CD44 variant8–10 and c-Myc are inversely expressed in gastric cancer cells. •Redox-stress enhances c-Myc expression via canonical Wnt signal. •CD44v, but not CD44 standard, suppresses redox stress-induced Wnt activation. •CD44v expression promotes both transcription and proteasome degradation of c-Myc. •Inversed expression pattern between CD44v and c-Myc is often recognized in vivo. -- Abstract: Cancer stem-like cells express high amount of CD44 variant8-10 which protects cancer cells from redox stress. We have demonstrated by immunohistochemical analysis and Western blotting, and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, that CD44 variant8-10 and c-Myc tend to show the inversed expression manner in gastric cancer cells. That is attributable to the oxidative stress-induced canonical Wnt activation, and furthermore, the up-regulation of the downstream molecules, one of which is oncogenic c-Myc, is not easily to occur in CD44 variant-positive cancer cells. We have also found out that CD44v8-10 expression is associated with the turn-over of the c-Myc with the experiments using gastric cancer cell lines. This cannot be simply explained by the model of oxidative stress-induced Wnt activation. CD44v8-10-positive cancer cells are enriched at the invasive front. Tumor tissue at the invasive area is considered to be composed of heterogeneous cellular population; dormant cancer stem-like cells with CD44v8-10 {sup high}/ Fbw7 {sup high}/ c-Myc {sup low} and proliferative cancer stem-like cells with CD44v8-10 {sup high}/ Fbw7 {sup low}/ c-Myc {sup high}.

  6. Oxidative stress due to (R)-styrene oxide exposure and the role of antioxidants in non-Swiss albino (NSA) mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meszka-Jordan, Anna; Mahlapuu, Riina; Soomets, Ursel; Carlson, Gary P

    2009-01-01

    Styrene produces lung and liver damage that may be related to oxidative stress. The purpose of this study was to investigate the toxicity of (R)-styrene oxide (R-SO), the more active enantiomeric metabolite of styrene, and the protective properties of the antioxidants glutathione (GSH), N-acetylcysteine (NAC), and 4-methoxy-L-tyrosinyl-gamma-L-glutamyl-L-cysteinyl-glycine (UPF1) against R-SO-induced toxicity in non-Swiss Albino (NSA) mice. UPF1 is a synthetic GSH analog that was shown to have 60 times the ability to scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS) in comparison to GSH. R-SO toxicity to the lung was measured by elevations in the activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), protein concentration, and number of cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Toxicity to the liver was measured by increases in serum sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH) activity. Antioxidants were not able to decrease the adverse effects of R-SO on lung. However, NAC (200 mg/kg) ip and GSH (600 mg/kg), administered orally prior to R-SO (300 mg/kg) ip, showed significant protection against liver toxicity as measured by SDH activity. Unexpectedly, a synthetic GSH analog, UPF1 (0.8 mg/kg), administered intravenously (iv) prior to R-SO, produced a synergistic effect with regard to liver and lung toxicity. Treatment with UPF1 (0.8 mg/kg) iv every other day for 1 wk for preconditioning prior to R-SO ip did not result in any protection against liver and lung toxicity, but rather enhanced the toxicity when administered prior R-SO. The results of the present study demonstrated protection against R-SO toxicity in liver but not lung by the administration of the antioxidants NAC and GSH.

  7. The nucleic acid metabolism in rat liver after single and long-term administration of tritium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shorokhova, V.B.

    1984-01-01

    It was shown that after a single administration of tritiUm oxide in a dose of 22.2 MBq/g body mass the liver mass increased, the concentration of nucleic acids decreased and the biosynthesjs rate increased dUring a one-month observation. By the end of the observation period (the first year) the parameters under study were normalized. The long-term administration of tritium oxide in daily doses of 0.37, 0.925 and 1.85 MBq/g body mass caused changes in the nucleac acid metabolism which were less manifest (at early times), than in the case of a single injection. At the same time, the long-term administration of tritium oxide in the dose of 0.925 MBq/g caused a substantial disturbance of the nucleic acid metabolism at later times (after 2-9 months)

  8. Program of long term immunological monitoring of population groups exposed to risk factors due to Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, R.V.; Oradovskaya, I.V.; Pinegin, B.V.

    1991-01-01

    Program for long-term monitoring of health and immune status of people exposed to ionizing radiation during efforts to to eliminate effects of Chernobyl accident and those subjected to radiation factor effect linked with their living within the contanimated territories is considered. Program purpose consists in investigation into non-stochastic and stochastic immunological effects resulting from radiation factor effect under extreme conditions and under prolonged effect of low doses; in acquisition of new data on immune system state during early after the accident and delayed periods in people which took part in recovery efforts during the accident effect elimination and those who live within the controlled territories. Program is directed to early diagnostics of immune-depented pathologic states and other disfunctions of immunity during prenosologic period, and to development and conduction of combined preventive and treatment-and-sanitary measures using immunomodulation

  9. Nitric oxide affects short-term olfactory memory in the antennal lobe of Manduca sexta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, Stephanie L; Daly, Kevin C; Nighorn, Alan

    2013-09-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is thought to play an important neuromodulatory role in olfaction. We are using the hawkmoth Manduca sexta to investigate the function of NO signaling in the antennal lobe (AL; the primary olfactory network in invertebrates). We have found previously that NO is present at baseline levels, dramatically increases in response to odor stimulation, and alters the electrophysiology of AL neurons. It is unclear, however, how these effects contribute to common features of olfactory systems such as olfactory learning and memory, odor detection and odor discrimination. In this study, we used chemical detection and a behavioral approach to further examine the function of NO in the AL. We found that basal levels of NO fluctuate with the daily light cycle, being higher during the nocturnal active period. NO also appears to be necessary for short-term olfactory memory. NO does not appear to affect odor detection, odor discrimination between dissimilar odorants, or learning acquisition. These findings suggest a modulatory role for NO in the timing of olfactory-guided behaviors.

  10. Recurrent Pneumonia due to Fibrosing Mediastinitis in a Teenage Girl: A Case Report with Long-Term Follow-Up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avigdor Hevroni

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A teenage girl was evaluated for recurrent right pneumonia. The evaluation revealed a calcified mediastinal mass that compressed the right intermediate and middle lobar bronchi, as well as the right pulmonary artery and veins. The clinical picture together with imaging studies and borderline positive serology testing suggested a diagnosis of fibrosing mediastinitis associated with histoplasmosis. This rare condition is characterized by the local proliferation of invasive fibrous tissue within the mediastinum due to a hyperimmune reaction to Histoplasma capsulatum. Antifungal and anti-inflammatory therapies are usually ineffective, and surgical intervention contains a high morbidity risk. Palliative surgery and stenting of the compressed airway have been suggested. In the past, the prognosis was thought to be poor, but recent studies demonstrate a more positive outcome. Our patient had been radiologically and functionally stable under follow-up for over thirteen years and has married and delivered two healthy children, both following an uneventful pregnancy.

  11. Long-term Steam Electrolysis with Electrolyte-Supported Solid Oxide Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schefold, Josef; Brisse, Annabelle; Poepke, Hendrik

    2015-01-01

    Steam electrolysis over 11000 h with an electrolyte-supported solid oxide cell is discussed. The cell of 45 cm"2 area consists of a scandia/ceria doped zirconia electrolyte (6Sc1CeSZ), CGO diffusion-barrier/adhesion layers, a lanthanum strontium cobaltite ferrite (LSCF) oxygen electrode, and a nickel steam/hydrogen electrode. After initial 2500 h operation with lower current-density magnitude, the current density was set to j = -0.9 A cm"−"2 and the steam conversion rate to 51%. This led to a cell voltage of 1.185 V at 847 °C cell temperature. Average voltage degradation was 7.3 mV/1000 h ( 100% throughout the test (with an external heat source for evaporation). Impedance spectroscopic measurements revealed a degradation almost entirely due to increasing ohmic resistance. The rate of resistance increase was initially faster (up to 40 mΩ cm"2/1000 h) and stabilised after several 1000 h operation. After 9000 h a small (non-ohmic) electrode degradation became detectable (<2 mV/1000 h), superimposed to ohmic degradation. The small electrode degradation is understood as indication for largely reversible (electrolysis cell/fuel cell) behaviour.

  12. Induction of apoptosis by zerumbone isolated from Zingiber zerumbet (L.) Smith in protozoan parasite Leishmania donovani due to oxidative stress

    OpenAIRE

    Mukherjee, Debarati; Singh, Chingakham Brajakishor; Dey, Somaditya; Mandal, Supratim; Ghosh, Joydip; Mallick, Suvadip; Hussain, Aabid; Swapana, Ningombam; Ross, Samir Anis; Pal, Chiranjib

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In the present context of emergence of resistance aligned with the conventional anti-leishmanial drugs and occasional treatment failure compelled us to continue the search for replaceable therapeutic leads against Leishmaniainfection. Various ginger spices of the Zingiberaceae family are widely used as spices, flavouring agents, and medicines in Southeast Asia because of their unique flavour as well as due to their medicinal properties. Zerumbone, a natural component of Zingiber zeru...

  13. Long-term impacts due to sediment supply changes towards the San Francisco Bay-Delta system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achete, F.; Van der Wegen, M. V.; Jaffe, B. E.

    2012-12-01

    The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta and Watershed is the main source of fresh water and sediment to San Francisco Bay. Mid 19th century hydraulic mining in the catchment caused an excessive supply of sediment. After mining activities stopped, in the first part of the 20th century several hydraulic structures were built deviating fresh water and trapping sediment upstream. The main purpose of most of these structures is water storage for irrigation and/or water supply Wright and Schoellhamer (2004) show that from 1957 to 2001 the sediment load carried to San Francisco Bay has decreased by about one half. The lack of sediments may lead to a different erosion/deposition pattern in the Bay-Delta system causing problems like mud flat erosion, shift in navigation channel, land subsidence and changing habitat for endemic species. The objective of this work is to identify and quantify morphological shifts in the Bay-Delta system due to variation in fresh water and sediment supply. In this study, we couple the Delta and Bay in a unique model network (the Delta-Bay model). This coupling allows tracking of sediment from Sacramento via the Delta and Bay and through the Golden Gate, making it possible to identify erosion and deposition areas. The numerical model applied is an unstructured, process-based model (D-Flow Flexible Mesh developed by Deltares). It simulates the hydrodynamics and morphodynamics of the area on a detailed, 64000-node mesh (10-200m mesh length scale) on a timescale of minutes. The morphological impact is assessed for multiple scenarios with different input of sediment and fresh water. A statistical analysis is performed to account for uncertainty of model parameters and climate change impacts. The fresh water discharge already has a strong natural seasonal and inter-annual variation. The human impact by foreseen different water pumping strategies due to the peripheral canal will be considered. Jaffe et al. (2007) has shown that substantial morphological

  14. Long-Term Effect of GPi-DBS in a Patient With Generalized Dystonia Due to GLUT1 Deficiency Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idil Hanci

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Treatment outcomes from pallidal deep brain stimulation are highly heterogeneous reflecting the phenotypic and etiologic spectrum of dystonia. Treatment stratification to neurostimulation therapy primarily relies on the phenotypic motor presentation; however, etiology including genetic factors are increasingly recognized as modifiers of treatment outcomes. Here, we describe a 53 year-old female patient with a progressive generalized dystonia since age 25. The patient underwent deep brain stimulation of the globus pallidus internus (GPi-DBS at age 44. Since the clinical phenotype included mobile choreo-dystonic features, we expected favorable therapeutic outcome from GPi-DBS. Although mobile dystonia components were slightly improved in the long-term outcome from GPi-DBS the overall therapeutic response 9 years from implantation was limited when comparing “stimulation off” and “stimulation on” despite of proper electrode localization and sufficient stimulation programming. In order to further understand the reason for this limited motor symptom response, we aimed to clarify the etiology of generalized dystonia in this patient. Genetic testing identified a novel heterozygous pathogenic SLC2A1 mutation as cause of glucose transporter type 1 deficiency syndrome (GLUT1-DS. This case report presents the first outcome of GPi-DBS in a patient with GLUT1-DS, and suggests that genotype relations may increasingly complement phenotype-based therapy stratification of GPi-DBS in dystonia.

  15. Long-term patterns in soil acidification due to pollution in forests of the Eastern Sudetes Mountains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedl, Radim; Petrik, Petr; Boublik, Karel

    2011-01-01

    Soil acidification was assessed in the Eastern Sudetes Mountains (Czech Republic) between 1941 and 2003, i.e. before and after the period of major industrial pollution (1950s-1990s). The twenty sites included in our study were distributed along a gradient of altitude ranging 1000 m. Values of pH have decreased in 80-90% of the pairs of samples after the six decades, on average by 0.7 for pH-H 2 O and 0.6 for pH-KCl. Organic matter increased in the topsoil, probably reflecting a change in decomposition conditions. The most important finding is that the acidification varies along the joint gradient of altitude/tree layer composition, and displays a changing pattern in three soil horizons (A, B and C). Contrary to expectations, most acidified were soils in beech forests at lower elevations. - Highlights: → Soil acidification varies along the joint gradient of altitude/tree composition. → Soil acidification displays a changing pattern in topsoil and subsoil horizons. → Acidification rate is stronger in soils of beech forests at lower elevation. → Historical measurements provide a reliable evidence of long-term soil acidification. - Strong acidification decreasing with altitude was observed in forest soils resurveyed after more than half a century.

  16. Bilateral vision loss due to Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy after long-term alcohol, nicotine and drug abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maass, Johanna; Matthé, Egbert

    2018-04-01

    Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy is relatively rare, and no clinical pathognomonic signs exist. We present a rare case of bilateral vision loss of a patient with multiple drug abuse in the history. A 31-year-old man presented with a history of progressive, decreased vision in both eyes for 6 month. On examination, his visual acuity was hand motion in both eyes. Funduscopy demonstrated a temporal pallor of the optic disc. Goldmann visual field perimetry showed a crescent visual field in the right eye and a circular decrease to less than 50 ° in the left eye. Electroretinogram showed a scotopic b-wave amplitude reduction. Optical coherence tomographies, Heidelberg Retina tomography, visual evoked potentials, and magnetic resonance imaging with contrast as well as blood tests were normal. The patient reported to consume various kinds of drugs as well as recreational drug use and alcohol consumption since he was 16 years old. We started a hemodilution therapy, believing the patient suffered from a bilateral, toxic optic neuropathy due to his lifestyle. Laboratory results later on showed Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy. Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy is a rare disease without a typical, pathognomonic presentation. Even though the patient gave good reasons for a toxic optic neuropathy, one should never stop to test for other diseases.

  17. Radiation-enhanced short channel effects due to multi-dimensional influence from charge at trench isolation oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youk, G.U.; Khare, P.S.; Schrimpf, R.D.; Massengill, L.W.; Galloway, K.F.

    1999-01-01

    Radiation enhanced drain induced barrier lowering (DIBL) was experimentally observed and verified by 3-D simulations for submicron devices with trench isolation oxides. Submicron MOSFETs with shallow trench isolation were exposed to total-ionizing-dose radiation. Prior to irradiation, the devices exhibited near-ideal current-voltage characteristics, with no significant short-channel effects for as-drawn gate lengths of 0.4 microm. Following irradiation, the off-state leakage current increased significantly for total doses above about 650 krad(SiO 2 ). In addition, the irradiated devices exhibited DIBL that increased the drain current by 5--10x for a gate length of 0.4 microm (the nominal minimum gate length for this process) and much more for slightly shorter devices (0.35 microm). The increase in the off-state leakage current and the accompanying DIBL are shown to be associated with a parasitic field-effect transistor that is present at the edge of the shallow trench. Three-dimensional simulations are used to illustrate the effect. Simulations show that trapped charge at the trench sidewalls enhance the DIBL by depleting the edges of the channel. Radiation-induced charge may decrease the effectiveness of short-channel engineering

  18. Uncertainty of long-term CO2 flux estimates due to the choice of the spectral correction method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrom, Andreas; Geißler, Simon; Pilegaard, Kim

    2010-05-01

    The eddy covariance system at the Danish beech forest long-term flux observation site at Sorø has been intensively examined. Here we investigate which systematic and non-systematic effects the choice of the spectral correction method has on long-term net CO2 flux estimates and their components. Ibrom et al. (2007) gave an overview over different ways to correct for low-pass filtering of the atmospheric turbulent signal by a closed path eddy covariance system. They used degraded temperature time series for spectral correction of low-pass filtered signals. In this new study, correction for high-pass filtering was also included, which made it anyway necessary to use model co-spectra. We compared different ways of adapting different kinds of model co-spectra to the wealth of 14 years high frequency raw data. As the trees grew, the distance between the sonic anemometer and the displacement height decreased over time. The study enabled us to compare the two approaches and different variants of them to give recommendations on their use. The analysis showed that model spectra should not be derived from co-spectra between the vertical wind speed (w) and the scalars measured with the closed path system, i.e. CO2 and H20 concentrations, but instead with sonic temperature (T) w cospectra, to avoid low-pass filtering effects on the estimation of the co-spectral peak frequency (fx). This concern was already expressed earlier in the above mentioned study, but here we show the quantitative effects. The wT co-spectra did not show any height effect on fx as it was suggested in generally used parameterizations. A possible reason for this difference is that measurements, like in all forest flux sites, took place in the roughness sub-layer and not in the inertial sub-layer. At the same time the shape of the relationship between fx and the stability parameter ? differed much from that of often used parameterizations (e.g. from Horst, 1997). The shift of fx towards higher frequencies at

  19. Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and mortality due to cardiovascular disease and cerebrovascular disease in Shenyang, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengfei Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The relationship between ambient air pollution exposure and mortality of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases in human is controversial, and there is little information about how exposures to ambient air pollution contribution to the mortality of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases among Chinese. The aim of the present study was to examine whether exposure to ambient-air pollution increases the risk for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study among humans to examine the association between compound-air pollutants [particulate matter <10 µm in aerodynamic diameter (PM(10, sulfur dioxide (SO(2 and nitrogen dioxide (NO(2] and mortality in Shenyang, China, using 12 years of data (1998-2009. Also, stratified analysis by sex, age, education, and income was conducted for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular mortality. The results showed that an increase of 10 µg/m(3 in a year average concentration of PM(10 corresponds to 55% increase in the risk of a death cardiovascular disease (hazard ratio [HR], 1.55; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.51 to 1.60 and 49% increase in cerebrovascular disease (HR, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.45 to 1.53, respectively. The corresponding figures of adjusted HR (95%CI for a 10 µg/m(3 increase in NO(2 was 2.46 (2.31 to 2.63 for cardiovascular mortality and 2.44 (2.27 to 2.62 for cerebrovascular mortality, respectively. The effects of air pollution were more evident in female that in male, and nonsmokers and residents with BMI<18.5 were more vulnerable to outdoor air pollution. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution is associated with the death of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases among Chinese populations.

  20. Short-Term Absenteeism and Health Care Utilization Due to Lower Extremity Injuries Among Novice Runners: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, Dirk-Wouter; Huisstede, Bionka; Verhagen, Evert; van der Worp, Henk; Kluitenberg, Bas; van Middelkoop, Marienke; Hartgens, Fred; Backx, Frank

    2016-11-01

    To describe absenteeism and health care utilization (HCU) within 6 weeks after occurrence of running-related injuries (RRIs) among novice runners and to explore differences relating to injury and personal characteristics. Prospective cohort study. Primary care. One thousand six hundred ninety-six novice runners (18-65 years) participating in a 6-week running program ("Start-to-Run"). Injury characteristics were assessed by weekly training logs and personal characteristics by a baseline questionnaire. Data on absenteeism and HCU were collected using questionnaires at 2 and 6 weeks after the RRI occurred. A total of 185 novice runners (11%) reported an RRI during the 6-week program. Of these injured novice runners, 78% reported absence from sports, whereas only 4% reported absence from work. Fifty-one percent of the injured novice runners visited a health care professional, mostly physical therapists (PTs) rather than physicians. Absenteeism was more common among women than men and was also more common with acute RRIs than gradual-onset RRIs. As regards HCU, both the variety of professionals visited and the number of PT visits were higher among runners with muscle-tendon injuries in the ankle/foot region than among those with other RRIs. Among novice runners sustaining an RRI during a 6-week running program, over three quarters reported short-term absence from sports, whereas absence from work was very limited, and over half used professional health care. Both absence and HCU are associated with injury characteristics. In future running promotion programs (eg in Start-to-Run programs), specific attention should be paid to acute injuries and to muscle-tendon injuries in the ankle/foot region.

  1. Influence on the oxidative potential of a heavy-duty engine particle emission due to selective catalytic reduction system and biodiesel blend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoi, Ricardo H M; Polezer, Gabriela; Borillo, Guilherme C; Brown, Andrew; Valebona, Fabio B; Silva, Thiago O B; Ingberman, Aline B G; Nalin, Marcelo; Yamamoto, Carlos I; Potgieter-Vermaak, Sanja; Penteado Neto, Renato A; de Marchi, Mary Rosa R; Saldiva, Paulo H N; Pauliquevis, Theotonio; Godoi, Ana Flavia L

    2016-08-01

    Although the particulate matter (PM) emissions from biodiesel fuelled engines are acknowledged to be lower than those of fossil diesel, there is a concern on the impact of PM produced by biodiesel to human health. As the oxidative potential of PM has been suggested as trigger for adverse health effects, it was measured using the Electron Spin Resonance (OP(ESR)) technique. Additionally, Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy (EDXRF) was employed to determine elemental concentration, and Raman Spectroscopy was used to describe the amorphous carbon character of the soot collected on exhaust PM from biodiesel blends fuelled test-bed engine, with and without Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR). OP(ESR) results showed higher oxidative potential per kWh of PM produced from a blend of 20% soybean biodiesel and 80% ULSD (B20) engine compared with a blend of 5% soybean biodiesel and 95% ULSD (B5), whereas the SCR was able to reduce oxidative potential for each fuel. EDXRF data indicates a correlation of 0.99 between concentration of copper and oxidative potential. Raman Spectroscopy centered on the expected carbon peaks between 1100cm(-1) and 1600cm(-1) indicate lower molecular disorder for the B20 particulate matter, an indicative of a more graphitic carbon structure. The analytical techniques used in this study highlight the link between biodiesel engine exhaust and increased oxidative potential relative to biodiesel addition on fossil diesel combustion. The EDXRF analysis confirmed the prominent role of metals on free radical production. As a whole, these results suggest that 20% of biodiesel blends run without SCR may pose an increased health risk due to an increase in OH radical generation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Influence on the oxidative potential of a heavy-duty engine particle emission due to selective catalytic reduction system and biodiesel blend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godoi, Ricardo H.M.; Polezer, Gabriela; Borillo, Guilherme C.; Brown, Andrew; Valebona, Fabio B.; Silva, Thiago O.B.; Ingberman, Aline B.G.; Nalin, Marcelo; Yamamoto, Carlos I.; Potgieter-Vermaak, Sanja; Penteado Neto, Renato A.; Marchi, Mary Rosa R. de; Saldiva, Paulo H.N.; Pauliquevis, Theotonio; Godoi, Ana Flavia L.

    2016-01-01

    Although the particulate matter (PM) emissions from biodiesel fuelled engines are acknowledged to be lower than those of fossil diesel, there is a concern on the impact of PM produced by biodiesel to human health. As the oxidative potential of PM has been suggested as trigger for adverse health effects, it was measured using the Electron Spin Resonance (OP"E"S"R) technique. Additionally, Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy (EDXRF) was employed to determine elemental concentration, and Raman Spectroscopy was used to describe the amorphous carbon character of the soot collected on exhaust PM from biodiesel blends fuelled test-bed engine, with and without Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR). OP"E"S"R results showed higher oxidative potential per kWh of PM produced from a blend of 20% soybean biodiesel and 80% ULSD (B20) engine compared with a blend of 5% soybean biodiesel and 95% ULSD (B5), whereas the SCR was able to reduce oxidative potential for each fuel. EDXRF data indicates a correlation of 0.99 between concentration of copper and oxidative potential. Raman Spectroscopy centered on the expected carbon peaks between 1100 cm"−"1 and 1600 cm"−"1 indicate lower molecular disorder for the B20 particulate matter, an indicative of a more graphitic carbon structure. The analytical techniques used in this study highlight the link between biodiesel engine exhaust and increased oxidative potential relative to biodiesel addition on fossil diesel combustion. The EDXRF analysis confirmed the prominent role of metals on free radical production. As a whole, these results suggest that 20% of biodiesel blends run without SCR may pose an increased health risk due to an increase in OH radical generation. - Highlights: • PM emission from biodiesel burning may be more harmful to human health than diesel. • Euro V (SCR) engine fuelled with B5 and B20 tested in a bench dynamometer • Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) to access the oxidative potential of PM emission

  3. Influence on the oxidative potential of a heavy-duty engine particle emission due to selective catalytic reduction system and biodiesel blend

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godoi, Ricardo H.M., E-mail: rhmgodoi@ufpr.br [Environmental Engineering Department, Federal University of Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Polezer, Gabriela; Borillo, Guilherme C. [Environmental Engineering Department, Federal University of Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Brown, Andrew [Division of Chemistry and Environmental Science, School of Science and the Environment, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester (United Kingdom); Valebona, Fabio B.; Silva, Thiago O.B.; Ingberman, Aline B.G. [Environmental Engineering Department, Federal University of Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Nalin, Marcelo [LAVIE - Institute of Chemistry, São Paulo State University - UNESP, Araraquara (Brazil); Yamamoto, Carlos I. [Chemical Engineering Department, Federal University of Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Potgieter-Vermaak, Sanja [Division of Chemistry and Environmental Science, School of Science and the Environment, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester (United Kingdom); Penteado Neto, Renato A. [Vehicle Emissions Laboratory, Institute of Technology for Development (LACTEC), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Marchi, Mary Rosa R. de [Analytical Chemistry Department, Institute of Chemistry, São Paulo State University - UNESP, Araraquara (Brazil); Saldiva, Paulo H.N. [Laboratory of Experimental Air Pollution, Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, University of São Paulo, São Paulo (Brazil); Pauliquevis, Theotonio [Department of Natural and Earth Sciences, Federal University of São Paulo, Diadema (Brazil); Godoi, Ana Flavia L. [Environmental Engineering Department, Federal University of Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2016-08-01

    Although the particulate matter (PM) emissions from biodiesel fuelled engines are acknowledged to be lower than those of fossil diesel, there is a concern on the impact of PM produced by biodiesel to human health. As the oxidative potential of PM has been suggested as trigger for adverse health effects, it was measured using the Electron Spin Resonance (OP{sup ESR}) technique. Additionally, Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy (EDXRF) was employed to determine elemental concentration, and Raman Spectroscopy was used to describe the amorphous carbon character of the soot collected on exhaust PM from biodiesel blends fuelled test-bed engine, with and without Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR). OP{sup ESR} results showed higher oxidative potential per kWh of PM produced from a blend of 20% soybean biodiesel and 80% ULSD (B20) engine compared with a blend of 5% soybean biodiesel and 95% ULSD (B5), whereas the SCR was able to reduce oxidative potential for each fuel. EDXRF data indicates a correlation of 0.99 between concentration of copper and oxidative potential. Raman Spectroscopy centered on the expected carbon peaks between 1100 cm{sup −1} and 1600 cm{sup −1} indicate lower molecular disorder for the B20 particulate matter, an indicative of a more graphitic carbon structure. The analytical techniques used in this study highlight the link between biodiesel engine exhaust and increased oxidative potential relative to biodiesel addition on fossil diesel combustion. The EDXRF analysis confirmed the prominent role of metals on free radical production. As a whole, these results suggest that 20% of biodiesel blends run without SCR may pose an increased health risk due to an increase in OH radical generation. - Highlights: • PM emission from biodiesel burning may be more harmful to human health than diesel. • Euro V (SCR) engine fuelled with B5 and B20 tested in a bench dynamometer • Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) to access the oxidative potential of

  4. Short-Term Synaptic Plasticity Regulation in Solution-Gated Indium-Gallium-Zinc-Oxide Electric-Double-Layer Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Chang Jin; Liu, Yang Hui; Zhu, Li Qiang; Feng, Ping; Shi, Yi; Wan, Qing

    2016-04-20

    In the biological nervous system, synaptic plasticity regulation is based on the modulation of ionic fluxes, and such regulation was regarded as the fundamental mechanism underlying memory and learning. Inspired by such biological strategies, indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (IGZO) electric-double-layer (EDL) transistors gated by aqueous solutions were proposed for synaptic behavior emulations. Short-term synaptic plasticity, such as paired-pulse facilitation, high-pass filtering, and orientation tuning, was experimentally emulated in these EDL transistors. Most importantly, we found that such short-term synaptic plasticity can be effectively regulated by alcohol (ethyl alcohol) and salt (potassium chloride) additives. Our results suggest that solution gated oxide-based EDL transistors could act as the platforms for short-term synaptic plasticity emulation.

  5. Effect of nitrous oxide on pain due to rocuronium injection: A randomised, double-blind, controlled clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonal Sharma

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A prospective, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was carried out to determine the effect of nitrous oxide (N 2 O on the frequency and severity of pain and withdrawal reactions after injection of rocuronium. Eighty ASA physical status I and II patients undergoing general anaesthesia for elective surgery were enrolled. The patients were randomised to receive 100% oxygen (O 2 , or 50% N 2 O in O 2 for 3 minutes followed by a subparalysing dose of rocuronium 0.06 mg/kg. After induction of anaesthesia with thiopentone 5 mg/kg, an intubating dose of rocuronium 0.6 mg/kg was given. The patients were observed after injection of rocuronium 0.06 mg/kg, and asked to rate pain in the arm on a 4-point (0-3 verbal rating scale (none, mild, moderate or severe. After the intubating dose of rocuronium, withdrawal reactions were recorded. Thirty-six patients (90% in the group N 2 O and 15 patients (37.5% in the group O 2 reported no pain (P < 0.001. The pain was mild in 1 (2.5% and 9 (22.5% patients in N 2 O and O 2 groups, respectively (P = 0.006. Moderate pain occurred in 2 (5% patients in group N 2 O and 15 (37.5% patients in group O 2 (P = 0.001. Severe pain was reported by one patient in each group (P = 0.47. Withdrawal response after an intubating dose of rocuronium was observed in 6 (15% and 18 (45% patients in the N 2 O and O 2 groups, respectively (P < 0.05. Inhalation of 50% N 2 O in O 2 reduces the incidence and severity of pain and the withdrawal reactions associated with rocuronium injection.

  6. Examining food additives and spices for their anti-oxidant ability to counteract oxidative damage due to chronic exposure to free radicals from environmental pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Raul A., III

    The main objective of this work was to examine food additives and spices (from the Apiaceae family) to determine their antioxidant properties to counteract oxidative stress (damage) caused by Environmental pollutants. Environmental pollutants generate Reactive Oxygen species and Reactive Nitrogen species. Star anise essential oil showed lower antioxidant activity than extracts using DPPH scavenging. Dill Seed -- Anethum Graveolens -the monoterpene components of dill showed to activate the enzyme glutathione-S-transferase , which helped attach the antioxidant molecule glutathione to oxidized molecules that would otherwise do damage in the body. The antioxidant activity of extracts of dill was comparable with ascorbic acid, alpha-tocopherol, and quercetin in in-vitro systems. Black Cumin -- Nigella Sativa: was evaluated the method 1,1-diphenyl2-picrylhhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity. Positive correlations were found between the total phenolic content in the black cumin extracts and their antioxidant activities. Caraway -- Carum Carvi: The antioxidant activity was evaluated by the scavenging effects of 1,1'-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). Caraway showed strong antioxidant activity. Cumin -- Cuminum Cyminum - the major polyphenolic were extracted and separated by HPTLC. The antioxidant activity of the cumin extract was tested on 1,1'-diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging. Coriander -- Coriandrum Sativum - the antioxidant and free-radical-scavenging property of the seeds was studied and also investigated whether the administration of seeds curtails oxidative stress. Coriander seed powder not only inhibited the process of Peroxidative damage, but also significantly reactivated the antioxidant enzymes and antioxidant levels. The seeds also showed scavenging activity against superoxides and hydroxyl radicals. The total polyphenolic content of the seeds was found to be 12.2 galic acid equivalents (GAE)/g while the total flavonoid content

  7. Induction of apoptosis by zerumbone isolated from Zingiber zerumbet (L. Smith in protozoan parasite Leishmania donovani due to oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debarati Mukherjee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present context of emergence of resistance aligned with the conventional anti-leishmanial drugs and occasional treatment failure compelled us to continue the search for replaceable therapeutic leads against Leishmania infection. Various ginger spices of the Zingiberaceae family are widely used as spices, flavouring agents, and medicines in Southeast Asia because of their unique flavour as well as due to their medicinal properties. Zerumbone, a natural component of Zingiber zerumbet (L. Smith, has been studied for its pharmacological potential as antiulcer, antioxidant, anticancer, and antimicrobial. In this study, we have shown that zerumbone could induce ROS mediated apoptosis in Leishmania donovani promastigotes and also found effective in reducing intracellular amastigotes in infected-macrophages. We emphasized the potential of zerumbone to be employed in the development of new therapeutic drugs against L. donovani infection and provided the basis for future research on the application of transitional medicinal plants.

  8. Effects of long-term football training on the expression profile of genes involved in muscle oxidative metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alfieri, A; Martone, D; Randers, Morten Bredsgaard

    2015-01-01

    and a muscle biopsy from the vastus lateralis were collected at T0 (pre intervention) and at T1 (post intervention). Gene expression was measured by RTqPCR on RNA extracted from muscle biopsies. The expression levels of the genes principally involved in energy metabolism (PPARγ, adiponectin, AMPKα1/α2, TFAM...... to improve the expression of muscle molecular biomarkers that are correlated to oxidative metabolism in healthy males....... are directly or indirectly involved in the glucose and lipid oxidative metabolism. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that fat percentage was independently associated with NAMPT, PPARγ and adiponectin expression. In conclusion, long-term recreational football training could be a useful tool...

  9. Nitric oxide regulates input specificity of long-term depression and context dependence of cerebellar learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideaki Ogasawara

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that multiple internal models are acquired in the cerebellum and that these can be switched under a given context of behavior. It has been proposed that long-term depression (LTD of parallel fiber (PF-Purkinje cell (PC synapses forms the cellular basis of cerebellar learning, and that the presynaptically synthesized messenger nitric oxide (NO is a crucial "gatekeeper" for LTD. Because NO diffuses freely to neighboring synapses, this volume learning is not input-specific and brings into question the biological significance of LTD as the basic mechanism for efficient supervised learning. To better characterize the role of NO in cerebellar learning, we simulated the sequence of electrophysiological and biochemical events in PF-PC LTD by combining established simulation models of the electrophysiology, calcium dynamics, and signaling pathways of the PC. The results demonstrate that the local NO concentration is critical for induction of LTD and for its input specificity. Pre- and postsynaptic coincident firing is not sufficient for a PF-PC synapse to undergo LTD, and LTD is induced only when a sufficient amount of NO is provided by activation of the surrounding PFs. On the other hand, above-adequate levels of activity in nearby PFs cause accumulation of NO, which also allows LTD in neighboring synapses that were not directly stimulated, ruining input specificity. These findings lead us to propose the hypothesis that NO represents the relevance of a given context and enables context-dependent selection of internal models to be updated. We also predict sparse PF activity in vivo because, otherwise, input specificity would be lost.

  10. Non steady-state model for dry oxidation of nuclear wastes metallic containers in long term interim storage conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertrand, Nathalie; Desgranges, Clara; Poquillon, Dominique; Monceau, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    For high-level nuclear waste containers in long-term interim storage, dry oxidation will be the first and the main degradation mode. The reason is that, for this kind of waste, the temperature on the surface of the containers will be high enough to avoid any condensation phenomena for several years. Even if the scale growth kinetics is expected to be very slow since the temperature will be moderate at the beginning of the storage (around 300 deg. C) and will keep on decreasing, the metal thickness lost by dry oxidation over such a long period must be evaluated with a good reliability. To achieve this goal, modelling of the oxide scale growth is necessary and this is the aim of the dry oxidation studies, performed in the frame of the COCON programme. All existing oxidation models are based on the two main oxidation theories developed by Wagner between the 1930's and 1970's on the one hand, and by Cabrera and Mott in the 1960 and next by Fromhold on the other hand. These used to be associated with high temperature behaviour for Wagner's theory and with low temperature for the second one. Indeed it is certainly more relevant to consider their range of application in terms of the oxide scale thickness rather than in terms of temperature. The question is posed about which theory should an appropriate model rely on. It can be expected that the oxide scale could have a thickness ranging from a few tens of nanometers up to several tens of micrometers depending on temperature and class of alloys chosen. At the present time, low-alloyed steels or carbon steels are considered candidate materials for high-level nuclear waste containers in long term interim storage. For this type of alloys, the scale formed during the dry oxidation stage will be 'rapidly' thick enough to neglect the Mott field. Hence, in a first step, some basic models based on a parabolic rate assumption, that is to say Wagner's model, have been derived from experimental data on iron and on low-alloy steel

  11. Nitric-oxide supplementation for treatment of long-term complications in argininosuccinic aciduria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argininosuccinate lyase (ASL) is required for the synthesis and channeling of L-arginine to nitric oxide synthase (NOS) for nitric oxide (NO) production. Congenital ASL deficiency causes argininosuccinic aciduria (ASA), the second most common urea cycle disorder, and leads to deficiency of both urea...

  12. Bactericidal Activity of Copper Oxide Nanocomposite/Bioglass for in Vitro Clindamycin Release in Implant Infections Due to Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alijanian

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background In recent years, bioactive bioceramics such as bioglass and hydroxyapatite (HA have been introduced as a remarkable development in the field of medicine due to their bio-adaptability, non-toxicity, and persistence, in vivo. They have many potential applications in the repair of bone defects and hence they have attracted significant interest from scholars. Objectives The aim of this study was to synthesize inorganic matrix CuO-based bioglasses and evaluate their antibacterial activity against aerobic bacterial infections in bone implants. Methods Nano-composite samples of silica-based bioactive glass, 60S BG with nano-powder CuO, were synthesized using the sol-gel method and then assessed with regard to their antibacterial properties against Staphylococcus aureus using well diffusion agar. The samples included BG58S (58%SiO2, 36%CaO, 6%P2O5, BG/10CuO (58%SiO2, 26%CaO, 6%P2O5, 10%CuO, and BG/20CuO (48%SiO2, 26%CaO, 6%P2O5, 20%CuO. To evaluate their bioactivity, the prepared samples of BG/20CuO, BG/10CuO, and BG58S were immersed in simulated body fluids (SBF. The surface morphology and structure of the samples before and after immersion in the SBF were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR, respectively. Then, the BG/20CuO and BG/10CuO samples were loaded in clindamycin, an antibiotic widely used in the treatment of osteomyelitis, and their release profiles were studied in phosphate buffer solution. Results It was observed that the growth inhibition zone increased through clindamycin release due to the increasing CuO percentage in the nanocomposite of bioactive glass. The bioactivity of the nanocomposite/bioglass with CuO was superior to that of bioglass alone. In this study, the BG/20CuO sample showed a sustained release of clindamycin, which is sufficient for a drug delivery system. Conclusions Increasing the Cu nanoparticles in bioactive glass samples leads to the release of Cu2

  13. Fabrication of long-term stable superoleophobic surface based on copper oxide/cobalt oxide with micro-nanoscale hierarchical roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthwal, Sumit; Lim, Si-Hyung

    2015-02-01

    We have demonstrated a simple and cost-effective technique for the large-area fabrication of a superoleophobic surface using copper as a substrate. The whole process included three simple steps: First, the copper substrate was oxidized under hot alkaline conditions to fabricate flower-like copper oxide microspheres by heating at a particular temperature for an interval of time. Second, the copper-oxide-covered copper substrate was further heated in a solution of cobalt nitrate and ammonium nitrate in the presence of an ammonia solution to fabricate cobalt oxide nanostructures. We applied this second step to increase the surface roughness because it is an important criterion for improved superoleophobicity. Finally, to reduce the surface energy of the fabricated structures, the surfaces were chemically modified with perfluorooctyltrichlorosilane. Contact-angle measurements indicate that the micro-nano binary (MNB) hierarchical structures fabricated on the copper substrate became super-repellent toward a broad range of liquids with surface tension in the range of 21.5-72 mN/m. In an attempt to significantly improve the superoleophobic property of the surface, we also examined and compared the role of nanostructures in MNB hierarchical structures with only micro-fabricated surfaces. The fabricated MNB hierarchical structures also displays thermal stability and excellent long-term stability after exposure in air for more than 9 months. Our method might provide a general route toward the preparation of novel hierarchical films on metal substrates for various industrial applications.

  14. Observational evidence of a long-term increase in precipitation due to urbanization effects and its implications for sustainable urban living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wai, K M; Wang, X M; Lin, T H; Wong, M S; Zeng, S K; He, N; Ng, E; Lau, K; Wang, D H

    2017-12-01

    Although projected precipitation increases in East Asia due to future climate change have aroused concern, less attention has been paid by the scientific community and public to the potential long-term increase in precipitation due to rapid urbanization. A ten-year precipitation dataset was analysed for both a rapidly urbanized megacity and nearby suburban/rural stations in southern China. Rapid urbanization in the megacity was evident from satellite observations. A statistically significant, long-term, increasing trend of precipitation existed only at the megacity station (45.6mm per decade) and not at the other stations. The increase was attributed to thermal and dynamical modifications of the tropospheric boundary layer related to urbanization, which was confirmed by the results of our WRF-SLUCM simulations. The results also suggested that a long-term regional increase in precipitation, caused by greenhouse gas-induced climate change, for instance, was not evident within the study period. The urbanization-induced increase was found to be higher than the precipitation increase (18.3mm per decade) expected from future climate change. The direct climate impacts due to rapid urbanization is highlighted with strong implications for urban sustainable development and the planning of effective adaptation strategies for issues such as coastal defenses, mosquito-borne disease spread and heat stress mortality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Mid-term survivorship and clinical outcomes of cobalt-chrome and oxidized zirconium on highly crosslinked polyethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petis, Stephen M; Vasarhelyi, Edward M; Lanting, Brent A; Howard, James L; Naudie, Douglas D R; Somerville, Lyndsay E; McCalden, Richard W

    2016-02-01

    The choice of bearing articulation for total hip arthroplasty in younger patients is amenable to debate. We compared mid-term patient-reported outcomes and survivorship across 2 different bearing articulations in a young patient cohort. We reviewed patients with cobalt-chrome or oxidized zirconium on highly crosslinked polyethylene who were followed prospectively between 2004 and 2012. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to determine predicted cumulative survivorship at 5 years with all-cause and aseptic revisions as the outcome. We compared patient-reported outcomes, including the Harris hip score (HHS), Western Ontario and McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) and Short-form 12 (SF-12) scores. A total of 622 patients were followed during the study period. Mean follow-up was 8.2 (range 2.0-10.6) years for cobalt-chrome and 7.8 (range 2.1-10.7) years for oxidized zirconium. Mean age was 54.9 ± 10.6 years for cobalt-chrome and 54.8 ± 10.7 years for oxidized zirconium. Implant survivorship was 96.0% (95% confidence interval [CI] 94.9%-97.1%) for cobalt-chrome and 98.7% (95% CI 98.0%-99.4%) for oxidized zirconium on highly crosslinked polyethylene for all-cause revisions, and 97.2% (95% CI 96.2%-98.2%) for cobalt-chrome and 99.0% (95% CI 98.4%-99.6%) for oxidized zirconium for aseptic revisions. An age-, sex- and diagnosis-matched comparison of the HHS, WOMAC and SF-12 scores demonstrated no significant changes in clinical outcomes across the groups. Both bearing surface couples demonstrated excellent mid-term survivorship and outcomes in young patient cohorts. Future analyses on wear and costs are warranted to elicit differences between the groups at long-term follow-up.

  16. Oxidative stress and respiratory symptoms due to human exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Kumasi, Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bortey-Sam, Nesta; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Akoto, Osei; Nakayama, Shouta M.M.; Asante, Kwadwo A.; Baidoo, Elvis; Obirikorang, Christian; Saengtienchai, Aksorn; Isoda, Norikazu; Nimako, Collins

    2017-01-01

    showed a significant sex difference with higher levels of urinary OH-PAHs in females than males. - Highlights: • Human urine was collected from Kumasi to assess the risks due to PAHs exposure. • 2-OHNaphthalene (2-OHNap) was most abundant OH-PAH and higher in females than males. • Naphthalene-containing mothballs contributed significantly to urinary 2-OHNap. • Exposure to 2-OHNap significantly increased occurrence of respiratory diseases. • PAHs exposure was significantly associated lipid peroxidation or cell damage. - In addition to lipid peroxidation/cell damage, PAHs exposure increased occurrence of respiratory diseases in residents of Kumasi, Ghana.

  17. The influence of acoustical and non-acoustical factors on short-term annoyance due to aircraft noise in the field - The COSMA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Susanne; Márki, Ferenc; Müller, Uwe

    2015-12-15

    Air traffic has increased for the past decades and is forecasted to continue to grow. Noise due to current airport operations can impair the physical and psychological well-being of airport residents. The field study investigated aircraft noise-induced short-term (i.e., within hourly intervals) annoyance in local residents near a busy airport. We aimed at examining the contribution of acoustical and non-acoustical factors to the annoyance rating. Across four days from getting up till going to bed, 55 residents near Cologne/Bonn Airport (M=46years, SD=14years, 34 female) rated their annoyance due to aircraft noise at hourly intervals. For each participant and each hour, 26 noise metrics from outdoor measurements and further 6 individualized metrics that took into account the sound attenuation due to each person's whereabouts in and around their homes were obtained. Non-acoustical variables were differentiated into situational factors (time of day, performed activity during past hour, day of the week) and personal factors (e.g., sensitivity to noise, attitudes, domestic noise insulation). Generalized Estimation Equations were applied for the development of a prediction model for annoyance. Acoustical factors explained only a small proportion (13.7%) of the variance in the annoyance ratings. The number of fly-overs predicted annoyance better than did equivalent and maximum sound pressure levels. The proportion of explained variance in annoyance rose considerably (to 27.6%) when individualized noise metrics as well as situational and personal variables were included in the prediction model. Consideration of noise metrics related to the number of fly-overs and individual adjustment of noise metrics can improve the prediction of short-term annoyance compared to models using equivalent outdoor levels only. Non-acoustical factors have remarkable impact not only on long-term annoyance as shown before but also on short-term annoyance judged in the home environment. Copyright

  18. Nitrous Oxide Production at a Fully Covered Wastewater Treatment Plant: Results of a Long-Term Online Monitoring Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosonen, Heta; Heinonen, Mari; Mikola, Anna; Haimi, Henri; Mulas, Michela; Corona, Francesco; Vahala, Riku

    2016-06-07

    The nitrous oxide emissions of the Viikinmäki wastewater treatment plant were measured in a 12 month online monitoring campaign. The measurements, which were conducted with a continuous gas analyzer, covered all of the unit operations of the advanced wastewater-treatment process. The relation between the nitrous oxide emissions and certain process parameters, such as the wastewater temperature, influent biological oxygen demand, and ammonium nitrogen load, was investigated by applying online data obtained from the process-control system at 1 min intervals. Although seasonal variations in the measured nitrous oxide emissions were remarkable, the measurement data indicated no clear relationship between these emissions and seasonal changes in the wastewater temperature. The diurnal variations of the nitrous oxide emissions did, however, strongly correlate with the alternation of the influent biological oxygen demand and ammonium nitrogen load to the aerated zones of the activated sludge process. Overall, the annual nitrous oxide emissions of 168 g/PE/year and the emission factor of 1.9% of the influent nitrogen load are in the high range of values reported in the literature but in very good agreement with the results of other long-term online monitoring campaigns implemented at full-scale wastewater-treatment plants.

  19. Long-term research in Japan: amorphous metals, metal oxide varistors, high-power semiconductors and superconducting generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hane, G.J.; Yorozu, M.; Sogabe, T.; Suzuki, S.

    1985-04-01

    The review revealed that significant activity is under way in the research of amorphous metals, but that little fundamental work is being pursued on metal oxide varistors and high-power semiconductors. Also, the investigation of long-term research program plans for superconducting generators reveals that activity is at a low level, pending the recommendations of a study currently being conducted through Japan's Central Electric Power Council.

  20. N2 Dissociation In The Mesosphere Due To Secondary Electrons During A Solar Proton Event: The Effect On Atomic Nitrogen and Nitric Oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verronen, P. T.; Shematovich, V. I.; Bisikalo, D. V.; Turunen, E.; Ulich, Th.

    Solar proton events have an effect on the middle atmospheric odd nitrogen chem- istry. During a solar proton event high energy protons enter Earth's middle atmosphere where they ionize ambient gas. Ionization leads to production of atomic nitrogen, and further to production of nitric oxide, through ion chemistry. In addition, ionization processes produce secondary electrons that, if possessing 9.76 eV or more energy, dissociate N2 providing an additional source of atomic nitrogen. We have calculated mesospheric N2 dissociation rate due to secondary electrons dur- ing a solar proton event. Further, we have studied the effect on atomic nitrogen and nitric oxide at altitudes between 50 and 90 km. It was found that N2 is efficiently dis- sociated in the lower mesosphere by secondary electrons, with rates up to 103 cm-3 s-1 at 50 km. Thus, secondary electrons significantly add to odd nitrogen produc- tion. As a result of N2 dissociation, atomic nitrogen is greatly enhanced in both N(4S) and N(2D) states by 259% and 1220% maximum increases at 50 km, respectively. This further leads to a maximum increase of 16.5% in NO concentration at 61 km via chemical reactions. In our study a Monte Carlo model was used to calculate the total ionization rate and secondary electrons flux due to precipitating protons. These where then used as input to a detailed ion and neutral chemistry model and a steady-state solution was calcu- lated for two cases: With and without N2 dissociation due to secondary electrons.

  1. Metabolite profiles reveal energy failure and impaired beta-oxidation in liver of mice with complex III deficiency due to a BCS1L mutation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heike Kotarsky

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND & AIMS: Liver is a target organ in many mitochondrial disorders, especially if the complex III assembly factor BCS1L is mutated. To reveal disease mechanism due to such mutations, we have produced a transgenic mouse model with c.232A>G mutation in Bcs1l, the causative mutation for GRACILE syndrome. The homozygous mice develop mitochondrial hepatopathy with steatosis and fibrosis after weaning. Our aim was to assess cellular mechanisms for disease onset and progression using metabolomics. METHODS: With mass spectrometry we analyzed metabolite patterns in liver samples obtained from homozygotes and littermate controls of three ages. As oxidative stress might be a mechanism for mitochondrial hepatopathy, we also assessed H(2O(2 production and expression of antioxidants. RESULTS: Homozygotes had a similar metabolic profile at 14 days of age as controls, with the exception of slightly decreased AMP. At 24 days, when hepatocytes display first histopathological signs, increases in succinate, fumarate and AMP were found associated with impaired glucose turnover and beta-oxidation. At end stage disease after 30 days, these changes were pronounced with decreased carbohydrates, high levels of acylcarnitines and amino acids, and elevated biogenic amines, especially putrescine. Signs of oxidative stress were present in end-stage disease. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest an early Krebs cycle defect with increases of its intermediates, which might play a role in disease onset. During disease progression, carbohydrate and fatty acid metabolism deteriorate leading to a starvation-like condition. The mouse model is valuable for further investigations on mechanisms in mitochondrial hepatopathy and for interventions.

  2. Antioxidant-enzyme reaction to the oxidative stress due to alpha-cypermethrin, chlorpyriphos, and pirimicarb in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahid, Karim; Laglaoui, Amin; Zantar, Said; Ennabili, Abdeslam

    2015-11-01

    Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) becomes one of the world's foremost vegetables, and its world production and consumption have increased fairly quickly. The capacity to induce oxidative stress in tomato plant, exposed to three xenobiotics such as alpha-cypermethrin, chlorpyriphos, and pirimicarb, was investigated by the evaluation of lipid peroxidation by measuring malondialdehyde (MDA) rate; also, we studied the response of tomato to this stress by assessing the response of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione-s-transferase (GST), and glutathione reductase (GR). The effect of the insecticides was observed using four concentrations (25, 50, 75, and 100%) for germinating seeds and only the recommended concentration in agriculture (100%) for growing plants. Our results show an important accumulation of MDA, demonstrating the increase of lipid peroxidation in consequence of the excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) production due to insecticide treatment. In response to this oxidative stress in tomato seedlings and plants, the activities of antioxidant-enzyme system were generally enhanced. The electrophoretic analysis showed also the apparition of new isoenzymes as the case for CAT and POD.

  3. Effects of selenium on short-term control of hyperthyroidism due to Graves' disease treated with methimazole: results of a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leo, M; Bartalena, L; Rotondo Dottore, G; Piantanida, E; Premoli, P; Ionni, I; Di Cera, M; Masiello, E; Sassi, L; Tanda, M L; Latrofa, F; Vitti, P; Marcocci, C; Marinò, M

    2017-03-01

    In spite of previous conflicting results, an adjuvant role of selenium in the treatment of Graves' disease (GD) hyperthyroidism has been proposed. To address this issue, a randomized clinical trial was carried out aimed at investigating whether selenium is beneficial on the short-term control of GD hyperthyroidism treated with methimazole (MMI). Thirty newly diagnosed hyperthyroid GD patients were randomly assigned to treatment with: (i) MMI or (ii) MMI plus selenium. Primary outcomes were: control of hyperthyroidism and clinical and biochemical manifestations of hyperthyroidism [heart rate, cholesterol, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), hyperthyroidism symptoms] at 90 days. Baseline features of the two groups did not differ. Serum selenium at baseline was similar in the two groups and within the recommended range to define selenium sufficiency. Selenium increased with treatment in the MMI-selenium group and became significantly higher than in the MMI group. Serum malondialdehyde, a marker of oxidative stress, was similar in the two groups and decreased significantly with treatment, with no difference between groups. Administration of MMI was followed by a reduction of FT 3 and FT 4 , with no difference between groups. Heart rate, SHBG and symptoms of hyperthyroidism decreased, whereas total cholesterol increased in both groups with no difference between groups. Our study, carried out in a selenium-sufficient cohort of GD patients, failed to show an adjuvant role of selenium in the short-term control of hyperthyroidism. However, selenium might be beneficial in patients from selenium-deficient areas, as well as in the long-term outcome of antithyroid treatment.

  4. Nitrous Oxide and Serious Long-term Morbidity and Mortality in the Evaluation of Nitrous Oxide in the Gas Mixture for Anaesthesia (ENIGMA)-II Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Kate; Myles, Paul S; Kasza, Jessica; Forbes, Andrew; Peyton, Philip J; Chan, Matthew T V; Paech, Michael J; Sessler, Daniel I; Beattie, W Scott; Devereaux, P J; Wallace, Sophie

    2015-12-01

    The Evaluation of Nitrous Oxide in the Gas Mixture for Anaesthesia (ENIGMA)-II trial randomly assigned 7,112 noncardiac surgery patients at risk of perioperative cardiovascular events to 70% N2O or 70% N2 groups. The aim of this follow-up study was to determine the effect of nitrous oxide on a composite primary outcome of death and major cardiovascular events at 1 yr after surgery. One-year follow-up was conducted via a medical record review and telephone interview. Disability was defined as a Katz index of independence in activities of daily living score less than 8. Adjusted odds ratios and hazard ratios were calculated as appropriate for primary and secondary outcomes. Among 5,844 patients evaluated at 1 yr, 435 (7.4%) had died, 206 (3.5%) had disability, 514 (8.8%) had a fatal or nonfatal myocardial infarction, and 111 (1.9%) had a fatal or nonfatal stroke during the 1-yr follow-up period. Exposure to nitrous oxide did not increase the risk of the primary outcome (odds ratio, 1.08; 95% CI, 0.94 to 1.25; P = 0.27), disability or death (odds ratio, 1.07; 95% CI, 0.90 to 1.27; P = 0.44), death (hazard ratio, 1.17; 95% CI, 0.97 to 1.43; P = 0.10), myocardial infarction (odds ratio, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.81 to 1.17; P = 0.78), or stroke (odds ratio, 1.08; 95% CI, 0.74 to 1.58; P = 0.70). These results support the long-term safety of nitrous oxide administration in noncardiac surgical patients with known or suspected cardiovascular disease.

  5. Nitrous oxide emission from highland winter wheat field after long-term fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. R. Wei

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Nitrous oxide (N2O is an important greenhouse gas. N2O emissions from soils vary with fertilization and cropping practices. The response of N2O emission to fertilization of agricultural soils plays an important role in global N2O emission. The objective of this study was to assess the seasonal pattern of N2O fluxes and the annual N2O emissions from a rain-fed winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. field in the Loess Plateau of China. A static flux chamber method was used to measure soil N2O fluxes from 2006 to 2008. The study included 5 treatments with 3 replications in a randomized complete block design. Prior to initiating N2O measurements the treatments had received the same fertilization for 22 years. The fertilizer treatments were unfertilized control (CK, manure (M, nitrogen (N, nitrogen + phosphorus (NP, and nitrogen + phosphorus + manure (NPM. Soil N2O fluxes in the highland winter wheat field were highly variable temporally and thus were fertilization dependent. The highest fluxes occurred in the warmer and wetter seasons. Relative to CK, m slightly increased N2O flux while N, NP and NPM treatments significantly increased N2O fluxes. The fertilizer induced increase in N2O flux occurred mainly in the first 30 days after fertilization. The increases were smaller in the relatively warm and dry year than in the cold and wet year. Combining phosphorous and/or manure with mineral N fertilizer partly offset the nitrogen fertilizer induced increase in N2O flux. N2O fluxes at the seedling stage were mainly controlled by nitrogen fertilization, while fluxes at other plant growth stages were influenced by plant and environmental conditions. The cumulative N2O emissions were always higher in the fertilized treatments than in the non-fertilized treatment (CK. Mineral and manure

  6. Base case short-term Pu-oxide store. 2. Pt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-08-01

    This paper describes the interim storage of plutonium oxide after its conversion from plutonium nitrate and before fabrication into fuel elements. The capacity of the store is 3 tons Pu. A description of the major handling, criticality, maintenance and physical protection philosophy is given, together with comments on the safety of the store and its impact on the environment

  7. Dissecting long-term adjustments of photoprotective and photo-oxidative stress acclimation occurring in dynamic light environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shizue Matsubara

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Changes in light intensity directly affect the performance of the photosynthetic apparatus. Light energy absorbed in excess of cells’ needs leads to production of reactive oxygen species and photo-oxidative damage. Excess light in both constant and dynamic environments induces photoprotective acclimation in plants. Distinct sets of signals and regulatory mechanisms are involved in acclimatory adjustment of photoprotection and photosynthesis under constant and dynamic (fluctuating light conditions. We are still far away from drawing a comprehensive picture of acclimatory signal transduction pathways, particularly in dynamic environments. In this perspective article, we propose the use of Arabidopsis plants that produce H2O2 in chloroplasts (GO plants under atmospheric CO2 levels as a tool to study the mechanisms of long-term acclimation to photo-oxidative stress. In our opinion there are new avenues to future investigations on acclimatory adjustments and signal transduction occurring in plants under dynamic light environments.

  8. Increased oxidative stress in human fetal membranes overlying the cervix from term non-labouring and post labour deliveries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, M; Barker, G; Menon, R; Lappas, M

    2012-08-01

    Enzymatic breakdown of the collagen-rich extracellular matrix (ECM) that connects the amnion and chorion layers of the fetal membranes is one of the key events leading to rupture of membranes. Oxidant stress caused by increased formation of reactive oxygen species and/or reduced antioxidant capacity may predispose to membrane rupture, a major cause of preterm birth. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of human labour and supracervical (SC) apposition on antioxidant enzymes and 8-isoprostane (a marker of lipid peroxidation). To determine the effect of human labour on oxidative stress status, fetal membranes from the SC site (SCS) were collected from women at term Caesarean section (no labour), and from the site of membrane rupture (SOR) after spontaneous labour onset and delivery (post labour). To determine the effect of SC apposition on oxidative stress status, amnion was collected from the SCS and a distal site (DS) in women at term Caesarean section in the absence of labour. The release of 8-isoprostane was significantly higher in amnion from the SCS compared to DS, and in fetal membranes from the SOR compared to the SCS. Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were lower in amnion from the SC compared to DS. SOD gene expression and enzyme activity were lower in fetal membranes after labour. There was no difference in expression or activity in catalase, GPx and glutathione reductase (GSR) between no labour and post labour fetal membranes. In primary amnion cells, SOD supplementation significantly augmented IL-1β induced MMP-9 expression and activity. In summary, non-labouring SC fetal membranes are characterised by reduced antioxidant enzyme activity when compared to distal membranes, and, as such, may be more susceptible to oxidative damage and thus membrane rupture. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Perceived organizational justice as a predictor of long-term sickness absence due to diagnosed mental disorders: results from the prospective longitudinal Finnish Public Sector Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elovainio, Marko; Linna, Anne; Virtanen, Marianna; Oksanen, Tuula; Kivimäki, Mika; Pentti, Jaana; Vahtera, Jussi

    2013-08-01

    Organizational justice perceptions have been suggested to be associated with symptoms of mental health but the nature of the association is unknown due to reporting bias (measurement error related to response style and reversed causality). In this study, we used prospective design and long-term (>9 days) sickness absence with psychiatric diagnosis as the outcome measure. Participants were 21,221 Finnish public sector employees (the participation rate at baseline in 2000-2002 68%), who responded to repeated surveys of procedural and interactional justice in 2000-2004 along with register data on sickness absence with a diagnosis of depression or anxiety disorders (822 cases). Results from logistic regression analyses showed that a one-unit increase in self-reported and work-unit level co-worker assessed interactional justice was associated with a 25-32% lower odds of sickness absence due to anxiety disorders. These associations were robust to adjustments for a variety of potential individual-level confounders including chronic disease (adjusted OR for self-reported interactional justice 0.77, 95% CI 0.65-0.91) and were replicated using co-worker assessed justice. Only weak evidence of reversed causality was found. The results suggest that low organizational justice is a risk factor for sickness absence due to anxiety disorders. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Long-term nitrous oxide fluxes in annual and perennial agricultural and unmanaged ecosystems in the upper Midwest USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfand, Ilya; Shcherbak, Iurii; Millar, Neville; Kravchenko, Alexandra N; Robertson, G Philip

    2016-11-01

    Differences in soil nitrous oxide (N 2 O) fluxes among ecosystems are often difficult to evaluate and predict due to high spatial and temporal variabilities and few direct experimental comparisons. For 20 years, we measured N 2 O fluxes in 11 ecosystems in southwest Michigan USA: four annual grain crops (corn-soybean-wheat rotations) managed with conventional, no-till, reduced input, or biologically based/organic inputs; three perennial crops (alfalfa, poplar, and conifers); and four unmanaged ecosystems of different successional age including mature forest. Average N 2 O emissions were higher from annual grain and N-fixing cropping systems than from nonleguminous perennial cropping systems and were low across unmanaged ecosystems. Among annual cropping systems full-rotation fluxes were indistinguishable from one another but rotation phase mattered. For example, those systems with cover crops and reduced fertilizer N emitted more N 2 O during the corn and soybean phases, but during the wheat phase fluxes were ~40% lower. Likewise, no-till did not differ from conventional tillage over the entire rotation but reduced emissions ~20% in the wheat phase and increased emissions 30-80% in the corn and soybean phases. Greenhouse gas intensity for the annual crops (flux per unit yield) was lowest for soybeans produced under conventional management, while for the 11 other crop × management combinations intensities were similar to one another. Among the fertilized systems, emissions ranged from 0.30 to 1.33 kg N 2 O-N ha -1  yr -1 and were best predicted by IPCC Tier 1 and ΔEF emission factor approaches. Annual cumulative fluxes from perennial systems were best explained by soil NO3- pools (r 2  = 0.72) but not so for annual crops, where management differences overrode simple correlations. Daily soil N 2 O emissions were poorly predicted by any measured variables. Overall, long-term measurements reveal lower fluxes in nonlegume perennial vegetation and, for

  11. Long-term aerobic exercise increases redox-active iron through nitric oxide in rat hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qian; Xiao, De-Sheng

    2014-01-30

    Adult hippocampus is highly vulnerable to iron-induced oxidative stress. Aerobic exercise has been proposed to reduce oxidative stress but the findings in the hippocampus are conflicting. This study aimed to observe the changes of redox-active iron and concomitant regulation of cellular iron homeostasis in the hippocampus by aerobic exercise, and possible regulatory effect of nitric oxide (NO). A randomized controlled study was designed in the rats with swimming exercise treatment (for 3 months) and/or an unselective inhibitor of NO synthase (NOS) (L-NAME) treatment. The results from the bleomycin-detectable iron assay showed additional redox-active iron in the hippocampus by exercise treatment. The results from nonheme iron content assay, combined with the redox-active iron content, showed increased storage iron content by exercise treatment. NOx (nitrate plus nitrite) assay showed increased NOx content by exercise treatment. The results from the Western blot assay showed decreased ferroportin expression, no changes of TfR1 and DMT1 expressions, increased IRP1 and IRP2 expression, increased expressions of eNOS and nNOS rather than iNOS. In these effects of exercise treatment, the increased redox-active iron content, storage iron content, IRP1 and IRP2 expressions were completely reversed by L-NAME treatment, and decreased ferroportin expression was in part reversed by L-NAME. L-NAME treatment completely inhibited increased NOx and both eNOS and nNOS expression in the hippocampus. Our findings suggest that aerobic exercise could increase the redox-active iron in the hippocampus, indicating an increase in the capacity to generate hydroxyl radicals through the Fenton reactions, and aerobic exercise-induced iron accumulation in the hippocampus might mainly result from the role of the endogenous NO. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. ARIES Oxide Production Program Assessment of Risk to Long-term Sustainable Production Rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitworth, Julia [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lloyd, Jane Alexandria [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Majors, Harry W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-05-04

    This report describes an assessment of risks and the development of a risk watch list for the ARIES Oxide Production Program conducted in the Plutonium Facility at LANL. The watch list is an active list of potential risks and opportunities that the management team periodically considers to maximize the likelihood of program success. The initial assessments were made in FY 16. The initial watch list was reviewed in September 2016. The initial report was not issued. Revision 1 has been developed based on management review of the original watch list and includes changes that occurred during FY-16.

  13. On the Properties and Long-Term Stability of Infiltrated Lanthanum Cobalt Nickelates (LCN) in Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Cathodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiebach, Wolff-Ragnar; Zielke, Philipp; Veltzé, Sune

    2017-01-01

    Infiltration as a fabrication method for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) electrodes is offering significant improvements in cell performance at reduced materials and fabrication costs, especially when combined with co-sintering. However, important questions regarding the long-term performance...... and microstructural stability remain unanswered. Here, we present the results of a three-year project, where large footprint anode-supported SOFCs with a co-sintered cathode backbone and infiltrated La0.95Co0.4Ni0.6O3 (LCN) cathodes were developed and thoroughly characterized. The initial long-term performance...... in the electrode properties using SEM, BET area, and in-plane conductivity measurements. Finally, the mechanical properties of co-sintered cathode backbone cells were determined in four-point bending tests carried out both at room temperature and at 800°C in air. Based on these results, degradation mechanisms were...

  14. Improvement of the long term stability in the high temperature solid oxide fuel cell using functional layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brueckner, B.; Guenther, C.; Ruckdaeschel, R. [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    In the planar Siemens design of the solid oxide fuel cell a metallic interconnector is used to seperate the ceramic single cells. A disadvantage of the metallic bipolar plate which consists of a chromium alloy is the formation of high volatile Cr-oxides and hydroxides at the surface at the cathode side. The reaction products evaporate and are reduced at the cathode/electrolyte interface to form new crystalline phases. This process gives rise to long term cell degradation. Protective coatings might be successful in preventing the chromium oxide evaporation. The required properties of the protective layers are (I) high electrical conductivity, (II) similar coefficients of thermal expansion to the bipolar plate (III), chemical compatibility to the bipolar plate and cathode material, (IV) a low diffusion coefficient of Cr and (V) chemical stability up to 1223K under oxygen atmosphere. Furthermore, during operation at 1223K an electrical contact between the metallic plate and the electrodes has to be maintained. This problem could be solved using ceramic layer between the metallic plate and the single cells.

  15. Long-Term Planning for Open Pits for Mining Sulphide-Oxide Ores in Order to Achieve Maximum Profit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kržanović, Daniel; Conić, Vesna; Stevanović, Dejan; Kolonja, Božo; Vaduvesković, Jovan

    2017-12-01

    Profitable exploitation of mineralised material from the earth's crust is a complex and difficult task that depends on a comprehensive planning process. Answering the question of how to plan production depends on the geometry of the deposit, as well as the concentration, distribution, and type of minerals in it. The complex nature of mineral deposits largely determines the method of exploitation and profitability of mining operations. In addition to unit operating costs and metal prices, the optimal recovery of and achievement of maximum profit from deposits of sulphide-oxide ores also depend, to a significant extent, on the level of technological recovery achieved in the ore processing procedure. Therefore, in defining a long-term development strategy for open pits, special attention must be paid to the selection of an optimal procedure for ore processing in order to achieve the main objective: maximising the Net Present Value (NPV). The effect of using two different processes, flotation processing and hydrometallurgical methods (bioleaching acid leaching), on determining the ultimate pit is shown in the case of the Kraku Bugaresku-Cementacija sulphide-oxide ore deposit in eastern Serbia. Analysis shows that the application of hydrometallurgical methods of processing sulphide-oxide ore achieved an increase in NPV of 20.42%.

  16. Effect of Short-Term High Fat Diet Inducing Obesity on Hematological, Some Biochemical Parameters and Testicular Oxidative Stress in Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherif M. Shawky

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Obesity constitutes a health problem due to its increasing worldwide prevalence. Among the health detriments caused by obesity, reproduction is disrupted. Some studies have shown a relationship between obesity and infertility, but until now it remains controversial. The objective of the current work was to examine the effect of diet-induced obesity on blood parameters, liver and kidney function tests, lipid profile and testicular oxidative stress. For that purpose, Male rats were fed ad libitum with a standard diet (control group; n.= 15 and high fat diet (HFD group; n.= 15 for 6 weeks. Hematological parameters, urea, creatinine, albumin were similar between the two groups. Intergroup testosterone levels were also comparable. The high fat diet induced significant increase in serum triglycerides, cholesterol, low density lipoprotein and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations. This diet also increases significantly alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities and decreased total protein level and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration. Furthermore, HFD showed a significant increasing in malondialdehyde contents in testes and decreasing in superoxide dismutase activity, the results of this study concluded that short-term high fat diet affect on liver enzymes and causing oxidative stress in testes.

  17. Study on component interface evolution of a solid oxide fuel cell stack after long term operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiajun; Huang, Wei; Wang, Xiaochun; Li, Jun; Yan, Dong; Pu, Jian; Chi, Bo; Li, Jian

    2018-05-01

    A 5-cell solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stack with external manifold structure is assembled and underwent a durability test with an output of 250 W for nearly 4400 h when current density and operating temperature are 355 mA/cm2 and 750 °C. Cells used in the stack are anode-supported cells (ASC) with yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolytes, Ni/YSZ hydrogen electrodes, and YSZ based composite cathode. The dimension of the cell is 150 × 150 mm (active area: 130 × 130 mm). Ceramic-glass sealant is used in the stack to keep the gas tightness between cells, interconnects and manifolds. Pure hydrogen and dry air are used as fuel and oxidant respectively. The stack has a maximum output of 340 W at 562 mA/cm2 current density at 750 °C. The stack shows a degradation of 1.5% per 1000 h during the test with 2 thermal cycles to room temperature. After the test, the stack was dissembled and examined. The relationship between microstructure changes of interfaces and degradation in the stack are discussed. The microstructure evolution of interfaces between electrode, contact material and current collector are unveiled and their relationship with the degradation is discussed.

  18. Selective surface oxidation and segregation upon short term annealing of model alloys and industrial steel grades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaminathan, S.

    2007-07-01

    Segregation and selective oxidation phenomena of minor alloying elements during annealing of steel sheets lead to the formation of bare spots after hot-dip galvanizing. This thesis highlights the influence of annealing conditions and the effect of alloying elements on the selective oxidation in model alloys and some industrial steel grades. Model alloys of binary (Fe-2Si, Fe-2Mn, Fe-0.8Cr), ternary (Fe-2Mn-2Si, Fe-2Mn-0.8Cr, Fe-1Mn-0.8Cr, Fe-1Si-0.8Cr, Fe-2Si-0.8Cr) and quarternary (Fe-2Mn-2Si-0.8Cr) systems were studied. In the case of steels, standard grade interstitial free (IF) steels and experimental grade tensile strength 1000 MPa steel were investigated. All specimens were annealed at 820 C in N{sub 2}-5%H{sub 2} gas atmospheres with the wide range of dew points (i.e. -80 to 0 C). The surface chemistry after annealing and its wettability with liquid Zn have been correlated as a function of dew points by simulating the hot-dip galvanizing process at laboratory scale. (orig.)

  19. Oxidation of nuclear fuel below 400 deg. Consequence on long-term dry storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehaudt, Ph.

    2000-01-01

    This document reviews the status of the knowledge on the oxidation of fuels below 400 deg C, in all its forms, including fuel rods, by examining the consequences of this reaction on the strength or ruin of the fuel rods during dry storage in air for a hundred years. The data available in the scientific literature, and the data acquired by CEA, are abundant on irradiated powders and pellets, but sparser for irradiated fuel fragments and for rods or sections of fuel rods. A bibliographic review is made to identify the morphological and structural changes, as well as the kinetic laws. An analysis and a summary is made with a concern to evaluate the risks of rod ruin by oxidation. The final section, in a few pages, addresses the essential lessons from this study. It presents: first, a summary of the main results of this review and its analysis, recommendations and remedies for storage; proposed research guidelines as well as precise topics, in order to fill out our knowledge and, even better, to identify the acceptable limits for storage. (author)

  20. The effect of long-term treatment with coenzyme Q10 on nucleic acid modifications by oxidation in children with Down syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Emil List; Padella, Lucia; Bergholdt, Helle Kirstine Mørup

    2018-01-01

    Elevated levels of oxidative nucleic acid modifications have been proposed to be associated with some of the clinical characteristics of Down syndrome. Oral intake of coenzyme Q10 improves oxidative status and shows a tendency toward protective effect on DNA oxidation in certain age groups...... of children with Down syndrome. Here, we demonstrate that long-term (i.e., 4 years) treatment with coenzyme Q10 (ubiquinone) at the dosage of 4 mg/kg/d does not affect whole body DNA and RNA oxidation....

  1. Effects of glucose metabolism pathways on sperm motility and oxidative status during long-term liquid storage of goat semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Jian-Hua; Li, You-Wei; Xie, Hong-Li; Li, Qing; Dong, Hai-Bo; Sun, Ming-Ju; Gao, Wei-Qiang; Tan, Jing-He

    2016-08-01

    Although great efforts were made to prolong the fertility of liquid-stored semen, limited improvements have been achieved in different species. Although it is expected that energy supply and the redox potential will play an essential role in sperm function, there are few reports on the impact of specific energy substrates on spermatozoa during liquid semen storage. Furthermore, although it is accepted that glucose metabolism through glycolysis provides energy, roles of pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) and tricarboxylic acid cycle remain to be unequivocally found in spermatozoa. We have studied the pathways by which spermatozoa metabolize glucose during long-term liquid storage of goat semen. The results indicated that among the substrates tested, glucose and pyruvate were better than lactate in maintaining goat sperm motility. Although both glycolysis and PPP were essential, PPP was more important than glycolysis to maintain sperm motility. Pentose phosphate pathway reduced oxidative stress and provided glycolysis with more intermediate products such as fructose-6-phosphate. Pyruvate entered goat spermatozoa through monocarboxylate transporters and was oxidized by the tricarboxylic acid cycle and electron transfer to sustain sperm motility. Long-term liquid semen storage can be used as a good model to study sperm glucose metabolism. The data are important for an optimal control of sperm survival during semen handling and preservation not only in the goat but also in other species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Short-Term Systemic Effects of Nose-Only Cigarette Smoke Exposure in Mice: Role of Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abderrahim Nemmar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Long–term cigarette smoking (CS is a major risk factor for respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, and is also known to adversely affect other organs. However, data on the systemic effects of short-term CS exposure (STCSE are scarce. Presently, using a nose-only exposure system, we evaluated the systemic effects of STCSE in mice. Methods: We assessed the effects of CS generated by 9 consecutive cigarettes per day for 4 days in a nose-only exposure system on cardiovascular, hepatic and renal endpoints evaluated on day 5 in mice. Control mice were exposed to air only. Results: CS significantly increased systolic blood pressure and decreased total nitric oxide plasma concentration. Circulating platelets and erythrocyte numbers were also increased. However, STCSE did not significantly increase thrombosis in pial arterioles and venules. STCSE significantly raised plasma alanine aminotransferase and gamma glutamyl transpeptidase activities, but did not affect urea or creatinine concentrations. Interestingly, while STCSE enhanced the production of reactive oxygen species in heart and kidney and lipid peroxidation in heart, liver and kidneys, it also enhanced the antioxidant activity of superoxide dismutase, probably indicating that STCSE causes adaptive reactions to counterbalance the potentially damaging action of oxygen radicals induced by STCSE. Conclusion: These results suggest that STCSE causes blood pressure increase, hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress in the heart, liver and the kidneys. These data provide information on the initial steps leading to the systemic effects of STCSE, a stage at which the diseases may likely be reversed.

  3. Short-Term Fructose Feeding Induces Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in the Hippocampus of Young and Adult Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cigliano, Luisa; Spagnuolo, Maria Stefania; Crescenzo, Raffaella; Cancelliere, Rosa; Iannotta, Lucia; Mazzoli, Arianna; Liverini, Giovanna; Iossa, Susanna

    2018-04-01

    The drastic increase in the consumption of fructose encouraged the research to focus on its effects on brain physio-pathology. Although young and adults differ largely by their metabolic and physiological profiles, most of the previous studies investigated brain disturbances induced by long-term fructose feeding in adults. Therefore, we investigated whether a short-term consumption of fructose (2 weeks) produces early increase in specific markers of inflammation and oxidative stress in the hippocampus of young and adult rats. After the high-fructose diet, plasma lipopolysaccharide and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha were found significantly increased in parallel with hippocampus inflammation, evidenced by a significant rise in TNF-alpha and glial fibrillar acidic protein concentrations in both the young and adult groups. The fructose-induced inflammatory condition was associated with brain oxidative stress, as increased levels of lipid peroxidation and nitro-tyrosine were detected in the hippocampus. The degree of activation of the protein kinase B, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, and insulin receptor substrate 1 pathways found in the hippocampus after fructose feeding indicates that the detrimental effects of the fructose-rich diet might largely depend on age. Mitochondrial function in the hippocampus, together with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha content, was found significantly decreased in fructose-treated adult rats. In vitro studies with BV-2 microglial cells confirmed that fructose treatment induces TNF-alpha production as well as oxidative stress. In conclusion, these results suggest that unbalanced diet, rich in fructose, may be highly deleterious in young people as in adults and must be strongly discouraged for the prevention of diet-associated neuroinflammation and neurological diseases.

  4. Extraordinary improvement of gas-sensing performances in SnO2 nanofibers due to creation of local p-n heterojunctions by loading reduced graphene oxide nanosheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Hyoung; Katoch, Akash; Choi, Sun-Woo; Kim, Jae-Hun; Kim, Hyoun Woo; Kim, Sang Sub

    2015-02-11

    We propose a novel approach to improve the gas-sensing properties of n-type nanofibers (NFs) that involves creation of local p-n heterojunctions with p-type reduced graphene oxide (RGO) nanosheets (NSs). This work investigates the sensing behaviors of n-SnO2 NFs loaded with p-RGO NSs as a model system. n-SnO2 NFs demonstrated greatly improved gas-sensing performances when loaded with an optimized amount of p-RGO NSs. Loading an optimized amount of RGOs resulted in a 20-fold higher sensor response than that of pristine SnO2 NFs. The sensing mechanism of monolithic SnO2 NFs is based on the joint effects of modulation of the potential barrier at nanograin boundaries and radial modulation of the electron-depletion layer. In addition to the sensing mechanisms described above, enhanced sensing was obtained for p-RGO NS-loaded SnO2 NFs due to creation of local p-n heterojunctions, which not only provided a potential barrier, but also functioned as a local electron absorption reservoir. These mechanisms markedly increased the resistance of SnO2 NFs, and were the origin of intensified resistance modulation during interaction of analyte gases with preadsorbed oxygen species or with the surfaces and grain boundaries of NFs. The approach used in this work can be used to fabricate sensitive gas sensors based on n-type NFs.

  5. Transgenic mice overexpressing glia maturation factor-β, an oxidative stress inducible gene, show premature aging due to Zmpste24 down-regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Rika; Asai, Kanae; Hanai, Jun-ichi; Takenaka, Masaru

    2015-07-01

    Glia Maturation Factor-β (GMF), a brain specific protein, is induced by proteinuria in renal tubules. Ectopic GMF overexpression causes apoptosisin vitro via cellular vulnerability to oxidative stress. In order to examine the roles of GMF in non-brain tissue, we constructed transgenic mice overexpressing GMF (GMF-TG). The GMF-TG mice exhibited appearance phenotypes associated with premature aging. The GMF-TG mice also demonstrated short lifespans and reduced hair regrowth, suggesting an accelerated aging process. The production of an abnormal lamin A, a nuclear envelope protein, plays a causal role in both normal aging and accelerated aging diseases, known as laminopathies. Importantly, we identified the abnormal lamin A (prelamin A), accompanied by a down-regulation of a lamin A processing enzyme (Zmpste24) in the kidney of the GMF-TG mice. The GMF-TG mice showed accelerated aging in the kidney, compared with wild-type mice, showing increased TGF-β1, CTGF gene and serum creatinine. The gene expression of p21/waf1 was increased at an earlier stage of life, at 10 weeks, which was in turn down-regulated at a later stage, at 60 weeks. In conclusion, we propose that GMF-TG mice might be a novel mouse model of accelerated aging, due to the abnormal lamin A.

  6. Colour due to Cr3+ ions in oxides: a study of the model system MgO:Cr3+

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aramburu, J. A.; Garcia-Fernandez, P.; García Lastra, Juan Maria

    2013-01-01

    Seeking to understand why the cubic centre in MgO:Cr3+ has the same 10Dq value as emerald, ab initio cluster and periodic supercell calculations have been performed. It is found that the equilibrium Cr3+-O2- distance, R, in MgO:Cr3+ is equal to 2.03 Å and thus 0.06 Å higher than that measured...... for the emerald. Calculations carried out on the isolated CrO69- complex at R = 2.03 Å give 10Dq = 14 510 cm-1, which is 10% smaller than the experimental figure for MgO:Cr3+. Nevertheless, when the internal electric field, ER(r), due to the rest of the lattice ions is also taken into account, the calculated 10Dq...... = 16 210 cm-1 coincides with the experimental value. Accordingly, the colour shift for different oxides doped with Cr3+ can be well understood on the basis of this extrinsic contribution to 10Dq usually ignored in a ligand field description. The calculated electrostatic potential, VR(r), related to ER(r...

  7. Ni/YSZ microstructure optimization for long-term stability of solid oxide electrolysis cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauch, Anne; Brodersen, Karen; Karas, Filip

    2014-01-01

    of keeping the Ni particles in their required positions in the porous Ni/YSZ cermet close to the electrolyte. In this work we report cell tests and microstructures from reference and long-term tested SOEC with varied initial Ni/YSZ ratio with the aim of investigating the effect of changed Ni/YSZ ratio...

  8. Mercury Induced Biochemical Alterations As Oxidative Stress In Mugil Cephalus In Short Term Toxicity Test

    OpenAIRE

    J.S.I Rajkumar; Samuel Tennyson

    2013-01-01

    Mugil cephalus juveniles of size 2.5 ±0.6cm were exposed to mercury in short term chronic toxicity test through static renewal bioassay to detect the possible biochemical agent as biomarkers in aquatic pollution and in estuarine contamination as specific. Lipid peroxidation levels, glutathione S -transferase, catalase, reduced glutathione and acetylcholinesterase were studied as biochemical parameters. Increased thio-barbituric acid reactive substances levels were observed under exposur...

  9. Responses of bacterial and archaeal ammonia oxidizers to soil organic and fertilizer amendments under long-term management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wessen, E.; Nyberg, K.; Jansson, J.K.; Hallin, S.

    2010-05-01

    Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) co-exist in soil, but their relative distribution may vary depending on the environmental conditions. Effects of changes in soil organic matter and nutrient content on the AOB and AOA are poorly understood. Our aim was to compare effects of long-term soil organic matter depletion and amendments with labile (straw) and more recalcitrant (peat) organic matter, with and without easily plant-available nitrogen, on the activities, abundances and community structures of AOB and AOA. Soil was sampled from a long-term field site in Sweden that was established in 1956. The potential ammonia oxidation rates, the AOB and AOA amoA gene abundances and the community structures of both groups based on T-RFLP of amoA genes were determined. Straw amendment during 50 years had not altered any of the measured soil parameters, while the addition of peat resulted in a significant increase of soil organic carbon as well as a decrease in pH. Nitrogen fertilization alone resulted in a small decrease in soil pH, organic carbon and total nitrogen, but an increase in primary production. Type and amount of organic matter had an impact on the AOB and AOA community structures and the AOA abundance. Our findings confirmed that AOA are abundant in soil, but showed that under certain conditions the AOB dominate, suggesting niche differentiation between the two groups at the field site. The large differences in potential rates between treatments correlated to the AOA community size, indicating that they were functionally more important in the nitrification process than the AOB. The AOA abundance was positively related to addition of labile organic carbon, which supports the idea that AOA could have alternative growth strategies using organic carbon. The AOB community size varied little in contrast to that of the AOA. This indicates that the bacterial ammonia oxidizers as a group have a greater ecophysiological diversity and

  10. Oxidant stress evoked damage in rat hepatocyte leading to triggered nitric oxide synthase (NOS levels on long term consumption of aspartame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iyaswamy Ashok

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates how long-term (40 mg/kg b.wt consumption of aspartame can alter the antioxidant status, stress pathway genes, and apoptotic changes in the liver of Wistar albino rats. Numerous controversial reports are available on the use of aspartame as it releases methanol as one of its metabolites during metabolism. To mimic the human methanol metabolism the methotrexate treated rats were included to study the aspartame effects. The aspartame treated methotrexate (MTX animals showed a marked significant increase in the superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, lipid peroxidation (LPO, and Glutathione peroxidase (GPx activity in the liver from control and MTX control animals, and showed a significant decrease in reduced glutathione (GSH and protein thiol in aspartame treated animals. The aspartame treated MTX animals showed a marked significant decrease in the body weight, brain, and liver weight. The aspartame treated MTX animals showed a marked increase in the inducible nitric oxide (iNOS, neuronal nitric oxide (nNOS, c-fos, Heat shock protein (Hsp 70 Tumour necrosis Factor (TNFα, caspase 8, c-jun N terminal kinases (JNK 3 and Nuclear factor kappa B (NFkB gene expression in the liver from control and MTX control animals. The aspartame treated MTX animals showed a marked increase in the c-fos, Hsp 70, iNOS Caspase 8, and JNK 3 protein expression in the liver from control and MTX control animals indicating the enhancement of stress and apoptosis. The aspartame treated MTX animals showed a streak of marked DNA fragmentation in the liver. On immunohistochemical analysis aspartame treated animals showed brown colored positive hepatocytes indicating the stress specific and apoptotic protein expression. Since aspartame consumption is on the rise among people, it is essential to create awareness regarding the usage of this artificial sweetener.

  11. The effect of long-term, high-volume aerobic exercise training on postprandial lipemia and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomer, Richard J; Fisher-Wellman, Kelsey H; Bell, Heather K

    2010-04-01

    We have previously found no effect of moderate-volume aerobic exercise training (approximately 3 hrs*wk(-1)) on postprandial oxidative stress. It is possible that a higher volume of exercise is needed to impact postprandial oxidative stress in young, otherwise healthy individuals. Our purpose was to compare blood triglycerides (TAGs) and oxidative stress biomarkers in 10 healthy untrained and 10 healthy highly aerobically trained (eg, >or= 40 miles running*wk(-1) or >or= 150 miles cycling*wk(-1)) men and women following ingestion of a lipid meal. Blood samples were collected before (in a 10-hour fasted state), and 1, 2, 4, and 6 hours after ingestion of a lipid load (heavy whipping cream at 1 g*kg(-1)). Blood samples were analyzed for TAGs, malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), and nitrate/nitrite (NOx). No training status or interaction effects were noted for TAGs, MDA, H2O2, or NOx (P > 0.05). However, a time effect was noted for TAGs (P = 0.01), with values higher at 2 hours (67 +/- 6 mg*dL(-1)) compared with premeal (41 +/- 6 mg*dL(-1)). A time effect was also noted for H2O2 (P = 0.0001), with values higher at 2 hours (24 +/- 3 micromol*L(-1)), 4 hours (23 +/- 3 micromol*L(-1)), and 6 hours (21 +/- 3 mumol.L(-1)) compared with premeal (7 +/- 2 micromol*L(-1)). The time effect for MDA approached significance (P = 0.07), with values peaking at 4 hours post-meal (1.59 +/- 0.16 micromol*L(-1)) compared with premeal (0.99 +/- 0.15 micromol*L(-1)). These data indicate that aerobic exercise training (even when performed at a relatively high volume) does not attenuate postprandial lipemia or oxidative stress as compared with no exercise when healthy men and women consume a lipid load in the form of heavy whipping cream. Fasting TAG values may be most important in this regard. It is possible that long-term exercise may be capable of attenuating postprandial lipemia or oxidative stress in older individuals, those with chronic disease, or those with

  12. Safety and long-term efficacy of transition from sildenafil to tadalafil due to side effects in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtblau, Mona; Harzheim, Dominik; Ehlken, Nicola; Marra, Alberto; Pinado, Fabiola Pena; Grünig, Ekkehard; Egenlauf, Benjamin

    2015-02-01

    Two phosphodiesterase-type 5 (PDE-5) inhibitors, sildenafil and tadalafil, are approved for treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). It has not yet been observed if transition from sildenafil to tadalafil is beneficial in patients suffering from adverse reactions. Aim of this study was to analyze safety and long-term effects in PAH patients whose treatment was transitioned from sildenafil to tadalafil due to intolerable side-effects. A retrospective analysis of PAH-patients who were stable on sildenafil for >3 months and transitioned to tadalafil due to adverse events was performed. Data collected included demographics, PAH-etiology, WHO-functional class, 6 min walking distance (6MWD), echocardiography, lung function tests, and NTproBNP pre-transition and 3, 6, and 12 months post-transition. Included were 13 PAH patients (8 females mean age 64 ± 10 years) who had been on sildenafil for a mean of 12 ± 8.4 months. In six patients (46.1 %) a switch to tadalafil was feasible and resulted in tolerable side effects and a stable clinical course with improvement of symptoms, 6MWD, stable echocardiographic findings, and NTproBNP-levels during a follow-up of 11 ± 3 months. In 5 out of 13 patients (38.5 %) adverse events occurred under tadalafil as well and therapy with PDE-5 inhibitors was discontinued. In two patients (15.4 %) sildenafil-treatment could be successfully restarted after an intermittent switch to tadalafil. The observations of this study indicate that a transition of sildenafil to tadalafil in case of intolerable side effects is a reasonable therapy option in about 50 % of the patients. These results should be verified by a larger prospective study.

  13. Effects of Curcuminoids-Piperine Combination on Systemic Oxidative Stress, Clinical Symptoms and Quality of Life in Subjects with Chronic Pulmonary Complications Due to Sulfur Mustard: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panahi, Yunes; Ghanei, Mostafa; Hajhashemi, Ali; Sahebkar, Amirhossein

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays a key role in the development of chronic pulmonary complications of sulfur mustard (SM). Curcuminoids are polyphenols with documented safety and antioxidant activity. The present study aimed to investigate the efficacy of short-term supplementation with curcuminoids (co-administered with piperine to enhance the bioavailability of curcuminoids) in alleviating systemic oxidative stress and clinical symptoms, and improvement of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in subjects suffering from chronic pulmonary complications due to SM exposure who are receiving standard respiratory treatments. Eighty-nine subjects were recruited to this randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial, being randomly allocated to either curcuminoids (1500 mg/day) + piperine (15 mg/day) combination (n = 45) or placebo (n = 44) for a period of 4 weeks. High-resolution computed tomography suggested the diagnosis of bronchiolitis obliterans in all subjects. Efficacy measures were changes in serum levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) and malonedialdehyde (MDA). The severity and frequency of respiratory symptoms and HRQoL were also assessed using St. George respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) and COPD Assessment Test (CAT) indices. Serum levels of GSH were increased whilst those of MDA decreased by the end of trial in both groups. Likewise, there were significant improvements in the total as well as subscale (symptoms, activity and impact) SGRQ and CAT scores in both groups. However, comparison of magnitude of changes revealed a greater effect of curcuminoids-piperine combination compared to placebo in elevating GSH, reducing MDA and improving CAT and SGRQ (total and subscale) scores (p stress, clinical symptoms and HRQoL, these phytochemicals may be used as safe adjuvants in patients suffering from chronic SM-induced pulmonary complications who are receiving standard treatments.

  14. Semi-passive, Chemical Oxidation Schemes for the Long-term Treatment of Contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank W. Schwartz

    2005-12-13

    This research involves a combined experimental and modeling study that builds on our previous DOE-sponsored work in investigating how KMnO{sub 4} can be better used with in situ remediation of groundwater contaminated by chlorinated ethylenes (e.g., PCE, TCE, DCE). This study aims to provide scientific basis for developing a new long-term, semi-passive ISCO scheme that uses controlled release KMnO{sub 4} as a reactive barrier component. Specific objectives of the study are (1) to construct controlled release KMnO{sub 4} as a new reactive barrier component that could deliver permanganate at a controlled rate over long time periods of years, (2) to quantitatively describe release mechanisms associated with the controlled release KMnO{sub 4}, (3) to demonstrate efficacy of the new remediation scheme using proof-of-concept experiments, and (4) to design advanced forms of controlled release systems through numerical optimization. The new scheme operates in a long-term, semi-passive manner to control spreading of a dissolved contaminant plume with periodic replacement of the controlled release KMnO{sub 4} installed in the subsurface. As a first step in developing this remedial concept, we manufactured various prototype controlled release KMnO{sub 4} forms. Then we demonstrated using column experiments that the controlled release KMnO{sub 4} could deliver small amount of permanganate into flowing water at controlled rates over long time periods of years. An analytical model was also used to estimate the diffusivities and durations of the controlled release KMnO{sub 4}. Finally, proof-of-concept flow-tank experiments were performed to demonstrate the efficacy of the controlled release KMnO{sub 4} scheme in controlling dissolved TCE plume in a long-term, semi-passive manner. Another important thrust of our research effort involved numerical optimization of controlled release systems. This study used a numerical model that is capable of describing release patterns of active

  15. Suppression of Human T Cell Proliferation Mediated by the Cathepsin B Inhibitor, z-FA-FMK Is Due to Oxidative Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanuja Rajah

    Full Text Available The cathepsin B inhibitor, benzyloxycarbonyl-phenylalanine-alanine-fluoromethyl ketone (z-FA-FMK readily inhibits anti-CD3-induced human T cell proliferation, whereas the analogue benzyloxycarbonyl-phenylalanine-alanine-diazomethyl ketone (z-FA-DMK had no effect. In contrast, benzyloxycarbonyl-phenylalanine-alanine-chloromethyl ketone (z-FA-CMK was toxic. The inhibition of T cell proliferation mediated by z-FA-FMK requires not only the FMK moiety, but also the benzyloxycarbonyl group at the N-terminal, suggesting some degree of specificity in z-FA-FMK-induced inhibition of primary T cell proliferation. We showed that z-FA-FMK treatment leads to a decrease in intracellular glutathione (GSH with a concomitant increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS levels in activated T cells. The inhibition of anti-CD3-induced T cell proliferation mediated by z-FA-FMK was abolished by the presence of low molecular weight thiols such as GSH, N-acetylcysteine (NAC and L-cysteine, whereas D-cysteine which cannot be metabolised to GSH has no effect. The inhibition of anti-CD3-induced up-regulation of CD25 and CD69 expression mediated by z-FA-FMK was also attenuated in the presence of exogenous GSH. Similar to cell proliferation, GSH, NAC and L-cysteine but not D-cysteine, completely restored the processing of caspase-8 and caspase-3 to their respective subunits in z-FA-FMK-treated activated T cells. Our collective results demonstrated that the inhibition of T cell activation and proliferation mediated by z-FA-FMK is due to oxidative stress via the depletion of GSH.

  16. High-Dose Polymerized Hemoglobin Fails to Alleviate Cardiac Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury due to Induction of Oxidative Damage in Coronary Artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qian; Wu, Wei; Li, Qian; Chen, Chan; Zhou, Ronghua; Qiu, Yanhua; Luo, Ming; Tan, Zhaoxia; Li, Shen; Chen, Gang; Zhou, Wentao; Liu, Jiaxin; Yang, Chengmin; Liu, Jin; Li, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is an unavoidable event for patients in cardiac surgery under cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). This study was designed to investigate whether glutaraldehyde-polymerized human placenta hemoglobin (PolyPHb), a hemoglobin-based oxygen carrier (HBOC), can protect heart against CPB-induced I/R injury or not and to elucidate the underlying mechanism. Methods and Results. A standard dog CPB model with 2-hour cardiac arrest and 2-hour reperfusion was established. The results demonstrated that a low-dose PolyPHb (0.1%, w/v) provided a significant protection on the I/R heart, whereas the high-dose PolyPHb (3%, w/v) did not exhibit cardioprotective effect, as evidenced by the impaired cardiac function, decreased myocardial oxygen utilization, and elevated enzymes release and pathological changes. Further study indicated that exposure of isolated coronary arteries or human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) to a high-dose PolyPHb caused impaired endothelium-dependent relaxation, which was companied with increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, reduced superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and elevated malonaldehyde (MDA) formation. Consistent with the increased oxidative stress, the NAD(P)H oxidase activity and subunits expression, including gp91(phox), p47(phox), p67(phox), and Nox1, were greatly upregulated. Conclusion. The high-dose PolyPHb fails to protect heart from CPB-induced I/R injury, which was due to overproduction of NAD(P)H oxidase-induced ROS and resultant endothelial dysfunction.

  17. High-Dose Polymerized Hemoglobin Fails to Alleviate Cardiac Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury due to Induction of Oxidative Damage in Coronary Artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury is an unavoidable event for patients in cardiac surgery under cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB. This study was designed to investigate whether glutaraldehyde-polymerized human placenta hemoglobin (PolyPHb, a hemoglobin-based oxygen carrier (HBOC, can protect heart against CPB-induced I/R injury or not and to elucidate the underlying mechanism. Methods and Results. A standard dog CPB model with 2-hour cardiac arrest and 2-hour reperfusion was established. The results demonstrated that a low-dose PolyPHb (0.1%, w/v provided a significant protection on the I/R heart, whereas the high-dose PolyPHb (3%, w/v did not exhibit cardioprotective effect, as evidenced by the impaired cardiac function, decreased myocardial oxygen utilization, and elevated enzymes release and pathological changes. Further study indicated that exposure of isolated coronary arteries or human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs to a high-dose PolyPHb caused impaired endothelium-dependent relaxation, which was companied with increased reactive oxygen species (ROS production, reduced superoxide dismutase (SOD activity, and elevated malonaldehyde (MDA formation. Consistent with the increased oxidative stress, the NAD(PH oxidase activity and subunits expression, including gp91phox, p47phox, p67phox, and Nox1, were greatly upregulated. Conclusion. The high-dose PolyPHb fails to protect heart from CPB-induced I/R injury, which was due to overproduction of NAD(PH oxidase-induced ROS and resultant endothelial dysfunction.

  18. Measurement of radon flux and tailings parameters for quantifying the source term due to radon exhalation from U tailings pile at Jaduguda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahoo, B.K.; Mayya, Y.S.; Sapra, B.K.; Gaware, J.J.; Khuswaha, H.S.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: The exposures from radon ( 222 Rn) and its decay products have been received considerable attention in the world community because of their adverse health effect. There are various natural and man-made sources of radon present in our environment. Among the man-made sources, the U tailings (waste product from U mining and milling facility) may be considered an important one because it contains significant amount of 226 Ra activity after the U extraction from the ore bodies. These tailings (slurry form) are being impounded into a repository site nearby the facility called 'Tailings Pile' (TP). Significant amount of radon emission takes place from this area by the process of emanation and exhalation. Hence, a study was taken up to quantify the source term arising due to radon emission from uranium tailings pile at Jaduguda in Jharkhand state. In-situ experiments were conducted at 40 locations of the uranium tailings pile in three seasons namely summer, rainy and winter to measure the radon fluxes. The measurements were carried out by deploying a cylindrical chamber, attached to a continuous radon monitor, on the surface of the tailings pile. The dimension of the chamber was selected by using a recently developed two dimensional theory of soil chamber, so that radon concentration growth will be in exponential fashion and the data generated within 2-3 hours of deployment period will be sufficient for accurately deriving the actual radon flux. After the data collection, the fluxes were derived by fitting an exponential growth function to the plot of radon concentration with time. The fluxes were also predicted by diffusion theory using the measured tailings parameters such as 226 Ra content, radon emanation factor, porosity, temperature and moisture. An excellent matching between the predicted and measured fluxes was observed. The validity of diffusion theory in the matrix of U tailings pile provides an alternate method for back-calculating the tailings

  19. Effects of long-term inhibition of neuronal nitric oxide synthase on blood pressure and renin release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ollerstam, A.; Skøtt, O.; Ek, J.

    2001-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) produced by neuronal NO-synthase (nNOS) in macula densa cells may be involved in the control of renin release. 7-Nitro indazole (7-NI) inhibits nNOS, and we investigated the effect of short- (4 days) and long-term (4 weeks) 7-NI treatment on blood pressure (BP), plasma renin...... LS rats (107 +/- 15 vs. 56 +/- 1 mGU mL(-1)). Stimulation of PRC in LS rats was further enhanced by 7-NI after 4 days of treatment, but not affected in rats treated for 4 weeks. This suggests that inhibition of nNOS stimulates renin release but that this stimulatory effect in the long run might...

  20. Possible effects of UO2 oxidation on light water reactor spent fuel performance in long-term geologic disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almassy, M.Y.; Woodley, R.E.

    1982-08-01

    Disposal of spent nuclear fuel in a conventionally mined geologic formation is the nearest-term option for permanently isolating radionuclides from the biosphere. Because irradiated uranium dioxide (UO 2 ) fuel pellets retain 95 to 99% of the radionuclides generated during normal light water reactor operation, they may represent a significant barrier to radionuclide release. This document presents a technical assessment of published literature representing the current level of understanding of spent fuel characteristics and conditions that may degrade pellet integrity during a geologic disposal sequence. A significant deterioration mechanism is spent UO 2 oxidation with possible consequences identified as fission gas release, rod diameter increases, cladding breach extension, and release of solid fuel particles containing radionuclides. Areas requiring further study to support development of a comprehensive spent fuel performance prediction model are highlighted. A program and preliminary schedule to obtain the information needed to develop model correlations are also presented

  1. Analysis of resonances due to 'S' neutrons in experiments on transmission by time-of-flight. 1. without the interference term; Analyse des resonances dues aux neutrons 'S' dans les experiences de transmission par temps de vol. 1. sans terme d'interference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corge, C R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    Various methods of transmission resonance analysis for 's' wave neutrons in time of flight experiments are described in this report. Only the case when the interference term can be neglected is treated in this first part. Results are given relative to a more complete partial area method and also to a new method so-called the width at half depth method. (author) [French] Le present rapport est consacre a l'expose de differentes methodes d'analyse des resonances dues aux neutrons d'ondes 's' dans les experiences de transmission par temps de vol, cette premiere partie traitant uniquement le cas ou l'on peut negliger le terme d'interference. Y figurent en particulier sous forme de reseaux de courbes, les resultats relatifs a une methode des aires partielles amelioree et ceux relatifs a une nouvelle methode dite de la largeur a mi-profondeur. (auteur)

  2. Short and long term biosorption of silica-coated iron oxide nanoparticles in heterotrophic biofilms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrling, Maria P.; Lackner, Susanne; Tatti, Oleg; Guthausen, Gisela; Delay, Markus; Franzreb, Matthias; Horn, Harald

    2016-01-01

    The increased application of engineered nanoparticles (ENP) in industrial processes and consumer products has raised concerns about their impact on health and environmental safety. When ENP enter the global water cycle by e.g. wastewater streams, wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) represent potential sinks for ENP. During biological WWT, the attachment of ENP to biofilms is responsible for the desired removal of ENP from the water phase avoiding their release into the aquatic environment. However, the fundamental mechanisms guiding the interactions between ENP and biofilms are not yet fully understood. Therefore, this study investigates the behavior and biosorption of inorganic ENP, here magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles coated with silica (scFe_3O_4-NP), with heterotrophic biofilms at different time scales. Their magnetic properties enable to follow scFe_3O_4-NP in the biofilm system by a magnetic susceptibility balance and magnetic resonance imaging. Biofilms were exposed to scFe_3O_4-NP at short contact times (5 min) in flow cells and complementary, scFe_3O_4-NP were introduced into a moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) to be observed for 27 d. Mass balances revealed that scFe_3O_4-NP sorbed to the biofilm within a few minutes, but that the total biosorption was rather low (3.2 μg Fe/mg TSS). scFe_3O_4-NP mainly sorbed to the biofilm surface inducing the detachment of outer biofilm parts starting after an exposure time of 3 h in the MBBR. The biosorption depended on the exposure concentration of scFe_3O_4-NP, but less on the contact time. Most scFe_3O_4-NP exited the flow cell (up to 65%) and the MBBR (57%) via the effluent. This effect was favored by the stabilization of scFe_3O_4-NP in the bulk liquid by organic matter leading to a low retention capacity of the MBBR system. The results contribute to improve our understanding about the fate of ENP in environmental and in technical biofilm systems and give indications for future investigations needed

  3. rhEPO Enhances Cellular Anti-oxidant Capacity to Protect Long-Term Cultured Aging Primary Nerve Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huqing; Fan, Jiaxin; Chen, Mengyi; Yao, Qingling; Gao, Zhen; Zhang, Guilian; Wu, Haiqin; Yu, Xiaorui

    2017-08-01

    Erythropoietin (EPO) may protect the nervous system of animals against aging damage, making it a potential anti-aging drug for the nervous system. However, experimental evidence from natural aging nerve cell models is lacking, and the efficacy of EPO and underlying mechanism of this effect warrant further study. Thus, the present study used long-term cultured primary nerve cells to successfully mimic the natural aging process of nerve cells. Starting on the 11th day of culture, cells were treated with different concentrations of recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO). Using double immunofluorescence labeling, we found that rhEPO significantly improved the morphology of long-term cultured primary nerve cells and increased the total number of long-term cultured primary cells. However, rhEPO did not improve the ratio of nerve cells. A 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was used to measure nerve cell activity and showed that rhEPO significantly improved the activity of long-term cultured primary nerve cells. Moreover, Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)/propidium iodide (PI) double immunofluorescence labeling flow cytometry revealed that rhEPO reduced the apoptotic rate of long-term cultured primary nerve cells. Senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) immunohistochemistry staining showed that rhEPO significantly reduced the aging rate of long-term cultured primary nerve cells. Immunochemistry revealed that rhEPO enhanced intracellular superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and glutathione (GSH) abundance and reduced the intracellular malondialdehyde (MDA) level. In addition, this effect depended on the dose, was maximized at a dose of 100 U/ml and was more pronounced than that of vitamin E. In summary, this study finds that rhEPO protects long-term cultured primary nerve cells from aging in a dose-dependent manner. The mechanism of this effect may be associated with the enhancement of the intracellular anti-oxidant

  4. Gentilly-2 NPP - Concrete aging effects on long term pre-stress losses and propagation of concrete cracking due to pressure testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gocevski, V.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the study intended to evaluate the post-tension long term losses and propagation of cracks in the envelope of Gentilly-2 Nuclear Power Plant reactor building. The numerical simulation of concrete, that takes into account elastic as well as inelastic strains due to loading, shrinkage strains due to drying or cooling and inelastic strains from alkali-aggregate reaction (AAR) related swelling, is explained. The simultaneous contribution of AAR, shrinkage and creep, are simulated using an enhanced elastic-plastic constitutive relation. The nonlinear relations are validated by comparing the numerically calculated strains with strain measurements from the extensometers placed in the concrete during the construction of the envelope. The post-tension losses/gains are evaluated for the vertical as well as horizontal cables. Also included is the result of pull-out test conducted on sample beam cast at the time of the reactor building construction with the same concrete mix, post-tension cable and force. Structural behaviour of the beam is simulated over the same period of time as the reactor building envelope. The test results are used also to calibrate the numerical model. The paper also includes discussion of the results obtained from the simulation of a standard internal high pressure test (145 kPa). The behavior of the reactor building envelope, prior to applied pressure, during the test and for the period of several months after the testing was simulated using an advanced numerical model and the results (strains) were compared with measured values. It was found that this method may be used as an approximate procedure for evaluation of post-tension losses/gains and assessment of propagation of cracking visible on the outside surfaces of the confinement building. In addition, a discussion of the negative effect of high post-tension on the air tightness of the confinement building of Gentilly-2. The comparison is made between the post

  5. Gentilly-2 NPP - Concrete aging effects on long term pre-stress losses and propagation of concrete cracking due to pressure testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gocevski, V. [Hydro-Quebe (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents the results of the study intended to evaluate the post-tension long term losses and propagation of cracks in the envelope of Gentilly-2 Nuclear Power Plant reactor building. The numerical simulation of concrete, that takes into account elastic as well as inelastic strains due to loading, shrinkage strains due to drying or cooling and inelastic strains from alkali-aggregate reaction (AAR) related swelling, is explained. The simultaneous contribution of AAR, shrinkage and creep, are simulated using an enhanced elastic-plastic constitutive relation. The nonlinear relations are validated by comparing the numerically calculated strains with strain measurements from the extensometers placed in the concrete during the construction of the envelope. The post-tension losses/gains are evaluated for the vertical as well as horizontal cables. Also included is the result of pull-out test conducted on sample beam cast at the time of the reactor building construction with the same concrete mix, post-tension cable and force. Structural behaviour of the beam is simulated over the same period of time as the reactor building envelope. The test results are used also to calibrate the numerical model. The paper also includes discussion of the results obtained from the simulation of a standard internal high pressure test (145 kPa). The behavior of the reactor building envelope, prior to applied pressure, during the test and for the period of several months after the testing was simulated using an advanced numerical model and the results (strains) were compared with measured values. It was found that this method may be used as an approximate procedure for evaluation of post-tension losses/gains and assessment of propagation of cracking visible on the outside surfaces of the confinement building. In addition, a discussion of the negative effect of high post-tension on the air tightness of the confinement building of Gentilly-2. The comparison is made between the post

  6. Long-term corrosion/oxidation studies under controlled humidity conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gdowski, G.

    1997-01-01

    Independent of thermal loading scenarios, the waste packages at the potential repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada will be exposed to environmental conditions where there is the possibility of significant water film formation occurring on the waste packages. Water films can cause aggressive aqueous film electrochemical corrosion on susceptible metals or alloys. Water film formation will be facilitated when relative humidities are high, when hygroscopic salts are present on the surfaces, when corrosion products are hygroscopic, and when particles form crevices with the surfaces (capillary effect). Also certain gaseous contaminants, such as, NO x and SO 2 , can facilitate water film formation. It should be noted that water film formation can occur at isolated spots (e.g. surface defects and salt particles) and need not cover the entire surface for electrochemical corrosion to occur. This activity will characterize the long term corrosion of metal specimens at two nominal relative humidities (50 and 85%) and at 80 C. Under the low relative humidity (50%) condition, water film formation is expected to be limited and therefore aqueous film electrochemical corrosion is expected also to be limited. Under the high relative humidity (85%) condition, significant water film formation is expected to occur under some test conditions, and subsequently aqueous film electrochemical corrosion will occur on susceptible materials

  7. Short and long term biosorption of silica-coated iron oxide nanoparticles in heterotrophic biofilms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrling, Maria P. [Engler-Bunte-Institut, Chair of Water Chemistry and Water Technology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Engler-Bunte-Ring 1, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Lackner, Susanne [Engler-Bunte-Institut, Chair of Water Chemistry and Water Technology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Engler-Bunte-Ring 1, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Urban Bioengineering for Resource Recovery, Bauhaus-Institute for Infrastructure Solutions, Bauhaus-Universität Weimar, Coudraystraße 7, 99423 Weimar (Germany); Tatti, Oleg [Engler-Bunte-Institut, Chair of Water Chemistry and Water Technology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Engler-Bunte-Ring 1, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Guthausen, Gisela [Pro" 2NMR, Institute for Biological Interfaces 4 and Institute for Mechanical Process Engineering and Mechanics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Adenauerring 20b, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Delay, Markus [Engler-Bunte-Institut, Chair of Water Chemistry and Water Technology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Engler-Bunte-Ring 1, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Franzreb, Matthias [Institute of Functional Interfaces, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Horn, Harald, E-mail: harald.horn@kit.edu [Engler-Bunte-Institut, Chair of Water Chemistry and Water Technology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Engler-Bunte-Ring 1, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); DVGW Research Laboratories for Water Chemistry and Water Technology, Engler-Bunte-Ring 1, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2016-02-15

    The increased application of engineered nanoparticles (ENP) in industrial processes and consumer products has raised concerns about their impact on health and environmental safety. When ENP enter the global water cycle by e.g. wastewater streams, wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) represent potential sinks for ENP. During biological WWT, the attachment of ENP to biofilms is responsible for the desired removal of ENP from the water phase avoiding their release into the aquatic environment. However, the fundamental mechanisms guiding the interactions between ENP and biofilms are not yet fully understood. Therefore, this study investigates the behavior and biosorption of inorganic ENP, here magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles coated with silica (scFe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-NP), with heterotrophic biofilms at different time scales. Their magnetic properties enable to follow scFe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-NP in the biofilm system by a magnetic susceptibility balance and magnetic resonance imaging. Biofilms were exposed to scFe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-NP at short contact times (5 min) in flow cells and complementary, scFe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-NP were introduced into a moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) to be observed for 27 d. Mass balances revealed that scFe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-NP sorbed to the biofilm within a few minutes, but that the total biosorption was rather low (3.2 μg Fe/mg TSS). scFe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-NP mainly sorbed to the biofilm surface inducing the detachment of outer biofilm parts starting after an exposure time of 3 h in the MBBR. The biosorption depended on the exposure concentration of scFe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-NP, but less on the contact time. Most scFe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-NP exited the flow cell (up to 65%) and the MBBR (57%) via the effluent. This effect was favored by the stabilization of scFe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-NP in the bulk liquid by organic matter leading to a low retention capacity of the MBBR system. The results contribute to improve our understanding about the fate of ENP in environmental and in

  8. Long-term Simulation of Photo-oxidants and Particulate Matter Over Europe With The Eurad Modeling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memmesheimer, M.; Friese, E.; Jakobs, H. J.; Feldmann, H.; Ebel, A.; Kerschgens, M. J.

    During recent years the interest in long-term applications of air pollution modeling systems (AQMS) has strongly increased. Most of these models have been developed for the application to photo-oxidant episodes during the last decade. In this contribu- tion a long-term application of the EURAD modeling sytem to the year 1997 is pre- sented. Atmospheric particles are included using the Modal Aerosol Dynamics Model for Europe (MADE). Meteorological fields are simulated by the mesoscale meteoro- logical model MM5, gas-phase chemistry has been treated with the RACM mecha- nism. The nesting option is used to zoom in areas of specific interest. Horizontal grid sizes are 125 km for the reginal scale, and 5 km for the local scale covering the area of North-Rhine-Westfalia (NRW). The results have been compared to observations of the air quality network of the environmental agency of NRW for the year 1997. The model results have been evaluated using the data quality objectives of the EU direc- tive 99/30. Further improvement for application of regional-scale air quality models is needed with respect to emission data bases, coupling to global models to improve the boundary values, interaction between aerosols and clouds and multiphase modeling.

  9. Long-term in vivo polychlorinated biphenyl 126 exposure induces oxidative stress and alters proteomic profile on islets of Langerhans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loiola, Rodrigo Azevedo; Dos Anjos, Fabyana Maria; Shimada, Ana Lúcia; Cruz, Wesley Soares; Drewes, Carine Cristiane; Rodrigues, Stephen Fernandes; Cardozo, Karina Helena Morais; Carvalho, Valdemir Melechco; Pinto, Ernani; Farsky, Sandra Helena

    2016-06-01

    It has been recently proposed that exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is a risk factor to type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). We investigated this hypothesis using long-term in vivo PCB126 exposure to rats addressing metabolic, cellular and proteomic parameters. Male Wistar rats were exposed to PCB126 (0.1, 1 or 10 μg/kg of body weight/day; for 15 days) or vehicle by intranasal instillation. Systemic alterations were quantified by body weight, insulin and glucose tolerance, and blood biochemical profile. Pancreatic toxicity was measured by inflammatory parameters, cell viability and cycle, free radical generation, and proteomic profile on islets of Langerhans. In vivo PCB126 exposure enhanced the body weight gain, impaired insulin sensitivity, reduced adipose tissue deposit, and elevated serum triglycerides, cholesterol, and insulin levels. Inflammatory parameters in the pancreas and cell morphology, viability and cycle were not altered in islets of Langerhans. Nevertheless, in vivo PCB126 exposure increased free radical generation and modified the expression of proteins related to oxidative stress on islets of Langerhans, which are indicative of early β-cell failure. Data herein obtained show that long-term in vivo PCB126 exposure through intranasal route induced alterations on islets of Langerhans related to early end points of DM2.

  10. Estimation of excess mortality due to long-term exposure to PM2.5 in Japan using a high-resolution model for present and future scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Daisuke; Ueda, Kayo; Ng, Chris Fook Sheng; Takami, Akinori; Ariga, Toshinori; Matsuhashi, Keisuke; Nakajima, Teruyuki

    2016-09-01

    Particulate matter with a diameter of less than 2.5 μm, known as PM2.5, can affect human health, especially in elderly people. Because of the imminent aging of society in the near future in most developed countries, the human health impacts of PM2.5 must be evaluated. In this study, we used a global-to-regional atmospheric transport model to simulate PM2.5 in Japan with a high-resolution stretched grid system (∼10 km for the high-resolution model, HRM) for the present (the 2000) and the future (the 2030, as proposed by the Representative Concentrations Pathway 4.5, RCP4.5). We also used the same model with a low-resolution uniform grid system (∼100 km for the low-resolution model, LRM). These calculations were conducted by nudging meteorological fields obtained from an atmosphere-ocean coupled model and providing emission inventories used in the coupled model. After correcting for bias, we calculated the excess mortality due to long-term exposure to PM2.5 among the elderly (over 65 years old) based on different minimum PM2.5 concentration (MINPM) levels to account for uncertainty using the simulated PM2.5 distributions to express the health effect as a concentration-response function. As a result, we estimated the excess mortality for all of Japan to be 31,300 (95% confidence intervals: 20,700 to 42,600) people in 2000 and 28,600 (95% confidence intervals: 19,000 to 38,700) people in 2030 using the HRM with a MINPM of 5.8 μg/m3. In contrast, the LRM resulted in underestimates of approximately 30% (for PM2.5 concentrations in the 2000 and 2030), approximately 60% (excess mortality in the 2000) and approximately 90% (excess mortality in 2030) compared to the HRM results. We also found that the uncertainty in the MINPM value, especially for low PM2.5 concentrations in the future (2030) can cause large variability in the estimates, ranging from 0 (MINPM of 15 μg/m3 in both HRM and LRM) to 95,000 (MINPM of 0 μg/m3 in HRM) people.

  11. Improved biological performance of low modulus Ti-24Nb-4Zr-7.9Sn implants due to surface modification by anodic oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Y. [School of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Gao, B., E-mail: gaobo_fmmu@163.com [School of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Wang, R. [Fengtai Health Center of Navy Outpatient Department, Beijing 100071 (China); Wu, J.; Zhang, L.J. [School of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Hao, Y.L.; Tao, X.J. [Institute of Metal Research Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China)

    2009-02-15

    Dental implants are usually made from commercially pure titanium or titanium alloys. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of surface treatment to low modulus Ti-24Nb-4Zr-7.9Sn (TNZS) on cell and bone responses. The TNZS alloy samples were modified using anodic oxidation (AD). Surface oxide properties were characterized by using various surface analytic techniques, involving scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and surface profilometer. During the AD treatment, porous titanium oxide layer was formed and Ca ions were incorporated into the oxide layer. The viability and morphology of osteoblasts on Ca-incorporated TNZS were studied. The bone responses of Ca-incorporated TNZS were evaluated by pull-out tests and morphological analysis after implantation in rabbit tibiae. The non-treated Ti and TNZS samples were used as the control. Significant increases in cell viability and pull-out forces (p < 0.05) were observed for Ca-incorporated TNZS implants compared with those for the control groups. Porous structures supplied positive guidance cues for osteoblasts to attach. The enhanced cell and bone responses to Ca-incorporated TNZS implants could be explained by the surface chemistry and microtopography.

  12. Short-term and latent post-settlement effects associated with elevated temperature and oxidative stress on larvae from the coral Porites astreoides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, C.; Ritson-Williams, R.; Olsen, K.; Paul, V. J.

    2013-03-01

    Coral reefs across the Caribbean are undergoing unprecedented rates of decline in coral cover during the last three decades, and coral recruitment is one potential process that could aid the recovery of coral populations. To better understand the effects of climate change on coral larval ecology, the larvae of Porites astreoides were studied to determine the immediate and post-settlement effects of elevated temperature and associated oxidative stress. Larvae of Porites astreoides were exposed to 27 °C (ambient) and +3.0 °C (elevated temperature) seawater for a short duration of 24 h; then, a suite of physiological parameters were measured to determine the extent of sublethal stress. Following the +3.0 °C treatment, larvae did not show a significant difference in maximum quantum yield of PSII ( F v/ F m) or respiratory demand when compared to controls maintained at 27 °C. The addition of micromolar concentrations of hydrogen peroxide did not impact respiration or photochemical efficiency. Catalase activity in the larvae increased (>60 %) following exposure to elevated temperature when compared to the controls. Short-term larval survival and settlement and metamorphosis were not affected by increased temperature or the H2O2 treatment. However, the settled spat that were exposed to elevated temperature underwent a 99 % reduction in survival compared to 90 % reduction for the control spat when examined 24 days following the deployment of 4-day-old settled spat on settlement tiles in the field. These results show that short-term exposure to some stressors might have small impacts on coral physiology, and no effects on larval survival, settlement and metamorphosis. However, due to post-settlement mortality, these stressors can cause a significant reduction in coral recruitment.

  13. Cardioprotective effects of lipoic acid, quercetin and resveratrol on oxidative stress related to thyroid hormone alterations in long-term obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheserek, Maureen Jepkorir; Wu, Guirong; Li, Longnan; Li, Lirong; Karangwa, Eric; Shi, Yonghui; Le, Guowei

    2016-07-01

    This study investigated possible mechanisms for cardioprotective effects of lipoic acid (LA), quercetin (Q) and resveratrol (R) on oxidative stress related to thyroid hormone alterations in long-term obesity. Female C57BL/6 mice were fed on high-fat diet (HFD), HFD+LA, HFD+R, HFD+Q and normal diet for 26weeks. Body weight, blood pressure, thyroid hormones, oxidative stress markers, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and ion pump activities were measured, and expression of cardiac genes was analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. HFD induced marked increase (Pstress, while plasma triidothyronine levels reduced. ACE activity increased (Pobesity thereby restoring plasma thyroid hormone levels and attenuating oxidative stress in the heart and thus may have therapeutic potential in heart diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Fireside corrosion and steamside oxidation of 9-12% Cr martensitic steels exposed for long term testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie; Jensen, S. A.; Rasmussen, F.

    2009-01-01

    MoV121 and HCM12 for the 12% Cr steels. The test tubes were welded in as part of the existing final superheaters in actual plants and exposure has been conducted over a ten year period (1994-2005). Compared to the older steel types, T92 and HCM12 utilise tungsten to improve their creep strength. From......To obtain long term corrosion and steam oxidation data for the 9-12%Cr ferritic steels, test tube sections have been exposed in Amager 3 and Avedore 1 coal fired power plants in Denmark (formerly run by ENERGI E2). Thus direct comparisons can be made for T91 and T92 for the 9% Cr steels and X20Cr...... Avedore I testing, T91 and T92 can be compared for exposure times up to similar to 48 000 h exposure. From Amager 3 testing, X20, HCM12 and T92 were tested; T92 has been exposed for up to 31 000 h and X20 and HCM12 have had 84 500 h exposure. Tube sections were removed for various exposure durations...

  15. Performance and long term degradation of 7 W micro-tubular solid oxide fuel cells for portable applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrell, M.; Morata, A.; Kayser, P.; Kendall, M.; Kendall, K.; Tarancón, A.

    2015-07-01

    Micro-tubular SOFCs have shown an astonishing thermal shock resistance, many orders of magnitude larger than planar SOFCs, opening the possibility of being used in portable applications. However, only few studies have been devoted to study the degradation of large-area micro-tubular SOFCs. This work presents microstructural, electrochemical and long term degradation studies of single micro-tubular cells fabricated by high shear extrusion, operating in the intermediate range of temperatures (T∼700 °C). A maximum power of 7 W per cell has been measured in a wide range of fuel utilizations between 10% and 60% at 700 °C. A degradation rate of 360 mW/1000 h (8%) has been observed for cells operated over more than 1500 h under fuel utilizations of 40%. Higher fuel utilizations lead to strong degradations associated to nickel oxidation/reduction processes. Quick thermal cycling with heating ramp rates of 30 °C /min yielded degradation rates of 440 mW/100 cycles (9%). These reasonable values of degradation under continuous and thermal cycling operation approach the requirements for many portable applications including auxiliary power units or consumer electronics opening this typically forbidden market to the SOFC technology.

  16. LONG-TERM PERFORMANCE OF SOLID OXIDE STACKS WITH ELECTRODE-SUPPORTED CELLS OPERATING IN THE STEAM ELECTROLYSIS MODE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. E. O' Brien; R. C. O' Brien; X. Zhang; G. Tao; B. J. Butler

    2011-11-01

    Performance characterization and durability testing have been completed on two five-cell high-temperature electrolysis stacks constructed with advanced cell and stack technologies. The solid oxide cells incorporate a negative-electrode-supported multi-layer design with nickel-zirconia cermet negative electrodes, thin-film yttria-stabilized zirconia electrolytes, and multi-layer lanthanum ferrite-based positive electrodes. The per-cell active area is 100 cm2. The stack is internally manifolded with compliant mica-glass seals. Treated metallic interconnects with integral flow channels separate the cells. Stack compression is accomplished by means of a custom spring-loaded test fixture. Initial stack performance characterization was determined through a series of DC potential sweeps in both fuel cell and electrolysis modes of operation. Results of these sweeps indicated very good initial performance, with area-specific resistance values less than 0.5 ?.cm2. Long-term durability testing was performed with A test duration of 1000 hours. Overall performance degradation was less than 10% over the 1000-hour period. Final stack performance characterization was again determined by a series of DC potential sweeps at the same flow conditions as the initial sweeps in both electrolysis and fuel cell modes of operation. A final sweep in the fuel cell mode indicated a power density of 0.356 W/cm2, with average per-cell voltage of 0.71 V at a current of 50 A.

  17. Carbonate-mediated Fe(II) oxidation in the air-cathode fuel cell: a kinetic model in terms of Fe(II) speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wei; Zhai, Lin-Feng; Cui, Yu-Zhi; Sun, Min; Jiang, Yuan

    2013-06-06

    Due to the high redox activity of Fe(II) and its abundance in natural waters, the electro-oxidation of Fe(II) can be found in many air-cathode fuel cell systems, such as acid mine drainage fuel cells and sediment microbial fuel cells. To deeply understand these iron-related systems, it is essential to elucidate the kinetics and mechanisms involved in the electro-oxidation of Fe(II). This work aims to develop a kinetic model that adequately describes the electro-oxidation process of Fe(II) in air-cathode fuel cells. The speciation of Fe(II) is incorporated into the model, and contributions of individual Fe(II) species to the overall Fe(II) oxidation rate are quantitatively evaluated. The results show that the kinetic model can accurately predict the electro-oxidation rate of Fe(II) in air-cathode fuel cells. FeCO3, Fe(OH)2, and Fe(CO3)2(2-) are the most important species determining the electro-oxidation kinetics of Fe(II). The Fe(II) oxidation rate is primarily controlled by the oxidation of FeCO3 species at low pH, whereas at high pH Fe(OH)2 and Fe(CO3)2(2-) are the dominant species. Solution pH, carbonate concentration, and solution salinity are able to influence the electro-oxidation kinetics of Fe(II) through changing both distribution and kinetic activity of Fe(II) species.

  18. Long-term changes in flood event patterns due to changes in hydrological distribution parameters in a rural-urban catchment, Shikoku, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouri, Goro; Kanae, Shinjiro; Oki, Taikan

    2011-07-01

    This article describes the principal control parameters of flood events and precipitation and the relationships between corresponding hydrologic and climatologic parameters. The long-term generation of runoff and associated processes is important in understanding floods and droughts under changes in climate and land use. This study presents detailed analyses of flood events in a coastal amphitheatre catchment with a total area of 445 km 2 in western Japan, followed by analyses of flood events in both urban and forest areas. Using long-term (1962 to 2002) hydrological and climatological data from the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport, Japan, the contributions of precipitation, river discharge, temperature, and relative humidity to flood events were analysed. Flood events could be divided into three types with respect to hydrologic and climatologic principal control parameters: the long-term tendency; medium-term changes as revealed by hydrographs and hyetographs of high-intensity events such as the relative precipitation, river discharge, and temperature; and large events, as shown by the flow-duration curve, with each cluster having particular characteristics. River discharge showed a decreasing tendency of flow quantity during small rainfall events of less than 100 mm/event from the 1980s to the present. An approximately 7% decrease from 44.8 to 37.3% occurred in the percentage of river water supplied by precipitation in the years after the 1980s. For the medium-term changes, no marked change occurred in the flow quantity of the peak point over time in event hydrographs. However, flow quantities before and after the peak tended to decrease by 1 to 2 m 3/s after the 1980s. Theoretical considerations with regard to the influence of hydrologic and climatologic parameters on flood discharge are discussed and examined in terms of observational data. These findings provide a sound foundation for use in hydrological catchment modelling.

  19. Due diligence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanghera, G.S.

    1999-01-01

    The Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) Act requires that every employer shall ensure the health and safety of workers in the workplace. Issues regarding the practices at workplaces and how they should reflect the standards of due diligence were discussed. Due diligence was described as being the need for employers to identify hazards in the workplace and to take active steps to prevent workers from potentially dangerous incidents. The paper discussed various aspects of due diligence including policy, training, procedures, measurement and enforcement. The consequences of contravening the OHS Act were also described

  20. Perceived impeding factors for return-to-work after long-term sickness absence due to major depressive disorder: a concept mapping approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, G. de; Hees, H.L.; Koeter, M.W.; Lagerveld, S.E.; Schene, A.H.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the present study was to explore various stakeholder perspectives regarding factors that impede return-to-work (RTW) after long-term sickness absence related to major depressive disorder (MDD). METHODS: Concept mapping was used to explore employees', supervisors' and

  1. Perceived impeding factors for return-to-work after long-term sickness absence due to major depressive disorder: a concept mapping approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Gabe; Hees, Hiske L.; Koeter, Maarten W. J.; Lagerveld, Suzanne E.; Schene, Aart H.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to explore various stakeholder perspectives regarding factors that impede return-to-work (RTW) after long-term sickness absence related to major depressive disorder (MDD). Concept mapping was used to explore employees', supervisors' and occupational physicians'

  2. Perceived impeding factors for return-to-work after long-term sickness absence due to major depressive disorder: A concept mapping approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, G. de; Hees, H.L.; Koeter, M.W.J.; Lagerveld, S.E.; Schene, A.H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the present study was to explore various stakeholder perspectives regarding factors that impede return-to-work (RTW) after long-term sickness absence related to major depressive disorder (MDD). Methods: Concept mapping was used to explore employees', supervisors' and

  3. Mental health symptoms identify workers at risk of long-term sickness absence due to mental disorders : prospective cohort study with 2-year follow-up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoffen, Marieke F. A.; Joling, Catelijne I.; Heymans, Martijn W.; Twisk, Jos W. R.; Roelen, Corne A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Mental health problems are a leading cause of long-term sickness absence (LTSA). Workers at risk of mental LTSA should preferably be identified before they report sick. The objective of this study was to examine mental health symptoms as predictors of future mental LTSA in non-sicklisted

  4. JNK1 ablation in mice confers long-term metabolic protection from diet-induced obesity at the cost of moderate skin oxidative damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becattini, Barbara; Zani, Fabio; Breasson, Ludovic; Sardi, Claudia; D'Agostino, Vito Giuseppe; Choo, Min-Kyung; Provenzani, Alessandro; Park, Jin Mo; Solinas, Giovanni

    2016-09-01

    Obesity and insulin resistance are associated with oxidative stress, which may be implicated in the progression of obesity-related diseases. The kinase JNK1 has emerged as a promising drug target for the treatment of obesity and type 2 diabetes. JNK1 is also a key mediator of the oxidative stress response, which can promote cell death or survival, depending on the magnitude and context of its activation. In this article, we describe a study in which the long-term effects of JNK1 inactivation on glucose homeostasis and oxidative stress in obese mice were investigated for the first time. Mice lacking JNK1 (JNK1(-/-)) were fed an obesogenic high-fat diet (HFD) for a long period. JNK1(-/-) mice fed an HFD for the long term had reduced expression of antioxidant genes in their skin, more skin oxidative damage, and increased epidermal thickness and inflammation compared with the effects in control wild-type mice. However, we also observed that the protection from obesity, adipose tissue inflammation, steatosis, and insulin resistance, conferred by JNK1 ablation, was sustained over a long period and was paralleled by decreased oxidative damage in fat and liver. We conclude that compounds targeting JNK1 activity in brain and adipose tissue, which do not accumulate in the skin, may be safer and most effective.-Becattini, B., Zani, F., Breasson, L., Sardi, C., D'Agostino, V. G., Choo, M.-K., Provenzani, A., Park, J. M., Solinas, G. JNK1 ablation in mice confers long-term metabolic protection from diet-induced obesity at the cost of moderate skin oxidative damage. © FASEB.

  5. Sharp incision of the anterior mitral leaflet due to penetrating trauma - Report of a case and long-term follow-up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, HD; Hamer, HPM; Ebels, T

    A case is described of sharp incision of the anterior leaflet of the mitral valve, due to penetrating trauma to the chest with a knife. The lesion of the mitral leaflet was diagnosed with echocardiography and successfully repaired with autologous pericardial tissue. Follow up after 15 years showed

  6. Characterization of oxide scales grown on alloy 310S stainless steel after long term exposure to supercritical water at 500 °C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behnamian, Yashar, E-mail: behnamia@ualberta.ca [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1H9 (Canada); Mostafaei, Amir [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Kohandehghan, Alireza [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1H9 (Canada); Amirkhiz, Babak Shalchi [Canmet MATERIALS, Natural Resources Canada, Hamilton, Ontario L8P 0A5 (Canada); Serate, Daniel [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1H9 (Canada); Zheng, Wenyue [Canmet MATERIALS, Natural Resources Canada, Hamilton, Ontario L8P 0A5 (Canada); Guzonas, David [Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, Chalk River Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario K0J 1J0 (Canada); Chmielus, Markus [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Chen, Weixing, E-mail: Weixing@ualberta.ca [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1H9 (Canada); Luo, Jing Li, E-mail: Jingli.luo@ualberta.ca [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1H9 (Canada)

    2016-10-15

    The oxide scale grown of static capsules made of alloy 310S stainless steel was investigated by exposure to the supercritical water at 500 °C 25 MPa for various exposure times up to 20,000 h. Characterization techniques such as X-ray diffraction, scanning/transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and fast Fourier transformation were employed on the oxide scales. The elemental and phase analyses indicated that long term exposure to the SCW resulted in the formation of scales identified as Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} (outer layer), Fe-Cr spinel (inner layer), Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} (transition layer) on the substrate, and Ni-enrichment (chrome depleted region) in the alloy 310S. It was found that the layer thickness and weight gain vs. exposure time followed parabolic law. The oxidation mechanism and scales grown on the alloy 310S stainless steel exposed to SCW are discussed. - Highlights: •Oxidation of alloy 310S stainless steel exposed to SCW (500 °C/25 MPa) •The layer thickness and weight gain vs. exposure time followed parabolic law. •Oxide layers including Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} (outer), Fe-Cr spinel (inner) and Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} (transition) •Ni element is segregated by the selective oxidation of Cr.

  7. Neuronal Nitric-Oxide Synthase Deficiency Impairs the Long-Term Memory of Olfactory Fear Learning and Increases Odor Generalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavesi, Eloisa; Heldt, Scott A.; Fletcher, Max L.

    2013-01-01

    Experience-induced changes associated with odor learning are mediated by a number of signaling molecules, including nitric oxide (NO), which is predominantly synthesized by neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) in the brain. In the current study, we investigated the role of nNOS in the acquisition and retention of conditioned olfactory fear. Mice…

  8. High signal in the adenohypophysis on T1-weighted images presumably due to manganese deposits in patients on long-term parenteral nutrition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietemann, J.L.; Diniz, R.L.F.C.; Reis, M. Jr.; Neugroschl, C.; Soehsten, S. von [Department of Radiology 2, University Hospital of Strasbourg (France); Reimund, J.M.; Baumann, R. [Department of Hepatogastroenterology, University Hospital of Strasbourg (France); Warter, J.M. [Department of Neurology, University Hospital of Strasbourg (France)

    1998-12-01

    Hypermanganesaemia is reported in patients on long-term parenteral nutrition. Deposition of manganese, giving high signal on T1-weighted images, may involve the basal ganglia. MRI in nine patients (mean age 51 years, range 31-75 years) on long-term parenteral nutrition (mean duration 30 months, range 6-126 months), demonstrated high signal in the anterior pituitary gland on T1-weighted sagittal and coronal images. The gland appeared normal on T2-weighted images. Signal intensity in the basal ganglia on T1-weighted images was increased in all patients. Endocrine assessment showed no significant abnormality. Neurological examination showed a mild parkinsonian movement disorder in one patient. Hypermanganaesemia was present in all nine (1.3-2.8 {mu}mol/l, mean 1.87 {mu}mol/l). The high signal in the anterior pituitary gland was probably related to deposition of paramagnetic substances, especially manganese. (orig.) With 2 figs., 1 tab., 17 refs.

  9. High signal in the adenohypophysis on T1-weighted images presumably due to manganese deposits in patients on long-term parenteral nutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietemann, J.L.; Diniz, R.L.F.C.; Reis, M. Jr.; Neugroschl, C.; Soehsten, S. von; Reimund, J.M.; Baumann, R.; Warter, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    Hypermanganesaemia is reported in patients on long-term parenteral nutrition. Deposition of manganese, giving high signal on T1-weighted images, may involve the basal ganglia. MRI in nine patients (mean age 51 years, range 31-75 years) on long-term parenteral nutrition (mean duration 30 months, range 6-126 months), demonstrated high signal in the anterior pituitary gland on T1-weighted sagittal and coronal images. The gland appeared normal on T2-weighted images. Signal intensity in the basal ganglia on T1-weighted images was increased in all patients. Endocrine assessment showed no significant abnormality. Neurological examination showed a mild parkinsonian movement disorder in one patient. Hypermanganaesemia was present in all nine (1.3-2.8 μmol/l, mean 1.87 μmol/l). The high signal in the anterior pituitary gland was probably related to deposition of paramagnetic substances, especially manganese. (orig.)

  10. Prediction of long-term absence due to sickness in employees: development and validation of a multifactorial risk score in two cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airaksinen, Jaakko; Jokela, Markus; Virtanen, Marianna; Oksanen, Tuula; Koskenvuo, Markku; Pentti, Jaana; Vahtera, Jussi; Kivimäki, Mika

    2018-01-24

    Objectives This study aimed to develop and validate a risk prediction model for long-term sickness absence. Methods Survey responses on work- and lifestyle-related questions from 65 775 public-sector employees were linked to sickness absence records to develop a prediction score for medically-certified sickness absence lasting >9 days and ≥90 days. The score was externally validated using data from an independent population-based cohort of 13 527 employees. For both sickness absence outcomes, a full model including 46 candidate predictors was reduced to a parsimonious model using least-absolute-shrinkage-and-selection-operator (LASSO) regression. Predictive performance of the model was evaluated using C-index and calibration plots. Results Variance explained in ≥90-day sickness absence by the full model was 12.5%. In the parsimonious model, the predictors included self-rated health (linear and quadratic term), depression, sex, age (linear and quadratic), socioeconomic position, previous sickness absences, number of chronic diseases, smoking, shift work, working night shift, and quadratic terms for body mass index and Jenkins sleep scale. The discriminative ability of the score was good (C-index 0.74 in internal and 0.73 in external validation). Calibration plots confirmed high correspondence between the predicted and observed risk. In >9-day sickness absence, the full model explained 15.2% of the variance explained, but the C-index of the parsimonious model was poor (<0.65). Conclusions Individuals' risk of a long-term sickness absence that lasts ≥90 days can be estimated using a brief risk score. The predictive performance of this score is comparable to those for established multifactorial risk algorithms for cardiovascular disease, such as the Framingham risk score.

  11. Low Birth Weight due to Intrauterine Growth Restriction and/or Preterm Birth: Effects on Nephron Number and Long-Term Renal Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohdi, Vladislava; Sutherland, Megan R.; Lim, Kyungjoon; Gubhaju, Lina; Zimanyi, Monika A.; Black, M. Jane

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have clearly demonstrated a strong association between low birth weight and long-term renal disease. A potential mediator of this long-term risk is a reduction in nephron endowment in the low birth weight infant at the beginning of life. Importantly, nephrons are only formed early in life; during normal gestation, nephrogenesis is complete by about 32–36 weeks, with no new nephrons formed after this time during the lifetime of the individual. Hence, given that a loss of a critical number of nephrons is the hallmark of renal disease, an increased severity and acceleration of renal disease is likely when the number of nephrons is already reduced prior to disease onset. Low birth weight can result from intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) or preterm birth; a high proportion of babies born prematurely also exhibit IUGR. In this paper, we describe how IUGR and preterm birth adversely impact on nephrogenesis and how a subsequent reduced nephron endowment at the beginning of life may lead to long-term risk of renal disease, but not necessarily hypertension. PMID:22970368

  12. Low Birth Weight due to Intrauterine Growth Restriction and/or Preterm Birth: Effects on Nephron Number and Long-Term Renal Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladislava Zohdi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have clearly demonstrated a strong association between low birth weight and long-term renal disease. A potential mediator of this long-term risk is a reduction in nephron endowment in the low birth weight infant at the beginning of life. Importantly, nephrons are only formed early in life; during normal gestation, nephrogenesis is complete by about 32–36 weeks, with no new nephrons formed after this time during the lifetime of the individual. Hence, given that a loss of a critical number of nephrons is the hallmark of renal disease, an increased severity and acceleration of renal disease is likely when the number of nephrons is already reduced prior to disease onset. Low birth weight can result from intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR or preterm birth; a high proportion of babies born prematurely also exhibit IUGR. In this paper, we describe how IUGR and preterm birth adversely impact on nephrogenesis and how a subsequent reduced nephron endowment at the beginning of life may lead to long-term risk of renal disease, but not necessarily hypertension.

  13. CONTAIN code calculations of the effects on the source term of CsI to I/sub 2/ conversion due to severe hydrogen burns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdez, G.D.; Williams, D.C.

    1986-01-01

    In experiments conducted at Sandia National Laboratories large amounts of elemental iodine were produced when CsI-Al 2 O 3 aerosol was exposed to hydrogen/air combustion. To evaluate some of the implications of the iodide conversion (observed to occur with up to 75% efficiency) for the severe accident source term, computational simulations of representative accident sequences were conducted with the CONTAIN code. The following conclusions can be drawn from this preliminary source term assessment: (1) If the containment sprays are inoperative during the accident, or failed by the hydrogen burn, the late-time source term is almost tripled when the iodide is converted to I 2 . (2) With the sprays active, the amount released without conversion of the CsI aerosol is 63% higher than for the case when conversion occurs. (3) For the case where CsI is converted to I 2 continued operation of the sprays reduces the release by a factor of 40, relative to the case in which the sprays fail at the time of the hydrogen burn. When there is no conversion, the reduction factor for continued spray operation is about a factor of 9, relative to the failed spray case

  14. Physical exercise prevents short and long-term deficits on aversive and recognition memory and attenuates brain oxidative damage induced by maternal deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Ben-Hur; Menezes, Jefferson; Souza, Mauren Assis; Mello-Carpes, Pâmela B

    2015-12-01

    It is known from previous research that physical exercise prevents long-term memory deficits induced by maternal deprivation in rats. But we could not assume similar effects of physical exercise on short-term memory, as short- and long-term memories are known to result from some different memory consolidation processes. Here we demonstrated that, in addition to long-term memory deficit, the short-term memory deficit resultant from maternal deprivation in object recognition and aversive memory tasks is also prevented by physical exercise. Additionally, one of the mechanisms by which the physical exercise influences the memory processes involves its effects attenuating the oxidative damage in the maternal deprived rats' hippocampus and prefrontal cortex.

  15. Chickens treated with a nitric oxide inhibitor became more resistant to Plasmodium gallinaceum infection due to reduced anemia, thrombocytopenia and inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Malaria is a serious infectious disease caused by parasites of the Plasmodium genus that affect different vertebrate hosts. Severe malaria leads to host death and involves different pathophysiological phenomena such as anemia, thrombocytopenia and inflammation. Nitric oxide (NO) is an important effector molecule in this disease, but little is known about its role in avian malaria models. Plasmodium gallinaceum- infected chickens were treated with aminoguanidine (AG), an inhibitor of inducible nitric oxide synthase, to observe the role of NO in the pathogenesis of this avian model. AG increased the survival of chickens, but also induced higher parasitemia. Treated chickens demonstrated reduced anemia and thrombocytopenia. Moreover, erythrocytes at different stages of maturation, heterophils, monocytes and thrombocytes were infected by Plasmodium gallinaceum and animals presented a generalized leucopenia. Activated leukocytes and thrombocytes with elongated double nuclei were observed in chickens with higher parasitemia; however, eosinophils were not involved in the infection. AG reduced levels of hemozoin in the spleen and liver, indicating lower inflammation. Taken together, the results suggest that AG reduced anemia, thrombocytopenia and inflammation, explaining the greater survival rate of the treated chickens. PMID:23398940

  16. Fus1 KO mouse as a model of oxidative stress-mediated sporadic Alzheimer’s disease: circadian disruption and long-term spatial and olfactory memory impairments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Coronas-Samano

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Insufficient advances in the development of effective therapeutic treatments of sporadic Alzheimer's Disease (sAD to date are largely due to the lack of sAD-relevant animal models. While the vast majority of models do recapitulate AD's hallmarks of plaques and tangles by virtue of tau and/or beta amyloid overexpression, these models do not reflect the fact that in sAD (unlike familial AD these genes are not risk factors per se and that other mechanisms like oxidative stress, metabolic dysregulation and inflammation play key roles in AD etiology. Here we characterize and propose the Fus1 KO mice that lack a mitochondrial protein Fus1/Tusc2 as a new sAD model. To establish sAD relevance, we assessed sAD related deficits in Fus1 KO and WT adult mice of 4-5 months old, the equivalent human age when the earliest cognitive and olfactory sAD symptoms arise. Fus1 KO mice showed oxidative stress (increased levels of ROS, decreased levels of PRDX1, disruption of metabolic homeostasis (decreased levels of ACC2, increased phosphorylation of AMPK, autophagy (decreased levels of LC3-II, PKC (decreased levels of RACK1 and calcium signaling (decreased levels of Calb2 in the olfactory bulb and/or hippocampus. Mice were behaviorally tested using objective and accurate video tracking (Noldus, in which Fus1 KO mice showed clear deficits in olfactory memory (decreased habituation/cross-habituation in the short and long term, olfactory guided navigation memory (inability to reduce their latency to find the hidden cookie, spatial memory (learning impairments on finding the platform in the Morris water maze and showed more sleep time during the diurnal cycle. Fus1 KO mice did not show clear deficits in olfactory perception (cross-habituation, association memory (passive avoidance or in species-typical behavior (nest building and no increased anxiety (open field, light-dark box or depression/anhedonia (sucrose preference at this relatively young age. These

  17. Fus1 KO Mouse As a Model of Oxidative Stress-Mediated Sporadic Alzheimer's Disease: Circadian Disruption and Long-Term Spatial and Olfactory Memory Impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronas-Samano, Guillermo; Baker, Keeley L; Tan, Winston J T; Ivanova, Alla V; Verhagen, Justus V

    2016-01-01

    Insufficient advances in the development of effective therapeutic treatments of sporadic Alzheimer's Disease (sAD) to date are largely due to the lack of sAD-relevant animal models. While the vast majority of models do recapitulate AD's hallmarks of plaques and tangles by virtue of tau and/or beta amyloid overexpression, these models do not reflect the fact that in sAD (unlike familial AD) these genes are not risk factors per se and that other mechanisms like oxidative stress, metabolic dysregulation and inflammation play key roles in AD etiology. Here we characterize and propose the Fus1 KO mice that lack a mitochondrial protein Fus1/Tusc2 as a new sAD model. To establish sAD relevance, we assessed sAD related deficits in Fus1 KO and WT adult mice of 4-5 months old, the equivalent human age when the earliest cognitive and olfactory sAD symptoms arise. Fus1 KO mice showed oxidative stress (increased levels of ROS, decreased levels of PRDX1), disruption of metabolic homeostasis (decreased levels of ACC2, increased phosphorylation of AMPK), autophagy (decreased levels of LC3-II), PKC (decreased levels of RACK1) and calcium signaling (decreased levels of Calb2) in the olfactory bulb and/or hippocampus. Mice were behaviorally tested using objective and accurate video tracking (Noldus), in which Fus1 KO mice showed clear deficits in olfactory memory (decreased habituation/cross-habituation in the short and long term), olfactory guided navigation memory (inability to reduce their latency to find the hidden cookie), spatial memory (learning impairments on finding the platform in the Morris water maze) and showed more sleep time during the diurnal cycle. Fus1 KO mice did not show clear deficits in olfactory perception (cross-habituation), association memory (passive avoidance) or in species-typical behavior (nest building) and no increased anxiety (open field, light-dark box) or depression/anhedonia (sucrose preference) at this relatively young age. These neurobehavioral

  18. Unintentional Long-Term Esophageal Stenting due to a Complete Response in a Patient with Stage UICC IV Adenocarcinoma of the Gastroesophageal Junction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Paeschke

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Endoscopic stent implantation is a common short-treatment option in palliative settings in patients with esophageal cancer. Advanced disease is associated with low survival rates; therefore, data on the long-term outcome are limited. So far, cases of long-term remission or even cure of metastasized adenocarcinoma of the gastroesophageal junction or stomach (AGS have only been reported from Asia. A 51-year-old male patient primarily diagnosed with metastasized adenocarcinoma of the gastroesophageal junction (GEJ [type I, cT3cN+cM1 (hep, CEA positive, UICC stage IV] received palliative esophageal stenting with a self-expandable metal stent. As disease progressed after four cycles with epirubicin, oxaliplatin, and capecitabin, treatment was changed to 5-FU and Irinotecan. The patient did not return after 5 cycles of FOLFIRI, but presented 4 years later with mild dysphagia. Endoscopy surprisingly revealed no relevant stenosis or stent migration. Repeated histological analyses of a residual mass at the GEJ did not detect malignancy. Since the initially diagnosed hepatic metastases were no longer detectable by computed tomography, cure from esophageal cancer was assumed. Dysphagia was ascribed to esophageal motility disorder by a narrowed esophageal lumen after long-term stenting. Thus, endoscopic stent implantation is an important method in palliative treatment of dysphagia related to AGS. New systemic treatment strategies like trastuzumab in Her2neu positive cases or new VEGF-inhibitors like ramucirumab will lead to more long-time survivors with AGS. In conclusion, future endoscopic treatment strategies in AGS represent a challenge for the development of new stent techniques in either extraction or programmed complete dissolution.

  19. Long term determination of dopamine and uric acid in the presence of ascorbic acid using ytterbia/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite prepared through a sonochemical route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Hossein; Ganjali, Mohammad Reza; Dezfuli, Amin Shiralizadeh; Faridbod, Farnoush

    2018-01-01

    Decoration of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) with nano-size inorganic particles creates a class of composites with considerably improved characteristics. Improvements in the function of electrochemical energy-storage devices, catalysts and sensors using such particles, have hence attracted a great deal of interest to the area. This manuscript tends to report the results of the research on the application of a sonochemical route for anchoring nano-sized Yb2O3 (Ytterbia) particles, on sheets of RGO. The anchoring phenomenon is based on the self-assembly of the Yb2O3 nano-particles under sonochemical treatments in an ultrasonic bath. To evaluate the method, the produced Yb2O3-RGO nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), which proved the uniform distribution of the nano-particles on the RGO sheets. Additionally, the Yb2O3-RGO nano-composites were evaluated through cyclic voltammetry (CV), to assess the potentials of their application in electrochemical devices. The high activity of the produced Yb2O3-RGO nanocomposites can be attributed to the synergistic effect between Yb2O3 and RGO as well as the porous structure of the nanocomposite. Due to their stability, electrocatalytic properties and large accessible surface area, the low detection limit sensor is usable for long term usages in blood serum and wide linear dynamic range. There are linear relationships between current intensities and concentrations in the region 0.3-800 μM dopamine (DA), and 0.2-210 μM uric acid (UA), and the limits of detection (LOD) (S/N = 3) are down to 0.02 μM and 0.01 μM for DA and UA, respectively in 0.5 mM solution of ascorbic acid.

  20. Liver Melanomacrophages and Gluthation S-Transferase Activity in Leptodactylus chaquensis (ANURA, LEPTODACTYLIDAE as Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress Due to Chlorpyrifos Exposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Huespe

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We quantified and compared the hepatic melanomacrophage (MM and glutathione S-transferase (GST enzyme activity (two oxidative stress biomarkers in the liver of Leptodatylus chaquensis adults (Anura, Leptodactylidae collected in a rice field (CA in San Javier department, Santa Fe (Argentina, seven days after the application of chlorpyrifos and in a reference site (SR. The histological analysis revealed a significant amount (p = 0.028 and area occupied by MM (p = 0.017 in livers of CA compared to SR. Furthermore, a significant inhibition of GST activity was recorded in the CA frogs compared to the SR (p = 0.030. The histopathological and enzymatic effects provide evidences of ecotoxicological risk for anurans in rice field with CPF application.

  1. Reliability enhancement due to in-situ post-oxidation of sputtered MgO barrier in double MgO barrier magnetic tunnel junction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chikako Yoshida

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the effects of in-situ post-oxidation (PO of a sputtered MgO barrier in a double-MgO-barrier magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ and found that the short error rate was significantly reduced, the magnetoresistance (MR ratio was increased approximately 18%, and the endurance lifetime was extend. In addition, we found that the distribution of breakdown number (a measure of endurance exhibits trimodal characteristics, which indicates competition between extrinsic and intrinsic failures. This improvement in reliability might be related to the suppression of Fe and Co diffusion to the MgO barrier, as revealed by electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS analysis.

  2. A short-term supranutritional vitamin E supplementation alleviated respiratory alkalosis but did not reduce oxidative stress in heat stressed pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Liu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective Heat stress (HS triggers oxidative stress and respiratory alkalosis in pigs. The objective of this experiment was to study whether a short-term supranutritional amount of dietary vitamin E (VE can mitigate oxidative stress and respiratory alkalosis in heat-stressed pigs. Methods A total of 24 pigs were given either a control diet (17 IU/kg VE or a high VE (200 IU/kg VE; HiVE diet for 14 d, then exposed to thermoneutral (TN; 20°C, 45% humidity or HS (35°C, 35% to 45% humidity, 8 h daily conditions for 7 d. Respiration rate and rectal temperature were measured three times daily during the thermal exposure. Blood gas variables and oxidative stress markers were studied in blood samples collected on d 7. Results Although HiVE diet did not affect the elevated rectal temperature or respiration rate observed during HS, it alleviated (all p<0.05 for diet×temperature the loss of blood CO2 partial pressure and bicarbonate, as well as the increase in blood pH in the heat-stressed pigs. The HS reduced (p = 0.003 plasma biological antioxidant potential (BAP and tended to increase (p = 0.067 advanced oxidized protein products (AOPP in the heat-stressed pigs, suggesting HS triggers oxidative stress. The HiVE diet did not affect plasma BAP or AOPP. Only under TN conditions the HiVE diet reduced the plasma reactive oxygen metabolites (p<0.05 for diet× temperature. Conclusion A short-term supplementation with 200 IU/kg VE partially alleviated respiratory alkalosis but did not reduce oxidative stress in heat-stressed pigs.

  3. Perceived impeding factors for return-to-work after long-term sickness absence due to major depressive disorder: a concept mapping approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabe de Vries

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to explore various stakeholder perspectives regarding factors that impede return-to-work (RTW after long-term sickness absence related to major depressive disorder (MDD.Concept mapping was used to explore employees', supervisors' and occupational physicians' perspectives on these impeding factors.Nine perceived themes, grouped in three meta-clusters were found that might impede RTW: Person, (personality / coping problems, symptoms of depression and comorbid (health problems, employee feels misunderstood, and resuming work too soon, Work (troublesome work situation, too little support at work, and too little guidance at work and Healthcare (insufficient mental healthcare and insufficient care from occupational physician. All stakeholders regarded personality/coping problems and symptoms of depression as the most important impeding theme. In addition, supervisors emphasized the importance of mental healthcare underestimating the importance of the work environment, while occupational physicians stressed the importance of the lack of safety and support in the work environment.In addition to the reduction of symptoms, more attention is needed on coping with depressive symptoms and personality problems in the work environment support in the work environment and for RTW in mental healthcare, to prevent long term sickness absence.

  4. Changes In Properties and Microstructure of High-Chromium 9-12%Cr Steels Due to Long-Term Exposure at Elevated Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zieliński A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the characteristics of the performance of P91 (X10CrMoVNb9-1, P92 (X10CrWMoVNb9-2 and VM12 (X12CrCoWVNb12-2-2 steels used for condition assessment of the pressure components of boilers with supercritical steam parameters. Studies on the mechanical properties, microstructure tests using scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray analysis of the phase composition of precipitates were performed for selected steels in the as-received condition and after long-term annealing. These steel characteristics are used for the evaluation of the microstructural changes and mechanical properties of the material of components after long-term service. The result of this study is the database of material characteristics representing the mechanical properties related to the microstructure analysis and it can be used for diagnosis of the components of pressure parts of power boilers.

  5. Perceived impeding factors for return-to-work after long-term sickness absence due to major depressive disorder: a concept mapping approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Gabe; Hees, Hiske L; Koeter, Maarten W J; Lagerveld, Suzanne E; Schene, Aart H

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to explore various stakeholder perspectives regarding factors that impede return-to-work (RTW) after long-term sickness absence related to major depressive disorder (MDD). Concept mapping was used to explore employees', supervisors' and occupational physicians' perspectives on these impeding factors. Nine perceived themes, grouped in three meta-clusters were found that might impede RTW: Person, (personality / coping problems, symptoms of depression and comorbid (health) problems, employee feels misunderstood, and resuming work too soon), Work (troublesome work situation, too little support at work, and too little guidance at work) and Healthcare (insufficient mental healthcare and insufficient care from occupational physician). All stakeholders regarded personality/coping problems and symptoms of depression as the most important impeding theme. In addition, supervisors emphasized the importance of mental healthcare underestimating the importance of the work environment, while occupational physicians stressed the importance of the lack of safety and support in the work environment. In addition to the reduction of symptoms, more attention is needed on coping with depressive symptoms and personality problems in the work environment support in the work environment and for RTW in mental healthcare, to prevent long term sickness absence.

  6. Short-term salivary acetaldehyde increase due to direct exposure to alcoholic beverages as an additional cancer risk factor beyond ethanol metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monakhova Yulia B

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An increasing body of evidence now implicates acetaldehyde as a major underlying factor for the carcinogenicity of alcoholic beverages and especially for oesophageal and oral cancer. Acetaldehyde associated with alcohol consumption is regarded as 'carcinogenic to humans' (IARC Group 1, with sufficient evidence available for the oesophagus, head and neck as sites of carcinogenicity. At present, research into the mechanistic aspects of acetaldehyde-related oral cancer has been focused on salivary acetaldehyde that is formed either from ethanol metabolism in the epithelia or from microbial oxidation of ethanol by the oral microflora. This study was conducted to evaluate the role of the acetaldehyde that is found as a component of alcoholic beverages as an additional factor in the aetiology of oral cancer. Methods Salivary acetaldehyde levels were determined in the context of sensory analysis of different alcoholic beverages (beer, cider, wine, sherry, vodka, calvados, grape marc spirit, tequila, cherry spirit, without swallowing, to exclude systemic ethanol metabolism. Results The rinsing of the mouth for 30 seconds with an alcoholic beverage is able to increase salivary acetaldehyde above levels previously judged to be carcinogenic in vitro, with levels up to 1000 μM in cases of beverages with extreme acetaldehyde content. In general, the highest salivary acetaldehyde concentration was found in all cases in the saliva 30 sec after using the beverages (average 353 μM. The average concentration then decreased at the 2-min (156 μM, 5-min (76 μM and 10-min (40 μM sampling points. The salivary acetaldehyde concentration depends primarily on the direct ingestion of acetaldehyde contained in the beverages at the 30-sec sampling, while the influence of the metabolic formation from ethanol becomes the major factor at the 2-min sampling point. Conclusions This study offers a plausible mechanism to explain the increased risk for oral

  7. Long-Term Evaluation of Patients Undergoing Genitoplasty due to Disorders of Sex Development: Results from a 14-Year Follow-Up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To summarize the experience in treating patients with genitoplasty due to disorders of sex development in China. Methods. The operative procedures, gender of rearing, surgical outcome, and psychosocial and family adjustments of 262 patients were reviewed retrospectively. Results. At initial diagnosis, the mean age was years (range: 2–38 years. There were 96 children, 133 adolescents, and 33 adults. Follow-up was done every 6 months. Patients with female sex assignment had no urinary incontinence or voiding difficulty. Five patients underwent the second surgery (3%; vaginal dilation was performed in 35 patients with postoperative vaginal stenosis; 12 patients (7.4% were unsatisfactory with the outcome. For patients with male sex assignment, the median length of penis was 2.2 cm in prepubertal patients, 4.2 cm in pubertal patients, and 5.0 cm in adults; 39 patients developed postvoid dribbling (39%; 21 patients underwent a second surgery (21%; urethral dilation was done in 28 patients (28% due to urethral stricture; 38 patients were unsatisfactory with the outcome (38%. In addition, 136 patients (83% with female sex assignment and 54 (54% with male sex assignment had favorable psychosocial adjustment. Conclusions. Patients with male sex assignment have more surgical complications and difficulties in psychosocial adjustment as compared to those with female sex assignment.

  8. Long-term exposure to combination antiretroviral therapy and risk of death from specific causes: no evidence for any previously unidentified increased risk due to antiretroviral therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kowalska, Justyna D; Reekie, Joanne; Mocroft, Amanda

    2012-01-01

    were followed from baseline, which was defined as the time of starting cART or enrolment into EuroSIDA whichever occurred later, until death or six months after last follow-up visit. Incidence rates (IR) of death were calculated per 1000 person-years of follow-up (PYFU) and stratified by time...... of exposure to cART (=3 antiretrovirals): 8 years. Duration of cART exposure was the cumulative time actually receiving cART. Poisson regression models were fitted for each cause of death separately. RESULTS:: 1297 patients died during 70613 PYFU (IR 18.3 per 1000 PYFU, 95%CI: 17.4-19.4), 413 due to AIDS (5.......85, 95%CI: 5.28-6.41) and 884 due to non-AIDS-related cause (12.5, 95%CI: 11.7-13.3). After adjustment for confounding variables, including baseline CD4 cell count and HIV RNA, there was a significant decrease in the rate of all-cause and AIDS-related death between 2-3.99 years and longer exposure time...

  9. [Vitrectomy and gas-fluid exchange for the treatment of serous macular detachment due to optic disc pit: long-term evaluation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira Neto, Carlos Augusto; Moreira Junior, Carlos Augusto

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate 5 patients with serous macular detachment due to optic disc pit that were submitted to pars plana vitrectomy and were followed for at least 7 years. Patients were submitted to pars plana vitrectomy, posterior hyaloid removal, autologous serum injection and gas-fluid exchange, without laser photocoagulation, and were evaluated pre and post-operatively with visual acuity and Amsler grid testing, retinography, and recently, with autofluorescence imaging and high resolution OCT. All 5 eyes improved visual acuity significantly following the surgical procedure maintaining good vision throughout the follow-up period. Mean pre-operative visual acuity was 20/400 and final visual acuity was 20/27 with a mean follow-up time of 13.6 years. No recurrences of serous detachments were observed. OCT examinations demonstrated an attached retina up to the margin of the pit. Serous macular detachments due to optic disc pits were adequately treated with pars plana vitrectomy and gas fluid exchange, without the need for laser photocoagulation, maintaining excellent visual results for a long period of time.

  10. Reduction of healthcare-associated infections in a long-term care brain injury ward by replacing regular linens with biocidal copper oxide impregnated linens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazary, A; Weinberg, I; Vatine, J-J; Jefidoff, A; Bardenstein, R; Borkow, G; Ohana, N

    2014-07-01

    Contaminated textiles in hospitals contribute to endogenous, indirect-contact, and aerosol transmission of nosocomial related pathogens. Copper oxide impregnated linens have wide-spectrum antimicrobial, antifungal, and antiviral properties. Our aim was to determine if replacing non-biocidal linens with biocidal copper oxide impregnated linens would reduce the rates of healthcare-associated infections (HAI) in a long-term care ward. We compared the rates of HAI in two analogous patient cohorts in a head injury care ward over two 6-month parallel periods before (period A) and after (period B) replacing all the regular non-biocidal linens and personnel uniforms with copper oxide impregnated biocidal products. During period B, in comparison to period A, there was a 24% reduction in the HAI per 1000 hospitalization-days (p38.5°C) per 1000 hospitalization-days (p<0.01), and a 32.8% reduction in total number of days of antibiotic administration per 1000 hospitalization-days (p<0.0001). Accordingly there was saving of approximately 27% in costs of antibiotics, HAI-related treatments, X-rays, disposables, labor, and laundry, expenses during period B. The use of biocidal copper oxide impregnated textiles in a long-term care ward may significantly reduce HAI, fever, antibiotic consumption, and related treatment costs. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. The oxidative debt of fasting: evidence for short- to medium-term costs of advanced fasting in adult king penguins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schull, Quentin; Viblanc, Vincent A; Stier, Antoine; Saadaoui, Hédi; Lefol, Emilie; Criscuolo, François; Bize, Pierre; Robin, Jean-Patrice

    2016-10-15

    In response to prolonged periods of fasting, animals have evolved metabolic adaptations helping to mobilize body reserves and/or reduce metabolic rate to ensure a longer usage of reserves. However, those metabolic changes can be associated with higher exposure to oxidative stress, raising the question of how species that naturally fast during their life cycle avoid an accumulation of oxidative damage over time. King penguins repeatedly cope with fasting periods of up to several weeks. Here, we investigated how adult male penguins deal with oxidative stress after an experimentally induced moderate fasting period (PII) or an advanced fasting period (PIII). After fasting in captivity, birds were released to forage at sea. We measured plasmatic oxidative stress on the same individuals at the start and end of the fasting period and when they returned from foraging at sea. We found an increase in activity of the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase along with fasting. However, PIII individuals showed higher oxidative damage at the end of the fast compared with PII individuals. When they returned from re-feeding at sea, all birds had recovered their initial body mass and exhibited low levels of oxidative damage. Notably, levels of oxidative damage after the foraging trip were correlated to the rate of mass gain at sea in PIII individuals but not in PII individuals. Altogether, our results suggest that fasting induces a transitory exposure to oxidative stress and that effort to recover in body mass after an advanced fasting period may be a neglected carryover cost of fasting. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  12. Improvement in Memory and Brain Long-term Potentiation Deficits Due to Permanent Hypoperfusion/Ischemia by Grape Seed Extract in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Sarkaki

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available   Objective(s: Cerebral hypoperfusion/ischemia (CHI is a neurological disease where impaired hippocampus electrical activity and cognition caused by a serial pathophysiological events. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of chronic oral administration of grape seed extract (GSE on passive avoidance memory and long-term potentiation (LTP after permanent bilateral common carotid arteries occlusion (2CCAO in male adult rats.   Materials and Methods: Thirty-two adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into: 1 Sham+Veh, 2 Isch+Veh, 3 Sham+GSE, 4 Isch+GSE. In order to make 2CCAO as an animal model of CHI, carotid arteries were ligatured and then cut bilaterally. To evaluation of passive avoidance memory, step-down latency (STL was measured and LTP was recorded from hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG after high frequency stimulation (HFS in all rats. Results: We found that memory was significantly impaired in rats after CHI (P

  13. Archaeal dominated ammonia-oxidizing communities in Icelandic grassland soils are moderately affected by long-term N fertilization and geothermal heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daebeler, Anne; Abell, Guy C. J.; Bodelier, Paul L. E.; Bodrossy, Levente; Frampton, Dion M. F.; Hefting, Mariet M.; Laanbroek, Hendrikus J.

    2012-01-01

    The contribution of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and archaea (AOB and AOA, respectively) to the net oxidation of ammonia varies greatly between terrestrial environments. To better understand, predict and possibly manage terrestrial nitrogen turnover, we need to develop a conceptual understanding of ammonia oxidation as a function of environmental conditions including the ecophysiology of associated organisms. We examined the discrete and combined effects of mineral nitrogen deposition and geothermal heating on ammonia-oxidizing communities by sampling soils from a long-term fertilization site along a temperature gradient in Icelandic grasslands. Microarray, clone library and quantitative PCR analyses of the ammonia monooxygenase subunit A (amoA) gene accompanied by physico-chemical measurements of the soil properties were conducted. In contrast to most other terrestrial environments, the ammonia-oxidizing communities consisted almost exclusively of archaea. Their bacterial counterparts proved to be undetectable by quantitative polymerase chain reaction suggesting AOB are only of minor relevance for ammonia oxidation in these soils. Our results show that fertilization and local, geothermal warming affected detectable ammonia-oxidizing communities, but not soil chemistry: only a subset of the detected AOA phylotypes was present in higher temperature soils and AOA abundance was increased in the fertilized soils, while soil physio-chemical properties remained unchanged. Differences in distribution and structure of AOA communities were best explained by soil pH and clay content irrespective of temperature or fertilizer treatment in these grassland soils, suggesting that these factors have a greater potential for ecological niche-differentiation of AOA in soil than temperature and N fertilization. PMID:23060870

  14. Archaeal dominated ammonia-oxidizing communities in Icelandic grassland soils are moderately affected by long-term N fertilization and geothermal heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne eDaebeler

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and archaea (AOB and AOA, respectively to the net oxidation of ammonia varies greatly between terrestrial environments. To better understand, predict and possibly manage terrestrial nitrogen turnover, we need to develop a conceptual understanding of ammonia oxidation as a function of environmental conditions including the ecophysiology of the associated organisms. We examined the discrete and combined effects of mineral nitrogen deposition and geothermal heating on ammonia-oxidizing communities by sampling soils from a long-term fertilisation site along a temperature gradient in Icelandic grasslands. Microarray, clone library and quantitative PCR analyses of the ammonia monooxygenase subunit A (amoA gene accompanied by physico-chemical measurements of the soil properties were conducted. In contrast to most other terrestrial environments, the ammonia-oxidizing communities consisted almost exclusively of archaea. Their bacterial counterparts proved to be undetectable by quantitative PCR suggesting AOB are only of minor relevance for ammonia oxidation in these soils. Our results show that fertilization and local, geothermal warming affected detectable ammonia-oxidizing communities, but not soil chemistry: only a subset of the detected AOA phylotypes was present in higher temperature soils and AOA abundance was increased in the fertilized soils, while the measured soil physico-chemical properties remained unchanged. Differences in distribution and structure of AOA communities were best explained by soil pH and clay content irrespective of temperature or fertilizer treatment in these grassland soils, suggesting that these factors have a greater potential for ecological niche-differentiation of AOA in soil than temperature and N fertilization.

  15. Archaeal dominated ammonia-oxidizing communities in Icelandic grassland soils are moderately affected by long-term N fertilization and geothermal heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daebeler, Anne; Abell, Guy C J; Bodelier, Paul L E; Bodrossy, Levente; Frampton, Dion M F; Hefting, Mariet M; Laanbroek, Hendrikus J

    2012-01-01

    The contribution of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and archaea (AOB and AOA, respectively) to the net oxidation of ammonia varies greatly between terrestrial environments. To better understand, predict and possibly manage terrestrial nitrogen turnover, we need to develop a conceptual understanding of ammonia oxidation as a function of environmental conditions including the ecophysiology of associated organisms. We examined the discrete and combined effects of mineral nitrogen deposition and geothermal heating on ammonia-oxidizing communities by sampling soils from a long-term fertilization site along a temperature gradient in Icelandic grasslands. Microarray, clone library and quantitative PCR analyses of the ammonia monooxygenase subunit A (amoA) gene accompanied by physico-chemical measurements of the soil properties were conducted. In contrast to most other terrestrial environments, the ammonia-oxidizing communities consisted almost exclusively of archaea. Their bacterial counterparts proved to be undetectable by quantitative polymerase chain reaction suggesting AOB are only of minor relevance for ammonia oxidation in these soils. Our results show that fertilization and local, geothermal warming affected detectable ammonia-oxidizing communities, but not soil chemistry: only a subset of the detected AOA phylotypes was present in higher temperature soils and AOA abundance was increased in the fertilized soils, while soil physio-chemical properties remained unchanged. Differences in distribution and structure of AOA communities were best explained by soil pH and clay content irrespective of temperature or fertilizer treatment in these grassland soils, suggesting that these factors have a greater potential for ecological niche-differentiation of AOA in soil than temperature and N fertilization.

  16. Answers to critics: Why there is a long term toxicity due to a Roundup-tolerant genetically modified maize and to a Roundup herbicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Séralini, Gilles-Eric; Mesnage, Robin; Defarge, Nicolas; Gress, Steeve; Hennequin, Didier; Clair, Emilie; Malatesta, Manuela; de Vendômois, Joël Spiroux

    2013-03-01

    Our recent work (Séralini et al., 2012) remains to date the most detailed study involving the life-long consumption of an agricultural genetically modified organism (GMO). This is true especially for NK603 maize for which only a 90-day test for commercial release was previously conducted using the same rat strain (Hammond et al., 2004). It is also the first long term detailed research on mammals exposed to a highly diluted pesticide in its total formulation with adjuvants. This may explain why 75% of our first criticisms arising within a week, among publishing authors, come from plant biologists, some developing patents on GMOs, even if it was a toxicological paper on mammals, and from Monsanto Company who owns both the NK603 GM maize and Roundup herbicide (R). Our study has limits like any one, and here we carefully answer to all criticisms from agencies, consultants and scientists, that were sent to the Editor or to ourselves. At this level, a full debate is biased if the toxicity tests on mammals of NK603 and R obtained by Monsanto Company remain confidential and thus unavailable in an electronic format for the whole scientific community to conduct independent scrutiny of the raw data. In our article, the conclusions of long-term NK603 and Roundup toxicities came from the statistically highly discriminant findings at the biochemical level in treated groups in comparison to controls, because these findings do correspond in an blinded analysis to the pathologies observed in organs, that were in turn linked to the deaths by anatomopathologists. GM NK603 and R cannot be regarded as safe to date. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Stannic oxide spherical nanoparticles: an anode material with long-term cyclability for Li-ion rechargeable batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalubarme, Ramchandra S.; Kale, Bharat B.; Gosavi, Suresh W.

    2017-08-01

    Transition metal oxides are widely used in energy storage applications. Stannic oxide nanostructures are prepared using a controlled, NaOH assisted, simple precipitation method. The morphology of the prepared material confirms the formation of fine nanoparticles having a rutile stannic oxide (SnO2) phase, with cassiterite structure, and size distribution ~20 nm. On testing, as an anode material for a Li-ion battery, stannic oxide delivers a reversible charge capacity of 957 mAh g-1 at an applied current rate of C/10. The stannic oxide shows excellent rate performance displaying capacity of 577 mAh g-1 at 10 C and capacity of 919 mAh g-1 retained after 200 cycles at an applied current rate of C/2. The super performance of stannic oxide fine particles stem from both the effective diffusion of Li-ions to reaction sites through porous channels and weaker stress/strain during Li insertion/desertion owing to its fine size.

  18. Critical Role of Nitric Oxide-cGMP Cascade in the Formation of cAMP-Dependent Long-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aonuma, Hitoshi; Mizunami, Makoto; Matsumoto, Yukihisa; Unoki, Sae

    2006-01-01

    Cyclic AMP pathway plays an essential role in formation of long-term memory (LTM). In some species, the nitric oxide (NO)-cyclic GMP pathway has been found to act in parallel and complementary to the cAMP pathway for LTM formation. Here we describe a new role of the NO-cGMP pathway, namely, stimulation of the cAMP pathway to induce LTM. We have…

  19. Catalytic oxidation using nitrous oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Beltran-Prieto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitrous oxide is a very inert gas used generally as oxidant as it offers some advantage compared with other oxidants such as O2 but a considerably higher temperature (> 526 °C is often required. For particular cases such as the oxidation of sugar alcohols, especially for the oxidation of primary alcohols to aldehydes, N2O has the advantage over O2 of a higher reaction selectivity. In the present paper we present the modelling of oxidation reaction of sugar alcohols using an oxidizing agent in low concentrations, which is important to suppress subsequent oxidation reactions due to the very low residual concentrations of the oxidizing agent. For orientation experiments we chose nitrous oxide generated by thermal decomposition of ammonium nitrate. Kinetic modeling of the reaction was performed after determination of the differential equations that describe the system under study.

  20. Changes in the contents of anthocyanins and other compounds in blackberry fruits due to freezing and long-term frozen storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veberic, Robert; Stampar, Franci; Schmitzer, Valentina; Cunja, Vlasta; Zupan, Anka; Koron, Darinka; Mikulic-Petkovsek, Maja

    2014-07-23

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of fast and slow freezing and frozen storage on the metabolite content of six blackberry cultivars. The content of metabolites determined with HPLC RI/PDA-MS in stored blackberries was compared with the initial content of the fruit. During frozen storage of fruits a loss of vitamin C up to 80% has been recorded along with changes of color values, which shifted to blue and yellow hues. The color changes were accompanied with increased pH levels and content of anthocyanins. Most of the phenolic groups, sugars, and organic acids showed a better extraction after storage, especially in the slow freezing treatment due to a higher degree of tissue damage by freezing. The 'Thornless Evergreen' cultivar was especially rich in sugars, vitamin C, and phenolic compounds, but the highest levels of anthocyanins were determined in 'Loch Ness' cultivar.

  1. Long-Term Palliative Effect of Stenting in Gastric Outlet Obstruction Due to Transarterial Chemoembolization with Yttrium-90 in a Patient with Metastatic Neuroendocrine Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkan Caglar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Internal radioembolization with yttrium-90 is a promising treatment method, predominantly for liver tumors. However, the shifting of yttrium-90-loaded spherules into the arteries and veins that supply the duodenum and stomach, leading to ulceration, hemorrhage, perforation, and outlet obstruction of these organs, is one of the major undesirable consequences of this technique. We report a case of gastric outlet obstruction (GOO due to antropyloric stenosis with ulceration, edema, and inflammation following transarterial yttrium-90 treatment for a metastatic neuroendocrine tumor in a 58-year-old man. Stenting was used for palliation in this case. GOO improved after stenting and recovery of oral intake was permanent after stent removal.

  2. Predictive value of long-term changes of growth differentiation factor-15 over a 27-year-period for heart failure and death due to coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluschnik, Nina; Ojeda, Francisco; Zeller, Tanja; Jørgensen, Torben; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Becher, Peter Moritz; Sinning, Christoph; Blankenberg, Stefan; Westermann, Dirk

    2018-01-01

    Growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15), Cystatin C and C-reactive protein (CRP) have been discussed as biomarkers for prediction of cardiac diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the predictive value of single and repeated measurements of GDF-15 compared to Cystatin C and CRP for incidence of heart failure (HF) and death due to coronary heart disease (CHD) in the general population. Levels of GDF-15, CRP and Cystatin C were determined in three repeated measurements collected 5 years apart in the DAN-MONICA (Danish-Multinational MONitoring of trends and determinants in Cardiovascular disease) cohort (participants at baseline n = 3785). Cox regression models adjusted for cardiovascular risk factors revealed significantly increased hazard ratios (HR) for GDF-15 for incident HF 1.36 (HR per interquartile range (IQR) increase, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.16; 1.59) and for death from CHD 1.51 (HR per IQR increase, 95% CI: 1.31, 1.75) (both with p<0.001). Joint modeling of time-to-event and longitudinal GDF-15 over a median 27-year follow-up period showed that the marker evolution was positively associated with death of CHD (HR per IQR increase 3.02 95% CI: (2.26, 4.04), p < 0.001) and HF (HR per IQR increase 2.12 95% CI: (1.54, 2.92), p<0.001). However using Cox models with follow-up time starting at the time of the third examination, serial measurement of GDF-15, modeled as changes between the measurements, did not improve prediction over that of the most recent measurement. GDF-15 is a promising biomarker for prediction of HF and death due to CHD in the general population, which may provide prognostic information to already established clinical biomarkers. Repeated measurements of GDF-15 displayed only a slight improvement in the prediction of these endpoints compared to a single measurement.

  3. A Decade of Improvements for Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cells. Long-Term Degradation Rate from 40%/Kh to 0.4 % Kh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauch, Anne; Brodersen, Karen; Chen, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Solid oxide electrolysis cells (SOEC) have the potential for efficient large-scale conversion from electrical energy to chemical energy stored in fuels, such as hydrogen or synthetic hydrocarbon fuels by use of well-known catalysis processes. Key issues for the break-through of this technology...... are to provide inexpensive, reliable, high performing and long-term stable SOEC for stack and system applications. At DTU Energy (formerly Department of Fuel Cells and Solid State Chemistry, Risø National Laboratory), research within SOEC for more than a decade has led to long-term degradation rates on cell...

  4. Effects of short-term Western diet on cerebral oxidative stress and diabetes related factors in APP x PS1 knock-in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studzinski, Christa M; Li, Feng; Bruce-Keller, Annadora J; Fernandez-Kim, Sun Ok; Zhang, Le; Weidner, Adam M; Markesbery, William R; Murphy, M Paul; Keller, Jeffrey N

    2009-02-01

    A chronic high fat Western diet (WD) promotes a variety of morbidity factors although experimental evidence for short-term WD mediating brain dysfunction remains to be elucidated. The amyloid precursor protein and presenilin-1 (APP x PS1) knock-in mouse model has been demonstrated to recapitulate some key features of Alzheimer's disease pathology, including amyloid-beta (Abeta) pathogenesis. In this study, we placed 1-month-old APP x PS1 mice and non-transgenic littermates on a WD for 4 weeks. The WD resulted in a significant elevation in protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation in the brain of APP x PS1 mice relative to non-transgenic littermates, which occurred in the absence of increased Abeta levels. Altered adipokine levels were also observed in APP x PS1 mice placed on a short-term WD, relative to non-transgenic littermates. Taken together, these data indicate that short-term WD is sufficient to selectively promote cerebral oxidative stress and metabolic disturbances in APP x PS1 knock-in mice, with increased oxidative stress preceding alterations in Abeta. These data have important implications for understanding how WD may potentially contribute to brain dysfunction and the development of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease.

  5. Due diligence

    OpenAIRE

    Rohanová, Tereza

    2015-01-01

    One of the main strategic goals of an owner is the growth of their company. To seek company growth in todays ever changing world, company owners and their management frequently turn to the discipline of mergers and acquisitions (hereinafter M&A). This M&A focus is evidenced by the sustained long term growth of the M&A markets, which for example in the Czech Republic alone amounted to a 38% increase between the years 2015 and 2016. The transaction decision making process takes place with an in...

  6. Fetal anomalies produced subsequent to treatment of zygotes with ethylene oxide or ethyl methanesulfonate are not likely due to the usual genetic causes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoh, M; Cacheiro, N L; Cornett, C V; Cain, K T; Rutledge, J C; Generoso, W M

    1989-02-01

    Earlier studies in this laboratory revealed that ethylene oxide (EtO) or ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) induced high frequencies of midgestation and late fetal deaths, and of malformations among some of the surviving fetuses, when female mice were exposed at the time of fertilization of their eggs or during the early pronuclear stage of the zygote. Effects of the two mutagens are virtually identical. Thus, in investigating the mechanisms responsible for the dramatic effects in the early pronuclear zygotes, the two compounds were used interchangeably in the experiments. First, a reciprocal zygote-transfer study was conducted in order to determine whether the effect is directly on the zygotes or indirectly through maternal toxicity. And second, cytogenetic analyses of pronuclear metaphases, early cleavage embryos, and midgestation fetuses were carried out. The zygote transplantation experiment rules out maternal toxicity as a factor in the fetal maldevelopment. Together with the strict stage specificity observed in the earlier studies, this result points to a genetic cause for the abnormalities. However, the cytogenetic studies failed to show structural or numerical chromosome aberrations. Since intragenic base changes and deletions may also be ruled out, it appears that the lesions in question induced in zygotes by the two mutagens are different from conventional ones and, therefore, could be a novel one in experimental mammalian mutagenesis. Alternatively, the mechanism could involve a non-mutational 'imprinting' process that caused changes in gene expression.

  7. Phonon linewidth due to electron-phonon interactions with strong forward scattering in FeSe thin films on oxide substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yan [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Rademaker, Louk [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Dagotto, Elbio R. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Johnston, Steven [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2017-08-18

    Here, the discovery of an enhanced superconducting transition temperature Tc in monolayers of FeSe grown on several oxide substrates has opened a new route to high-Tc superconductivity through interface engineering. One proposal for the origin of the observed enhancement is an electronphonon (e-ph) interaction across the interface that peaked at small momentum transfers. In this paper, we examine the implications of such a coupling on the phononic properties of the system. We show that a strong forward scattering leads to a sizable broadening of phonon lineshape, which may result in charge instabilities at long-wavelengths. However, we further find that the inclusion of Coulombic screening significantly reduces the phonon broadening. Our results show that one might not expect anomalously broad phonon linewidths in the FeSe interface systems, despite the fact that the e-ph interaction has a strong peak in the forward scattering (small \\bfq ) direction.

  8. Long term health-related quality of life after burns is strongly dependent on pre-existing disease and psychosocial issues and less due to the burn itself.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orwelius, L; Willebrand, M; Gerdin, B; Ekselius, L; Fredrikson, M; Sjöberg, F

    2013-03-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is reduced after a burn, and is affected by coexisting conditions. The aims of the investigation were to examine and describe effects of coexisting disease on HRQoL, and to quantify the proportion of burned people whose HRQoL was below that of a reference group matched for age, gender, and coexisting conditions. A nationwide study covering 9 years and examined HRQoL 12 and 24 months after the burn with the SF-36 questionnaire. The reference group was from the referral area of one of the hospitals. The HRQoL of the burned patients was below that of the reference group mainly in the mental dimensions, and only single patients were affected in the physical dimensions. The factor that significantly affected most HRQoL dimensions (n=6) after the burn was unemployment, whereas only smaller effects could be attributed directly to the burn. Poor HRQoL was recorded for only a small number of patients, and the decline were mostly in the mental dimensions when compared with a group adjusted for age, gender, and coexisting conditions. Factors other than the burn itself, such as mainly unemployment and pre-existing disease, were most important for the long term HRQoL experience in these patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  9. A Case of Cushing’s Syndrome due to Ectopic Adrenocorticotropic Hormone Secretion from Esthesioneuroblastoma with Long Term Follow-Up after Resection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslee N. Matheny

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of a 52-year-old male who developed Cushing’s Syndrome due to ectopic adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH secretion from a large esthesioneuroblastoma (ENB of the nasal sinuses. The patient initially presented with polyuria, polydipsia, weakness, and confusion. Computed tomography scan of the head and magnetic resonance imaging showed a 7 cm skull base mass centered in the right cribriform plate without sella involvement. Work-up revealed ACTH-dependent hypercortisolemia, which did not suppress appropriately after high-dose dexamethasone. Subsequent imaging of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis did not reveal other possible ectopic sources of ACTH secretion besides the ENB. His hospital course was complicated by severe hypokalemia and hyperglycemia before successful surgical resection of the tumor, the biopsy of which showed ENB. Postoperatively, his ACTH level dropped below the limit of detection. In the ensuing 4 months, he underwent adjuvant chemoradiation with carboplatin and docetaxel with good response and resolution of hypokalemia and hyperglycemia, with no sign of recurrence as of 30 months postoperatively. His endogenous cortisol production is rising but has not completely recovered.

  10. Long-term follow-up of changing practice patterns in breast reconstruction due to increased use of tissue expanders and perforator flaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manahan, Michele A; Prucz, Roni B; Shridharani, Sachin M; Baltodano, Pablo A; Rosson, Gedge D

    2014-11-01

    As the science of breast reconstruction evolves, significant changes in reconstruction strategies and outcomes are expected. The purpose of this study is to determine the changes in breast reconstruction trends and outcomes that occurred at a multidisciplinary academic institution during the last decade. We compared 265 patients over two distinct 6-month intervals separated by 5 years (2002 vs. 2007) and performed long-term follow-up (4.75 ± 3.38 years 2002, 2.99 ± 2.25 years 2007). We studied patients seeking prophylactic mastectomy, patients with early breast cancer, and patients with locally advanced disease. We analyzed demographic data, breast cancer history and treatment, type and timing of reconstruction, and complications. Implant to flap reconstruction ratio was 48:49 in 2002 and 76:102 in 2007. Use of transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap declined from 57 to 4%; conversely, deep inferior epigastric perforator flap increased from 27 to 91% (P < 0.001). Correspondingly, donor site chronic pain (4 vs. 0, P = 0.012) and postoperative abdominal wall bulge (9 vs. 3, P = 0.004) rates decreased. Timing of reconstruction showed increased staged cases in 2007 compared to 2002 (P = 0.045). Post-final reconstruction radiation therapy was reduced in 2007 (P = 0.016), with subsequent lower rates of implant rupture (P < 0.001). At our institution and over the last decade, increasing staged reconstructions have successfully reduced the rates of post-final reconstruction radiotherapy with optimized outcomes. Contrary to national trends, the rates of autologous flap reconstructions have increased with reduced donor site morbidity. This suggests that academic breast reconstruction trends are independent from national trends. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Proteomic comparisons of venoms of long-term captive and recently wild-caught Eastern brown snakes (Pseudonaja textilis) indicate venom does not change due to captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleary, Ryan J R; Sridharan, Sindhuja; Dunstan, Nathan L; Mirtschin, Peter J; Kini, R Manjunatha

    2016-07-20

    Snake venom is a highly variable phenotypic character, and its variation and rapid evolution are important because of human health implications. Because much snake antivenom is produced from captive animals, understanding the effects of captivity on venom composition is important. Here, we have evaluated toxin profiles from six long-term (LT) captive and six recently wild-caught (RC) eastern brown snakes, Pseudonaja textilis, utilizing gel electrophoresis, HPLC-MS, and shotgun proteomics. We identified proteins belonging to the three-finger toxins, group C prothrombin activators, Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitors, and phospholipases A2, among others. Although crude venom HPLC analysis showed LT snakes to be higher in some small molecular weight toxins, presence/absence patterns showed no correlation with time in captivity. Shotgun proteomics indicated the presence of similar toxin families among individuals but with variation in protein species. Although no venom sample contained all the phospholipase A2 subunits that form the textilotoxin, all did contain both prothrombin activator subunits. This study indicates that captivity has limited effects on venom composition, that venom variation is high, and that venom composition may be correlated to geographic distribution. Through proteomic comparisons, we show that protein variation within LT and RC groups of snakes (Pseudonaja textilis) is high, thereby resulting in no discernible differences in venom composition between groups. We utilize complementary techniques to characterize the venom proteomes of 12 individual snakes from our study area, and indicate that individuals captured close to one another have more similar venom gel electrophoresis patterns than those captured at more distant locations. These data are important for understanding natural variation in and potential effects of captivity on venom composition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Integration of measurements with atmospheric dispersion models: Source term estimation for dispersal of (239)Pu due to non-nuclear detonation of high explosive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, L. L.; Harvey, T. F.; Freis, R. P.; Pitovranov, S. E.; Chernokozhin, E. V.

    1992-10-01

    The accuracy associated with assessing the environmental consequences of an accidental release of radioactivity is highly dependent on our knowledge of the source term characteristics and, in the case when the radioactivity is condensed on particles, the particle size distribution, all of which are generally poorly known. This paper reports on the development of a numerical technique that integrates the radiological measurements with atmospheric dispersion modeling. This results in a more accurate particle-size distribution and particle injection height estimation when compared with measurements of high explosive dispersal of (239)Pu. The estimation model is based on a non-linear least squares regression scheme coupled with the ARAC three-dimensional atmospheric dispersion models. The viability of the approach is evaluated by estimation of ADPIC model input parameters such as the ADPIC particle size mean aerodynamic diameter, the geometric standard deviation, and largest size. Additionally we estimate an optimal 'coupling coefficient' between the particles and an explosive cloud rise model. The experimental data are taken from the Clean Slate 1 field experiment conducted during 1963 at the Tonopah Test Range in Nevada. The regression technique optimizes the agreement between the measured and model predicted concentrations of (239)Pu by varying the model input parameters within their respective ranges of uncertainties. The technique generally estimated the measured concentrations within a factor of 1.5, with the worst estimate being within a factor of 5, very good in view of the complexity of the concentration measurements, the uncertainties associated with the meteorological data, and the limitations of the models. The best fit also suggest a smaller mean diameter and a smaller geometric standard deviation on the particle size as well as a slightly weaker particle to cloud coupling than previously reported.

  13. Integration of measurements with atmospheric dispersion models: Source term estimation for dispersal of 239Pu due to non- nuclear detonation of high explosive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, L.L.; Harvey, T.F.; Freis, R.P.; Pitovranov, S.E.; Chernokozhin, E.V.

    1992-10-01

    The accuracy associated with assessing the environmental consequences of an accidental release of radioactivity is highly dependent on our knowledge of the source term characteristics and, in the case when the radioactivity is condensed on particles, the particle size distribution, all of which are generally poorly known. This paper reports on the development of a numerical technique that integrates the radiological measurements with atmospheric dispersion modeling. This results in a more accurate particle-size distribution and particle injection height estimation when compared with measurements of high explosive dispersal of 239 Pu. The estimation model is based on a non-linear least squares regression scheme coupled with the ARAC three-dimensional atmospheric dispersion models. The viability of the approach is evaluated by estimation of ADPIC model input parameters such as the ADPIC particle size mean aerodynamic diameter, the geometric standard deviation, and largest size. Additionally we estimate an optimal ''coupling coefficient'' between the particles and an explosive cloud rise model. The experimental data are taken from the Clean Slate 1 field experiment conducted during 1963 at the Tonopah Test Range in Nevada. The regression technique optimizes the agreement between the measured and model predicted concentrations of 239 Pu by varying the model input parameters within their respective ranges of uncertainties. The technique generally estimated the measured concentrations within a factor of 1.5, with the worst estimate being within a factor of 5, very good in view of the complexity of the concentration measurements, the uncertainties associated with the meteorological data, and the limitations of the models. The best fit also suggest a smaller mean diameter and a smaller geometric standard deviation on the particle size as well as a slightly weaker particle to cloud coupling than previously reported

  14. Air exposure behavior of the semiterrestrial crab Neohelice granulata allows tolerance to severe hypoxia but not prevent oxidative damage due to hypoxia-reoxygenation cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, Tábata Martins; Geihs, Márcio Alberto; Nery, Luiz Eduardo Maia; Maciel, Fábio Everton

    2015-11-01

    The air exposure behavior of the semi-terrestrial crab Neohelice granulata during severe hypoxia was studied. This study also verified whether this behavior mitigates possible oxidative damage, namely lipoperoxidation, caused by hypoxia and reoxygenation cycles. The lethal time for 50% of the crabs subjected to severe hypoxia (0.5 mgO2 · L(-1)) with free access to air was compared to that of crabs subjected to severe hypoxia without access to air. Crabs were placed in aquaria divided into three zones: water (when the animal was fully submersed), land (when the animal was completely emerged) and intermediate (when the animal was in contact with both environments) zones. Then the crabs were held in this condition for 270 min, and the time spent in each zone was recorded. Lipid peroxidation (LPO) damage to the walking leg muscles was determined for the following four experimental conditions: a--normoxic water with free access to air; b--hypoxic water without access to air; c--hypoxic water followed by normoxic water without air access; and d--hypoxic water with free access to air. When exposed to hypoxic water, N. granulata spent significantly more time on land, 135.3 ± 17.7 min, whereas control animals (exposed to normoxic water) spent more time submerged, 187.4 ± 20.2 min. By this behavior, N. granulata was able to maintain a 100% survival rate when exposed to severe hypoxia. However, N. granulata must still return to water after periods of air exposure (~ 14 min), causing a sequence of hypoxia/reoxygenation events. Despite increasing the survival rate, hypoxia with air access does not decrease the lipid peroxidation damage caused by the hypoxia and reoxygenation cycle experienced by these crabs.

  15. Glyphosate has limited short-term effects on commensal bacterial community composition in the gut environment due to sufficient aromatic amino acid levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Lene Nørby; Roager, Henrik M; Casas, Mònica Escolà; Frandsen, Henrik L; Gosewinkel, Ulrich; Bester, Kai; Licht, Tine Rask; Hendriksen, Niels Bohse; Bahl, Martin Iain

    2018-02-01

    Recently, concerns have been raised that residues of glyphosate-based herbicides may interfere with the homeostasis of the intestinal bacterial community and thereby affect the health of humans or animals. The biochemical pathway for aromatic amino acid synthesis (Shikimate pathway), which is specifically inhibited by glyphosate, is shared by plants and numerous bacterial species. Several in vitro studies have shown that various groups of intestinal bacteria may be differently affected by glyphosate. Here, we present results from an animal exposure trial combining deep 16S rRNA gene sequencing of the bacterial community with liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) based metabolic profiling of aromatic amino acids and their downstream metabolites. We found that glyphosate as well as the commercial formulation Glyfonova ® 450 PLUS administered at up to fifty times the established European Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI = 0.5 mg/kg body weight) had very limited effects on bacterial community composition in Sprague Dawley rats during a two-week exposure trial. The effect of glyphosate on prototrophic bacterial growth was highly dependent on the availability of aromatic amino acids, suggesting that the observed limited effect on bacterial composition was due to the presence of sufficient amounts of aromatic amino acids in the intestinal environment. A strong correlation was observed between intestinal concentrations of glyphosate and intestinal pH, which may partly be explained by an observed reduction in acetic acid produced by the gut bacteria. We conclude that sufficient intestinal levels of aromatic amino acids provided by the diet alleviates the need for bacterial synthesis of aromatic amino acids and thus prevents an antimicrobial effect of glyphosate in vivo. It is however possible that the situation is different in cases of human malnutrition or in production animals. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Oxidative and antioxidative responses in submandibular and parotid glands of rats exposed to long-term extremely low frequency magnetic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Akdağ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Some epidemiologic and laboratory studies have suggested a possible associations between exposure to extremely low frequency magnetic field (ELF-MF and cancer. However, it is not known underlying mechanisms of this interaction. The aim of the study was to investigate the possible oxidative damage induced by long-term ELF-MF exposure on submandibular and parotis glands of rats. Methods: Rats in the experimental group were exposed to 100 and 500 µT ELF-MF (2 h/day, 7 days/week, for 10 months corresponding to exposure levels that are considered safe for humans. The same experimental procedures were applied to the sham group, but the ELF generator was turned off. The levels of catalase (CAT, malondialdehyde (MDA, myeloperoxidase (MPO, total antioxidative capacity (TAC, total oxidant status (TOS, and oxidative stress index (OSI were measured in rat submandibular and parotis gland. Results: Although some oxidative and antioxidative parameters of submandibular gland were altered by ELF-100 and ELF-500 exposure groups, these changes were not statistically significant ( p >0.05. However, a decrease observed in CAT levels of parotid gland in both the ELF-100 and ELF-500 exposure groups (p0.05. Conclusions: Our results showed that long-term ELF-MF exposure did not alter oxidative, antioxidative processes and lipid peroxidation in submandibular gland of rats. However, 100 µT and 500 µT ELF-MF exposure decreased CAT activity in parotid gland. J Clin Exp Invest 2014; 5 (2: 219-225

  17. Effects of long- and short-term darbepoetin-α treatment on oxidative stress, inflammation and endothelial injury in ApoE knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdemir, Evrim Dursun; Hanikoglu, Aysegul; Cort, Aysegul; Ozben, Beste; Suleymanlar, Gultekin; Ozben, Tomris

    2017-07-01

    Atherosclerosis and atherosclerosis-related complications are the main cause of death in the world. Vascular injury in response to inflammation and enhanced oxidant stress promotes endothelial dysfunction and leads to atherosclerotic lesions. Low-dose treatment with darbepoetin-α may be a potential therapeutic tool for endothelial injury and atherosclerosis. In order to study the effect of darbepoetin-α on endothelial injury and atherosclerosis, we used ApoE-/- mice as the atherosclerotic mice model. We monitored atherosclerosis and plaque formation histochemically in ApoE knockout mice at early and late stages of atherosclerosis. Darbepoetin-α was injected intraperitoneally at a dose of 0.1 μg/kg to ApoE-/- mice. The results of 2 ApoE-/- mice groups injected with darbepoetin-α (early and late stages of atherosclerosis) were compared to the results of the corresponding saline injected ApoE-/- mice groups and the control (C57BL/6) mice. Lipid profile (total cholesterol, triglyceride), inflammation (CRP, IL-6, histamine), endothelial injury (ICAM-1, selectin) and oxidative stress markers (lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation) were significantly increased in 4 atherosclerotic groups compared to the control group. Short-term darbepoetin-α had no marked effects on indicators of inflammation and endothelial injury in the ApoE knockout mice groups compared to the ApoE knockout mice not treated with darbepoetin-α, however, darbepoetin-α significantly decreased 8-isoprostane and protein carbonyl content. Long term darbepoetin-α treatment reduced oxidative stress in ApoE-/- mice. This study contributes to understanding and elucidating the biochemical changes occurring during early and late stages of atherosclerosis development regarding lipid profile, inflammation, endothelial injury and oxidative stress markers.

  18. Attenuated flow‐induced dilatation of middle cerebral arteries is related to increased vascular oxidative stress in rats on a short‐term high salt diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosic, Anita; Jukic, Ivana; Stupin, Ana; Mihalj, Martina; Mihaljevic, Zrinka; Novak, Sanja; Vukovic, Rosemary

    2016-01-01

    Key points Recent studies have shown that high salt (HS) intake leads to endothelial dysfunction and impaired vascular reactivity in different vascular beds in both animal and human models, due to increased oxidative stress.The objective of this study was to assess vascular response to flow‐induced dilatation (FID) and to elucidate the role of vascular oxidative stress/antioxidative capacity in middle cerebral arteries (MCAs) of HS‐fed rats in vitro.The novelty of this study is in demonstrating impaired flow‐induced dilatation of MCAs and down‐regulation of vascular antioxidant genes with HS intake, leading to increased levels of oxidative stress in blood vessels and peripheral lymph organs, which together contribute to impaired FID.In addition, results show increased oxidative stress in leukocytes of peripheral lymph organs, suggesting the occurrence of inflammatory processes due to HS intake.Recirculation of leukocytes might additionally increase vascular oxidative stress in vivo. Abstract The aim of this study was to determine flow‐induced dilatation (FID) and the role of oxidative stress/antioxidative capacity in isolated, pressurized middle cerebral arteries (MCAs) of high salt (HS)‐fed rats. Healthy male Sprague‐Dawley rats (11 weeks old) were fed low salt (0.4% NaCl; LS group) or high salt (4% NaCl; HS group) diets for 1 week. Reactivity of MCAs in response to stepwise increases in pressure gradient (Δ10–Δ100 mmHg) was determined in the absence or presence of the superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimetic TEMPOL and/or the nitric oxide synthases (NOS) inhibitor N ω‐nitro‐l‐arginine methyl ester (l‐name). mRNA levels of antioxidative enzymes, NAPDH‐oxidase components, inducible (iNOS) and endothelial nitric oxide synthases (eNOS) were determined by quantitative real‐time PCR. Blood pressure (BP), antioxidant enzymes activity, oxidative stress in peripheral leukocytes, lipid peroxidation products and the antioxidant capacity of plasma

  19. Short-term nitrous oxide profile dynamics and emissions response to water, nitrogen and carbon additions in two tropical soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. D. Nobre; M. Keller; P. M. Crill; R. C. Harriss

    2001-01-01

    Tropical soils are potentially the highest and least studied nitrous oxide (N2O) production areas in the world. The effect of water, nitrate and glucose additions on profile concentrations and episodic emissions of N2O for two volcanic soils in Costa Rica was examined. Magnitudes of episodic N2O pulses, as well as overall N2O emissions, varied considerably and...

  20. Long Term Stability Investigation of Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cell with Infiltrated Porous YSZ Air Electrode Under High Current

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veltzé, Sune; Ovtar, Simona; Simonsen, Søren Bredmose

    2015-01-01

    stabilised zirconia (YSZ) backbone air electrode and Ni/YSZ cermet fuel electrode. The SOC was tested at electrolysis conditions under high current (up to -1 A/cm2). The porous YSZ electrodes was infiltrated with gadolinium-doped ceria oxide (CGO), to act as a barrier layer between the catalyst...

  1. Long Term Performance of an Arsenite-Oxidizing-Chlorate-Reducing Microbial Consortium in an Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Bed (UASB) Bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wenjie; Sierra-Alvarez, Reyes; Field, Jim A.

    2011-01-01

    A chlorate (ClO3−) reducing microbial consortium oxidized arsenite (As(III)) to arsenate (As(V)) in an upflow anaerobic sludge-bed bioreactor over 550 d operation. As(III) was converted with high conversion efficiencies (>98%) at volumetric loadings ranging from 0.45 to 1.92 mmol As/(Lreactor d). The oxidation of As(III) was linked to the complete reduction of ClO3− to Cl− and H2O, as demonstrated by a molar ratio of approximately 3.0 mol As(III) oxidized per mole of Cl− formed and by the greatly lowered ClO3−-reducing capacity without As(III) feeding. An autotrophic enrichment culture was established from the bioreactor biofilm. A 16S rRNA gene clone library indicated that the culture was dominated by Dechloromonas, and Stenotrophomonas as well as genera within the family Comamonadaceae. The results indicate that the oxidation of As(III) to less mobile As(V) utilizing ClO3− as a terminal electron acceptor provides a sustainable bioremediation strategy for arsenic contamination in anaerobic environments. PMID:21333531

  2. Electrolysed reduced water decreases reactive oxygen species-induced oxidative damage to skeletal muscle and improves performance in broiler chickens exposed to medium-term chronic heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad, M A K; Kikusato, M; Zulkifli, I; Toyomizu, M

    2013-01-01

    1. The present study was designed to achieve a reduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced oxidative damage to skeletal muscle and to improve the performance of broiler chickens exposed to chronic heat stress. 2. Chickens were given a control diet with normal drinking water, or diets supplemented with cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) or grape seed extract (GSE), or a control diet with electrolysed reduced water (ERW) for 19 d after hatch. Thereafter, chickens were exposed to a temperature of either 34°C continuously for a period of 5 d, or maintained at 24°C, on the same diets. 3. The control broilers exposed to 34°C showed decreased weight gain and feed consumption and slightly increased ROS production and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations in skeletal muscle. The chickens exposed to 34°C and supplemented with ERW showed significantly improved growth performance and lower ROS production and MDA contents in tissues than control broilers exposed to 34°C. Following heat exposure, CNSL chickens performed better with respect to weight gain and feed consumption, but still showed elevated ROS production and skeletal muscle oxidative damage. GSE chickens did not exhibit improved performance or reduced skeletal muscle oxidative damage. 4. In conclusion, this study suggests that ERW could partially inhibit ROS-induced oxidative damage to skeletal muscle and improve growth performance in broiler chickens under medium-term chronic heat treatment.

  3. A short-term supranutritional vitamin E supplementation alleviated respiratory alkalosis but did not reduce oxidative stress in heat stressed pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fan; Celi, Pietro; Chauhan, Surinder Singh; Cottrell, Jeremy James; Leury, Brian Joseph; Dunshea, Frank Rowland

    2018-02-01

    Heat stress (HS) triggers oxidative stress and respiratory alkalosis in pigs. The objective of this experiment was to study whether a short-term supranutritional amount of dietary vitamin E (VE) can mitigate oxidative stress and respiratory alkalosis in heat-stressed pigs. A total of 24 pigs were given either a control diet (17 IU/kg VE) or a high VE (200 IU/kg VE; HiVE) diet for 14 d, then exposed to thermoneutral (TN; 20°C, 45% humidity) or HS (35°C, 35% to 45% humidity, 8 h daily) conditions for 7 d. Respiration rate and rectal temperature were measured three times daily during the thermal exposure. Blood gas variables and oxidative stress markers were studied in blood samples collected on d 7. Although HiVE diet did not affect the elevated rectal temperature or respiration rate observed during HS, it alleviated (all prespiratory alkalosis but did not reduce oxidative stress in heat-stressed pigs.

  4. Long-term high-fat diet induces pancreatic injuries via pancreatic microcirculatory disturbances and oxidative stress in rats with hyperlipidemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Mingxian; Li Yanqing; Meng Min; Ren Hongbo; Kou Yi

    2006-01-01

    Relations between hyperlipidemia and chronic pancreatitis remain unclear. Microcirculatory disturbances and oxidative stress are involved in pathogeneses of a high numbers of diseases. The objective of this study was to induce hyperlipidemia in rats by long-term high-fat diet intake, then investigate the biochemical, microcirculatory, and histological alterations in blood and pancreatic tissues of these animals, and discuss their potential significances. Pancreatic blood flow was detected by intravital microscope; malondialdehyde (MDA) content and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were measured in pancreatic tissues for assessment of oxidative stress and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) expression was determined by immunohistochemical staining and RT-PCR. The results showed that the velocity of pancreatic microvascular blood flow of rats with hyperlipidemia decreased significantly as compared to control value (p = 0.008). Pancreatic MDA content increased whereas SOD activity decreased in these rats (p = 0.022; p = 0.039, respectively). Histologically, microvesicles in acinar and islet cells, dilated rough endoplasmic reticulum, swollen mitochondrion and modified vascular endothelial cells were observed under light microscope and transmission electron microscope. In addition, α-SMA expression was up-regulated significantly (p < 0.05). These results suggest that long-term high-fat diet can induce chronic pancreatic injuries which could be considered as 'nonalcoholic fatty pancreatic disease', and pancreatic microcirculatory disturbances and oxidative stress may play an important part in the underlying pathogenesis

  5. Oxidative stress response in SH-SY5Y cells exposed to short-term 1800 MHz radiofrequency radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marjanovic Cermak, Ana Marija; Pavicic, Ivan; Trosic, Ivancica

    2018-01-28

    The exact mechanism that could explain the effects of radiofrequency (RF) radiation exposure at non-thermal level is still unknown. Increasing evidence suggests a possible involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and development of oxidative stress. To test the proposed hypothesis, human neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y) were exposed to 1800 MHz short-term RF exposure for 10, 30 and 60 minutes. Electric field strength within Gigahertz Transverse Electromagnetic cell (GTEM) was 30 V m -1 and specific absorption rate (SAR) was calculated to be 1.6 W kg -1 . Cellular viability was measured by MTT assay and level of ROS was determined by fluorescent probe 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate. Concentrations of malondialdehyde and protein carbonyls were used to assess lipid and protein oxidative damage and antioxidant activity was evaluated by measuring concentrations of total glutathione (GSH). After radiation exposure, viability of irradiated cells remained within normal physiological values. Significantly higher ROS level was observed for every radiation exposure time. After 60 min of exposure, the applied radiation caused significant lipid and protein damage. The highest GSH concentration was detected after 10 minute-exposure. The results of our study showed enhanced susceptibility of SH-SY5Y cells for development of oxidative stress even after short-term RF exposure.

  6. The photoelectrocatalytic activity, long term stability and corrosion performance of NiMo deposited titanium oxide nano-tubes for hydrogen production in alkaline medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mert, Mehmet Erman; Mert, Başak Doğru; Kardaş, Gülfeza; Yazıcı, Birgül

    2017-11-01

    In this study, titanium oxide nano-tubes are doped with Ni and Mo particles with various chemical compositions, in order to put forth the efficiency of single and binary coatings on hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) in 1 M KOH. The characterization was achieved by cyclic voltammetry, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis. The water wettability characteristics of electrode surfaces were investigated using contact angle. The long-term catalyst stability and corrosion performance were determined by current-potential curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Furthermore, photoelectrochemical behavior was determined via linear sweep voltammetry. Results showed that, nano-structured Ni and Mo deposited titanium oxide nano-tubes decrease the hydrogen over potential and increase HER efficiency, it is stable over 168 h electrolysis and it exhibits higher corrosion performance.

  7. Structured medium and long chain triglycerides show short-term increases in fat oxidation, but no changes in adiposity in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roynette, Catherine E; Rudkowska, Iwona; Nakhasi, Dilip K; Jones, Peter J H

    2008-05-01

    Medium chain triglycerides (MCT) have been suggested as modulators of human energy expenditure (EE) and thus may influence total and regional body fat distribution. To investigate in overweight men the effects of structured medium and long chain triglycerides on EE, substrate oxidation and body adiposity, compared to extra virgin olive oil (OO). In a 6 week single-blind crossover study, 23 overweight men were randomly assigned to consume a standard high-fat diet of which 75% total fat was provided as either structured medium and long chain triglycerides referred to as structured oil (StO), or OO. EE and body composition were measured using indirect calorimetry and magnetic resonance imaging, respectively, at weeks 1 and 6 of each phase. Body weight decreased (pstructured medium and long chain triglyceride oil increases short-term fat oxidation but fails to modulate body weight or adiposity through a change in EE.

  8. Oxidative alteration of uraninite at the Nopal I deposit, Mexico: Possible contaminant transport and source term constraints for the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leslie, B.W.; Pearcy, E.C.; Prikryl, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    The Nopal I uranium deposit at Pena Blanca, Mexico is being studied as a natural analog of the proposed high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. Identification of secondary uranium phases at Nopal I, and the sequence of their formation after uraninite oxidation, provides insight into the source term for uranium, and suggests that uranophane may control uranium release and transport in a silici, tuffaceous, chemically oxidizing, and hydrologically unsaturated environment. Possible constraints on contaminant transport at Nopal I are derived from the spatial distribution of uranium and from measurements of 238 U decay-series isotopes. The analyses indicate that flow of U-bearing fluids was influenced strongly by fracture density, but that the flow of these fluids was not restricted to fractures. Gamma spectroscopic measurements of 238 U decay-series isotopes indicates secular equilibrium, which suggests undetectable U transport under present conditions

  9. Persistent fibrosis in the liver of choline-deficient and iron-supplemented L-amino acid-defined diet-induced nonalcoholic steatohepatitis rat due to continuing oxidative stress after choline supplementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi-Yorimoto, Ayano; Noto, Takahisa; Yamada, Atsushi; Miyamae, Yoichi; Oishi, Yuji; Matsumoto, Masahiro

    2013-01-01

    Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is characterized by combined pathology of steatosis, lobular inflammation, fibrosis, and hepatocellular degeneration, with systemic symptoms of diabetes or hyperlipidemia, all in the absence of alcohol abuse. Given the therapeutic importance and conflicting findings regarding the potential for healing the histopathologic features of NASH in humans, particularly fibrosis, we investigated the reversibility of NASH-related findings in Wistar rats fed a choline-deficient and iron-supplemented L-amino acid-defined (CDAA) diet for 12 weeks, with a recovery period of 7 weeks, during which the diets were switched to a choline-sufficient and iron-supplemented L-amino acid-defined (CSAA) one. Analysis showed that steatosis and inflammation were significantly resolved by the end of the recovery period, along with decreases in AST and ALT activities within 4 weeks. In contrast, fibrosis remained even after the recovery period, to an extent similar to that in continuously CDAA-fed animals. Real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, and immunohistochemical investigations revealed that expression of some factors indicating oxidative stress (CYP2E1, 4-HNE, and iNOS) were elevated, whereas catalase and SOD1 were decreased, and a hypoxic state and CD34-positive neovascularization were evident even after the recovery period, although the fibrogenesis pathway by activated α-SMA-positive hepatic stellate cells via TGF-β and TIMPs decreased to the CSAA group level. In conclusion, persistent fibrosis was noted after the recovery period of 7 weeks, possibly due to sustained hypoxia and oxidative stress supposedly caused by capillarization. Otherwise, histopathological features of steatosis and inflammation, as well as serum AST and ALT activities, were recovered. - Highlights: ► NASH-like liver lesions are induced in rats by feeding a CDAA diet. ► Steatosis and lobular inflammation are resolved after switching to a

  10. Persistent fibrosis in the liver of choline-deficient and iron-supplemented L-amino acid-defined diet-induced nonalcoholic steatohepatitis rat due to continuing oxidative stress after choline supplementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuchi-Yorimoto, Ayano, E-mail: ayano.takeuchi@astellas.com [Drug Safety Research Labs, Astellas Pharma Inc., Osaka 532-8514 (Japan); Noto, Takahisa [Drug Safety Research Labs, Astellas Pharma Inc., Osaka 532-8514 (Japan); Yamada, Atsushi [Drug Safety Research Division, Astellas Research Technologies Co., Ltd., Osaka 532-8514 (Japan); Miyamae, Yoichi; Oishi, Yuji; Matsumoto, Masahiro [Drug Safety Research Labs, Astellas Pharma Inc., Osaka 532-8514 (Japan)

    2013-05-01

    Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is characterized by combined pathology of steatosis, lobular inflammation, fibrosis, and hepatocellular degeneration, with systemic symptoms of diabetes or hyperlipidemia, all in the absence of alcohol abuse. Given the therapeutic importance and conflicting findings regarding the potential for healing the histopathologic features of NASH in humans, particularly fibrosis, we investigated the reversibility of NASH-related findings in Wistar rats fed a choline-deficient and iron-supplemented L-amino acid-defined (CDAA) diet for 12 weeks, with a recovery period of 7 weeks, during which the diets were switched to a choline-sufficient and iron-supplemented L-amino acid-defined (CSAA) one. Analysis showed that steatosis and inflammation were significantly resolved by the end of the recovery period, along with decreases in AST and ALT activities within 4 weeks. In contrast, fibrosis remained even after the recovery period, to an extent similar to that in continuously CDAA-fed animals. Real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, and immunohistochemical investigations revealed that expression of some factors indicating oxidative stress (CYP2E1, 4-HNE, and iNOS) were elevated, whereas catalase and SOD1 were decreased, and a hypoxic state and CD34-positive neovascularization were evident even after the recovery period, although the fibrogenesis pathway by activated α-SMA-positive hepatic stellate cells via TGF-β and TIMPs decreased to the CSAA group level. In conclusion, persistent fibrosis was noted after the recovery period of 7 weeks, possibly due to sustained hypoxia and oxidative stress supposedly caused by capillarization. Otherwise, histopathological features of steatosis and inflammation, as well as serum AST and ALT activities, were recovered. - Highlights: ► NASH-like liver lesions are induced in rats by feeding a CDAA diet. ► Steatosis and lobular inflammation are resolved after switching to a

  11. Short-term exercise worsens cardiac oxidative stress and fibrosis in 8-month-old db/db mice by depleting cardiac glutathione.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laher, Ismail; Beam, Julianne; Botta, Amy; Barendregt, Rebekah; Sulistyoningrum, Dian; Devlin, Angela; Rheault, Mark; Ghosh, Sanjoy

    2013-01-01

    Moderate exercise improves cardiac antioxidant status in young humans and animals with Type-2 diabetes (T2D). Given that both diabetes and advancing age synergistically decrease antioxidant expression in most tissues, it is unclear whether exercise can upregulate cardiac antioxidants in chronic animal models of T2D. To this end, 8-month-old T2D and normoglycemic mice were exercised for 3 weeks, and cardiac redox status was evaluated. As expected, moderate exercise increased cardiac antioxidants and attenuated oxidative damage in normoglycemic mice. In contrast, similar exercise protocol in 8-month-old db/db mice worsened cardiac oxidative damage, which was associated with a specific dysregulation of glutathione (GSH) homeostasis. Expression of enzymes for GSH biosynthesis [γ-glutamylcysteine synthase, glutathione reductase] as well as for GSH-mediated detoxification (glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferase) was lower, while toxic metabolites dependent on GSH for clearance (4-hydroxynonenal) were increased in exercised diabetic mice hearts. To validate GSH loss as an important factor for such aggravated damage, daily administration of GSH restored cardiac GSH levels in exercised diabetic mice. Such supplementation attenuated both oxidative damage and fibrotic changes in the myocardium. Expression of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) and its regulated genes which are responsible for such profibrotic changes were also attenuated with GSH supplementation. These novel findings in a long-term T2D animal model demonstrate that short-term exercise by itself can deplete cardiac GSH and aggravate cardiac oxidative stress. As GSH administration conferred protection in 8-month-old diabetic mice undergoing exercise, supplementation with GSH-enhancing agents may be beneficial in elderly diabetic patients undergoing exercise.

  12. Iron Oxide Nanoparticles: Tunable Size Synthesis and Analysis in Terms of the Core-Shell Structure and Mixed Coercive Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phong, P. T.; Oanh, V. T. K.; Lam, T. D.; Phuc, N. X.; Tung, L. D.; Thanh, Nguyen T. K.; Manh, D. H.

    2017-04-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs) are currently a very active research field. To date, a comprehensive study of iron oxide NPs is still lacking not only on the size dependence of structural phases but also in the use of an appropriate model. Herein, we report on a systematic study of the structural and magnetic properties of iron oxide NPs prepared by a co-precipitation method followed by hydrothermal treatment. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy reveal that the NPs have an inverse spinel structure of iron oxide phase (Fe3O4) with average crystallite sizes ( D XRD) of 6-19 nm, while grain sizes ( D TEM) are of 7-23 nm. In addition, the larger the particle size, the closer the experimental lattice constant value is to that of the magnetite structure. Magnetic field-dependent magnetization data and analysis show that the effective anisotropy constants of the Fe3O4 NPs are about five times larger than that of their bulk counterpart. Particle size ( D) dependence of the magnetization and the non-saturating behavior observed in applied fields up to 50 kOe are discussed using the core-shell structure model. We find that with decreasing D, while the calculated thickness of the shell of disordered spins ( t ˜ 0.3 nm) remains almost unchanged, the specific surface areas S a increases significantly, thus reducing the magnetization of the NPs. We also probe the coercivity of the NPs by using the mixed coercive Kneller and Luborsky model. The calculated results indicate that the coercivity rises monotonously with the particle size, and are well matched with the experimental ones.

  13. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy with photosensitizer in ethanol improves oxidative status and gingival collagen in a short-term in periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillusky, Fernanda Maia; Barcelos, Raquel Cristine Silva; Vey, Luciana Taschetto; Barin, Luisa Machado; de Mello Palma, Victor; Maciel, Roberto Marinho; Kantorski, Karla Zanini; Bürger, Marilise Escobar; Danesi, Cristiane Cademartori

    2017-09-01

    This study evaluated the antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) effects using the methylene blue (MB) in ethanol 20% on systemic oxidative status and collagen content from gingiva of rats with periodontitis. Rats were divided into five experimental groups: NC (negative control; no periodontitis); PC (positive control; periodontitis without any treatment); SRP (periodontitis and scaling and root planing), aPDT I (periodontitis and SRP+aPDT+MB solubilized in water), and aPDT II (periodontitis and SRP+aPDT+MB solubilized in ethanol 20%). After 7days of removal of the ligature, the periodontal treatments were performed. At 7/15/30days, gingival tissue was removed for morphometric analysis. The erythrocytes were used to evaluate systemic oxidative status. PC group showed higher lipoperoxidation levels at 7/15/30days. aPDT indicated a protective influence in erythrocytes at 15days observed by the elevation in levels of systemic antioxidant defense. aPDT II group was the only one that restored the total collagen area in 15days, and recovered the type I collagen area at the same time point. aPDT as an adjunct to the SRP can induce the systemic protective response against oxidative stress periodontitis-induced and recover the gingival collagen, thus promoting the healing periodontal, particularly when the MB is dissolved in ethanol 20%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Sulfur poisoning of Ni/Gadolinium-doped ceria anodes: A long-term study outlining stable solid oxide fuel cell operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riegraf, Matthias; Zekri, Atef; Knipper, Martin; Costa, Rémi; Schiller, Günter; Friedrich, K. Andreas

    2018-03-01

    This work presents an analysis of the long-term behavior of nickel/gadolinium-doped ceria (CGO) anode-based solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) under sulfur poisoning conditions. A parameter study of sulfur-induced irreversible long-term degradation of commercial, high-performance single cells was carried out at 900 °C for different H2/N2/H2S fuel gas atmospheres, current densities and Ni/CGO anodes. The poisoning periods of the cells varied from 200 to 1500 h. The possibility of stable long-term Ni/CGO anode operation under sulfur exposure is established and the critical operating regime is outlined. Depending on the operating conditions, two degradation phenomena can be observed. Small degradation of the ohmic resistance was witnessed for sulfur exposure times of approximately 1000 h. Moreover, degradation of the anode charge transfer resistance was observed to be triggered by the combination of a small anodic potential step and high sulfur coverage on Ni. The microstructural evolution of altered Ni/CGO anodes was examined post-mortem by means of SEM and FIB/SEM, and is correlated to the anode performance degradation under critical operating conditions, establishing Ni depletion, porosity increase and a tripe phase boundary density decrease in the anode functional layer. It is shown that short-term sulfur poisoning behavior can be used to assess long-term stability.

  15. Cobalt-60 oxide aerosols: methods of production and short-term retention and distribution kinetics in the beagle dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, J.E.; Kanapilly, G.M.; Newton, G.J.

    1976-01-01

    Cobalt-60 has been used extensively in nuclear applications and has been considered for use in nuclear auxiliary power devices. The most common chemical form used is the oxide. This study of the retention and distribution of two differnt exoides of cobalt when administered by inhalation was conducted to assess the potential inhalation hazard associated with its use. Cobaltosic oxide (Co 3 O 4 ) was formed by passing a cobalt nitrate aerosol through a heating column at 850 0 C before delivery to the dog. Cobaltous oxide (CoO) was formed by raising the heating column temperature to 1400 0 C. Three beagle dogs were exposed to 60 Co 3 O 4 and sacrificed singly at 8, 64 and 128 days. Three beagle dogs were exposed to 60 CoO and sacrificed at 8, 16 and 64 days after exposure. Whole-body retention patterns showed that 60 CoO left the body with a shorter effective half-life than 60 Co 3 O 4 . The concentration of 60 Co detected in the blood was at least an order of magnitude higher in the dogs exposed to 60 CoO than in the dogs exposed to 60 Co 3 O 4 . Cobalt-60 translocated from the lung accumulated predominantly in the kidney, liver, skeleton and cartilagenous structures such as the trachea. Higher concentrations were reached earlier in the dogs exposed to 60 CoO. After early fecal excretion of material deposited in the upper respiratory tract, excretion was greatest via the urine. The higher solubility of the 60 CoO formed at 1400 0 C relative to 60 Co 3 O 4 formed at 850 0 C is noteworthy considering that generally aerosols formed at higher temperatures are more insoluble than aerosols formed at lower temperatures. (author)

  16. The effect of weight loss on serum concentrations of nitric oxide induced by short - term exercise in obese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Olszanecka-Glinianowicz

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of present study was to examine the effect of weight loss comprising regular moderate physical activity on resting serum concentrations of nitric oxide metabolites and exercise induced NO release. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out in 43 obese women without additional diseases (age 41.8±11.9y, body weight 94.5±15.1kg, BMI 36.5±4.6kg/m2. All obese patients participated in a 3-month weight reduction programme that consisted of 1 a group instruction in behavioural and dietary methods of weight control every two weeks; 2 1000-1400kcal/day balanced diet, and 3 moderate physical exercises (30 minutes, 3 times a week. Before and after treatment body mass and height were measured, body mass index (BMI was calculated. Body composition was determined by impedance analysis using a Bodystat analyser. The serum concentration of nitric oxide metabolites before and after exercise was measured using spectrophotometry method by Griess. The serum concentrations of lactate before and after exercise were measured with the use of strip test (ACCUSPORT analyzer. Serum concentration of insulin was measured with the use of RIA. Plasma glucose, cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and triglicerydes were determined by enzymatic procedure. Results: The mean weight loss during treatment was 8.3±4.3 kg. We did not observe differences between resting serum concentrations of NO and lactate before and after weight loss. During exercise serum NO concentrations increased significantly both before and after weight loss treatment. After the weight reduction treatment, the time of exercise test increased significantly P<0.005, but there were no significant differences between the value of NO before and after weight loss. Conclusion: 3 – month regular physical activity and weight loss did not influence exercise-induced nitric oxide production.

  17. Long-term exposure to enhanced ultraviolet-B radiation in the sub-arctic does not cause oxidative stress in Vaccinium myrtillus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taulavuori, E.; Bäckman, M.; Taulavuori, K.; Gwynn-Jones, D.; Johanson, U.; Laine, K.; Callaghan, T.; Sonesson, M.; Björn, L.O.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this work was to assess whether or not oxidative stress had developed in a dwarf shrub bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) under long-term exposure to enhanced levels of ultraviolet-B (u.v.-B) radiation. The bilberry plants were exposed to increased u.v.-B representing a 15 stratospheric ozone depletion for seven full growing seasons (19911997) at Abisko, Swedish Lapland (68N). The oxidative stress was assessed on leaves and stems by analysing ascorbate and glutathione concentrations, and activities of the closely related enzymes ascorbate peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.11) and glutathione reductase (EC 1.6.4.2). The affects of autumnal leaf senescence and stem cold hardening on these variables were also considered. The results showed that the treatment caused scarcely any response in the studied variables, indicating that u.v.-B flux representing a 15 ozone depletion under clear sky conditions is not sufficient to cause oxidative stress in the bilberry. It is suggested that no strain was evoked since adaptation was possible under such u.v.-B increases. The studied variables did, however, respond significantly to leaf senescence and especially to stem cold hardening. (author)

  18. Effect of air pollution with nitrogen oxide on experimental animals under conditions of long-term continuous exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misiakiewicz, Z.; Szulinska, G.; Chyba, A.; Czyz, E.

    1974-01-01

    The action of nitric oxide in concentrations of 0.25 and 0.5 mg/cu m on 16 male Wistar rats was studied. Three groups of 8 rats each were used. The control group was placed in a chamber with a capacity of 150 l and a continuous air flow of approximately 30 l/min with no NO. The test groups were placed in chambers containing respectively 0.25 mg/cu m and 0.5 mg/cu m NO. The experiment lasted 6 months. Every 5 to 6 weeks the body weight increased, the activity of the blood cholinesterase, the activity of asparaginian blood serum aminotransferase, the activity of blood catalase, the hemoglobin count, and histopathological changes were examined. Significant changes were observed in the group exposed to the 0.5 mg/cu m NO concentration after 170 days, among them changes in the lungs, changes of blood cholinesterase activity, asparaginian aminotranspherase of blood serum activity, and blood catalase activity. These changes are more pronounced in air polluted with a 0.5 mg/cu m NO concentration than in air with 0.25 mg/cu m NO. The Polish standards for nitrogen oxides concentrations are too high, the highest concentration allowed in the atmospheric being 0.2 mg/cu m up to 0.6 mg/cu m for 20 min.

  19. Long-term chemiluminescence signal is produced in the course of luminol oxidation catalyzed by enhancer-independent peroxidase purified from Jatropha curcas leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Peipei; Cai, Feng; Luo, Yongting; Chen, Yangxi; Zou, Shujuan

    2015-09-01

    Isoenzyme c of horseradish peroxidase (HRP-C) is widely used in enzyme immunoassay combined with chemiluminescence (CL) detection. For this application, HRP-C activity measurement is usually based on luminol oxidation in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). However, this catalysis reaction was enhancer dependent. In this study, we demonstrated that Jatropha curcas peroxidase (JcGP1) showed high efficiency in catalyzing luminol oxidation in the presence of H2O2. Compared with HRP-C, the JcGP1-induced reaction was enhancer independent, which made the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) simpler. In addition, the JcGP1 catalyzed reaction showed a long-term stable CL signal. We optimized the conditions for JcGP1 catalysis and determined the favorable conditions as follows: 50 mM Tris buffer (pH 8.2) containing 10 mM H2 O2, 14 mM luminol and 0.75 M NaCl. The optimum catalysis temperature was 30°C. The detection limit of JcGP1 under optimum condition was 0.2 pM. Long-term stable CL signal combined with enhancer-independent property indicated that JcGP1 might be a valuable candidate peroxidase for clinical diagnosis and enzyme immunoassay with CL detection. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Identifying the Long-Term Role of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase after Contusive Spinal Cord Injury Using a Transgenic Mouse Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic M. Maggio

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS is a potent mediator of oxidative stress during neuroinflammation triggered by neurotrauma or neurodegeneration. We previously demonstrated that acute iNOS inhibition attenuated iNOS levels and promoted neuroprotection and functional recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI. The present study investigated the effects of chronic iNOS ablation after SCI using inos-null mice. iNOS−/− knockout and wild-type (WT control mice underwent a moderate thoracic (T8 contusive SCI. Locomotor function was assessed weekly, using the Basso Mouse Scale (BMS, and at the endpoint (six weeks, by footprint analysis. At the endpoint, the volume of preserved white and gray matter, as well as the number of dorsal column axons and perilesional blood vessels rostral to the injury, were quantified. At weeks two and three after SCI, iNOS−/− mice exhibited a significant locomotor improvement compared to WT controls, although a sustained improvement was not observed during later weeks. At the endpoint, iNOS−/− mice showed significantly less preserved white and gray matter, as well as fewer dorsal column axons and perilesional blood vessels, compared to WT controls. While short-term antagonism of iNOS provides histological and functional benefits, its long-term ablation after SCI may be deleterious, blocking protective or reparative processes important for angiogenesis and tissue preservation.

  1. Can safe and long-term exposure to extremely low frequency (50 Hz) magnetic fields affect apoptosis, reproduction, and oxidative stress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akdag, Mehmet Zulkuf; Dasdag, Suleyman; Uzunlar, Ali Kemal; Ulukaya, Engin; Oral, Arzu Yilmaztepe; Çelik, Necla; Akşen, Feyzan

    2013-12-01

    To determine whether 50 Hz extremely low frequency-magnetic fields (ELF-MF) affects apoptotic processes, oxidative damage, and reproductive characteristics such as sperm count and morphology in rat testes. Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats were used in the present study, which were divided into three groups (sham group, n = 10, and two experimental groups, n = 10 for each group). Rats in the experimental group were exposed to 100 and 500 μT ELF-MF (2 h/day, 7 days/week, for 10 months) corresponding to exposure levels that are considered safe for humans. The same experimental procedures were applied to the sham group, but the ELF generator was turned off. Tissues from the testes were immunohistochemically stained for active (cleaved) caspase-3 in order to measure the apoptotic index by a semi-quantitative scoring system. The levels of catalase (CAT), malondialdehyde (MDA), myeloperoxidase (MPO), total antioxidative capacity (TAC), total oxidant status (TOS), and oxidative stress index (OSI) were also measured. Additionally, epididymal sperm count and sperm morphology was evaluated. There were no significant differences in the reproductive and oxidative stress parameters between the sham group and the exposed groups (p > 0.05). While no difference was observed between the final apoptosis score of the sham and the 100 μT ELF-MF group (p > 0.05), the final apoptosis score was higher in the 500 μT ELF-MF exposure group than in the sham group (p reproductive components such as sperm count and morphology in testes tissue of rats. However, long-term exposure to 500 μT ELF-MF did affect active-caspase-3 activity, which is a well-known apoptotic indicator.

  2. Sperm quality and oxidative status as affected by homogenization of liquid-stored boar semen diluted in short- and long-term extenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menegat, Mariana B; Mellagi, Ana Paula G; Bortolin, Rafael C; Menezes, Tila A; Vargas, Amanda R; Bernardi, Mari Lourdes; Wentz, Ivo; Gelain, Daniel P; Moreira, José Cláudio F; Bortolozzo, Fernando P

    2017-04-01

    Homogenization of diluted boar semen during storage has for a long time been regarded as beneficial. Recent studies indicated an adverse effect of homogenization on sperm quality for yet unknown reasons. This study aimed to verify the effect of homogenization on sperm parameters and to elucidate the impact of oxidative stress. Twenty-one normospermic ejaculates (21 boars) were diluted with Androstar ® Plus (AND) and Beltsville Thawing Solution (BTS). Semen doses were submitted to no-homogenization (NoHom) or twice-a-day manual homogenization (2xHom) during storage at 17°C for 168h. NoHom and 2xHom were similar (P>0.05) for both short- and long-term extenders with respect to motility and kinematics parameters (CASA system), membrane viability (SYBR-14/PI), acrosome integrity, lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, intracellular reactive oxygen species, sulfhydryl content, and total radical-trapping antioxidant potential. 2xHom reduced sperm motility and motion kinematics (VCL, VSL, VAP, BCF, and ALH) following the thermoresistance test and presented with a slight increase in pH along the storage (P=0.05) as compared to NoHom. Furthermore, 2xHom semen doses presented with a constant SOD and GSH-Px activity during storage whereas enzymatic activity increased for NoHom at the end of the storage. These findings confirm that homogenization of semen doses is detrimental to sperm quality. Moreover, it is shown that the effect of homogenization is unlikely to be primarily related to oxidative stress. Homogenization is not recommended for storage of liquid boar semen for up to 168h in both short- and long-term extenders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Graphene oxide-Ag nanoparticles-pyramidal silicon hybrid system for homogeneous, long-term stable and sensitive SERS activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Jia [School of Physics and Electronics, Shandong Normal University, Jinan 250014 (China); Xu, Shicai [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Biophysics, College of Physics and Electronic Information, Dezhou University, Dezhou 253023 (China); Liu, Xiaoyun; Li, Zhe; Hu, Litao; Li, Zhen; Chen, Peixi; Ma, Yong [School of Physics and Electronics, Shandong Normal University, Jinan 250014 (China); Jiang, Shouzhen, E-mail: jiang_sz@126.com [School of Physics and Electronics, Shandong Normal University, Jinan 250014 (China); Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Optics and Photonic Device, Jinan 250014 (China); Ning, Tingyin [School of Physics and Electronics, Shandong Normal University, Jinan 250014 (China); Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Optics and Photonic Device, Jinan 250014 (China)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • We directly grown AgNPs on substrate by annealing method in the quartz tube. Compare with spin-coating Ag nanoparticles solution method, we got more uniform distribution of AgNPs and the AgNPs better adsorption on the substrate. • We use a simple and lost-cost method to obtain the pyramidal silicon (PSi). The PSi possessing well-separated pyramid arrays can make contribution to the homogeneity and sensitivity of the substrate. • In our work, graphene oxide (GO) film is uniformly deposited on AgNPs and PSi by using a spin-coating method. The GO films endow the hybrid system a good stability and enhance the homogeneity and sensitivity of the substrate. - Abstract: In our work, few layers graphene oxide (GO) were directly synthesized on Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs) by spin-coating method to fabricate a GO-AgNPs hybrid structure on a pyramidal silicon (PSi) substrate for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). The GO-AgNPs-PSi substrate showed excellent Raman enhancement effect, the minimum detected concentration for Rhodamine 6G (R6G) can reach 10{sup −12} M, which is one order of magnitude lower than the AgNPs-PSi substrate and two order of magnitude lower than the GO-AgNPs-flat-Si substrate. The linear fit calibration curve with error bars is presented and the value of R{sup 2} of 612 and 773 cm{sup −1} can reach 0.986 and 0.980, respectively. The excellent linear response between the Raman intensity and R6G concentrations prove that the prepared GO-AgNPs-PSi substrates can serve as good SERS substrate for molecule detection. The maximum deviations of SERS intensities from 20 positions of the GO-AgNPs-PSi substrate are less than 8%, revealing the high homogeneity of the SERS substrate. The excellent homogeneity of the enhanced Raman signals can be attributed to well-separated pyramid arrays of PSi, the uniform morphology of AgNPs and multi-functions of GO layer. Besides, the uniform GO film can effectively protect AgNPs from oxidation and endow

  4. A Protein Synthesis and Nitric Oxide-Dependent Presynaptic Enhancement in Persistent Forms of Long-Term Potentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, Victoria P. A.; Raymond, Clarke R.

    2011-01-01

    Long-term potentiation (LTP) is an important process underlying learning and memory in the brain. At CA3-CA1 synapses in the hippocampus, three discrete forms of LTP (LTP1, 2, and 3) can be differentiated on the basis of maintenance and induction mechanisms. However, the relative roles of pre- and post-synaptic expression mechanisms in LTP1, 2,…

  5. Erection capability is potentiated by long-term sildenafil treatment: role of blood flow-induced endothelial nitric-oxide synthase phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musicki, Biljana; Champion, Hunter C; Becker, Robyn E; Liu, Tongyun; Kramer, Melissa F; Burnett, Arthur L

    2005-07-01

    Despite demonstrated clinical efficacy of sildenafil for the temporary treatment of erectile dysfunction, the possibility that sildenafil used long-term durably augments erectile ability remains unclear. We investigated whether continuous long-term administration of sildenafil at clinically relevant levels to aged rats "primes" the penis for improved erectile ability and involves nitric oxide (NO) or RhoA/Rho-kinase signaling pathways. In aged, but not young rats, sildenafil prolonged erection and increased the protein expressions of phosphorylated endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) at serine-1177 and phosphorylated Akt at serine-473 in penes. Only in the young rat penis, protein expressions of phosphodiesterase-5 and phosphomyosin phosphatase target subunit 1, a marker of Rho-kinase activity, were increased by sildenafil. Sildenafil inhibited phosphodiesterase-5 activity in penes of young and aged rats coincident with assayed free plasma levels of the drug equivalent to clinically therapeutic measurements. We conclude that erectile ability can be enhanced under preconditions of erectile impairment by long-term inhibition of phosphodiesterase-5 and that the effect is mediated by Akt-dependent eNOS phosphorylation. The lack of erectile ability enhancement in young rats by long-term phosphodiesterase-5 inhibition may relate to restrained NO signaling by phosphodiesterase-5 up-regulation, lack of incremental Akt and eNOS phosphorylation, and heightened Rho-kinase signaling in the penis.

  6. Sorption of diuron, atrazine, and copper ion on chars with long-term natural oxidation in soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, C.; Lin, T.; Lai, C.

    2011-12-01

    Biochar has been proposed as a measure to sequestrate carbon (C) and to increase soil fertility in sustainable agriculture. However, its sorption characteristics to herbicides, such as lowing herbicides efficacy, may constrain its agricultural application. This assertion may be arguable because most studies so far were conducted with the newly produced char and barely considered the "ageing effect" of old char since it could be oxidized over long time. In this study, historical char samples were collected and compared with the newly produced char. Batch sorption studies of diuron, atrazine, and copper ion onto chars was performed. Greater sorption of Cu was observed on the historical char samples and reached a saturated sorption at 30 mg g-1 for Cu, much higher adsorption value than newly produced char at 4 mg g-1. In contrast, sorption of diuron and atrazine on newly produced char had the highest sorption capacity than the historical char samples. The historical chars also had much higher negative charge than the newly produced char, but its surface area were lower than the new char. The results indicated that change in surface functional groups through natural oxidation rather than the change of surface area may have more pronounced influences on sorption characteristics, in which the negative charge on the historical chars' surface could hinder the adsorption of diuron and atrazine while enhance the sorption to copper ion. Biological assay to test the toxicity of diuron and copper ion for both historical and new chars on rye seed were conducted and will be presented in our poster.

  7. Graphene oxide-Ag nanoparticles-pyramidal silicon hybrid system for homogeneous, long-term stable and sensitive SERS activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jia; Xu, Shicai; Liu, Xiaoyun; Li, Zhe; Hu, Litao; Li, Zhen; Chen, Peixi; Ma, Yong; Jiang, Shouzhen; Ning, Tingyin

    2017-02-01

    In our work, few layers graphene oxide (GO) were directly synthesized on Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs) by spin-coating method to fabricate a GO-AgNPs hybrid structure on a pyramidal silicon (PSi) substrate for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). The GO-AgNPs-PSi substrate showed excellent Raman enhancement effect, the minimum detected concentration for Rhodamine 6G (R6G) can reach 10-12 M, which is one order of magnitude lower than the AgNPs-PSi substrate and two order of magnitude lower than the GO-AgNPs-flat-Si substrate. The linear fit calibration curve with error bars is presented and the value of R2 of 612 and 773 cm-1 can reach 0.986 and 0.980, respectively. The excellent linear response between the Raman intensity and R6G concentrations prove that the prepared GO-AgNPs-PSi substrates can serve as good SERS substrate for molecule detection. The maximum deviations of SERS intensities from 20 positions of the GO-AgNPs-PSi substrate are less than 8%, revealing the high homogeneity of the SERS substrate. The excellent homogeneity of the enhanced Raman signals can be attributed to well-separated pyramid arrays of PSi, the uniform morphology of AgNPs and multi-functions of GO layer. Besides, the uniform GO film can effectively protect AgNPs from oxidation and endow the hybrid system a good stability and long lifetime. This GO-AgNPs-PSi substrate may provide a new way toward practical applications for the ultrasensitive and label-free SERS detection in areas of medicine, food safety and biotechnology.

  8. Short-Term Nose-Only Water-Pipe (Shisha Smoking Exposure Accelerates Coagulation and Causes Cardiac Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abderrahim Nemmar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: Water-pipe smoking (WPS has acquired worldwide popularity, and is disseminating particularly rapidly in Europe and North America. However, little is known about the short-term cardiovascular effects of WPS. Methods: Presently, we assessed the short-term cardiovascular effects of nose-only exposure to mainstream WPS in BALB/c mice for 30 min/day for 5 consecutive days. Control mice were exposed to air. At the end of the exposure period, several cardiovascular endpoints were measured. Results: WPS did not affect the number of leukocytes and the plasma concentrations of C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα and interleukin-6 (IL-6. Likewise, plasma levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO, reduced glutathione (GSH and catalase were not affected by WPS. By contrast, WPS aggravated in vivo thrombosis by shortening the thrombotic occlusion time in pial arterioles and venules. The number of circulating platelets was reduced by WPS suggesting the occurrence of platelet aggregation in vivo. Elevated concentrations of fibrinogen and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 were seen after the exposure to WPS. Blood samples taken from mice exposed to WPS and exposed to adenosine diphosphate showed more platelet aggregation. The heart concentrations of IL-6 and TNFα were augmented by WPS. Likewise, heart levels of LPO, reactive oxygen species and the antioxidants catalase and GSH were increased by WPS. However, the systolic blood pressure and heart rate were not affected by WPS. Conclusion: It can be concluded that short-term exposure to WPS exerts procoagulatory effects and induce cardiac inflammation and oxidative stress. At the time point investigated, there was no evidence for blood inflammation or oxidative stress.

  9. Simulation of synaptic short-term plasticity using Ba(CF3SO3)2-doped polyethylene oxide electrolyte film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, C T; Zeng, F; Li, X J; Dong, W S; Lu, S H; Gao, S; Pan, F

    2016-01-07

    The simulation of synaptic plasticity using new materials is critical in the study of brain-inspired computing. Devices composed of Ba(CF3SO3)2-doped polyethylene oxide (PEO) electrolyte film were fabricated and with pulse responses found to resemble the synaptic short-term plasticity (STP) of both short-term depression (STD) and short-term facilitation (STF) synapses. The values of the charge and discharge peaks of the pulse responses did not vary with input number when the pulse frequency was sufficiently low(~1 Hz). However, when the frequency was increased, the charge and discharge peaks decreased and increased, respectively, in gradual trends and approached stable values with respect to the input number. These stable values varied with the input frequency, which resulted in the depressed and potentiated weight modifications of the charge and discharge peaks, respectively. These electrical properties simulated the high and low band-pass filtering effects of STD and STF, respectively. The simulations were consistent with biological results and the corresponding biological parameters were successfully extracted. The study verified the feasibility of using organic electrolytes to mimic STP.

  10. Oxidative Stress and Genotoxicity of Long-Term Occupational Exposure to Low Levels of BTEX in Gas Station Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Xiong

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX can lead to multiple health injuries. However, what remains uncertain is the effect of long-term exposure to low levels of BTEX. Thus, we determined the BTEX levels in the air from the refueling and office areas in gas stations. Then we collected workers’ (200 refueling vs. 52 office workers peripheral blood samples to analyze the serum total-superoxide dismutase (T-SOD, glutathione (GSH, malondialdehyde (MDA, and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG levels. DNA damage was analyzed by the comet assay and micronucleus test in buccal epithelial cells. We found that the levels of BTEX in refueling areas were significantly higher than those in office areas (p < 0.001. The serum T-SOD and GSH of refueling workers were significantly lower than those in office workers (p < 0.001. By contrast, the serum MDA and 8-OHdG of refueling workers were significantly higher than those of office workers (p < 0.001, MDA; p = 0.025, 8-OHdG. Furthermore, tail and Olive tail moments in refueling workers were longer (p = 0.004, tail moment; p = 0.001, Olive tail moment, and the micronucleus rate was higher (p < 0.001 than those in office workers. Taken together, long-term exposure to low levels of BTEX may reduce the antioxidant ability and increase the risk of DNA damage in refueling workers of gas stations.

  11. Long-term mequindox treatment induced endocrine and reproductive toxicity via oxidative stress in male Wistar rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ihsan, Awais; Wang Xu; Liu Zhaoying; Wang Yulian; Huang Xianju; Liu Yu; Yu Huan; Zhang Hongfei; Li Tingting; Yang Chunhui; Yuan Zonghui

    2011-01-01

    Mequindox (MEQ) is a synthetic antimicrobial chemical of quinoxaline 1, 4-dioxide group. This study was designed to investigate the hypothesis that MEQ exerts testicular toxicity by causing oxidative stress and steroidal gene expression profiles and determine mechanism of MEQ testicular toxicity. In this study, adult male Wistar rats were fed with MEQ for 180 days at five different doses as 0, 25, 55, 110 and 275 mg/kg, respectively. In comparison to control, superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH) and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) levels were elevated at 110 and 275 mg/kg MEQ, whereas the malondialdehyde (MDA) level was slightly increase at only 275 mg/kg. Furthermore, in LC/MS-IT-TOF analysis, one metabolite 2-isoethanol 4-desoxymequindox (M11) was found in the testis. There was significant decrease in body weight, testicular weight and testosterone at 275 mg/kg, serum follicular stimulating hormone (FSH) at 110 and 275 mg/kg, while lutinizing hormone (LH) levels were elevated at 110 mg/kg. Moreover, histopathology of testis exhibited germ cell depletion, contraction of seminiferous tubules and disorganization of the tubular contents of testis. Compared with control, mRNA expression of StAR, P450scc and 17β-HSD in testis was significantly decreased after exposure of 275 mg/kg MEQ while AR and 3β-HSD mRNA expression were significantly elevated at the 110 mg/kg MEQ group. Taken together, our findings provide the first and direct evidence in vivo for the formation of free radicals during the MEQ metabolism through N → O group reduction, which may have implications to understand the possible mechanism of male infertility related to quinoxaline derivatives.

  12. Response of Lemna minor L. to short-term cobalt exposure: The effect on photosynthetic electron transport chain and induction of oxidative damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Begović, Lidija, E-mail: lbegovic@biologija.unios.hr [Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek, Department of Biology, Ulica cara Hadrijana 8/A, H R -31000 Osijek (Croatia); Mlinarić, Selma, E-mail: smlinaric@biologija.unios.hr [Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek, Department of Biology, Ulica cara Hadrijana 8/A, H R -31000 Osijek (Croatia); Antunović Dunić, Jasenka, E-mail: jantunovic@biologija.unios.hr [Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek, Department of Biology, Ulica cara Hadrijana 8/A, H R -31000 Osijek (Croatia); Katanić, Zorana, E-mail: zkatanic@biologija.unios.hr [Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek, Department of Biology, Ulica cara Hadrijana 8/A, H R -31000 Osijek (Croatia); Lončarić, Zdenko, E-mail: zdenko.loncaric@pfos.hr [Faculty of Agriculture, Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek, Ulica kralja Petra Svačića 1d, H R -31000 Osijek (Croatia); Lepeduš, Hrvoje, E-mail: hlepedus@yahoo.com [Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek, Lorenza Jägera 9, HR-31000 Osijek (Croatia); Cesar, Vera, E-mail: vcesarus@yahoo.com [Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek, Department of Biology, Ulica cara Hadrijana 8/A, H R -31000 Osijek (Croatia)

    2016-06-15

    Highlights: • Cobalt (Co{sup 2+}) impaired the function of oxygen evolving complex (OEC) in L. minor L. • Electron transport through PSII components varied depending on Co{sup 2+} concentration. • K-band was proven to be suitable parameter for investigation of Co{sup 2+} toxicity. • Increased lipid peroxidation level showed early oxidative damage induced by Co{sup 2+}. - Abstract: The effect of two concentrations of cobalt (Co{sup 2+}) on photosynthetic activity and antioxidative response in Lemna minor L. were assessed 24, 48 and 72 h after the start of the exposure. Higher concentration of cobalt (1 mM) induced growth inhibition while lower concentration (0.01 mM) increased photosynthetic pigments content. Analysis of chlorophyll a fluorescence transients revealed high sensitivity of photosystem II primary photochemistry to excess of Co{sup 2+} especially at the higher concentration where decreased electron transport beyond primary quinone acceptor Q{sub A}{sup −} and impaired function of oxygen evolving complex (OEC) was observed. Due to impairment of OEC, oxygen production was decreased at higher Co{sup 2+} concentration. Activity of superoxide dismutase was mainly inhibited while lipid peroxidation increased, at both concentrations, indicating that cobalt-induced oxidative damage after short exposure and moreover, susceptibility of the membranes in the cell to cobalt toxicity. Results obtained in this study suggest possible application of used parameters as tools in assessment of early damage caused by metals.

  13. Response of Lemna minor L. to short-term cobalt exposure: The effect on photosynthetic electron transport chain and induction of oxidative damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begović, Lidija; Mlinarić, Selma; Antunović Dunić, Jasenka; Katanić, Zorana; Lončarić, Zdenko; Lepeduš, Hrvoje; Cesar, Vera

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Cobalt (Co"2"+) impaired the function of oxygen evolving complex (OEC) in L. minor L. • Electron transport through PSII components varied depending on Co"2"+ concentration. • K-band was proven to be suitable parameter for investigation of Co"2"+ toxicity. • Increased lipid peroxidation level showed early oxidative damage induced by Co"2"+. - Abstract: The effect of two concentrations of cobalt (Co"2"+) on photosynthetic activity and antioxidative response in Lemna minor L. were assessed 24, 48 and 72 h after the start of the exposure. Higher concentration of cobalt (1 mM) induced growth inhibition while lower concentration (0.01 mM) increased photosynthetic pigments content. Analysis of chlorophyll a fluorescence transients revealed high sensitivity of photosystem II primary photochemistry to excess of Co"2"+ especially at the higher concentration where decreased electron transport beyond primary quinone acceptor Q_A"− and impaired function of oxygen evolving complex (OEC) was observed. Due to impairment of OEC, oxygen production was decreased at higher Co"2"+ concentration. Activity of superoxide dismutase was mainly inhibited while lipid peroxidation increased, at both concentrations, indicating that cobalt-induced oxidative damage after short exposure and moreover, susceptibility of the membranes in the cell to cobalt toxicity. Results obtained in this study suggest possible application of used parameters as tools in assessment of early damage caused by metals.

  14. Relative impact of short-term emissions controls on gas and particle-phase oxidative potential during the 2015 China Victory Day Parade in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei; Fang, Dongqing; Shang, Jing; Li, Zhengqiang; Zhang, Yang; Huo, Peng; Liu, Zhaoying; Schauer, James J.; Zhang, Yuanxun

    2018-06-01

    A field observation focusing on reactive oxygen species (ROS) was conducted before, during, and after the 2015 China Victory Day Parade to understand the influence of short-term emissions controls on atmospheric oxidative activity. The hourly average concentrations of PM2.5, SO2, NO, NO2, CO, O3, as well as gas and particle-phase ROS, were measured using a series of online instruments. PM2.5 concentrations during control days were significantly lower than non-control days, which directly lead to the "Parade Blue", yet reductions of most gaseous pollutants except SO2 were not so obvious as PM. Similarly, the control measures also led to a great loss of particle-phase ROS throughout the control period, while the reduction of ROS in gas phase was not obvious until the more stringent measures implemented since September 1. Furthermore, only weak positive correlations were observed among ROS and some other measured species, indicating ROS concentrations were affected by a number of comprehensive factors that single marker could not capture. Meanwhile, meteorological condition and regional transportation were also shown to be the minor factors affecting atmospheric oxidizing capacity. The results of this observation mainly revealed the control measures were conducive to reducing particle-related ROS. However, the reduction of gas-phase ROS activity was less effective given the menu of controls employed for the 2015 China Victory Day Parade. Therefore, short-term emissions controls only aimed to PM reduction and visibility improvement will produce the blue sky but will not equivalently reduce the gas-phase ROS. Supplemental control measures will be needed to further reduce gas-phase ROS concentrations.

  15. Different contributions of platelet-activating factor and nitric oxide in long-term potentiation of the rat medial vestibular nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettorossi, V E; Grassi, S

    2001-01-01

    In rat brainstem slices, we investigated the differential role of nitric oxide (NO) and platelet-activating factor (PAF) in long-term potentiation (LTP) induced in the ventral portion of the medial vestibular nuclei (MVN) by high-frequency stimulation (HFS) of the primary vestibular afferents. The NO scavenger 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (carboxy-PTIO) and the PAF receptor antagonist ginkgolide B (BN-52021) were administered before and after induction of potentiation. The effect of carboxy-PTIO was to completely prevent LTP. By contrast, BN-52021 only reduced the amplitude of HFS potentiation, which could develop fully at the drug washout or decline to zero, becoming a short-term phenomenon, in the case of long-lasting PAF receptor block. Both drugs, when given after HFS, had no effect on the already established potentiation, but whilst BN-52021 showed an influence within 5 min of the LTP induction, carboxy-PTIO did not affect the response once HFS was delivered. Moreover, we showed that the NO donor, sodium nitroprusside, and methylcarbamyl PAF (mc-PAF) induced LTP which was associated with an increase in glutamate release as shown by reduction in the paired-pulse facilitation ratio. The mc-PAF LTP was prevented by the NO scavenger, while NO LTP was only reduced by BN-52021. We suggest that NO and PAF are implicated as retrograde messengers in two different phases of vestibular LTP: NO in the induction phase; and PAF in the full expression phase.

  16. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles function as a long-term, multi-modal imaging label for non-invasive tracking of implanted progenitor cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina A Pacak

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the ability of superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO nanoparticles to function as a long-term tracking label for multi-modal imaging of implanted engineered tissues containing muscle-derived progenitor cells using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and X-ray micro-computed tomography (μCT. SPIO-labeled primary myoblasts were embedded in fibrin sealant and imaged to obtain intensity data by MRI or radio-opacity information by μCT. Each imaging modality displayed a detection gradient that matched increasing SPIO concentrations. Labeled cells were then incorporated in fibrin sealant, injected into the atrioventricular groove of rat hearts, and imaged in vivo and ex vivo for up to 1 year. Transplanted cells were identified in intact animals and isolated hearts using both imaging modalities. MRI was better able to detect minuscule amounts of SPIO nanoparticles, while μCT more precisely identified the location of heavily-labeled cells. Histological analyses confirmed that iron oxide particles were confined to viable, skeletal muscle-derived cells in the implant at the expected location based on MRI and μCT. These analyses showed no evidence of phagocytosis of labeled cells by macrophages or release of nanoparticles from transplanted cells. In conclusion, we established that SPIO nanoparticles function as a sensitive and specific long-term label for MRI and μCT, respectively. Our findings will enable investigators interested in regenerative therapies to non-invasively and serially acquire complementary, high-resolution images of transplanted cells for one year using a single label.

  17. Transcranial direct current stimulation improves long-term memory deficits in an animal model of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and modulates oxidative and inflammatory parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leffa, Douglas Teixeira; Bellaver, Bruna; Salvi, Artur Alban; de Oliveira, Carla; Caumo, Wolnei; Grevet, Eugenio Horacio; Fregni, Felipe; Quincozes-Santos, André; Rohde, Luis Augusto; Torres, Iraci L S

    2018-04-05

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a technique that modulates neuronal activity and has been proposed as a potential therapeutic tool for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms. Although pilot studies have shown evidence of efficacy, its mechanism of action remains unclear. We evaluated the effects of tDCS on behavioral (working and long-term memory) and neurochemical (oxidative and inflammatory parameters) outcomes related to ADHD pathophysiology. We used the most widely accepted animal model of ADHD: spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). The selected behavioral outcomes have been shown to be altered in both ADHD patients and animal models, and were chosen for their relation to the proposed mechanistic action of tDCS. Adult male SHR and their control, the Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY), were subjected to 20 min of bicephalic tDCS or sham stimulation for 8 consecutive days. Working memory, long-term memory, and neurochemical outcomes were evaluated. TDCS improved long-term memory deficits presented by the SHR. No change in working memory performance was observed. In the hippocampus, tDCS increased both the production of reactive oxygen species in SHR and the levels of the antioxidant molecule glutathione in both strains. TDCS also modulated inflammatory response in the brains of WKY by downregulating pro-inflammatory cytokines. TDCS had significant effects that were specific for strain, type of behavioral and neurochemical outcomes. The long-term memory improvement in the SHR may point to a possible therapeutic role of tDCS in ADHD that does not seem to be mediated by inflammatory markers. Additionally, the anti-inflammatory effects observed in the brain of WKY after tDCS needs to be further explored. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Factors related to work ability and well-being among women on sick leave due to long-term pain in the neck/shoulders and/or back: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Mamunur; Kristofferzon, Marja-Leena; Heiden, Marina; Nilsson, Annika

    2018-05-30

    Musculoskeletal pain is one of the leading causes of sick leave, especially among women, in Western countries. The aim of the present study was to identify factors associated with work ability and well-being, respectively, among women on sick leave due to long-term pain in the neck/shoulders and/or back. A cross-sectional study with a correlational design was conducted on women who were sick-listed due to long-term pain in the neck/shoulders and/or back. A total of 208 participants responded to a survey comprising eight instruments: Multidimensional Pain Inventory scale, General Self-Efficacy scale, Sense of Coherence scale, Coping Strategies Questionnaire, Demand-Control-Support Questionnaire, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Work Ability Index and Life Satisfaction questionnaire. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to identify factors associated with work ability and well-being, respectively. Women who more strongly believed they would return to the same work had greater work ability (β = 0.39, p women with higher pain intensity (β = - 0.30, p job strain (β = - 0.12, p Women with higher self-efficacy rated greater well-being (β = 0.14, p women's scores for depression increased, their well-being decreased by 48%, which was statistically significant (p job strain are predictive of work ability. Moreover, the factors self-efficacy and depression seem to be predictive of well-being. The findings highlight factors that should be considered by health care professionals and policy-makers to guide attempts to reduce sick leave.

  19. The Short-term Therapeutic Effect of the Three-part Massotherapy for Insomnia Due to Deficiency of Both the Heart and the Spleen- A Report of 100 Cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the short-term therapeutic effect of the three-part massotherapy on insomnia due to deficiency of both the heart and spleen. Methods: Two hundred cases were randomly divided into a treatment group and a control group, each consisting of 100 cases. Patients in the treatment group were treated with the three-part massotherapy, while those in the control group with oral administration of Guipi Wan (归脾丸Pill for Invigorating the Spleen and Nourishing the Heart). The total clinical therapeutic effects, the total scores of Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Self-rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), and Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS) of the treatment group were compared with those of the control group. Results: After the treatment, the total therapeutic effects, PSQI, SAS, and SDS of the two groups all showed significant improvement (P<0.01), and the scores of the treatment group were superior to those of the control group (P<0.01). Conclusion: The three-part massotherapy has definite therapeutic effects on insomnia due to deficiency of both the heart and the spleen, which is safe and easy to operate, and worthy of popularization.

  20. Medical care of employees long-term sick listed due to mental health problems: a cohort study to describe and compare the care of the occupational physician and the general practitioner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anema, J R; Jettinghoff, K; Houtman, I; Schoemaker, C G; Buijs, P C; van den Berg, R

    2006-03-01

    To describe medical management by the general practitioner (GP) and occupational physician (OP) of workers sick listed due to mental health problems, and to determine agreement in diagnosis, main cause of sickness absence and obstacles in return to work. A cohort of 555 employees being sick listed for 12 to 20 weeks due to mental health problems was recruited and followed for 1 year. These employees were interviewed about their mental health and contacts with GP, OP, other specialists and employer. In addition, the GP and/or the OP of 72 employees were interviewed about the medical diagnosis and management. Most employees sick listed for 12-20 weeks visited their GP and OP. According to the employees most interventions applied by the GP were medical interventions, such as referral of employees and prescription of medical drugs. Working conditions were seldom discussed by the GP and work-related interventions were never applied. Most interventions applied by the OP were work-related interventions and/or contact with the employer. The OP more often talked about working conditions and conflicts. According to the employees, the communication between GP and OP only took place in 8% of the cases. Agreement in the diagnosis, main cause of sickness absence, and obstacles in return to work reported by the GPs and OPs of the same employee was poor. In addition, similarity in reported diagnosis by GP and/or OP and the employees' scores on valid questionnaires on (mental) health was limited. The lack of communication and agreement by Dutch GPs and OPs in medical diagnosis and management of employees long-term sick listed due to mental health problems are indicators of sub-optimal medical treatment and return-to-work strategies.

  1. Inhaled nitric oxide improves short term memory and reduces the inflammatory reaction in a mouse model of mild traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ping; Li, Yong-Sheng; Quartermain, David; Boutajangout, Allal; Ji, Yong

    2013-07-19

    Although the mechanisms underlying mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) are becoming well understood, treatment options are still limited. In the present study, mTBI was induced by a weight drop model to produce a closed head injury to mice and the effect of inhaled nitric oxide (INO) was evaluated by a short term memory task (object recognition task) and immunohistochemical staining of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and CD45 for the detection of reactive astrocytes and microglia. Results showed that mTBI model did not produce brain edema, skull fracture or sensorimotor coordination dysfunctions. Mice did however exhibit a significant deficit in short term memory (STM) and strong inflammatory reaction in the ipsilateral cortex and hippocampus compared to sham-injured controls 24h after mTBI. Additional groups of untreated mice tested 3 and 7 days later, demonstrated that recognition memory had recovered to normal levels by Day 3. Mice treated with 10ppm INO for 4 or 8h, beginning immediately after TBI demonstrated significantly improved STM at 24h when compared with room air controls (pshort durations of INO prevents this memory loss and also attenuates the inflammatory response. These findings may have relevance for the treatment of patients diagnosed with concussion. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Magnetic resonance imaging with superparamagnetic iron oxide fails to track the long-term fate of mesenchymal stem cells transplanted into heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ning; Cheng, Huaibing; Lu, Minjie; Liu, Qiong; Chen, Xiuyu; Yin, Gang; Zhu, Hao; Zhang, Lianfeng; Meng, Xianmin; Tang, Yue; Zhao, Shihua

    2015-03-12

    MRI for in vivo stem cell tracking remains controversial. Here we tested the hypothesis that MRI can track the long-term fate of the superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles labelled mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) following intramyocardially injection in AMI rats. MSCs (1 × 10(6)) from male rats doubly labeled with SPIO and DAPI were injected 2 weeks after myocardial infarction. The control group received cell-free media injection. In vivo serial MRI was performed at 24 hours before cell delivery (baseline), 3 days, 1, 2, and 4 weeks after cell delivery, respectively. Serial follow-up MRI demonstrated large persistent intramyocardial signal-voids representing SPIO during the follow-up of 4 weeks, and MSCs did not moderate the left ventricular dysfunction. The TUNEL analysis confirmed that MSCs engrafted underwent apoptosis. The histopathological studies revealed that the site of cell injection was infiltrated by inflammatory cells progressively and the iron-positive cells were macrophages identified by CD68 staining, but very few or no DAPI-positive stem cells at 4 weeks after cells transplantation. The presence of engrafted cells was confirmed by real-time PCR, which showed that the amount of Y-chromosome-specific SRY gene was consistent with the results. MRI may not reliably track the long-term fate of SPIO-labeled MSCs engraftment in heart.

  3. Shifts in the abundance and community structure of soil ammonia oxidizers in a wet sclerophyll forest under long-term prescribed burning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Xi-En; Chen, Chengrong; Xu, Zhihong; He, Ji-Zheng

    2014-02-01

    Fire shapes global biome distribution and promotes the terrestrial biogeochemical cycles. Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and archaea (AOA) play a vital role in the biogeochemical cycling of nitrogen (N). However, behaviors of AOB and AOA under long-term prescribed burning remain unclear. This study was to examine how fire affected the abundances and communities of soil AOB and AOA. A long-term repeated forest fire experiment with three burning treatments (never burnt, B0; biennially burnt, B2; and quadrennially burnt, B4) was used in this study. The abundances and community structure of soil AOB and AOA were determined using quantitative PCR, restriction fragment length polymorphism and clone library. More frequent fires (B2) increased the abundance of bacterium amoA gene, but tended to decrease archaeal amoA genes. Fire also modified the composition of AOA and AOB communities. Canonical correspondence analysis showed soil pH and dissolved organic C (DOC) strongly affected AOB genotypes, while nitrate-N and DOC shaped the AOA distribution. The increased abundance of bacterium amoA gene by fires may imply an important role of AOB in nitrification in fire-affected soils. The fire-induced shift in the community composition of AOB and AOA demonstrates that fire can disturb nutrient cycles. © 2013.

  4. Enhancement of photocurrents due to the oxidation of water and organic compounds at BiZn2VO6 particulate thin film electrodes by treatment with a TiCl4 solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Haimei; Imanishi, Akihito; Yang Wensheng; Nakato, Yoshihiro

    2010-01-01

    Photocurrents due to water oxidation at BiZn 2 VO 6 (E g 2.4 eV) particulate thin film electrodes were largely enhanced by pre-treatment with an aqueous TiCl 4 solution. Photocurrents for BiZn 2 VO 6 electrodes with no TiCl 4 treatment were also enhanced by the addition of organic compounds such as methanol and trimethyl amine to the aqueous electrolyte. Interestingly, such enhanced photocurrents by organic compounds were further enhanced by the TiCl 4 pre-treatment. EDAX and SEM investigations showed the formation of a flock-like TiO 2 overlayer on BiZn 2 VO 6 particles after the TiCl 4 treatment. The photocurrent enhancement by the TiCl 4 pre-treatment is thus mainly attributed to the necking effect of the flock-like TiO 2 overlayer, which facilitates the transport of photogenerated electrons within the BiZn 2 VO 6 particulate thin film electrode.

  5. Long-term electromagnetic pulse exposure induces Abeta deposition and cognitive dysfunction through oxidative stress and overexpression of APP and BACE1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Da-Peng; Li, Jin-Hui; Zhang, Jie; Xu, Sheng-Long; Kuang, Fang; Lang, Hai-Yang; Wang, Ya-Feng; An, Guang-Zhou; Li, Jing; Guo, Guo-Zhen

    2016-07-01

    A progressively expanded literature has been devoted in the past years to the noxious or beneficial effects of electromagnetic field (EMF) to Alzheimer׳s disease (AD). This study concerns the relationship between electromagnetic pulse (EMP) exposure and the occurrence of AD in rats and the underlying mechanisms, focusing on the role of oxidative stress (OS). 55 healthy male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were used and received continuous exposure for 8 months. Morris water maze (MWM) test was conducted to test the ability of cognitive and memory. The level of OS was detected by superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and glutathione (GSH) content. We found that long-term EMP exposure induced cognitive damage in rats. The content of β-amyloid (Aβ) protein in hippocampus was increased after long-term EMP exposure. OS of hippocampal neuron was detected. Western blotting and immunohistochemistry (IHC) assay showed that the content of Aβ protein and its oligomers in EMP-exposed rats were higher than that of sham-exposed rats. The content of Beta Site App Cleaving Enzyme (BACE1) and microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3-II (LC3-II) in EMP-exposed rats hippocampus were also higher than that of sham-exposed rats. SOD activity and GSH content in EMP-exposed rats were lower than sham-exposed rats (p<0.05). Several mechanisms were proposed based on EMP exposure-induced OS, including increased amyloid precursor protein (APP) aberrant cleavage. Although further study is needed, the present results suggest that long-term EMP exposure is harmful to cognitive ability in rats and could induce AD-like pathological manifestation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Optical properties of poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) film and its potential for a long-term solar ultraviolet dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lester, R A; Parisi, A V; Kimlin, M G; Sabburg, J

    2003-01-01

    The optical properties of poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) (PPO) film have been characterized in order to develop an alternative method for UV dosimetry with a focus on long-term human exposure measurements. The dynamic range of PPO film was found to extend to 2 MJ m -2 of broadband UV exposure independently of film thickness, providing an exposure range of roughly four summer days at subtropical latitudes. The sensitivity of the film to UV exposure was positively related to film thickness in the 20-40 μm range. Films of 40 μm thickness proved to be the most suitable for long-term human UV exposure measurements. The temperature independence of the response of 40 μm PPO film was established from 1.5 deg. C to 50 deg. C within a dosimeter response uncertainty of 6.5%. Dose-rate independence was also demonstrated within 8% of the mean dosimeter response. The spectral response approximates the CIE erythemal action spectrum between 300 and 340 nm, with a peak response at 305 nm. A large deviation from this action spectrum was observed at shorter wavelengths. Investigation of the angular response in both the azimuth and altitude planes showed a cosine error of less than 6.2% between 0 deg. and 40 deg., and did not exceed 13.3% at any angle greater than 40 deg. These results indicate that PPO film satisfies the requirements for use as a UV dosimeter, and may be employed in long-term human exposure measurements

  7. Avocado oil induces long-term alleviation of oxidative damage in kidney mitochondria from type 2 diabetic rats by improving glutathione status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Avila, Omar; Figueroa-García, María Del Consuelo; García-Berumen, Claudia Isabel; Calderón-Cortés, Elizabeth; Mejía-Barajas, Jorge A; Rodriguez-Orozco, Alain R; Mejía-Zepeda, Ricardo; Saavedra-Molina, Alfredo; Cortés-Rojo, Christian

    2017-04-01

    Hyperglycemia and mitochondrial ROS overproduction have been identified as key factors involved in the development of diabetic nephropathy. This has encouraged the search for strategies decreasing glucose levels and long-term improvement of redox status of glutathione, the main antioxidant counteracting mitochondrial damage. Previously, we have shown that avocado oil improves redox status of glutathione in liver and brain mitochondria from streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats; however, the long-term effects of avocado oil and its hypoglycemic effect cannot be evaluated because this model displays low survival and insulin depletion. Therefore, we tested during 1 year the effects of avocado oil on glycemia, ROS levels, lipid peroxidation and glutathione status in kidney mitochondria from type 2 diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats. Diabetic rats exhibited glycemia of 120-186 mg/dL the first 9 months with a further increase to 250-300 mg/dL. Avocado oil decreased hyperglycemia at intermediate levels between diabetic and control rats. Diabetic rats displayed augmented lipid peroxidation and depletion of reduced glutathione throughout the study, while increased ROS generation was observed at the 3rd and 12th months along with diminished content of total glutathione at the 6th and 12th months. Avocado oil ameliorated all these defects and augmented the mitochondrial content of oleic acid. The beneficial effects of avocado oil are discussed in terms of the hypoglycemic effect of oleic acid and the probable dependence of glutathione transport on lipid peroxidation and thiol oxidation of mitochondrial carriers.

  8. Time-Dependent Toxic and Genotoxic Effects of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles after Long-Term and Repetitive Exposure to Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Ickrath

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NP are widely spread in consumer products. Data about the toxicological characteristics of ZnO-NP is still under controversial discussion. The human skin is the most important organ concerning ZnO-NP exposure. Intact skin was demonstrated to be a sufficient barrier against NPs; however, defect skin may allow NP contact to proliferating cells. Within these cells, stem cells are the most important toxicological target for NPs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of ZnO-NP at low-dose concentrations after long-term and repetitive exposure to human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC. Cytotoxic effects of ZnO-NP were measured by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT assay. Furthermore, genotoxicity was evaluated by the comet assay. For long-term observation over 6 weeks, transmission electron microscopy (TEM was applied. The results of the study indicated cytotoxic effects of ZnO-NP beginning at high concentrations of 50 μg/mL and genotoxic effects in hMSC exposed to 1 and 10 μg/mL ZnO-NP. Repetitive exposure enhanced cyto- but not genotoxicity. Intracellular NP accumulation was observed up to 6 weeks. The results suggest cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of ZnO-NP. Even low doses of ZnO-NP may induce toxic effects as a result of repetitive exposure and long-term cellular accumulation. This data should be considered before using ZnO-NP on damaged skin.

  9. Evolution of the thickness of the aluminum oxide film due to the pH of the cooling water and surface temperature of the fuel elements clad of a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babiche, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the mechanism of growth of a film of aluminum oxide on an alloy of the same material, which serves as a protective surface being the constituent material of the RP-10 nuclear reactor fuel elements clads. The most influential parameters on the growth of this film are: the pH of the cooling water and the clad surface temperature of the fuel element. For this study, a mathematical model relating the evolution of the aluminum oxide layer thickness over the time, according to the same oxide film using a power law is used. It is concluded that the time of irradiation, the heat flux at the surface of the aluminum material, the speed of the coolant, the thermal conductivity of the oxide, the initial thickness of the oxide layer and the solubility of the protective oxide are parameters affecting in the rate and film formation. (author).

  10. Complete deficiency of mitochondrial trifunctional protein due to a novel mutation within the beta-subunit of the mitochondrial trifunctional protein gene leads to failure of long-chain fatty acid beta-oxidation with fatal outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwab, Karl Otfried; Ensenauer, Regina; Matern, Dietrich; Uyanik, Gökhan; Schnieders, Birgit; Wanders, Ronald A.; Lehnert, Willy

    2003-01-01

    The mitochondrial trifunctional protein (MTP) is a multienzyme complex which catalyses three of the four chain-shortening reactions in the beta-oxidation of long-chain fatty acids. Clinically, failure of long-chain fatty acid beta-oxidation leads to hypoketotic hypoglycaemia associated with coma,

  11. Protection by extra virgin olive oil against oxidative stress in vitro and in vivo. Chemical and biological studies on the health benefits due to a major component of the Mediterranean diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Miriam; Kwok, Lorraine; Lee, Grace; Caruso, Alessio; Gionfra, Fabio; Candelotti, Elena; Belli, Stuart L.; Molasky, Nora; Raley-Susman, Kathleen M.; Leone, Stefano; Filipský, Tomáš; Tofani, Daniela; Pedersen, Jens; Incerpi, Sandra

    2017-01-01

    We report the results of in vivo studies in Caenorhabditis elegans nematodes in which addition of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) to their diet significantly increased their life span with respect to the control group. Furthermore, when nematodes were exposed to the pesticide paraquat, they started to die after two days, but after the addition of EVOO to their diet, both survival percentage and lifespans of paraquat-exposed nematodes increased. Since paraquat is associated with superoxide radical production, a test for scavenging this radical was performed using cyclovoltammetry and the EVOO efficiently scavenged the superoxide. Thus, a linear correlation (y = -0.0838x +19.73, regression factor = 0.99348) was observed for superoxide presence (y) in the voltaic cell as a function of aliquot (x) additions of EVOO, 10 μL each. The originally generated supoeroxide was approximately halved after 10 aliquots (100 μL total). The superoxide scavenging ability was analyzed, theoretically, using Density Functional Theory for tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol, two components of EVOO and was also confirmed experimentally for the galvinoxyl radical, using Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The galvinoxyl signal disappeared after adding 1 μL of EVOO to the EPR cell in 10 minutes. In addition, EVOO significantly decreased the proliferation of human leukemic THP-1 cells, while it kept the proliferation at about normal levels in rat L6 myoblasts, a non-tumoral skeletal muscle cell line. The protection due to EVOO was also assessed in L6 cells and THP-1 exposed to the radical generator cumene hydroperoxide, in which cell viability was reduced. Also in this case the oxidative stress was ameliorated by EVOO, in line with results obtained with tetrazolium dye reduction assays, cell cycle analysis and reactive oxygen species measurements. We ascribe these beneficial effects to EVOO antioxidant properties and our results are in agreement with a clear health benefit of EVOO use

  12. Protection by extra virgin olive oil against oxidative stress in vitro and in vivo. Chemical and biological studies on the health benefits due to a major component of the Mediterranean diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Rossi

    Full Text Available We report the results of in vivo studies in Caenorhabditis elegans nematodes in which addition of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO to their diet significantly increased their life span with respect to the control group. Furthermore, when nematodes were exposed to the pesticide paraquat, they started to die after two days, but after the addition of EVOO to their diet, both survival percentage and lifespans of paraquat-exposed nematodes increased. Since paraquat is associated with superoxide radical production, a test for scavenging this radical was performed using cyclovoltammetry and the EVOO efficiently scavenged the superoxide. Thus, a linear correlation (y = -0.0838x +19.73, regression factor = 0.99348 was observed for superoxide presence (y in the voltaic cell as a function of aliquot (x additions of EVOO, 10 μL each. The originally generated supoeroxide was approximately halved after 10 aliquots (100 μL total. The superoxide scavenging ability was analyzed, theoretically, using Density Functional Theory for tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol, two components of EVOO and was also confirmed experimentally for the galvinoxyl radical, using Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR spectroscopy. The galvinoxyl signal disappeared after adding 1 μL of EVOO to the EPR cell in 10 minutes. In addition, EVOO significantly decreased the proliferation of human leukemic THP-1 cells, while it kept the proliferation at about normal levels in rat L6 myoblasts, a non-tumoral skeletal muscle cell line. The protection due to EVOO was also assessed in L6 cells and THP-1 exposed to the radical generator cumene hydroperoxide, in which cell viability was reduced. Also in this case the oxidative stress was ameliorated by EVOO, in line with results obtained with tetrazolium dye reduction assays, cell cycle analysis and reactive oxygen species measurements. We ascribe these beneficial effects to EVOO antioxidant properties and our results are in agreement with a clear health

  13. Exploring factors relevant in the assessment of the return-to-work process of employees on long-term sickness absence due to a depressive disorder: a focus group study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muijzer Anna

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Efforts undertaken during the Return-to-Work (RTW process need to be sufficient in order to optimize the quality of the RTW process. The purpose of this study was to explore factors relevant to Return-to-Work Effort Sufficiency (RTW-ES in cases of sick-listed employees with a Depressive Disorder (DD. Method A case of a long-term sick-listed employee with a DD applying for disability benefits was used to gather arguments and grounds relevant to the assessment of RTW-ES. Two focus group meetings were held, consisting of Labor Experts working at the Dutch Social Insurance Institute. Factors were collected and categorized using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF model. Results Sixteen factors relevant to RTW-ES assessment in a case of DD were found, categorized in the ICF-model under activities (e.g. functional capacity, personal (e.g. competencies, attitude and environmental domain (e.g. employer-employee relationship, or categorized under interventions, job accommodations and measures. Conclusions This study shows that 16 factors are relevant in the assessment of RTW-ES in employees sick-listed due to DD. Further research is necessary to expand this knowledge to other health conditions, and to investigate the impact of these results on the quality of the RTW-ES assessment.

  14. DECOVALEX-THMC Task D: Long-Term Permeability/Porosity Changes in the EDZ and Near Field due to THM and THC Processes in Volcanic and Crystalline-Bentonite Systems, Status Report October 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkholzer, J.; Rutqvist, J.; Sonnenthal, E.; Barr, D.

    2005-01-01

    The DECOVALEX project is an international cooperative project initiated by SKI, the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, with participation of about 10 international organizations. The name DECOVALEX stands for DEvelopment of COupled models and their VALidation against Experiments. The general goal of this project is to encourage multidisciplinary interactive and cooperative research on modeling coupled processes in geologic formations in support of the performance assessment for underground storage of radioactive waste. Three multi-year project stages of DECOVALEX have been completed in the past decade, mainly focusing on coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanical processes. Currently, a fourth three-year project stage of DECOVALEX is under way, referred to as DECOVALEX-THMC. THMC stands for Thermal, Hydrological, Mechanical, and Chemical processes. The new project stage aims at expanding the traditional geomechanical scope of the previous DECOVALEX project stages by incorporating geochemical processes important for repository performance. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) leads Task D of the new DECOVALEX phase, entitled ''Long-term Permeability/Porosity Changes in the EDZ and Near Field due to THC and THM Processes for Volcanic and Crystalline-Bentonite Systems''. In its leadership role for Task D, DOE coordinates and sets the direction for the cooperative research activities of the international research teams engaged in Task D

  15. Survival or revival: long-term preservation induces a reversible viable but non-culturable state in methane-oxidizing bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Hoefman

    Full Text Available Knowledge on long-term preservation of micro-organisms is limited and research in the field is scarce despite its importance for microbial biodiversity and biotechnological innovation. Preservation of fastidious organisms such as methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB has proven difficult. Most MOB do not survive lyophilization and only some can be cryopreserved successfully for short periods. A large-scale study was designed for a diverse set of MOB applying fifteen cryopreservation or lyophilization conditions. After three, six and twelve months of preservation, the viability (via live-dead flow cytometry and culturability (via most-probable number analysis and plating of the cells were assessed. All strains could be cryopreserved without a significant loss in culturability using 1% trehalose in 10-fold diluted TSB (TT as preservation medium and 5% DMSO as cryoprotectant. Several other cryopreservation and lyophilization conditions, all of which involved the use of TT medium, also allowed successful preservation but showed a considerable loss in culturability. We demonstrate here that most of these non-culturables survived preservation according to viability assessment indicating that preservation induces a viable but non-culturable (VBNC state in a significant fraction of cells. Since this state is reversible, these findings have major implications shifting the emphasis from survival to revival of cells in a preservation protocol. We showed that MOB cells could be significantly resuscitated from the VBNC state using the TT preservation medium.

  16. Response of Lemna minor L. to short-term cobalt exposure: The effect on photosynthetic electron transport chain and induction of oxidative damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begović, Lidija; Mlinarić, Selma; Antunović Dunić, Jasenka; Katanić, Zorana; Lončarić, Zdenko; Lepeduš, Hrvoje; Cesar, Vera

    2016-06-01

    The effect of two concentrations of cobalt (Co(2+)) on photosynthetic activity and antioxidative response in Lemna minor L. were assessed 24, 48 and 72h after the start of the exposure. Higher concentration of cobalt (1mM) induced growth inhibition while lower concentration (0.01mM) increased photosynthetic pigments content. Analysis of chlorophyll a fluorescence transients revealed high sensitivity of photosystem II primary photochemistry to excess of Co(2+) especially at the higher concentration where decreased electron transport beyond primary quinone acceptor QA(-) and impaired function of oxygen evolving complex (OEC) was observed. Due to impairment of OEC, oxygen production was decreased at higher Co(2+) concentration. Activity of superoxide dismutase was mainly inhibited while lipid peroxidation increased, at both concentrations, indicating that cobalt-induced oxidative damage after short exposure and moreover, susceptibility of the membranes in the cell to cobalt toxicity. Results obtained in this study suggest possible application of used parameters as tools in assessment of early damage caused by metals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Long-term results of high-dose conformal radiotherapy for patients with medically inoperable T1-3N0 non-small-cell lung cancer: Is low incidence of regional failure due to incidental nodal irradiation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Ming; Hayman, James A.; Haken, Randall K. ten; Tatro, Daniel; Fernando, Shaneli; Kong, F.-M.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To report the results of high-dose conformal irradiation and examine incidental nodal irradiation and nodal failure in patients with inoperable early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: This analysis included patients with inoperable CT-staged T1-3N0M0 NSCLC treated on our prospective dose-escalation trial. Patients were treated with radiation alone (total dose, 63-102.9 Gy in 2.1-Gy daily fractions) with a three-dimensional conformal technique without intentional nodal irradiation. Bilateral highest mediastinal and upper/lower paratracheal, prevascular and retrotracheal, sub- and para-aortic, subcarinal, paraesophageal, and ipsilateral hilar regions were delineated individually. Nodal failure and doses of incidental irradiation were studied. Results: The potential median follow-up was 104 months. For patients who completed protocol treatment, median survival was 31 months. The actuarial overall survival rate was 86%, 61%, 43%, and 21% and the cause-specific survival rate was 89%, 70%, 53%, and 35% at 1, 2, 3, and 5 years, respectively. Weight loss (p = 0.008) and radiation dose in Gy (p = 0.013) were significantly associated with overall survival. In only 22% and 13% of patients examined did ipsilateral hilar and paratracheal (and subaortic for left-sided tumor) nodal regions receive a dose of ≥40 Gy, respectively. Less than 10% of all other nodal regions received a dose of ≥40 Gy. No patients failed initially at nodal sites. Conclusions: Radiation dose is positively associated with overall survival in patients with medically inoperable T1-3N0 NSCLC, though long-term results remain poor. The nodal failure rate is low and does not seem to be due to high-dose incidental irradiation

  18. Long-term no-tillage application increases soil organic carbon, nitrous oxide emissions and faba bean (Vicia faba L.) yields under rain-fed Mediterranean conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badagliacca, Giuseppe; Benítez, Emilio; Amato, Gaetano; Badalucco, Luigi; Giambalvo, Dario; Laudicina, Vito Armando; Ruisi, Paolo

    2018-05-20

    The introduction of legumes into crop sequences and the reduction of tillage intensity are both proposed as agronomic practices to mitigate the soil degradation and negative impact of agriculture on the environment. However, the joint effects of these practices on nitrous oxide (N 2 O) and ammonia (NH 3 ) emissions from soil remain unclear, particularly concerning semiarid Mediterranean areas. In the frame of a long-term field experiment (23 years), a 2-year study was performed on the faba bean (Vicia faba L.) to evaluate the effects of the long-term use of no tillage (NT) compared to conventional tillage (CT) on yield and N 2 O and NH 3 emissions from a Vertisol in a semiarid Mediterranean environment. Changes induced by the tillage system in soil bulk density, water filled pore space (WFPS), organic carbon (TOC) and total nitrogen (TN), denitrifying enzyme activity (DEA), and bacterial gene (16S, amoA, and nosZ) abundance were measured as parameters potentially affecting N gas emissions. No tillage, compared with CT, significantly increased the faba bean grain yield by 23%. The tillage system had no significant effect on soil NH 3 emissions. Total N 2 O emissions, averaged over two cropping seasons, were higher in NT than those in CT plots (2.58 vs 1.71 kg N 2 O-N ha -1 , respectively; P emissions in NT plots were ascribed to the increase of soil bulk density and WFPS, bacteria (16S abundance was 96% higher in NT than that in CT) and N cycle genes (amoA and nosZ abundances were respectively 154% and 84% higher in NT than that in CT). The total N 2 O emissions in faba bean were similar to those measured in other N-fertilized crops. In conclusion, a full evaluation of NT technique, besides the benefits on soil characteristics (e.g. TOC increase) and crop yield, must take into account some criticisms related to the increase of N 2 O emissions compared to CT. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Archaeal dominated ammonia-oxidizing communities in Icelandic grassland soils are moderately affected by long-term N fertilization and geothermal heating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daebeler, A.; Abell, G.C.J.; Bodelier, P.L.E.; Bodrossy, L.; Frampton, D.M.; Hefting, M.M.; Laanbroek, H.J.

    2012-01-01

    The contribution of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and archaea (AOB and AOA, respectively) to the net oxidation of ammonia varies greatly between terrestrial environments. To better understand, predict and possibly manage terrestrial nitrogen turnover, we need to develop a conceptual understanding of

  20. DECOVALEX-THMC Project. Task D. Long-Term Permeability/Porosity Changes in the EDZ and Near Field due to THM and THC Processes in Volcanic and Crystalline-Bentonite Systems. Phase 1 Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkholzer, J.; Rutqvist, J.; Sonnenthal, E.; Barr, D.

    2007-02-01

    The general goal of this project is to encourage multidisciplinary interactive and cooperative research on modeling coupled processes in geologic formations in support of the performance assessment for underground storage of radioactive waste. Three multi-year project stages of DECOVALEX have been completed in the past decade, mainly focusing on coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanical processes. Currently, a fourth three-year project stage of DECOVALEX is under way, referred to as DECOVALEX-THMC. THMC stands for Thermal, Hydrological, Mechanical, and Chemical processes. The new project stage aims at expanding the traditional geomechanical scope of the previous DECOVALEX project stages by incorporating geochemical processes important for repository performance. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) leads Task D of the new DECOVALEX phase, entitled 'Long-term Permeability/Porosity Changes in the EDZ and Near Field due to THC and THM Processes for Volcanic and Crystalline-Bentonite Systems.' In its leadership role for Task D, DOE coordinates and sets the direction for the cooperative research activities of the international research teams engaged in Task D. The research program developed for Task D of DECOVALEX-THMC involves geomechanical and geochemical research areas. THM and THC processes may lead to changes in hydrological properties that are important for performance because the flow processes in the vicinity of emplacement tunnels will be altered from their initial state. Some of these changes can be permanent (irreversible), in which case they persist after the thermal conditions have returned to ambient; i.e., they will affect the entire regulatory compliance period. Geochemical processes also affect the water and gas chemistry close to the waste packages, which are relevant for waste package corrosion, buffer stability, and radionuclide transport. Research teams participating in Task D evaluate long-term THM and THC processes in two generic geologic

  1. DECOVALEX-THMC Project. Task D. Long-Term Permeability/Porosity Changes in the EDZ and Near Field due to THM and THC Processes in Volcanic and Crystalline-Bentonite Systems. Phase 1 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birkholzer, J.; Rutqvist, J.; Sonnenthal, E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, CA (United States); Barr, D. [Office of Repository Development, DOE (United States)

    2007-02-15

    The general goal of this project is to encourage multidisciplinary interactive and cooperative research on modeling coupled processes in geologic formations in support of the performance assessment for underground storage of radioactive waste. Three multi-year project stages of DECOVALEX have been completed in the past decade, mainly focusing on coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanical processes. Currently, a fourth three-year project stage of DECOVALEX is under way, referred to as DECOVALEX-THMC. THMC stands for Thermal, Hydrological, Mechanical, and Chemical processes. The new project stage aims at expanding the traditional geomechanical scope of the previous DECOVALEX project stages by incorporating geochemical processes important for repository performance. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) leads Task D of the new DECOVALEX phase, entitled 'Long-term Permeability/Porosity Changes in the EDZ and Near Field due to THC and THM Processes for Volcanic and Crystalline-Bentonite Systems.' In its leadership role for Task D, DOE coordinates and sets the direction for the cooperative research activities of the international research teams engaged in Task D. The research program developed for Task D of DECOVALEX-THMC involves geomechanical and geochemical research areas. THM and THC processes may lead to changes in hydrological properties that are important for performance because the flow processes in the vicinity of emplacement tunnels will be altered from their initial state. Some of these changes can be permanent (irreversible), in which case they persist after the thermal conditions have returned to ambient; i.e., they will affect the entire regulatory compliance period. Geochemical processes also affect the water and gas chemistry close to the waste packages, which are relevant for waste package corrosion, buffer stability, and radionuclide transport. Research teams participating in Task D evaluate long-term THM and THC processes in two generic geologic

  2. Concomitant apoptosis and regeneration of liver cells as a mechanism of liver-tumor promotion by β-naphthoflavone involving TNFα-signaling due to oxidative cellular stress in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuwata, Kazunori; Shibutani, Makoto; Hayashi, Hitomi; Shimamoto, Keisuke; Hayashi, Shim-Mo; Suzuki, Kazuhiko; Mitsumori, Kunitoshi

    2011-01-01

    β-Naphthoflavone (BNF) is a strong inducer of cytochrome P450 1A enzymes, and exerts liver tumor-promoting activity through enhancement of oxidative stress responses in rats. This study investigated the role of the tissue environment surrounding hepatocellular preneoplastic lesions in the early tumor-promotion stage by BNF, using enzymatically modified isoquercitrin (EMIQ) as an anti-oxidative chemopreventive agent. Male F344 rats were fed a diet containing BNF (0.5%) for 6 weeks, with or without EMIQ (0.2%) in the drinking water, 2 weeks after initiation with N-diethylnitrosamine, and were subjected to two-thirds partial hepatectomy 1 week after starting BNF-promotion. BNF-treatment increased concentrations of liver thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, single liver cells expressing glutathione S-transferase placental form or heme oxygenase (HO)-1, and concomitant apoptosis and proliferation of liver cells. Transcript upregulation of anti-oxidative enzymes (Aldh1a1 and Nqo1), cell cycle-related molecules (Cdc20 and Cdkn2b) and inflammation-related molecules including proinflammatory cytokines (Ccl2, Col1a1, Il6, Nos2 and Serpine1) was also evident. Furthermore, BNF increased HO-1-expressing Kupffer cells and liver cells expressing tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1) and the TNFR1-associated death domain. Most of these BNF-induced fluctuations disappeared or were suppressed by EMIQ in conjunction with suppression of tumor-promotion. Tnf transcript levels with BNF were also suppressed by EMIQ. These results suggest that BNF-induced oxidative stress causes single liver cell toxicity, allowing subsequent concomitant apoptosis and regeneration involving inflammatory responses including TNFα-signaling, contributing to tumor promotion. Kupffer cells may act to protect against inflammatory stimuli induced as a result of oxidative cellular stress by BNF, causing proinflammatory cytokine level fluctuations.

  3. Oxidation and nitrosation of meat proteins under gastro-intestinal conditions: Consequences in terms of nutritional and health values of meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de La Pomélie, Diane; Santé-Lhoutellier, Véronique; Sayd, Thierry; Gatellier, Philippe

    2018-03-15

    The chemical changes (oxidation/nitrosation) of meat proteins during digestion lead to a decrease in their nutritional value. Moreover, oxidized and nitrosated amino acids are suspected to promote various human pathologies. To investigate the mechanisms and the kinetics of these endogenous protein modifications, we used a dynamic artificial digestive system (DIDGI®) that mimics the physicochemical conditions of digestion. The combined effect of meat cooking and endogenous addition of ascorbate and nitrite was evaluated on protein oxidation (by measuring carbonyl groups), protein nitrosation (by measuring nitrosamines), and proteolysis. Considerable carbonylation was observed in the digestive tract, especially under the acidic conditions of the stomach. Nitrosamines, caused by ammonia oxidation, were formed in conditions in which no nitrite was added, although the addition of nitrite in the model significantly increased their levels. Meat cooking and nitrite addition significantly decreased protein digestion. The interactions between all the changes affecting the proteins are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Enhancing hepatic fibrosis in spontaneously hypertensive rats fed a choline-deficient diet: a follow-up report on long-term effects of oxidative stress in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Hiroya; Kanno, Keishi; Ikuta, Takuya; Arihiro, Koji; Sugiyama, Akiko; Kishikawa, Nobusuke; Tazuma, Susumu

    2016-05-01

    We previously reported a model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) using spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs), fed a choline-deficient (CD) diet for 5 weeks, that hepatic steatosis but not fibrosis is developed through oxidative stress. To determine the relationship between hypertension and hepatic fibrosis in NAFLD, we examined whether long-term CD diet leads to hepatic fibrosis through oxidative stress. Eight-week-old male SHR and normotensive Wistar Kyoto rats (WKYs) were fed a CD diet for 5 or 20 weeks, then liver histology and hepatic expression of genes related to lipid metabolism, fibrosis, and oxidative stress were assessed. Oxidative stress was assessed by hepatic thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) levels. After 5 weeks on CD diet, prominent hepatic steatosis and decrease in expression of genes for lipid metabolism were observed in SHRs as compared with WKYs. SHRs on a CD diet demonstrated a downregulated expression of genes for antioxidants, along with significant increases in hepatic TBARS. After 20 weeks on CD diet, SHRs demonstrated severe liver fibrosis and upregulated expressions of genes for fibrosis when compared with WKY. Hypertension precipitated hepatic steatosis, and further, acts as an enhancer in NAFLD progression to liver fibrosis through oxidative stress. © 2016 Japanese Society of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery.

  5. Nitrite survival and nitrous oxide production of denitrifying phosphorus removal sludges in long-term nitrite/nitrate-fed sequencing batch reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yayi; Zhou, Shuai; Ye, Liu; Wang, Hong; Stephenson, Tom; Jiang, Xuxin

    2014-12-15

    Nitrite-based phosphorus (P) removal could be useful for innovative biological P removal systems where energy and carbon savings are a priority. However, using nitrite for denitrification may cause nitrous oxide (N2O) accumulation and emissions. A denitrifying nitrite-fed P removal system [Formula: see text] was successfully set up in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) and was run for 210 days. The maximum pulse addition of nitrite to [Formula: see text] was 11 mg NO2(-)-N/L in the bulk, and a total of 34 mg NO2(-)-N/L of nitrite was added over three additions. Fluorescent in situ hybridization results indicated that the P-accumulating organisms (PAOs) abundance was 75 ± 1.1% in [Formula: see text] , approximately 13.6% higher than that in a parallel P removal SBR using nitrate [Formula: see text] . Type II Accumulibacter (PAOII) (unable to use nitrate as an electron acceptor) was the main PAOs species in [Formula: see text] , contributing 72% to total PAOs. Compared with [Formula: see text] , [Formula: see text] biomass had enhanced nitrite/free nitrous acid (FNA) endurance, as demonstrated by its higher nitrite denitrification and P uptake rates. N2O accumulated temporarily in [Formula: see text] after each pulse of nitrite. Peak N2O concentrations in the bulk for [Formula: see text] were generally 6-11 times higher than that in [Formula: see text] ; these accumulations were rapidly denitrified to nitrogen gases. N2O concentration increased rapidly in nitrate-cultivated biomass when 5 or 10 mg NO2(-)-N/L per pulse was added. Whereas, N2O accumulation did not occur in nitrite-cultivated biomass until up to 30 mg NO2(-)-N/L per pulse was added. Long-term acclimation to nitrite and pulse addition of nitrite in [Formula: see text] reduced the risk of nitrite accumulation, and mitigated N2O accumulation and emissions from denitrifying P removal by nitrite. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Long-term reliable physically unclonable function based on oxide tunnel barrier breakdown on two-transistors two-magnetic-tunnel-junctions cell-based embedded spin transfer torque magnetoresistive random access memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaya, Satoshi; Tanamoto, Tetsufumi; Noguchi, Hiroki; Ikegami, Kazutaka; Abe, Keiko; Fujita, Shinobu

    2017-04-01

    Among the diverse applications of spintronics, security for internet-of-things (IoT) devices is one of the most important. A physically unclonable function (PUF) with a spin device (spin transfer torque magnetoresistive random access memory, STT-MRAM) is presented. Oxide tunnel barrier breakdown is used to realize long-term stability for PUFs. A secure PUF has been confirmed by evaluating the Hamming distance of a 32-bit STT-MRAM-PUF fabricated using 65 nm CMOS technology.

  7. Activated neuro-oxidative and neuro-nitrosative pathways at the end of term are associated with inflammation and physio-somatic and depression symptoms, while predicting outcome characteristics in mother and baby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roomruangwong, Chutima; Barbosa, Decio Sabbatini; Matsumoto, Andressa Keiko; Nogueira, André de Souza; Kanchanatawan, Buranee; Sirivichayakul, Sunee; Carvalho, André F; Duleu, Sebastien; Geffard, Michel; Moreira, Estefania Gastaldello; Maes, Michael

    2017-12-01

    To examine oxidative & nitrosative stress (O&NS) biomarkers at the end of term in relation to perinatal affective symptoms, neuro-immune biomarkers and pregnancy-related outcome variables. We measured plasma advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), nitric oxide metabolites (NOx), total radical trapping antioxidant parameter (TRAP), -sulfhydryl (-SH), peroxides (LOOH) and paraoxonase (PON)1 activity in pregnant women with and without prenatal depression and non-pregnant controls. Pregnancy is accompanied by significantly increased AOPP and NOx, and lowered TRAP, -SH and LOOH. Increased O&NS and lowered LOOH and -SH levels are associated with prenatal depressive and physio-somatic symptoms (fatigue, pain, dyspepsia, gastro-intestinal symptoms). Increased AOPP and NOx are significantly associated with lowered -SH, TRAP and zinc, and with increased haptoglobin and C-reactive protein levels. Increased O&NS and lowered TRAP and PON 1 activity, at the end of term predict mother (e.g. hyperpigmentation, labor duration, caesarian section, cord length, breast milk flow) and baby (e.g. sleep and feeding problems) outcome characteristics. Pregnancy is accompanied by interrelated signs of O&NS, lowered antioxidant defenses and activated neuro-immune pathways. Increased O&NS at the end of term is associated with perinatal depressive and physio-somatic symptoms and may predict obstetric and behavioral complications in mother and baby. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Review of zircaloy oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iglesias, F.C. [Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston, Ontario (Canada); Lewis, B.J. [Univ. of Ontario Inst. of Technology, Faculty of Energy Systems and Nuclear Science, Oshawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    This paper provides an overview of the kinetics for Zircaloy clad oxidation behaviour in steam and air during reactor accident conditions. The generation of chemical heat from metal/water reaction is considered. The effect of internal clad oxidation due to Zircaloy/UO{sub 2} interaction is also discussed. Low-temperature oxidation of Zircaloy due to water-side corrosion is further described. (author)

  9. Observation of the structural, optical and magnetic properties during the transformation from hexagonal NiS nano-compounds to cubic NiO nanostructures due to thermal oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linganiso, E.C., E-mail: elinganiso@csir.co.za [National Centre for Nano-Structured Materials, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, P.O. Box 395, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa); DST/NRF Centre of Excellence in Strong Materials, Molecular Sciences Institute, School of Chemistry, University of the Witwatersrand, Private Bag 3, Johannesburg, Wits 2050 (South Africa); Mwakikunga, B.W., E-mail: bmwakikunga@csir.co.za [National Centre for Nano-Structured Materials, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, P.O. Box 395, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa); Coville, N.J. [DST/NRF Centre of Excellence in Strong Materials, Molecular Sciences Institute, School of Chemistry, University of the Witwatersrand, Private Bag 3, Johannesburg, Wits 2050 (South Africa); Mhlanga, S.D. [Department of Applied Chemistry, University of Johannesburg, PO Box 17011, Doornfontein, 2028 Johannesburg (South Africa)

    2015-04-25

    Graphical abstract: The transition temperature of 350 °C for the formation of c-NiO from h-NiS oxidation was obtained from structural and optical property studies and by calculating the number of spins obtained from the EPR data. Vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) shows that this pure NiS has both ferromagnetic ordering and paramagnetic domains. Further, the transition temperature of −9 °C of the pure α-NiS nano-alloys was confirmed by performing electrical measurements on the as-synthesized material. - Highlights: • Single hexagonal phase NiS obtained by microwave assisted hydrothermal synthesis. • NiS nanoalloys show both ferromagnetic and paramagnetic domains by VSM. • Structural evolution of annealed NiS and temperature dependent NiS oxidation presented. • Phase transition from NiS to NiO studied and correlated to the EPR spin population data and crystallite size. • Ferromagnetic and paramagnetic ordering observed for the raw NiS nanostructures. - Abstract: Single phase α-NiS nano-compounds with uniformly distributed hierarchical networks were synthesized by a microwave-assisted hydrothermal technique. The materials were evaluated for thermal stability under an oxidative environment and at temperatures between 150 °C and 600 °C. NiS materials showed stability at 300 °C and NiO formation was observed from 350 °C to 600 °C. The annealing effect on the crystalline size and IR absorption of the annealed samples is reported by XRD and FTIR studied. The EPR properties of the annealed materials were studied and compared to the oxidized materials. The transition temperature of 350 °C for the formation of NiO from NiS oxidation was confirmed by calculating the number of spins obtained from the EPR data. Vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) shows that this pure NiS has both ferromagnetic ordering and paramagnetic domains. Further, the transition temperature of −9 °C of the pure α-NiS nano-compounds was confirmed by performing electrical

  10. Short-term anoxic conditioning hormesis boosts antioxidant defenses, lowers oxidative damage following irradiation and enhances male sexual performance in the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Martinez, Giancarlo; Hahn, Daniel A [Department of Entomology and Nematology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2013-01-15

    Most organisms are repeatedly exposed to oxidative stress from multiple sources throughout their lifetimes, potentially affecting all aspects of organismal performance. Here we test whether exposure to a conditioning bout of anoxia early in adulthood induces a hormetic response that confers resistance to oxidative stress and enhances male sexual performance later in life in the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa. Anoxic conditioning of adults prior to emergence led to an increase in antioxidant capacity driven by mitochondrial superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase. When exposed to gamma irradiation, a strong oxidative stressor, males that received anoxic conditioning had lower lipid and protein oxidative damage at sexual maturity. Anoxia conditioning led to greater male sexual competitiveness compared with unconditioned males when both were irradiated, although there was no effect of anoxia conditioning on mating competitiveness in unirradiated males. Anoxia also led to higher adult emergence rates and greater flight ability in irradiation-stressed flies while preserving steriity. Thus, hormetic treatments that increased antioxidant enzyme activity also improved male performance after irradiation, suggesting that antioxidant enzymes play an important role in mediating the relationship between oxidative stress and sexual selection. Furthermore, our work has important applied implications for the sterile insect technique (SIT), an environmentally friendly method of insect pest control where males are sterilized by irradiation and deployed in the field to disrupt pest populations via mating. We suggest that hormetic treatments specifically designed to enhance antioxidant activity may produce more sexually competitive sterile males, thus improving the efficacy and economy of SIT programs. (author)

  11. Effects of bench step exercise intervention on work ability in terms of cardiovascular risk factors and oxidative stress: a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Masanori; Eguchi, Yasumasa; Inoue, Tomohiro; Honda, Toru; Morita, Yusaku; Konno, Yoshimasa; Yamato, Hiroshi; Kumashiro, Masaharu

    2015-01-01

    Work ability is partly determined by physical and mental fitness. Bench step exercise can be practiced anywhere at any time. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a bench step exercise on work ability by examining cardiovascular risk factors and oxidative stress. Thirteen volunteers working in a warehousing industry comprised the bench step exercise group (n=7) and the control group (n=6). The participants in the step exercise group were encouraged to practice the step exercise at home for 16 weeks. The step exercise improved glucose metabolism and antioxidative capacity and increased work ability by reducing absences from work and improving the prognosis of work ability. The improvement in work ability was related to a reduction in oxidative stress. These results suggest that a bench step exercise may improve work ability by reducing cardiovascular risk factors and oxidative stress.

  12. Short-term beef consumption promotes systemic oxidative stress, TMAO formation and inflammation in rats, and dietary fat content modulates these effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hecke, Thomas; Jakobsen, Louise M A; Vossen, Els; Guéraud, Françoise; De Vos, Filip; Pierre, Fabrice; Bertram, Hanne C S; De Smet, Stefaan

    2016-09-14

    A high consumption of red and/or processed meat is associated with a higher risk to develop several chronic diseases in which oxidative stress, trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) and/or inflammation are involved. We aimed to elucidate the effect of white (chicken) vs. red (beef) meat consumption in a low vs. high dietary fat context (2 × 2 factorial design) on oxidative stress, TMAO and inflammation in Sprague-Dawley rats. Higher malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations were found in gastrointestinal contents (up to 96% higher) and colonic tissues (+8.8%) of rats fed the beef diets (all P stress, TMAO formation and inflammation, depending on the dietary fat content and composition.

  13. Short-term starvation is a strategy to unravel the cellular capacity of oxidizing specific exogenous/endogenous substrates in mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeidler, Julianna D; Fernandes-Siqueira, Lorena O; Carvalho, Ana S; Cararo-Lopes, Eduardo; Dias, Matheus H; Ketzer, Luisa A; Galina, Antonio; Da Poian, Andrea T

    2017-08-25

    Mitochondrial oxidation of nutrients is tightly regulated in response to the cellular environment and changes in energy demands. In vitro studies evaluating the mitochondrial capacity of oxidizing different substrates are important for understanding metabolic shifts in physiological adaptations and pathological conditions, but may be influenced by the nutrients present in the culture medium or by the utilization of endogenous stores. One such influence is exemplified by the Crabtree effect (the glucose-mediated inhibition of mitochondrial respiration) as most in vitro experiments are performed in glucose-containing media. Here, using high-resolution respirometry, we evaluated the oxidation of endogenous or exogenous substrates by cell lines harboring different metabolic profiles. We found that a 1-h deprivation of the main energetic nutrients is an appropriate strategy to abolish interference of endogenous or undesirable exogenous substrates with the cellular capacity of oxidizing specific substrates, namely glutamine, pyruvate, glucose, or palmitate, in mitochondria. This approach primed mitochondria to immediately increase their oxygen consumption after the addition of the exogenous nutrients. All starved cells could oxidize exogenous glutamine, whereas the capacity for oxidizing palmitate was limited to human hepatocarcinoma Huh7 cells and to C2C12 mouse myoblasts that differentiated into myotubes. In the presence of exogenous glucose, starvation decreased the Crabtree effect in Huh7 and C2C12 cells and abrogated it in mouse neuroblastoma N2A cells. Interestingly, the fact that the Crabtree effect was observed only for mitochondrial basal respiration but not for the maximum respiratory capacity suggests it is not caused by a direct effect on the electron transport system. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  14. Exploring the return-to-work process for workers partially returned to work and partially on long-term sick leave due to common mental disorders: a qualitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordik, Erik; Nieuwenhuijsen, Karen; Varekamp, Inge; van der Klink, Jac J.; Van Dijk, Frank J.

    2011-01-01

    We conducted a qualitative study into the return-to-work process of workers partially on sick leave due to common mental disorders. Our objectives were to describe the barriers to a full return to work, solutions, communicating to the working environment and the aim of a full return to work, all as

  15. Exploring the return-to-work process for workers partially returned to work and partially on long-term sick leave due to common mental disorders : a qualitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordik, Erik; Nieuwenhuijsen, Karen; Varekamp, Inge; van der Klink, Jac J.; van Dijk, Frank J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. We conducted a qualitative study into the return-to-work process of workers partially on sick leave due to common mental disorders. Our objectives were to describe the barriers to a full return to work, solutions, communicating to the working environment and the aim of a full return to

  16. Influence of agglomeration of cerium oxide nanoparticles and speciation of cerium(III) on short term effects to the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Röhder, Lena A. [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Dübendorf 8600 (Switzerland); ETH-Zurich, Institute of Biogeochemistry and Pollutant Dynamics, Zürich 8092 (Switzerland); Brandt, Tanja [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Dübendorf 8600 (Switzerland); Sigg, Laura [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Dübendorf 8600 (Switzerland); ETH-Zurich, Institute of Biogeochemistry and Pollutant Dynamics, Zürich 8092 (Switzerland); Behra, Renata, E-mail: Renata.behra@eawag.ch [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Dübendorf 8600 (Switzerland)

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: • Phosphate-dispersed CeO₂ NP did not affect photosynthetic yield in C. reinhardtii. • Agglomerated CeO₂ NP slightly decreased photosynthetic yield. • Cerium(III) was shown to affect photosynthetic yield and intracellular ROS level. • Slight effects of CeO₂ NP were caused by dissolved Ce³⁺ ions present in suspensions. • Wild type and cell wall free mutant of C. reinhardtii showed the same sensitivity. - Abstract: Cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO₂ NP) are increasingly used in industrial applications and may be released to the aquatic environment. The fate of CeO₂ NP and effects on algae are largely unknown. In this study, the short term effects of CeO₂ NP in two different agglomeration states on the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii were examined. The role of dissolved cerium(III) on toxicity, its speciation and the dissolution of CeO₂ NP were considered. The role of cell wall of C. reinhardtii as a barrier and its influence on the sensitivity to CeO₂ NP and cerium(III) was evaluated by testing both, the wild type and the cell wall free mutant of C. reinhardtii. Characterization showed that CeO₂ NP had a surface charge of ~0 mV at physiological pH and agglomerated in exposure media. Phosphate stabilized CeO₂ NP at pH 7.5 over 24 h. This effect was exploited to test CeO₂ NP dispersed in phosphate with a mean size of 140 nm and agglomerated in absence of phosphate with a mean size of 2000 nm. The level of dissolved cerium(III) in CeO₂ NP suspensions was very low and between 0.1 and 27 nM in all tested media. Exposure of C. reinhardtii to Ce(NO₃)₃ decreased the photosynthetic yield in a concentration dependent manner with EC₅₀ of 7.5 ± 0.84 μM for wild type and EC₅₀ of 6.3 ± 0.53 μM for the cell wall free mutant. The intracellular level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) increased upon exposure to Ce(NO₃)₃ with effective concentrations similar to those inhibiting photosynthesis. The agglomerated Ce

  17. Effects of previous physical exercise to chronic stress on long-term aversive memory and oxidative stress in amygdala and hippocampus of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Tiago Marcon; Kolling, Janaína; Siebert, Cassiana; Biasibetti, Helena; Bertó, Carolina Gessinger; Grun, Lucas Kich; Dalmaz, Carla; Barbé-Tuana, Florencia María; Wyse, Angela T S

    2017-02-01

    Since stressful situations are considered risk factors for the development of depression and there are few studies evaluating prevention therapies for this disease, in the present study we evaluated the effect of previous physical exercise in animals subjected to chronic variable stress (CVS), an animal model of depression, on behavior tasks. We also investigated some parameters of oxidative stress and Na + , K + -ATPase activity, immunocontent and gene expression of alpha subunits in amygdala and hippocampus of rats. Young male rats were randomized into four study groups (control, exercised, stressed, exercised+stressed). The animals were subjected to controlled exercise treadmill for 20min,three times a week, for two months prior to submission to the CVS (40days). Results show that CVS impaired performance in inhibitory avoidance at 24h and 7days after training session. CVS induced oxidative stress, increasing reactive species, lipoperoxidation and protein damage, and decreasing the activity of antioxidant enzymes. The activity of Na + , K + -ATPase was decreased, but the immunocontents and gene expression of catalytic subunits were not altered. The previous physical exercise was able to improve performance in inhibitory avoidance at 24h after training; additionally, exercise prevented oxidative damage, but was unable to reverse completely the changes observed on the enzymatic activities. Our findings suggest that physical exercise during the developmental period may protect against aversive memory impairment and brain oxidative damage caused by chronic stress exposure later in life. Copyright © 2016 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Short-term exposure to benzo[a]pyrene causes oxidative damage and affects haemolymph steroid levels in female crab Portunus trituberculatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, Jianmin; Pan, Luqing

    2016-01-01

    Concern has increased regarding the adverse effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on reproduction. However, limited information is available on the effects of PAHs in crustacean. In order to determine whether benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) could cause reproductive toxicity on the swimming crab Portunus trituberculatus, sexually mature female crabs were exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of B[a]P (0, 0.1, 0.5 and 2.5 μg/L) for 10 days. B[a]P treatments resulted in high accumulation in ovary, and induced oxidative stress in a dose-dependent manner on ovary of crab. Furthermore, the haemolymph estradiol (E_2) and testosterone (T) levels were significantly decreased. Histological investigation also revealed the reproductive toxicity caused by B[a]P. The results demonstrated that waterborne exposure to B[a]P caused oxidative damage and disrupted sex steroids in female crab P. trituberculatus, ultimately resulting in histological alternation. - Highlights: • Waterborne exposure to B[a]P resulted in high accumulation in crab ovary. • The haemolymph 17β-estradiol and testosterone levels were significantly decreased by B[a]P exposure. • B[a]P induced oxidative damage in crab ovary. • B[a]P exposure caused histopathological alterations in crab ovary. - B[a]P disrupted sex steroids, caused oxidative damage and histological alternation in female crab P. trituberculatus.

  19. Performance of electrochemical oxidation and photocatalysis in terms of kinetics and energy consumption. New insights into the p-cresol degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escudero, Carlos J; Iglesias, Olalla; Dominguez, Sara; Rivero, Maria J; Ortiz, Inmaculada

    2017-06-15

    This work reports the comparative performance of two Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs), electrochemical oxidation and photocatalysis, as individual technological alternatives for the treatment of effluents containing p-cresol. First, the influence of operating parameters in the oxidation and mineralization yield was carried out together with kinetic analysis. Boron Doped Diamond (BDD), RuO 2 and Pt as anodic materials, Na 2 SO 4 and NaCl as supporting electrolytes and different current densities were evaluated in electrochemical oxidation whereas the effect of TiO 2 concentration and radiation was studied in the photocatalytic degradation. Then, the parameter Electrical Energy per Order (E EO ) was calculated to compare the energy consumption in both AOPs, concluding that under the studied conditions the electrochemical treatment with BDD, Na 2 SO 4 and 125 A m -2 showed the best energy efficiency, with an E EO of 5.83 kW h m -3 order -1 for p-cresol and 58.05 kW h m -3 order -1 for DOC removal, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A short-term intervention trial with selenate, selenium-enriched yeast and selenium-enriched milk: effects on oxidative defence regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn-Haren, Gitte; Bugel, Susanne; Krath, Britta

    2008-01-01

    -enriched yeast or Se-enriched milk. We found no effect on plasma lipid resistance to oxidation, total cholesterol, TAG, HDL- and LDL-cholesterol, GPX, glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities measured in erythrocytes, GPX and GR activities determined in plasma, or GR and GST...

  1. Enhancements of the memory margin and the stability of an organic bistable device due to a graphene oxide:mica nanocomposite sandwiched between two polymer (9-vinylcarbazole) buffer layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Woo Kyum; Wu, Chaoxing; Lee, Dea Uk; Kim, Hyoun Woo; Kim, Tae Whan

    2018-01-01

    Current-voltage (I-V) curves for the Al/polymer (9-vinylcarbazole) (PVK)/graphene oxide (GO):mica/PVK/indium-tin oxide (ITO) devices at 300 K showed a current bistability with a maximum high conductivity (ON)/low conductivity (OFF) ratio of 2 × 104, which was approximately 10 times larger than that of the device without a PVK layer. The endurance number of ON/OFF switchings for the Al/PVK/GO:mica/PVK/ITO device was 1 × 102 cycles, which was 20 times larger than that for the Al/GO:mica/ITO device. The ;erase; voltages were distributed between 2.3 and 3 V, and the ;write; voltages were distributed between -1.2 and -0.5 V. The retention time for the Al/PVK/GO:mica/PVK/ITO device was above 1 × 104 s, indicative of the memory stability of the device. The carrier transport mechanisms occurring in the Al/PVK/GO:mica/PVK/ITO and the Al/GO:mica/ITO devices are described on the basis of the I-V results and the energy band diagrams.

  2. Oxidative Stress in Neurodegeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varsha Shukla

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been demonstrated that oxidative stress has a ubiquitous role in neurodegenerative diseases. Major source of oxidative stress due to reactive oxygen species (ROS is related to mitochondria as an endogenous source. Although there is ample evidence from tissues of patients with neurodegenerative disorders of morphological, biochemical, and molecular abnormalities in mitochondria, it is still not very clear whether the oxidative stress itself contributes to the onset of neurodegeneration or it is part of the neurodegenerative process as secondary manifestation. This paper begins with an overview of how oxidative stress occurs, discussing various oxidants and antioxidants, and role of oxidative stress in diseases in general. It highlights the role of oxidative stress in neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Huntington's diseases and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. The last part of the paper describes the role of oxidative stress causing deregulation of cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5 hyperactivity associated with neurodegeneration.

  3. Intracellular forms of menadione-dependent small-colony variants of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus are hypersusceptible to β-lactams in a THP-1 cell model due to cooperation between vacuolar acidic pH and oxidant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Laetitia G; Lemaire, Sandrine; Kahl, Barbara C; Becker, Karsten; Proctor, Richard A; Tulkens, Paul M; Van Bambeke, Françoise

    2012-12-01

    Phagocytosed methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are susceptible to β-lactams because of an acid-induced conformational change of penicillin-binding protein (PBP) 2a within phagolysosomes. We have examined whether this mechanism applies to menD and hemB small-colony variants (SCVs) of the COL MRSA strain, using cloxacillin, meropenem, doripenem, and vancomycin as comparator. Intracellularly, the change in cfu from post-phagocytosis inoculum was measured after 24 h of incubation with antibiotics combined or not with N-acetylcysteine (NAC; oxidant species scavenger); the relative potency (C(s)) was calculated from the Hill equation of concentration-response curves. Extracellularly, the effect of a pre-incubation with H(2)O(2) was determined on MICs and killing at pH 7.4 and 5.5. Intracellularly, the β-lactam C(s) was similar for the COL strain and the hemB mutant and not modified or slightly decreased (2- to 16-fold) by NAC. In contrast, the C(s) was 100- to 900-fold lower for the menD mutant, but similar to that for the COL strain when NAC was present. Extracellularly, β-lactam MICs were markedly reduced at pH 5.5 for the parental strain and the haemin-supplemented hemB mutant, with limited additional effect of pre-incubation with H(2)O(2). In contrast, MICs remained elevated at pH 5.5 for the menD mutant (supplemented with menadione sodium bisulphite or not), but were 7-10 dilutions lower after pre-incubation with H(2)O(2). Vancomycin MICs were unaltered in all conditions, with no marked effect of NAC on C(s). Cooperation between acidic pH and oxidant species confers high potency to β-lactams against intracellular forms of menD SCVs of MRSA.

  4. The control of short-term feed intake by metabolic oxidation in late-pregnant and early lactating dairy cows exposed to high ambient temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslamizad, Mehdi; Lamp, Ole; Derno, Michael; Kuhla, Björn

    2015-06-01

    The objective of the present study was to integrate the dynamics of feed intake and metabolic oxidation in late pregnant and early lactating Holstein cows under heat stress conditions. On day 21 before parturition and again on day 20 after parturition, seven Holstein cows were kept for 7days at thermoneutral (TN) conditions (15°C; temperature-humidity-index (THI)=60) followed by a 7day heat stress (HS) period at 28°C (THI=76). On the last day of each temperature condition, gas exchange, feed intake and water intake were recorded every 6min in a respiration chamber. Pre- and post-partum cows responded to HS by decreasing feed intake. The reduction in feed intake in pre-partum cows was achieved through decreased meal size, meal duration, eating rate and daily eating time with no change in meal frequency, while post-partum cows kept under HS conditions showed variable responses in feeding behavior. In both pre- and post-partum cows exposed to heat stress, daily and resting metabolic heat production decreased while the periprandial respiratory quotient (RQ) increased. The prolonged time between meal and the postprandial minimum in fat oxidation and the postprandial RQ maximum, respectively, revealed that HS as compared to TN early-lactating cows have slower postprandial fat oxidation, longer feed digestion, and thereby showing a shift from fat to glucose utilization. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Sickness absence, social relations, and self-esteem: a qualitative study of the importance of relationships with family, workmates, and friends among persons initially long-term sickness absent due to back diagnoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Tommy; Müssener, Ulrika; Alexanderson, Kristina

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore and analyze accounts of social interactions and relationships with family, workmates, and friends supplied by persons with experience of sickness absence due to back, neck, or shoulder diagnoses. The focus was on experiences that seemed to involve positive and negative self-evaluative aspects, and therefore may be important to the self-conception and self-esteem of the absentee, and possibly to return to work. The interviewees were women and men between 25 to 34 years of age who had been sickness certified due to back, neck, or shoulder diagnosis. A descriptive and explorative method was used to analyze data from five focus-group interviews. The importance of being supported and encouraged by family members, and the importance of feeling needed at work as well as being part of a social context were aspects stressed by the respondents. Our results indicate that these interactions and relations are important to the absentees' self-esteem, and that this should be taken into account when discussing rehabilitation efforts.

  6. Staphylococcal response to oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosmarie eGaupp

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococci are a versatile genus of bacteria that are capable of causing acute and chronic infections in diverse host species. The success of staphylococci as pathogens is due in part to their ability to mitigate endogenous and exogenous oxidative and nitrosative stress. Endogenous oxidative stress is a consequence of life in an aerobic environment; whereas, exogenous oxidative and nitrosative stress are often due to the bacteria’s interaction with host immune systems. To overcome the deleterious effects of oxidative and nitrosative stress, staphylococci have evolved protection, detoxification, and repair mechanisms that are controlled by a network of regulators. In this review, we summarize the cellular targets of oxidative stress, the mechanisms by which staphylococci sense oxidative stress and damage, oxidative stress protection and repair mechanisms, and regulation of the oxidative stress response. When possible, special attention is given to how the oxidative stress defense mechanisms help staphylococci control oxidative stress in the host.

  7. A double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial with short-term beta-glucuronidase therapy in children with chronic rhinoconjunctivitis and/or asthma due to dust mite allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galli, E; Bassi, M S; Mora, E; Martelli, M; Gianni, S; Auricchio, G; Arabito, E; Rossi, P

    2006-01-01

    Enzyme potentiated desensitization, in which beta-glucuronidase (BG) is administered with low doses of mixed allergens, was proposed in the 1970s for specific immunotherapy. The BG currently commercially available in a purified and standardized preparation devoid of any allergen has been suggested as a regulator in the allergic immune response, acting on the cytokine-network of type 2 helper T cells. A double-blind trial with a single-dose of BG proved effective in preventing symptoms in adult patients with rhinoconjunctivitis due to grass pollens. The aim of this randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial was to confirm the safety and effectiveness of double-dose intradermal BG immunotherapy in preventing symptoms in children suffering from chronic rhinoconjunctivitis and/or asthma due to dust mite. We randomized 125 children with dust-mite related chronic rhinoconjunctivitis and/or asthma to the BG treated group (67) or the placebo group (58). All patients were screened before treatment (TO), at BG or placebo administration (T1 and T3), and at 3 and 9 months after T1 (T2 and T4). Drug intake and bronchial, nasal and ocular symptoms were recorded in a diary. Patients in both groups completed the study and BG treatment was well tolerated without side effects. Significant differences in symptoms were observed, in particular for conjunctivitis (P= .008). The total drug intake for allergic symptoms was significantly lower in the treated group than in the placebo group (P<. 01). BG immunotherapy is efficacious, safe, and well tolerated in allergic children. Moreover, good compliance with the administration of 2 doses per year and the lack of significant side effects makes the benefit/risk ratio of this treatment particularly favorable.

  8. Development of antibiotic resistance and up-regulation of the antimutator gene pfpI in mutator Pseudomonas aeruginosa due to inactivation of two DNA oxidative repair genes (mutY, mutM)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandsberg, Lotte Frigaard; Macia, Maria D.; Bergmann, Kirsten R.

    2011-01-01

    showed only a fivefold increase, whereas the single mutant PAOMMgm (mutM) showed a nonsignificant increase in MR compared with PAO1 and the single mutants. Mutations in the regulator nfxB leading to hyperexpression of MexCD-OprJ efflux pump were found as the mechanism of resistance to ciprofloxacin....... In this study, we constructed a double mutant in mutY and mutM (PAOMY-Mgm) and characterized the phenotype and the gene expression profile using microarray and RT-PCR. PAOMY-Mgm presented 28-fold increases in MR compared with wild-type reference strain PAO1. In comparison, the PAOMYgm (mutY) single mutant...... in the double mutant. A better fitness of the mutator compared with PAO1 was found in growth competition experiments in the presence of ciprofloxacin at concentrations just below minimal inhibitory concentration. Up-regulation of the antimutator gene pfpI, that has been shown to provide protection to oxidative...

  9. Delayed growth of EL4 lymphoma in SR-A-deficient mice is due to upregulation of nitric oxide and interferon-gamma production by tumor-associated macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komohara, Yoshihiro; Takemura, Kenichi; Lei, Xiao Feng; Sakashita, Naomi; Harada, Mamoru; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Kodama, Tatsuhiko; Takeya, Motohiro

    2009-11-01

    Class A scavenger receptors (SR-A, CD204) are highly expressed in tumor-associated macrophages (TAM). To investigate the function of SR-A in TAM, wild-type and SR-A-deficient (SR-A(-/-)) mice were injected with EL4 cells. Although these groups of mice did not differ in the numbers of infiltrating macrophages and lymphocytes and in neovascularization, SR-A(-/-) mice had delayed growth of EL4 tumors. Expression of inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase and interferon (IFN)-gamma mRNA increased significantly in tumor tissues from SR-A(-/-) mice. Engulfment of necrotic EL4 cells induced upregulation of NO and IFN-gamma production by cultured macrophages, and production of NO and IFN-gamma increased in SR-A(-/-) macrophages in vitro. IFN-beta production by cultured macrophages was also elevated in SR-A(-/-) macrophages in vitro. These results suggested that the antitumor activity of macrophages increased in SR-A(-/-) mice because of upregulation of NO and IFN-gamma production. These data indicate an important role of SR-A in regulating TAM function by inhibiting toll-like receptor (TLR)4-IFN-beta signaling.

  10. Diplopia due to Dacryops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmi Duman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dacryops is a lacrimal ductal cyst. It is known that it can cause globe displacement, motility restriction, and proptosis because of the mass effect. Diplopia due to dacryops has not been reported previously. Here, we present a 57-year-old man with binocular horizontal diplopia that occurred during left direction gaze due to dacryops.

  11. Effect of Short-term Quercetin, Caloric Restriction and Combined Treatment on Age-related Oxidative Stress Markers in the Rat Cerebral Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alugoju, Phaniendra; Swamy, Vkd Krishan; Periyasamy, Latha

    2018-03-14

    Aging is characterized by gradual accumulation of macromolecular damage leading to progressive loss of physiological function and increased susceptibility to diverse diseases. Effective anti-aging strategies involving caloric restriction or antioxidant supplementation are receiving growing attention to attenuate macromolecular damage in age associated pathology. In the present study, we for the first time investigated the effect of quercetin, caloric restriction and combined treatment (caloric restriction with quercetin) on oxidative stress parameters, acetylcholinesterase and ATPases enzyme activities in the cerebral cortex of aged male Wistar rats. 21 months aged rats were divided into four groups (n=6-8) such as group 1-fed ad libitum (AL); group 2-quercetin supplementation of 50 mg/kg b.w/day for 45 days fed ad libitum (QUER); group 3: caloric restricted (CR) (fed 40% reduced AL for 45 days); group 4-fed 40% CR and 50 mg/kg b.w/day QUER for 45 days (CR + QUER). Group 5-three month age old rats served as young control (YOUNG). Our results demonstrate that combined treatment of caloric restriction and quercetin significantly improved the age associated decline in the activities of endogenous antioxidant enzymes [such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx)] and glutathione (GSH) content and attenuated elevated levels of protein carbonyl content (PCC), lipid peroxidation, lipofuscin, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and nitric oxide (NO). Furthermore, it is also observed that combined treatment ameliorated age associated alterations in acetylcholine esterase (AChE) and adenosine triphosphatases (ATPases) such as Na+/K+-ATPase and Ca+2-ATPase (but not Mg+2- ATPase) enzyme activities. Finally, we conclude that combined treatment of caloric restriction and quercetin (but not either treatment alone) in late life is an effective anti-aging therapy to counteract the age related accumulation of oxidative macromolecular damage

  12. Temperature dependence of long-term cadmium toxicity in the zebrafish is not explained by liver oxidative stress: Evidence from transcript expression to physiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vergauwen, Lucia; Hagenaars, An; Blust, Ronny; Knapen, Dries

    2013-01-01

    Standard ecotoxicity tests are performed at species’ specific standard temperatures, but temperature is known to affect chemical toxicity. A temperature increase has been shown to increase cadmium toxicity in several aquatic species but information in fish is scarce. Based on literature we hypothesize that with increasing temperature, cadmium accumulation and oxidative stress increase, resulting in increased toxicity. In this study zebrafish acclimated to 12, 18, 26 (standard temperature) or 34 °C for one month, were exposed to 5 μM cadmium for 4 or 28 days at the respective acclimation temperature. Cadmium toxicity (mortality) increased with increasing temperature. PCA showed that the high mortality at 34 °C was closely correlated to an increasing tissue cadmium accumulation with increasing temperature, but not to liver oxidative damage under the form of protein carbonyl content or lipid peroxidation (measured as malondialdehyde levels) or liver antioxidative potential. Instead, acclimation to 12 °C induced the highest oxidative damage to liver proteins and lipids, and transcript levels of glucose-6P-dehydrogenase, 6P-gluconate-dehydrogenase and glutathione peroxidase were particularly good markers of cold-induced oxidative stress. At this low temperature there was no interaction with cadmium exposure and there was no sign of cadmium sensitivity. Contrastingly, the combined effect of high temperature and cadmium exposure on mortality proved synergistic. Therefore we conclude that interactions between temperature and cadmium toxicity increased with increasing temperature and that this probably played part in increasing cadmium sensitivity. Increased cadmium compartmentalization and protein carbonyl content in liver of zebrafish acclimated to the standard temperature of 26 °C probably played part in increased sensitivity towards the same cadmium body burden compared to lower temperatures. On the one hand we recognize and this study even confirms the

  13. Central hypogonadism due to a giant, "silent" FSH-secreting, atypical pituitary adenoma: effects of adenoma dissection and short-term Leydig cell stimulation by luteinizing hormone (LH) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santi, Daniele; Spaggiari, Giorgia; Casarini, Livio; Fanelli, Flaminia; Mezzullo, Marco; Pagotto, Uberto; Granata, Antonio R M; Carani, Cesare; Simoni, Manuela

    2017-06-01

    We present a case report of an atypical giant pituitary adenoma secreting follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). A 55-year-old patient presented for erectile dysfunction, loss of libido and fatigue. The biochemical evaluation showed very high FSH serum levels in the presence of central hypogonadism. Neither testicular enlargement nor increased sperm count was observed, thus a secretion of FSH with reduced biological activity was supposed. The histological examination after neuro-surgery showed an atypical pituitary adenoma with FSH-positive cells. Hypogonadism persisted and semen analyses impaired until azoospermia in conjunction with the reduction in FSH levels suggesting that, at least in part, this gonadotropin should be biologically active. Thus, we hypothesized a concomitant primary testicular insufficiency. The patient underwent short-term treatment trials with low doses of either recombinant luteinizing hormone (LH) or human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) in three consecutive treatment schemes, showing an equal efficacy in stimulating testosterone (T) increase. This is the first case of atypical, giant FSH-secreting pituitary adenoma with high FSH serum levels without signs of testicular hyperstimulation, in presence of hypogonadism with plausible combined primary and secondary etiology. Hypophysectomized patients may represent a good model to assess both pharmacodynamics and effective dose of LH and hCG in the male.

  14. Long-Term Effect of Mediterranean-Style Diet and Calorie Restriction on Biomarkers of Longevity and Oxidative Stress in Overweight Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Esposito

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the effects of a Mediterranean-style diet, with or without calorie restriction, on biomarkers of aging and oxidative stress in overweight men. 192 men were randomly assigned to either a Mediterranean-style diet or a conventional diet. The intervention program was based on implementation of a Mediterranean dietary pattern in the overweight group (MED diet group, associated with calorie restriction and increased physical activity in the obese group (lifestyle group. Both groups were compared with participants in two matched control groups (advice groups. After 2 years, there was a significant difference in weight loss between groups, which was −14 kg (95% CI −20 to −8 in lifestyle groups and −2.0 kg (−4.4 to 0 in the advice groups, with a difference of −11.9 kg (CI −19 to −4.7 kg, <.001; moreover, there was a significant difference between groups at 2 years for insulin (=.04, 8-iso-PGF2α (=.037, glucose (=.04, and adiponectin (=.01. Prolonged adherence to a Mediterranean-style diet, with or without caloric restriction, in overweight or obese men is associated with significant amelioration of multiple risk factors, including a better cardiovascular risk profile, reduced oxidative stress, and improved insulin sensitivity.

  15. Effect of coatings on long term behaviour of a commercial stainless steel for solid oxide electrolyser cell interconnect application in H2/H2O atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ardigo, M.R.; Popa, I.; Chevalier, S.; Girardon, P.; Perry, F.; Laucournet, R.; Brevet, A.; Desgranges, C.

    2014-01-01

    K41X (AISI 441) stainless steel evidenced a high electrical conductivity after 3000 h ageing in H 2 /H 2 O side when used as interconnect for solid oxide electrolyser cells (SOEC) working at 800 C. Perovskite (La 1-x Sr x MnO 3-δ ) and spinel (Co 3 O 4 ) oxides coatings were applied on the surface of the ferritic steel for ageing at 800 C for 3000 h. Both coatings improved the behaviour of the steel and give interesting opportunities to use the K41X steel as interconnect for hydrogen production via high temperature steam electrolysis. Co 3 O 4 reduced into Co leading to a very good Area Specific Resistance (ASR) parameter, 0.038 Ωcm 2 . Despite a good ASR (0.06 Ωcm 2 ), La 1-x Sr x MnO 3-δ was less promising because it partially decomposed into MnO and La 2 O 3 during ageing in H 2 /H 2 O atmosphere. (authors)

  16. Long-term streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats leads to severe damage of brain blood vessels and neurons via enhanced oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hongying; Fan, Shourui; Song, Dianping; Wang, Zhuo; Ma, Shungao; Li, Shuqing; Li, Xiaohong; Xu, Mian; Xu, Min; Wang, Xianmo

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate pathophysiological alterations and oxidative stress in various stages of streptozotocin (STZ)‑induced diabetes mellitus (DM) in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (120) were randomized into DM and control groups. Body mass, plasma glucose, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) levels, as well as aldose reductase (AR) activities, in brain tissue and serum were determined. Electron microscopy was used to observe neuron and vessel changes in the brain. In STZ‑treated rats, blood glucose, low density lipoproteins, triglycerides and total cholesterol levels increased 1.43‑3.0‑fold and high density lipoprotein, HbA1c and insulin sensitivity index increased 1.1‑1.23‑fold compared with control. At week 16 following treatment, DM rat serum H2O2 concentration was increased, indicating oxidative stress and mRNA levels of GPx and SOD were 2‑fold higher than the control. Protein GPx and SOD levels were reduced (PNeuron cells and blood vessels in the DM rat brains became increasingly abnormal over time with altered Golgi bodies, mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum cisterns, concurrent with SOD inactivation and AR protein accumulation. Disease progression in rats with STZ‑induced DM included brain pathologies with vascular and neuron cell abnormalities, associated with the reduction of SOD, CAT and GPx activities and also AR accumulation.

  17. Panhypopituitarism Due to Hemochromatosis

    OpenAIRE

    Mesut Özkaya; Kadir Gis; Ali Çetinkaya

    2013-01-01

    Hemochromatosis is an iron storage disease. Panhypopituitarism is a clinical condition in which the anterior pituitary hormones are deficient. Herein, we report a rare case of panhypopituitarism due to hemochromatosis. Turk Jem 2013; 17: 125-6

  18. Deference and Due Process

    OpenAIRE

    Vermeule, Cornelius Adrian

    2015-01-01

    In the textbooks, procedural due process is a strictly judicial enterprise; although substantive entitlements are created by legislative and executive action, it is for courts to decide independently what process the Constitution requires. The notion that procedural due process might be committed primarily to the discretion of the agencies themselves is almost entirely absent from the academic literature. The facts on the ground are very different. Thanks to converging strands of caselaw ...

  19. Stabilized chromium oxide film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garwin, Edward L.; Nyaiesh, Ali R.

    1988-01-01

    Stabilized air-oxidized chromium films deposited on high-power klystron ceramic windows and sleeves having a thickness between 20 and 150.ANG. are useful in lowering secondary electron emission yield and in avoiding multipactoring and window failure due to overheating. The ceramic substrate for the film is chosen from alumina, sapphire or beryllium oxide.

  20. Dry corrosion prediction of radioactive waste containers in long term interim storage: mechanisms of low temperature oxidation of pure iron and numerical simulation of an oxide scale growth; Prevision de la corrosion seche des conteneurs de dechets radioactifs en condition d'entreposage: etude des mecanismes d'oxydation du fer a basse temperature et simulation numerique de la croissance d'une couche d'oxyde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertrand, N

    2006-10-15

    In the framework of research on long term behaviour of radioactive waste containers, this work consists on the one hand in the study of low temperature oxidation of iron and on the other hand in the development of a numerical model of oxide scale growth. Isothermal oxidation experiments are performed on pure iron at 300 and 400 C in dry and humid air at atmospheric pressure. Oxide scales formed in these conditions are characterized. They are composed of a duplex magnetite scale under a thin hematite scale. The inner layer of the duplex scale is thinner than the outer one. Both are composed of columnar grains, that are smaller in the inner part. The outer hematite layer is made of very small equiaxed grains. Markers and tracers experiments show that a part of the scale grows at metal/oxide interface thanks to short-circuits diffusion of oxygen. A model for iron oxide scale growth at low temperature is then deduced. Besides this experimental study, the numerical model EKINOX (Estimation Kinetics Oxidation) is developed. It allows to simulate the growth of an oxide scale controlled by mixed mechanisms, such as anionic and cationic vacancies diffusion through the scale, as well as metal transfer at metal/oxide interface. It is based on the calculation of concentration profiles of chemical species and also point defects in the oxide scale and in the substrate. This numerical model does not use the classical quasi-steady-state approximation and calculates the future of cationic vacancies at metal/oxide interface. Indeed, these point defects can either be eliminated by interface motion or injected in the substrate, where they can be annihilated, considering sinks as the climb of dislocations. Hence, the influence of substrate cold-work can be investigated. The EKINOX model is validated in the conditions of Wagner's theory and is confronted with experimental results by its application to the case of high temperature oxidation of nickel. (author)

  1. Myocardial repair with long-term and low-dose administration of a nitric oxide synthesis inhibitor. Myofibroblasts, type III collagen and fibronectin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pessanha Mônica Gomes

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study the healing process of the myocardium in hypertensive rats undergoing inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis. METHODS: Two groups of animals were studied: one received L-NAME, 12mg/kg/day, and the other was a control group. The presence of type III collagen, fibronectin, and alpha-smooth muscle actin-positive cells was assessed by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Fibronectin was seen in both early and late lesions, while type III collagen was seen mainly in areas of incomplete healing, situated among myocytes and around the intramyocardial branches of the coronary arteries. Areas representing early and late lesions showed a population of spindle-shaped cells. Immunohistochemistry showed that these cells were positive for alpha-smooth muscle actin. CONCLUSION: In the myocardium of hypertensive rats, the alpha-smooth muscle actin-positive cells are related to the accumulation of type III collagen and fibronectin in the areas of myocardial damage.

  2. Injury due to thorotrast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Takesaburo

    1976-01-01

    A synthetic study was performed on some of those to whom Thorotrast had been injected, in Japan. In the epidemiological study of 147 war woundeds to whom Thorotrast had been injected, it was noted that the Thorotrast injection increased the mortality rate and the incidences of malignant hepatic tumor, liver cirrhosis, and hematological diseases. Clinical study of 44 of them showed that the Thorotrast injection resulted in liver and hematopoietic hypofunctions. Analysis of the dissection of the injected area in 118 cases showed malignant hepatic tumor in 63.5%, liver cirrhosis in 14.4% and hematological diseases in 10.2%. The total of the three types of disease was 88.1%. Histological classification showed that of the malignant hepatic tumors due to Thorotrast, hepatobiliary cancer and hemangioendothelioma of the liver were frequent. By the comparison of the absorbed dose in the liver of the malignant hepatic tumors due to Thorotrast with that of the cancers developed in animal experiments, it was noted that the carcinogenic dose was a mean of 2,000 - 3,000 rad by accumulated dose. It was elucidated that carcinogenesis and fibrination were primary in injury due to Thorotrast, i.e., late injury due to Thorotrast, and that the increase in the accumulated dose in rogans and the increase of the local dose due to the gigantic growth of Thorotrast granules in organs greatly influenced carninogenesis and fibrination. (Chiba, N.)

  3. The Enzymatic Oxidation of Graphene Oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotchey, Gregg P.; Allen, Brett L.; Vedala, Harindra; Yanamala, Naveena; Kapralov, Alexander A.; Tyurina, Yulia Y.; Klein-Seetharaman, Judith; Kagan, Valerian E.; Star, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Two-dimensional graphitic carbon is a new material with many emerging applications, and studying its chemical properties is an important goal. Here, we reported a new phenomenon – the enzymatic oxidation of a single layer of graphitic carbon by horseradish peroxidase (HRP). In the presence of low concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (~40 µM), HRP catalyzed the oxidation of graphene oxide, which resulted in the formation of holes on its basal plane. During the same period of analysis, HRP failed to oxidize chemically reduced graphene oxide (RGO). The enzymatic oxidation was characterized by Raman, UV-Vis, EPR and FT-IR spectroscopy, TEM, AFM, SDS-PAGE, and GC-MS. Computational docking studies indicated that HRP was preferentially bound to the basal plane rather than the edge for both graphene oxide and RGO. Due to the more dynamic nature of HRP on graphene oxide, the heme active site of HRP was in closer proximity to graphene oxide compared to RGO, thereby facilitating the oxidation of the basal plane of graphene oxide. We also studied the electronic properties of the reduced intermediate product, holey reduced graphene oxide (hRGO), using field-effect transistor (FET) measurements. While RGO exhibited a V-shaped transfer characteristic similar to a single layer of graphene that was attributed to its zero band gap, hRGO demonstrated a p-type semiconducting behavior with a positive shift in the Dirac points. This p-type behavior rendered hRGO, which can be conceptualized as interconnected graphene nanoribbons, as a potentially attractive material for FET sensors. PMID:21344859

  4. Anaphylaxis due to caffeine

    OpenAIRE

    Sugiyama, Kumiya; Cho, Tatsurai; Tatewaki, Masamitsu; Onishi, Shogo; Yokoyama, Tatsuya; Yoshida, Naruo; Fujimatsu, Takayoshi; Hirata, Hirokuni; Fukuda, Takeshi; Fukushima, Yasutsugu

    2015-01-01

    We report a rare case of anaphylaxis due to caffeine intake. A 27-year-old woman suffered her first episode of anaphylaxis and a positive skin prick test suggested that the anaphylaxis was due to an IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reaction to caffeine. She was diagnosed with caffeine allergy and has not had an allergic reaction after avoiding foods and drinks containing caffeine. Although caffeine is known to have antiallergic effects, this case shows that caffeine can be an allergen and cause ...

  5. The pH-dependent long-term stability of an amorphous manganese oxide in smelter-polluted soils: implication for chemical stabilization of metals and metalloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettler, Vojtěch; Tomášová, Zdeňka; Komárek, Michael; Mihaljevič, Martin; Šebek, Ondřej; Michálková, Zuzana

    2015-04-09

    An amorphous manganese oxide (AMO) and a Pb smelter-polluted agricultural soil amended with the AMO and incubated for 2 and 6 months were subjected to a pH-static leaching procedure (pH 3-8) to verify the chemical stabilization effect on metals and metalloids. The AMO stability in pure water was pH-dependent with the highest Mn release at pH 3 (47% dissolved) and the lowest at pH 8 (0.14% dissolved). Secondary rhodochrosite (MnCO3) was formed at the AMO surfaces at pH>5. The AMO dissolved significantly less after 6 months of incubation. Sequential extraction analysis indicated that "labile" fraction of As, Pb and Sb in soil significantly decreased after AMO amendment. The pH-static experiments indicated that no effect on leaching was observed for Cd and Zn after AMO treatments, whereas the leaching of As, Cu, Pb and Sb decreased down to 20%, 35%, 7% and 11% of the control, respectively. The remediation efficiency was more pronounced under acidic conditions and the time of incubation generally led to increased retention of the targeted contaminants. The AMO was found to be a promising agent for the chemical stabilization of polluted soils. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Uranium oxidation: characterization of oxides formed by reaction with water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, E.L. Jr.; Smyrl, N.R.; Condon, J.B.; Eager, M.H.

    1983-01-01

    Three different uranium oxide samples have been characterized with respect to the different preparation techniques. Results show that the water reaction with uranium metal occurs cyclically forming laminar layers of oxide which spall off due to the strain at the oxide/metal interface. Single laminae are released if liquid water is present due to the prizing penetration at the reaction zone. The rate of reaction of water with uranium is directly proportional to the amount of adsorbed water on the oxide product. Rapid transport is effected through the open hydrous oxide product. Dehydration of the hydrous oxide irreversibly forms a more inert oxide which cannot be rehydrated to the degree that prevails in the original hydrous product of uranium oxidation with water. 27 figures

  7. Enhanced performance of solid oxide electrolysis cells by integration with a partial oxidation reactor: Energy and exergy analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visitdumrongkul, Nuttawut; Tippawan, Phanicha; Authayanun, Suthida; Assabumrungrat, Suttichai; Arpornwichanop, Amornchai

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Process design of solid oxide electrolyzer integrated with a partial oxidation reactor is studied. • Effect of key operating parameters of partial oxidation reactor on the electrolyzer performance is presented. • Exergy analysis of the electrolyzer process is performed. • Partial oxidation reactor can enhance the solid oxide electrolyzer performance. • Partial oxidation reactor in the process is the highest exergy destruction unit. - Abstract: Hydrogen production without carbon dioxide emission has received a large amount of attention recently. A solid oxide electrolysis cell (SOEC) can produce pure hydrogen and oxygen via a steam electrolysis reaction that does not emit greenhouse gases. Due to the high operating temperature of SOEC, an external heat source is required for operation, which also helps to improve SOEC performance and reduce operating electricity. The non-catalytic partial oxidation reaction (POX), which is a highly exothermic reaction, can be used as an external heat source and can be integrated with SOEC. Therefore, the aim of this work is to study the effect of operating parameters of non-catalytic POX (i.e., the oxygen to carbon ratio, operating temperature and pressure) on SOEC performance, including exergy analysis of the process. The study indicates that non-catalytic partial oxidation can enhance the hydrogen production rate and efficiency of the system. In terms of exergy analysis, the non-catalytic partial oxidation reactor is demonstrated to be the highest exergy destruction unit due to irreversible chemical reactions taking place, whereas SOEC is a low exergy destruction unit. This result indicates that the partial oxidation reactor should be improved and optimally designed to obtain a high energy and exergy system efficiency.

  8. A new method to detect long term trends of methane (CH4 and nitrous oxide (N2O total columns measured within the NDACC ground-based high resolution solar FTIR network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Schneider

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Total columns measured with the ground-based solar FTIR technique are highly variable in time due to atmospheric chemistry and dynamics in the atmosphere above the measurement station. In this paper, a multiple regression model with anomalies of air pressure, total columns of hydrogen fluoride (HF and carbon monoxide (CO and tropopause height are used to reduce the variability in the methane (CH4 and nitrous oxide (N2O total columns to estimate reliable linear trends with as small uncertainties as possible. The method is developed at the Harestua station (60° N, 11° E, 600 m a.s.l. and used on three other European FTIR stations, i.e. Jungfraujoch (47° N, 8° E, 3600 m a.s.l., Zugspitze (47° N, 11° E, 3000 m a.s.l., and Kiruna (68° N, 20° E, 400 m a.s.l.. Linear CH4 trends between 0.13 ± 0.01-0.25 ± 0.02 % yr−1 were estimated for all stations in the 1996-2009 period. A piecewise model with three separate linear trends, connected at change points, was used to estimate the short term fluctuations in the CH4 total columns. This model shows a growth in 1996–1999 followed by a period of steady state until 2007. From 2007 until 2009 the atmospheric CH4 amount increases between 0.57 ± 0.22–1.15 ± 0.17 % yr−1. Linear N2O trends between 0.19 ± 0.01–0.40 ± 0.02 % yr−1 were estimated for all stations in the 1996-2007 period, here with the strongest trend at Harestua and Kiruna and the lowest at the Alp stations. From the N2O total columns crude tropospheric and stratospheric partial columns were derived, indicating that the observed difference in the N2O trends between the FTIR sites is of stratospheric origin. This agrees well with the N2O measurements by the SMR instrument onboard the Odin satellite showing the highest trends at Harestua, 0.98 ± 0.28 % yr−1, and considerably smaller trends at lower latitudes, 0.27 ± 0.25 % yr−1. The multiple regression model was compared with two other trend methods, the ordinary linear

  9. Long-term ambient concentrations of total suspended particulates and oxidants as related to incidence of chronic disease in California Seventh-Day Adventists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbey, D.E.; Mills, P.K.; Petersen, F.F.; Beeson, W.L. (Loma Linda Univ. School of Medicine, CA (United States))

    1991-08-01

    Cancer incidence and mortality in a cohort of 6000 nonsmoking California Seventh-Day Adventists were monitored for a 6-year period, and relationships with long-term cumulative air pollution were observed. Total suspended particulates (TSP) and ozone were measured in terms of numbers of hours in excess of several threshold levels corresponding to national standards as well as mean concentration. For all malignant neoplasms among females, risk increased with increasing exceedance frequencies of all thresholds of TSP except the lowest one, and those increased risks were highly statistically significant. For respiratory cancers, increased risk was associated with only one threshold of ozone, and this result was of borderline significance. Respiratory disease symptoms were assessed in 1977 and again in 1987 using the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute respiratory symptoms questionnaire on a subcohort of 3914 individuals. Multivariate analyses which adjusted for past and passive smoking and occupational exposures indicated statistically significantly elevated relative risks ranging up to 1.7 for incidence of asthma, definite symptoms of airway obstructive disease, and chronic bronchitis with TSP in excess of all thresholds except the lowest one but not for any thresholds of ozone. A trend association was noted between the threshold of 10 pphm ozone and incidence of asthma. These results are presented within the context of standards setting for these constituents of air pollution.

  10. Long-term ambient concentrations of total suspended particulates and oxidants as related to incidence of chronic disease in California Seventh-Day Adventists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbey, D E; Mills, P K; Petersen, F F; Beeson, W L

    1991-08-01

    Cancer incidence and mortality in a cohort of 6000 nonsmoking California Seventh-Day Adventists were monitored for a 6-year period, and relationships with long-term cumulative ambient air pollution were observed. Total suspended particulates (TSP) and ozone were measured in terms of numbers of hours in excess of several threshold levels corresponding to national standards as well as mean concentration. For all malignant neoplasms among females, risk increased with increasing exceedance frequencies of all thresholds of TSP except the lowest one, and those increased risks were highly statistically significant. For respiratory cancers, increased risk was associated with only one threshold of ozone, and this result was of borderline significance. Respiratory disease symptoms were assessed in 1977 and again in 1987 using the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute respiratory symptoms questionnaire on a subcohort of 3914 individuals. Multivariate analyses which adjusted for past and passive smoking and occupational exposures indicated statistically significantly (p less than 0.05) elevated relative risks ranging up to 1.7 for incidence of asthma, definite symptoms of airway obstructive disease, and chronic bronchitis with TSP in excess of all thresholds except the lowest one but not for any thresholds of ozone. A trend association (p = 0.056) was noted between the threshold of 10 pphm ozone and incidence of asthma. These results are presented within the context of standards setting for these constituents of air pollution.

  11. Computer simulation of oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowley, A.

    1998-01-01

    An ionic interaction model is developed which accounts for the effects of the ionic environment upon the electron densities of both cations and anions through changes in their size and shape and is transferable between materials. These variations are represented by additional dynamical variables which are handled within the model using the techniques of the Car-Parrinello method. The model parameters are determined as far as possible by input from external ab initio electronic structure calculations directed at examining the individual effects of the ionic environment upon the ions, particularly the oxide ion. Techniques for the evaluation of dipolar and quadrupolar Ewald sums in non-cubic simulation cells and the calculation of the pressure due to the terms in the potential are presented. This model is applied to the description of the perfect crystal properties and phonon dispersion curves of MgO. Consideration of the high symmetry phonon modes allows parameterization of the remaining model parameters in an unambiguous fashion. The same procedure is used to obtain parameters for CaO. These two parameter sets are examined to determine how they may be used to generate the parameters for SrO and simple scaling relationships based on ionic radii and polarizabilities are formulated. The transferability of the model to Cr 2 O 3 is investigated using parameters generated from the alkaline earth oxides. The importance of lower symmetry model terms, particularly quadrupolar interactions, at the low symmetry ion sites in the crystal structure is demonstrated. The correct ground-state crystal structure is predicted and the calculated surface energies and relaxation phenomena are found to agree well with previous ab initio studies. The model is applied to GeO 2 as a strong test of its applicability to ion environments far different from those encountered in MgO. An good description of the crystal structures is obtained and the interplay of dipolar and quadrupolar effects is

  12. Human due diligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, David; Rouse, Ted

    2007-04-01

    Most companies do a thorough job of financial due diligence when they acquire other companies. But all too often, deal makers simply ignore or underestimate the significance of people issues in mergers and acquisitions. The consequences are severe. Most obviously, there's a high degree of talent loss after a deal's announcement. To make matters worse, differences in decision-making styles lead to infighting; integration stalls; and productivity declines. The good news is that human due diligence can help companies avoid these problems. Done early enough, it helps acquirers decide whether to embrace or kill a deal and determine the price they are willing to pay. It also lays the groundwork for smooth integration. When acquirers have done their homework, they can uncover capability gaps, points of friction, and differences in decision making. Even more important, they can make the critical "people" decisions-who stays, who goes, who runs the combined business, what to do with the rank and file-at the time the deal is announced or shortly thereafter. Making such decisions within the first 30 days is critical to the success of a deal. Hostile situations clearly make things more difficult, but companies can and must still do a certain amount of human due diligence to reduce the inevitable fallout from the acquisition process and smooth the integration. This article details the steps involved in conducting human due diligence. The approach is structured around answering five basic questions: Who is the cultural acquirer? What kind of organization do you want? Will the two cultures mesh? Who are the people you most want to retain? And how will rank-and-file employees react to the deal? Unless an acquiring company has answered these questions to its satisfaction, the acquisition it is making will be very likely to end badly.

  13. Antioxidative effects of magnetized extender containing bovine serum albumin on sperm oxidative stress during long-term liquid preservation of boar semen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang-Hee; Park, Choon-Keun, E-mail: parkck@kangwon.ac.kr

    2015-08-21

    Magnetized water is defined as water that has passed through a magnet and shows increased permeability into cells and electron-donating characteristics. These attributes can protect against membrane damage and remove reactive oxygen species (ROS) in mammalian cells. We explored the effects of improved magnetized semen extenders containing bovine serum albumin (BSA) as antioxidants on apoptosis in boar sperm. Ejaculated semen was diluted in magnetized extender (0G and 6000G) with or without BSA (0G + BSA and 6000G + BSA), and sperm were analyzed based on viability, acrosome reaction, and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} level of live sperm using flow cytometry. Sperm were then preserved for 11 days at 18 °C. We found that viability was significantly higher in 6000G + BSA than under the other treatments (P < 0.05). The acrosome reaction was significantly lower in the 6000G + BSA group compared with the other treatments (P < 0.05). Live sperm with high intracellular H{sub 2}O{sub 2} level were significantly lower in the 6000G + BSA group than under other treatments (P < 0.05). Based on our results, magnetized extenders have antioxidative effects on the liquid preservation of boar sperm. - Highlights: • Magnetized water is water that has been passed through a magnetic field. • Magnetized extender improve viability and decrease oxidative stress of boar sperm for preservation. • Ejaculated semen diluted with magnetized extender can improve liquid preservation period.

  14. Antioxidative effects of magnetized extender containing bovine serum albumin on sperm oxidative stress during long-term liquid preservation of boar semen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang-Hee; Park, Choon-Keun

    2015-01-01

    Magnetized water is defined as water that has passed through a magnet and shows increased permeability into cells and electron-donating characteristics. These attributes can protect against membrane damage and remove reactive oxygen species (ROS) in mammalian cells. We explored the effects of improved magnetized semen extenders containing bovine serum albumin (BSA) as antioxidants on apoptosis in boar sperm. Ejaculated semen was diluted in magnetized extender (0G and 6000G) with or without BSA (0G + BSA and 6000G + BSA), and sperm were analyzed based on viability, acrosome reaction, and H 2 O 2 level of live sperm using flow cytometry. Sperm were then preserved for 11 days at 18 °C. We found that viability was significantly higher in 6000G + BSA than under the other treatments (P < 0.05). The acrosome reaction was significantly lower in the 6000G + BSA group compared with the other treatments (P < 0.05). Live sperm with high intracellular H 2 O 2 level were significantly lower in the 6000G + BSA group than under other treatments (P < 0.05). Based on our results, magnetized extenders have antioxidative effects on the liquid preservation of boar sperm. - Highlights: • Magnetized water is water that has been passed through a magnetic field. • Magnetized extender improve viability and decrease oxidative stress of boar sperm for preservation. • Ejaculated semen diluted with magnetized extender can improve liquid preservation period

  15. Oxidative degradation of phenols in sono-Fenton-like systems upon high-frequency ultrasound irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aseev, D. G.; Sizykh, M. R.; Batoeva, A. A.

    2017-12-01

    The kinetics of oxidative degradation of phenol and chlorophenols upon acoustic cavitation in the megahertz range (1.7 MHz) is studied experimentally in model systems, and the involvement of in situ generated reactive oxygen species (ROSs) is demonstrated. The phenols subjected to high frequency ultrasound (HFUS) are ranked in terms of their rate of conversion: 2,4,6-trichlorophenol > 2,4-dichlorophenol 2-chlorophenol > 4-chlorophenol phenol. Oxidative degradation upon HFUS irradiation is most efficient at low concentrations of pollutants, due to the low steady-state concentrations of the in situ generated ROSs. A dramatic increase is observed in the efficiency of oxidation in several sonochemical oxidative systems (HFUS in combination with other chemical oxidative factors). The system with added Fe2+ (a sono-Fenton system) derives its efficiency from hydrogen peroxide generated in situ as a result of the recombination of OH radicals. The S2O8 2-/Fe2+/HFUS system has a synergetic effect on substrate oxidation that is attributed to a radical chain mechanism. In terms of the oxidation rates, degrees of conversion, and specific energy efficiencies of 4-chlorophenol oxidation based on the amount of oxidized substance per unit of expended energy the considered sonochemical oxidative systems form the series HFUS < S2O8 2-/HFUS < S2O8 2-/Fe2+/HFUS.

  16. Long-term nutrient addition differentially alters community composition and diversity of genes that control nitrous oxide flux from salt marsh sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, Patrick J.; Angell, John H.; Feinman, Sarah G.; Bowen, Jennifer L.

    2015-03-01

    Enrichment of natural waters, soils, and sediments by inorganic nutrients, including nitrogen, is occurring at an increasing rate and has fundamentally altered global biogeochemical cycles. Salt marshes are critical for the removal of land-derived nitrogen before it enters coastal waters. This is accomplished via multiple microbially mediated pathways, including denitrification. Many of these pathways, however, are also a source of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O). We used clone libraries and quantative PCR (qPCR) to examine the effect of fertilization on the diversity and abundance of two functional genes associated with denitrification and N2O production (norB and nosZ) in experimental plots at the Great Sippewissett Salt Marsh (Falmouth, MA, USA) that have been enriched with nutrients for over 40 years. Our data showed distinct nosZ and norB community structures at different nitrogen loads, especially at the highest level of fertilization. Furthermore, calculations of the Shannon Diversity Index and Chao1 Richness Estimator indicated that nosZ gene diversity and richness increased with increased nitrogen supply, however no such relationship existed with regard to richness and diversity of the norB gene. Results from qPCR demonstrated that nosZ gene abundance was an order of magnitude lower in the extra-highly fertilized plots compared to the other plots, but the abundance of norB was not affected by fertilization. The majority of sequences obtained from the marsh plots had no close cultured relatives and they were divergent from previously sequenced norB and nosZ fragments. Despite their divergence from any cultured representatives, most of the norB and nosZ sequences appeared to be from members of the Alpha- and Betaproteobacteria, suggesting that these classes are particularly important in salt marsh nitrogen cycling. Our results suggest that both norB and nosZ containing microbes are affected by fertilization and that the Great Sippewissett Marsh may

  17. Upregulation of transcription factor NRF2-mediated oxidative stress response pathway in rat brain under short-term chronic hypobaric hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethy, Niroj Kumar; Singh, Manjulata; Kumar, Rajesh; Ilavazhagan, Govindasamy; Bhargava, Kalpana

    2011-03-01

    Exposure to high altitude (and thus hypobaric hypoxia) induces electrophysiological, metabolic, and morphological modifications in the brain leading to several neurological clinical syndromes. Despite the known fact that hypoxia episodes in brain are a common factor for many neuropathologies, limited information is available on the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms. In this study, we investigated the temporal effect of short-term (0-12 h) chronic hypobaric hypoxia on global gene expression of rat brain followed by detailed canonical pathway analysis and regulatory network identification. Our analysis revealed significant alteration of 33, 17, 53, 81, and 296 genes (p stress response pathway and genes were detected at all time points suggesting activation of NRF2-ARE antioxidant defense system. The results were further validated by assessing the expression levels of selected genes in temporal as well as brain regions with quantitative RT-PCR and western blot. In conclusion, our whole brain approach with temporal monitoring of gene expression patterns during hypobaric hypoxia has resulted in (1) deciphering sequence of pathways and signaling networks activated during onset of hypoxia, and (2) elucidation of NRF2-orchestrated antioxidant response as a major intrinsic defense mechanism. The results of this study will aid in better understanding and management of hypoxia-induced brain pathologies.

  18. Technical Due Diligence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker; Varano, Mattia

    2011-01-01

    carried out for buyers or sellers involved in real estate transactions. It can also be part of mergers including real estate and other assets or part of facilities management outsourcing. This paper is based on a case study and an interview survey of companies involved in TDD consulting in Denmark......Technical Due Diligence (TDD) as an evaluation of the performance of constructed facilities has become an important new field of practice for consultants. Before the financial crisis started in autumn 2008 it represented the fastest growing activity in some consulting companies. TDD is mostly...... and Italy during 2009. The research identifies the current practice and compares it with the recommended practice in international guidelines. The current practice is very diverse and could in many cases be improved by a more structured approach and stricter adherence to international guidelines. However...

  19. SIMS and TEM study on oxide characteristics of Zircaloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Y. H.; Baek, J. H.; Kim, S. J.; Kim, K. H.; Choi, B. K.; Jung, Y. H.

    1998-01-01

    Long-term corrosion test, SIMS analysis, and TEM study were carried out to investigate the corrosion characteristics and corrosion mechanism of Zircaloy-4 in LiOH solution. The corrosion tests were performed in alkali solutions at 350 deg C for 500days. SIMS analysis was performed for the specimens prepared to have an equal oxide thickness to measure the cation content. TEM studies on the samples formed in various alkali solutions were also conducted. Based on the corrosion test, SIMS analysis, and TEM study, the cation is considered to control the corrosion in LiOH solution and its effect is dependent on the concentration of alkali and the oxide thickness. The slight acceleration of corrosion rate at a low concentration is thought to be caused by the cation incorporation into oxide while the significant acceleration at a high concentration is due to the transformation of oxide microstructure that would be induced by the cation incorporation

  20. Catalytic activity of oxide cerium-molybdenum-tellurium catalysts in oxidation ammonolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzhordano, N.; Bart, D.; Madzhori, R.

    1984-01-01

    A commercial catalyst containing a mixture of Ce-, Mo-, Te oxides deposited on SiO 2 is shown to manifest a high efficiency in oxidative ammonolysis of propylene (C 3 - ) to acrylonitrile (AN). The dependence of the catalytic properties on the catalyst composition and reaction conditions is studied. It is established that three-component mixtures are more active and selective than the systems with a lesser number of components. Using the catalyst with the optimum ratio of constituent oxides in a microreactor at 440 deg enabled one to achieve initial selectivity in terms of AN equal to 82.5% at 97% conversion of C 3 - . Acrolein, acetonitrile, HCN and nitrogen oxides are the reaction by-products. A supposition is made that the reaction proceeds via the formation of π-compleXes on the centres of Te(4). Setective oxidation occurs on oxygen atoms bonded with the Mo(6) ions. Tellurium enhances the molybdenum reducibleness due to delocalization of electrons, whereas the cerium addition to the mixture of tellurium- and molybdenum oxides increases the rate of molybdenum reoxidation and thus enhances the catalytic system stability

  1. DYSTOCIA DUE TO SOFT TISSUE

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCarle, Donald W.

    1954-01-01

    In dystocia caused by abnormal conditions of the soft parts, the etiologic changes may be either in the genital tissues or in adjacent soft structures. Broadly, the conditions causing the difficulty may be grouped as follows: (1) anomalies or congenital modifications; (2) tumors; (3) modifications due to age, accident or surgical operations; (4) modification of the expulsive forces; (5) abnormalities of the products of conception. Often in such circumstances cesarean section is necessary. Sometimes when tumor is present it can be removed before it interferes with delivery, but decision to excise the growth must be guided by such factors as the location of the lesion and the stage of gestation. This would determine to what extent the maintenance of pregnancy would be jeopardized by surgical intervention before term. PMID:13190430

  2. High Performance Nano-Ceria Electrodes for Solid Oxide Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graves, Christopher R.; Martinez Aguilera, Lev; Sudireddy, Bhaskar Reddy

    2016-01-01

    forming the active surfaces on a porous backbone with embedded electronic current collector material, yielding one of the highest performances reported for an electrode that operates either on fuel or oxidant. The second is a nano-Ce0.9Gd0.1O2-δ thin film prepared by spin-coating, which provides......In solid oxide electrochemical cells, the conventional Ni-based fuel-electrodes provide high electrocatalytic activity but they are often a major source of long-term performance degradation due to carbon deposition, poisoning of reaction sites, Ni mobility, etc. Doped-ceria is a promising mixed...

  3. Death from Nitrous Oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäckström, Björn; Johansson, Bengt; Eriksson, Anders

    2015-11-01

    Nitrous oxide is an inflammable gas that gives no smell or taste. It has a history of abuse as long as its clinical use, and deaths, although rare, have been reported. We describe two cases of accidental deaths related to voluntary inhalation of nitrous oxide, both found dead with a gas mask covering the face. In an attempt to find an explanation to why the victims did not react properly to oncoming hypoxia, we performed experiments where a test person was allowed to breath in a closed system, with or without nitrous oxide added. Vital signs and gas concentrations as well as subjective symptoms were recorded. The experiments indicated that the explanation to the fact that neither of the descendents had reacted to oncoming hypoxia and hypercapnia was due to the inhalation of nitrous oxide. This study raises the question whether nitrous oxide really should be easily, commercially available. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  4. Electrical conductivity of Ni–YSZ composites: Degradation due to Ni particle growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihlatie, Mikko; Kaiser, Andreas; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2011-01-01

    The short-term changes in the electrical conductivity of Ni–YSZ composites (cermets) suitable for use in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) were measured by an in-situ 4-point DC technique. The isothermal reduction was carried out in dry, humidified or wet hydrogen at temperatures from 600 to 1000°C...... modelled using two different semi-empirical approaches. Thermodynamic calculations were carried out to assess the vaporisation of Ni in the conditions tested. The rate and mechanisms of conductivity degradation due to Ni particle growth are discussed in light of the measurements, modelling and literature...

  5. P -type transparent conducting oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Kelvin H L; Xi, Kai; Blamire, Mark G; Egdell, Russell G

    2016-01-01

    Transparent conducting oxides constitute a unique class of materials combining properties of electrical conductivity and optical transparency in a single material. They are needed for a wide range of applications including solar cells, flat panel displays, touch screens, light emitting diodes and transparent electronics. Most of the commercially available TCOs are n -type, such as Sn doped In 2 O 3 , Al doped ZnO, and F doped SnO 2 . However, the development of efficient p -type TCOs remains an outstanding challenge. This challenge is thought to be due to the localized nature of the O 2 p derived valence band which leads to difficulty in introducing shallow acceptors and large hole effective masses. In 1997 Hosono and co-workers (1997 Nature 389 939) proposed the concept of ‘chemical modulation of the valence band’ to mitigate this problem using hybridization of O 2 p orbitals with close-shell Cu 3 d 10 orbitals. This work has sparked tremendous interest in designing p -TCO materials together with deep understanding the underlying materials physics. In this article, we will provide a comprehensive review on traditional and recently emergent p -TCOs, including Cu + -based delafossites, layered oxychalcogenides, nd 6 spinel oxides, Cr 3+ -based oxides (3 d 3 ) and post-transition metal oxides with lone pair state (ns 2 ). We will focus our discussions on the basic materials physics of these materials in terms of electronic structures, doping and defect properties for p -type conductivity and optical properties. Device applications based on p -TCOs for transparent p – n junctions will also be briefly discussed. (topical review)

  6. Review Of Plutonium Oxidation Literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korinko, P.

    2009-01-01

    A brief review of plutonium oxidation literature was conducted. The purpose of the review was to ascertain the effect of oxidation conditions on oxide morphology to support the design and operation of the PDCF direct metal oxidation (DMO) furnace. The interest in the review was due to a new furnace design that resulted in oxide characteristics that are different than those of the original furnace. Very little of the published literature is directly relevant to the DMO furnace operation, which makes assimilation of the literature data with operating conditions and data a convoluted task. The oxidation behavior can be distilled into three regimes, a low temperature regime (RT to 350 C) with a relatively slow oxidation rate that is influenced by moisture, a moderate temperature regime (350-450 C) that is temperature dependent and relies on more or less conventional oxidation growth of a partially protective oxide scale, and high temperature oxidation (> 500 C) where the metal autocatalytically combusts and oxidizes. The particle sizes obtained from these three regimes vary with the finest being from the lowest temperature. It is surmised that the slow growth rate permits significant stress levels to be achieved that help break up the oxides. The intermediate temperatures result in a fairly compact scale that is partially protective and that grows to critical thickness prior to fracturing. The growth rate in this regime may be parabolic or paralinear, depending on the oxidation time and consequently the oxide thickness. The high temperature oxidation is invariant in quiescent or nearly quiescent conditions due to gas blanketing while it accelerates with temperature under flowing conditions. The oxide morphology will generally consist of fine particles ( 250 (micro)m). The particle size ratio is expected to be < 5%, 25%, and 70% for fine, medium and large particles, respectively, for metal temperatures in the 500-600 C range.

  7. Soil methane oxidation in a long-term no-tillage system in Southern BrazilOxidação de metano em solo a longo prazo sob plantio direto no Sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cimélio Bayer

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Conservation management systems are usually suggested as alternative to restore the soil methane (CH4 oxidation capacity of degraded soils; however, little information is available on tropical and subtropical soils. Our objective was to evaluate the long-term (19 years effect of no-tillage (NT versus conventional tillage (CT management systems on CH4 fluxes in a formerly degraded Acrisol in Southern Brazil. Annual CH4 fluxes of two cropping systems [O/M-black oat (Avena strigosa/maize and V/M-vetch (Vigna sativa/maize] were measured in NT and CT soils. Static chambers were used for air sampling, while chromatography was used for CH4 analysis. Analysis of the historical dataset at this experimental site indicated improvements in soil quality under the NT system, especially in legume-based cropping system (V/M that exhibited the highest annual biomass input. CH4 fluxes ranged from −42 ± 2 to 38 ± 16 μg C m-2 h-1, and annual CH4 emissions ranged from −825 ± 117 (CT V/M to 453 ± 185 g C ha-1 (NT O/M. Thus, the annual CH4 oxidation capacity of the soil was not related to the soil quality produced by the soil management systems. On the basis of our results and published literature, we postulate that conservation management systems improve the methane oxidation and soil quality in distinct soil layers, which result in a slow effect of these management systems on the methane oxidation capacity. Sistemas conservacionistas de manejo de solo são considerados usualmente uma alternativa para restaurar a capacidade de solos agrícolas degradados em oxidar metano (CH4, mas escassa informação é disponível para solos tropicais e subtropicais. O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar o efeito de longo prazo (19 anos do plantio direto (PD nos fluxos de CH4 em um Argissolo Vermelho (Classificação Brasileira degradado da região Sul do Brasil, em comparação ao preparo convencional (PC. Fluxos anuais de CH4 do solo foram avaliados nos sistemas PD e

  8. 21 CFR 60.36 - Standard of due diligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Standard of due diligence. 60.36 Section 60.36... TERM RESTORATION Due Diligence Petitions § 60.36 Standard of due diligence. (a) In determining the due diligence of an applicant, FDA will examine the facts and circumstances of the applicant's actions during...

  9. Long term integrity of reactor pressure vessel and primary containment vessel after the severe accidents in Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station. Leaching property of spent oxide fuel segment and corrosion property of a carbon steel under artificial seawater immersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-06-01

    Primary containment vessel (PCV), reactor pressure vessel and pedestal in Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear power station units 1 through 3 have been exposed to severe thermal, chemical and mechanical conditions due to core meltdown events and seawater injections for emergent core cooling. These components will be immersed in diluted seawater with dissolved fission products under irradiation until the end of debris removal. Fresh water injected into the cores contacts with debris to cool, dissolves or erodes their constituents, mixed with retained water, and becomes 'accumulated water' with radioactive nuclides. We have focused the leaching of fission products into the accumulated water under lower temperature (323 K). FUGEN spent oxide fuel segments were immersed to determine the leaching factor of fission product and actinide elements. Since PCV made from carbon steel is one of the most important boundaries to prevent from fission products release, corrosion behavior has been paid attention to evaluate their integrity. Carbon steel specimens were immersion- and electrochemical-tested in diluted seawater with simulants of the accumulated water at 323 K in order to evaluate the effect of fission products in particular cesium and radiation. (author)

  10. Rare earth oxide doping in oxide cathodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelsen, Daniel den; Gaertner, Georg

    2006-01-01

    The effect on life performance and poisoning with O 2 by doping oxide cathodes with rare earth oxides and pseudo rare earth oxides, notably yttria, is qualitatively explained in terms of electrolysis of BaO during emission of electrons. Doped cathodes show less electrolysis and consume therefore less Ba during life: consequently, doped cathodes have a better life performance. However, the lower Ba-production makes doped cathodes more sensitive to oxygen poisoning. The experimentally found relation between conductivity and yttria concentration was the motive to propose a new model for the crystal imperfections in BaO. In this new imperfection model most Y 3+ -ions will combine with barium vacancies, therefore, the increase of the conductivity is modest and also the effect on the position of the Fermi level is modest. By assuming a combination of bulk and surface conductivity, the agreement between experiment and theory can be improved further

  11. Heterogeneous Oxidation of Atmospheric Organic Aerosol: Kinetics of Changes to the Amount and Oxidation State of Particle-Phase Organic Carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroll, Jesse H; Lim, Christopher Y; Kessler, Sean H; Wilson, Kevin R

    2015-11-05

    Atmospheric oxidation reactions are known to affect the chemical composition of organic aerosol (OA) particles over timescales of several days, but the details of such oxidative aging reactions are poorly understood. In this study we examine the rates and products of a key class of aging reaction, the heterogeneous oxidation of particle-phase organic species by the gas-phase hydroxyl radical (OH). We compile and reanalyze a number of previous studies from our laboratories involving the oxidation of single-component organic particles. All kinetic and product data are described on a common basis, enabling a straightforward comparison among different chemical systems and experimental conditions. Oxidation chemistry is described in terms of changes to key ensemble properties of the OA, rather than to its detailed molecular composition, focusing on two quantities in particular, the amount and the oxidation state of the particle-phase carbon. Heterogeneous oxidation increases the oxidation state of particulate carbon, with the rate of increase determined by the detailed chemical mechanism. At the same time, the amount of particle-phase carbon decreases with oxidation, due to fragmentation (C-C scission) reactions that form small, volatile products that escape to the gas phase. In contrast to the oxidation state increase, the rate of carbon loss is nearly uniform among most systems studied. Extrapolation of these results to atmospheric conditions indicates that heterogeneous oxidation can have a substantial effect on the amount and composition of atmospheric OA over timescales of several days, a prediction that is broadly in line with available measurements of OA evolution over such long timescales. In particular, 3-13% of particle-phase carbon is lost to the gas phase after one week of heterogeneous oxidation. Our results indicate that oxidative aging represents an important sink for particulate organic carbon, and more generally that fragmentation reactions play a major

  12. Oxide ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryshkewitch, E.; Richerson, D.W.

    1985-01-01

    The book explores single-phase ceramic oxide systems from the standpoint of physical chemistry and technology. This second edition also focuses on advances in technology since publication of the original edition. These include improvements in raw materials and forming and sintering techniques, and the major role that oxide ceramics have had in development of advanced products and processes. The text is divided into five major sections: general fundamentals of oxide ceramics, advances in aluminum oxide technology, advances in zirconia technology, and advances in beryllium oxide technology

  13. Molecular theory of graphene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheka, Elena F; Popova, Nadezhda A

    2013-08-28

    Applied to graphene oxide, the molecular theory of graphene considers its oxide as a final product in the succession of polyderivatives related to a series of oxidation reactions involving different oxidants. The graphene oxide structure is created in the course of a stepwise computational synthesis of polyoxides of the (5,5) nanographene molecule governed by an algorithm that takes into account the molecule's natural radicalization due to the correlation of its odd electrons, the extremely strong influence of the structure on properties, and a sharp response of the molecule behavior on small actions of external factors. Taking these together, the theory has allowed for a clear, transparent and understandable explanation of the hot points of graphene oxide chemistry and suggesting reliable models of both chemically produced and chemically reduced graphene oxides.

  14. Influence of nutrition on liver oxidative metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorquera, F; Culebras, J M; González-Gallego, J

    1996-06-01

    The liver plays a major role in the disposition of the majority of drugs. This is due to the presence of several drug-metabolizing enzyme systems, including a group of membrane-bound mixed-function oxidative enzymes, mainly the cytochrome P450 system. Hepatic oxidative capacity can be assessed by changes in antipyrine metabolism. Different drugs and other factors may induce or inhibit the cytochrome P450-dependent system. This effect is important in terms of the efficacy or toxicity of drugs that are substrates for the system. Microsomal oxidation in animals fed with protein-deficient diets is depressed. The mixed-function oxidase activity recovers after a hyperproteic diet or the addition of lipids. Similar findings have been reported in patients with protein-calorie malnutrition, although results in the elderly are conflicting. Different studies have revealed that microsomal oxidation is impaired by total parenteral nutrition and that this effect is absent when changing the caloric source from carbohydrates to a conventional amino acid solution or after lipid addition, especially when administered as medium-chain/long-chain triglyceride mixtures. Peripheral parenteral nutrition appears to increase antipyrine clearance.

  15. Reversible solid oxide fuel cells (R-SOFCs) with chemically stable proton-conducting oxides

    KAUST Repository

    Bi, Lei; Boulfrad, Samir; Traversa, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    Proton-conducting oxides offer a promising way of lowering the working temperature of solid oxide cells to the intermediate temperate range (500 to 700. °C) due to their better ionic conductivity. In addition, the application of proton

  16. The 2016 oxide electronic materials and oxide interfaces roadmap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenz, M.; Rao, M. S. Ramachandra; Venkatesan, T.

    2016-01-01

    of these materials to understand the tunability of their properties and the novel properties that evolve due to their nanostructured nature is another facet of the challenge. The research related to the oxide electronic field is at an impressionable stage, and this has motivated us to contribute with a roadmap......, Pentcheva, and Gegenwart. Finally, Miletto Granozio presents the European action ‘towards oxide-based electronics’ which develops an oxide electronics roadmap with emphasis on future nonvolatile memories and the required technologies.In summary, we do hope that this oxide roadmap appears as an interesting...

  17. Solubility study of Tc(IV) oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, D.J.; Fan, X.H.

    2005-01-01

    The deep geological disposal of the high level radioactive wastes is expected to be a safer disposal method in most countries. The long-lived fission product 99 Tc is present in large quantities in nuclear wastes and its chemical behavior in aqueous solution is of considerable interest. Under oxidizing conditions technetium exists as the anionic species TcO 4 - whereas under the reducing conditions, expected to exist in a deep geological repository, it is generally predicted that technetium will be present as TcO 2 ·nH 2 O. Hence, the mobility of Tc(IV) in reducing groundwater may be limited by the solubility of TcO 2 ·nH 2 O under these conditions. Due to this fact it is important to investigate the solubility of TcO 2 ·nH 2 O. The solubility determines the release of radionuclides from waste form and is used as a source term in radionuclide migration analysis in performance assessment of radioactive waste repository. Technetium oxide was prepared by reduction of a technetate solution with Sn 2 + . The solubility of Tc(IV) oxide has been determined in simulated groundwater and redistilled water under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The effects of pH and CO 3 2- concentration of solution on solubility of Tc(IV) oxide were studied. The concentration of total technetium and Tc(IV) species in the solutions were periodically determined by separating the oxidized and reduced technetium species using a solvent extraction procedure and counting the beta activity of the 99 Tc with a liquid scintillation counter. The experimental results show that the rate of oxidation of Tc(IV) in simulated groundwater and redistilled water is about (1.49-1.86) x 10 -9 mol/(L·d) under aerobic conditions, but Tc(IV) in simulated groundwater and redistilled water is not oxidized under anaerobic conditions. Under aerobic or anaerobic conditions the solubility of Tc(IV) oxide in simulated groundwater and redistilled water is equal on the whole after centrifugation or ultrafiltration. The

  18. Carbon aerogels by pyrolysis of TEMPO-oxidized cellulose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sizhao; Feng, Jian; Feng, Junzong; Jiang, Yonggang; Ding, Feng

    2018-05-01

    Although carbon aerogels derived from naturally occurring materials have been developed extensively, a reasonable synthetic approach using cellulose-resource remains unclear. Here, we report a strategy to prepare carbon aerogels originated from cellulose position-selectively oxidized by TEMPO-oxidized process. Contrary to non-TEMPO-oxidized cellulose-derived carbon aerogels (NCCA) with relative loose structure, TEMPO-oxidized cellulose-derived carbon aerogels (TCCA) with tight fibrillar-continuous network are monitored, suggesting the importance of TEMPO-oxidized modification towards creating the architecture of subsequently produced carbon aerogels. TCCA endows a higher BET area despite owning slightly dense bulk density comparing with that of NCCA. The structural texture of TCCA could be maintained in a way in comparison to TEMPO-oxidized cellulose-derived aerogel, due to the integration and aggregation effect by losing the electric double layer repulsion via ionization of the surface carboxyl groups. FTIR and XPS analyses signify the evidence of non-functionalized carbon-skeleton network formation in terms of TCCA. Further, the mechanism concerning the creation of carbon aerogels is also established. These findings not only provide new insights into the production of carbon aerogels but also open up a new opportunity in the field of functional carbon materials.

  19. Graphene oxide reduction recipes, spectroscopy, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Wei

    2015-01-01

    This book focuses on a group of new materials labeled ""graphene oxides."" It provides a comprehensive overview of graphene oxide-based nanomaterials in terms of their synthesis, structures, properties, and extensive applications in catalysis, separation, filtration, energy storage and conversion. The book also covers emerging research on graphite oxides and the impact of the research on fundamental and applied sciences.

  20. The thermomechanical stability of micro-solid oxide fuel cells fabricated on anodized aluminum oxide membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Chang-Woo; Lee, Jae-Il; Kim, Ki-Bum; Lee, Hae-Weon; Lee, Jong-Ho; Son, Ji-Won

    2012-07-01

    The thermomechanical stability of micro-solid oxide fuel cells (micro-SOFCs) fabricated on an anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane template is investigated. The full structure consists of the following layers: AAO membrane (600 nm)/Pt anode/YSZ electrolyte (900 nm)/porous Pt cathode. The utilization of a 600-nm-thick AAO membrane significantly improves the thermomechanical stability due to its well-known honeycomb-shaped nanopore structure. Moreover, the Pt anode layer deposited in between the AAO membrane and the YSZ electrolyte preserves its integrity in terms of maintaining the triple-phase boundary (TPB) and electrical conductivity during high-temperature operation. Both of these results guarantee thermomechanical stability of the micro-SOFC and extend the cell lifetime, which is one of the most critical issues in the fabrication of freestanding membrane-type micro-SOFCs.

  1. Temporal patterning of the potential induced by localized corrosion of iron passivity in acid media. Growth and breakdown of the oxide film described in terms of a point defect model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sazou, Dimitra; Pavlidou, Maria; Pagitsas, Michael

    2009-10-21

    This work analyses the nature of temporal patterning of the anodic potential induced by chlorides during polarization of iron under current-controlled conditions in acid solutions. It is shown that potential oscillations emerged as a result of the local chloride attack of a thin oxide layer, which covers the iron surface in its passive state. The mechanism by which both the local oxide breakdown and the subsequent localized active dissolution (pitting) occur is explained by considering a point defect model (PDM) developed to describe the oxide growth and breakdown. According to the PDM, chlorides occupy oxygen vacancies resulting in the inhibition of oxide growth and autocatalytic generation of cation vacancies that destabilize the oxide layer. Simultaneous transformation of the outer surface of the inner oxide layer to non-adherent ferrous chloride or oxo-chloride species leads to a further thinning of the oxide layer and its lifting-on from the iron surface. The process repeats again yielding sustained oscillations of the anodic potential. Analysis of the oscillatory response obtained under current-controlled conditions as a function of either the current or the time allows the suggestion of a set of alternate diagnostic criteria, which might be used to characterize localized corrosion of iron in acid solutions.

  2. Óxidos de ferro em latossolos tropicais e subtropicais brasileiros em plantio direto Iron oxides in tropical and subtropical Brazilian oxisols under long-term no-tillage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís de França da Silva Neto

    2008-10-01

    (NT affects the rate of soil processes, but little is known about its effect on the mineralogy of tropical and subtropical soils. This study aimed to evaluate the long-term effect of NT system on pedogenetic iron oxides and their relationship with soil organic matter (SOM fractions. Soil samples were taken at 14 depths within the top 0,20 m soil layer from two clayey Oxisols under NT and conventional tillage (CT systems of the experimental areas located near the counties of Santo Ângelo (RS State, Southern Brazil and Dourados (MS State, Center-Western Brazil. The soil mineralogy was analyzed by X ray diffraction, and the contents of sodium dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate (Fed, ammonium oxalate (Feo iron oxides, total organic carbon (TOC, and humic fractions were evaluated. Kaolinite and hematite were the predominant minerals in both soils, and the NT system had not effect on the mean concentration of Fed, Feo, TOC and the Feo/Fed ratio in the 0-0.20 m soil layer, in comparison with CT soil. However, in the soil in southern Brazil, under well-distributed annual rainfall and cooler temperatures in the winter, the TOC content and humine fraction in the surface layer (0-0.03 m of NT soil were higher. These variables were also closely related with the Feo contents and Feo/Fed ratio. On the contrary, in the Oxisol under tropical conditions, with rainfall concentrated from October to March, no effect of the tillage system was observed on TOC and humic fractions of SOM contents. In this soil, the Feo content and Feo/Fed ratio were positively related to soil depth and negatively to TOC and humine contents. These results probably are a consequence of iron oxide rearrangements, possibly through the reductive dissolution of hematite and maghmite from soil surface layer, and neo-genesis of low crystalline iron oxides in the deeper soil layers.

  3. Oxidative processes in power plant oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forlerer, Elena; Zambrano, Debora N.

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyzes the chemical properties differences between thermal-oxidation and radioactive-oxidation in turbine oils in order to estimate the oils' Service Life. The oils were Turbine R type, provided by Repsol-YPF with only few additives such as: anti rust, antioxidant, anticorrosion and without viscosity index improvers. The oils were ISO 32 and ISO 68 grade -with viscosity index 95- and API (American Petroleum Institute) group I, due to its viscosity index (95), the percent of paraffinic component ( 0.03%). Different samples from the heavy water main pumps were collected with different service times and radiation fields during an Embalse NPP's outage. For comparison purposes oils from feedwater pumps systems that convey light water to the steam generators in the Turbine building -without radiation- were obtained. The properties studied by ASTM standards were: colour (visual inspection), Viscosity Index VI (ASTM D227/93), viscosity at 40 C degrees (ASTM D445/96) and Total Acid Number, TAN (ASTM D974-97). Oxidative degradation of base oils could be described by two successive mechanisms that allow the definition of two stages: Primary and Secondary Oxidation. Primary oxidation begins with the thermal generation of alkylation's reactions and acid products formation. Radiation damage operates by two mechanisms: scission and cross-linking. The first one generates free radicals of low molecular weight while the other one can build-up complex molecular networks with high or low solubility in the base oil. Moreover, radiation damage destroys additives molecules and generates colour centres different from oxidative colour modification. Due to scission and cross-linking alkyl group substitution in the aromatic rings are formed. Then, radiation acts as a precursor of Primary Oxidation. Both, thermal and radioactive, damage mechanisms can act simultaneously making the isolated analysis for each one very difficult. To manage it, a Relative Damage Index (RDI) has been

  4. Selective oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortes Henao, Luis F.; Castro F, Carlos A.

    2000-01-01

    It is presented a revision and discussion about the characteristics and factors that relate activity and selectivity in the catalytic and not catalytic partial oxidation of methane and the effect of variables as the temperature, pressure and others in the methane conversion to methanol. It thinks about the zeolites use modified for the catalytic oxidation of natural gas

  5. Due diligence responsibilities of the professional geologist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobbs, G.W.

    1991-01-01

    Whether in the role of independent consultant or company employee, a geologist has certain professional obligations in the evaluation of an oil and gas submittal from a third party. 'Due diligence' is the term used to describe the analysis of an investment opportunity. Due diligence involves a multidisciplinary examination of both the technical and business aspects of a submittal. In addition to the obvious geological considerations, prospect evaluations should include relevant details about the specific technical documentation reviewed, information sources, and how the data were verified. Full disclosure of ownership, technical risks, and negative aspects of the prospect should be included along with the positive elements. After the geological analysis is completed, the economic merits of the prospect should be analyzed, incorporating all lease burdens and terms of participation into the calculations. Estimated exploration, development, and operating costs, together with projected annual production, cash flow, and reserves must be examined as to their reasonableness. Finally, the due diligence review should include a thorough check on the reputation, financial condition, technical and managerial expertise, and prior track record of the operator. Bank, trade, legal, and prior partner references should be contacted. The successful professional geologist in today's competitive world must have multidisciplinary skills. A solid background in geology and geophysics, a basic understanding of the principles of petroleum engineering and economics, and the wits of a private eye are needed for good due diligence work

  6. Perfluoroctano líquido como tamponante vitreorretiniano de curta duração no pós-operatório de portadores de descolamento de retina por ruptura gigante Perfluoroctane liquid as a short-term vitreous-retinal tamponade in the postoperative period in patients with retinal detachment due to giant tears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Carvalho Ventura

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Relatar os resultados de vitrectomia via pars plana com utilização de perfluocarbono líquido (Perfluoroctano-Ophtalmos®, como tamponante vítreo-retiniano de curta duração, no pós-operatório de portadores de descolamento de retina, por ruptura gigante. MÉTODOS: Estudaram-se dez desses pacientes. Todos os casos eram complicados por vitreorretinopatia proliferativa grau B ou pior com rupturas que variavam em extensão de 90º a 210º. O perfluorocarbono líquido foi introduzido, por via pars plana, com o volume necessário para ultrapassar o limite posterior da ruptura, permanecendo no pós-operatório por cinco dias, estando os pacientes em decúbito dorsal. Após esse período submetiam-se a segunda intervenção para troca do perfluorocarbono líquido para gás ou óleo de silicone. RESULTADOS: Após período de acompanhamento médio de 16,2 ± 12,4 meses (2 a 43 meses, 80% das retinas estavam aplicadas, sendo necessária a repetição desta técnica em 1 caso (10% caso e em 2 casos (20% não houve reaplicação da retina por vitreorretinopatia avançada. Houve melhora da acuidade visual em 5 casos (50%. CONCLUSÃO: Observaram-se bons resultados quanto à aplicação da retina (80% e melhora da acuidade visual (50% quando do uso do perfluorocarbono líquido como tamponante vitreorretiniano de curta duração no pós-operatório de cirurgias de descolamento de retina por rupturas gigantes.PURPOSE: To report pars plana vitrectomy results of intravitreous use of liquid perfluorocarbon as a short-term postoperative tamponade in retinal detachment due to giant tears in a series of patients. METHODS: Ten of those patients, all of them complicated by proliferative vitreoretinopathy grade B or worse, with tear extension varying from 90º to 210º were studied. Perfluorocarbon liquid was injected via pars plana until the posterior tear limit, remaining in the postoperative period during five days, with the patients in supine position

  7. Uranium metallogenesis of the peraluminous leucogranite from the Pontivy-Rostrenen magmatic complex (French Armorican Variscan belt): the result of long-term oxidized hydrothermal alteration during strike-slip deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballouard, C.; Poujol, M.; Mercadier, J.; Deloule, E.; Boulvais, P.; Baele, J. M.; Cuney, M.; Cathelineau, M.

    2018-06-01

    In the French Armorican Variscan belt, most of the economically significant hydrothermal U deposits are spatially associated with peraluminous leucogranites emplaced along the south Armorican shear zone (SASZ), a dextral lithospheric scale wrench fault that recorded ductile deformation from ca. 315 to 300 Ma. In the Pontivy-Rostrenen complex, a composite intrusion, the U mineralization is spatially associated with brittle structures related to deformation along the SASZ. In contrast to monzogranite and quartz monzodiorite (3 3), the leucogranite samples are characterized by highly variable U contents ( 3 to 27 ppm) and Th/U ratios ( 0.1 to 5) suggesting that the crystallization of magmatic uranium oxide in the more evolved facies was followed by uranium oxide leaching during hydrothermal alteration and/or surface weathering. U-Pb dating of uranium oxides from the deposits reveals that they mostly formed between ca. 300 and 270 Ma. In monzogranite and quartz monzodiorite, apatite grains display magmatic textures and provide U-Pb ages of ca. 315 Ma reflecting the time of emplacement of the intrusions. In contrast, apatite grains from the leucogranite display textural, geochemical, and geochronological evidences for interaction with U-rich oxidized hydrothermal fluids contemporaneously with U mineralizing events. From 300 to 270 Ma, infiltration of surface-derived oxidized fluids leached magmatic uranium oxide from fertile leucogranite and formed U deposits. This phenomenon was sustained by brittle deformation and by the persistence of thermal anomalies associated with U-rich granitic bodies.

  8. The oxidative hypothesis of senescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilca M

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The oxidative hypothesis of senescence, since its origin in 1956, has garnered significant evidence and growing support among scientists for the notion that free radicals play an important role in ageing, either as "damaging" molecules or as signaling molecules. Age-increasing oxidative injuries induced by free radicals, higher susceptibility to oxidative stress in short-lived organisms, genetic manipulations that alter both oxidative resistance and longevity and the anti-ageing effect of caloric restriction and intermittent fasting are a few examples of accepted scientific facts that support the oxidative theory of senescence. Though not completely understood due to the complex "network" of redox regulatory systems, the implication of oxidative stress in the ageing process is now well documented. Moreover, it is compatible with other current ageing theories (e.g., those implicating the mitochondrial damage/mitochondrial-lysosomal axis, stress-induced premature senescence, biological "garbage" accumulation, etc. This review is intended to summarize and critically discuss the redox mechanisms involved during the ageing process: sources of oxidant agents in ageing (mitochondrial -electron transport chain, nitric oxide synthase reaction- and non-mitochondrial- Fenton reaction, microsomal cytochrome P450 enzymes, peroxisomal β -oxidation and respiratory burst of phagocytic cells, antioxidant changes in ageing (enzymatic- superoxide dismutase, glutathione-reductase, glutathion peroxidase, catalase- and non-enzymatic glutathione, ascorbate, urate, bilirubine, melatonin, tocopherols, carotenoids, ubiquinol, alteration of oxidative damage repairing mechanisms and the role of free radicals as signaling molecules in ageing.

  9. Sputtered tin oxide and titanium oxide thin films as alternative transparent conductive oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boltz, Janika

    2011-12-12

    Alternative transparent conductive oxides to tin doped indium oxide have been investigated. In this work, antimony doped tin oxide and niobium doped titanium oxide have been studied with the aim to prepare transparent and conductive films. Antimony doped tin oxide and niobium doped titanium oxide belong to different groups of oxides; tin oxide is a soft oxide, while titanium oxide is a hard oxide. Both oxides are isolating materials, in case the stoichiometry is SnO{sub 2} and TiO{sub 2}. In order to achieve transparent and conductive films free carriers have to be generated by oxygen vacancies, by metal ions at interstitial positions in the crystal lattice or by cation doping with Sb or Nb, respectively. Antimony doped tin oxide and niobium doped titanium oxide films have been prepared by reactive direct current magnetron sputtering (dc MS) from metallic targets. The process parameters and the doping concentration in the films have been varied. The films have been electrically, optically and structurally analysed in order to analyse the influence of the process parameters and the doping concentration on the film properties. Post-deposition treatments of the films have been performed in order to improve the film properties. For the deposition of transparent and conductive tin oxide, the dominant parameter during the deposition is the oxygen content in the sputtering gas. The Sb incorporation as doping atoms has a minor influence on the electrical, optical and structural properties. Within a narrow oxygen content in the sputtering gas highly transparent and conductive tin oxide films have been prepared. In this study, the lowest resistivity in the as deposited state is 2.9 m{omega} cm for undoped tin oxide without any postdeposition treatment. The minimum resistivity is related to a transition to crystalline films with the stoichiometry of SnO{sub 2}. At higher oxygen content the films turn out to have a higher resistivity due to an oxygen excess. After post

  10. New insight of high temperature oxidation on self-exfoliation capability of graphene oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuhang; Zeng, Jie; Han, Di; Wu, Kai; Yu, Bowen; Chai, Songgang; Chen, Feng; Fu, Qiang

    2018-05-01

    The preparation of graphene oxide (GO) via Hummers method is usually divided into two steps: low temperature oxidation at 35 °C (step I oxidation) and high temperature oxidation at 98 °C (step II oxidation). However, the effects of these two steps on the exfoliation capability and chemical structure of graphite oxide remain unclear. In this study, both the functional group content of graphite oxide and the entire evolution of interlayer spacing were investigated during the two steps. Step I oxidation is a slowly inhomogeneous oxidation step to remove unoxidized graphite flakes. The prepared graphite oxide can be easily self-exfoliated but contains a lot of organic sulfur. During the first 20 min of step II oxidation, the majority of organic sulfur can be efficiently removed and graphite oxide still remains a good exfoliation capability due to sharp increasing of carboxyl groups. However, with a longer oxidation time at step II oxidation, the decrease of organic sulfur content is slowed down apparently but without any carboxyl groups forming, then graphite oxide finally loses self-exfoliation capability. It is concluded that a short time of step II oxidation can produce purer and ultralarge GO sheets via self-exfoliation. The pure GO is possessed with better thermal stability and liquid crystal behavior. Besides, reduced GO films prepared from step II oxidation show better mechanical and electric properties after reducing compared with that obtained only via step I oxidation.

  11. Short-term static corrosion tests in lead-bismuth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler Crespo, L.; Martín Muñoz, F. J.; Gómez Briceño, D.

    2001-07-01

    Martensitic steels have been proposed to be used as structural materials and as spallation target window in hybrid systems devoted to the transmutation of radioactive waste of long life and high activity. However, their compatibility with lead-bismuth in the operating conditions of these systems depends on the existence of a protective layer such as an oxide film. The feasibility of forming and maintaining an oxide layer or maintaining a pre-oxidised one has been studied. Martensitic steel F82Hmod. (8% Cr) has been tested in lead-bismuth under static and isothermal conditions at 400°C and 600°C. In order to study the first stages of the interaction between the steel and the eutectic, short-term tests (100 and 665 h) have been carried out. Pre-oxidised and as-received samples have been tested in atmospheres with different oxidant potential. For low oxygen concentration in lead-bismuth due to unexpected oxygen consumption in the experimental device, dissolution of as-received F82Hmod. occurs and pre-oxidation does not prevent the material dissolution. For high oxygen concentration, the pre-oxidation layer seems to improve the feasibility of protecting stainless steels controlling the oxygen potential of lead-bismuth with a gas phase.

  12. Short-term static corrosion tests in lead-bismuth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soler Crespo, L.; Martin Munoz, F.J.; Gomez Briceno, D.

    2001-01-01

    Martensitic steels have been proposed to be used as structural materials and as spallation target window in hybrid systems devoted to the transmutation of radioactive waste of long life and high activity. However, their compatibility with lead-bismuth in the operating conditions of these systems depends on the existence of a protective layer such as an oxide film. The feasibility of forming and maintaining an oxide layer or maintaining a pre-oxidised one has been studied. Martensitic steel F82Hmod. (8% Cr) has been tested in lead-bismuth under static and isothermal conditions at 400 o C and 600 o C. In order to study the first stages of the interaction between the steel and the eutectic, short-term tests (100 and 665 h) have been carried out. Pre-oxidised and as-received samples have been tested in atmospheres with different oxidant potential. For low oxygen concentration in lead-bismuth due to unexpected oxygen consumption in the experimental device, dissolution of as-received F82Hmod. occurs and pre-oxidation does not prevent the material dissolution. For high oxygen concentration, the pre-oxidation layer seems to improve the feasibility of protecting stainless steels controlling the oxygen potential of lead-bismuth with a gas phase

  13. Uranium oxidation: Characterization of oxides formed by reaction with water by infrared and sorption analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, E. L.; Smyrl, N. R.; Condon, J. B.; Eager, M. H.

    1984-04-01

    Three different uranium oxide samples have been characterized with respect to the different preparation techniques. The results show that the water reaction with uranium metal occurs cyclically forming laminar layers of oxide which spall off due to the strain at the oxide/metal interface. Single laminae are released if liquid water is present due to the prizing penetration at the reaction zone. The rate of reaction of water with uranium is directly proportional to the amount of adsorbed water on the oxide product. Rapid transport is effected through the open hydrous oxide product. Dehydration of the hydrous oxide irreversibly forms a more inert oxide which cannot be rehydrated to the degree that prevails in the original hydrous product of uranium oxidation with water. Inert gas sorption analyses and diffuse reflectance infrared studies combined with electron microscopy prove valuable in defining the chemistry and morphology of the oxidic products and hydrated intermediates.

  14. Protein oxidation and peroxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Michael Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Proteins are major targets for radicals and two-electron oxidants in biological systems due to their abundance and high rate constants for reaction. With highly reactive radicals damage occurs at multiple side-chain and backbone sites. Less reactive species show greater selectivity with regard...... to the residues targeted and their spatial location. Modification can result in increased side-chain hydrophilicity, side-chain and backbone fragmentation, aggregation via covalent cross-linking or hydrophobic interactions, protein unfolding and altered conformation, altered interactions with biological partners...... and modified turnover. In the presence of O2, high yields of peroxyl radicals and peroxides (protein peroxidation) are formed; the latter account for up to 70% of the initial oxidant flux. Protein peroxides can oxidize both proteins and other targets. One-electron reduction results in additional radicals...

  15. Anodic oxidation

    CERN Document Server

    Ross, Sidney D; Rudd, Eric J; Blomquist, Alfred T; Wasserman, Harry H

    2013-01-01

    Anodic Oxidation covers the application of the concept, principles, and methods of electrochemistry to organic reactions. This book is composed of two parts encompassing 12 chapters that consider the mechanism of anodic oxidation. Part I surveys the theory and methods of electrochemistry as applied to organic reactions. These parts also present the mathematical equations to describe the kinetics of electrode reactions using both polarographic and steady-state conditions. Part II examines the anodic oxidation of organic substrates by the functional group initially attacked. This part particular

  16. The effect of short-term, high-dose oral N-acetylcysteine treatment on oxidative stress markers in cystic fibrosis patients with chronic P. aeruginosa infection -- a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skov, Marianne; Pressler, Tacjana; Lykkesfeldt, Jens; Poulsen, Henrik Enghusen; Jensen, Peter Østrup; Johansen, Helle Krogh; Qvist, Tavs; Kræmer, Dorthe; Høiby, Niels; Ciofu, Oana

    2015-03-01

    Patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) and chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection have increased oxidative stress as a result of an imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species caused by inflammation and their inactivation by the impaired antioxidant systems. Supplementation with anti-oxidants is potentially beneficial for CF patients. The effect of 4 weeks of oral N-acetylcysteine (NAC) treatment (2400 mg/day divided into two doses) on biochemical parameters of oxidative stress was investigated in an open-label, controlled, randomized trial on 21 patients; 11 patients in the NAC group and 10 in the control group. Biochemical parameters of oxidative burden and plasma levels of antioxidants were assessed at the end of the study and compared to the baseline values in the two groups. A significant increase in the plasma levels of the antioxidant ascorbic acid (p=0.037) and a significant decrease in the levels of the oxidized form of ascorbic acid (dehydroascorbate) (p=0.004) compared to baseline were achieved after NAC treatment. No significant differences were observed in the control group. The parameters of oxidative burden did not change significantly compared to baseline in either of the groups. A better lung function was observed in the NAC treated group with a mean (SD) change compared to baseline of FEV1% predicted of 2.11 (4.6), while a decrease was observed in the control group (change -1.4 (4.6)), though not statistically significant. Treatment with N-acetylcysteine 1200 mg×2/day for 30 days significantly decreased the level of oxidized vitamin C and increased the level of vitamin C (primary end-points) and a not statistically significant improvement of lung function was observed in this group of patients. Copyright © 2014 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Magnesium Oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnesium is an element your body needs to function normally. Magnesium oxide may be used for different reasons. Some people use it as ... one to four times daily depending on which brand is used and what condition you have. Follow ...

  18. Sulfur Poisoning of Ni/stabilized-zirconia Anodes – Effect on Long-Term Durability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauch, Anne; Hagen, Anke; Hjelm, Johan

    2013-01-01

    Sulfur impurities in carbon containing fuels for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), e.g. natural gas and biogas, can lead to significant losses in performance due to the sulfur sensitivity of Ni/YSZ SOFC anodes. Full cells having Ni/YSZ and Ni/ScYSZ anodes have been characterized during long-term gal...... to focus on the long-term effect over a few hundred of hours. This work describes and correlates the observed evolution of anode performance, over hundreds of hours, with sulfur poisoning with the different operating conditions.......Sulfur impurities in carbon containing fuels for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), e.g. natural gas and biogas, can lead to significant losses in performance due to the sulfur sensitivity of Ni/YSZ SOFC anodes. Full cells having Ni/YSZ and Ni/ScYSZ anodes have been characterized during long...