WorldWideScience

Sample records for term observed discrepancy

  1. Linking Informant Discrepancies to Observed Variations in Young Children's Disruptive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Los Reyes, Andres; Henry, David B.; Tolan, Patrick H.; Wakschlag, Lauren S.

    2009-01-01

    Prior work has not tested the basic theoretical notion that informant discrepancies in reports of children's behavior exist, in part, because different informants observe children's behavior in different settings. We examined patterns of observed preschool disruptive behavior across varying social contexts in the laboratory and whether they…

  2. Discrepancies between self and observer ratings of depression. The relationship to demographic, clinical and personality variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enns, M W; Larsen, D K; Cox, B J

    2000-10-01

    The observer-rated Hamilton depression scale (HamD) and the self-report Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) are among the most commonly used rating scales for depression, and both have well demonstrated reliability and validity. However, many depressed subjects have discrepant scores on these two assessment methods. The present study evaluated the ability of demographic, clinical and personality factors to account for the discrepancies observed between BDI and HamD ratings. The study group consisted of 94 SCID-diagnosed outpatients with a current major depressive disorder. Subjects were rated with the 21-item HamD and completed the BDI and the NEO-Five Factor Inventory. Younger age, higher educational attainment, and depressive subtype (atypical, non-melancholic) were predictive of higher BDI scores relative to HamD observer ratings. In addition, high neuroticism, low extraversion and low agreeableness were associated with higher endorsement of depressive symptoms on the BDI relative to the HamD. In general, these predictive variables showed a greater ability to explain discrepancies between self and observer ratings of psychological symptoms of depression compared to somatic symptoms of depression. The study does not determine which aspects of neuroticism and extraversion contribute to the observed BDI/HamD discrepancies. Depression ratings obtained with the BDI and HamD are frequently discordant and a number of patient characteristics robustly predict the discrepancy between these two rating methods. The value of multi-modal assessment in the conduct of research on depressive disorders is re-affirmed.

  3. Discrepancies between calculated and observed Fe XVII and Ni XIX solar coronal lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loulergue, M [Observatoire de Paris, Section de Meudon, 92 (France); Nussbaumer, H [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (Switzerland)

    1975-12-01

    The 36-levels model atom Fe/sup +16/ of Loulergue and Nussbaumer (1973) is extended to a 51-levels atom including n=4 configuration. The earlier conclusion that relative intensities among the Fe XVII lines are not sufficiently sensitive to variations in electron densities and electron temperature to deduce these parameters from observed intensity ratios still holds. Discrepancies between calculated and observed relative intensities in Fe XVII and Ni XIX are attributed to blends or misidentifications.

  4. Experimental evidence of off-diagonal transport term and the discrepancy between energy/particle balance and perturbation analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagashima, Keisuke; Fukuda, Takeshi

    1991-12-01

    Evidence of temperature gradient driven particle flux was observed from the sawtooth induced density propagation phenomenon in JT-60. This off-diagonal particle flux was confirmed using the numerical calculation of measured chord integrated electron density. It was shown that the discrepancies between thermal and particle diffusivities estimated from the perturbation method and energy/particle balance analysis can be explained by considering the flux equations with off-diagonal transport terms. These flux equations were compared with the E x B convective fluxes in an electro-static drift wave instability and it was found that the E x B fluxes are consistent with several experimental observations. (author)

  5. Errors and discrepancies in the administration of intravenous infusions: a mixed methods multihospital observational study

    OpenAIRE

    Lyons, I.; Furniss, D.; Blandford, A.; Chumbley, G.; Iacovides, I.; Wei, L.; Cox, A.; Mayer, A.; Vos, J.; Galal-Edeen, G. H.; Schnock, K. O.; Dykes, P. C.; Bates, D. W.; Franklin, B. D.

    2018-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Intravenous medication administration has traditionally been regarded as error prone, with high potential for harm. A recent US multisite study revealed few potentially harmful errors despite a high overall error rate. However, there is limited evidence about infusion practices in England and how they relate to prevalence and types of error. OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence, types and severity of errors and discrepancies in infusion administration in English hospitals, an...

  6. The Use of Some Terms in the Field of Construction: Discrepancy between Theory and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Rutkienė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In modern society technical skills and competence are highly valued. The process of technologisation affects changes in language because the development of language is closely related to changes in society. Language becomes technical since humans constantly expose themselves to technical realia and their denominations. Yet, not always the widespread terms denoting technical concepts are grammatically acceptable. The main objectives of this article are the following: to analyse certain ad hoc selected terms used in the field of construction by use of questionnaires; to discuss the causes of ungrammatical use of the terms; to estimate the predominant role of linguistic or extralinguistic factors; to test and compare the degree of grammatically correct use of the terms by IV year students and employees of the construction sector.

  7. Short-Term Memory Stages in Sign vs. Speech: The Source of the Serial Span Discrepancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Matthew L.; Bavelier, Daphne

    2011-01-01

    Speakers generally outperform signers when asked to recall a list of unrelated verbal items. This phenomenon is well established, but its source has remained unclear. In this study, we evaluate the relative contribution of the three main processing stages of short-term memory--perception, encoding, and recall--in this effect. The present study…

  8. Short-Term Memory Stages in Sign vs. Speech: The Source of the Serial Span Discrepancy

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Matthew L.

    2011-01-01

    Speakers generally outperform signers when asked to recall a list of unrelated verbal items. This phenomenon is well established, but its source has remained unclear. In this study, we evaluate the relative contribution of the three main processing stages of short-term memory – perception, encoding, and recall – in this effect. The present study factorially manipulates whether American Sign Language (ASL) or English was used for perception, memory encoding, and recall in hearing ASL-English b...

  9. Short-term memory stages in sign vs. speech: The source of the serial span discrepancy

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Matthew L.; Bavelier, Daphné

    2011-01-01

    Speakers generally outperform signers when asked to recall a list of unrelated verbal items. This phenomenon is well established, but its source has remained unclear. In this study, we evaluate the relative contribution of the three main processing stages of short-term memory – perception, encoding, and recall – in this effect. The present study factorially manipulates whether American Sign Language (ASL) or English is used for perception, memory encoding, and recall in hearing ASL-English bi...

  10. Discrepancy between simulated and observed ethane and propane levels explained by underestimated fossil emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalsøren, Stig B.; Myhre, Gunnar; Hodnebrog, Øivind; Myhre, Cathrine Lund; Stohl, Andreas; Pisso, Ignacio; Schwietzke, Stefan; Höglund-Isaksson, Lena; Helmig, Detlev; Reimann, Stefan; Sauvage, Stéphane; Schmidbauer, Norbert; Read, Katie A.; Carpenter, Lucy J.; Lewis, Alastair C.; Punjabi, Shalini; Wallasch, Markus

    2018-03-01

    Ethane and propane are the most abundant non-methane hydrocarbons in the atmosphere. However, their emissions, atmospheric distribution, and trends in their atmospheric concentrations are insufficiently understood. Atmospheric model simulations using standard community emission inventories do not reproduce available measurements in the Northern Hemisphere. Here, we show that observations of pre-industrial and present-day ethane and propane can be reproduced in simulations with a detailed atmospheric chemistry transport model, provided that natural geologic emissions are taken into account and anthropogenic fossil fuel emissions are assumed to be two to three times higher than is indicated in current inventories. Accounting for these enhanced ethane and propane emissions results in simulated surface ozone concentrations that are 5-13% higher than previously assumed in some polluted regions in Asia. The improved correspondence with observed ethane and propane in model simulations with greater emissions suggests that the level of fossil (geologic + fossil fuel) methane emissions in current inventories may need re-evaluation.

  11. Prefrontal cortex activation is associated with a discrepancy between self- and observer-rated depression severities of major depressive disorder: a multichannel near-infrared spectroscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akashi, Hiroyuki; Tsujii, Noa; Mikawa, Wakako; Adachi, Toru; Kirime, Eiji; Shirakawa, Osamu

    2015-03-15

    Studies on major depressive disorder (MDD) show that the degree of correlation between the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) varies widely. We aimed to determine whether this discrepancy reflects specific functional abnormalities in the frontotemporal cortex. Mildly depressed or euthymic patients with MDD (n=52), including 21 patients with MDD with the discrepancy, i.e., those with low HAMD17 scores (≤13) but high BDI-II scores (>28), and 31 patients without the discrepancy, i.e., those with low HAMD17 scores and low BDI-II scores (≤28), participated in the study along with 48 control subjects. Regional changes of oxygenated hemoglobin (oxy-Hb) levels during a verbal fluency task (VFT) were monitored using a 52-channel near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) device. In the frontotemporal regions, mean oxy-Hb changes induced by the VFT were significantly smaller in patients with MDD than in control subjects. In 5 channels within frontal regions, the increase in mean oxy-Hb levels was significantly greater in MDD patients with the BDI-HAMD discrepancy than in those without the discrepancy. In 6 channels within the frontal region of the patients with MDD, significant positive correlations were observed between mean oxy-Hb changes and BDI total scores (ρ=0.38-0.59; Pdepressed patients, particularly those with melancholia. The distinct pattern of activation of the prefrontal cortex suggests that MDD with the BDI-HAMD discrepancy is pathophysiologically different from MDD without the discrepancy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Delivery Terms in Transport Process of Export Trade and their Effect on the Risk of Discrepancy in Documentary Letters of Credit; Evidence from Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Alavi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Documentary letters of credit (DLCs are method of payment developed to facilitate the process of international trade by replacing the payment risk of importer with irrevocable payment guarantee of a bank to exporter. Instead, the exporter is supposed to present fully compliant set of documents required by the credit. Documentary nature of DLCs make them vulnerable to the risk of discrepancy. This risk is will affect exporter’s business as he is the one who should absorb it. Therefore, it will be recommended to exporters to negotiate the minimum number of required documents while closing the underlying contract of sales with importer. Since different delivery terms (INCOTERMS require presentation of different documents, this paper studies the correlation between using different terms of delivery with existence of discrepancy in export DLCs in Estonia. For this purpose, author takes empirical approach to answer following research questions: what is the relation between documentary discrepancy and choice of delivery terms and third party documents? and what is the correlation between above mentioned factors and documentary discrepancy in process of DLC operation in Estonian export landscape? The paper is divided into four parts: after the introductory section, the literature review will briefly analyses process of international DLC operation and latest version of INCOTERMS plus their role as delivery terms in international trade. Next section will discuss methodology and results of empirical study done on choice of delivery terms and third party produced documents on discrepancy rate in DLC operation in Estonian export trade. Last but not the least, final section will provide conclusions of the study.

  13. Large discrepancies observed in theoretical studies of ion-impact ionization of the atomic targets at large momentum transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbani, Omid; Ghanbari-Adivi, Ebrahim

    2017-12-01

    A full quantum mechanical version of the three-body distorted wave-eikonal initial state (3DW-EIS) theory is developed to study of the single ionization of the atomic targets by ion impact at different momentum transfers. The calculations are performed both with and without including the internuclear interaction in the transition amplitude. For 16 \\text{Mev} \\text{O}7+ \\text{-He}~(1s2 ) and 24 \\text{Mev} \\text{O}8+\\text{-Li}~(2s ) collisions, the emission of the active electron into the scattering plane is considered and the fully differential cross-sections (FDCSs) are calculated for a fixed value of the ejected electron energy and a variety of momentum transfers. For both the specified collision systems, the obtained results are compared with the experimental data and with the cross-sections obtained using the semi-classical continuum distorted wave-eikonal initial state (CDW-EIS) approach. For 16 \\text{Mev} \\text{O}7+ \\text{-He}~(1s^2) , we also compared the results with those of a four-body three-Coulomb-wave (3CW) model. In general, we find some large discrepancies between the results obtained by different theories. These discrepancies are much more significant at larger momentum transfers. Also, for some ranges of the electron emission angles the results are much more sensitive to the internuclear interaction to be either turned on or off.

  14. SU-F-T-469: A Clinically Observed Discrepancy Between Image-Based and Log- Based MLC Position

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neal, B; Ahmed, M; Siebers, J [University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, VA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To present a clinical case which challenges the base assumption of log-file based QA, by showing that the actual position of a MLC leaf can suddenly deviate from its programmed and logged position by >1 mm as observed with real-time imaging. Methods: An EPID-based exit-fluence dosimetry system designed to prevent gross delivery errors was used in cine mode to capture portal images during treatment. Visual monitoring identified an anomalous MLC leaf pair gap not otherwise detected by the automatic position verification. The position of the erred leaf was measured on EPID images and log files were analyzed for the treatment in question, the prior day’s treatment, and for daily MLC test patterns acquired on those treatment days. Additional standard test patterns were used to quantify the leaf position. Results: Whereas the log file reported no difference between planned and recorded positions, image-based measurements showed the leaf to be 1.3±0.1 mm medial from the planned position. This offset was confirmed with the test pattern irradiations. Conclusion: It has been clinically observed that log-file derived leaf positions can differ from their actual positions by >1 mm, and therefore cannot be considered to be the actual leaf positions. This cautions the use of log-based methods for MLC or patient quality assurance without independent confirmation of log integrity. Frequent verification of MLC positions through independent means is a necessary precondition to trusting log file records. Intra-treatment EPID imaging provides a method to capture departures from MLC planned positions. Work was supported in part by Varian Medical Systems.

  15. Continuity of Landsat observations: Short term considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulder, Michael A.; White, Joanne C.; Masek, Jeffery G.; Dwyer, John L.; Roy, David P.

    2011-01-01

    As of writing in mid-2010, both Landsat-5 and -7 continue to function, with sufficient fuel to enable data collection until the launch of the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) scheduled for December of 2012. Failure of one or both of Landsat-5 or -7 may result in a lack of Landsat data for a period of time until the 2012 launch. Although the potential risk of a component failure increases the longer the sensor's design life is exceeded, the possible gap in Landsat data acquisition is reduced with each passing day and the risk of Landsat imagery being unavailable diminishes for all except a handful of applications that are particularly data demanding. Advances in Landsat data compositing and fusion are providing opportunities to address issues associated with Landsat-7 SLC-off imagery and to mitigate a potential acquisition gap through the integration of imagery from different sensors. The latter will likely also provide short-term, regional solutions to application-specific needs for the continuity of Landsat-like observations. Our goal in this communication is not to minimize the community's concerns regarding a gap in Landsat observations, but rather to clarify how the current situation has evolved and provide an up-to-date understanding of the circumstances, implications, and mitigation options related to a potential gap in the Landsat data record.

  16. Discrepancies between modeled and observed nocturnal isoprene in an urban environment and the possible causes: A case study in Houston

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Lijun; Choi, Yunsoo; Czader, Beata; Li, Xiangshang; Pan, Shuai; Roy, Anirban; Souri, Amir Hossein; Estes, Mark; Jeon, Wonbae

    2016-11-01

    Air quality simulations were conducted using the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model for nocturnal isoprene in September 2013 using the United States Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) National Emissions Inventory of 2011 (NEI, 2011). The results were evaluated against measurements collected at eight Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ) Automated Gas Chromatographs (AutoGCs) monitoring stations. The comparisons demonstrated two distinctive behaviors: overestimation before midnight (20:00-23:00 p.m. local time) versus underestimation after midnight (00:00-06:00 a.m.). Analyses identify the uncertainties in nitrate radical (NO3) concentration and vertical mixing as the possible minor factors contributing to the underestimation, and the underestimated wind speed as the major factor contributing to the overestimation. Further analysis links isoprene underestimation to the uncertainties in the nocturnal isoprene anthropogenic emissions in the NEI (2011) over industrial areas in Houston. This can be substantiated by the fact that the observed nighttime isoprene concentrations increased when the wind direction veered back from southeast to northeast, placing the stations downwind of industrial facilities. A sensitivity run with adjusted anthropogenic isoprene emissions in the later part of the night (i.e., the emissions were multiplied by the hourly underestimation factors ranging from 3.81 to 14.82) yielded closer isoprene predictions after midnight with slightly improved model mean (0.15 to 0.20 ppb), mean error (- 0.10 to - 0.04 ppb), mean absolute error (0.18 to 0.15 ppb), root mean squared error (RMSE, 0.27 to 0.25 ppb), and index of agreement (IOA, 0.66 to 0.68). The insignificant improvement was likely due to the uncertainties in the location of the high-peaked anthropogenic emissions. The impacts of the nighttime-adjusted isoprene emissions on the isoprene oxidation products, organic nitrate and ozone, were found to be minimal. This

  17. Self-Esteem Discrepancies and Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, Robert B.; Keith, Patricia M.

    1981-01-01

    Examined the relationship between self-esteem discrepancies and depression in a long-term intimate relationship. Findings supported the hypothesis that depression is associated with discrepancies between married partners' self-appraisals, perceptions of spouse's appraisal, and spouse's actual appraisal. (Author/DB)

  18. A discrepancy observed in the dipole anisotropy in the radio sky at 1.4 GHz and that in the CMBR – A threat to the cosmological principle?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singal, Ashok K

    2014-01-01

    According to the cosmological principle, the sky brightness at any frequency should appear uniform in all directions to an observer considered to be fixed in the co-moving coordinate system of the expanding universe. However a peculiar motion of the observer introduces a dipole anisotropy in the observed sky brightness, which should be independent of the observing frequency. We have examined the angular distribution in the radio-sky brightness, i.e., an integrated emission from discrete sources per unit solid angle, from the NVSS sample containing 1.8 million discrete radio sources at 1.4 GHz. Our results give a dipole anisotropy which is in the same direction as that of the CMBR from the COBE or WMAP, but the magnitude we find is about 4 times larger at a statistically significant (about 3σ) level. A genuine difference between the two dipoles cannot arise from the observer's motion alone, and it would imply intrinsically anisotropic universe, with anisotropy changing with the epoch. This would violate the cosmological principle where isotropy of the universe is assumed for all epochs, and on which the whole modern cosmology is based upon

  19. Global synthesis of long-term cloud condensation nuclei observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmale, Julia; Henning, Silvia; Stratmann, Frank; Henzing, Bas; Schlag, Patrick; Aalto, Pasi; Keskinen, Helmi; Sellegri, Karine; Ovadnevaite, Jurgita; Krüger, Mira; Jefferson, Anne; Whitehead, James; Carslaw, Ken; Yum, Seong Soo; Kristensson, Adam; Baltensperger, Urs; Gysel, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) are aerosol particles with the ability to activate into droplets at a given super saturation and therefore influence the microphysical and optical properties of clouds. To predict cloud radiative properties understanding the spatial and temporal variability of CCN concentrations in different environments is important. However, currently, the effects of atmospheric particles on changes in cloud radiative forcing are still the largest contribution of uncertainty in climate forcing prediction (IPCC, 2013). Numerous intensive field campaigns have already explored detailed characteristics of CCN in many locations around the world. However, these rather short-term observations can generally not address seasonal or inter-annual variations and a comparison between campaign sites is difficult due to the higher influence of specific environmental circumstances on short-term measurements results. Here, we present results of more long-term CCN and aerosol number concentrations as well as size distribution data covering at least one full year between 2006 and 2014. The 12 locations include ACTRIS stations (http://www.actris.net/) in Europe, and further sites in North America, Brazil and Korea. The sites are located in different environments allowing for temporal and spatial characterization of CCN variability in different atmospheric regimes. Those include marine, remote-continental, boreal forest, rain forest, Arctic and monsoon-influenced environments, as well as boundary layer and free tropospheric conditions. The aerosol populations and their activation behavior show significant differences across the stations. While peak concentrations of CCN are observed in summer at the high altitude sites, in the Arctic the highest concentrations occur during the Haze period in spring. The rural-marine and rural-continental sites exhibit similar CCN concentration characteristics with a relatively flat annual cycle. At some stations, e.g. in the boreal

  20. A panorama of discrepancy theory

    CERN Document Server

    Srivastav, Anand; Travaglini, Giancarlo

    2014-01-01

    Discrepancy theory concerns the problem of replacing a continuous object with a discrete sampling. Discrepancy theory is currently at a crossroads between number theory, combinatorics, Fourier analysis, algorithms and complexity, probability theory and numerical analysis. There are several excellent books on discrepancy theory but perhaps no one of them actually shows the present variety of points of view and applications covering the areas "Classical and Geometric Discrepancy Theory", "Combinatorial Discrepancy Theory" and "Applications and Constructions". Our book consists of several chapters, written by experts in the specific areas, and focused on the different aspects of the theory. The book should also be an invitation to researchers and students to find a quick way into the different methods and to motivate interdisciplinary research.

  1. Cultural estrangement: the role of personal and societal value discrepancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Mark M; Gebauer, Jochen E; Maio, Gregory R

    2006-01-01

    Study 1 examined whether cultural estrangement arises from discrepancies between personal and societal values (e.g., freedom) rather than from discrepancies in attitudes toward political (e.g., censorship) or mundane (e.g., pizza) objects. The relations between different types of value discrepancies, estrangement, subjective well-being, and need for uniqueness also were examined. Results indicated that personal-societal discrepancies in values and political attitudes predicted estrangement, whereas mundane attitude discrepancies were not related to estrangement. As expected, value discrepancies were the most powerful predictor of estrangement. Value discrepancies were not related to subjective well-being but fulfilled a need for uniqueness. Study 2 replicated the relations between value discrepancies, subjective well-being, and need for uniqueness while showing that a self-report measure of participants' values and a peer-report measure of the participants' values yielded the same pattern of value discrepancies. Together, the studies reveal theoretical and empirical benefits of conceptualizing cultural estrangement in terms of value discrepancies.

  2. 235Cf anti ν discrepancy and the sulfur discrepancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.R.

    1979-01-01

    The cantankerous discrepancy among measured values of anti ν for 235 Cf appears at last to be nearing a final resolution. A recent review has summarized the progress that has been achieved through revaluation upward by 0.5% of two manganese bath values anti ν and the performance of a new liquid scintillator measurement. A new manganese bath measurement at INEL is in reasonably good agreement with previous manganese bath values of 235 Cf anti ν. It now appears that the manganese bath values could still be systematically low by as much as 0.4% because the BNL-325 thermal absorption cross section for sulfur may be as much as 10% low. There is a bona fide discrepancy between measurements of the sulfur cross section by pile oscillators and the values derived from transmission measurements. The resolution of this discrepancy is a prerequisite to the final resolution of the 235 Cf anti ν discrepancy. 22 references

  3. Scaling limits for the Lego discrepancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hameren, Andre van; Kleiss, Ronald

    1999-01-01

    For the Lego discrepancy with M bins, which is equivalent with a χ 2 -statistic with M bins, we present a procedure to calculate the moment generating function of the probability distribution perturbatively if M and N, the number of uniformly and randomly distributed data points, become large. Furthermore, we present a phase diagram for various limits of the probability distribution in terms of the standardized variable if M and N become infinite

  4. Long-term observations of operated and irradiated breast carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decker-Mroz, G.; Schroeder, R.

    1983-01-01

    498 patients with histologically established and surgically removed breast carcinomas received post-operative irradiation treatment at Moabit hospital, Berlin, between 1965 and 1975. The long-term results of this largely standardized therapy have been compiled and evaluated. (orig./MG) [de

  5. Long-term implications of observing an expanding cosmological civilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, S. Jay

    2018-01-01

    Suppose that advanced civilizations, separated by a cosmological distance and time, wish to maximize their access to cosmic resources by rapidly expanding into the universe. How does the presence of one limit the expansionistic ambitions of another, and what sort of boundary forms between their expanding domains? We describe a general scenario for any expansion speed, separation distance and time. We then specialize to a question of particular interest: What are the future prospects for a young and ambitious civilization if they can observe the presence of another at a cosmological distance? We treat cases involving the observation of one or two expanding domains. In the single-observation case, we find that almost any plausible detection will limit one's future cosmic expansion to some extent. Also, practical technological limits to expansion speed (well below the speed of light) play an interesting role. If a domain is visible at the time one embarks on cosmic expansion, higher practical limits to expansion speed are beneficial only up to a certain point. Beyond this point, a higher speed limit means that gains in the ability to expand are more than offset by the first-mover advantage of the observed domain. In the case of two visible domains, it is possible to be `trapped' by them if the practical speed limit is high enough and their angular separation in the sky is large enough, i.e. one's expansion in any direction will terminate at a boundary with the two visible civilizations. Detection at an extreme cosmological distance has surprisingly little mitigating effect on our conclusions.

  6. Error and discrepancy in radiology: inevitable or avoidable?

    OpenAIRE

    Brady, Adrian P.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Errors and discrepancies in radiology practice are uncomfortably common, with an estimated day-to-day rate of 3?5% of studies reported, and much higher rates reported in many targeted studies. Nonetheless, the meaning of the terms ?error? and ?discrepancy? and the relationship to medical negligence are frequently misunderstood. This review outlines the incidence of such events, the ways they can be categorized to aid understanding, and potential contributing factors, both human- and ...

  7. Discrepancy in abo blood grouping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.N.; Ahmed, Z.; Khan, T.A.

    2013-01-01

    Discrepancies in blood typing is one of the major reasons in eliciting a transfusion reaction. These discrepancies can be avoided through detailed analysis for the blood typing. Here, we report a subgroup of blood group type-B in the ABO system. Donor's blood was analyzed by employing commercial antisera for blood grouping. The results of forward (known antisera) and reverse (known antigen) reaction were not complimentary. A detailed analysis using the standard protocols by American Association of Blood Banking revealed the blood type as a variant of blood group-B instead of blood group-O. This is suggestive of the fact that blood group typing should be performed with extreme care and any divergence, if identified, should be properly resolved to avoid transfusion reactions. Moreover, a major study to determine the blood group variants in Pakistani population is needed. (author)

  8. Long term monitoring of landslide: observation gravitational slope cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palis, Edouard; Lebourg, Thomas; Vidal, Maurin

    2016-04-01

    Since several years of studies on landslides, we realized the role and subtle interactions that existed between the structural complexity, masses dynamics and complex internal circulation of fluids. Thus, to gain a better understanding of the processes taking place during the evolution of an unstable slope, an observational study is necessary. In this perspective, our team currently monitors slow moving landslide zones. The aim of such a monitoring is to gain a better knowledge of the links between external forcing (meteorological, seismological) and signals going out of the slope (kinematic, vibrations, electrical resistivity). In December 2000, a dramatic event affected the sandy/clayey landslide in the Southern Alpes Maritimes (France). A 10 meters high scarp appeared at the foot of the landslide and affected private yards nearby. This area then became a major concern for local authorities and understand the processes taking place, a scientific challenge. In order to understand the land-sliding reactivations and to quantify the natural cycles of deformations, we analyse the main factors of this complex system. After 10 years of observation we are now able to highlight some of the complex behaviours by the measurement of physical parameters (geophysical monitoring). A permanent 115 m ERT line (5 meters electrode spacing) has been installed and provides an acquisition daily since 2006. The daily acquisitions are now accompanied by continuous measurements from boreholes (thermometers, piezometers, tiltmeters) and pluviometry. We are able to control the whole monitoring from the lab, and all these data are transmitted in real time. The analysis of these large amounts of data over large time series allows the detection of seasonal cycles of surface activity. The deformation taking place can be assimilated to a near-elastic deformation and show a lateral decoupling on both sides of the fault cutting the landslide. These deformation cycles can be associated with the

  9. Observation of long term potentiation in papain-based memory devices

    KAUST Repository

    Bag, A.

    2014-06-01

    Biological synaptic behavior in terms of long term potentiation has been observed in papain-based (plant protein) memory devices (memristors) for the first time. Improvement in long term potentiation depends on pulse amplitude and width (duration). Continuous/repetitive dc voltage sweep leads to an increase in memristor conductivity leading to a long term memory in the \\'learning\\' processes.

  10. Observation of long term potentiation in papain-based memory devices

    KAUST Repository

    Bag, A.; Hota, Mrinal Kanti; Mallik, Sandipan B.; Maì ti, Chinmay Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Biological synaptic behavior in terms of long term potentiation has been observed in papain-based (plant protein) memory devices (memristors) for the first time. Improvement in long term potentiation depends on pulse amplitude and width (duration). Continuous/repetitive dc voltage sweep leads to an increase in memristor conductivity leading to a long term memory in the 'learning' processes.

  11. Effect of EHR user interface changes on internal prescription discrepancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turchin, A; Sawarkar, A; Dementieva, Y A; Breydo, E; Ramelson, H

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether specific design interventions (changes in the user interface (UI)) of an electronic health record (EHR) medication module are associated with an increase or decrease in the incidence of contradictions between the structured and narrative components of electronic prescriptions (internal prescription discrepancies). We performed a retrospective analysis of 960,000 randomly selected electronic prescriptions generated in a single EHR between 01/2004 and 12/2011. Internal prescription discrepancies were identified using a validated natural language processing tool with recall of 76% and precision of 84%. A multivariable autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model was used to evaluate the effect of five UI changes in the EHR medication module on incidence of internal prescription discrepancies. Over the study period 175,725 (18.4%) prescriptions were found to have internal discrepancies. The highest rate of prescription discrepancies was observed in March 2006 (22.5%) and the lowest in March 2009 (15.0%). Addition of "as directed" option to the dropdown decreased prescription discrepancies by 195 / month (p = 0.0004). An non-interruptive alert that reminded providers to ensure that structured and narrative components did not contradict each other decreased prescription discrepancies by 145 / month (p = 0.03). Addition of a "Renew / Sign" button to the Medication module (a negative control) did not have an effect in prescription discrepancies. Several UI changes in the electronic medication module were effective in reducing the incidence of internal prescription discrepancies. Further research is needed to identify interventions that can completely eliminate this type of prescription error and their effects on patient outcomes.

  12. Effect of EHR User Interface Changes on Internal Prescription Discrepancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawarkar, A.; Dementieva, Y.A.; Breydo, E.; Ramelson, H.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Objective To determine whether specific design interventions (changes in the user interface (UI)) of an electronic health record (EHR) medication module are associated with an increase or decrease in the incidence of contradictions between the structured and narrative components of electronic prescriptions (internal prescription discrepancies). Materials and Methods We performed a retrospective analysis of 960,000 randomly selected electronic prescriptions generated in a single EHR between 01/2004 and 12/2011. Internal prescription discrepancies were identified using a validated natural language processing tool with recall of 76% and precision of 84%. A multivariable autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model was used to evaluate the effect of five UI changes in the EHR medication module on incidence of internal prescription discrepancies. Results Over the study period 175,725 (18.4%) prescriptions were found to have internal discrepancies. The highest rate of prescription discrepancies was observed in March 2006 (22.5%) and the lowest in March 2009 (15.0%). Addition of „as directed“ option to the dropdown decreased prescription discrepancies by 195 / month (p = 0.0004). An non-interruptive alert that reminded providers to ensure that structured and narrative components did not contradict each other decreased prescription discrepancies by 145 / month (p = 0.03). Addition of a „Renew / Sign“ button to the Medication module (a negative control) did not have an effect in prescription discrepancies. Conclusions Several UI changes in the electronic medication module were effective in reducing the incidence of internal prescription discrepancies. Further research is needed to identify interventions that can completely eliminate this type of prescription error and their effects on patient outcomes. PMID:25298811

  13. Scientific Understanding from Long Term Observations: Insights from the Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosz, J.

    2001-12-01

    The network dedicated to Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) in the United States has grown to 24 sites since it was formed in 1980. Long-term research and monitoring are performed on parameters thatare basic to all ecosystems and are required to understand patterns, processes, and relationship to change. Collectively, the sites in the LTER Network provide opportunities to contrast marine, coastal, and continental regions, the full range of climatic gradients existing in North America, and aquatic and terrestrial habitats in a range of ecosystem types. The combination of common core areas and long-term research and monitoring in many habitats have allowed unprecedented abilities to understand and compare complex temporal and spatial dynamics associated with issues like climate change, effects of pollution, biodiversity and landuse. For example, McMurdo Dry Valley in the Antarctic has demonstrated an increase in glacier mass since 1993 which coincides with a period of cooler than normal summers and more than average snowfall. In contrast, the Bonanza Creek and Toolik Lake sites in Alaska have recorded a warming period unprecedented in the past 200 years. Nitrogen deposition effects have been identified through long-term watershed studies on biogeochemical cycles, especially at Coweeta Hydrological Lab, Harvard Forest, and the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest. In aquatic systems, such as the Northern Temperate Lakes site, long-term data revealed time lags in effects of invaders and disturbance on lake communities. Biological recovery from an effect such as lake acidification was shown to lag behind chemical recovery. The long-term changes documented over 2 decades have been instrumental in influencing management practices in many of the LTER areas. In Puerto Rico, the Luquillo LTER demonstrated that dams obstruct migrations of fish and freshwater shrimp and water abstraction at low flows can completely obliterate downstream migration of juveniles and damage

  14. Learning about physical parameters: the importance of model discrepancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brynjarsdóttir, Jenný; O'Hagan, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Science-based simulation models are widely used to predict the behavior of complex physical systems. It is also common to use observations of the physical system to solve the inverse problem, that is, to learn about the values of parameters within the model, a process which is often called calibration. The main goal of calibration is usually to improve the predictive performance of the simulator but the values of the parameters in the model may also be of intrinsic scientific interest in their own right. In order to make appropriate use of observations of the physical system it is important to recognize model discrepancy, the difference between reality and the simulator output. We illustrate through a simple example that an analysis that does not account for model discrepancy may lead to biased and over-confident parameter estimates and predictions. The challenge with incorporating model discrepancy in statistical inverse problems is being confounded with calibration parameters, which will only be resolved with meaningful priors. For our simple example, we model the model-discrepancy via a Gaussian process and demonstrate that through accounting for model discrepancy our prediction within the range of data is correct. However, only with realistic priors on the model discrepancy do we uncover the true parameter values. Through theoretical arguments we show that these findings are typical of the general problem of learning about physical parameters and the underlying physical system using science-based mechanistic models. (paper)

  15. The resolution of discrepancies among nuclear data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peelle, R.

    1992-01-01

    Significant differences among input data occur in the evaluation of nuclear data because it is difficult to achieve experimental results with the accuracy required for some applications. Types of ''discrepancies'' are classified. The means are reviewed by which an evaluator may treat discrepancies in the process of evaluation. When all means fail that are based on how the discrepant data were obtained, the perplexed evaluator must sometimes combine discrepant data based just on the stated values and uncertainties; techniques for treating such challenges are compared. Some well-known data discrepancies are examined as examples

  16. Discrepancies in assessing undergraduates’ pragmatics learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Ndayizeye

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to reveal the level of implementation of authentic assessment in the pragmatics course at the English Education Department of a university. Discrepancy Evaluation Model (DEM was used. The instruments were questionnaire, documentation, and observation. The result of the research shows that respectively, the effectiveness of definition, installation, process, and production stages in logits are -0.06, -0.14, 0.45, and 0.02 on its aspect of the assessment methods’ effectiveness in uncovering students’ ability. Such values indicate that the level of implementation fell respectively into ‘very high’,’high’, ‘low’, and ‘very low’ categories.  The students’ success rate is in ‘very high’ category with the average score of 3.22. However, the overall implementation of the authentic assessment fell into a ‘low’ category with the average score of 0.06. Discrepancies leading to such a low implementation are the unavailability of the assessment scheme, that of scoring rubric, minimal (only 54.54% diversification of assessment methods, infrequency of the lecturer’s feedback on the students’ academic achievement, and the non-use of portfolio assessment.

  17. Imaging with Kantorovich--Rubinstein Discrepancy

    KAUST Repository

    Lellmann, Jan

    2014-01-01

    © 2014 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics. We propose the use of the Kantorovich-Rubinstein norm from optimal transport in imaging problems. In particular, we discuss a variational regularization model endowed with a Kantorovich- Rubinstein discrepancy term and total variation regularization in the context of image denoising and cartoon-texture decomposition. We point out connections of this approach to several other recently proposed methods such as total generalized variation and norms capturing oscillating patterns. We also show that the respective optimization problem can be turned into a convex-concave saddle point problem with simple constraints and hence can be solved by standard tools. Numerical examples exhibit interesting features and favorable performance for denoising and cartoon-texture decomposition.

  18. Short-term climatic fluctuations and the interpretation of recent observations in terms of greenhouse effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andre, J.C.; Royer, J.F.

    1999-01-01

    Simulations of future climate made with coupled general circulation models of the atmosphere and ocean predict that the increase of the concentration of greenhouse gases released in the atmosphere by man's activities will have a large influence on the climate of the next century. The identification of the climatic impact produced by the rapid increase in carbon dioxide concentration in the last decades is made difficult by strong inter-annual climate variability, and requires the application of statistical techniques combining several climatic indicators (method of climatic 'fingerprints') so as to improve the detection of a possible anthropogenic perturbation. In this paper we review the evolution through the last decades of several climate indicators showing global warming, its geographical distribution, sea level, the hydrological cycle and the response of vegetation, and we compare them to the model results predicted in climate scenarios. The coherence between model results and observed climatic trends shows that the additional greenhouse effect is starting to become detectable in recent climatic data. (authors)

  19. Future sea level rise constrained by observations and long-term commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengel, Matthias; Levermann, Anders; Frieler, Katja; Robinson, Alexander; Marzeion, Ben; Winkelmann, Ricarda

    2016-01-01

    Sea level has been steadily rising over the past century, predominantly due to anthropogenic climate change. The rate of sea level rise will keep increasing with continued global warming, and, even if temperatures are stabilized through the phasing out of greenhouse gas emissions, sea level is still expected to rise for centuries. This will affect coastal areas worldwide, and robust projections are needed to assess mitigation options and guide adaptation measures. Here we combine the equilibrium response of the main sea level rise contributions with their last century's observed contribution to constrain projections of future sea level rise. Our model is calibrated to a set of observations for each contribution, and the observational and climate uncertainties are combined to produce uncertainty ranges for 21st century sea level rise. We project anthropogenic sea level rise of 28–56 cm, 37–77 cm, and 57–131 cm in 2100 for the greenhouse gas concentration scenarios RCP26, RCP45, and RCP85, respectively. Our uncertainty ranges for total sea level rise overlap with the process-based estimates of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. The “constrained extrapolation” approach generalizes earlier global semiempirical models and may therefore lead to a better understanding of the discrepancies with process-based projections. PMID:26903648

  20. Future sea level rise constrained by observations and long-term commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengel, Matthias; Levermann, Anders; Frieler, Katja; Robinson, Alexander; Marzeion, Ben; Winkelmann, Ricarda

    2016-03-08

    Sea level has been steadily rising over the past century, predominantly due to anthropogenic climate change. The rate of sea level rise will keep increasing with continued global warming, and, even if temperatures are stabilized through the phasing out of greenhouse gas emissions, sea level is still expected to rise for centuries. This will affect coastal areas worldwide, and robust projections are needed to assess mitigation options and guide adaptation measures. Here we combine the equilibrium response of the main sea level rise contributions with their last century's observed contribution to constrain projections of future sea level rise. Our model is calibrated to a set of observations for each contribution, and the observational and climate uncertainties are combined to produce uncertainty ranges for 21st century sea level rise. We project anthropogenic sea level rise of 28-56 cm, 37-77 cm, and 57-131 cm in 2100 for the greenhouse gas concentration scenarios RCP26, RCP45, and RCP85, respectively. Our uncertainty ranges for total sea level rise overlap with the process-based estimates of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. The "constrained extrapolation" approach generalizes earlier global semiempirical models and may therefore lead to a better understanding of the discrepancies with process-based projections.

  1. Discrepancies in general surgery medical terminology between South and North Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Keunyoung; Park, Do-Eon; Oh, Heung-Kwon; Yang, Hyun Hui; Ko, Dayoung; Kim, Min-Hyun; Kim, Myung Jo; Kang, Sung Il; Kim, Duck-Woo; Kang, Sung-Bum

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to categorize surgery-related medical terminologies used in South and North Korea and to compare and analyze discrepancies observed in the terms. This study collected medical terminology used in the North Korean medical book "Surgery" and compared it to medical terminology found in the medical glossary of South Korea. The order of the subtitle was described according to the Instruction to Authors. In total, there were 2,168 individual medical terms, of which only 1,004 words (46.3%) were identical to South Korean medical terms. There were 581 similar terms (26.8%), 265 different terms (12.2%), and 318 terms that are nonexistent in South Korea (14.7%). Less than half of the medical terms used in North Korea match those used in South Korea. It is expected that the prolongation of the current division of South and North Korea will only worsen this discrepancy. Further efforts to bridge the gap through academic exchange between South Korea and North Korea are required in preparation for an era of reunification.

  2. The Observation of Bahasa Indonesia Official Computer Terms Implementation in Scientific Publication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawan, D.; Amalia, A.; Lydia, M. S.; Muthaqin, M. I.

    2018-03-01

    The government of the Republic of Indonesia had issued a regulation to substitute computer terms in foreign language that have been used earlier into official computer terms in Bahasa Indonesia. This regulation was stipulated in Presidential Decree No. 2 of 2001 concerning the introduction of official computer terms in Bahasa Indonesia (known as Senarai Padanan Istilah/SPI). After sixteen years, people of Indonesia, particularly for academics, should have implemented the official computer terms in their official publications. This observation is conducted to discover the implementation of official computer terms usage in scientific publications which are written in Bahasa Indonesia. The data source used in this observation are the publications by the academics, particularly in computer science field. The method used in the observation is divided into four stages. The first stage is metadata harvesting by using Open Archive Initiative - Protocol for Metadata Harvesting (OAI-PMH). Second, converting the harvested document (in pdf format) to plain text. The third stage is text-preprocessing as the preparation of string matching. Then the final stage is searching the official computer terms based on 629 SPI terms by using Boyer-Moore algorithm. We observed that there are 240,781 foreign computer terms in 1,156 scientific publications from six universities. This result shows that the foreign computer terms are still widely used by the academics.

  3. Long-term oceanographic observations in Massachusetts Bay, 1989-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butman, Bradford; Alexander, P. Soupy; Bothner, Michael H.; Borden, Jonathan; Casso, Michael A.; Gutierrez, Benjamin T.; Hastings, Mary E.; Lightsom, Frances L.; Martini, Marinna A.; Montgomery, Ellyn T.; Rendigs, Richard R.; Strahle, William S.

    2009-01-01

    This data report presents long-term oceanographic observations made in western Massachusetts Bay at long-term site A (LT-A) (42 deg 22.6' N., 70 deg 47.0' W.; nominal water depth 32 meters) from December 1989 through February 2006 and long-term site B (LT-B) (42 deg 9.8' N., 70 deg 38.4' W.; nominal water depth 22 meters) from October 1997 through February 2004 (fig. 1). The observations were collected as part of a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) study designed to understand the transport and long-term fate of sediments and associated contaminants in Massachusetts Bay. The observations include time-series measurements of current, temperature, salinity, light transmission, pressure, oxygen, fluorescence, and sediment-trapping rate. About 160 separate mooring or tripod deployments were made on about 90 research cruises to collect these long-term observations. This report presents a description of the 16-year field program and the instrumentation used to make the measurements, an overview of the data set, more than 2,500 pages of statistics and plots that summarize the data, and the digital data in Network Common Data Form (NetCDF) format. This research was conducted by the USGS in cooperation with the Massachusetts Water Resources Authority and the U.S. Coast Guard.

  4. Ultrastructure of mouse intestinal mucosa and changes observed after long term anthraquinone administration.

    OpenAIRE

    Dufour, P; Gendre, P

    1984-01-01

    In an attempt to study the relative toxicity of anthraquinonic laxatives on intestinal mucosa, we compared in mice the effects of fruit pulp containing sennosides A and B with those of a free anthraquinone, 1-8 dihydroxyanthraquinone. Observations have been made with transmission electron microscopy (EM) after 16 weeks of treatment with the two drugs. Although the doses used in this study were equipotent in terms of laxative activity, no damage to the intestinal tissue was observed with the s...

  5. Discrepancies between cognition and decision making in older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Patricia A.; James, Bryan D.; Yu, Lei; Barnes, Lisa L.; Bennett, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims There is increasing clinical and legal interest in discrepancies between decision-making ability and cognition in old age, a stage of life when decisions have major ramifications. We investigated the frequency and correlates of such discrepancies in non-demented older adults participating in a large community-based cohort study of aging, the Rush Memory and Aging Project. Methods Participants [n = 689, mean age 81.8 (SD 7.6), mean education 15.2 (SD 3.1), 76.8 % female and 93.3 % white] completed a measure of financial and healthcare decision making (DM) and a battery of 19 neuropsychological tests from which a composite measure of global cognition (COG) was derived. Results Results indicated that 23.9 % of the sample showed a significant discrepancy between DM and COG abilities. Of these, 12.9 % showed DM COG. Logistic regression models showed older age, being non-white, greater temporal discounting, and greater risk aversion were associated with higher odds of being in the DM COG group. Education, income, depressive symptoms, and impulsivity were not associated with a discrepancy. Only demographic associations (age, sex, and race) remained significant in a fully adjusted model with terms included for all factors. Conclusion These results support the consideration of decision making and cognition as potentially separate constructs. PMID:25995167

  6. Error and discrepancy in radiology: inevitable or avoidable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Adrian P

    2017-02-01

    Errors and discrepancies in radiology practice are uncomfortably common, with an estimated day-to-day rate of 3-5% of studies reported, and much higher rates reported in many targeted studies. Nonetheless, the meaning of the terms "error" and "discrepancy" and the relationship to medical negligence are frequently misunderstood. This review outlines the incidence of such events, the ways they can be categorized to aid understanding, and potential contributing factors, both human- and system-based. Possible strategies to minimise error are considered, along with the means of dealing with perceived underperformance when it is identified. The inevitability of imperfection is explained, while the importance of striving to minimise such imperfection is emphasised. • Discrepancies between radiology reports and subsequent patient outcomes are not inevitably errors. • Radiologist reporting performance cannot be perfect, and some errors are inevitable. • Error or discrepancy in radiology reporting does not equate negligence. • Radiologist errors occur for many reasons, both human- and system-derived. • Strategies exist to minimise error causes and to learn from errors made.

  7. Man enough? Masculine discrepancy stress and intimate partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidy, Dennis E; Berke, Danielle S; Gentile, Brittany; Zeichner, Amos

    2014-10-01

    Research on gender roles suggests that men who strongly adhere to traditional masculine gender norms are at increased risk for the perpetration of violent and abusive acts toward their female intimate partners. Yet, gender norms alone fail to provide a comprehensive explanation of the multifaceted construct of intimate partner violence (IPV) and there is theoretical reason to suspect that men who fail to conform to masculine roles may equally be at risk for IPV. In the present study, we assessed effect of masculine discrepancy stress , a form of distress arising from perceived failure to conform to socially-prescribed masculine gender role norms, on IPV. Six-hundred men completed online surveys assessing their experience of discrepancy stress, masculine gender role norms, and history of IPV. Results indicated that masculine discrepancy stress significantly predicted men's historical perpetration of IPV independent of other masculinity related variables. Findings are discussed in terms of potential distress engendered by masculine socialization as well as putative implications of gender role discrepancy stress for understanding and intervening in partner violence perpetrated by men.

  8. Man enough? Masculine discrepancy stress and intimate partner violence☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidy, Dennis E.; Berke, Danielle S.; Gentile, Brittany; Zeichner, Amos

    2018-01-01

    Research on gender roles suggests that men who strongly adhere to traditional masculine gender norms are at increased risk for the perpetration of violent and abusive acts toward their female intimate partners. Yet, gender norms alone fail to provide a comprehensive explanation of the multifaceted construct of intimate partner violence (IPV) and there is theoretical reason to suspect that men who fail to conform to masculine roles may equally be at risk for IPV. In the present study, we assessed effect of masculine discrepancy stress, a form of distress arising from perceived failure to conform to socially-prescribed masculine gender role norms, on IPV. Six-hundred men completed online surveys assessing their experience of discrepancy stress, masculine gender role norms, and history of IPV. Results indicated that masculine discrepancy stress significantly predicted men’s historical perpetration of IPV independent of other masculinity related variables. Findings are discussed in terms of potential distress engendered by masculine socialization as well as putative implications of gender role discrepancy stress for understanding and intervening in partner violence perpetrated by men. PMID:29593368

  9. Binarity and the Abundance Discrepancy Problem in Planetary Nebulae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corradi, Romano L. M.; García-Rojas, Jorge; Jones, David; Rodríguez-Gil, Pablo

    2015-04-01

    The discrepancy between abundances computed using optical recombination lines and collisionally excited lines is a major unresolved problem in nebular astrophysics. Here, we show that the largest abundance discrepancies are reached in planetary nebulae with close binary central stars. We illustrate this using deep spectroscopy of three nebulae with a post common-envelope (CE) binary star. Abell 46 and Ou 5 have O2+/H+ abundance discrepancy factors larger than 50, and as high as 300 in the inner regions of Abell 46. Abell 63 has a smaller discrepancy factor around 10, which is still above the typical values in ionized nebulae. Our spectroscopic analysis supports previous conclusions that, in addition to “standard” hot ({{T}e} ˜ 104 K) gas, there exists a colder ({{T}e} ˜ 103 K), ionized component that is highly enriched in heavy elements. These nebulae have low ionized masses, between 10-3 and 10-1 M⊙ depending on the adopted electron densities and temperatures. Since the much more massive red giant envelope is expected to be entirely ejected in the CE phase, the currently observed nebulae would be produced much later, during post-CE mass loss episodes when the envelope has already dispersed. These observations add constraints to the abundance discrepancy problem. We revise possible explanations. Some explanations are naturally linked to binarity such as, for instance, high-metallicity nova ejecta, but it is difficult at this stage to depict an evolutionary scenario consistent with all of the observed properties. We also introduce the hypothesis that these nebulae are the result of tidal destruction, accretion, and ejection of Jupiter-like planets.

  10. Global variation in the long-term seasonal changes observed in ionospheric F region data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Scott

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Long-term variability has previously been observed in the relative magnitude of annual and semi-annual variations in the critical frequency (related to the peak electron concentration of the ionospheric F2 layer (foF2. In this paper we investigate the global patterns in such variability by calculating the time varying power ratio of semi-annual to annual components seen in ionospheric foF2 data sequences from 77 ionospheric monitoring stations around the world. The temporal variation in power ratios observed at each station was then correlated with the same parameter calculated from similar epochs for the Slough/Chilton data set (for which there exists the longest continuous sequence of ionospheric data. This technique reveals strong regional variation in the data, which bears a striking similarity to the regional variation observed in long-term changes to the height of the ionospheric F2 layer. We argue that since both the height and peak density of the ionospheric F2 region are influenced by changes to thermospheric circulation and composition, the observed long-term and regional variability can be explained by such changes. In the absence of long-term measurements of thermospheric composition, detailed modelling work is required to investigate these processes.

  11. Long-term climate monitoring by the global climate observing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karl, T.R.

    1995-12-01

    Is the climate warming? Is the hydrologic cycle changing? Is the atmospheric/oceanic circulation changing? Is the climate becoming more variable or extreme? Is radiative forcing of the climate changing? are complex questions not only from the standpoint of a multi-variate problem, but because of the various aspects of spatial and temporal sampling that must be considered on a global scale. The development of a Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) offers the opportunity for scientists to do something about existing observing deficiencies in light of the importance of documenting long-term climate changes that may already be affected by anthropogenic changes of atmospheric composition and land use as well as other naturally occurring changes. As an important step toward improving the present inadequacies, a workshop was held to help define the long-term monitoring requirements minimally needed to address the five questions posed above, with special emphasis on detecting anthropogenic climate change and its potential impact on managed and unmanaged systems The workshop focussed on three broad areas related to long-term climate monitoring: (a) the scientific rationale for the long-term climate products (including their accuracy, resolution, and homogeneity) required from our observing systems as related to climate monitoring and climate change detection and attribution; (b) the status of long-term climate products and the observing systems from which these data are derived; and (c) implementation strategies necessary to fulfill item (a) in light of existing systems. Item (c) was treated more in terms of feasibility rather than as a specific implementation plan. figs., tabs., refs

  12. Deteriorating water clarity in shallow waters: Evidence from long term MODIS and in-situ observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Kun; Zhang, Yunlin; Zhu, Guangwei; Qin, Boqiang; Pan, Delu

    2018-06-01

    Water clarity (Secchi disk depth: SDD), as a proxy of water transparency, provides important information on the light availability to the water or lake ecosystem. Shallow lakes have been experienced dramatic environmental and climatic change. This study demonstrated using combination of long-term MODIS and in-situ measurements to track the dynamics of SDD with these environmental and climate changes in shallow water environments. We selected a typical turbid shallow Lake Taihu as our case study. Based on MODIS-Aqua data, an empirical model for estimating SDD was developed and validated. Subsequently, we employed the proposed model to derive the spatial and temporal SDD distribution patterns of Lake Taihu from 2003 to 2015. Combining MODIS-derived SDD time series of 2003-2015 and long-term in-situ SDD observations dated back to 1993, we elucidated SDD long-term variation trends and driving mechanism. Deteriorating water clarity from the long-term SDD observations indicated that Lake Taihu became more and more turbid and water quality was decreasing. Increasing in cyanobacterial bloom area, as a result of decreasing in wind speed and eutrophication, may partially be responsible for the decreasing trend. A predicted future decrease in the wind speed in Lake Taihu region could enhance the formation of cyanobacterial blooms and consequently lead to a further decrease in water clarity. This study suggested that coupling remote sensing monitoring and long-term in-situ observations could provide robust evidence and new insights to elucidate long-term dynamics in aquatic ecosystem evolution.

  13. Short- and Long-Term Feedbacks on Vegetation Water Use: Unifying Evidence from Observations and Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, D. S.

    2001-05-01

    Recent efforts to measure and model the interacting influences of climate, soil, and vegetation on soil water and nutrient dynamics have identified numerous important feedbacks that produce nonlinear responses. In particular, plant physiological factors that control rates of transpiration respond to soil water deficits and vapor pressure deficits (VPD) in the short-term, and to climate, nutrient cycling and disturbance in the long-term. The starting point of this presentation is the observation that in many systems, in particular forest ecosystems, conservative water use emerges as a result of short-term closure of stomata in response to high evaporative demand, and long-term vegetative canopy development under nutrient limiting conditions. Evidence for important short-term controls is presented from sap flux measurements of stand transpiration, remote sensing, and modeling of transpiration through a combination of physically-based modeling and Monte Carlo analysis. A common result is a strong association between stomatal conductance (gs) and the negative evaporative gain (∂ gs/∂ VPD) associated with the sensitivity of stomatal closure to rates of water loss. The importance of this association from the standpoint of modeling transpiration depends on the degree of canopy-atmosphere coupling. This suggests possible simplifications to future canopy component models for use in watershed and larger-scale hydrologic models for short-term processes. However, further results are presented from theoretical modeling, which suggest that feedbacks between hydrology and vegetation in current long-term (inter-annual to century) models may be too simple, as they do not capture the spatially variable nature of slow nutrient cycling in response to soil water dynamics and site history. Memory effects in the soil nutrient pools can leave lasting effects on more rapid processes associated with soil, vegetation, atmosphere coupling.

  14. Global long-term ozone trends derived from different observed and modelled data sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coldewey-Egbers, M.; Loyola, D.; Zimmer, W.; van Roozendael, M.; Lerot, C.; Dameris, M.; Garny, H.; Braesicke, P.; Koukouli, M.; Balis, D.

    2012-04-01

    The long-term behaviour of stratospheric ozone amounts during the past three decades is investigated on a global scale using different observed and modelled data sets. Three European satellite sensors GOME/ERS-2, SCIAMACHY/ENVISAT, and GOME-2/METOP are combined and a merged global monthly mean total ozone product has been prepared using an inter-satellite calibration approach. The data set covers the 16-years period from June 1995 to June 2011 and it exhibits an excellent long-term stability, which is required for such trend studies. A multiple linear least-squares regression algorithm using different explanatory variables is applied to the time series and statistically significant positive trends are detected in the northern mid latitudes and subtropics. Global trends are also estimated using a second satellite-based Merged Ozone Data set (MOD) provided by NASA. For few selected geographical regions ozone trends are additionally calculated using well-maintained measurements of individual Dobson/Brewer ground-based instruments. A reasonable agreement in the spatial patterns of the trends is found amongst the European satellite, the NASA satellite, and the ground-based observations. Furthermore, two long-term simulations obtained with the Chemistry-Climate Models E39C-A provided by German Aerospace Center and UMUKCA-UCAM provided by University of Cambridge are analysed.

  15. GLAS Long-Term Archive: Preservation and Stewardship for a Vital Earth Observing Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, D. K.; Moses, J. F.; Zwally, J.; Schutz, B. E.; Hancock, D.; McAllister, M.; Webster, D.; Bond, C.

    2012-12-01

    Data Stewardship, preservation, and reproducibility are fast becoming principal parts of a data manager's work. In an era of distributed data and information systems, it is of vital importance that organizations make a commitment to both current and long-term goals of data management and the preservation of scientific data. Satellite missions and instruments go through a lifecycle that involves pre-launch calibration, on-orbit data acquisition and product generation, and final reprocessing. Data products and descriptions flow to the archives for distribution on a regular basis during the active part of the mission. However there is additional information from the product generation and science teams needed to ensure the observations will be useful for long term climate studies. Examples include ancillary input datasets, product generation software, and production history as developed by the team during the course of product generation. These data and information will need to be archived after product data processing is completed. NASA has developed a set of Earth science data and information content requirements for long term preservation that is being used for all the EOS missions as they come to completion. Since the ICESat/GLAS mission was one of the first to end, NASA and NSIDC, in collaboration with the science team, are collecting data, software, and documentation, preparing for long-term support of the ICESat mission. For a long-term archive, it is imperative to preserve sufficient information about how products were prepared in order to ensure future researchers that the scientific results are accurate, understandable, and useable. Our experience suggests data centers know what to preserve in most cases. That is, the processing algorithms along with the Level 0 or Level 1a input and ancillary products used to create the higher-level products will be archived and made available to users. In other cases, such as pre-launch, calibration/validation, and test

  16. [Silymarin/galega administration in term and preterm mothers to sustain breast feeding: an observational study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castoldi, F; Pivetti, V; Moiraghi, L; Marangione, P; Lista, G

    2014-10-01

    Breastfeeding is considered the most important source of nutrition both in the first year of life for term and preterm infants, because of its well-known positive effects on short and long-term outcome. Unfortunately not all the mothers can begin or maintain an adequate milk secretion. Premature delivery and prolonged length of stay in the hospital can influence maternal milk production due to maternal anxiety and/ or neonatal pathologies related to prematurity. A variety of herbal and pharmaceutical products have been recommended as galactogogues, substances that promote lactation. In this observational study, the authors compared the effect on breast milk production of an oral maternal supplementation of two galactogogues (sylimarine and galega-Lutein latte®) in a term and preterm mothers group (preterm infants recovered in neonatal intensive care unit-NICU). The breast milk production significantly reduced at start in preterm mothers (N.=16) versus term mothers (N.=16) (P<0.08), after sylimarine and galega supplementation was the same in both groups within two months of life (P=NS). This galactogogues supplementation could be recommended to maintain an adequate lactation in premature mothers, especially when their infants are still recovered in the NICU.

  17. Comparison of long-term Moscow and Danish NLC observations: statistical results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Dalin

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Noctilucent clouds (NLC are the highest clouds in the Earth's atmosphere, observed close to the mesopause at 80–90 km altitudes. Systematic NLC observations conducted in Moscow for the period of 1962–2005 and in Denmark for 1983–2005 are compared and statistical results both for seasonally summarized NLC parameters and for individual NLC appearances are described. Careful attention is paid to the weather conditions during each season of observations. This turns out to be a very important factor both for the NLC case study and for long-term data set analysis. Time series of seasonal values show moderate similarity (taking into account the weather conditions but, at the same time, the comparison of individual cases of NLC occurrence reveals substantial differences. There are positive trends in the Moscow and Danish normalized NLC brightness as well as nearly zero trend in the Moscow normalized NLC occurrence frequency but these long-term changes are not statistically significant. The quasi-ten-year cycle in NLC parameters is about 1 year shorter than the solar cycle during the same period. The characteristic scale of NLC fields is estimated for the first time and it is found to be less than 800 km.

  18. Discrepancy between snack choice intentions and behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijzen, P.L.G.; Graaf, de C.; Dijksterhuis, G.B.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate dietary constructs that affect the discrepancy between intentioned and actual snack choice. Design Participants indicated their intentioned snack choice from a set of 4 snacks (2 healthful, 2 unhealthful). One week later, they actually chose a snack from the same set. Within

  19. Discrepancy between Snack Choice Intentions and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weijzen, Pascalle L. G.; de Graaf, Cees; Dijksterhuis, Garmt B.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate dietary constructs that affect the discrepancy between intentioned and actual snack choice. Design: Participants indicated their intentioned snack choice from a set of 4 snacks (2 healthful, 2 unhealthful). One week later, they actually chose a snack from the same set. Within 1 week after the actual choice, they completed…

  20. Long-Term Observations of Dust Storms in Sandy Desert Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Hye-Won; Kim, Jung-Rack; Choi, Yun-Soo

    2015-04-01

    Mineral dust occupies the largest portion of atmospheric aerosol. Considering the numerous risks that dust poses for socioeconomic and anthropogenic activities, it is crucial to understand sandy desert environments, which frequently generate dust storms and act as a primary source of atmospheric aerosol. To identify mineral aerosol mechanisms, it is essential to monitor desert environmental factors involving dust storm generation in the long term. In this study, we focused on two major environmental factors: local surface roughness and soil moisture. Since installments of ground observation networks in sandy deserts are unfeasible, remote sensing techniques for mining desert environmental factors were employed. The test area was established within the Badain Jaran and Kubuqi Deserts in Inner Mongolia, China, where significant seasonal aeolian processes emit mineral dust that influences all of East Asia. To trace local surface roughness, we employed a multi-angle imaging spectroradiometer (MISR) image sequence to extract multi-angle viewing (MAV) topographic parameters such as normalized difference angular index, which represents characteristics of the target desert topography. The backscattering coefficient from various space-borne SAR and stereotopography were compared with MAV observations to determine calibrated local surface roughness. Soil moisture extraction techniques from InSAR-phase coherence stacks were developed and compiled with advanced scatterometer (ASCAT) soil moisture data. Combined with metrological information such as the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) ERA interim, correlations between intensity of sand dune activity as a proxy of aeolian processes in desert environments, surface wind conditions, and surface soil moisture were traced. Overall, we have confirmed that tracking sandy desert aeolian environments for long-term observations is feasible with space-borne, multi-sensor observations when combined with

  1. Long Term Preservation of Earth Observation Data in Europe - Challenge and Cooperation Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molch, K.; Albani, M.

    2014-12-01

    Earth observation data are unique snapshots of the Earth and the atmosphere. As such they constitute a humankind asset in their importance for monitoring changes in global environmental conditions. With spaceborne Earth observation (EO) missions dating back to the 1970s, 40 years worth of observations are now available in EO data archives worldwide. Data holdings are growing exponentially, e.g. with the Sentinel series of high resolution EO satellites of the European Copernicus Program - which introduces a new dimension of data volumes to be handled. As other EO data holders around the globe, the European Space Agency (ESA) and its member states are committed to keeping the valuable EO data assets safe, accessible, and useable for an unlimited timespan. Rapidly evolving information technology and changing user requirements call for a dedicated and coordinated approach to EO data long term preservation. In Europe collaborative EO data stewardship activities are coordinated by ESA within the ESA long term data preservation (LTDP) program. With a view to the entire data set life cycle of historic and current missions an active LTDP working group addresses a wide range of relevant technical and organizational topics. Studies investigate archiving and access technologies, user expectations, or applicable standards; guidelines and best practices recommend preservation workflows, steps to take in curating individual data sets, the composition of the preserved data set, or concepts for introducing persistent identifiers. Fostering an active international exchange, the activities and documents developed within this European LTDP framework extend beyond Europe by being introduced to the Group on Earth Observations (GEO) and the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS). The paper describes the European LTDP cooperation framework, discusses individual focus areas and current activities, and highlights the interaction with global data stewardship initiatives.

  2. Consequences of discrepancies on verified material balances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaech, J.L.; Hough, C.G.

    1983-01-01

    There exists a gap between the way item discrepancies that are found in an IAEA inspection are treated in practice and how they are treated in the IAEA Safeguards Technical Manual, Part F, Statistics. In the latter case, the existence of even a single item discrepancy is cause for rejection of the facility data. Probabilities of detection for given inspection plans are calculated based on this premise. In fact, although the existence of discrepancies may be so noted in inspection reports, they in no sense of the word lead to rejection of the facility data, i.e., to ''detection''. Clearly, however, discrepancies have an effect on the integrity of the material balance, and in fact, this effect may well be of dominant importance when compared to that of small measurement biases. This paper provides a quantitative evaluation of the effect of item discrepancies on the facility MUF. The G-circumflex statistic is introduced. It is analogous to the familiar D-circumflex statistic used to quantify the effects of small biases. Thus, just as (MUF-D-circumflex) is the facility MUF adjusted for the inspector's variables measurements, so is (MUF-D-circumflex-G-circumflex) the MUF adjusted for both the variables and attributes measurements, where it is the attributes inspection that detects item discrepancies. The distribution of (MUF-D-circumflex-G-circumflex) is approximated by a Pearson's distribution after finding the first four moments. Both the number of discrepancies and their size and sign distribution are treated as random variables. Assuming, then, that ''detection'' occurs when (MUF-D-circumflex-G-circumflex) differs significantly from zero, procedures for calculating effectiveness are derived. Some generic results on effectiveness are included. These results apply either to the case where (MUF-D-circumflex-G-circumflex) is treated as the single statistic, or to the two-step procedure in which the facility's data are first examined using (D-circumflex+G-circumflex) as

  3. Diverse Long-term Variability of Five Candidate High-mass X-Ray Binaries from Swift Burst Alert Telescope Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbet, Robin H. D. [University of Maryland, Baltimore County, MD 21250 (United States); Coley, Joel B. [NASA Postdoctoral Program, and Astroparticle Physics Laboratory, Code 661 NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt Road, MD 20771 (United States); Krimm, Hans A., E-mail: corbet@umbc.edu [Universities Space Research Association, 10211 Wincopin Circle, Suite 500, Columbia, MD 21044 (United States)

    2017-09-10

    We present an investigation of long-term modulation in the X-ray light curves of five little-studied candidate high-mass X-ray binaries using the Swift Burst Alert Telescope. IGR J14488-5942 and AX J1700.2-4220 show strong modulation at periods of 49.6 and 44 days, respectively, which are interpreted as orbital periods of Be star systems. For IGR J14488-5942, observations with the Swift X-ray Telescope show a hint of pulsations at 33.4 s. For AX J1700.2-4220, 54 s pulsations were previously found with XMM-Newton . Swift J1816.7-1613 exhibits complicated behavior. The strongest peak in the power spectrum is at a period near 150 days, but this conflicts with a determination of a period of 118.5 days by La Parola et al. AX J1820.5-1434 has been proposed to exhibit modulation near 54 days, but the extended BAT observations suggest modulation at slightly longer than double this at approximately 111 days. There appears to be a long-term change in the shape of the modulation near 111 days, which may explain the apparent discrepancy. The X-ray pulsar XTE J1906+090, which was previously proposed to be a Be star system with an orbital period of ∼30 days from pulse timing, shows peaks in the power spectrum at 81 and 173 days. The origins of these periods are unclear, although they might be the orbital period and a superorbital period respectively. For all five sources, the long-term variability, together with the combination of orbital and proposed pulse periods, suggests that the sources contain Be star mass donors.

  4. Identification of medication discrepancies during hospital admission in Jordan: Prevalence and risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lana Salameh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Medication errors are considered among the most common causes of morbidity and mortality in hospital setting. Among these errors are discrepancies identified during transfer of patients from one care unit to another, from one physician care to another, or upon patient discharge. Thus, the aims of this study were to identify the prevalence and types of medication discrepancies at the time of hospital admission to a tertiary care teaching hospital in Jordan and to identify risk factors affecting the occurrence of these discrepancies. Methods: A three months prospective observational study was conducted at the department of internal medicine at Jordan university hospital. During the study period, 200 patients were selected using convenience sampling, and a pre-prepared data collection form was used for data collection. Later, a comparison between the pre-admission and admission medication was conducted to identify any possible discrepancies, and all of these discrepancies were discussed with the responsible resident to classify them into intentional (documentation errors or unintentional. Linear regression analysis was performed to assess risk factors associated with the occurrence of unintentional discrepancies. Results: A total of 412 medication discrepancies were identified at the time of hospital admission. Among them, 144 (35% were identified as unintentional while the remaining 268 (65% were identified as intentional discrepancies. Ninety-four patients (47% were found to have at least one unintentional discrepancy and 92 patients (46% had at least one documentation error. Among the unintentional discrepancies, 97 (67% were found to be associated with a potential harm/deterioration to the patients. Increasing patients’ age (beta = 0.195, p-value = .013 and being treated by female residents (beta = 0.139, p-value = .045 were significantly associated with higher number of discrepancies. Conclusion: The prevalence of

  5. Long-term observation of the geological environment: needs and techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    For site characterization programmes aimed at determining the suitability of sites for the disposal of radioactive waste, attention must be given to collecting data over long periods of time for adequate understanding of certain processes in the geological environment (hydrologic conditions, seismicity etc.). It is important for all national projects to carefully plan and implement programmes to observe the long-term behaviour of the geological environment in order to secure high-quality, reliable data for use in safety assessments. These proceedings present the results of a workshop organized to discuss the needs and techniques related to the planning and implementation of such programmes. 13 papers have been presented

  6. Apical root resorption caused by orthodontic forces: A brief review and a long-term observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topkara, Ahu; Karaman, Ali I; Kau, Chung H

    2012-10-01

    External apical root resorption (ARR) is a common iatrogenic consequence of orthodontic treatment. One of the aims of this article is to present a brief overview of the literature, including; diagnosis and etiology, with emphasis on orthodontic forces to facilitate an understand of the prevention or management of ARR in orthodontic patients. We also present a long-term follow-up observation of severe ARR, including the last obtained cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) records, to demonstrate the effect of orthodontic forces on ARR.

  7. Abdominal and pelvic computed tomography (CT) interpretation: discrepancy rates among experienced radiologists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abujudeh, Hani H.; Boland, Giles W.; Kaewlai, Rathachai; Rabiner, Pavel; Thrall, James H. [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Halpern, Elkarn F.; Gazelle, G.S. [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Institute for Technology Assessment, Boston, MA (United States)

    2010-08-15

    To assess the discrepancy rate for the interpretation of abdominal and pelvic computed tomography (CT) examinations among experienced radiologists. Ninety abdominal and pelvic CT examinations reported by three experienced radiologists who specialize in abdominal imaging were randomly selected from the radiological database. The same radiologists, blinded to previous interpretation, were asked to re-interpret 60 examinations: 30 of their previous interpretations and 30 interpreted by others. All reports were assessed for the degree of discrepancy between initial and repeat interpretations according to a three-level scoring system: no discrepancy, minor, or major discrepancy. Inter- and intrareader discrepancy rates and causes were evaluated. CT examinations included in the investigation were performed on 90 patients (43 men, mean age 59 years, SD 14, range 19-88) for the following indications: follow-up/evaluation of malignancy (69/90, 77%), pancreatitis (5/90, 6%), urinary tract stone (4/90, 4%) or other (12/90, 13%). Interobserver and intraobserver major discrepancy rates were 26 and 32%, respectively. Major discrepancies were due to missed findings, different opinions regarding interval change of clinically significant findings, and the presence of recommendation. Major discrepancy of between 26 and 32% was observed in the interpretation of abdominal and pelvic CT examinations. (orig.)

  8. Abdominal and pelvic computed tomography (CT) interpretation: discrepancy rates among experienced radiologists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abujudeh, Hani H.; Boland, Giles W.; Kaewlai, Rathachai; Rabiner, Pavel; Thrall, James H.; Halpern, Elkarn F.; Gazelle, G.S.

    2010-01-01

    To assess the discrepancy rate for the interpretation of abdominal and pelvic computed tomography (CT) examinations among experienced radiologists. Ninety abdominal and pelvic CT examinations reported by three experienced radiologists who specialize in abdominal imaging were randomly selected from the radiological database. The same radiologists, blinded to previous interpretation, were asked to re-interpret 60 examinations: 30 of their previous interpretations and 30 interpreted by others. All reports were assessed for the degree of discrepancy between initial and repeat interpretations according to a three-level scoring system: no discrepancy, minor, or major discrepancy. Inter- and intrareader discrepancy rates and causes were evaluated. CT examinations included in the investigation were performed on 90 patients (43 men, mean age 59 years, SD 14, range 19-88) for the following indications: follow-up/evaluation of malignancy (69/90, 77%), pancreatitis (5/90, 6%), urinary tract stone (4/90, 4%) or other (12/90, 13%). Interobserver and intraobserver major discrepancy rates were 26 and 32%, respectively. Major discrepancies were due to missed findings, different opinions regarding interval change of clinically significant findings, and the presence of recommendation. Major discrepancy of between 26 and 32% was observed in the interpretation of abdominal and pelvic CT examinations. (orig.)

  9. What do near-term observations tell us about long-term developments in greenhouse gas emissions? A letter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vuuren, van D.P.; Edmonds, J.; Smith, S.J.; Calvin, K.V.; Karas, J.; Kainuma, M.; Nakicenovic, N.; Riahi, K.; Ruijven, B.J.; Swart, R.J.; Thomson, A.

    2010-01-01

    Long-term scenarios developed by integrated assessment models are used in climate research to provide an indication of plausible long-term emissions of greenhouse gases and other radiatively active substances based on developments in the global energy system, land-use and the emissions associated

  10. Ultrastructure of mouse intestinal mucosa and changes observed after long term anthraquinone administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufour, P; Gendre, P

    1984-01-01

    In an attempt to study the relative toxicity of anthraquinonic laxatives on intestinal mucosa, we compared in mice the effects of fruit pulp containing sennosides A and B with those of a free anthraquinone, 1-8 dihydroxyanthraquinone. Observations have been made with transmission electron microscopy (EM) after 16 weeks of treatment with the two drugs. Although the doses used in this study were equipotent in terms of laxative activity, no damage to the intestinal tissue was observed with the sennosides. A number of changes, however, were detected in intestinal nervous tissues of all the animals treated with 1-8 dihydroxyanthraquinone, mainly in the form of vacuolisation of the axons, formation of lysosomal structures and in some cases appearances of fibrillar degeneration. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 PMID:6510768

  11. Development of compact long-term broadband ocean bottom seismometer for seafloor observation of slow earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Y.; Shinohara, M.; Yamada, T.; Shiobara, H.

    2017-12-01

    It is important to understand coupling between plates in a subduction zone for studies of earthquake generation. Recently low frequency tremor and very low frequency earthquake (VLFE) were discovered in plate boundary near a trench. These events (slow earthquakes) in shallow plate boundary should be related to slow slip on a plate boundary. For observation of slow earthquakes, Broad Band Ocean Bottom Seismometer (BBOBS) is useful, however a number of BBOBSs are limited due to cost. On the other hand, a number of Long-term OBSs (LT-OBSs) with recording period of one year are available. However, the LT-OBS has seismometer with a natural period of 1 second. Therefore frequency band of observation is slightly narrow for slow earthquakes. Therefore we developed a compact long-term broad-band OBS by replacement of the seismic sensor of the LT-OBSs to broadband seismometer.We adopted seismic sensor with natural period of 20 seconds (Trillium Compact Broadband Seismometer, Nanometrics). Because tilt of OBS on seafloor can not be controlled due to free-fall, leveling system for seismic sensor is necessary. The broadband seismic senor has cylinder shape with diameter of 90 mm and height of 100 mm, and the developed levelling system can mount the seismic sensor with no modification of shape. The levelling system has diameter of 160 mm and height of 110 mm, which is the same size as existing levelling system of the LT-OBS. The levelling system has two horizontal axes and each axis is driven by motor. Leveling can be performed up to 20 degrees by using micro-processor (Arduino). Resolution of levelling is less than one degree. The system immediately starts leveling by the power-on of controller. After levelling, the the seismic senor is powered and the controller records angles of levelling to SD RAM. Then the controller is shut down to consume no power. Compact long-term broadband ocean bottom seismometer is useful for observation of slow earthquakes on seafloor. In addition

  12. Long Term Seismic Observation in Mariana by OBSs : Double Seismic Zone and Upper Mantle Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiobara, H.; Sugioka, H.; Mochizuki, K.; Oki, S.; Kanazawa, T.; Fukao, Y.; Suyehiro, K.

    2005-12-01

    In order to obtain the deep arc structural image of Mariana, a large-scale seismic observation by using 58 long-term ocean bottom seismometers (LTOBS) had been performed from June 2003 until April 2004, which is a part of the MARGINS program funded by the NSF. Prior to this observation, a pilot long-term seismic array observation was conducted in the same area by using 10 LTOBSs from Oct. 2001 until Feb. 2003. At that time, 8 LTOBSs were recovered but one had no data. Recently, 2 LTOBSs, had troubles in the releasing, were recovered by the manned submersible (Shinkai 6500, Jamstec) for the research of the malfunction in July 2005. By using all 9 LTOBS's data, those are about 11 months long, hypocenter determination was performed and more than 3000 local events were found. Even with the 1D velocity structure based on the iasp91 model, double seismic zones and a systematic shift of epicenters between the PDE and this study were observed. To investigate the detail of hypocenter distribution and the 3D velocity structure, the DD inversion (tomoDD: Zhang and Thurber, 2003) was applied for this data set with the 1D structure initial model except for the crust, which has been surveyed by using a dense airgun-OBS system (Takahashi et al., 2003). The result of relocated hypocenters shows clear double seismic zones until about 200 km depth, a high activity area around the fore-arc serpentine sea-mount, the Big Blue, and a lined focuses along the current ridge axis in the back-arc basin, and the result of the tomography shows a image of subducting slab and a low-Vs region below the same sea-mount mentioned. The wedge mantle structure was not clearly resolved due to the inadequate source-receiver coverage, which will be done in the recent experiment.

  13. Towards Improved Understanding of Drought and Drought Impacts from Long Term Earth Observation Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champagne, C.; Wang, S.; Liu, J.; Hadwen, T. A.

    2017-12-01

    Drought is a complex natural disaster, which often emerges slowly, but can occur at various time scales and have impacts that are not well understood. Long term observations of drought intensity and frequency are often quantified from precipitation and temperature based indices or modelled estimates of soil water storage. The maturity of satellite based observations has created the potential to enhance the understanding of drought and drought impacts, particularly in regions where traditional data sets are limited by remoteness or inaccessibility, and where drought processes are not well-quantified by models. Long term global satellite data records now provide observations of key hydrological variables, including evaporation modelled from thermal sensors, soil moisture from microwave sensors, ground water from gravity sensors and vegetation condition that can be modelled from optical sensors. This study examined trends in drought frequency, intensity and duration over diverse ecoregions in Canada, including agricultural, grassland, forested and wetland areas. Trends in drought were obtained from the Canadian Drought Monitor as well as meteorological based indices from weather stations, and evaluated against satellite derived information on evaporative stress (Anderson et al. 2011), soil moisture (Champagne et al. 2015), terrestrial water storage (Wang and Li 2016) and vegetation condition (Davidson et al. 2009). Data sets were evaluated to determine differences in how different sensors characterize the hydrology and impacts of drought events from 2003 to 2016. Preliminary results show how different hydrological observations can provide unique information that can tie causes of drought (water shortages resulting from precipitation, lack of moisture storage or evaporative stress) to impacts (vegetation condition) that hold the potential to improve the understanding and classification of drought events.

  14. Long-term surface pCO2 trends from observations and models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tjiputra, Jerry F.; Olsen, Are; Heinze, Christoph; Bopp, Laurent; Roy, Tilla

    2014-01-01

    We estimate regional long-term surface ocean pCO 2 growth rates using all available underway and bottled biogeochemistry data collected over the past four decades. These observed regional trends are compared with those simulated by five state-of-the-art Earth system models over the historical period. Oceanic pCO 2 growth rates faster than the atmospheric growth rates indicate decreasing atmospheric CO 2 uptake, while ocean pCO 2 growth rates slower than the atmospheric growth rates indicate increasing atmospheric CO 2 uptake. Aside from the western sub-polar North Pacific and the subtropical North Atlantic, our analysis indicates that the current observation-based basin-scale trends may be underestimated, indicating that more observations are needed to determine the trends in these regions. Encouragingly, good agreement between the simulated and observed pCO 2 trends is found when the simulated fields are sub sampled with the observational coverage. In agreement with observations, we see that the simulated pCO 2 trends are primarily associated with the increase in surface dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) associated with atmospheric carbon uptake, and in part by warming of the sea surface. Under the RCP8.5 future scenario, DIC continues to be the dominant driver of pCO 2 trends, with little change in the relative contribution of SST. However, the changes in the hydrological cycle play an increasingly important role. For the contemporary (1970-2011) period, the simulated regional pCO 2 trends are lower than the atmospheric growth rate over 90% of the ocean. However, by year 2100 more than 40% of the surface ocean area has a higher oceanic pCO 2 trend than the atmosphere, implying a reduction in the atmospheric CO 2 uptake rate. The fastest pCO 2 growth rates are projected for the sub-polar North Atlantic, while the high-latitude Southern Ocean and eastern equatorial Pacific have the weakest growth rates, remaining below the atmospheric pCO 2 growth rate. Our work

  15. Long-term surface pCO2 trends from observations and models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry F. Tjiputra

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We estimate regional long-term surface ocean pCO2 growth rates using all available underway and bottled biogeochemistry data collected over the past four decades. These observed regional trends are compared with those simulated by five state-of-the-art Earth system models over the historical period. Oceanic pCO2 growth rates faster than the atmospheric growth rates indicate decreasing atmospheric CO2 uptake, while ocean pCO2 growth rates slower than the atmospheric growth rates indicate increasing atmospheric CO2 uptake. Aside from the western subpolar North Pacific and the subtropical North Atlantic, our analysis indicates that the current observation-based basin-scale trends may be underestimated, indicating that more observations are needed to determine the trends in these regions. Encouragingly, good agreement between the simulated and observed pCO2 trends is found when the simulated fields are subsampled with the observational coverage. In agreement with observations, we see that the simulated pCO2 trends are primarily associated with the increase in surface dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC associated with atmospheric carbon uptake, and in part by warming of the sea surface. Under the RCP8.5 future scenario, DIC continues to be the dominant driver of pCO2 trends, with little change in the relative contribution of SST. However, the changes in the hydrological cycle play an increasingly important role. For the contemporary (1970–2011 period, the simulated regional pCO2 trends are lower than the atmospheric growth rate over 90% of the ocean. However, by year 2100 more than 40% of the surface ocean area has a higher oceanic pCO2 trend than the atmosphere, implying a reduction in the atmospheric CO2 uptake rate. The fastest pCO2 growth rates are projected for the subpolar North Atlantic, while the high-latitude Southern Ocean and eastern equatorial Pacific have the weakest growth rates, remaining below the atmospheric pCO2 growth rate. Our work

  16. Impact of Computerized Order Entry to Pharmacy Interface on Order-Infusion Pump Discrepancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca A. Russell

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The ability of safety technologies to decrease errors, harm, and risk to patients has yet to be demonstrated consistently. Objective. To compare discrepancies between medication and intravenous fluid (IVF orders and bedside infusion pump settings within a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU before and after implementation of an interface between computerized physician order entry (CPOE and pharmacy systems. Methods. Within a 72-bed PICU, medication and IVF orders in the CPOE system and bedside infusion pump settings were collected. Rates of discrepancy were calculated and categorized by type. Results were compared to a study conducted prior to interface implementation. Expansion of PICU also occurred between study periods. Results. Of 455 observations, discrepancy rate decreased for IVF (p=0.01 compared to previous study. Overall discrepancy rate for medications was unchanged; however, medications infusing without an order decreased (p<0.01, and orders without corresponding infusion increased (p<0.05. Conclusions. Following implementation of an interface between CPOE and pharmacy systems, fewer discrepancies between IVF orders and infusion pump settings were observed. Discrepancies for medications did not change, and some types of discrepancies increased. In addition to interface implementation, changes in healthcare delivery and workflow related to ICU expansion contributed to observed changes.

  17. Implementing CUAHSI and SWE observation data models in the long-term monitoring infrastructure TERENO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klump, J. F.; Stender, V.; Schroeder, M.

    2013-12-01

    Terrestrial Environmental Observatories (TERENO) is an interdisciplinary and long-term research project spanning an Earth observation network across Germany. It includes four test sites within Germany from the North German lowlands to the Bavarian Alps and is operated by six research centers of the Helmholtz Association. The contribution by the participating research centers is organized as regional observatories. The challenge for TERENO and its observatories is to integrate all aspects of data management, data workflows, data modeling and visualizations into the design of a monitoring infrastructure. TERENO Northeast is one of the sub-observatories of TERENO and is operated by the German Research Centre for Geosciences GFZ in Potsdam. This observatory investigates geoecological processes in the northeastern lowland of Germany by collecting large amounts of environmentally relevant data. The success of long-term projects like TERENO depends on well-organized data management, data exchange between the partners involved and on the availability of the captured data. Data discovery and dissemination are facilitated not only through data portals of the regional TERENO observatories but also through a common spatial data infrastructure TEODOOR. TEODOOR bundles the data, provided by the different web services of the single observatories, and provides tools for data discovery, visualization and data access. The TERENO Northeast data infrastructure integrates data from more than 200 instruments and makes the data available through standard web services. Data are stored following the CUAHSI observation data model in combination with the 52° North Sensor Observation Service data model. The data model was implemented using the PostgreSQL/PostGIS DBMS. Especially in a long-term project, such as TERENO, care has to be taken in the data model. We chose to adopt the CUAHSI observational data model because it is designed to store observations and descriptive information (metadata

  18. Globally Increased Crop Growth and Cropping Intensity from the Long-Term Satellite-Based Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bin

    2018-04-01

    Understanding the spatiotemporal change trend of global crop growth and multiple cropping system under climate change scenarios is a critical requirement for supporting the food security issue that maintains the function of human society. Many studies have predicted the effects of climate changes on crop production using a combination of filed studies and models, but there has been limited evidence relating decadal-scale climate change to global crop growth and the spatiotemporal distribution of multiple cropping system. Using long-term satellite-derived Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and observed climate data from 1982 to 2012, we investigated the crop growth trend, spatiotemporal pattern trend of agricultural cropping intensity, and their potential correlations with respect to the climate change drivers at a global scale. Results show that 82.97 % of global cropland maximum NDVI witnesses an increased trend while 17.03 % of that shows a decreased trend over the past three decades. The spatial distribution of multiple cropping system is observed to expand from lower latitude to higher latitude, and the increased cropping intensity is also witnessed globally. In terms of regional major crop zones, results show that all nine selected zones have an obvious upward trend of crop maximum NDVI (p impact on the crop growth trend.

  19. Evans syndrome in children. Long-term outcome in a prospective French national observational cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie eAladjidi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Evans syndrome (ES is a rare autoimmune disorder whose long-term follow-up characteristics are unknown. Patients under 18 at the time of diagnosis of a first autoimmune cytopenia have been included since 2004 in a national prospective observational cohort. In 2014, 156 children diagnosed between 1981 and 2014 with ES, were analyzed. The median age at initial cytopenia was 5.4 (0.2-17.2 years old. For 85 sequential cases, the median delay between the episodes of AIHA and ITP was 2.4 years (0.1–16.3. The median follow-up since ES diagnosis was 6.5 years (0.1-28.8. ES revealed underlying diseases in 10% of children; in 60% of patients, various associated immune manifestations were observed, and ES remained primary in 30%. Five-year ITP and AIHA relapse-free survival were respectively 25% and 61%. In all, 69% of children required one or more than one second-line immune treatment and 15 patients (10% died at a median age of 14.3 years (1.7-28.1.This national work provides the first consistent clinical description for ES and underscores the high percentage of associated immune manifestations, the long-term complications, and treatment toxicities. Current challenges include the identification of underlying genetic immune dysregulations and better characterization of subgroups of patients and of second-line therapy strategies.

  20. GLOBALLY INCREASED CROP GROWTH AND CROPPING INTENSITY FROM THE LONG-TERM SATELLITE-BASED OBSERVATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Chen

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the spatiotemporal change trend of global crop growth and multiple cropping system under climate change scenarios is a critical requirement for supporting the food security issue that maintains the function of human society. Many studies have predicted the effects of climate changes on crop production using a combination of filed studies and models, but there has been limited evidence relating decadal-scale climate change to global crop growth and the spatiotemporal distribution of multiple cropping system. Using long-term satellite-derived Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI and observed climate data from 1982 to 2012, we investigated the crop growth trend, spatiotemporal pattern trend of agricultural cropping intensity, and their potential correlations with respect to the climate change drivers at a global scale. Results show that 82.97 % of global cropland maximum NDVI witnesses an increased trend while 17.03 % of that shows a decreased trend over the past three decades. The spatial distribution of multiple cropping system is observed to expand from lower latitude to higher latitude, and the increased cropping intensity is also witnessed globally. In terms of regional major crop zones, results show that all nine selected zones have an obvious upward trend of crop maximum NDVI (p < 0.001, and as for climatic drivers, the gradual temperature and precipitation changes have had a measurable impact on the crop growth trend.

  1. Lightning climatology over Jakarta, Indonesia, based on long-term surface operational, satellite, and campaign observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Shuichi; Wu, Peiming; Yamanaka, Manabu D.; Hattori, Miki; Hamada, Jun-Ichi; Arbain, Ardhi A.; Lestari, Sopia; Sulistyowati, Reni; Syamsudin, Fadli

    2016-04-01

    Lightning frequency over Indonesian Maritime Continent (MC) is quite high (Petersen and Rutledge 2001, Christian et al. 2003, Takayabu 2006, etc). In particular, Bogor (south of Jakarta, west Jawa) had 322 days of lightning in one year (Guinness Book in 1988). Lightning causes serious damage on nature and society over the MC; forest fore, power outage, inrush/surge currents on many kinds of electronics. Lightning climatology and meso-scale characteristics of thunderstorm over the MC, in particular over Jakarta, where social damage is quite serious, were examined. We made Statistical analysis of lightning and thunderstorm based on TRMM Lightning Image Sensor (LIS) and Global Satellite Mapping of Precipitation (GSMaP) together with long-term operational surface observation data (SYNOP) in terms of diurnal, intraseasonal, monsoonal, and interannual variations. In addition, we carried out a campaign observation in February 2015 in Bogor to obtain meso-scale structure and dynamics of thunderstorm over Jakarta to focus on graupel and other ice phase particles inside by using an X-band dual-polarimetric (DP) radar. Recently, Virts et al. (2013a, b) showed comprehensive lightning climatology based on the World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN). However, they also reported problems with its detection efficiency (Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) KAKENHI (Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research) grant number 25350515 and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) 7th Research Announcement (RA).

  2. LONG-TERM X-RAY VARIABILITY STUDY OF IC342 FROM XMM-NEWTON OBSERVATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mak, Daisy S. Y.; Pun, Chun S. J.; Kong, Albert K. H.

    2011-01-01

    We presented the results of an analysis of four XMM-Newton observations of the starburst galaxy IC342 taken over a four-year span from 2001 to 2005, with an emphasis on investigating the long-term flux and spectral variability of the X-ray point sources. We detected a total of 61 X-ray sources within 35' x 30' of the galaxy down to a luminosity of (1-2) x 10 37 erg s -1 depending on the local background. We found that 39 of the 61 detected sources showed long-term variability, in which 26 of them were classified as X-ray transients. We also found 19 sources exhibiting variations in hardness ratios or undergoing spectral transitions among observations, and were identified as spectral variables. In particular, eight of the identified X-ray transients showed spectral variability in addition to flux variability. The diverse patterns of variability observed are indicative of a population of X-ray binaries. We used X-ray colors, flux and spectral variability, and in some cases the optical or radio counterparts to classify the detected X-ray sources into several stellar populations. We identified a total of 11 foreground stars, 1 supersoft source (SSS), 3 quasisoft sources (QSSs), and 2 supernova remnants (SNRs). The identified SSS/QSSs are located near or on the spiral arms, associated with young stellar populations; the 2 SNRs are very close to the starburst nucleus where current star formation activities are dominated. We also discovered a spectral change in the nuclear source of IC342 for the first time by a series of X-ray spectrum analysis.

  3. Analysis of multidimensional difference-of-Gaussians filters in terms of directly observable parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, Davis; Blakeslee, Barbara; McCourt, Mark E

    2013-05-01

    The difference-of-Gaussians (DOG) filter is a widely used model for the receptive field of neurons in the retina and lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) and is a potential model in general for responses modulated by an excitatory center with an inhibitory surrounding region. A DOG filter is defined by three standard parameters: the center and surround sigmas (which define the variance of the radially symmetric Gaussians) and the balance (which defines the linear combination of the two Gaussians). These parameters are not directly observable and are typically determined by nonlinear parameter estimation methods applied to the frequency response function. DOG filters show both low-pass (optimal response at zero frequency) and bandpass (optimal response at a nonzero frequency) behavior. This paper reformulates the DOG filter in terms of a directly observable parameter, the zero-crossing radius, and two new (but not directly observable) parameters. In the two-dimensional parameter space, the exact region corresponding to bandpass behavior is determined. A detailed description of the frequency response characteristics of the DOG filter is obtained. It is also found that the directly observable optimal frequency and optimal gain (the ratio of the response at optimal frequency to the response at zero frequency) provide an alternate coordinate system for the bandpass region. Altogether, the DOG filter and its three standard implicit parameters can be determined by three directly observable values. The two-dimensional bandpass region is a potential tool for the analysis of populations of DOG filters (for example, populations of neurons in the retina or LGN), because the clustering of points in this parameter space may indicate an underlying organizational principle. This paper concentrates on circular Gaussians, but the results generalize to multidimensional radially symmetric Gaussians and are given as an appendix.

  4. Mother-son discrepant reporting on parenting practices: The contribution of temperament and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishido, Yuri; Latzman, Robert D

    2017-06-01

    Despite low to moderate convergent correlations, assessment of youth typically relies on multiple informants for information across a range of psychosocial domains including parenting practices. Although parent-youth informant discrepancies have been found to predict adverse youth outcomes, few studies have examined contributing factors to the explanation of informant disagreements on parenting practices. The current study represents the first investigation to concurrently examine the role of mother and son's self-reported affective dimensions of temperament and depression as pathways to informant discrepancies on parenting practices. Within a community sample of 174 mother-son dyads, results suggest that whereas mother's self-reported temperament evidenced no direct effects on discrepancies, the association between the product term of mother's negative and positive temperament and discrepancies on positive parenting was fully mediated by mother's depression (a mediated moderation). In contrast, son's self-reported temperament evidenced both direct and indirect effects, partially mediated by depression, on rating discrepancies for positive parenting. All told, both son's self-reported affective dimensions of temperament and depression contributed to the explanation of discrepant reporting on parenting practices; only mother's self-reported depression, but not temperament, uniquely contributed. Results highlight the importance of considering both parent and youth's report in the investigation of informant discrepancies on parenting practices. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. A study in the use of the position of discrepant events in the teaching of science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frassinelli, John James

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether alternative placement of discrepant events would impact affective and cognitive outcomes of ninth-grade physical science students grouped into intact classes and classified as either "high" or "low" in prior academic achievement. Although researchers have found discrepant events to be effective in terms of cognition and recall, their chronological placement within science lessons had not been empirically researched. In this study, discrepant events were presented before, during, and after specific science lessons involving thermodynamics and heat. Discrepant events were withheld from the control group. To measure affective outcomes, the "enjoyment" and "motivation" scales taken from Sandman's (1973) Attitudes Towards Science Inventory (ATSI) were used to index subjects' global feelings about studying science, while a 20-item set of Semantic Differential (SD) scales was employed to determine their attitudes regarding the specific subject matter taught. To measure cognitive outcomes, a 20-item, selected response test was constructed by the researcher, with 6 items intended to assess subjects' knowledge of unit materials, and 14 items designed to query their understanding of unit concepts. Each subject (N = 131) was administered identical forms of each test in both pre-and post-test formats, both before and after the four-week study. Analyzed using a 4 x 2 mixed Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) model, data pertinent to the ATSI suggested neither between- nor within-group differences in subjects' global attitudes about studying science, although data pertinent to the SD scales indicated generally improved attitudes about studying thermodynamics and heat (F (1,122) = 2.759, p < .10). On the cognitive pretests and posttests, significant two-way interactions were observed for the overall test and experimental condition (F (3,121) = 4.068, p < .01), as well as for the overall test and higher prior achievement in physical

  6. Predicting Near-Term Water Quality from Satellite Observations of Watershed Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, W. J.; Wang, L.; Hoffman, K.; West, D.; Mehta, A. V.; Lee, C.

    2017-12-01

    Despite the strong influence of watershed conditions on source water quality, most water utilities and water resource agencies do not currently have the capability to monitor watershed sources of contamination with great temporal or spatial detail. Typically, knowledge of source water quality is limited to periodic grab sampling; automated monitoring of a limited number of parameters at a few select locations; and/or monitoring relevant constituents at a treatment plant intake. While important, such observations are not sufficient to inform proactive watershed or source water management at a monthly or seasonal scale. Satellite remote sensing data on the other hand can provide a snapshot of an entire watershed at regular, sub-monthly intervals, helping analysts characterize watershed conditions and identify trends that could signal changes in source water quality. Accordingly, the authors are investigating correlations between satellite remote sensing observations of watersheds and source water quality, at a variety of spatial and temporal scales and lags. While correlations between remote sensing observations and direct in situ measurements of water quality have been well described in the literature, there are few studies that link remote sensing observations across a watershed with near-term predictions of water quality. In this presentation, the authors will describe results of statistical analyses and discuss how these results are being used to inform development of a desktop decision support tool to support predictive application of remote sensing data. Predictor variables under evaluation include parameters that describe vegetative conditions; parameters that describe climate/weather conditions; and non-remote sensing, in situ measurements. Water quality parameters under investigation include nitrogen, phosphorus, organic carbon, chlorophyll-a, and turbidity.

  7. DBS Electrodes With Single Disconnected Contacts: Long-Term Observation and Implications for the Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allert, Niels; Jusciute, Egle; Quindt, Regina; Lindlau, Alexandra; Nolden, Brit Meike; Daryaeitabar, Mohammadreza; Karbe, Hans

    2018-04-27

    To evaluate the long-term course of quadripolar DBS electrodes with disconnected single contacts that cannot be used for DBS. Quadripolar electrodes with open circuits of single contacts or monopolar impedances >6500 Ω were identified from a cohort of 2082 electrodes from 1044 patients with variable movement disorders. The long-term course was analyzed from follow-up data. Disconnected contacts were found in 58 electrodes (2.8%) from 49 patients (4.7%). The dysfunction was restricted to one contact in 51 electrodes (87.9%), two contacts in 5 electrodes (8.6%), three contacts in 2 electrodes (3.4%). Onset was related to surgery (implantation, impulse generator replacement, or other surgical revision) in 34 electrodes (58.6%), trauma in 2 electrodes, undetermined in 11 electrodes, and occurred spontaneously after previous normal measurements in 11 electrodes (19.0%). Repeated measurements at follow-ups of ≥3 months were available in 39 electrodes. In 16 electrodes (41.0%) abnormal impedances persisted constantly during observations up to 11½ years (47 ± 35 months, median 41 months). In 21 electrodes (53.8%) abnormal impedances remained restricted to the initial contact(s) but varied considerably between measurements during up to six years (39 ± 18 months, median 38 months). Only two electrodes (5.1%) with initially one disconnected contact developed a disconnection of a second contact. Disconnections of single contacts occur with increasing cumulative incidence during long-term DBS. Surgery is the main causative risk factor. In the majority of electrodes, the dysfunction remains restricted to the initial contact(s). © 2018 International Neuromodulation Society.

  8. Long term observations of B2 1215+30 with veritas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aliu, E.; Errando, M.; Archambault, S.; Arlen, T.; Aune, T.; Beilicke, M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Benbow, W.; Bird, R.; Bouvier, A.; Cesarini, A.; Connolly, M. P.; Ciupik, L.; Cui, W.; Feng, Q.; Finley, J. P.; Dumm, J.; Falcone, A.; Federici, S.

    2013-01-01

    We report on VERITAS observations of the BL Lac object B2 1215+30 between 2008 and 2012. During this period, the source was detected at very high energies (VHEs; E > 100 GeV) by VERITAS with a significance of 8.9σ and showed clear variability on timescales larger than months. In 2011, the source was found to be in a relatively bright state and a power-law fit to the differential photon spectrum yields a spectral index of 3.6 ± 0.4 stat ± 0.3 syst with an integral flux above 200 GeV of (8.0 ± 0.9 stat ± 3.2 syst ) × 10 –12 cm –2 s –1 . No short term variability could be detected during the bright state in 2011. Multi-wavelength data were obtained contemporaneously with the VERITAS observations in 2011 and cover optical (Super-LOTIS, MDM, Swift/UVOT), X-ray (Swift/XRT), and gamma-ray (Fermi-LAT) frequencies. These were used to construct the spectral energy distribution (SED) of B2 1215+30. A one-zone leptonic model is used to model the blazar emission and the results are compared to those of MAGIC from early 2011 and other VERITAS-detected blazars. The SED can be reproduced well with model parameters typical for VHE-detected BL Lac objects.

  9. Effect of routine repeat transurethral resection for superficial bladder cancer: a long-term observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Marc-Oliver; Steinhoff, Christine; Simon, Xenia; Spiegelhalder, Philipp; Ackermann, Rolf; Vogeli, Thomas Alexander

    2003-08-01

    We determined the long-term outcome in patients with superficial bladder cancer (Ta and T1) undergoing routine second transurethral bladder tumor resection (ReTURB) in regard to recurrence and progression. We performed an inception cohort study of 124 consecutive patients with superficial bladder cancer undergoing transurethral resection and routine ReTURB (83) between November 1993 and October 1995 at a German university hospital. Immediately after transurethral resection all lesions were documented on a designed bladder map. ReTURB of the scar from initial resection and other suspicious lesions was performed at a mean of 7 weeks. Patients were followed until recurrence or death, or a minimum of 5 years. Residual tumor was found in 33% of all ReTURB cases, including 27% of Ta and 53% of T1 disease, and in 81% at the initial resection site. Five of the 83 patients underwent radical cystectomy due to ReTURB findings. The estimated risk of recurrence after years 1 to 3 was 18%, 29% and 32%, respectively. After 5 years 63% of the patients undergoing ReTURB were still disease-free (mean recurrence-free survival 62 months, median 87). Progression to muscle invasive disease was observed in only 2 patients (3%) after a mean observation of 61 months. These data suggest a favorable outcome regarding recurrence and progression in patients with superficial bladder cancer who undergo ReTURB. ReTURB is suggested at least in those at high risk when bladder preservation is intended.

  10. Observer-rated depression in long-term care: frequency and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCusker, Jane; Cole, Martin G; Voyer, Philippe; Monette, Johanne; Champoux, Nathalie; Ciampi, Antonio; Vu, Minh; Dyachenko, Alina; Belzile, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were: (1) to describe the prevalence and 6-month incidence of observer-rated depression in residents age 65 and over of long-term care (LTC) facilities; (2) to describe risk factors for depression, at baseline and over time. A multisite, prospective observational study was conducted in residents aged 65 and over of 7 LTC facilities. The Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia (CSDD) was completed by nurses monthly for 6 months. We measured demographic, medical, and functional factors at baseline and monthly intervals, using data from research assessments, nurse interviews, and chart reviews. 274 residents were recruited and completed baseline depression assessments. The prevalence of depression (CSDD score of 6+) was 19.0%. The incidence of depression among those without prevalent depression was 73.3 per 100 person-years. A delirium diagnosis, pain, and diabetes were independently associated with prevalent depression. CSDD score at baseline and development of severe cognitive impairment at follow-up were independent risk factors for incident depression. A diagnosis of delirium and uncorrected visual impairment at follow-up occurred concurrently with incident depression. The results of this study have implications for the detection and prevention of depression in LTC. Delirium diagnosis, pain and diabetes at baseline were associated with prevalent depression; depression symptoms at baseline and development of severe cognitive impairment at follow-up were risk factors for incident depression. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Long-term observations of Boreal Toads at an ARMI apex site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn, Paul Stephen; Muths, Erin L.; Pilliod, David S.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey’s Amphibian Research and Monitoring Initiative (ARMI) is a national project with goals to monitor the status and trends of amphibians, conduct research on causes of declines, and provide information and support to management agencies for conservation of amphibian populations. ARMI activities are organized around extensive inventories and place-based monitoring (such as collaboration with the Greater Yellowstone Inventory and Monitoring Network), and intensive population studies and research at selected locations (apex sites). One such site is an oxbow pond on the Buffalo Fork near the Black Rock Ranger Station east of Grand Teton National Park. We have been conducting mark-recapture of boreal toads (Anaxyrus boreas) at Black Rock since 2002. In concert with studies of other toad populations in the Rocky Mountains, we have documented a high rate of incidence of the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) and a negative rate of growth of the toad population, but not the population crash or extinction observed in other populations with high prevalence of Bd. Long-term observations at other ARMI apex sites have proven invaluable for studying effects of climate change on amphibian behavior, and the Black Rock site has been upgraded with onsite recording of weather data and auditory monitoring of other amphibian species. Continued research at Black Rock will be critical for understanding the interrelated effects of climate and disease on amphibians in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem.

  12. Geodesic and hydrogeophysic long term observations in the Durzon karstic aquifer (Larzac, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Moigne, Nicolas; Bayer, Roger; Boudin, Frederick; Champollion, Cedric; Chery, Jean; Collard, Philippe; Daignières, Marc; Deville, Sabrina; Doerflinger, Erik; Vernant, Philippe

    2010-05-01

    Karsts are generally characterized by high heterogeneity at all scales for both the water storage properties and the mode of water transport. The Durzon karst system is located in south of France and is characterized by a unsaturated zone of 100-150 m width. The water input is exclusively rainfall and draining occurs at the Durzon perennial spring in a karstic valley. The Durzon aquifer has been monitored by our group by different geophysical methods (gravimetry, tiltmetry, more details below) for several years. The present-day stage of the project is to setup long term observations to assess hydrological properties of the karst in a small area of 500m*500m with numerous caves (up to 100 m deep and more than 2 km of development). The observations are of four major types: - Continuous high frequency and high accuracy gravimetry: Gravimetric observations can be directly linked to the variations of water masses in the unsaturated zone. The iGrav™ Superconducting Gravity Meter from GWR (San Diego, USA) will be used to record continuous gravity variations and track water mass variations at a few millimeters level. The iGrav™ is a new SG model from GWR that has been simplified for portable and field operation, but retains the stability and precision of previous SGs. With a drift rate of less than 0.5 microGal/month and a virtually constant scale factory, the iGrav™ will provide a much higher stability and precision than can be achieved with mechanical spring-type gravity meters. - Water flux measurements (atmospheric and in-situ): A flux tower provides evapo-transpiration measurements (output) allowing complete budget calculation with the help of gravity (storage variations) and rainfall (input). An original measurement corresponds to the measure of the in-situ flow inside karstic caves (stalactites and underground river). - Tiltmetry: In situ (in caves) measurements are completed by long base silica tiltmeters. Tiltmeters are sensible to water storage in fractures

  13. Long term operation of nuclear power plants – IAEA SALTO missions observations and trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krivanek, Robert, E-mail: r.krivanek@iaea.org [Operational Safety Section, Department of Nuclear Safety and Security, International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna 1400 (Austria); Havel, Radim, E-mail: Radim.Havel@gmail.com [RESCO, Nitranska 894/8, 10100 Praha 10 (Czech Republic)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • During the period 2005–mid 2015, 22 SALTO peer review missions and 2 LTO modules of OSART missions were conducted. • Analysis of these mission results and main trends observed are gathered in this paper. • The main task of the assessment performed was to evaluate and give a weight to the evaluation. • Results of SALTO follow-up missions as well as OSART follow-up missions with LTO module are summarized. • The SALTO peer review service is strongly recommended for NPPs prior to entering LTO period. - Abstract: This paper builds on paper “Long term operation of nuclear power plants – IAEA SALTO peer review service and its results”, NED8070, presented in Nuclear Engineering and Design in September 2014. This paper presents the analysis of SALTO mission results and main trends observed so that all the most important results of SALTO missions are gathered in one paper. The paper also includes the results of LTO module reviews performed in the frame of OSART missions where applicable as well as follow-up missions. This paper is divided in three main Sections. Section 1 provides brief introduction to SALTO peer review service. Section 2 provides overview of performed SALTO missions and LTO modules of OSART missions performed between 2005 and mid-2015. Section 3 summarizes the most significant observations and trends resulting from the missions between 2005 and mid-2015. Section 4 summarizes the results of SALTO follow-up missions as well as OSART follow-up missions.

  14. Trend analysis of evapotranspiration over India: Observed from long-term satellite measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goroshi, Sheshakumar; Pradhan, Rohit; Singh, Raghavendra P.; Singh, K. K.; Parihar, Jai Singh

    2017-12-01

    Owing to the lack of consistent spatial time series data on actual evapotranspiration ( ET), very few studies have been conducted on the long-term trend and variability in ET at a national scale over the Indian subcontinent. The present study uses biome specific ET data derived from NOAA satellite's advanced very high resolution radiometer to investigate the trends and variability in ET over India from 1983 to 2006. Trend analysis using the non-parametric Mann-Kendall test showed that the domain average ET decreased during the period at a rate of 0.22 mm year^{-1}. A strong decreasing trend (m = -1.75 mm year^{-1}, F = 17.41, P 0.01) was observed in forest regions. Seasonal analyses indicated a decreasing trend during southwest summer monsoon (m= -0.320 mm season^{-1} year^{-1}) and post-monsoon period (m= -0.188 mm season^{-1 } year^{-1}). In contrast, an increasing trend was observed during northeast winter monsoon (m = 0.156 mm season^{-1 } year^{-1}) and pre-monsoon (m = 0.068 mm season^{-1 } year^{-1}) periods. Despite an overall net decline in the country, a considerable increase ( 4 mm year^{-1}) was observed over arid and semi-arid regions. Grid level correlation with various climatic parameters exhibited a strong positive correlation (r >0.5) of ET with soil moisture and precipitation over semi-arid and arid regions, whereas a negative correlation (r -0.5) occurred with temperature and insolation in dry regions of western India. The results of this analysis are useful for understanding regional ET dynamics and its relationship with various climatic parameters over India. Future studies on the effects of ET changes on the hydrological cycle, carbon cycle, and energy partitioning are needed to account for the feedbacks to the climate.

  15. Masculine Discrepancy Stress, Emotion-Regulation Difficulties, and Intimate Partner Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berke, Danielle S; Reidy, Dennis E; Gentile, Brittany; Zeichner, Amos

    2016-05-24

    Research suggests that masculine socialization processes contribute to the perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV) by men. Although this research has traditionally focused on men who strongly adhere to traditional gender norms, men who negatively evaluate themselves as falling short of these norms (a construct termed masculine discrepancy stress) have proven to be at increased risk of IPV perpetration. Likewise, men experiencing problems with emotion regulation, a multidimensional construct reflecting difficulties in effectively experiencing and responding to emotional states, are also at risk of IPV perpetration. In the present research, we tested the hypothesis that the link between discrepancy stress and IPV perpetration is mediated via difficulties in emotion regulation. Three hundred fifty-seven men completed online surveys assessing their experience of discrepancy stress, emotion-regulation difficulties, and history of IPV perpetration. Results indicated that discrepancy-stressed men's use of physical IPV was fully mediated by emotion-regulation difficulties. In addition, emotion-regulation difficulties partially mediated the association between discrepancy stress and sexual IPV. Findings are discussed in terms of the potential utility of emotion-focused interventions for modifying men's experience and expression of discrepancy stress and reducing perpetration of IPV. © The Author(s) 2016.

  16. Masculine Discrepancy Stress, Emotion-Regulation Difficulties, and Intimate Partner Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berke, Danielle S.; Reidy, Dennis E.; Gentile, Brittany; Zeichner, Amos

    2018-01-01

    Research suggests that masculine socialization processes contribute to the perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV) by men. Although this research has traditionally focused on men who strongly adhere to traditional gender norms, men who negatively evaluate themselves as falling short of these norms (a construct termed masculine discrepancy stress) have proven to be at increased risk of IPV perpetration. Likewise, men experiencing problems with emotion regulation, a multidimensional construct reflecting difficulties in effectively experiencing and responding to emotional states, are also at risk of IPV perpetration. In the present research, we tested the hypothesis that the link between discrepancy stress and IPV perpetration is mediated via difficulties in emotion regulation. Three hundred fifty-seven men completed online surveys assessing their experience of discrepancy stress, emotion-regulation difficulties, and history of IPV perpetration. Results indicated that discrepancy-stressed men's use of physical IPV was fully mediated by emotion-regulation difficulties. In addition, emotion-regulation difficulties partially mediated the association between discrepancy stress and sexual IPV. Findings are discussed in terms of the potential utility of emotion-focused interventions for modifying men's experience and expression of discrepancy stress and reducing perpetration of IPV. PMID:27226013

  17. The mediation roles of discrepancy stress and self-esteem between masculine role discrepancy and mental health problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xue; Lau, Joseph T F; Wang, Zixin; Ma, Yee-Ling; Lau, Mason C M

    2018-08-01

    Masculine role discrepancy and discrepancy stress occur when men perceive that they fail to live up to the ideal manhood derived from societal prescriptions. The present study examined the associations between masculine role discrepancy and two emotional and mental health problems (social anxiety and depressive symptoms), and potential mediation effects through discrepancy stress and self-esteem in a male general population. Based on random population-based sampling, 2000 male residents in Hong Kong were interviewed. Levels of masculine role discrepancy, discrepancy stress, self-esteem, social anxiety, and depressive symptoms were assessed by using validated scales. Results of structural equation modeling analysis indicated that the proposed model fit the sample well. (χ 2 (118) = 832.34, p masculine role discrepancy, discrepancy stress, and emotional/mental health problems. We found that discrepancy stress significantly mediated the association between masculine role discrepancy and social anxiety, while self-esteem significantly mediated the associations between masculine role discrepancy and both social anxiety and depression. Study limitations mainly included the cross-sectional design and reliance on self-reported questionnaires. The associations between masculine discrepancy and social anxiety/depressive symptoms among men may be explained by the increase in discrepancy stress and decrease in self-esteem. The findings suggest needs and directions for future research for the relationship between masculine role discrepancy and men's mental health, mechanisms involved, and interventions for improvement. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Nitrogen Dioxide long term trends at mid and high latitudes by means of ground based observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortoli, D.; Petritoli, A.; Giovanelli, G.; Kostadinov, I.; Ravegnani, F.

    2003-04-01

    The interactions between mid- and high latitudes atmospheric changes are going to be one of the main issue for the future of stratospheric and tropospheric chemistry research. A more detailed study of the ozone trends as well as a wider comprehension of the interactions with lower and higher latitudes are maybe the main arguments to which scientist should address their works in order to build-up a more detailed picture of what scenarios we have to face in the near future. GASCODs type spectrometers (Gas Analyzer Spectrometer Correlating Optical Differences) are installed at the "Ottavio Vittori" research station (44.11N, 10.42E, 2165 m asl) since June 1993, at the Italian Antarctic Station (74.69S, 164.12E) since December 1995 and at the STIL-BAS station (42.42N, 25.63E) since 1999. The instruments measure zenith scattered solar radiation between 407 and 464 nm. Nitrogen dioxide total column is retrieved with DOAS methodology. The seasonal trend of NO2 vc values is reported and it shows the expected behaviour: maximum values during the summer period while the minimum occur in the winter season in both the hemispheres. A typical behaviour of the AMPM ratio at high latitudes is highlight. A Fourier analysis is proposed as a tool to investigate the long-term components of nitrogen dioxide stratospheric amount. Results are presented and the NO2 trend is evidenced and commented. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS: The author Daniele Bortoli was financially supported by the Subprograma Ciência e Tecnologia do 3° Quadro Comunitário de Apoio. The National Antarctic Research Program (PNRA) and the Quantification and Interpretation of Long-Term UV-Vis Observations of the Stratosphere (QUILT) project supported this research.

  19. Understanding the Long-Term Spectral Variability of Cygnus X-1 from BATSE and ASM Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdziarski, Andrzej A.; Poutanen, Juri; Paciesas, William S.; Wen, Linqing; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We present a spectral analysis of observations of Cygnus X-1 by the RXTE/ASM (1.5-12 keV) and CGRO/BATSE (20-300 keV), including about 1200 days of simultaneous data. We find a number of correlations between intensities and hardnesses in different energy bands from 1.5 keV to 300 keV. In the hard (low) spectral state, there is a negative correlation between the ASM 1.5-12 keV flux and the hardness at any energy. In the soft (high) spectral state, the ASM flux is positively correlated with the ASM hardness (as previously reported) but uncorrelated with the BATSE hardness. In both spectral states, the BATSE hardness correlates with the flux above 100 keV, while it shows no correlation with the flux in the 20-100 keV range. At the same time, there is clear correlation between the BATSE fluxes below and above 100 keV. In the hard state, most of the variability can be explained by softening the overall spectrum with a pivot at approximately 50 keV. The observations show that there has to be another, independent variability pattern of lower amplitude where the spectral shape does not change when the luminosity changes. In the soft state, the variability is mostly caused by a variable hard (Comptonized) spectral component of a constant shape superimposed on a constant soft blackbody component. These variability patterns are in agreement with the dependence of the rms variability on the photon energy in the two states. We interpret the observed correlations in terms of theoretical Comptonization models. In the hard state, the variability appears to be driven mostly by changing flux in seed photons Comptonized in a hot thermal plasma cloud with an approximately constant power supply. In the soft state, the variability is consistent with flares of hybrid, thermal/nonthermal, plasma with variable power above a stable cold disk. Also, based on broadband pointed observations simultaneous with those of the ASM and BATSE, we find the intrinsic bolometric luminosity increases by a

  20. Elusive drought: uncertainty in observed trends and short- and long-term CMIP5 projections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Orlowsky

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have seen a number of severe droughts in different regions around the world, causing agricultural and economic losses, famines and migration. Despite their devastating consequences, the Standardised Precipitation Index (SPI of these events lies within the general range of observation-based SPI time series and simulations from the 5th phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5. In terms of magnitude, regional trends of SPI over the last decades remain mostly inconclusive in observation-based datasets and CMIP5 simulations, but Soil Moisture Anomalies (SMAs in CMIP5 simulations hint at increased drought in a few regions (e.g., the Mediterranean, Central America/Mexico, the Amazon, North-East Brazil and South Africa. Also for the future, projections of changes in the magnitude of meteorological (SPI and soil moisture (SMA drought in CMIP5 display large spreads over all time frames, generally impeding trend detection. However, projections of changes in the frequencies of future drought events display more robust signal-to-noise ratios, with detectable trends towards more frequent drought before the end of the 21st century in the Mediterranean, South Africa and Central America/Mexico. Other present-day hot spots are projected to become less drought-prone, or display non-significant changes in drought occurrence. A separation of different sources of uncertainty in projections of meteorological and soil moisture drought reveals that for the near term, internal climate variability is the dominant source, while the formulation of Global Climate Models (GCMs generally becomes the dominant source of spread by the end of the 21st century, especially for soil moisture drought. In comparison, the uncertainty from Green-House Gas (GHG concentrations scenarios is negligible for most regions. These findings stand in contrast to respective analyses for a heat wave index, for which GHG concentrations scenarios constitute the main source

  1. An autonomous drifting buoy system for long term pCO2 observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Y.; Fujiki, T.; Wakita, M.; Azetsu-Scott, K.; Watanabe, S.

    2009-04-01

    Many studies have been carried out around the world to understand what happens to carbon dioxide (CO2) once it is emitted into the atmosphere, and how it relates to long-term climate change. However, the sea surface pCO2 observations on volunteer observation ships and research vessels concentrated in the North Atlantic and North Pacific. To assess the spatial and temporal variations of surface pCO2 in the global ocean, new automated pCO2 sensor which can be used in platform systems such as buoys or moorings is strongly desired. We have been developing the small drifting buoy system (diameter 250-340 mm, length 470 mm, weight 15 kg) for pCO2 measurement, with the support of the Japan EOS Promotion Program (JEPP), the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT). The objective is to provide simplified, automated measurements of pCO2 over all the world's oceans, an essential factor in understanding how the ocean responds to climate change. The measurement principle for the pCO2 sensor is based on spectrophotometry (e.g. Lefèvre et al., 1993; Degrandpre et al., 1995). The CO2 in the surrounding seawater equilibrates with the indicator solution across the gas permeable membranes. The equilibration process causes a change of pH in the indicator solution, which results in the change of optical absorbance. The pCO2 is calculated from the optical absorbance of the pH indicator solution equilibrated with CO2 in seawater through a gas permeable membrane. In our analytical system, we used an amorphous fluoropolymer tubing form of AF-2400 by DuPontTM for the gas permeable membrane due to its high gas permeability coefficients. The measurement system of the sensor consisted mainly of a LED light source, optical fibers, a CCD detector, and a downsized PC. The measured data were transmitted to the laboratory by satellite communication (Argos system). In the laboratory experiment, we obtained a high response time (less than 2 minutes) and a precision

  2. Analysis of F-16 radar discrepancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riche, K. A.

    1982-12-01

    One hundred and eight aircraft were randomly selected from three USAF F-16 bases and examined. These aircraft included 63 single-seat F-16As and 45 two-seat F-16Bs and encompassed 8,525 sorties and 748 radar system write-ups. Programs supported by the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) were run on the data. Of the 748 discrepancies, over one-third of them occurred within three sorties of each other and half within six sorties. Sixteen percent of all aircraft which had a discrepancy within three sorties had another write-up within the next three sorties. Designated repeat/recurring write-ups represented one-third of all the instances in which the write-up separation interval was three sorties or less. This is an indication that maintenance is unable to correct equipment failures as they occur, most likely because the false alarm rate is too high and maintenance is unable to duplicate the error conditions on the ground for correct error diagnosis.

  3. Self-discrepancies in work-related upper extremity pain: relation to emotions and flexible-goal adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goossens, Mariëlle E; Kindermans, Hanne P; Morley, Stephen J; Roelofs, Jeffrey; Verbunt, Jeanine; Vlaeyen, Johan W

    2010-08-01

    Recurrent pain not only has an impact on disability, but on the long term it may become a threat to one's sense of self. This paper presents a cross-sectional study of patients with work-related upper extremity pain and focuses on: (1) the role of self-discrepancies in this group, (2) the associations between self-discrepancies, pain, emotions and (3) the interaction between self-discrepancies and flexible-goal adjustment. Eighty-nine participants completed standardized self-report measures of pain intensity, pain duration, anxiety, depression and flexible-goal adjustment. A Selves Questionnaire was used to generate self-discrepancies. A series of hierarchical regression analyses showed relationships between actual-ought other, actual-ought self, actual-feared self-discrepancies and depression as well as a significant association between actual-ought other self-discrepancy and anxiety. Furthermore, significant interactions were found between actual-ought other self-discrepancies and flexibility, indicating that less flexible participants with large self-discrepancies score higher on depression. This study showed that self-discrepancies are related to negative emotions and that flexible-goal adjustment served as a moderator in this relationship. The view of self in pain and flexible-goal adjustment should be considered as important variables in the process of chronic pain. Copyright (c) 2009 European Federation of International Association for the Study of Pain Chapters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Imaging the elusive H-poor gas in planetary nebulae with large abundance discrepancy factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Rojas, Jorge; Corradi, Romano L. M.; Boffin, Henri M. J.; Monteiro, Hektor; Jones, David; Wesson, Roger; Cabrera-Lavers, Antonio; Rodríguez-Gil, Pablo

    2017-10-01

    The discrepancy between abundances computed using optical recombination lines (ORLs) and collisionally excited lines (CELs) is a major, unresolved problem with significant implications for the determination of chemical abundances throughout the Universe. In planetary nebulae (PNe), the most common explanation for the discrepancy is that two different gas phases coexist: a hot component with standard metallicity, and a much colder plasma enhanced in heavy elements. This dual nature is not predicted by mass loss theories, and direct observational support for it is still weak. In this work, we present our recent findings that demonstrate that the largest abundance discrepancies are associated with close binary central stars. OSIRIS-GTC tunable filter imaging of the faint O ii ORLs and MUSE-VLT deep 2D spectrophotometry confirm that O ii ORL emission is more centrally concentrated than that of [Oiii] CELs and, therefore, that the abundance discrepancy may be closely linked to binary evolution.

  5. An ABO blood grouping discrepancy: Probable B(A) phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Ashish; Gupta, Anubhav; Malhotra, Sheetal; Marwaha, Neelam; Sharma, Ratti Ram

    2017-06-01

    In B(A) phenotype, an autosomal dominant phenotype, there is a weak A expression on group B RBCs. We herein report a case of a probable B(A) phenotype in a first time 20-year old male donor. The cell and serum grouping were done using tube technique and also with blood grouping gel card (Diaclone, ABD cards for donors, BioRad, Switzerland). The antisera used were commercial monoclonal IgM type. To check for the weak subgroup of A, cold adsorption and heat elution was performed. The cell grouping was A weak B RhD positive while the serum grouping was B. There was no agglutination with O cells and the autologous control was also negative. It was a group II ABO discrepancy with or without group IV discrepancy. Results for both the eluate and last wash were negative. Hence, the possibility of weak subgroup of A was unlikely. Blood grouping gel card also showed a negative reaction in the anti-A column. One lot of anti-A was showing 'weak +' agglutination while the other lot was showing 'negative' reaction with the donor RBCs by tube technique. There was no agglutination observed with anti-A1 lectin. Our case highlights the serological characteristics of a B(A) phenotype. This case emphasizes the vital role of cell and serum grouping in detecting such discrepancies especially in donors which can lead to mislabeling of the blood unit and may be a potential risk for the transfusion recipient if not resolved appropriately. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The Relations among Measurements of Informant Discrepancies within a Multisite Trial of Treatments for Childhood Social Phobia

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Los Reyes, Andres; Alfano, Candice A.; Beidel, Deborah C.

    2010-01-01

    Discrepancies between informants' reports of children's behavior are robustly observed in clinical child research and have important implications for interpreting the outcomes of controlled treatment trials. However, little is known about the basic psychometric properties of these discrepancies. This study examined the relation between…

  7. Further Investigations of NIST Water Sphere Discrepancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broadhead, B.L.

    2001-01-01

    Measurements have been performed on a family of water spheres at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) facilities. These measurements are important for criticality safety studies in that, frequently, difficulties have arisen in predicting the reactivity of individually subcritical components assembled in a critical array. It has been postulated that errors in the neutron leakage from individual elements in the array could be responsible for these problems. In these NIST measurements, an accurate determination of the leakage from a fission spectrum, modified by water scattering, is available. Previously, results for 3-, 4-, and 5-in. diam. water-filled spheres, both with and without cadmium covers over the fission chambers, were presented for four fissionable materials: 235 U, 238 U, 237 Np, and 239 Pu. Results were also given for ''dry'' systems, in which the water spheres were drained of water, with the results corresponding to essentially measurements of unmoderated 252 Cf spontaneous-fission neutrons. The calculated-to-experimental (C/E) values ranged from 0.94 to 1.01 for the dry systems and 0.93 to 1.05 for the wet systems, with experimental uncertainties ranging from 1.5 to 1.9%. These results indicated discrepancies that were clearly outside of the experimental uncertainties, and further investigation was suggested. This work updates the previous calculations with a comparison of the predicted C/E values with ENDF/B-V and ENDF/B-VI transport cross sections. Variations in the predicted C/E values that arise from the use of ENDF/B-V, ENDF/B-VI, ENDL92, and LLLDOS for the response fission cross sections are also tabulated. The use of both a 45-group NIST fission spectrum and a continuous-energy fission spectrum for 252 Cf are evaluated. The use of the generalized-linear-least-squares (GLLSM) procedures to investigate the reported discrepancies in the water sphere results for 235 U, 238 U, 239 Pu, and 237 Np is reported herein. These studies

  8. Discrepancy between Clambda and Csub(E)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, P.C.

    1977-01-01

    The conversion factors Clambda and Csub(E) are used in relating ionization chamber readings (M) to absorbed dose in water for measurements made in phantoms irradiated with photons of quality lambda and electrons of mean energy - E respectively. New calculations of Clambda (Nahum, A.E., and Greening, J.R., 1976, Phys. Med. Biol., vol.21, 862) have yielded values which differ by up to 5% from those quoted by ICRU (ICRU, 1969, Report 14, ICRU Publications, P.O. Box 30165, Washington, DC 20014). Nahum and Greening have also pointed out that the recommended values of Clambda and Csub(E) for radiations of approximately the same primary electron energy should be the same, but differ by approximately 4%. Alternative explanations are offered for these discrepancies. If the ICRU values are corrected for the perturbation of the electron flux in the phantom by the introduction of a cavity, the ionization chamber, into the phantom, then the resulting values are in good agreement with those quoted by Nahum and Greening. The discrepancy between Clambda and Csub(E) is the result of inconsistent definitions. The ICRU definition of Csub(E) leads to a dose conversion factor which is dimensionally correct but is based on the assumption that the product M.Nsub(c), where Nsub(c) is the exposure calibration factor for the ionization chamber at the calibration quality, 2MV, can be identified as exposure, whereas this is only true at the calibration quality. More accurate definitions of Clambda and Csub(E) are therefore proposed. (U.K.)

  9. Long-term socio-economic impact of vestibular schwannoma for patients under observation and after surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tos, Tina; Caye-Thomasen, Per; Stangerup, Sven-Eric

    2003-01-01

    This study describes and compares the long-term socio-economic impact for patients diagnosed with a vestibular schwannoma and either operated on or observed. A consecutive sample of patients diagnosed with vestibular schwannoma in Denmark and either operated on (748 patients) or observed...

  10. Acute and long-term survival in chronically critically ill surgical patients: a retrospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartl, Wolfgang H; Wolf, Hilde; Schneider, Christian P; Küchenhoff, Helmut; Jauch, Karl-Walter

    2007-01-01

    Various cohort studies have shown that acute (short-term) mortality rates in unselected critically ill patients may have improved during the past 15 years. Whether these benefits also affect acute and long-term prognosis in chronically critically ill patients is unclear, as are determinants relevant to prognosis. We conducted a retrospective analysis of data collected from March 1993 to February 2005. A cohort of 390 consecutive surgical patients requiring intensive care therapy for more than 28 days was analyzed. The intensive care unit (ICU) survival rate was 53.6%. Survival rates at one, three and five years were 61.8%, 44.7% and 37.0% among ICU survivors. After adjustment for relevant covariates, acute and long-term survival rates did not differ significantly between 1993 to 1999 and 1999 to 2005 intervals. Acute prognosis was determined by disease severity during ICU stay and by primary diagnosis. However, only the latter was independently associated with long-term prognosis. Advanced age was an independent prognostic determinant of poor short-term and long-term survival. Acute and long-term prognosis in chronically critically ill surgical patients has remained unchanged throughout the past 12 years. After successful surgical intervention and intensive care, long-term outcome is reasonably good and is mainly determined by age and underlying disease.

  11. A probable stellar solution to the cosmological lithium discrepancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korn, A J; Grundahl, F; Richard, O; Barklem, P S; Mashonkina, L; Collet, R; Piskunov, N; Gustafsson, B

    2006-08-10

    The measurement of the cosmic microwave background has strongly constrained the cosmological parameters of the Universe. When the measured density of baryons (ordinary matter) is combined with standard Big Bang nucleosynthesis calculations, the amounts of hydrogen, helium and lithium produced shortly after the Big Bang can be predicted with unprecedented precision. The predicted primordial lithium abundance is a factor of two to three higher than the value measured in the atmospheres of old stars. With estimated errors of 10 to 25%, this cosmological lithium discrepancy seriously challenges our understanding of stellar physics, Big Bang nucleosynthesis or both. Certain modifications to nucleosynthesis have been proposed, but found experimentally not to be viable. Diffusion theory, however, predicts atmospheric abundances of stars to vary with time, which offers a possible explanation of the discrepancy. Here we report spectroscopic observations of stars in the metal-poor globular cluster NGC 6397 that reveal trends of atmospheric abundance with evolutionary stage for various elements. These element-specific trends are reproduced by stellar-evolution models with diffusion and turbulent mixing. We thus conclude that diffusion is predominantly responsible for the low apparent stellar lithium abundance in the atmospheres of old stars by transporting the lithium deep into the star.

  12. Comparison of clinical causes of death with autopsy diagnosis using discrepency classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Khalil; Alamgir, Wasim

    2006-12-01

    To determine the usefulness of autopsy findings in the quality improvement of patients care. An observational study. Departments of Pathology and Medicine, Combined Military Hospital (CMH) Kharian, a tertiary care hospital, from January 2001 to December 2003. The clinical and necropsy findings of all the cases, who died in hospital and had undergone autopsy examination at CMH, Kharian, from January 2001 to December 2003, were retrieved from record of clinical case sheet data and autopsy record of the hospital. The two were analyzed and compared according to the discrepancy classification. The exclusion and inclusion criteria, the international classification of disease (ICD) to code deaths, the global burden of disease (GBD) system to classify and group diseases, and the Goldman discrepancy classification to compare clinical and autopsy diagnosis and classify the discrepancies, were used as described. The death rate varied from 0.94% to 1.29% and autopsy rate from 4.69% to 10.10% annually between January 2001 and December 2003. The number of cases classified according to GBD system was 3 (5%) in Group 1, 26 (43.33 %) in Group 2 and 31 (51.66 %) in Group 3. The discrepancy classes included 9 (15 %) class I major discrepancies and 3 (5 %) class II major discrepancies. Non-discrepant diagnosis was seen in 37 cases (61.66 %) and 11 cases (18.32 %) were non-classifiable. This study showed the usefulness of autopsy findings in the quality improvement of the diagnosis and management of the disease by showing only a minority of cases with discrepant diagnosis of the cause of death.

  13. Bleeding Risk with Long-Term Low-Dose Aspirin: A Systematic Review of Observational Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Rodríguez, Luis A.; Martín-Pérez, Mar; Hennekens, Charles H.; Rothwell, Peter M.; Lanas, Angel

    2016-01-01

    Background Low-dose aspirin has proven effectiveness in secondary and primary prevention of cardiovascular events, but is also associated with an increased risk of major bleeding events. For primary prevention, this absolute risk must be carefully weighed against the benefits of aspirin; such assessments are currently limited by a lack of data from general populations. Methods Systematic searches of Medline and Embase were conducted to identify observational studies published between 1946 and 4 March 2015 that reported the risks of gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding or intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) with long-term, low-dose aspirin (75–325 mg/day). Pooled estimates of the relative risk (RR) for bleeding events with aspirin versus non-use were calculated using random-effects models, based on reported estimates of RR (including odds ratios, hazard ratios, incidence rate ratios and standardized incidence ratios) in 39 articles. Findings The incidence of GI bleeding with low-dose aspirin was 0.48–3.64 cases per 1000 person-years, and the overall pooled estimate of the RR with low-dose aspirin was 1.4 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.2–1.7). For upper and lower GI bleeding, the RRs with low-dose aspirin were 2.3 (2.0–2.6) and 1.8 (1.1–3.0), respectively. Neither aspirin dose nor duration of use had consistent effects on RRs for upper GI bleeding. The estimated RR for ICH with low-dose aspirin was 1.4 (1.2–1.7) overall. Aspirin was associated with increased bleeding risks when combined with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, clopidogrel and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors compared with monotherapy. By contrast, concomitant use of proton pump inhibitors decreased upper GI bleeding risks relative to aspirin monotherapy. Conclusions The risks of major bleeding with low-dose aspirin in real-world settings are of a similar magnitude to those reported in randomized trials. These data will help inform clinical judgements regarding the use of low-dose aspirin

  14. Interdisciplinary Discrepancies Between Parenteral Nutrition Macronutrient Prescribing and Recommendations: Is Body Mass Index a Factor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Katie L; Kandiah, Jay; Walroth, Todd A

    2017-07-01

    Formal nutrition training in medical schools and residencies is lacking and needed. Registered dietitians (RDs) are formally trained in nutrition support and considered experts in the nutrition field. Our purpose was to examine prescribing and recommending discrepancies of parenteral nutrition macronutrients between medical residents (MRs) and RDs and compare results with the ASPEN clinical care guidelines. We also looked at discrepancies among obese patients, due to their increased risk of mortality. The primary end point of this retrospective review was discrepancies in nonprotein calories (NPCs) and grams of protein (PRO) between MRs and RDs. The secondary end point was discrepancies in NPCs and PRO between MRs and RDs among patients stratified by body mass index category. MRs prescribed 300 NPCs more versus RDs ( P < .001). When compared with RDs, MRs prescribed fewer NPCs for underweight patients and more for obese patients ( P < .001). The same analysis found that the PRO discrepancies significantly varied by body mass index classification as well ( P = .022). When these results were compared with the ASPEN clinical care guidelines, RDs adhered closer to the guidelines than did MRs in terms of permissive underfeeding of obese patients. It is widely accepted that MRs are in need of increased formal training, and the results of our study confirm this need and suggest a short-term solution of increasing order-writing privileges for the RD. RDs with this privilege may adhere more closely to clinical care guidelines and therefore increase patient safety.

  15. Observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossiter, John R.; Percy, Larry

    2013-01-01

    as requiring a new model of how advertising communicates and persuades, which, as the authors' textbooks explain, is sheer nonsense and contrary to the goal of integrated marketing. We provide in this article a translation of practitioners' jargon into more scientifically acceptable terminology as well...... as a classification of the new advertising formats in terms of traditional analogs with mainstream media advertising....

  16. A mechanism of midlatitude noontime foE long-term variations inferred from European observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailov, A. V.; Perrone, L.; Nusinov, A. A.

    2017-04-01

    Manually scaled June noontime monthly median foE values at three European stations Rome, Juliusruh, and Slough/Chilton were used to understand the mechanism of foE long-term variations. The 11 year running mean smoothed foE manifests long-term (for some solar cycles) variations with the rising phase at the end of 1960-1985 and the falling phase after 1985. A close relationship (even in details) between (foEave)11y and (R12)11y variations with the correlation coefficient of 0.996 (absolutely significant according to Fisher F criterion) suggests that the Sun is the source of these (foEave)11y long-term variations. After removing solar activity long-term variations the residual (foEave)11y trend is very small ( 0.029% per decade) being absolutely insignificant. This means that all (foEave)11y variations are removed with one solar activity index, (R12)11y, i.e., this means that long-term variations are fully controlled by solar activity. Theory of midlatitude daytime E region tells us that long-term variations of solar EUV in two lines λ = 977 Å (CIII) and λ = 1025.7 Å (HLyβ) and X-ray radiation with λ foE long-term variations have a natural (not anthropogenic) origin related to long-term variations of solar activity. No peculiarities in relation with the last deep solar minimum in 2008-2009 have been revealed.

  17. Delayed echolalia in autism: some observations on differences within the term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, C; Hadden, A J

    1981-01-01

    Attention has recently focused on the need to build up a corpus of case observations relating to the function of delayed echolalia in various handicapping conditions but especially in early childhood autism. This present article offers six functional categories as an aid to clear reporting of observation and, thus clarification of this little-understood facet of deviant language development.

  18. Long term observation on absolute lymphocyte counts in the adult health study sample, Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oesterle, S.N.; Norman, J.E. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Total peripheral blood lymphocytes were evaluated by age and exposure status in the Adult Health Study population during three examination cycles between 1958 and 1972. No radiation effect was observed, but a significant drop in the absolute lymphocyte counts of those aged 70 years and over and a corresponding maximum for persons aged 50 - 59 was observed. (author)

  19. Work-family conflict and self-discrepant time allocation at work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahm, Patricia C; Glomb, Theresa M; Manchester, Colleen Flaherty; Leroy, Sophie

    2015-05-01

    We examine the relationships between work-to-family conflict, time allocation across work activities, and the outcomes of work satisfaction, well-being, and salary in the context of self-regulation and self-discrepancy theories. We posit work-to-family conflict is associated with self-discrepant time allocation such that employees with higher levels of work-to-family conflict are likely to allocate less time than preferred to work activities that require greater self-regulatory resources (e.g., tasks that are complex, or those with longer term goals that delay rewards and closure) and allocate more time than preferred to activities that demand fewer self-regulatory resources or are replenishing (e.g., those that provide closure or are prosocial). We suggest this self-discrepant time allocation (actual vs. preferred time allocation) is one mechanism by which work-to-family conflict leads to negative employee consequences (Allen, Herst, Bruck, & Sutton, 2000; Mesmer-Magnus & Viswesvaran, 2005). Using polynomial regression and response surface methodology, we find that discrepancies between actual and preferred time allocations to work activities negatively relate to work satisfaction, psychological well-being, and physical well-being. Self-discrepant time allocation mediates the relationship between work-to-family conflict and work satisfaction and well-being, while actual time allocation (rather than the discrepancy) mediates the relationship between work-to-family conflict and salary. We find that women are more likely than men to report self-discrepant time allocations as work-to-family conflict increases. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. Does Immediate Imitation Influence Long-Term Memory for Observed Actions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abravanel, Eugene

    1991-01-01

    Describes research on young children's long-term memory under 2 conditions of acquisition: direct imitation followed by a 10-minute delay, or deferred imitation. Children were able to encode and retain as much from visual pickup of modeled acts as from feedback obtained through imitation. (Author/GH)

  1. Nonverbal behavior observation : collaborative gaming method for prediction of conflicts during long-term missions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voynarovskaya, N.; Gorbunov, R.D.; Barakova, E.I.; Ahn, R.M.C.; Rauterberg, G.W.M.; Yang, H.S.; et al., xx

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a method for monitoring mental state of small isolated crews during long-term missions (such as space mission, polar expeditions, submarine crews, meteorological stations, and etc). It combines the records of negotiation game with monitoring of the nonverbal behavior of the

  2. Linking Cognition to Cognitive Dissonance through Scientific Discrepant Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen G. Rauch

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this workshop and paper is to provide a conceptual framework that will develop skills in the areas of observation, cognition/meta-cognition with emphasis on critical thinking, decision making and problem solving. Simultaneously, this endeavour is designed to stimulate one‟s curiosity and thereby provide motivation to learn. These are accomplished through the learning style methodology with emphasis on interactive instructional resources addressing a multi-modality approach to teaching and learning. It will be shown that discrepant events impact thinking with respect to problem solving. The aforementioned is demonstrated with the use of gravity, molecular structure and optical illusions. The workshop presenters will show how cognitive dissonance, precipitated within each of these constituents, fosters curiosity and therefore provides an ideal motivational component for exploration.

  3. Consensuses and discrepancies of basin-scale ocean heat content changes in different ocean analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gongjie; Cheng, Lijing; Abraham, John; Li, Chongyin

    2018-04-01

    Inconsistent global/basin ocean heat content (OHC) changes were found in different ocean subsurface temperature analyses, especially in recent studies related to the slowdown in global surface temperature rise. This finding challenges the reliability of the ocean subsurface temperature analyses and motivates a more comprehensive inter-comparison between the analyses. Here we compare the OHC changes in three ocean analyses (Ishii, EN4 and IAP) to investigate the uncertainty in OHC in four major ocean basins from decadal to multi-decadal scales. First, all products show an increase of OHC since 1970 in each ocean basin revealing a robust warming, although the warming rates are not identical. The geographical patterns, the key modes and the vertical structure of OHC changes are consistent among the three datasets, implying that the main OHC variabilities can be robustly represented. However, large discrepancies are found in the percentage of basinal ocean heating related to the global ocean, with the largest differences in the Pacific and Southern Ocean. Meanwhile, we find a large discrepancy of ocean heat storage in different layers, especially within 300-700 m in the Pacific and Southern Oceans. Furthermore, the near surface analysis of Ishii and IAP are consistent with sea surface temperature (SST) products, but EN4 is found to underestimate the long-term trend. Compared with ocean heat storage derived from the atmospheric budget equation, all products show consistent seasonal cycles of OHC in the upper 1500 m especially during 2008 to 2012. Overall, our analyses further the understanding of the observed OHC variations, and we recommend a careful quantification of errors in the ocean analyses.

  4. Quasirandom geometric networks from low-discrepancy sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Ernesto

    2017-08-01

    We define quasirandom geometric networks using low-discrepancy sequences, such as Halton, Sobol, and Niederreiter. The networks are built in d dimensions by considering the d -tuples of digits generated by these sequences as the coordinates of the vertices of the networks in a d -dimensional Id unit hypercube. Then, two vertices are connected by an edge if they are at a distance smaller than a connection radius. We investigate computationally 11 network-theoretic properties of two-dimensional quasirandom networks and compare them with analogous random geometric networks. We also study their degree distribution and their spectral density distributions. We conclude from this intensive computational study that in terms of the uniformity of the distribution of the vertices in the unit square, the quasirandom networks look more random than the random geometric networks. We include an analysis of potential strategies for generating higher-dimensional quasirandom networks, where it is know that some of the low-discrepancy sequences are highly correlated. In this respect, we conclude that up to dimension 20, the use of scrambling, skipping and leaping strategies generate quasirandom networks with the desired properties of uniformity. Finally, we consider a diffusive process taking place on the nodes and edges of the quasirandom and random geometric graphs. We show that the diffusion time is shorter in the quasirandom graphs as a consequence of their larger structural homogeneity. In the random geometric graphs the diffusion produces clusters of concentration that make the process more slow. Such clusters are a direct consequence of the heterogeneous and irregular distribution of the nodes in the unit square in which the generation of random geometric graphs is based on.

  5. Mercury simulations within GMOS: Analysis of short-term observational episodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travnikov O.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A number of contemporary chemical transport models for mercury are applied within the framework of the EU GMOS project to study principal processes of mercury transport and transformations in the atmosphere. Each model is involved in simulation of short-term episodes corresponding to particular Hg measurement campaigns in Europe and other regions. In order to evaluate different physical and chemical mechanisms the models perform sensitivity runs with various parameterizations and/or combinations of considered processes. The modeling results are compared to detailed measurements of Hg species (Hg0/TGM, RGM, HgP with high temporal resolution (hours aiming at reproduction of short-term temporal variability of Hg air concentration.

  6. Variability in Hurricane Boundary Layer Characteristics Observed in a Long-Term Noaa Dropsonde Archive

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Figure 6. Schematic of the NCAR GPS dropsonde identifying vital capabilities, components, and subsystems (From EOL 2014a...Archive in EOL sounding files (from Y13). ................21 Figure 9. The relative frequency of tropical cyclone categories sampled in the Long- Term...inscribed concentric circle corresponds to a radial grid increment of 200 km. Each blue point indicates the EOL estimate for dropsonde position after a

  7. Long-term geomagnetic changes observed in association with earthquake swarm activities in the Izu Peninsula, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oshiman, N. [Kyoto University Kyoto (Japan). Disaster Prevention Research Institute; Sasai, Y.; Ishikawa, Y.; Koyama, S. [Tokyo Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Earthquake Research Institute; Honkura, Y. [Tokyo Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Earth and Planetary Sciences

    2001-04-01

    Anomalous crustal uplift has continued since 1976 in the Izu Peninsula, Japan. Earthquake swarms have also occurred intermittently off the coast of Ito since 1978. Observations of the total intensity of the geomagnetic field in the peninsula started in 1976 to detect anomalous changes in association with those crustal activities. In particular, a dense continuous observation network using proton magnetometers was established in the northeastern part of the peninsula, immediately after the sea-floor eruption off the coast of Ito in 1989. No remarkable swarm activities were observed there from 1990 to 1992. However, after the occurrence of a small swarm in January 1993, five large swarm activities were observed. At some observation sites, it was observed a remarkable long-term trend in the total geomagnetic field in association with the change in the distribution pattern in the seismicity of the earthquake swarms.

  8. MR observations of long-term musculotendon remodeling following a hamstring strain injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silder, Amy; Heiderscheit, Bryan C.; Thelen, Darryl G.; Enright, Timothy; Tuite, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to use magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to investigate long-term changes in muscle and tendon morphology following a hamstring strain injury. MR images were obtained from 14 athletes who sustained a clinically diagnosed grade I-II hamstring strain injury between 5 and 23 months prior as well as five healthy controls. Qualitative bilateral comparisons were used to assess the presence of fatty infiltration and changes in morphology that may have arisen as a result of the previous injury. Hamstring muscle and tendon-scar volumes were quantified in both limbs for the biceps femoris long head (BFLH), biceps femoris short head (BFSH), the proximal semimembranosus tendon, and the proximal conjoint biceps femoris and semitendinosus tendon. Differences in muscle and tendon volume between limbs were statistically compared between the previously injured and healthy control subjects. Increased low-intensity signal was present along the musculotendon junction adjacent to the site of presumed prior injury for 11 of the 14 subjects, suggestive of persistent scar tissue. The 13 subjects with biceps femoris injuries displayed a significant decrease in BFLH volume (p < 0.01), often accompanied by an increase in BFSH volume. Two of these subjects also presented with fatty infiltration within the previously injured BFLH. The results of this study provide evidence of long-term musculotendon remodeling following a hamstring strain injury. Additionally, many athletes are likely returning to sport with residual atrophy of the BFLH and/or hypertrophy of the BFSH. It is possible that long-term changes in musculotendon structure following injury alters contraction mechanics during functional movement, such as running and may contribute to reinjury risk. (orig.)

  9. MR observations of long-term musculotendon remodeling following a hamstring strain injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silder, Amy [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (US). Department of Biomedical Engineering, Madison, WI (United States); Heiderscheit, Bryan C. [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (US). Department of Biomedical Engineering, Madison, WI (United States); University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (US). Department of Orthopedics and Rehabilitation, Madison, WI (United States); Thelen, Darryl G. [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (US). Department of Biomedical Engineering, Madison, WI (United States); University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (US). Department of Orthopedics and Rehabilitation, Madison, WI (United States); University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (US). Department of Mechanical Engineering, Madison, WI (United States); Enright, Timothy; Tuite, Michael J. [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Department of Radiology

    2008-12-15

    The objective of this study was to use magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to investigate long-term changes in muscle and tendon morphology following a hamstring strain injury. MR images were obtained from 14 athletes who sustained a clinically diagnosed grade I-II hamstring strain injury between 5 and 23 months prior as well as five healthy controls. Qualitative bilateral comparisons were used to assess the presence of fatty infiltration and changes in morphology that may have arisen as a result of the previous injury. Hamstring muscle and tendon-scar volumes were quantified in both limbs for the biceps femoris long head (BFLH), biceps femoris short head (BFSH), the proximal semimembranosus tendon, and the proximal conjoint biceps femoris and semitendinosus tendon. Differences in muscle and tendon volume between limbs were statistically compared between the previously injured and healthy control subjects. Increased low-intensity signal was present along the musculotendon junction adjacent to the site of presumed prior injury for 11 of the 14 subjects, suggestive of persistent scar tissue. The 13 subjects with biceps femoris injuries displayed a significant decrease in BFLH volume (p < 0.01), often accompanied by an increase in BFSH volume. Two of these subjects also presented with fatty infiltration within the previously injured BFLH. The results of this study provide evidence of long-term musculotendon remodeling following a hamstring strain injury. Additionally, many athletes are likely returning to sport with residual atrophy of the BFLH and/or hypertrophy of the BFSH. It is possible that long-term changes in musculotendon structure following injury alters contraction mechanics during functional movement, such as running and may contribute to reinjury risk. (orig.)

  10. Observables and transformation properties of fermions and parafermions constructed in terms of bosons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalnay, A.J.; Kademova, K.V.

    1975-01-01

    Further to work previously reported (Kalnay. MacCotrina and Kademova. Int. J. Theor. Phys.; 7:9 (1973)) in which it was shown how the quantum Fermi or para-Fermi commutation rules of fields could be reproduced in terms of functions of Bose fields and of part 1 of the present work (Kalnay and Kademova. Int. J. Theor. Phys.; 12:141 (1975)), the same concepts are here utilized for the Bose representation of transformation laws. It is apparent that the Bose representation does not introduce conflict between the tensor transformation laws of bosons and the spinor laws of fermions and parafermions. (U.K.)

  11. SPITZER OBSERVATIONS OF LONG-TERM INFRARED VARIABILITY AMONG YOUNG STELLAR OBJECTS IN CHAMAELEON I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flaherty, Kevin M.; Herbst, William [Van Vleck Observatory, Astronomy Department, Wesleyan University, 96 Foss Hill Drive, Middletown, CT 06459 (United States); DeMarchi, Lindsay [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Colgate University, 13 Oak Drive, Hamilton, NY 13346 (United States); Muzerolle, James [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Balog, Zoltan [Max-Planck-Institut fur Astronomie, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Megeath, S. Thomas [Ritter Astrophysical Research Center, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Furlan, Elise [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, 770 S. Wilson Avenue, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Gutermuth, Robert [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)

    2016-12-10

    Infrared variability is common among young stellar objects, with surveys finding daily to weekly fluctuations of a few tenths of a magnitude. Space-based observations can produce highly sampled infrared light curves, but are often limited to total baselines of about 1 month due to the orientation of the spacecraft. Here we present observations of the Chameleon I cluster, whose low declination makes it observable by the Spitzer Space Telescope over a 200-day period. We observe 30 young stellar objects with a daily cadence to better sample variability on timescales of months. We find that such variability is common, occurring in ∼80% of the detected cluster members. The change in [3.6]–[4.5] color over 200 days for many of the sources falls between that expected for extinction and fluctuations in disk emission. With our high cadence and long baseline we can derive power spectral density curves covering two orders of magnitude in frequency and find significant power at low frequencies, up to the boundaries of our 200-day survey. Such long timescales are difficult to explain with variations driven by the interaction between the disk and stellar magnetic field, which has a dynamical timescale of days to weeks. The most likely explanation is either structural or temperature fluctuations spread throughout the inner ∼0.5 au of the disk, suggesting that the intrinsic dust structure is highly dynamic.

  12. Discrepancies between Abstracts Presented at International Association for Dental Research Annual Sessions from 2004 to 2005 and Full-Text Publication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Soni; Lee, Damian J; Yuan, Judy Chia-Chun; Barao, Valentim A R; Shyamsunder, Nodesh; Sukotjo, Cortino

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the discrepancies between abstracts presented at the IADR meeting (2004-2005) and their full-text publication. Material and Methods. Abstracts from the Prosthodontic Section of IADR meeting were obtained. The following information was collected: abstract title, number of authors, study design, statistical analysis, outcome, and funding source. PubMed was used to identify the full-text publication of the abstracts. The discrepancies between the abstract and the full-text publication were examined, categorized as major and minor discrepancies, and quantified. The data were collected and analyzed using descriptive analysis. Frequency and percentage of major and minor discrepancies were calculated. Results. A total of 109 (95.6%) articles showed changes from their abstracts. Seventy-four (65.0%) and 105 (92.0%) publications had at least one major and one minor discrepancies, respectively. Minor discrepancies were more prevalent (92.0%) than major discrepancies (65.0%). The most common minor discrepancy was observed in the title (80.7%), and most common major discrepancies were seen in results (48.2%). Conclusion. Minor discrepancies were more prevalent than major discrepancies. The data presented in this study may be useful to establish a more comprehensive structured abstract requirement for future meetings.

  13. Observed magnetic dipole transitions in the ground terms of Ti XIV, Ti XV, and Ti XVII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suckewer, S.; Fonck, R.; Hinnov, E.

    1979-09-01

    Four observed spectrum lines in titanium-containing tokamak discharges have been identified as follows: TiXIV 2s 2 2p 5 2 P/sub 1/2/ → 2 P/sub 3/2/ at 2115.3 A, TiXV 2s 2 2p 4 3P 1 → 3 P 2 at 2544.8 A, TiXVII 2s 2 2p 2 3 P 2 → 3 P 1 at 3834.4 A and 3 P 1 → 3 P 0 at 3371.5 A. The identifications are based on observed time behavior and correlation with intensities of resonance lines of other titanium ions, and on general agreement with predicted wavelengths and intensities

  14. New results from long-term observations of Cyg X-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, S.S.; Boldt, E.A.; Serlemitsos, P.J.; Kaluzienski, L.J.

    1975-08-01

    Observations of Cyg X-1 between October 1974 and July 1975 reveal a persistent 5.6 day modulation of the 3- to 6-keV x-ray intensity, having a minimum in phase with superior conjunction of the HDE 226868 binary system. The modulation is found to be most pronounced just prior to the April--May 1975 increase of Cyg X-1, after which both the modulation and intensity are at their lowest values for the entire duration of the observations. These data imply that the x-ray emission from Cyg X-1 arises from the compact member of HDE 226868, and that the increase of April--May 1975 may have represented the depletion of accreting material which was not mixed into a cylindrically symmetric accretion disk about the compact member

  15. New results from long-term observations of Cygnus X-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, S.S.; Boldt, E.A.; Serlemitsos, P.J.; Kaluzienski, L.J.

    1976-01-01

    Observations of Cyg X-1 between 1974 October and 1975 July reveal a persistent 5/subd/./sub /6 modulation of the 3--6 keV X-ray intensity, having a minimum in phase with superior conjunction of the HDE 226868 binary system. The modulation is found to be most pronounced just prior to the 1975 April--May increase of Cyg X-1, after which both the modulation and intensity are at their lowest values for the entire duration of the observations. These data imply that the X-ray emission from Cyg X-1 arises from the compact member of HDE 226868, and that the increase of 1975 April--May may have represented the depletion of accreting material which had not yet been mixed into a cylindrically symmetric accretion disk about the compact member

  16. New results from long-term observations of Cyg X-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, S.S.; Boldt, E.A.; Serlemitsos, P.J.; Kaluzienski, L.J.

    1976-01-01

    Observations of Cyg X-1 between October 1974 and July 1975 reveal a persistent 5.6 day modulation of the 3 to 6 keV x-ray intensity, having a minimum in phase with superior conjunction of the HDE 226868 binary system. The modulation is found to be most pronounced just prior to the April to May 1975 increase of Cyg X-1, after which both the modulation and intensity are at their lowest values for the entire duration of the observations. These data imply that the x-ray emission from Cyg X-1 arises from the compact member of HDE 226868, and that the increase of April to May 1975 may have represented the depletion of accreting material which had not yet been mixed into a cylindrically symmetric accretion disk about the compact member

  17. Long-term Geomechanical Observation in the Jeroným Mine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaláb, Zdeněk; Lednická, Markéta

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 5 (2016), s. 1513-1524 ISSN 1895-7455 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA105/09/0089 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : abandoned mine * geomechanical observation * movements along fractures * stress tensor changes * mine water table fluctuation Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 0.968, year: 2016 http://agp.igf.edu.pl/files/64/5/Kalab-Lednicka.pdf

  18. Continuous throughput and long-term observation of single-molecule FRET without immobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Swati; VanDelinder, Virginia; Banterle, Niccolò; Fuertes, Gustavo; Milles, Sigrid; Agez, Morgane; Lemke, Edward A

    2014-03-01

    We present an automated microfluidic platform that performs multisecond observation of single molecules with millisecond time resolution while bypassing the need for immobilization procedures. With this system, we confine biomolecules to a thin excitation field by reversibly collapsing microchannels to nanochannels. We demonstrate the power of our method by studying a variety of complex nucleic acid and protein systems, including DNA Holliday junctions, nucleosomes and human transglutaminase 2.

  19. Long-term Behaviour Of Venus Winds At Cloud Level From Virtis/vex Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hueso, Ricardo; Peralta, J.; Sánchez-Lavega, A.; Pérez-Hoyos, S.; Piccioni, G.; Drossart, P.

    2009-09-01

    The Venus Express (VEX) mission has been in orbit to Venus for more than three years now. The VIRTIS instrument onboard VEX observes Venus in two channels (visible and infrared) obtaining spectra and multi-wavelength images of the planet. Images in the ultraviolet range are used to study the upper cloud at 66 km while images in the infrared (1.74 μm) map the opacity of the lower cloud deck at 48 km. Here we present an analysis of the overall dynamics of Venus’ atmosphere at both levels using observations that cover a large fraction of the VIRTIS dataset. We will present our latest results concerning the zonal winds, the overall stability in the lower cloud deck motions and the variability in the upper cloud. Meridional winds are also observed in the upper and lower cloud in the UV and IR images obtained with VIRTIS. While the upper clouds present a net meridional motion consistent with the upper branch of a Hadley cell the lower cloud present more irregular, variable and less intense motions in the meridional direction. Acknowledgements This work has been funded by Spanish MEC AYA2006-07735 with FEDER support and Grupos Gobierno Vasco IT-464-07. RH acknowledges a "Ramón y Cajal” contract from MEC.

  20. Cardiovascular response to short-term fasting in menstrual phases in young women: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohara, Kumiko; Okita, Yoshimitsu; Kouda, Katsuyasu; Mase, Tomoki; Miyawaki, Chiemi; Nakamura, Harunobu

    2015-08-28

    Menstrual cycle-related symptoms are an important health issue for many women, and some may affect cardiac autonomic regulation. In the present study, we evaluated the cardiovascular and physiological stress response to 12-h short-term fasting in the menstrual phases of healthy young women. We performed a randomized crossover study. Subjects were seven female university students (age: 22.3 ± 1.0 years). The experiments comprised four sessions: meal intake in the follicular phase, meal intake in the luteal phase, fasting in the follicular phase, and fasting in the luteal phase. All subjects participated in a total of four experimental sessions during two successive phases (follicular and luteal phase in the same menstrual cycle, or luteal phase and follicular phase in the next menstrual cycle) according to a randomized crossover design. R-R intervals were continuously recorded before and after meals, and power spectral analysis of heart rate variability was performed. Other physiological data were obtained before and 20, 40, 60, and 80 min after meal intake or after the corresponding time point of meal intake (fasting in the follicular or luteal phase). Heart rate decreased during fasting in the follicular and luteal phases. High frequency power increased during fasting in the follicular and luteal phases. In addition, salivary cortisol concentrations decreased during fasting in the luteal phase. In the present study, short-term fasting resulted in higher parasympathetic activity and lower cortisol levels in the luteal phase in these young women. These results indicate a possibility to produce an anti-stress effect in the luteal phase, which may reduce menstrual symptoms.

  1. Observed long-term greening of alpine vegetation—a case study in the French Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Bradley Z.; Corona, Monica C.; Dentant, Cédric; Bonet, Richard; Thuiller, Wilfried; Choler, Philippe

    2017-11-01

    We combined imagery from multiple sources (MODIS, Landsat-5, 7, 8) with land cover data to test for long-term (1984-2015) greening or browning trends of vegetation in a temperate alpine area, the Ecrins National Park, in the context of recent climate change and domestic grazing practices. We showed that over half (56%) of the Ecrins National Park displayed significant increases in peak normalized difference vegetation index (NDVImax) over the last 16 years (2000-2015). Importantly, the highest proportional increases in NDVImax occurred in rocky habitats at high elevations (> 2500 m a.s.l.). While spatial agreement in the direction of change in NDVImax as detected by MODIS and Landsat was high (76% overlap), correlations between log-response ratio values were of moderate strength (approx. 0.3). In the context of above treeline habitats, we found that proportional increases in NDVImax were higher between 1984 and 2000 than between 2000 and 2015, suggesting a slowing of greening dynamics during the recent decade. The timing of accelerated greening prior to 2000 coincided with a pronounced increase in the amount of snow-free growing degree-days that occurred during the 1980s and 1990s. In the case of grasslands and low-shrub habitats, we did not find evidence for a negative effect of grazing on greening trends, possibly due to the low grazing intensity typically found in the study area. We propose that the emergence of a longer and warmer growing season enabled high-elevation plant communities to produce more biomass, and also allowed for plant colonization of habitats previously characterized by long-lasting snow cover. Increasing plant productivity in an alpine context has potential implications for biodiversity trajectories and for ecosystem services in mountain landscapes. The presented evidence for long-term greening trends in a representative region of the European Alps provides the basis for further research on mechanisms of greening in alpine landscapes.

  2. Natural history of diminutive colorectal polyps: long-term prospective observation by colonoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Ken-Ichi; Suzuki, Yutaka; Takeuchi, Manabu; Kobayashi, Masaaki; Aoyagi, Yutaka

    2014-04-01

    Endoscopic removal of colorectal adenomatous polyps effectively prevents cancer. However, the treatment strategy for diminutive polyps (diameter ≤ 5 mm) remains controversial. Understanding the natural history of diminutive polyps is a prerequisite to their effective management. We prospectively examined the natural history of diminutive polyps by long-term surveillance colonoscopy. A total of 207 polyps detected in 112 patients from December 1991 through March 2002 were studied. To avoid potential effects on size and morphological characteristics, all polyps were selected randomly and were followed without biopsy. Polyp size was estimated by comparing the lesion with the diameter of a biopsy forceps. Mean follow up was 7.8 years (SD, 4.8; range, 1.0-18.6; median, 7.5; interquartile range 3.4-11.2). Twenty-four polyps were resected endoscopically, and the histopathological diagnosis was mucosal high-grade neoplasia (Category 4) for one polyp, and mucosal low-grade neoplasia (Category 3) for 23 polyps. Mean linear size of the polyps was 3.2 mm (SD, 1.0; range, 1.3-5.0) at initial colonoscopy and 3.8 mm (SD 1.6; range 1.3-10.0) at final colonoscopy (Ppit pattern was associated with a lower growth rate than a type IIIL1 pattern. We clarified the natural history of diminutive polyps by long-term follow-up colonoscopy. The benign course of diminutive polyps should be considered in the design of treatment strategies. © 2014 The Authors. Digestive Endoscopy © 2014 Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society.

  3. Discrepancies Between Clinical Diagnoses and Autopsy Findings in Critically Ill Children: A Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlotti, Ana P C P; Bachette, Letícia G; Carmona, Fabio; Manso, Paulo H; Vicente, Walter V A; Ramalho, Fernando S

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate the discrepancies between clinical and autopsy diagnoses in patients who died in the pediatric intensive care units (PICUs) of a tertiary care university hospital. A prospective study of all consecutive autopsies discussed at monthly mortality conferences over 5 years. Discrepancies between premortem and autopsy diagnoses were classified according to modified Goldman et al criteria. From January 1, 2011, to December 31, 2015, a total of 2,679 children were admitted to the two PICUs of our hospital; 257 (9.6%) died, 150 (58.4%) underwent autopsy, and 123 were included. Complete concordance between clinical and postmortem diagnoses was observed in 86 (69.9%) patients; 20 (16.3%) had a class I discrepancy, and eight (6.5%) had a class II discrepancy. Comparing 2011 and 2015, the rate of major discrepancies decreased from 31.6% to 15%. Our results emphasize the importance of autopsy to clarify the cause of death and its potential contribution to improvement of team performance and quality of care. © American Society for Clinical Pathology, 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Discrepancies in Parents' and Children's Reports of Child Emotion Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hourigan, Shannon E.; Goodman, Kimberly L.; Southam-Gerow, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    The ability to regulate one's emotions effectively has been linked with many aspects of well-being. The current study examined discrepancies between mothers' and children's reports of child emotion regulation. This investigation examined patterns of discrepancies for key aspects of emotion regulation (i.e., inhibition and dysregulated expression)…

  5. Towards a long-term chlorophyll-a data record in a turbid estuary using MODIS observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Chengfeng; Hu, Chuanmin; English, David; Cannizzaro, Jennifer; Chen, Zhiqiang; Feng, Lian; Boler, Richard; Kovach, Charles

    2013-02-01

    Despite recent advances in using satellite data for continuous monitoring of estuarine water quality parameters such as turbidity and water clarity, estimating chlorophyll-a concentrations (Chla) has remained problematic due to the optical complexity of estuarine waters and imperfect atmospheric correction. This poses a significant challenge to the community as synoptic and frequent Chla “measurements” from satellites are in high demand by various government agencies and environmental groups to help make management decisions. Here, using 10 years of in situ and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) measurements from a moderately sized, turbid estuary, Tampa Bay (Florida, USA), we developed and validated a new algorithm specifically designed for retrieving Chla from MODIS data. The algorithm takes the red-to-green remote-sensing reflectance (Rrs(λ)) band ratio of [Rrs(667) + Rrs(678)]/[Rrs(531) + Rrs(547)] as the independent variable, and estimates Chla through the non-linear regression function: Ln(Chla) = 1.91Ln(x) + 3.40 (R2 = 0.87, N = 97, p < 0.01, 1.5 < Chla < 80 mg m-3) where ‘x' is the band ratio. Validation of the algorithm using two independent datasets collected by different groups and near-concurrent MODIS measurements showed robust algorithm performance for Chla within this range, with mean relative errors of 25.8% and 41.7% for the two datasets. Time-series analyses at representative stations using both in situ and MODIS Chla also showed general agreement, with instances of noticeable discrepancy attributed to different measurement frequencies. The algorithm was implemented to establish a 10-year Chla data record for Tampa Bay in order to serve as a baseline for monitoring future phytoplankton bloom events. The 10-year Chla data record showed substantial variability in both space and time, with generally higher Chla observed during the wet season and in upper bay segments, and Chla minima observed in all bay segments during May

  6. Impacts of Insufficient Observations on the Monitoring of Short- and Long-Term Suspended Solids Variations in Highly Dynamic Waters, and Implications for an Optimal Observation Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qu Zhou

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Coastal water regions represent some of the most fragile ecosystems, exposed to both climate change and human activities. While remote sensing provides unprecedented amounts of data for water quality monitoring on regional to global scales, the performance of satellite observations is frequently impeded by revisiting intervals and unfavorable conditions, such as cloud coverage and sun glint. Therefore, it is crucial to evaluate the impacts of varied sampling strategies (time and frequency and insufficient observations on the monitoring of short-term and long-term tendencies of water quality parameters, such as suspended solids (SS, in highly dynamic coastal waters. Taking advantage of the first high-frequency in situ SS dataset (at 30 min sampling intervals from 2007 to 2008, collected in Deep Bay, China, this paper presents a quantitative analysis of the influences of sampling strategies on the monitoring of SS, in terms of sampling frequency and time of day. Dramatic variations of SS were observed, with standard deviation coefficients of 48.9% and 54.1%, at two fixed stations; in addition, significant uncertainties were revealed, with the average absolute percent difference of approximately 13%, related to sampling frequency and time, using nonlinear optimization and random simulation methods. For a sampling frequency of less than two observations per day, the relative error of SS was higher than 50%, and stabilized at approximately 10%, when at least four or five samplings were conducted per day. The optimal recommended sampling times for SS were at around 9:00, 12:00, 14:00, and 16:00 in Deep Bay. The “pseudo” MODIS SS dataset was obtained from high-frequency in situ SS measurements at 10:30 and 14:00, masked by the temporal gap distribution of MODIS coverage to avoid uncertainties propagated from atmospheric correction and SS models. Noteworthy uncertainties of daily observations from the Terra/Aqua MODIS were found, with mean relative

  7. Discrepancy between subjective autobiographical reliving and objective recall: The past as seen by Alzheimer's disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Haj, Mohamad; Antoine, Pascal

    2017-03-01

    This paper investigated whether Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients may demonstrate a discrepancy between subjective autobiographical reliving and objective recall. To this end, 31 AD patients and 35 controls were asked to retrieve three autobiographical memories. For each memory, participants were asked to rate its subjective characteristics (e.g., reliving, travel in time, visual imagery…). Besides this subjective assessment, we analyzed recall objectively with regard to specificity. Results showed poorer subjective autobiographical reliving and objective recall in AD patients than in controls. A discrepancy (i.e., higher level of subjective reliving than of objective recall) was observed in AD but not in control participants. Despite a compromise in their objective recall, AD patients seemed to attribute a high value to their subjective autobiographical experience. This discrepancy can be attributed to a potential genuine consciousness experience in which mild AD patients can, to some extent, experience some subjective features of the past. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Long-Term Oceanographic Observations in Western Massachusetts Bay Offshore of Boston, Massachusetts: Data Report for 1989-2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butman, Bradford; Bothner, Michael H.; Alexander, P. Soupy; Lightsom, Frances L.; Martini, Marinna A.; Gutierrez, Benjamin T.; Strahle, William S.

    2004-01-01

    This data report presents long-term oceanographic observations made in western Massachusetts Bay at two locations: (1) 42 deg 22.6' N., 70 deg 47.0' W. (Site A, 33 m water depth) from December 1989 through December 2002 (figure 1), and (2) 42 deg 9.8' N., 70 deg 38.4' W. (Site B, 21 m water depth) from October 1997 through December 2002. Site A is approximately 1 km south of the new ocean outfall that began discharging treated sewage effluent from the Boston metropolitan area into Massachusetts Bay on September 6, 2000. These long-term oceanographic observations have been collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in partnership with the Massachusetts Water Resources Authority (MWRA) and with logistical support from the U.S. Coast Guard (USCG - http://www.uscg.mil). This report presents time series data through December 2002, updating a similar report that presented data through December 2000 (Butman and others, 2002). In addition, the Statistics and Mean Flow sections include some new plots and tables and the format of the report has been streamlined by combining yearly figures into single .pdfs. Figure 1 (PDF format) The long-term measurements are planned to continue at least through 2005. The long-term oceanographic observations at Sites A and B are part of a USGS study designed to understand the transport and long-term fate of sediments and associated contaminants in the Massachusetts bays. (See http://woodshole.er.usgs.gov/project-pages/bostonharbor/ and Butman and Bothner, 1997.) The long-term observations document seasonal and inter-annual changes in currents, hydrography, and suspended-matter concentration in western Massachusetts Bay, and the importance of infrequent catastrophic events, such as major storms or hurricanes, in sediment resuspension and transport. They also provide observations for testing numerical models of circulation. This data report presents a description of the field program and instrumentation, an overview of the data through

  9. Two long-term slow slip events around Tokyo Bay found by GNSS observation during 1996-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yoshiyuki; Yabe, Suguru

    2017-03-01

    Slow slip events (SSEs) with durations ranging from days to more than a decade have been observed in plate subduction zones around the world. In the Kanto district in Japan, several SSEs have been identified based on geodetic observations. However, none of these events have had durations largely exceeding a year. In this study, we show that long-term SSEs with durations longer than 3 years occurred before the year 2000 and after 2007 on the upper interface of the Philippine Sea Plate at depths of 30-40 km. The fault model determined by inversion of global navigation satellite system data is located northeast of Tokyo Bay, where a seismic gap and low seismic wave velocities were detected by seismological observations. Moreover, the acceleration periods of the fault slip corresponded well with increases in the background seismicity for shallower earthquakes. The slip history was also temporally correlated with the long-term shear stress changes governed mainly by non-tidal variations in the ocean bottom pressure. However, the predicted slip from the long-term stress change was too small to reproduce the observed slow slips. To prove the causal relationship between the SSEs and the external stress change, more advanced modeling is necessary to confirm whether such a small slip can trigger an SSE.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  10. Long-term Observations of Intense Precipitation Small-scale Spatial Variability in a Semi-arid Catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cropp, E. L.; Hazenberg, P.; Castro, C. L.; Demaria, E. M.

    2017-12-01

    In the southwestern US, the summertime North American Monsoon (NAM) provides about 60% of the region's annual precipitation. Recent research using high-resolution atmospheric model simulations and retrospective predictions has shown that since the 1950's, and more specifically in the last few decades, the mean daily precipitation in the southwestern U.S. during the NAM has followed a decreasing trend. Furthermore, days with more extreme precipitation have intensified. The current work focuses the impact of these long-term changes on the observed small-scale spatial variability of intense precipitation. Since limited long-term high-resolution observational data exist to support such climatological-induced spatial changes in precipitation frequency and intensity, the current work utilizes observations from the USDA-ARS Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed (WGEW) in southeastern Arizona. Within this 150 km^2 catchment over 90 rain gauges have been installed since the 1950s, measuring at sub-hourly resolution. We have applied geospatial analyses and the kriging interpolation technique to identify long-term changes in the spatial and temporal correlation and anisotropy of intense precipitation. The observed results will be compared with the previously model simulated results, as well as related to large-scale variations in climate patterns, such as the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO).

  11. Long-Term Water Temperature Variations in Daya Bay, China Using Satellite and In Situ Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Yu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Daya Bay is a shallow, semi-en closed bay in the northern section of the South China Sea. The present study analyzed variations of water temperature in Daya Bay over the past 21 years (1985 - 2005 using Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR satellite remote sensing data and in situ observations. Results showed that AVHRR readings of sea surface temperature (SST increased by 0.07°C y-1. Linear regression anal y sis for monthly SST anomalies (SSTA showed a shift from negative to positive from 1995 - 1996, when the Daya Bay nuclear power station commenced operations in 1994. The slope of linear regression analysis for SSTA nearly doubled from 0.05 (1985 - 1993 to 0.09 (1994 - 2005. Monthly AVHRR images showed a thermal plume from the power station and revealed the in crease of SST over 21 years. In situ observations in water temperature also showed an in creasing trend for the same period (1985 - 2005. Variations in water temperature in Daya Bay were connected with climatic perturbations and in creasing human activity including thermal discharge from nuclear power stations and the rapid economic development around the bay area.

  12. Long term follow-up observation of /sup 131/Iodine treatment of hyperthyroidism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kao, Y.; Liu, Y.; Ch' en, C.

    1977-07-20

    This paper reports the 5 to 13 years follow-up conditions of 241 cases of hyperthyroidism treated with /sup 131/iodine, with emphasis on the side-effect of incidence of hypothyroidism. Of the group, 192 cases were cured; 25 cases were improved; there were 3 cases of recurrence and 5 cases remained the same as before the treatment. Hypothyroidism yroidism occurred to the remaining 16 cases. The rate of incidence of hypothyroidism at the end of one year after treatment was 3.3%; at the end of 9 years 9.5%, with an average yearly increase of 0.8%. In foreign countries, the reported yearly increase rate of hypothyroidism has been reported to be 1 to 6%, and the ten-year aggregate may be as high as 30.2 to 70%, much higher than the observed data here reported. There was no incidence of thyroid nodules, cancer, or leukemia among the group of 241 cases treated with /sup 131/iodine, and the reproductive capacity was not observed to be affected by the treatment.

  13. Long-Term Time Series of Remote Sensing Observations for Development of Regulatory Water Quality Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blonski, Slawomir; Spiering, Bruce A.; Holekamp, Kara L.

    2010-01-01

    Water quality standards in the U.S. consist of: designated uses (the services that a water body provides; e.g., drinking water, aquatic life, harvestable species, recreation) . criteria that define the environmental conditions that must be maintained to support the uses For estuaries and coastal waters in the Gulf of Mexico, there are no numeric (quantitative) criteria to protect designated uses from effects of nutrients. This is largely due to the absence of adequate data that would quantitatively link biological conditions to nutrient concentrations. The Gulf of Mexico Alliance, an organization fostering collaboration between the Gulf States and U.S. Federal agencies, has identified the development of the numeric nutrient criteria as a major step leading to reduction in MODIS Products Figure 6. Map of the Mobile Bay with a yellow patch indicating the Bon Secour Bay area selected in this study for averaging water clarity parameters retrieved from MODIS datasets. nutrient inputs to coastal ecosystems. Nutrient enrichment in estuaries and coastal waters can be quantified based on response variables that measure phytoplankton biomass and water clarity. Long-term, spatially and temporally resolved measurements of chlorophyll a concentration, total concentration of suspended solids, and water clarity are needed to establish reference conditions and to quantify stressor-response relationships.

  14. Development of mobile sensor for volcanic observation "HOMURA": Test campaigns for a long-term operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, K.; Iwahori, K.; Ito, K.; Sagi, H.

    2016-12-01

    Unmanned robots are useful to observe volcanic phenomena near active volcanic vents, to learn symptoms and transitions of eruptions, and to mitigate volcanic disasters. We have been trying to develop a practical UGV robot for flexible observation of active volcanic vents. We named this system "Homura". In this presentation, we report results of test campaigns of Homura for observation in a volcanic field. We have developed a prototype of Homura, which is a small robot vehicle with six wheels (75 x 43 x 31 cm and a weight of about 12 kg). It is remotely controlled with mobile phone radio waves; it can move in volcanic fields and send real time data of sensors (camera and gas sensors) equipped in the vehicle to the base station. Homura has a small solar panel (4 W). Power consumption of Homura is about 4 W in operation of sensors and less than 0.1 W in idle state, so that Homura can work outdoors for a long time by intermittent operation.We carried out two test campaigns of Homura at Iwo-yama to examine if Homura can work for a few month in natural volcanic fields (however, it had no solar panel in these campaigns). Iwo-yama is one of craters in the Kirishima volcanic field, SW Japan; the area within 1 km from the crater was an off-limit area from Oct., 2014 to May, 2015 and from Feb. to Mar., 2016 because of strong volcanic seismicity. On Feb. 19th, 2015 and Mar. 7th, 2016, we carried and put Homura at the rim of the crater. Unfortunately, mobile phone connectivity was not entirely stable around Iwo-yama. Then, we did not move Homura and only obtain real time data of the sensors. In the two campaigns, we operated Homura at our office for a few hours every day for 49 and 37 days, respectively. Although the weather was often bad (rain, fog, or cold temperature) during the campaigns, Homura perfectly worked. The results of these campaigns indicate that Homura is useful as s simple monitoring station in volcanic fields where mobile phone connection is available.

  15. An Observational Study with Long-Term Follow-Up of Canine Cognitive Dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fast, R.; Schutt, T.; Toft, N.

    2013-01-01

    = .99). Conclusions and Clinical Importance: A few key questions addressing sleep-wake cycle, interaction, and signs of confusion and anxiety can be used as a clinical marker of CCD. Special attention should be paid to anxiety in dogs with CCD because it may be especially stressful to both dog and owner...... with neurodegenerative changes (eg, cortical atrophy and amyloid-beta deposits). Objectives: To investigate clinical characteristics, survival, and risk factors with CCD. Vitamin E was investigated as a potential marker of CCD. Methods: Ninety-four dogs >8 years of age were investigated with a validated CCD...... questionnaire and allocated to CCD, borderline CCD (b-CCD) and non-CCD groups. The dogs were included in 2008-2009 and followed up in an observational study until follow-up in 2012. Results: Four key clinical signs dominated in dogs with CCD: sleeping during the day and restless at night, decreased interaction...

  16. Long term observations in combined modality therapy for limited stage small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colletier, Philip J.; Komaki, Ritsuko; Schea, Randi A.; Allen, Pamela; Cox, James D.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: With the discovery that patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC) exhibit a high level of sensitivity to both chemotherapy and radiotherapy, the treatment of SCLC became a model for the success of combined modality treatment. In this retrospective review, we analyze the outcomes and patterns of failure when patients are treated with chemotherapy and thoracic irradiation. The relative values of sequential and concurrent chemotherapy, in conjunction with chest irradiation, are assessed. The potential benefit of prophylactic cranial irradiation is explored. The impact of prognostic factors for long term survival of SCLC patients are examined to identify pretreatment patient characteristics and treatment parameters which might predict for a favorable outcome. Materials and Methods: We identified 190 patients treated at M.D. Anderson Cancer Center from January 1985 to December 1992 with curative intent for limited stage SCLC. Prognostic factors were determined using univariate and multivariate analysis. The significant covariates for each outcome endpoint were evaluated. Probabilities of local failure, overall survival, relapse-free survival, and distant metastasis-free survival were calculated from the time of treatment using actuarial life table analysis. Results: The median age was 61, with 51% males. There were 119 patients treated sequentially, and 71 concurrently. The Karnofsky Performance Status was >= 90 in 48% of patients in the concurrent cohort, vs. 35% of the sequential group. Prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) was delivered in 117 cases (62%). There were 51 long term survivors, defined as survival >=36 months. The median follow-up in surviving patients was 75 months. At the time of the analysis, 166 patients (87%) had expired. The crude 2 and 3 year survival rate for the entire group was 38.4% and 26.8%, respectively. The actuarial 2-year survival was 39.9%, and at 3 years the actuarial survival was 27.8%. The median actuarial

  17. Development of a Physical Environmental Observational Tool for Dining Environments in Long-Term Care Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhury, Habib; Keller, Heather; Pfisterer, Kaylen; Hung, Lillian

    2017-11-10

    This paper presents the first standardized physical environmental assessment tool titled Dining Environment Audit Protocol (DEAP) specifically designed for dining spaces in care homes and reports the results of its psychometric properties. Items rated include: adequacy of lighting, glare, personal control, clutter, staff supervision support, restraint use, and seating arrangement option for social interaction. Two scales summarize the prior items and rate the overall homelikeness and functionality of the space. Ten dining rooms in three long-term care homes were selected for assessment. Data were collected over 11 days across 5 weeks. Two trained assessors completed DEAP independently on the same day. Interrater-reliability was completed for lighting, glare, space, homelike aspects, seating arrangements and the two summary scales, homelikeness and functionality of the space. For categorical measures, measure responses were dichotomized at logical points and Cohen's Kappa and concordance on ratings were determined. The two overall rating scales on homelikeness and functionality of space were found to be reliable intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) (~0.7). The mean rating for homelikeness for Assessor 1 was 3.5 (SD 1.35) and for functionality of the room was 5.3. (SD 0.82; median 5.5). The findings indicate that the tool's interrater-reliability scores are promising. The high concordance on the overall scores for homelikeness and functionality is indicative of the strength of the individual items in generating a reliable global assessment score on these two important aspects of the dining space. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Long-term observation of the mineral trioxide aggregate extrusion into the periapical lesion: a case series

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seok-Woo Chang; Tae-Seok Oh; WooCheol Lee; Gary Shun-Pan Cheung; Hyeon-Cheol Kim

    2013-01-01

    One-step apexification using mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) has been reported as an alternative treatment modality with more benefits than the use of long-term calcium hydroxide for teeth with open apex. However, orthograde placement of MTA is a challenging procedure in terms of length control. This case series describes the sequence of events following apical extrusion of MTA into the periapical area during a one-step apexification procedure for maxillary central incisor with an infected immature apex. Detailed long-term observation revealed complete resolution of the periapical radiolucent lesion around the extruded MTA. These cases revealed that direct contact with MTA had no negative effects on healing of the periapical tissues. However, intentional MTA overfilling into the periapical lesion is not to be recommended.

  19. Long Term Association of Tropospheric Trace gases over Pakistan by exploiting satellite observations and development of Econometric Regression based Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeb, Naila; Fahim Khokhar, Muhammad; Khan, Saud Ahmed; Noreen, Asma; Murtaza, Rabbia

    2017-04-01

    Air pollution is the expected key environmental issue of Pakistan as it is ranked among top polluted countries in the region. Ongoing rapid economic growth without any adequate measures is leading to worst air quality over time. The study aims to monitor long term atmospheric composition and association of trace gases over Pakistan. Tropospheric concentrations of CO, TOC, NO2 and HCHO derived from multiple satellite instruments are used for study from year 2005 to 2014. The study will provide first database for tropospheric trace gases over Pakistan. Spatio-temporal assessment identified hotspots and possible sources of trace gases over the Pakistan. High concentrations of trace gases are mainly observed over Punjab region, which may be attributed to its metropolitan importance. It is the major agricultural, industrialized and urbanized (nearly 60 % of the Pakistan's population) sector of the country. The expected sources are the agricultural fires, biomass/fossil fuel burning for heating purposes, urbanization, industrialization and meteorological variations. Seasonal variability is observed to explore seasonal patterns over the decade. Well defined seasonal cycles of trace gases are observed over the whole study period. The observed seasonal patterns also showed some noteworthy association among trace gases, which is further explored by different statistical tests. Seasonal Mann Kendall test is applied to test the significance of trend in series whereas correlation is carried out to measure the strength of association among trace gases. Strong correlation is observed for trace gases especially between CO and TOC. Partial Mann Kendall test is used to ideally identify the impact of each covariate on long term trend of CO and TOC by partialling out each correlating trace gas (covariate). It is observed that TOC, NO2 and HCHO has significant impact on long term trend of CO whereas, TOC critically depends on NO2 concentrations for long term increase over the region

  20. Observation of the long-term effects of lifestyle intervention during balneotherapy in metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gin, Henri; Demeaux, Jean-Louis; Grelaud, Angela; Grolleau, Adeline; Droz-Perroteau, Cécile; Robinson, Philip; Lassalle, Régis; Abouelfath, Abdelilah; Boisseau, Michel; Toussaint, Christian; Moore, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    Estimate the effect of lifestyle adjustment activities in patients with metabolic syndrome treated by prescribed balneotherapy. Observational pilot cohort study with 12-month follow-up after multidimensional lifestyle training (physical, dietary, educational) during 3-week standard stay in the spa town of Eugénie-les-Bains. Of 145 eligible patients, 97 were included; 63 were followed and analysable. At inclusion all had ≥3 National cholesterol education program-Adult treatment panel III (NCEP-ATPIII) criteria defining metabolic syndrome, 76.2% were female, mean age was 61.2 years. At the end of follow-up (median:10.4 months, Inter-Quartile Range: [6.7;11.4]), 48 of these 63 patients (76.2%) no longer had metabolic syndrome (95%CI [65.7;86.7]). These 48 patients without metabolic syndrome at the end of follow-up represented 49.5% of the 97 included (95%CI [39.5;59.4]). Future studies of lifestyle interventions taking advantage of the spa environment can be expected to find least one third of patients free of metabolic syndrome at the end of 12-month follow-up in the intervention group. © 2013 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  1. Feasibility study and technical proposal for long-term observations of bedrock stability with gps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruizhi Chen; Kakkuri, J.

    1994-01-01

    In order to study the regional crustal deformation pattern in the territory of Finland, the Finnish Geodetic Institute is establishing the Finnish Permanent GPS Network, which is part of the Fennoscandian Permanent GPS Network. The Finnish GPS Network consists of a 12 stations located in different geological structures. The operation procedure of the network is described in the report. Feasibility study for monitoring the bedrock stability at local scale was performed. The study was carried out on the basis of an experiment on a baseline of 1041 metres. Twelve artificial movements ranging from 1 mm to 22 mm were generated with a precision-manufactured screw drive (with an accuracy of better than +-0.05 mm). The artificial movements were then detected with the GPS measurements. A preliminary analysis of the GPS data shows that the maximum difference between the GPS detected movements and the artificial movements is 0.9 mm with a standard deviation of +-0.46 mm. The observation time for reaching such accuracy is about 55 minutes. Three GPS networks were preliminarily designed for the radioactive waste disposal investigation sites of Olkiluoto, Kivetty and Romuvaara. Detailed research plan for achieving the best possible result from GPS measurements was proposed. (58 refs., 25 figs., 1 tab.)

  2. An observational study of cross-cultural communication in short-term, diverse professional learning groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, Leslie; Hogg, Peter; Higgins, Robert

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the evaluation of a European funded 3-week summer school which took place in 2013 involving 60 staff and students from five universities. The evaluation looked at one group in detail using a qualitative approach to consider whether students and teachers can work together in multicultural groups in order to achieve their goal. Method: One group was observed during 2 two-hour sessions of group activity; at the beginning and end of the summer school task. Video data was analysed using the Rapport Management framework, a model of cross-cultural communication, to determine what motivated this group's interactions. Results: As the group's deadline became imminent ‘face-threatening acts’ (FTAs) were more apparent. These were tolerated in this group because of the development of a strong social bond. There was inequity in participation with members of the group falling into either high- or low-involvement categories. This was also well-tolerated but meant some students may not have gained as much from the experience. The group lacked guidance on managing group dynamics. Conclusion: Cultural differences in communication were not the main threat to multi-cultural working groups. Potential problems can arise from failing to provide the group with a framework for project and team management. An emphasis on ground rules and the allocation of formal roles is important as is the encouragement of socialisation which supports the group during challenging times

  3. Use of nurse-observed symptoms of delirium in long-term care: effects on prevalence and outcomes of delirium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCusker, Jane; Cole, Martin G; Voyer, Philippe; Monette, Johanne; Champoux, Nathalie; Ciampi, Antonio; Vu, Minh; Belzile, Eric

    2011-05-01

    Previous studies have reported that nurse detection of delirium has low sensitivity compared to a research diagnosis. As yet, no study has examined the use of nurse-observed delirium symptoms combined with research-observed delirium symptoms to diagnose delirium. Our specific aims were: (1) to describe the effect of using nurse-observed symptoms on the prevalence of delirium symptoms and diagnoses in long-term care (LTC) facilities, and (2) to compare the predictive validity of delirium diagnoses based on the use of research-observed symptoms alone with those based on research-observed and nurse-observed symptoms. Residents aged 65 years and over of seven LTC facilities were recruited into a prospective study. Using the Confusion Assessment Method (CAM), research assistants (RAs) interviewed residents and nurses to assess delirium symptoms. Delirium symptoms were also abstracted independently from nursing notes. Outcomes measured at five month follow-up were: death, the Hierarchic Dementia Scale (HDS), the Barthel ADL scale, and a composite outcome measure (death, or a 10-point decline in either the HDS or the ADL score). The prevalence of delirium among 235 LTC residents increased from 14.0% (using research-observed symptoms only) to 24.7% (using research- and nurse-observed symptoms). The relative risks (and 95% confidence intervals) for prediction of the composite outcome, after adjustment for covariates, were: 1.43 (0.88, 1.96) for delirium using research-observed symptoms only; 1.77 (1.13, 2.28) for delirium using research- and nurse-observed symptoms, in comparison with no delirium. The inclusion of delirium symptoms observed by nurses not only increases the detection of delirium in LTC facilities but improves the prediction of outcomes.

  4. Intraoperative insertion torque of lumbar pedicle screw and postoperative radiographic evaluation. Short-term observation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuno, Koichi; Shinomiya, Kenichi; Otani, Kazuyuki

    2005-01-01

    The correlation between the insertion torque of a lumbar pedicle screw and the mechanical stability of the screw in the bone has been mentioned in in vitro studies. The purpose of this study was to confirm the factors affecting the insertion torque of such screws in vivo. Also, the contribution of insertion torque to the initial stability of the fusion area was to be analyzed in vivo. A series of 23 cases representing 50 lumbar vertebrae were included in this study, in which we examined bone mineral density using quantitative computed tomography (CT) prior to operation. Two screw shapes were utilized, with the insertion torque for each screw measured at two points in time. The correlation between insertion torque and mineral density was investigated. Screw positions were confirmed on postoperative CT scans, and the effect of the screw thread cutting into the cortex bone was investigated. Radiographic changes at three points during a period of 3 months were also measured, and we then evaluated the interrelations between these changes and insertion torque. Furthermore, the relation between insertion torque and instability at 3 months was investigated. Correlations of insertion torque and bone mineral density depended on screw shape. There was no correlation found with mineral density in the case of cylindrical screws. Insertion torque was not affected by the screw thread cutting into the cortex of bone. As for postoperative alignment changes, no definitive trends could be ascertained, and no interrelations with torque and alignment changes were observed. There is a possibility that insertion torque was related to early-stage stability, but no statistical relation could be determined. (author)

  5. Factors associated with weaning practices in term infants: a prospective observational study in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tarrant, R C

    2010-11-01

    The WHO (2001) recommends exclusive breast-feeding and delaying the introduction of solid foods to an infant\\'s diet until 6 months postpartum. However, in many countries, this recommendation is followed by few mothers, and earlier weaning onto solids is a commonly reported global practice. Therefore, this prospective, observational study aimed to assess compliance with the WHO recommendation and examine weaning practices, including the timing of weaning of infants, and to investigate the factors that predict weaning at ≤ 12 weeks. From an initial sample of 539 pregnant women recruited from the Coombe Women and Infants University Hospital, Dublin, 401 eligible mothers were followed up at 6 weeks and 6 months postpartum. Quantitative data were obtained on mothers\\' weaning practices using semi-structured questionnaires and a short dietary history of the infant\\'s usual diet at 6 months. Only one mother (0.2%) complied with the WHO recommendation to exclusively breastfeed up to 6 months. Ninety-one (22.6%) infants were prematurely weaned onto solids at ≤ 12 weeks with predictive factors after adjustment, including mothers\\' antenatal reporting that infants should be weaned onto solids at ≤ 12 weeks, formula feeding at 12 weeks and mothers\\' reporting of the maternal grandmother as the principal source of advice on infant feeding. Mothers who weaned their infants at ≤ 12 weeks were more likely to engage in other sub-optimal weaning practices, including the addition of non-recommended condiments to their infants\\' foods. Provision of professional advice and exploring antenatal maternal misperceptions are potential areas for targeted interventions to improve compliance with the recommended weaning practices.

  6. Atomic scale observation of phase transformation in long term thermally aged duplex stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novy, St.

    2009-01-01

    Embrittlement study of duplex stainless steels is a very important in order to predict the lifetime of primary circuits of nuclear power plant. Ferrite steels aged over 20 years, on-site, in laboratory and at different temperatures was analyzed by tomographic probe atom to assess the trend of aging of these materials with very long times. A more prospective work was also carried out, the aim was to model the decomposition of ferrite from austenitic-ferritic steels. The simulation of the decomposition of these steels are very complex, we initiated preliminary work in modelling the Fe-Cr alloys, because the decomposition of Fe and Cr in these steels is the main cause of their fragility. To validate the parameters used in simulation, an experimental study of the decomposition of an alloy Fe-20% at. Cr aged at 500 C was performed. This experimental study has shown that a non-classical germination (NCG) is involved in this alloy. The performed simulations on the same alloy at the same temperature, did not reproduce the progressive enrichment of precipitated phase a' (characteristic of NCG). The study of steels, aged over 20 years, has confirmed that the steel aged in laboratory are representative to steel aged in site ( T ≤350 C). Moreover, it has been shown that the G-phase (intermetallic precipitation at the interface a/a' phases) does not influence the embrittlement of the ferrite and the difference of thermo-mechanical treatment is not determinant of the variance decomposition observed in these steels. (author)

  7. Commentary Discrepancy between statistical analysis method and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    is against the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials. (CONSORT) ... more than satisfied with the non-financial reward of being included in the ... Studies in Epidemiology ( STROBE ) Statement : Guidelines for reporting observational ...

  8. Investigation of the Aggression Tendency Observed in University Students in Terms of Different Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih CAMADAN

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to find out whether or not the observed level of aggression in university students varies according to different demographic variables. These variables include grade level, gender, perceived parenting styles, the place where students lived before the university and monthly economic income level of family. The study group consists of the students studying at seven state universities located in different regions of Turkey: Cumhuriyet University [Central Anatolia Region], Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University [Marmara Region], Çukurova University [Mediterranean Region], Dicle University [South Eastern Anatolia Region], Dokuz Eylül University [Aegean Region], İnönü University [Eastern Anatolia Region] and Ondokuz Mayıs University [Black Sea Region]. The Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire was used to collect data. In order to determine the validity of the scale for this research, ‘Deterministic Finite Automat (DFA’ was recalculated again. Also, Cronbach’s alpha internal consistency coefficient was recalculated again for the reliability. The obtained results revealed that the factor structures in the original scale are validated for this study and the measurement instrument was found to be reliable for this research. In addition, the Personal Information Form was prepared and given to the participants by the researchers in order to obtain different demographics about them. Various statistical analyses were performed with the data obtained through the form and scale. As a result of the analyses, the aggression level of male students was found to be significantly higher than the females. The level of aggression of the students who perceive their parents’ attitudes as authoritarian was found to be significantly higher than those who are exposed to protective and democratic parenting attitudes. In addition, the students who perceive their fathers as indifferent yielded higher aggression scores than those perceiving their

  9. Orthodontic Movement after Regenerative Endodontic Procedure: Case Report and Long-term Observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaniotis, Antonis

    2018-03-01

    Although regenerative treatment approaches in teeth with incomplete root formation and pulp necrosis have become part of the suggested therapeutic endodontic spectrum, little is known about the effect of orthodontic movement in the tissue that has been regenerated. Furthermore, as the number of adults undergoing orthodontic treatment increases, there is an increasing need to investigate the changes that these tissues may undergo during orthodontic movement. Here we describe the alterations observed after the application of orthodontic forces in a case of an apically root-fractured necrotic immature root that had been managed with regenerative endodontic procedures in the past. A 9-year-old male patient was referred after suffering the third incidence of trauma in the anterior maxilla. Radiographic evaluation revealed a periapical rarefaction associated with an apically root-fractured immature central incisor. Clinical evaluation revealed a buccal abscess and grade 3 tooth mobility. Periodontal probing was within normal limits. The tooth was accessed and disinfected by using apical negative pressure irrigation of 6% NaOCl. Intracanal dentin conditioning was achieved by using 17% EDTA for 5 minutes. A blood clot was induced from the periapical area, and calcium silicate-based cement was placed in direct contact with the blood clot at the same visit. The composite resin restoration was accomplished in the same appointment. Recall radiographic examination after 24 months revealed healing of the periapical lesion and signs of continuous root development despite the apical root fracture. Clinical evaluation revealed normal tooth development, normal mobility, and a resolving buccal infection. The tooth was subjected to orthodontic treatment because of Class II division 1 malocclusion with an overjet of 11 mm. After completion of the orthodontic treatment, 5.5 years after the initial intervention, the radiographic image revealed marked remodeling of the periapical

  10. Using discrepant events in science demonstrations to promote student engagement in scientific investigations: An action research study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancuso, Vincent J.

    Students' scientific investigations have been identified in national standards and related reform documents as a critical component of students' learning experiences in school, yet it is not easy to implement them in science classrooms. Could science demonstrations help science teachers put this recommendation into practice? While demonstrations are a common practice in the science classroom and research has documented some positive effects in terms of student motivation and engagement from their use, the literature also shows that, as traditionally presented, science demonstrations do not always achieve their intended outcomes. This, in turn, suggested the value of investigating what design elements of demonstrations could be used to promote specific instructional goals. Employing action research as a methodology, the proposed study was developed to explore how science demonstrations can be designed so as to most effectively promote student engagement in scientific investigations. More specifically, I was interested in examining the effects of using a discrepant event as part of the demonstration, as a way to create cognitive conflict and, thus, increase interest and engagement. I also investigated the relative merit of the well-researched POE (Predict, Observe, Explain) design versus employing demonstrations that appear to the student to be unplanned (what I will refer to as NOE, or a Naturally Occurring Experience). This study was informed by Constructivism, Situated Cognition and Conceptual Change as theoretical frameworks. The project included the design, implementation and study of an intervention consisting of three instructional units designed to support students' learning of the concepts of density, molecular arrangement of gas particles, and cohesion, respectively. In each of these units, lasting a total of two 80-minute class periods, students were asked to design and conduct an investigation to gain a better understanding of the concept under study. In

  11. Assessing Forest Carbon Response to Climate Change and Disturbances Using Long-term Hydro-climatic Observations and Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trettin, C.; Dai, Z.; Amatya, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    Long-term climatic and hydrologic observations on the Santee Experimental Forest in the lower coastal plain of South Carolina were used to estimate long-term changes in hydrology and forest carbon dynamics for a pair of first-order watersheds. Over 70 years of climate data indicated that warming in this forest area in the last decades was faster than the global mean; 35+ years of hydrologic records showed that forest ecosystem succession three years following Hurricane Hugo caused a substantial change in the ratio of runoff to precipitation. The change in this relationship between the paired watersheds was attributed to altered evapotranspiration processes caused by greater abundance of pine in the treatment watershed and regeneration of the mixed hardwood-pine forest on the reference watershed. The long-term records and anomalous observations are highly valuable for reliable calibration and validation of hydrological and biogeochemical models capturing the effects of climate variability. We applied the hydrological model MIKESHE that showed that runoff and water table level are sensitive to global warming, and that the sustained warming trends can be expected to decrease stream discharge and lower the mean water table depth. The spatially-explicit biogeochemical model Forest-DNDC, validated using biomass measurements from the watersheds, was used to assess carbon dynamics in response to high resolution hydrologic observation data and simulation results. The simulations showed that the long-term spatiotemporal carbon dynamics, including biomass and fluxes of soil carbon dioxide and methane were highly regulated by disturbance regimes, climatic conditions and water table depth. The utility of linked-modeling framework demonstrated here to assess biogeochemical responses at the watershed scale suggests applications for assessing the consequences of climate change within an urbanizing forested landscape. The approach may also be applicable for validating large

  12. Is it About Me, You, or Us? Stress Reactivity Correlates of Discrepancies in We-Talk Among Parents and Preadolescent Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borelli, Jessica L; Smiley, Patricia A; Rasmussen, Hannah F; Gómez, Anthony

    2016-10-01

    An emerging literature suggests that not only do parent and child perceptions of parent-child relationship quality independently predict children's adjustment, but also that the discrepancy between parent and child perceptions of the relationship also carries predictive power. In the current study, we examine discrepancies in mother and children's we-talk, which is thought to reveal the degree to which members of a dyad conceive of problems affecting just one of the members as shared. We anticipate that discrepancies in which the mother expresses a greater sense of we-ness than the child would be particularly toxic during this developmental phase, when youth's strivings for independence ought to near their apex. Using an ethnically and socioeconomically diverse sample of school-aged children and their mothers (N = 106, 49.1 % female; 43 % Non-Hispanic White, 21 % African American, 21 % Hispanic, 10 % Asian, and 5 % of another ethnic category or mixed race; 48 % reported an annual income of <$60,000), we expose children to a standardized failure task that their mothers observe and then interview both members of the dyad regarding the task-we-talk is derived from these interviews. We examine the discrepancy between child and mother we-talk as a predictor of children's cortisol reactivity and mothers' behavioral overcontrol during the failure task. We also examine whether the discrepancy in mother-child we-talk predicts children's trait rumination. The interaction between child and mother we-talk was significantly associated with all three outcomes. Children's cortisol reactivity and rumination were highest when mothers used high and children used low levels of we-talk. A three-way interaction of children's we-talk, mothers' we-talk and child age emerged, suggesting that the association of discrepancies in we-talk with maternal overcontrol depended on child age, with significant effects emerging among older children. We discuss our results in terms of their

  13. Prevalence of Gender Discrepancy in Internet Use in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    essence, the research sought to determine the prevalence of gender discrepancies in .... that the proportion of women Internet users in developing countries is much smaller than that of ..... equality: a contradiction in terminis? Computers in ...

  14. Cervical and incisal marginal discrepancy in ceramic laminate veneering materials: A SEM analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemalatha Ranganathan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Marginal discrepancy influenced by the choice of processing material used for the ceramic laminate veneers needs to be explored further for better clinical application. Aims: This study aimed to evaluate the amount of cervical and incisal marginal discrepancy associated with different ceramic laminate veneering materials. Settings and Design: This was an experimental, single-blinded, in vitro trial. Subjects and Methods: Ten central incisors were prepared for laminate veneers with 2 mm uniform reduction and heavy chamfer finish line. Ceramic laminate veneers fabricated over the prepared teeth using four different processing materials were categorized into four groups as Group I - aluminous porcelain veneers, Group II - lithium disilicate ceramic veneers, Group III - lithium disilicate-leucite-based veneers, Group IV - zirconia-based ceramic veneers. The cervical and incisal marginal discrepancy was measured using a scanning electron microscope. Statistical Analysis Used: ANOVA and post hoc Tukey honest significant difference (HSD tests were used for statistical analysis. Results: The cervical and incisal marginal discrepancy for four groups was Group I - 114.6 ± 4.3 μm, 132.5 ± 6.5 μm, Group II - 86.1 ± 6.3 μm, 105.4 ± 5.3 μm, Group III - 71.4 ± 4.4 μm, 91.3 ± 4.7 μm, and Group IV - 123.1 ± 4.1 μm, 142.0 ± 5.4 μm. ANOVA and post hoc Tukey HSD tests observed a statistically significant difference between the four test specimens with regard to cervical marginal discrepancy. The cervical and incisal marginal discrepancy scored F = 243.408, P < 0.001 and F = 180.844, P < 0.001, respectively. Conclusion: This study concluded veneers fabricated using leucite reinforced lithium disilicate exhibited the least marginal discrepancy followed by lithium disilicate ceramic, aluminous porcelain, and zirconia-based ceramics. The marginal discrepancy was more in the incisal region than in the cervical region in all the groups.

  15. Estimation of Tooth Size Discrepancies among Different Malocclusion Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Hasija, Narender; Bala, Madhu; Goyal, Virender

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Regards and Tribute: Late Dr Narender Hasija was a mentor and visionary in the light of knowledge and experience. We pay our regards with deepest gratitude to the departed soul to rest in peace. Bolton’s ratios help in estimating overbite, overjet relationships, the effects of contemplated extractions on posterior occlusion, incisor relationships and identification of occlusal misfit produced by tooth size discrepancies. Aim: To determine any difference in tooth size discrepancy in a...

  16. The INDC/NEANDC joint discrepancy file 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patrick, B.H.; Kocherov, N.P.

    1990-06-01

    The International Nuclear Data Committee (INDC) and the Nuclear Energy Agency Nuclear Data Committee (NEANDC) maintain a close interest in nuclear data which exhibit discrepancies and, by making known the details of the disagreements, encouragement is given to the undertaking of new measurements as a means of eliminating the ambiguities. The previous discrepancy file was published by NEANDC and INDC in 1984. This document contains 10 papers and a separate abstract was prepared for each of them. Refs, figs and tabs

  17. Sustained favorable long-term outcome in the treatment of schizophrenia: a 3-year prospective observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ascher-Svanum Haya

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study of chronically ill patients with schizophrenia aimed to identify patients who achieve sustained favorable long-term outcome - when the outcome incorporates severity of symptoms, level of functioning, and use of acute care services - and to identify the best baseline predictors of achieving this sustained favorable long-term outcome. Methods Using data from the United States Schizophrenia Care and Assessment Program (US-SCAP (N = 2327, a large 3-year prospective, multisite, observational study of individuals treated for schizophrenia in the US, a hierarchical cluster analysis was performed to group patients based upon baseline symptom severity. Symptom severity was assessed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS scores, level of functioning, and use of acute care services. Level of functioning reflected patient-reported productivity and clinician-rated occupational role functioning. Use of acute care services reflected self-reported psychiatric hospitalization and emergency service use. Change of health state was determined over the 3-year period. A patient was classified as having a sustained favorable long-term outcome if their health state values had the closest distance to the defined "best baseline cluster" at each point over the length of the study. Stepwise logistic regression was used to determine baseline predictors of sustained favorable long-term outcome. Results At baseline, 5 distinct health state clusters were identified, ranging from "best" to "worst." Of 1635 patients with sufficient data, only 157 (10% experienced sustained favorable long-term outcome during the 2-years postbaseline. The baseline predictors associated with sustained favorable long-term outcome included better quality of life, more daily activities, patient-reported clearer thinking from medication, better global functioning, being employed, not being a victim of a crime, not having received individual therapy, and not

  18. Synchronizing modified van der Pol-Duffing oscillators with offset terms using observer design: application to secure communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fodjouong, G J; Fotsin, H B; Woafo, P

    2007-01-01

    This study addresses the adaptive synchronization of the modified van der Pol-Duffing (MVDPD) oscillator with offset terms. From our investigations of the system dynamics, we obtain that the system presents a chaotic behaviour at weak values of the offset parameters. Routh-Hurwitz criteria are used to study the asymptotic stability of the steady states. An adaptive observer design method is applied to achieve synchronization of two identical MVDPD oscillators with offset. Numerical simulations are given to validate the proposed synchronization approach. Moreover, as an application, the proposed scheme is applied to secure communication. Also, simulation results verify the proposed scheme's success in the communication application

  19. A Unified Satellite-Observation Polar Stratospheric Cloud (PSC) Database for Long-Term Climate-Change Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromm, Michael; Pitts, Michael; Alfred, Jerome

    2000-01-01

    This report summarizes the project team's activity and accomplishments during the period 12 February, 1999 - 12 February, 2000. The primary objective of this project was to create and test a generic algorithm for detecting polar stratospheric clouds (PSC), an algorithm that would permit creation of a unified, long term PSC database from a variety of solar occultation instruments that measure aerosol extinction near 1000 nm The second objective was to make a database of PSC observations and certain relevant related datasets. In this report we describe the algorithm, the data we are making available, and user access options. The remainder of this document provides the details of the algorithm and the database offering.

  20. Hand-hygiene practices and observed barriers in pediatric long-term care facilities in the New York metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Løyland, Borghild; Wilmont, Sibyl; Cohen, Bevin; Larson, Elaine

    2016-02-01

    To describe hand-hygiene practices in pediatric long-term care (pLTC) facilities and to identify observed barriers to, and potential solutions for, improved infection prevention. Observational study using (i) the World Health Organization's '5 Moments for Hand Hygiene' validated observation tool to record indications for hand hygiene and adherence; and (ii) individual logs of subjective impressions of behavioral and/or systemic barriers witnessed during direct observation. Staff in three pLTC facilities (284 beds total) were observed by two trained nurses 1 day a week for 3 weeks in February and March 2015. Direct providers of health, therapeutic and rehabilitative care, and other staff responsible for social and academic activities for children with complex, chronic medical conditions. Hand-hygiene indications, adherence and barriers. Hand hygiene was performed for 40% of the 847 indications observed and recorded. Adherence increased at one site and decreased in the other two sites during the study period. Adherence appeared to be influenced by individuals' knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and work setting. Poor hand-hygiene adherence was observed overall. Specific barriers were identified, which suggest a contextual approach to the interpretation of results indicated in this uniquely challenging setting. We offer some practical suggestions for overcoming those barriers or mitigating their effect. Ultimately, an adaptation of the '5 Moments for Hand Hygiene' may be necessary to improve infection prevention in pLTC. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care; all rights reserved.

  1. Long-Term Seafloor Electromagnetic Observation in the Northwest Pacific May Detect the Vector Geomagnetic Secular Variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Toh

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Sea Floor ElectroMagnetic Stations (SFEMSs are now operating at two deep seafloor sites called the 'WPB' and the 'NWP' in the West Philippine Basin and the Northwest Pacific Basin, respectively. One of the main objectives of the SFEMSs is to detect the geomagnetic secular variations on the deep seafloor where long-term geomagnetic observations have not so far been achieved. SFEMSs can measure the absolute geomagnetic total force as well as the geomagnetic vector field with precise attitude monitoring systems. The vector geomagnetic time-series that was observed for more than 5 years revealed that the westward drift of the equatorial dipole dominates in the geomagnetic secular variation at the NWP.

  2. An Analysis of the Discrepancies between MODIS and INSAT-3D LSTs in High Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Kazem Alavipanah

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In many disciplines, knowledge on the accuracy of Land Surface Temperature (LST as an input is of great importance. One of the most efficient methods in LST evaluation is cross validation. Well-documented and validated polar satellites with a high spatial resolution can be used as references for validating geostationary LST products. This study attempted to investigate the discrepancies between a Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer (MODIS and Indian National Satellite (INSAT-3D LSTs for high temperatures, focusing on six deserts with sand dune land cover in the Middle East from 3 March 2015 to 24 August 2016. Firstly, the variability of LSTs in the deserts of the study area was analyzed by comparing the mean, Standard Deviation (STD, skewness, minimum, and maximum criteria for each observation time. The mean value of the LST observations indicated that the MYD-D observation times are closer to those of diurnal maximum and minimum LSTs. At all times, the LST observations exhibited a negative skewness and the STD indicated higher variability during times of MOD-D. The observed maximum LSTs from MODIS collection 6 showed higher values in comparison with the last versions of LSTs for hot spot regions around the world. After the temporal, spatial, and geometrical matching of LST products, the mean of the MODIS—INSAT LST differences was calculated for the study area. The results demonstrated that discrepancies increased with temperature up to +15.5 K. The slopes of the mean differences were relatively similar for all deserts except for An Nafud, suggesting an effect of View Zenith Angle (VZA. For modeling the discrepancies between two sensors in continuous space, the Diurnal Temperature Cycles (DTC of both sensors were constructed and compared. The sample DTC models approved the results from discrete LST subtractions and proposed the uncertainties within MODIS DTCs. The authors proposed that the observed LST discrepancies in high

  3. Discrepancy between Hepatitis C Virus Genotypes and NS4-Based Serotypes: Association with Their Subgenomic Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Nwe Win

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Determination of hepatitis C virus (HCV genotypes plays an important role in the direct-acting agent era. Discrepancies between HCV genotyping and serotyping assays are occasionally observed. Eighteen samples with discrepant results between genotyping and serotyping methods were analyzed. HCV serotyping and genotyping were based on the HCV nonstructural 4 (NS4 region and 5′-untranslated region (5′-UTR, respectively. HCV core and NS4 regions were chosen to be sequenced and were compared with the genotyping and serotyping results. Deep sequencing was also performed for the corresponding HCV NS4 regions. Seventeen out of 18 discrepant samples could be sequenced by the Sanger method. Both HCV core and NS4 sequences were concordant with that of genotyping in the 5′-UTR in all 17 samples. In cloning analysis of the HCV NS4 region, there were several amino acid variations, but each sequence was much closer to the peptide with the same genotype. Deep sequencing revealed that minor clones with different subgenotypes existed in two of the 17 samples. Genotyping by genome amplification showed high consistency, while several false reactions were detected by serotyping. The deep sequencing method also provides accurate genotyping results and may be useful for analyzing discrepant cases. HCV genotyping should be correctly determined before antiviral treatment.

  4. Direct Observation of the M1 Transition between the Ground Term Fine Structure Levels of W VIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Momoe Mita

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a direct observation of the M1 transition between the fine structure splitting in the 4 f 13 5 s 2 5 p 6 2 F ground term of W VIII. The spectroscopic data of few-times ionized tungsten ions are important for the future ITER diagnostics, but there is a serious lack of data. The present study is part of an ongoing effort to solve this problem. Emission from the tungsten ions produced and trapped in a compact electron beam ion trap is observed with a Czerny–Turner visible spectrometer. Spectra in the EUV range are also observed at the same time to help identify the previously-unreported visible lines. The observed wavelength 574.47 ± 0.03 nm (air, which corresponds to the fine structure splitting of 17,402.5 ± 0.9 cm − 1 , shows reasonable agreement with the previously reported value 17,410 ± 5 cm − 1 obtained indirectly through the analysis of EUV spectra [Ryabtsev et al., Atoms 3 (2015 273].

  5. Observing pure effects of counter-rotating terms without ultrastrong coupling: A single photon can simultaneously excite two qubits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Miranowicz, Adam; Li, Hong-Rong; Nori, Franco

    2017-12-01

    The coherent process that a single photon simultaneously excites two qubits has recently been theoretically predicted by Garziano et al. [L. Garziano, V. Macrì, R. Stassi, O. Di Stefano, F. Nori, and S. Savasta, One Photon Can Simultaneously Excite two or More Atoms, Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 043601 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.117.043601]. We propose a different approach to observe a similar dynamical process based on a superconducting quantum circuit, where two coupled flux qubits longitudinally interact with the same resonator. We show that this simultaneous excitation of two qubits (assuming that the sum of their transition frequencies is close to the cavity frequency) is related to the counter-rotating terms in the dipole-dipole coupling between two qubits, and the standard rotating-wave approximation is not valid here. By numerically simulating the adiabatic Landau-Zener transition and Rabi-oscillation effects, we clearly verify that the energy of a single photon can excite two qubits via higher-order transitions induced by the longitudinal couplings and the counter-rotating terms. Compared with previous studies, the coherent dynamics in our system only involves one intermediate state and, thus, exhibits a much faster rate. We also find transition paths which can interfere. Finally, by discussing how to control the two longitudinal-coupling strengths, we find a method to observe both constructive and destructive interference phenomena in our system.

  6. A Methodology to Infer Crop Yield Response to Climate Variability and Change Using Long-Term Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfred A. Lange

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A new methodology to extract crop yield response to climate variability and change from long-term crop yield observations is presented in this study. In contrast to the existing first-difference approach (FDA, the proposed methodology considers that the difference in value between crop yields of two consecutive years reflects necessarily the contributions of climate and management conditions, especially at large spatial scales where both conditions may vary significantly from one year to the next. Our approach was applied to remove the effect of non-climatic factors on crop yield and, hence, to isolate the effect of the observed climate change between 1961 and 2006 on three widely crops grown in three Mediterranean countries—namely wheat, corn and potato—using national-level crop yield observations’ time-series. Obtained results show that the proposed methodology provides us with a ground basis to improve substantially our understanding of crop yield response to climate change at a scale that is relevant to large-scale estimations of agricultural production and to food security analyses; and therefore to reduce uncertainties in estimations of potential climate change effects on agricultural production. Furthermore, a comparison of outputs of our methodology and FDA outputs yielded a difference in terms of maize production in Egypt, for example, that exceeds the production of some neighbouring countries.

  7. A preliminary experiment for the long-term regional reanalysis over Japan assimilating conventional observations with NHM-LETKF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Shin; Iwasaki, Toshiki; Saito, Kazuo; Seko, Hiromu; Kunii, Masaru

    2016-04-01

    Several long-term global reanalyses have been produced by major operational centres and have contributed to the advance of weather and climate researches considerably. Although the horizontal resolutions of these global reanalyses are getting higher partly due to the development of computing technology, they are still too coarse to reproduce local circulations and precipitation realistically. To solve this problem, dynamical downscaling is often employed. However, the forcing from lateral boundaries only cannot necessarily control the inner fields especially in long-term dynamical downscaling. Regional reanalysis is expected to overcome the difficulty. To maintain the long-term consistency of the analysis quality, it is better to assimilate only the conventional observations that are available in long period. To confirm the effectiveness of the regional reanalysis, some assimilation experiments are performed. In the experiments, only conventional observations (SYNOP, SHIP, BUOY, TEMP, PILOT, TC-Bogus) are assimilated with the NHM-LETKF system, which consists of the nonhydrostatic model (NHM) of the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) and the local ensemble transform Kalman filter (LETKF). The horizontal resolution is 25 km and the domain covers Japan and its surroundings. Japanese 55-year reanalysis (JRA-55) is adopted as the initial and lateral boundary conditions for the NHM-LETKF forecast-analysis cycles. The ensemble size is 10. The experimental period is August 2014 as a representative of warm season for the region. The results are verified against the JMA's operational Meso-scale Analysis, which is produced with assimilating observation data including various remote sensing observations using a 4D-Var scheme, and compared with those of the simple dynamical downscaling experiment without data assimilation. Effects of implementation of lateral boundary perturbations derived from an EOF analysis of JRA-55 over the targeted domain are also examined. The comparison

  8. Long Term Clinical Prognostic Factors in Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis: Insights from a 10-Year Observational Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Bsteh

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS has a highly heterogenic course making prediction of long term outcome very difficult.The objective was to evaluate current and identify additional clinical factors that are linked to long term outcome of relapsing-remitting MS assessed by disability status 10 years after disease onset.This observational study included 793 patients with relapsing-remitting MS. Clinical factors hypothesized to influence long term outcome measured by EDSS scores 10 years after disease onset were analysed by Kaplan-Meier-estimates. Multinomial logistic regression models regarding mild (EDSS ≤2.5, moderate (EDSS 3.0-5.5 or severe (EDSS ≥6.0 disability were calculated to correct for confounders.Secondary progression was the strongest predictor of severe disability (Hazard ratio [HR] 503.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] 160.0-1580.1; p<0.001. Complete remission of neurological symptoms at onset reduced the risk of moderate disability (HR 0.42; CI 0.23-0.77; p = 0.005, while depression (HR 3.59; CI 1.14-11.24; p = 0.028 and cognitive dysfunction (HR 4.64; CI 1.11-19.50; p = 0.036 10 years after disease onset were associated with severe disability. Oligoclonal bands and pregnancy were not correlated with disability.We were able to identify clinically apparent chronic depression and cognitive dysfunction to be associated with adverse long term outcome in MS and to confirm that pregnancy has no negative impact. Additionally, we emphasize the positive predictive value of complete remission of initial symptoms.

  9. Long-term changes in lower tropospheric baseline ozone concentrations: Comparing chemistry-climate models and observations at northern midlatitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, D. D.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Naik, V.; Horowitz, L.; Shindell, D. T.; Staehelin, J.; Derwent, R.; Cooper, O. R.; Tanimoto, H.; Volz-Thomas, A.; Gilge, S.; Scheel, H.-E.; Steinbacher, M.; Fröhlich, M.

    2014-05-01

    Two recent papers have quantified long-term ozone (O3) changes observed at northern midlatitude sites that are believed to represent baseline (here understood as representative of continental to hemispheric scales) conditions. Three chemistry-climate models (NCAR CAM-chem, GFDL-CM3, and GISS-E2-R) have calculated retrospective tropospheric O3 concentrations as part of the Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project and Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 model intercomparisons. We present an approach for quantitative comparisons of model results with measurements for seasonally averaged O3 concentrations. There is considerable qualitative agreement between the measurements and the models, but there are also substantial and consistent quantitative disagreements. Most notably, models (1) overestimate absolute O3 mixing ratios, on average by 5 to 17 ppbv in the year 2000, (2) capture only 50% of O3 changes observed over the past five to six decades, and little of observed seasonal differences, and (3) capture 25 to 45% of the rate of change of the long-term changes. These disagreements are significant enough to indicate that only limited confidence can be placed on estimates of present-day radiative forcing of tropospheric O3 derived from modeled historic concentration changes and on predicted future O3 concentrations. Evidently our understanding of tropospheric O3, or the incorporation of chemistry and transport processes into current chemical climate models, is incomplete. Modeled O3 trends approximately parallel estimated trends in anthropogenic emissions of NOx, an important O3 precursor, while measured O3 changes increase more rapidly than these emission estimates.

  10. Hydrological modelling of the Mabengnong catchment in the southeast Tibet with support of short term intensive precipitation observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, H.; Scott, C. A.; Zeng, C.; SHI, X.

    2017-12-01

    Precipitation is one of the crucial inputs for models used to better understand hydrological processes. In high mountain areas, it is a difficult task to obtain a reliable precipitation data set describing the spatial and temporal characteristic due to the limited meteorological observations and high variability of precipitation. This study carries out intensive observation of precipitation in a high mountain catchment in the southeast of the Tibet during July to August 2013. According to the rain gauges set up at different altitudes, it is found that precipitation is greatly influenced by altitude. The observed precipitation is used to depict the precipitation gradient (PG) and hourly distribution (HD), showing that the average duration is around 0.1, 0.8 and 6.0 hours and the average PG is 0.10, 0.28 and 0.26 mm/d/100m for trace, light and moderate rain, respectively. Based on the gridded precipitation derived from the PG and HD and the nearby Linzhi meteorological station at lower altitude, a distributed biosphere hydrological model based on water and energy budgets (WEB-DHM) is applied to simulate the hydrological processes. Beside the observed runoff, MODIS/Terra snow cover area (SCA) data, and MODIS/Terra land surface temperature (LST) data are also used for model calibration and validation. The resulting runoff, SCA and LST simulations are all reasonable. Sensitivity analyses indicate that runoff is greatly underestimated without considering PG, illustrating that short-term intensive precipitation observation contributes to improving hydrological modelling of poorly gauged high mountain catchments.

  11. Discrepancy detection in the retrieval-enhanced suggestibility paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Brendon Jerome; Loftus, Elizabeth F

    2018-04-01

    Retrieval-enhanced suggestibility (RES) refers to the finding that immediately recalling the details of a witnessed event can increase susceptibility to later misinformation. In three experiments, we sought to gain a deeper understanding of the role that retrieval plays in the RES paradigm. Consistent with past research, initial testing did increase susceptibility to misinformation - but only for those who failed to detect discrepancies between the original event and the post-event misinformation. In all three experiments, subjects who retrospectively detected discrepancies in the post-event narratives were more resistant to misinformation than those who did not. In Experiments 2 and 3, having subjects concurrently assess the consistency of the misinformation narratives negated the RES effect. Interestingly, in Experiments 2 and 3, subjects who had retrieval practice and detected discrepancies were more likely to endorse misinformation than control subjects who detected discrepancies. These results call attention to limiting conditions of the RES effect and highlight the complex relationship between retrieval practice, discrepancy detection, and misinformation endorsement.

  12. Long-Term Observation of Small and Medium-Scale Gravity Waves over the Brazilian Equatorial Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essien, Patrick; Buriti, Ricardo; Wrasse, Cristiano M.; Medeiros, Amauri; Paulino, Igo; Takahashi, Hisao; Campos, Jose Andre

    2016-07-01

    This paper reports the long term observations of small and medium-scale gravity waves over Brazilian equatorial region. Coordinated optical and radio measurements were made from OLAP at Sao Joao do Cariri (7.400S, 36.500W) to investigate the occurrences and properties and to characterize the regional mesospheric gravity wave field. All-sky imager measurements were made from the site. for almost 11 consecutive years (September 2000 to November 2010). Most of the waves propagated were characterized as small-scale gravity. The characteristics of the two waves events agreed well with previous gravity wave studies from Brazil and other sites. However, significant differences in the wave propagation headings indicate dissimilar source regions. The observed medium-scale gravity wave events constitute an important new dataset to study their mesospheric properties at equatorial latitudes. These data exhibited similar propagation headings to the short period events, suggesting they originated from the same source regions. It was also observed that some of the medium-scale were capable of propagating into the lower thermosphere where they may have acted directly as seeds for the Rayleigh-Taylor instability development. The wave events were primarily generated by meteorological processes since there was no correlation between the evolution of the wave events and solar cycle F10.7.

  13. Retrospective analysis of forward and reverse ABO typing discrepancies among patients and blood donors in a tertiary care hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makroo, R N; Kakkar, B; Agrawal, S; Chowdhry, M; Prakash, B; Karna, P

    2018-01-12

    The aim of our study was to determine the incidence and causes of ABO typing discrepancies among patients and blood donors at our centre. An accurate interpretation of the ABO blood group of an individual is of utmost importance to ensure patient safety and good transfusion practices. A retrospective observational study was carried out in the Department of Transfusion Medicine in our hospital from March 2013 to December 2015. Records of all patient and blood donor samples were retrieved and analysed for ABO typing discrepancies. In total, 135 853 patient and 62 080 donor samples were analysed for ABO typing discrepancies. The incidence among patients and blood donors was found to be 0·1% (138/135853) and 0·02% (14/62080), respectively. The mean age for patients and blood donors was 48·4 and 29·2 years, respectively. The most common cause of ABO typing discrepancies was due to cold autoantibodies among the patients (50·7%) and blood donors (57%) causing discrepant results in reverse typing. The various other causes of reverse typing discrepancies among patients were weak/missing antibody (25·4%), cold-reacting alloantibody (4·3%), warm autoantibody (2·2%), anti-A1 antibody (2·2%), Bombay phenotype (1·5%), transplantation (0·7%) and rouleaux (0·7%), whereas in blood donors, the causes were cold-reacting antibody (7%) and weak antibody (7%). The major cause of forward typing discrepancies among patients (12·3%) and blood donors (29%) was ABO subgroups. The resolution of ABO typing discrepancy is essential to minimise the chance of transfusion of ABO-incompatible blood. © 2018 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  14. Discrepant Alcohol Use, Intimate Partner Violence, and Relationship Adjustment among Lesbian Women and their Relationship Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Michelle L.; Lewis, Robin J.; Mason, Tyler B.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the association between relationship adjustment and discrepant alcohol use among lesbian women and their same-sex intimate partners after controlling for verbal and physical aggression. Lesbian women (N = 819) who were members of online marketing research panels completed an online survey in which they reported both their own and same-sex intimate partner’s alcohol use, their relationship adjustment, and their own and their partner’s physical aggression and psychological aggression (i.e., verbal aggression and dominance/isolation). Partners’ alcohol use was moderately correlated. Discrepancy in alcohol use was associated with poorer relationship adjustment after controlling for psychological aggression and physical aggression. Results are discussed in terms of the similarity and differences with previous literature primarily focused on heterosexual couples. PMID:26478657

  15. Discrepant Alcohol Use, Intimate Partner Violence, and Relationship Adjustment among Lesbian Women and their Relationship Partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Michelle L; Lewis, Robin J; Mason, Tyler B

    2015-11-01

    This study examined the association between relationship adjustment and discrepant alcohol use among lesbian women and their same-sex intimate partners after controlling for verbal and physical aggression. Lesbian women ( N = 819) who were members of online marketing research panels completed an online survey in which they reported both their own and same-sex intimate partner's alcohol use, their relationship adjustment, and their own and their partner's physical aggression and psychological aggression (i.e., verbal aggression and dominance/isolation). Partners' alcohol use was moderately correlated. Discrepancy in alcohol use was associated with poorer relationship adjustment after controlling for psychological aggression and physical aggression. Results are discussed in terms of the similarity and differences with previous literature primarily focused on heterosexual couples.

  16. An attempt to explain the uranium 238 resonance integral discrepancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tellier, H.; Grandotto, M.

    1978-01-01

    Studies on uranium 238 resonance integral discrepancy were carried out for light water reactor physics. It was shown that using recently published resonance parameters and substituting a multilevel formalism to the usual Breit and Wigner formula reduced the well known discrepancy between two values of the uranium 238 effective resonance integral: the value calculated with the nuclear data and the one deduced from critical experiments. Since the cross section computed with these assumptions agrees quite well with the Oak-Ridge transmission data, it was used to obtain the self-shielding effect and the capture rate in light water lattices. The multiplication factor calculated with this method is found very close to the experimental value. Preliminary results for a set of benchmarks relative to several types of thermal neutron reactors lead to very low discrepancies. The reactivity loss is only 130 x 10 -5 instead of 650 x 10 -5 in the case of the usual libraries and the single level formula

  17. Discrepancies between implicit and explicit motivation and unhealthy eating behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Job, Veronika; Oertig, Daniela; Brandstätter, Veronika; Allemand, Mathias

    2010-08-01

    Many people change their eating behavior as a consequence of stress. One source of stress is intrapersonal psychological conflict as caused by discrepancies between implicit and explicit motives. In the present research, we examined whether eating behavior is related to this form of stress. Study 1 (N=53), a quasi-experimental study in the lab, showed that the interaction between the implicit achievement motive disposition and explicit commitment toward an achievement task significantly predicts the number of snacks consumed in a consecutive taste test. In cross-sectional Study 2 (N=100), with a sample of middle-aged women, overall motive discrepancy was significantly related to diverse indices of unsettled eating. Regression analyses revealed interaction effects specifically for power and achievement motivation and not for affiliation. Emotional distress further partially mediated the relationship between the overall motive discrepancy and eating behavior.

  18. A Prospective Observational Survey on the Long-Term Effect of LDL Apheresis on Drug-Resistant Nephrotic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eri Muso

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: LDL apheresis (LDL-A is used for drug-resistant nephrotic syndrome (NS as an alternative therapy to induce remission by improvement of hyperlipidemia. Several clinical studies have suggested the efficacy of LDL-A for refractory NS, but the level of evidence remains insufficient. A multicenter prospective study, POLARIS (Prospective Observational Survey on the Long-Term Effects of LDL Apheresis on Drug-Resistant Nephrotic Syndrome, was conducted to evaluate its clinical efficacy with high-level evidence. Methods: Patients with NS who showed resistance to primary medication for at least 4 weeks were prospectively recruited to the study and treated with LDL-A. The long-term outcome was evaluated based on the rate of remission of NS 2 years after treatment. Factors affecting the outcome were also examined. Results: A total of 58 refractory NS patients from 40 facilities were recruited and enrolled as subjects of the POLARIS study. Of the 44 subjects followed for 2 years, 21 (47.7% showed remission of NS based on a urinary protein (UP level Conclusions: Almost half of the cases of drug-resistant NS showed remission 2 years after LDL-A. Improvement of nephrotic parameters at termination of the LDL-A treatment was a predictor of a favorable outcome.

  19. Long-term urban carbon dioxide observations reveal spatial and temporal dynamics related to urban characteristics and growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Logan E; Lin, John C; Bowling, David R; Pataki, Diane E; Strong, Courtenay; Schauer, Andrew J; Bares, Ryan; Bush, Susan E; Stephens, Britton B; Mendoza, Daniel; Mallia, Derek; Holland, Lacey; Gurney, Kevin R; Ehleringer, James R

    2018-03-20

    Cities are concentrated areas of CO 2 emissions and have become the foci of policies for mitigation actions. However, atmospheric measurement networks suitable for evaluating urban emissions over time are scarce. Here we present a unique long-term (decadal) record of CO 2 mole fractions from five sites across Utah's metropolitan Salt Lake Valley. We examine "excess" CO 2 above background conditions resulting from local emissions and meteorological conditions. We ascribe CO 2 trends to changes in emissions, since we did not find long-term trends in atmospheric mixing proxies. Three contrasting CO 2 trends emerged across urban types: negative trends at a residential-industrial site, positive trends at a site surrounded by rapid suburban growth, and relatively constant CO 2 over time at multiple sites in the established, residential, and commercial urban core. Analysis of population within the atmospheric footprints of the different sites reveals approximately equal increases in population influencing the observed CO 2 , implying a nonlinear relationship with CO 2 emissions: Population growth in rural areas that experienced suburban development was associated with increasing emissions while population growth in the developed urban core was associated with stable emissions. Four state-of-the-art global-scale emission inventories also have a nonlinear relationship with population density across the city; however, in contrast to our observations, they all have nearly constant emissions over time. Our results indicate that decadal scale changes in urban CO 2 emissions are detectable through monitoring networks and constitute a valuable approach to evaluate emission inventories and studies of urban carbon cycles.

  20. Long-term seismic observations along Myanmar-Sunda subduction margin: insights for 2004 M w > 9.0 earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Prosanta Kumar; Banerjee, Jayashree; Shamim, Sk; Mohanty, Manoranjan

    2018-03-01

    The present study investigates the temporal variation of few seismic parameters between the Myanmar (Zone I), Andaman-Nicobar-Northwest Sumatra (Zone II), Southeast Sumatra-West Indonesia (Zone III) and East Indonesia (Zone IV) converging boundaries in reference to the generation of 26 December 2004 M w > 9.0 off-Sumatra mega-earthquake event. The four segments are distinguished based on tectonics parameters, distinct geological locations, great earthquake occurrences, and the Wadati-Benioff zone characteristics. Two important seismic parameters such as seismic energy and b values are computed over a time-window of 6-month period during the entire 1976-2013 period for these segments. The b values show a constant decrease in Zones II, III, and IV, whereas the Zone I does not show any such pattern prior to the 2004 mega-event. The release of seismic energy was also gradually decreasing in Zones II and III till the 2004 event, and little similar pattern was also noted in Zone IV. This distinct observation might be indicating that the stress accumulation was dominant near the Sumatra-Java area located towards southeast of Zone II and northwest of Zone III. The released strain energy during the 2004 event was subsequently migrated towards north, rupturing 1300 km of the boundary between the Northwest Sumatra and the North Andaman. The occurrence of 2004 mega-event was apparently concealed behind the long-term seismic quiescence existing near the Sumatra and Nicobar margin. A systematic study of the patterns of seismic energy release and b values, and the long-term observation of collective behaviour of the margin tectonics might have had given clues to the possibility of the 2004 mega-event.

  1. Long-term urban carbon dioxide observations reveal spatial and temporal dynamics related to urban characteristics and growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Logan E.; Lin, John C.; Bowling, David R.; Pataki, Diane E.; Strong, Courtenay; Schauer, Andrew J.; Bares, Ryan; Bush, Susan E.; Stephens, Britton B.; Mendoza, Daniel; Mallia, Derek; Holland, Lacey; Gurney, Kevin R.; Ehleringer, James R.

    2018-03-01

    Cities are concentrated areas of CO2 emissions and have become the foci of policies for mitigation actions. However, atmospheric measurement networks suitable for evaluating urban emissions over time are scarce. Here we present a unique long-term (decadal) record of CO2 mole fractions from five sites across Utah’s metropolitan Salt Lake Valley. We examine “excess” CO2 above background conditions resulting from local emissions and meteorological conditions. We ascribe CO2 trends to changes in emissions, since we did not find long-term trends in atmospheric mixing proxies. Three contrasting CO2 trends emerged across urban types: negative trends at a residential-industrial site, positive trends at a site surrounded by rapid suburban growth, and relatively constant CO2 over time at multiple sites in the established, residential, and commercial urban core. Analysis of population within the atmospheric footprints of the different sites reveals approximately equal increases in population influencing the observed CO2, implying a nonlinear relationship with CO2 emissions: Population growth in rural areas that experienced suburban development was associated with increasing emissions while population growth in the developed urban core was associated with stable emissions. Four state-of-the-art global-scale emission inventories also have a nonlinear relationship with population density across the city; however, in contrast to our observations, they all have nearly constant emissions over time. Our results indicate that decadal scale changes in urban CO2 emissions are detectable through monitoring networks and constitute a valuable approach to evaluate emission inventories and studies of urban carbon cycles.

  2. Dietary restraint and self-discrepancy in male university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orellana, Ligia; Grunert, Klaus G; Sepúlveda, José; Lobos, Germán; Denegri, Marianela; Miranda, Horacio; Adasme-Berríos, Cristian; Mora, Marcos; Etchebarne, Soledad; Salinas-Oñate, Natalia; Schnettler, Berta

    2016-04-01

    Self-discrepancy describes the distance between an ideal and the actual self. Research suggests that self-discrepancy and dietary restraint are related, causing a significant impact on the person's well-being. However, this relationship has been mostly reported in female and mixed populations. In order to further explore dietary behaviors and their relations to self-discrepancy and well-being-related variables in men, a survey was applied to a non-probabilistic sample of 119 male students from five Chilean state universities (mean age=21.8, SD=2.75). The questionnaire included the Revised Restraint Scale (RRS) with the subscales weight fluctuations (WF) and diet concern (DC), the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), the Satisfaction with Food-Related Life Scale (SWFL), the Nutrition Interest Scale (NIS), and the Self-discrepancy Index (SDI). Questions were asked about socio-demographic characteristics, eating and drinking habits, and approximate weight and height. A cluster analysis applied to the Z-scores of the RRS classified the following typologies: Group 1 (22.7%), men concerned about weight fluctuations; Group 2 (37.0%), men concerned about diet and weight fluctuations; Group 3 (40.3%), unconcerned about diet and weight fluctuations. The typologies differed in their SDI score, restriction on pastry consumption and reported body mass index (BMI). Students with higher DC and WF scores had a higher BMI, and tended to report high self-discrepancy not only on a physical level, but also on social, emotional, economic and personal levels. This study contributes to the literature on subjective well-being, dietary restraint and self-discrepancy in men from non-clinical samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Resolving taxonmic discrepancies: Role of Electronic Catalogues of Known Organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishwas Chavan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a disparity in availability of nomenclature change literature to the taxonomists of the developing world and availability of taxonomic papers published by developing world scientists to their counterparts in developed part of the globe. This has resulted in several discrepancies in the naming of organisms. Development of electronic catalogues of names of known organisms would help in pointing out these issues. We have attempted to highlight a few of such discrepancies found while developing IndFauna, an electronic catalogue of known Indian fauna and comparing it with existing global and regional databases.Full Text: PDF

  4. Mate Value Discrepancy and Mate Retention Behaviors of Self and Partner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sela, Yael; Mogilski, Justin K; Shackelford, Todd K; Zeigler-Hill, Virgil; Fink, Bernhard

    2017-10-01

    This study investigated the relationship between perceived mate value discrepancy (i.e., the difference between an individual's mate value and their partner's mate value) and perceived frequency of mate retention performed by an individual relative to his or her partner. In two studies, participants in long-term, exclusive, sexual, heterosexual relationships reported their own, and their partner's, mate value and mate retention. Samples included 899 community members (Study 1) and 941 students and community members (Study 2). In Study 1, we documented that individuals with higher self-perceived short-term mate value, and who perceive their partner to have lower (vs. higher) short-term mate value, perform less frequent Benefit-Provisioning mate retention, controlling for the partner's Benefit-Provisioning mate retention. In Study 2, we documented that individuals who perceive that they could less easily replace their partner, and who perceive their partner could more (vs. less) easily replace them, perform more frequent mate retention (Benefit-Provisioning and Cost-Inflicting), controlling for the partner's mate retention. These results highlight the importance of assessing perceived discrepancies in mate value (notably, regarding the replaceability of self and partner with another long-term mate) and perceived mate retention behaviors of self, relative to partner, between men and women in long-term relationships. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. The Fukushima releases: an inverse modelling approach to assess the source term by using gamma dose rate observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunier, Olivier; Mathieu, Anne; Didier, Damien; Tombette, Marilyne; Quélo, Denis; Winiarek, Victor; Bocquet, Marc

    2013-04-01

    the retrieved source term, except for unit 3 explosion where no measurement was available. The comparisons between the simulations of atmospheric dispersion and deposition of the retrieved source term show a good agreement with environmental observations. Moreover, an important outcome of this study is that the method proved to be perfectly suited to crisis management and should contribute to improve our response in case of a nuclear accident.

  6. Ecosystem function in complex mountain terrain: Combining models and long-term observations to advance process-based understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieder, William R.; Knowles, John F.; Blanken, Peter D.; Swenson, Sean C.; Suding, Katharine N.

    2017-04-01

    Abiotic factors structure plant community composition and ecosystem function across many different spatial scales. Often, such variation is considered at regional or global scales, but here we ask whether ecosystem-scale simulations can be used to better understand landscape-level variation that might be particularly important in complex terrain, such as high-elevation mountains. We performed ecosystem-scale simulations by using the Community Land Model (CLM) version 4.5 to better understand how the increased length of growing seasons may impact carbon, water, and energy fluxes in an alpine tundra landscape. The model was forced with meteorological data and validated with observations from the Niwot Ridge Long Term Ecological Research Program site. Our results demonstrate that CLM is capable of reproducing the observed carbon, water, and energy fluxes for discrete vegetation patches across this heterogeneous ecosystem. We subsequently accelerated snowmelt and increased spring and summer air temperatures in order to simulate potential effects of climate change in this region. We found that vegetation communities that were characterized by different snow accumulation dynamics showed divergent biogeochemical responses to a longer growing season. Contrary to expectations, wet meadow ecosystems showed the strongest decreases in plant productivity under extended summer scenarios because of disruptions in hydrologic connectivity. These findings illustrate how Earth system models such as CLM can be used to generate testable hypotheses about the shifting nature of energy, water, and nutrient limitations across space and through time in heterogeneous landscapes; these hypotheses may ultimately guide further experimental work and model development.

  7. A PROSPECTIVE OBSERVATIONAL STUDY OF SHORT TERM MORBIDITY PATTERN IN PRETERM NEWBORNS DELIVERED IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harsha

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study the short term morbidity pattern in preterm new born babies delivered in a tertiary care hospital with level III neonatal intensive care unit (NICU. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A prospective observational study was conducted in a level III NICU betwee n November 2009 to July 2010 at Grant medical college and JJ Group of hospitals, Mumbai. All the in born preterm babies were assessed for morbidity pattern from the time of admission till discharge or death. RESULT: 156 preterm babies were included in the study. 83(54.21% were male and 73(46.79% were female. The major morbidities observed in the preterm neonates were hyperbilirubinemia in 50.54%, Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS in25.64% and severe birth asphyxia in13.46%. Other common morbidities seen were retinopathy of prematurity in 12.17%, apnoea in 11.54% and anaemia in 10.9%. Preterm neonates also had in 9.62% culture proven sepsis, in 8.33% hypoglycaemia, in 7.05% Intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH and in 6.41% various congenital anomalies. CONCL USION: Hyperbilirubinemia, respiratory distress syndrome and severe birth asphyxia are major preterm morbidity

  8. Short-term Changes of Apparent Optical Properties in a Shallow Water Environment: Observations from Repeated Airborne Hyperspectral Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, M.; English, D. C.; Hu, C.; Carlson, P. R., Jr.; Muller-Karger, F. E.; Toro-Farmer, G.; Herwitz, S. R.

    2016-02-01

    An atmospheric correction algorithm has been developed for AISA imagery over optically shallow waters in Sugarloaf Key of the Florida Keys. The AISA data were collected repeatedly during several days in May 2012, October 2012, and May 2013. A non-zero near-infrared (NIR) remote sensing reflectance (Rrs) was accounted for through iterations, based on the relationship of field-measured Rrs between the NIR and red wavelengths. Validation showed mean ratios of 0.94 to 1.002 between AISA-derived and field-measured Rrs in the blue to red wavelengths, with uncertainties generally turbidity (light attenuation) and bottom contributions. Some of these changes are larger than two times of the Rrs uncertainties from the AISA retrievals, therefore representing statistically significant changes that can be well observed from airborne measurements. The case study suggests that repeated airborne measurements may be used to study short-term changes in shallow water environments, and such a capacity may be enhanced with future geostationary satellite missions specifically designed to observe coastal ecosystems.

  9. Short-term observations of the regenerative potential of injured proximal sensory nerves crossed with distal motor nerves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu-xiu Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Motor nerves and sensory nerves conduct signals in different directions and function in different ways. In the surgical treatment of peripheral nerve injuries, the best prognosis is obtained by keeping the motor and sensory nerves separated and repairing the nerves using the suture method. However, the clinical consequences of connections between sensory and motor nerves currently remain unknown. In this study, we analyzed the anatomical structure of the rat femoral nerve, and observed the motor and sensory branches of the femoral nerve in the quadriceps femoris. After ligation of the nerves, the proximal end of the sensory nerve was connected with the distal end of the motor nerve, followed by observation of the changes in the newly-formed regenerated nerve fibers. Acetylcholinesterase staining was used to distinguish between the myelinated and unmyelinated motor and sensory nerves. Denervated muscle and newly formed nerves were compared in terms of morphology, electrophysiology and histochemistry. At 8 weeks after connection, no motor nerve fibers were observed on either side of the nerve conduit and the number of nerve fibers increased at the proximal end. The proportion of newly-formed motor and sensory fibers was different on both sides of the conduit. The area occupied by autonomic nerves in the proximal regenerative nerve was limited, but no distinct myelin sheath was visible in the distal nerve. These results confirm that sensory and motor nerves cannot be effectively connected. Moreover, the change of target organ at the distal end affects the type of nerves at the proximal end.

  10. Connecting theory to fat talk: body dissatisfaction mediates the relationships between weight discrepancy, upward comparison, body surveillance, and fat talk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo, Analisa

    2014-06-01

    The fat talk literature is meager in terms of offering theoretical explanations for women's self-disparaging communication. The research presented here sought to establish a relationship between three prominent body image theories - self-discrepancy theory, social comparison theory, and objectification theory - and fat talk by proposing body dissatisfaction as a potential mediating mechanism. Young adult women (N=201) completed an online questionnaire. As predicted, results revealed that body dissatisfaction significantly mediated the relationships between weight discrepancy, upward comparison, body surveillance and fat talk. Effect size estimates indicated that the size of each indirect effect was medium in magnitude. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparative processes in personal and group judgments : Resolving the discrepancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postmes, T; Branscombe, NR; Spears, R; Young, H

    The judgment mechanisms underlying personal- and group-level ratings of discrimination and privilege were investigated in high- and lour-status groups. PI consistent personal-group discrepancy is found for discrimination and privilege: but is not due to personal differentiation from the group.

  12. Prevalence of Gender Discrepancy in Internet Use in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One important agent of empowerment is information, provided with dispatch through the Internet. In essence, the research sought to determine the prevalence of gender discrepancies in Internet use with a view to indicating its implication to women empowerment. In the survey, cluster and proportionate sampling techniques ...

  13. Outcome discrepancies and selective reporting: impacting the leading journals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Padhraig S; Koletsi, Despina; Dwan, Kerry; Pandis, Nikolaos

    2015-01-01

    Selective outcome reporting of either interesting or positive research findings is problematic, running the risk of poorly-informed treatment decisions. We aimed to assess the extent of outcome and other discrepancies and possible selective reporting between registry entries and published reports among leading medical journals. Randomized controlled trials published over a 6-month period from July to December 31st, 2013, were identified in five high impact medical journals: The Lancet, British Medical Journal, New England Journal of Medicine, Annals of Internal Medicine and Journal of American Medical Association were obtained. Discrepancies between published studies and registry entries were identified and related to factors including registration timing, source of funding and presence of statistically significant results. Over the 6-month period, 137 RCTs were found. Of these, 18% (n = 25) had discrepancies related to primary outcomes with the primary outcome changed in 15% (n = 20). Moreover, differences relating to non-primary outcomes were found in 64% (n = 87) with both omission of pre-specified non-primary outcomes (39%) and introduction of new non-primary outcomes (44%) common. No relationship between primary or non-primary outcome change and registration timing (prospective or retrospective; P = 0.11), source of funding (P = 0.92) and presence of statistically significant results (P = 0.92) was found. Discrepancies between registry entries and published articles for primary and non-primary outcomes were common among trials published in leading medical journals. Novel approaches are required to address this problem.

  14. Discrepancies between Parents' and Children's Attitudes toward TV Advertising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiocco, Roberto; D'Alessio, Maria; Laghi, Fiorenzo

    2009-01-01

    The authors conducted a study with 500 parent-child dyads. The sample comprised 254 boys and 246 girls. The children were grouped into 5 age groups (1 group for each age from 7 to 11 years), with each group comprising 100 children. The survey regards discrepancies between children and their parents on attitudes toward TV advertising to determine…

  15. The Cepheid mass discrepancy and pulsation-driven mass loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neilson, H.R.; Cantiello, M.; Langer, N.

    2011-01-01

    Context. A longstanding challenge for understanding classical Cepheids is the Cepheid mass discrepancy, where theoretical mass estimates using stellar evolution and stellar pulsation calculations have been found to differ by approximately 10−20%. Aims. We study the role of pulsation-driven mass loss

  16. Discrepancy and Disliking Do Not Induce Negative Opinion Shifts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takács, Károly; Flache, Andreas; Maes, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Both classical social psychological theories and recent formal models of opinion differentiation and bi-polarization assign a prominent role to negative social influence. Negative influence is defined as shifts away from the opinion of others and hypothesized to be induced by discrepancy with or

  17. Gender Discrepancies and Victimization of Students with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Cynthia G.; Rose, Chad A.; Ellis, Stephanie K.

    2016-01-01

    Students with disabilities have been recognized as disproportionately involved within the bullying dynamic. However, few studies have examined the interaction between disability status, gender, and grade level. The current study explored the gender discrepancies among students with and without disabilities in middle and high school on bullying,…

  18. Tonsillectomy efficacy in children with PFAPA syndrome is comparable to the standard medical treatment: a long-term observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigo, Giulia; Martini, Giorgia; Zoppi, Silvia; Vittadello, Fabio; Zulian, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Tonsillectomy has recently been suggested as an effective treatment for PFAPA syndrome but little is known about its long-term efficacy. We compared the clinical features and the long-term outcome of a large cohort of patients with PFAPA syndrome treated with tonsillectomy or with standard medical treatment. We conducted a retrospective study on patients with PFAPA syndrome followed at a tertiary care centre from January 1993 to August 2010. Clinical characteristics and laboratory parameters were evaluated at onset and during the follow-up. Disease outcomes of patients who underwent tonsillectomy and of those treated with medical therapy (NSAIDs, prednisone) were compared. Clinical remission on medication (CRM) was considered the persistence of fever attacks which were well controlled by medical therapy, clinical remission (CR) was defined as the absence of fever attacks, without any treatment, for more than 12 months. 275 patients with PFAPA syndrome, 59.6% males, aged 27.9 months at onset and followed for mean 54.5 months, entered the study. CR was reported in 59.6% of the patients and was significantly less frequent in those with positive family history for PFAPA (46.4% vs. 66.1%, p=0.003). 27/41 patients (65.9%), responded to tonsillectomy and this result was comparable with that observed in those treated with medical therapy (59.1%, p=0.51). Disease duration, age at remission or presence of associated symptoms were not significantly different in both groups. No predictors of tonsillectomy failure were found. In a large cohort of patients with PFAPA syndrome, tonsillectomy efficacy was comparable to the standard medical treatment.

  19. Dysglycemia and long-term mortality: observations from the Israel study of glucose intolerance, obesity and hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Michael; Chetrit, Angela; Roth, Jesse; Dankner, Rachel

    2015-05-01

    We describe the relationship between dysglycemia and long-term mortality and elucidate the relationship between blood glucose levels during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and haemoglobin A1 (HbA1) and mortality. A cohort of 1410 individuals was followed for 33 years since 1980. Fasting and post-OGTT glucose parameters were used to categorize the cohort according to baseline glycemic status. The mortality rate increased from 43% in normoglycemic individuals to 53.3, 61.7, 72.9 and 88.0% in those with impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), IFG/IGT and diabetes, respectively. The highest mortality rate, compared with the normoglycemic category, was observed in individuals with IFG/IGT and diabetes according to a Cox proportional hazard model (HR = 1.38, 95%CI 1.10-1.74 and HR = 2.14, 95%CI 1.70-2.70, respectively), followed by individuals with IGT and IFG, but this did not reach statistical significance. We speculate that the IFG group may represent a mixture of individuals en route from normal to the next two categories as well as another cohort whose glucose levels are stably set at the upper reaches of the normal distribution. Significant differences were found between 1 and 2 h glucose values (p Fasting, 60 and 120 min glucose values were positively associated with increasing HbA1 quintiles (p continuous relationship between the severity of dysglycemia and long-term mortality and should promote the early recognition of prediabetes. The 1 h post-load glucose level was continuously associated with increasing HbA1 concentrations and may therefore serve as an early marker for abnormalities in glucose tolerance. An elevated 1 h post-load glucose level may potentially identify at-risk individuals well before the traditional 2 h glucose value. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Long-term follow-up observation of the safety, immunogenicity, and effectiveness of Gardasil™ in adult women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquin Luna

    Full Text Available Previous analyses from a randomized trial in women aged 24-45 have shown the quadrivalent HPV vaccine to be efficacious in the prevention of infection, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN and external genital lesions (EGL related to HPV 6/11/16/18 through 4 years. In this report we present long term follow-up data on the efficacy, safety and immunogenicity of the quadrivalent HPV vaccine in adult women.Follow-up data are from a study being conducted in 5 sites in Colombia designed to evaluate the long-term immunogenicity, effectiveness, and safety of the qHPV vaccine in women who were vaccinated at 24 to 45 years of age (in the original vaccine group during the base study [n = 684] or 29 to 50 years of age (in the original placebo group during the base study [n = 651]. This analysis summarizes data collected as of the year 6 post-vaccination visit relative to day 1 of the base study (median follow-up of 6.26 years from both the original base study and the Colombian follow-up.There were no cases of HPV 6/11/16/18-related CIN or EGL during the extended follow-up phase in the per-protocol population. Immunogenicity persists against vaccine-related HPV types, and no evidence of HPV type replacement has been observed. No new serious adverse experiences have been reported.Vaccination with qHPV vaccine provides generally safe and effective protection from HPV 6-, 11-, 16-, and 18-related genital warts and cervical dysplasia through 6 years following administration to 24-45 year-old women.Clinicaltrials.govNCT00090220.

  1. Diurnal, seasonal and long-term variations of global formaldehyde columns inferred from combined OMI and GOME-2 observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Smedt, I.; Stavrakou, T.; Hendrick, F.; Danckaert, T.; Vlemmix, T.; Pinardi, G.; Theys, N.; Lerot, C.; Gielen, C.; Vigouroux, C.; Hermans, C.; Fayt, C.; Veefkind, P.; Müller, J.-F.; Van Roozendael, M.

    2015-11-01

    We present the new version (v14) of the BIRA-IASB algorithm for the retrieval of formaldehyde (H2CO) columns from spaceborne UV-visible sensors. Applied to OMI measurements from Aura and to GOME-2 measurements from MetOp-A and MetOp-B, this algorithm is used to produce global distributions of H2CO representative of mid-morning and early afternoon conditions. Its main features include (1) a new iterative DOAS scheme involving three fitting intervals to better account for the O2-O2 absorption, (2) the use of earthshine radiances averaged in the equatorial Pacific as reference spectra, and (3) a destriping correction and background normalisation resolved in the across-swath position. For the air mass factor calculation, a priori vertical profiles calculated by the IMAGES chemistry transport model at 09:30 and 13:30 LT are used. Although the resulting GOME-2 and OMI H2CO vertical columns are found to be highly correlated, some systematic differences are observed. Afternoon columns are generally larger than morning ones, especially in mid-latitude regions. In contrast, over tropical rainforests, morning H2CO columns significantly exceed those observed in the afternoon. These differences are discussed in terms of the H2CO column variation between mid-morning and early afternoon, using ground-based MAX-DOAS measurements available from seven stations in Europe, China and Africa. Validation results confirm the capacity of the combined satellite measurements to resolve diurnal variations in H2CO columns. Furthermore, vertical profiles derived from MAX-DOAS measurements in the Beijing area and in Bujumbura are used for a more detailed validation exercise. In both regions, we find an agreement better than 15 % when MAX-DOAS profiles are used as a priori for the satellite retrievals. Finally, regional trends in H2CO columns are estimated for the 2004-2014 period using SCIAMACHY and GOME-2 data for morning conditions, and OMI for early afternoon conditions. Consistent features

  2. Digital microscopic evaluation of vertical marginal discrepancies of CAD/CAM fabricated zirconia cores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Syed Rashid

    2018-05-18

    The aim of this in vitro research study was to evaluate the vertical marginal discrepancies of zirconia (Zr) cores fabricated by five different computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM) systems using a digital microscope. A total of 60 specimens were prepared and randomly divided into five groups (n=12 each) using the following systems: Ceramill Motion 2 (CM, Amanngirrbach, Germany); Weiland (WI, Ivoclar Vivadent, USA); Cerec (CS, Sirona Dental, USA); Zirkonzahn (ZZ, Gmbh Bruneck, Italy) and Cad4dent (CD, Canada). The specimens were numbered and the vertical marginal discrepancies were evaluated with a digital microscope at 50× magnification. A one-way analysis of variance showed a statistically significant difference (p=0.002) between the groups. The CM group exhibited the lowest values for the marginal gaps (31.30±15.12 μm), while the ZZ group exhibited the highest values for the marginal gaps (44.83±28.76 μm) compared to other groups. A post hoc Tukey's test for multiple comparisons between the experimental groups showed a statistically significant difference (p<0.05) between the group CM and group CD with group ZZ. The rest of the groups showed no significant differences between them. Variations in the values were observed for the four sites measured with the highest and the least mean marginal gap value of 43.19±23.84 μm and 32.49±12.21 μm for buccal and lingual sites, respectively. Variations existed in the marginal discrepancy values for the CAD/CAM systems investigated in the study. Vertical marginal discrepancy values observed for various systems investigated in the study were well within the clinically acceptable range.

  3. Long-term Satellite Observations of Cloud and Aerosol Radiative Effects Using the (A)ATSR Satellite Data Record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, M.; McGarragh, G.; Thomas, G.; Povey, A.; Proud, S.; Poulsen, C. A.; Grainger, R. G.

    2016-12-01

    Radiative forcing by clouds, aerosols, and their interactions constitute some of the largest sources of uncertainties in the climate system (Chapter 7 IPCC, 2013). It is essential to understand the past through examination of long-term satellite observation records to provide insight into the uncertainty characteristics of these radiative forcers. As part of the ESA CCI (Climate Change Initiative) we have recently implemented a broadband radiative flux algorithm (known as BUGSrad) into the Optimal Retrieval for Aerosol and Cloud (ORAC) scheme. ORAC achieves radiative consistency of its aerosol and cloud products through an optimal estimation scheme and is highly versatile, enabling retrievals for numerous satellite sensors: ATSR, MODIS, VIIRS, AVHRR, SLSTR, SEVIRI, and AHI. An analysis of the 17-year well-calibrated Along Track Scanning Radiometer (ATSR) data is used to quantify trends in cloud and aerosol radiative effects over a wide range of spatiotemporal scales. The El Niño Southern Oscillation stands out as the largest contributing mode of variability to the radiative energy balance (long wave and shortwave fluxes) at the top of the atmosphere. Furthermore, trends in planetary albedo show substantial decreases across the Arctic Ocean (likely due to the melting of sea ice and snow) and modest increases in regions dominated by stratocumulus (e.g., off the coast of California) through notable increases in cloud fraction and liquid water path. Finally, changes in volcanic activity and biomass burning aerosol over this period show sizeable radiative forcing impacts at local-scales. We will demonstrate that radiative forcing from aerosols and clouds have played a significant role in the identified key climate processes using 17 years of satellite observational data.

  4. Long-term O3–precursor relationships in Hong Kong: field observation and model simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Wang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Over the past 10 years (2005–2014, ground-level O3 in Hong Kong has consistently increased in all seasons except winter, despite the yearly reduction of its precursors, i.e. nitrogen oxides (NOx =  NO + NO2, total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs, and carbon monoxide (CO. To explain the contradictory phenomena, an observation-based box model (OBM coupled with CB05 mechanism was applied in order to understand the influence of both locally produced O3 and regional transport. The simulation of locally produced O3 showed an increasing trend in spring, a decreasing trend in autumn, and no changes in summer and winter. The O3 increase in spring was caused by the net effect of more rapid decrease in NO titration and unchanged TVOC reactivity despite decreased TVOC mixing ratios, while the decreased local O3 formation in autumn was mainly due to the reduction of aromatic VOC mixing ratios and the TVOC reactivity and much slower decrease in NO titration. However, the decreased in situ O3 formation in autumn was overridden by the regional contribution, resulting in elevated O3 observations. Furthermore, the OBM-derived relative incremental reactivity indicated that the O3 formation was VOC-limited in all seasons, and that the long-term O3 formation was more sensitive to VOCs and less to NOx and CO in the past 10 years. In addition, the OBM results found that the contributions of aromatics to O3 formation decreased in all seasons of these years, particularly in autumn, probably due to the effective control of solvent-related sources. In contrast, the contributions of alkenes increased, suggesting a continuing need to reduce traffic emissions. The findings provide updated information on photochemical pollution and its impact in Hong Kong.

  5. Feasibility study and technical proposal for the use of microseismic methods in the long-term observation of bedrock stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saari, J.

    1995-04-01

    Recent geodetic and seismological studies have paid attention to the slow deformation occurring in the Fennoscandian Shield. On the basis of these studies, together with in-situ stress measurements, the idea has been put forth that horizontal movement can be even greater than vertical movement. Local seismotectonics has importance in relation to the predictions of the long-term stability of the bedrock at the final disposal site. Potential direct and - what in Finland is more likely - indirect effects on the vault are due to local earthquakes of creep. The direct effects on the repository include rock vibration and displacement on an increasing fault. The indirect effects are changes in the surrounding structure, in the stress field, in the groundwater table, pressure, flux and chemistry. The block movements are controlled mainly by the network of fracture zones. The report deals with the possibilities to monitor by seismic methods slow movements occurring in the bedrock at the local level. The report includes descriptions of instrumentation for recording microearthquakes, the seismic network and an interpretation of the observations. The potential sites for disposal (Kuhmo, Aeaenekoski, Eurajoki) are compared in relation to seismic monitoring. Also the experiences of other investigations and a proposal for microearthquake investigations as well as of prospective developments within monitoring are presented. (28 refs., 17 figs.)

  6. Long-term acoustical observations of the mesopelagic fish Maurolicus muelleri reveal novel and varied vertical migration patterns

    KAUST Repository

    Staby, A

    2011-11-15

    We studied the temporal dynamics in the vertical distribution of Maurolicus muelleri scattering layers (SL) by examining continuous acoustic recordings over a 15 mo period in Masfjorden, Norway, complemented by intermittent sampling campaigns. The data revealed known patterns as normal diel vertical migration (DVM), midnight sinking between dusk and dawn, and periods without migrations, as well as novel behaviours consisting of early morning ascents, reverse diel vertical migrations, and interrupted ascents in the evening. During the first autumn of the study, adult fish modified their normal DVM behaviour by suspending their migration in the evening, yet ascending toward the surface in the later part of the night to reach upper layers during dawn. This behaviour was not observed during the second autumn of the study. By mid- to end of November (1st autumn), adult fish had suspended the nocturnal ascent entirely, and in the subsequent period until the end of January, a fraction of the population rather performed limited reverse migrations, slightly shifting their vertical distribution upwards during the first part of the day. From January to March 2008, fish interrupted their evening ascent at apparently random intervals and returned to deeper waters, instead of completing a full ascent to the surface. Our study underlines the value of long-term recordings, with the results suggesting that M. muelleri has the capability of changing its behaviour in response to ontogeny and internal state (satiation and hunger) as well as to external stimuli.

  7. Identifying ecological "sweet spots" underlying cyanobacteria functional group dynamics from long-term observations using a statistical machine learning approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, N.; Munoz-Carpena, R.; Phlips, E. J.

    2017-12-01

    Diversity in the eco-physiological adaptations of cyanobacteria genera creates challenges for water managers who are tasked with developing appropriate actions for controlling not only the intensity and frequency of cyanobacteria blooms, but also reducing the potential for blooms of harmful taxa (e.g., toxin producers, N2 fixers). Compounding these challenges, the efficacy of nutrient management strategies (phosphorus-only versus nitrogen-and-phosphorus) for cyanobacteria bloom abatement is the subject of an ongoing debate, which increases uncertainty associated with bloom mitigation decision-making. In this work, we analyze a unique long-term (17-year) dataset composed of monthly observations of cyanobacteria genera abundances, zooplankton abundances, water quality, and flow from Lake George, a bloom-impacted flow-through lake of the St. Johns River (FL, USA). Using the Random Forests machine learning algorithm, an assumption-free ensemble modeling approach, the dataset was evaluated to quantify and characterize relationships between environmental conditions and seven cyanobacteria groupings: five genera (Anabaena, Cylindrospermopsis, Lyngbya, Microcystis, and Oscillatoria) and two functional groups (N2 fixers and non-fixers). Results highlight the selectivity of nitrogen in describing genera and functional group dynamics, and potential for physical effects to limit the efficacy of nutrient management as a mechanism for cyanobacteria bloom mitigation.

  8. Discrepancies between parent and adolescent beliefs about daily life topics and performance on an emotion recognition task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Los Reyes, Andres; Lerner, Matthew D; Thomas, Sarah A; Daruwala, Samantha; Goepel, Katherine

    2013-08-01

    Parents and children and adolescents commonly disagree in their perceptions of a variety of behaviors, including the family relationship and environment, and child and adolescent psychopathology. To this end, numerous studies have examined to what extent increased discrepant perceptions-particularly with regard to perceptions of the family relationship and environment-predict increased child and adolescent psychopathology. Parents' and children and adolescents' abilities to decode and identify others' emotions (i.e., emotion recognition) may play a role in the link between discrepant perceptions and child and adolescent psychopathology. We examined parents' and adolescents' emotion recognition abilities in relation to discrepancies between parent and adolescent perceptions of daily life topics. In a sample of 50 parents and adolescents ages 14-to-17 years (M = 15.4 years, 20 males, 54 % African-American), parents and adolescents were each administered a widely used performance-based measure of emotion recognition. Parents and adolescents were also administered a structured interview designed to directly assess each of their perceptions of the extent to which discrepancies existed in their beliefs about daily life topics (e.g., whether adolescents should complete their homework and carry out household chores). Interestingly, lower parent and adolescent emotion recognition performance significantly related to greater parent and adolescent perceived discrepant beliefs about daily life topics. We observed this relation whilst accounting for adolescent age and gender and levels of parent-adolescent conflict. These findings have important implications for understanding and using informant discrepancies in both basic developmental psychopathology research and applied research in clinic settings (e.g., discrepant views on therapeutic goals).

  9. A process-based {sup 222}radon flux map for Europe and its comparison to long-term observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karstens, U. [Max-Planck-Instistut fuer Biogeochemie, Jena (Germany); Schwingshackl, C.; Schmithuesen, D.; Levin, I. [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Umweltphysik

    2015-07-01

    Detailed {sup 222}radon ({sup 222}Rn) flux maps are an essential pre-requisite for the use of radon in atmospheric transport studies. Here we present a high-resolution {sup 222}Rn flux map for Europe, based on a parameterization of {sup 222}Rn production and transport in the soil. The {sup 222}Rn exhalation rate is parameterized based on soil properties, uranium content, and modelled soil moisture from two different land-surface reanalysis data sets. Spatial variations in exhalation rates are primarily determined by the uranium content of the soil, but also influenced by soil texture and local water-table depth. Temporal variations are related to soil moisture variations as the molecular diffusion in the unsaturated soil zone depends on available air-filled pore space. The implemented diffusion parameterization was tested against campaign-based {sup 222}Rn soil profile measurements. Monthly {sup 222}Rn exhalation rates from European soils were calculated with a nominal spatial resolution of 0.083 x 0.083 and compared to long-term direct measurements of {sup 222}Rn exhalation rates in different areas of Europe. The two realizations of the {sup 222}Rn flux map, based on the different soil moisture data sets, both realistically reproduce the observed seasonality in the fluxes but yield considerable differences for absolute flux values. The mean {sup 222}Rn flux from soils in Europe is estimated to be 10 mBq m{sup -2} s{sup -1} (ERA-Interim/Land soil moisture) or 15 mBq m{sup -2} s{sup -1} (GLDAS (Global Land Data Assimilation System) Noah soil moisture) for the period 2006-2010. The corresponding seasonal variations with low fluxes in winter and high fluxes in summer range in the two realizations from ca. 7 to ca. 14 mBq m{sup -2} s{sup -1} and from ca. 11 to ca. 20 mBq m{sup -2} s{sup -1}, respectively. These systematic differences highlight the importance of realistic soil moisture data for a reliable estimation of {sup 222}Rn exhalation rates. Comparison with

  10. A process-based 222radon flux map for Europe and its comparison to long-term observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karstens, U.; Schwingshackl, C.; Schmithüsen, D.; Levin, I.

    2015-11-01

    Detailed 222radon (222Rn) flux maps are an essential pre-requisite for the use of radon in atmospheric transport studies. Here we present a high-resolution 222Rn flux map for Europe, based on a parameterization of 222Rn production and transport in the soil. The 222Rn exhalation rate is parameterized based on soil properties, uranium content, and modelled soil moisture from two different land-surface reanalysis data sets. Spatial variations in exhalation rates are primarily determined by the uranium content of the soil, but also influenced by soil texture and local water-table depth. Temporal variations are related to soil moisture variations as the molecular diffusion in the unsaturated soil zone depends on available air-filled pore space. The implemented diffusion parameterization was tested against campaign-based 222Rn soil profile measurements. Monthly 222Rn exhalation rates from European soils were calculated with a nominal spatial resolution of 0.083° × 0.083° and compared to long-term direct measurements of 222Rn exhalation rates in different areas of Europe. The two realizations of the 222Rn flux map, based on the different soil moisture data sets, both realistically reproduce the observed seasonality in the fluxes but yield considerable differences for absolute flux values. The mean 222Rn flux from soils in Europe is estimated to be 10 mBq m-2 s-1 (ERA-Interim/Land soil moisture) or 15 mBq m-2 s-1 (GLDAS (Global Land Data Assimilation System) Noah soil moisture) for the period 2006-2010. The corresponding seasonal variations with low fluxes in winter and high fluxes in summer range in the two realizations from ca. 7 to ca. 14 mBq m-2 s-1 and from ca. 11 to ca. 20 mBq m-2 s-1, respectively. These systematic differences highlight the importance of realistic soil moisture data for a reliable estimation of 222Rn exhalation rates. Comparison with observations suggests that the flux estimates based on the GLDAS Noah soil moisture model on average better

  11. A process-based 222radon flux map for Europe and its comparison to long-term observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karstens, U.; Schwingshackl, C.; Schmithuesen, D.; Levin, I.

    2015-01-01

    Detailed 222 radon ( 222 Rn) flux maps are an essential pre-requisite for the use of radon in atmospheric transport studies. Here we present a high-resolution 222 Rn flux map for Europe, based on a parameterization of 222 Rn production and transport in the soil. The 222 Rn exhalation rate is parameterized based on soil properties, uranium content, and modelled soil moisture from two different land-surface reanalysis data sets. Spatial variations in exhalation rates are primarily determined by the uranium content of the soil, but also influenced by soil texture and local water-table depth. Temporal variations are related to soil moisture variations as the molecular diffusion in the unsaturated soil zone depends on available air-filled pore space. The implemented diffusion parameterization was tested against campaign-based 222 Rn soil profile measurements. Monthly 222 Rn exhalation rates from European soils were calculated with a nominal spatial resolution of 0.083 x 0.083 and compared to long-term direct measurements of 222 Rn exhalation rates in different areas of Europe. The two realizations of the 222 Rn flux map, based on the different soil moisture data sets, both realistically reproduce the observed seasonality in the fluxes but yield considerable differences for absolute flux values. The mean 222 Rn flux from soils in Europe is estimated to be 10 mBq m -2 s -1 (ERA-Interim/Land soil moisture) or 15 mBq m -2 s -1 (GLDAS (Global Land Data Assimilation System) Noah soil moisture) for the period 2006-2010. The corresponding seasonal variations with low fluxes in winter and high fluxes in summer range in the two realizations from ca. 7 to ca. 14 mBq m -2 s -1 and from ca. 11 to ca. 20 mBq m -2 s -1 , respectively. These systematic differences highlight the importance of realistic soil moisture data for a reliable estimation of 222 Rn exhalation rates. Comparison with observations suggests that the flux estimates based on the GLDAS Noah soil moisture model on

  12. Long-term Follow-up Assessing Renal Angiomyolipoma Treatment Patterns, Morbidity, and Mortality : An Observational Study in Tuberous Sclerosis Complex Patients in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijkemans, Marinus J C; van der Wal, Willem; Reijnders, Leida J; Roes, Kit C B; van Waalwijk van Doorn-Khosrovani, Sahar Barjesteh; Pelletier, Corey; Magestro, Matthew; Zonnenberg, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Long-term data from patients with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC)-associated renal angiomyolipoma (angiomyolipoma) are limited. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective observational study. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: Adult patients with TSC treated at the University Medical Center Utrecht (the

  13. Toward resolving model-measurement discrepancies of radon entry into houses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garbesi, K.; Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA

    1994-10-01

    Analysis of the literature indicated that radon transport models significantly and consistently underpredict the advective entry into houses of soil-gas borne radon. Advective entry is the dominant mechanism resulting in high concentrations of radon indoors. The author investigated the source of the model-measurement discrepancy via carefully controlled field experiments conducted at an experimental basement located in natural soil in Ben Lomond, California. Early experiments at the structure confirmed the existence and magnitude of the model-measurement discrepancy, ensuring that it was not merely an artifact of inherently complex and poorly understood field sites. The measured soil-gas entry rate during structure depressurization was found to be an order of magnitude larger than predicted by a current three-dimensional numerical model of radon transport. The exact magnitude of the discrepancy depends on whether the arithmetic or geometric mean of the small-scale measurements of permeability is used to estimate the effective permeability of the soil. This factor is a critical empirical input to the model and was determined for the Ben Lomond site in the typical fashion using single-probe static depressurization measurements at multiple locations. The remainder of the dissertation research tests a hypothesis to explain the observed discrepancy: that soil permeability assessed using relatively small-scale probe measurements does not reflect bulk soil permeability for flows that is likely to occur at larger scales of several meters or more in real houses and in the test structure. The idea is that soil heterogeneity is of a nature that, as flows occur over larger scales, larger scales of heterogeneity are encountered that facilitate larger flux rates, resulting in a scale dependence of effective soil permeability

  14. Toward resolving model-measurement discrepancies of radon entry into houses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garbesi, K.

    1993-01-01

    My dissertation research investigated the source of the model-measurement discrepancy via carefully controlled field experiments conducted at an experimental basement located in natural soil in Ben Lomond, California. Early experiments at the structure (Chapter II) confirmed the existence and magnitude of the model-measurement discrepancy, ensuring that it was not merely an artifact of inherently complex and poorly understood field sites. The measured soil-gas entry rate during structure depressurization was found to be an order of magnitude larger than predicted by a current three-dimensional numerical model of radon transport. The exact magnitude of the discrepancy depends on whether the arithmetic or geometric mean of the small-scale measurements of permeability is used to estimate the effective permeability of the soil. This factor is a critical empirical input to the model and was determined for the Ben Lomond site in the typical fashion using single-probe static depressurization measurement at multiple locations. The remainder of the dissertation research tests a hypothesis to explain the observed discrepancy: that soil permeability assessed using relatively small-scale probe measurements (0.1-0.5 m) does not reflect bulk soil permeability for flows that is likely to occur at larger scales of several meters or more in real houses and in the test structure. The idea is that soil heterogeneity is of a nature that, as flows occur over larger scales, larger scales of heterogeneity are encountered that facilitate larger flux rates, resulting in a scale dependence of effective soil permeability. In Chapter III, I describe the development of a dual-probe dynamic pressure technique to measure soil permeability to air (and anisotropy of permeability) at various length scales. Preliminary field tests of the apparatus indicated that soil permeability was indeed scale dependent

  15. Observing Convective Aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Christopher E.; Wing, Allison A.; Bony, Sandrine; Muller, Caroline; Masunaga, Hirohiko; L'Ecuyer, Tristan S.; Turner, David D.; Zuidema, Paquita

    2017-11-01

    Convective self-aggregation, the spontaneous organization of initially scattered convection into isolated convective clusters despite spatially homogeneous boundary conditions and forcing, was first recognized and studied in idealized numerical simulations. While there is a rich history of observational work on convective clustering and organization, there have been only a few studies that have analyzed observations to look specifically for processes related to self-aggregation in models. Here we review observational work in both of these categories and motivate the need for more of this work. We acknowledge that self-aggregation may appear to be far-removed from observed convective organization in terms of time scales, initial conditions, initiation processes, and mean state extremes, but we argue that these differences vary greatly across the diverse range of model simulations in the literature and that these comparisons are already offering important insights into real tropical phenomena. Some preliminary new findings are presented, including results showing that a self-aggregation simulation with square geometry has too broad distribution of humidity and is too dry in the driest regions when compared with radiosonde records from Nauru, while an elongated channel simulation has realistic representations of atmospheric humidity and its variability. We discuss recent work increasing our understanding of how organized convection and climate change may interact, and how model discrepancies related to this question are prompting interest in observational comparisons. We also propose possible future directions for observational work related to convective aggregation, including novel satellite approaches and a ground-based observational network.

  16. Discrepancy and Disliking Do Not Induce Negative Opinion Shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flache, Andreas; Mäs, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Both classical social psychological theories and recent formal models of opinion differentiation and bi-polarization assign a prominent role to negative social influence. Negative influence is defined as shifts away from the opinion of others and hypothesized to be induced by discrepancy with or disliking of the source of influence. There is strong empirical support for the presence of positive social influence (a shift towards the opinion of others), but evidence that large opinion differences or disliking could trigger negative shifts is mixed. We examine positive and negative influence with controlled exposure to opinions of other individuals in one experiment and with opinion exchange in another study. Results confirm that similarities induce attraction, but results do not support that discrepancy or disliking entails negative influence. Instead, our findings suggest a robust positive linear relationship between opinion distance and opinion shifts. PMID:27333160

  17. Numerical discrepancy between serial and MPI parallel computations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Bong Lee

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Numerical simulations of 1D Burgers equation and 2D sloshing problem were carried out to study numerical discrepancy between serial and parallel computations. The numerical domain was decomposed into 2 and 4 subdomains for parallel computations with message passing interface. The numerical solution of Burgers equation disclosed that fully explicit boundary conditions used on subdomains of parallel computation was responsible for the numerical discrepancy of transient solution between serial and parallel computations. Two dimensional sloshing problems in a rectangular domain were solved using OpenFOAM. After a lapse of initial transient time sloshing patterns of water were significantly different in serial and parallel computations although the same numerical conditions were given. Based on the histograms of pressure measured at two points near the wall the statistical characteristics of numerical solution was not affected by the number of subdomains as much as the transient solution was dependent on the number of subdomains.

  18. Listening to Music during Warming-Up Counteracts the Negative Effects of Ramadan Observance on Short-Term Maximal Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baklouti, Hana; Chtourou, Hamdi; Driss, Tarak; Chaouachi, Anis; Chamari, Karim; Souissi, Nizar

    2015-01-01

    Aim The aim of the present study was to examine whether listening to music during warming-up might influence short-term maximal performance (STMP), cognitive anxiety, self-confidence, and enjoyment during Ramadan, and whether these affects might predict STMP. Methods Nine male physical education students (age: 21 ± 1.1 years; height: 1.8 ± 0.04 m; body mass: 83 ± 5 kg) volunteered to participate in the present study. A within-subjects design consisted of four experimental sessions: Two sessions occurred one week before Ramadan and two others took place during Ramadan. They were scheduled at 5 p.m. and were conducted as follows: After a 10-minute warm-up either with or without listening to music, each participant performed a 5-m multiple shuttle run test, after which he was asked to answer items intended to assess his affective state during the experimental task. Results Our findings revealed that STMP was lower during Ramadan than before Ramadan in the no-music condition. Additionally, it was found that STMP was higher in the music condition than in the no-music condition during Ramadan, and that STMP measured before Ramadan did not differ from that measured during Ramadan in the music condition. Regarding affects, the findings revealed that enjoyment was lower during Ramadan than before Ramadan in the music condition, and that cognitive anxiety was lower in the music condition than in the no-music condition before Ramadan. Self-confidence was not influenced by the experimental conditions. Conclusion This study showed that listening to music during warming-up not only would be beneficial for STMP in Ramadan fasters, but also would counteract the negative effects of Ramadan observance on STMP. PMID:26301508

  19. Long-term Observation of Regenerated Periodontium Induced by FGF-2 in the Beagle Dog 2-Wall Periodontal Defect Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Anzai

    Full Text Available The long-term stability and qualitative characteristics of periodontium regenerated by FGF-2 treatment were compared with normal physiological healing tissue controls in a Beagle dog 2-wall periodontal defect model 13 months after treatment by assessing tissue histology and three-dimensional microstructure using micro-computed tomography (μCT. After FGF-2 (0.3% or vehicle treatment at the defect sites, serial changes in the bone mineral content (BMC were observed using periodic X-ray imaging. Tissues were harvested at 13 months, evaluated histomorphometrically, and the cortical bone volume and trabecular bone structure of the newly formed bone were analyzed using μCT. FGF-2 significantly increased the BMC of the defect area at 2 months compared with that of the control group, and this difference was unchanged through 13 months. The cortical bone volume was significantly increased by FGF-2, but there was no difference between the groups in trabecular bone structure. Bone maturation was occurring in both groups because of the lower cortical volume and denser trabecular bone than what is found in intact bone. FGF-2 also increased the area of newly formed bone as assessed histomorphometrically, but the ratios of trabecular bone in the defect area were similar between the control and FGF-2 groups. These results suggest that FGF-2 stimulates neogenesis of alveolar bone that is of similar quality to that of the control group. The lengths of the regenerated periodontal ligament and cementum, measured as the distance from the defect bottom to the apical end of the gingival epithelium, and height and area of the newly formed bone in the FGF-2 group were larger than those in the control group. The present study demonstrated that, within the limitation of artificial periodontal defect model, the periodontal tissue regenerated by FGF-2 was maintained for 13 months after treatment and was qualitatively equivalent to that generated through the physiological

  20. [Analysis of acid rain characteristics of Lin'an Regional Background Station using long-term observation data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zheng-Quan; Ma, Hao; Mao, Yu-Ding; Feng, Tao

    2014-02-01

    Using long-term observation data of acid rain at Lin'an Regional Background Station (Lin'an RBS), this paper studied the interannual and monthly variations of acid rain, the reasons for the variations, and the relationships between acid rain and meteorological factors. The results showed that interannual variation of acid rain at Lin'an RBS had a general increasing trend in which there were two obvious intensifying processes and two distinct weakening processes, during the period ranging from 1985 to 2012. In last two decades, the monthly variation of acid rain at Lin'an RBS indicated that rain acidity and frequency of severe acid rain were increasing but the frequency of weak acid rain was decreasing when moving towards bilateral side months of July. Acid rain occurrence was affected by rainfall intensity, wind speed and wind direction. High frequency of severe acid rain and low frequency of weak acid rain were on days with drizzle, but high frequency of weak acid rain and low frequency of severe acid rain occurred on rainstorm days. With wind speed upgrading, the frequency of acid rain and the proportion of severe acid rain were declining, the pH value of precipitation was reducing too. Another character is that daily dominant wind direction of weak acid rain majorly converged in S-W section ,however that of severe acid rain was more likely distributed in N-E section. The monthly variation of acid rain at Lin'an RBS was mainly attributed to precipitation variation, the increasing and decreasing of monthly incoming wind from SSE-WSW and NWN-ENE sections of wind direction. The interannual variation of acid rain could be due to the effects of energy consumption raising and significant green policies conducted in Zhejiang, Jiangsu and Shanghai.

  1. Goldberger-Treiman discrepancy and the momentum variation of the pion-nucleon form factor and pion decay constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coon, S.A.; Scadron, M.D.

    1981-01-01

    We suggest that the observed 6% Goldberger-Treiman discrepancy is due in part to a 3% variation in the pion-nucleon form factor and in part due to a 3% variation in the pion decay form factor from q 2 =m/sub π/ 2 to q 2 =0

  2. Overnight shift work: factors contributing to diagnostic discrepancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Tarek N; Loehfelm, Thomas; Khosa, Faisal; Rohatgi, Saurabh; Johnson, Jamlik-Omari

    2016-02-01

    The aims of the study are to identify factors contributing to preliminary interpretive discrepancies on overnight radiology resident shifts and apply this data in the context of known literature to draw parallels to attending overnight shift work schedules. Residents in one university-based training program provided preliminary interpretations of 18,488 overnight (11 pm–8 am) studies at a level 1 trauma center between July 1, 2013 and December 31, 2014. As part of their normal workflow and feedback, attendings scored the reports as major discrepancy, minor discrepancy, agree, and agree--good job. We retrospectively obtained the preliminary interpretation scores for each study. Total relative value units (RVUs) per shift were calculated as an indicator of overnight workload. The dataset was supplemented with information on trainee level, number of consecutive nights on night float, hour, modality, and per-shift RVU. The data were analyzed with proportional logistic regression and Fisher's exact test. There were 233 major discrepancies (1.26 %). Trainee level (senior vs. junior residents; 1.08 vs. 1.38 %; p performance. Increased workload affected more junior residents' performance, with R3 residents performing significantly worse on busier nights. Hour of the night was not significantly associated with performance, but there was a trend toward best performance at 2 am, with subsequent decreased accuracy throughout the remaining shift hours. Improved performance occurred after the first six night float shifts, presumably as residents acclimated to a night schedule. As overnight shift work schedules increase in popularity for residents and attendings, focused attention to factors impacting interpretative accuracy is warranted.

  3. Discrepancies in Communication Versus Documentation of Weight-Management Benchmarks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christy B. Turer MD, MHS

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available To examine gaps in communication versus documentation of weight-management clinical practices, communication was recorded during primary care visits with 6- to 12-year-old overweight/obese Latino children. Communication/documentation content was coded by 3 reviewers using communication transcripts and health-record documentation. Discrepancies in communication/documentation content codes were resolved through consensus. Bivariate/multivariable analyses examined factors associated with discrepancies in benchmark communication/documentation. Benchmarks were neither communicated nor documented in up to 42% of visits, and communicated but not documented or documented but not communicated in up to 20% of visits. Lowest benchmark performance rates were for laboratory studies (35% and nutrition/weight-management referrals (42%. In multivariable analysis, overweight (vs obesity was associated with 1.6 more discrepancies in communication versus documentation (P = .03. Many weight-management benchmarks are not met, not documented, or performed without being communicated. Enhanced communication with families and documentation in health records may promote lifestyle changes in overweight children and higher quality care for overweight children in primary care.

  4. Estimation of Tooth Size Discrepancies among Different Malocclusion Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasija, Narender; Bala, Madhu; Goyal, Virender

    2014-05-01

    Regards and Tribute: Late Dr Narender Hasija was a mentor and visionary in the light of knowledge and experience. We pay our regards with deepest gratitude to the departed soul to rest in peace. Bolton's ratios help in estimating overbite, overjet relationships, the effects of contemplated extractions on posterior occlusion, incisor relationships and identification of occlusal misfit produced by tooth size discrepancies. To determine any difference in tooth size discrepancy in anterior as well as overall ratio in different malocclusions and comparison with Bolton's study. After measuring the teeth on all 100 patients, Bolton's analysis was performed. Results were compared with Bolton's means and standard deviations. The results were also subjected to statistical analysis. Results show that the mean and standard deviations of ideal occlusion cases are comparable with those Bolton but, when the mean and standard deviation of malocclusion groups are compared with those of Bolton, the values of standard deviation are higher, though the mean is comparable. How to cite this article: Hasija N, Bala M, Goyal V. Estimation of Tooth Size Discrepancies among Different Malocclusion Groups. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(2):82-85.

  5. Salary discrepancies between practicing male and female physician assistants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coplan, Bettie; Essary, Alison C; Virden, Thomas B; Cawley, James; Stoehr, James D

    2012-01-01

    Salary discrepancies between male and female physicians are well documented; however, gender-based salary differences among clinically practicing physician assistants (PAs) have not been studied since 1992 (Willis, 1992). Therefore, the objectives of the current study are to evaluate the presence of salary discrepancies between clinically practicing male and female PAs and to analyze the effect of gender on income and practice characteristics. Using data from the 2009 American Academy of Physician Assistants' (AAPA) Annual Census Survey, we evaluated the salaries of PAs across multiple specialties. Differences between men and women were compared for practice characteristics (specialty, experience, etc) and salary (total pay, base pay, on-call pay, etc) in orthopedic surgery, emergency medicine, and family practice. Men reported working more years as a PA in their current specialty, working more hours per month on-call, providing more direct care to patients, and more funding available from their employers for professional development (p pay, overtime pay, administrative pay, on-call pay, and incentive pay based on productivity and performance (p pay (p = .001) in orthopedic surgery, higher total income (p = .011) and base pay (p = .005) in emergency medicine, and higher base pay in family practice (p discrepancies remain between employed male and female PAs regardless of specialty, experience, or other practice characteristics. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Spectroscopic and physical parameters of Galactic O-type stars. III. Mass discrepancy and rotational mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markova, N.; Puls, J.; Langer, N.

    2018-05-01

    Context. Massive stars play a key role in the evolution of galaxies and our Universe. Aims: Our goal is to compare observed and predicted properties of single Galactic O stars to identify and constrain uncertain physical parameters and processes in stellar evolution and atmosphere models. Methods: We used a sample of 53 objects of all luminosity classes and with spectral types from O3 to O9.7. For 30 of these, we determined the main photospheric and wind parameters, including projected rotational rates accounting for macroturbulence, and He and N surface abundances, using optical spectroscopy and applying the model atmosphere code FASTWIND. For the remaining objects, similar data from the literature, based on analyses by means of the CMFGEN code, were used instead. The properties of our sample were then compared to published predictions based on two grids of single massive star evolution models that include rotationally induced mixing. Results: Any of the considered model grids face problem in simultaneously reproducing the stellar masses, equatorial gravities, surface abundances, and rotation rates of our sample stars. The spectroscopic masses derived for objects below 30 M⊙ tend to be smaller than the evolutionary ones, no matter which of the two grids have been used as a reference. While this result may indicate the need to improve the model atmosphere calculations (e.g. regarding the treatment of turbulent pressure), our analysis shows that the established mass problem cannot be fully explained in terms of inaccurate parameters obtained by quantitative spectroscopy or inadequate model values of Vrot on the zero age main sequence. Within each luminosity class, we find a close correlation of N surface abundance and luminosity, and a stronger N enrichment in more massive and evolved O stars. Additionally, we also find a correlation of the surface nitrogen and helium abundances. The large number of nitrogen-enriched stars above 30 M⊙ argues for rotationally

  7. The Long-Term Multicenter Observational Study of Dabigatran Treatment in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation (RELY-ABLE) Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, S. J.; Wallentin, L.; Ezekowitz, M. D.

    2013-01-01

    . There is a need for longer-term follow-up of patients on dabigatran and for further data comparing the 2 dabigatran doses. Methods and Results Patients randomly assigned to dabigatran in RE-LY were eligible for the Long-term Multicenter Extension of Dabigatran Treatment in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation (RELY...

  8. The use of long-term observations in combination with modeling and their effect on the estimation of the North Sea storm surge climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aspelien, T.

    2006-07-01

    The aim of this PhD thesis is to design, implement and assess a method to combine long-term observations with multi-decadal model simulations. In this work a computationally cost-efficient nudging method, well suited for multi-decadal simulations, is chosen. First, the nudging method was tested for its sensitivity to different parameters. Then the long-term observations of sea level height from the UK tide gauge Aberdeen were combined with a multi-decadal hindcast for the North Sea. Compared to a control simulation, in which no observed values of sea level height were combined with the model, the nudging method generally improves the modeled water levels with respect to the observed values, especially for surge. The estimation of long-term fluctuations and biases of extreme values of high waters in the nudged simulation are generally considerably improved after nudging and closer to the observed. The effect is largest in the German Bight and at the West coast of Denmark. It is concluded that the cost-efficient nudging method, in which external processes, such as external surges, are additionally taken into account, provides a considerable improvement in reproducing long-term variations and trends, especially for surge. Without additional data from e.g. observed values from tide gauges taken into account, the meteorological induced long-term variations in a hindcast are not fully captured. (orig.)

  9. Tropospheric observations of CFC-114 and CFC-114a with a focus on long-term trends and emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Laube

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs are ozone-depleting substances as well as strong greenhouse gases, and the control of their production and use under the Montreal Protocol has had demonstrable benefits to both mitigation of increasing surface UV radiation and climate forcing. A global ban on consumption came into force in 2010, but there is evidence of continuing emissions of certain CFCs from a range of sources. One compound has received little attention in the literature, namely CFC-114 (C2Cl2F4. Of particular interest here is the differentiation between CFC-114 (CClF2CClF2 and its asymmetric isomeric form CFC-114a (CF3CCl2F as atmospheric long-term measurements in the peer-reviewed literature to date have been assumed to represent the sum of both isomers with a time-invariant isomeric speciation. Here we report the first long-term measurements of the two isomeric forms separately, and find that they have different origins and trends in the atmosphere. Air samples collected at Cape Grim (41° S, Australia, during atmospheric background conditions since 1978, combined with samples collected from deep polar snow (firn enable us to obtain a near-complete record of both gases since their initial production and release in the 1940s. Both isomers were present in the unpolluted atmosphere in comparably small amounts before 1960. The mixing ratio of CFC-114 doubled from 7.9 to 14.8 parts per trillion (ppt between the start of the Cape Grim record in 1978 and the end of our record in 2014, while over the same time CFC-114a trebled from 0.35 to 1.03 ppt. Mixing ratios of both isomers are slowly decreasing by the end of this period. This is consistent with measurements of recent aircraft-based samples showing no significant interhemispheric mixing ratio gradient. We also find that the fraction of CFC-114a mixing ratio relative to that of CFC-114 increased from 4.2 to 6.9 % over the 37-year period. This contradicts the current tacit assumption used in

  10. Tropospheric observations of CFC-114 and CFC-114a with a focus on long-term trends and emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laube, Johannes C.; Hanif, Norfazrin Mohd; Martinerie, Patricia; Gallacher, Eileen; Fraser, Paul J.; Langenfelds, Ray; Brenninkmeijer, Carl A. M.; Schwander, Jakob; Witrant, Emmanuel; Wang, Jia-Lin; Ou-Yang, Chang-Feng; Gooch, Lauren J.; Reeves, Claire E.; Sturges, William T.; Oram, David E.

    2016-12-01

    Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are ozone-depleting substances as well as strong greenhouse gases, and the control of their production and use under the Montreal Protocol has had demonstrable benefits to both mitigation of increasing surface UV radiation and climate forcing. A global ban on consumption came into force in 2010, but there is evidence of continuing emissions of certain CFCs from a range of sources. One compound has received little attention in the literature, namely CFC-114 (C2Cl2F4). Of particular interest here is the differentiation between CFC-114 (CClF2CClF2) and its asymmetric isomeric form CFC-114a (CF3CCl2F) as atmospheric long-term measurements in the peer-reviewed literature to date have been assumed to represent the sum of both isomers with a time-invariant isomeric speciation. Here we report the first long-term measurements of the two isomeric forms separately, and find that they have different origins and trends in the atmosphere. Air samples collected at Cape Grim (41° S), Australia, during atmospheric background conditions since 1978, combined with samples collected from deep polar snow (firn) enable us to obtain a near-complete record of both gases since their initial production and release in the 1940s. Both isomers were present in the unpolluted atmosphere in comparably small amounts before 1960. The mixing ratio of CFC-114 doubled from 7.9 to 14.8 parts per trillion (ppt) between the start of the Cape Grim record in 1978 and the end of our record in 2014, while over the same time CFC-114a trebled from 0.35 to 1.03 ppt. Mixing ratios of both isomers are slowly decreasing by the end of this period. This is consistent with measurements of recent aircraft-based samples showing no significant interhemispheric mixing ratio gradient. We also find that the fraction of CFC-114a mixing ratio relative to that of CFC-114 increased from 4.2 to 6.9 % over the 37-year period. This contradicts the current tacit assumption used in international climate

  11. Long-term Observations of Ecohydrology, Climate, Energy Fluxes, and Eddy Covariance Error in a Large, Semiarid Floodplain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleverly, J. R.; Thibault, J. R.; Dahm, C. N.; Allred Coonrod, J. E.; Slusher, M.; Teet, S.; Schuetz, J.

    2008-12-01

    Some of the highest rates of water and energy fluxes between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere occur over large floodplains in arid and semiarid areas. Often located in high-pressure zones near 35 degrees latitude, abundant radiation and easily accessible groundwater contribute few limitations on growth and production in desert phreatophytes. Desert regions typically undergo cycles of drought and floods, and phreatophytic communities wax or wane in cover, density, and structure with cumulative species responses to timing and severity in these regional weather cycles. The Rio-ET Laboratory at the University of New Mexico has been collecting long-term data from a flux network of riparian monitoring stations, mounted on towers along the Middle Rio Grande. Ongoing measurements of energy, water and carbon dioxide fluxes, groundwater dynamics, meteorology, leaf area index, and community dynamics began at some locations in 1999. Recent reanalysis of the flux dataset was performed in which error correction procedures were compared to each and other and in relation to an irrigated crop under advection. Most riparian sites exhibited stable atmospheric stratification and an energy balance consistent with evaporative cooling. Evaporative cooling was more prominent in the late afternoon and evening, during wet conditions. Reduced latent heat fluxes were observed in a cottonwood forest following restoration and fire, but only in years when the forest floor was not re-vegetated by opportunistic annuals or target removal species. Water use by riparian phreatophytes was 1) non-responsive to drought during the monsoon season (non-native Russian olive and monospecific saltcedar communities), 2) responded negatively to monsoon-season drought (xeroriparian saltcedar and saltgrass mosaic community), or 3) responded positively to monsoon-season drought (cottonwood forests). Water salvage related to ecological restoration is dependent upon restoration strategy, emphasizing the

  12. [Dual insertion paths design characteristics and short-term clinical observation of rotational path removable partial dentures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Jiang, Ting; Li, Sai; Chen, Wei

    2013-02-18

    To investigate design methods of dual insertion paths and observe a short-term clinic overview of rotational path removable partial dentures (RPDs). In the study, 40 patients with partial edentulous arches were included and divided into two groups. The patients in group one were restored with rotational path RPDs (10 Kennedy class III and 10 Kennedy class IV respectively). The patients in group two (20 patients), whose edentulous area was matched with the patients' in group one, were restored with the linear path RPDs. After surveying and simulative preparation on diagnostic casts, the basic laws of designing rotational path RPDs were summarized. The oral preparation was accurately performed under the guidance of indices made on diagnostic casts after simulative preparation. The 40 dentures were recalled two weeks and one year after the insertion. The evaluations of the clinic outcome, including retention, stability, mastication function, esthetics and wearing convenience, were marked out as good, acceptable, and poor. The comparison of the evaluation results was performed between the two groups. In the rotational path design for Kennedy class III or IV RPDs, the angles (α) of dual insertion paths should be designed within a scope, approximate 10°-15°.When the angle (α) became larger, the denture retention turned to be better, but accordingly the posterior abutments needed more preparation. In the clinical application, the first insertions of the 40 dentures were all favorably accomplished. When the rotational path RPDs were compared to linear path RPDs, the time consuming on first insertion had no statistical difference[(32±8) min and (33±8) min respectively, P>0.05]. Recalled two weeks and one year after the insertion, in the esthetics evaluation, 20 rotational path RPDs were all evaluated as "A", but only 7(two weeks after) and 6 (one year after) linear path RPDs were evaluated as "A"(P<0.05). There was no significant difference in other evaluation results

  13. Long-term Efficacy of Trabeculectomy on Chinese Patients with Pigmentary Glaucoma: A Prospective Case Series Observational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Ping Qing

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: All surgical PG eyes in this study had satisfactory IOP control 8 years after the surgery with well-preserved visual function. The long-term efficacy and safety of trabeculectomy are promising in PG patients.

  14. Angiographic characteristics of hysteromyoma and multi-center observation of short-term curative effects of uterine artery embolization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Guangqi; Wang Zhimin; Zhang Hongxin; Yang Qingfeng; Li Chao; Zhao Siyuan; Yang Kangjian; Zhao Binyu; He Chao; Li Bo; Zhang Xufeng; Peng Jianming; Zhang Longquan; Feng Rongcai

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To summarize the clinical data of 1151 patients with hysteromyoma treated by uterine artery embolization, to discuss the characteristics of blood supply of hysteromyoma, and to evaluate the short-term clinical curative effects of embolization therapy. Methods: The clinical data of 1151 patients with hysteromyoma who received uterine artery embolization in several medical institutions during the period from January 1995 to December 2002 were retrospectively analyzed. For all patients, modified Seldinger technique was employed. The catheter was threaded into unilateral or bilateral femoral artery for bilateral internal iliac and uterine arteriography in order to find out the angiographic architecture and blood-supply of the hysteromyoma. Then, the catheter was super-selectively inserted into the feeding artery of hysteromyoma and the mixture of ultra-liquid lipiodol and pingyangmycin was slowly injected into the feeding artery to embolize the tumor's vascular bed until the tumor stain disappeared. B-ultrasonography was performed at 3, 6 and 12 months after the treatment to observe the tumor size. Results: Uterine arteries originated from the anterior trunk of iliac artery in 849 cases (73.8%), from the main trunk of iliac artery in 145 cases (12.6%), from the inferior gluteal pudendal trunk in 87 cases (7.6%), from the internal pudendal artery in 52 cases (4.5%) and from the superior gluteal artery in 18 cases (1.6%). Arteriography demonstrated that the hysteromyoma supplied by ipsilateral ovarian artery was seen in 458 cases (39.8%). The initial segment of uterine artery took the form of acute angle in 730 cases (63.4%), right angle in 254 cases (22.1%) and obtuse angle in 167 cases (14.5%). The opening orifice and traveling route of uterine artery were well demonstrated on digital subtraction angiography (DSA) with the following exposure positions: anteroposterior projection (n=213, 18.5%), ipsilateral oblique projection in (n=647, 56.2%) and

  15. Subjective-Objective Sleep Discrepancy Is Associated With Alterations in Regional Glucose Metabolism in Patients With Insomnia and Good Sleeper Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Daniel B; Karim, Helmet T; Soehner, Adriane M; Hasler, Brant P; James, Jeffrey A; Germain, Anne; Hall, Martica H; Franzen, Peter L; Price, Julie C; Nofzinger, Eric A; Buysse, Daniel J

    2017-11-01

    Sleep discrepancies are common in primary insomnia (PI) and include reports of longer sleep onset latency (SOL) than measured by polysomnography (PSG) or "negative SOL discrepancy." We hypothesized that negative SOL discrepancy in PI would be associated with higher relative glucose metabolism during nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep in brain networks involved in conscious awareness, including the salience, left executive control, and default mode networks. PI (n = 32) and good sleeper controls (GS; n = 30) completed [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) scans during NREM sleep, and relative regional cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (rCMRglc) was measured. Sleep discrepancy was calculated by subtracting PSG-measured SOL on the PET night from corresponding self-report values the following morning. We tested for interactions between group (PI vs. GS) and SOL discrepancy for rCMRglc during NREM sleep using both a region of interest mask and exploratory whole-brain analyses. Significant group by SOL discrepancy interactions for rCMRglc were observed in several brain regions (pcorrected PSG-measured SOL) was associated with significantly higher relative rCMRglc in the right anterior insula and middle/posterior cingulate during NREM sleep. In GS, more positive SOL discrepancy (self-reported Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. [Observation of the effects of warming-up and role-playing in psychodrama in terms of mood rating].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, S

    1993-04-01

    The purpose is to make an appropriate list of terms that describe person's moment-to-moment changes in moods during psychodrama sessions. Seventy nurse students participated in a series of psychodrama sessions, consisting of a session of warming-up and two sessions of role playing. They rated their moods at the beginning of the sessions and after each session, on a five-point scale for each of the 55 terms, which were supposed to cover all kinds of moods during psychodrama sessions. After analyzing variations (using factor analyses) of subjects' ratings, three factors were found to be sufficient for describing their moods, and the terms in the list were eventually reduced to sixteen. Changes of moods analyzed through the ratings of sixteen scales were related significantly with subjects' performances of warming-up and role playing.

  17. Lamb shift in muonic hydrogen-II. Analysis of the discrepancy of theory and experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jentschura, U.D.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Various theoretical explanation for the recently observed experimental-theoretical discrepancy in the muonic hydrogen Lamb shift are explored. → These include a dip in the proton form factor slope, nonperturbative vacuum polarization and millicharged virtual particles, as well as process-dependent screening corrections. → Screening corrections may need to be explored further. → The need for an alternative determination of the Rydberg constant is highlighted. - Abstract: Currently, both the g factor measurement of the muon as well as the Lamb shift 2S-2P measurement in muonic hydrogen are in disagreement with theory. Here, we investigate possible theoretical explanations, including proton structure effects and small modifications of the vacuum polarization potential. In particular, we investigate a conceivable small modification of the spectral function of vacuum polarization in between the electron and muon energy scales due to a virtual millicharged particle and due to an unstable vector boson originating from a hidden sector of an extended standard model. We find that a virtual millicharged particle which could explain the muonic Lamb shift discrepancy alters theoretical predictions for the muon anomalous magnetic moment by many standard deviations and therefore is in conflict with experiment. Also, we find no parameterizations of an unstable virtual vector boson which could simultaneously explain both 'muonic' discrepancies without significantly altering theoretical predictions for electronic hydrogen, where theory and experiment currently are in excellent agreement. A process-dependent correction involving electron screening is evaluated to have the right sign and order-of-magnitude to explain the observed effect in muonic hydrogen. Additional experimental evidence from light muonic atoms and ions is needed in order to reach further clarification.

  18. Noise properties of CT images reconstructed by use of constrained total-variation, data-discrepancy minimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Sean; Andersen, Martin S.; Sidky, Emil Y.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The authors develop and investigate iterative image reconstruction algorithms based on data-discrepancy minimization with a total-variation (TV) constraint. The various algorithms are derived with different data-discrepancy measures reflecting the maximum likelihood (ML) principle......: An incremental algorithm framework is developed for this purpose. The instances of the incremental algorithms are derived for solving optimization problems including a data fidelity objective function combined with a constraint on the image TV. For the data fidelity term the authors, compare application....... Simulations demonstrate the iterative algorithms and the resulting image statistical properties for low-dose CT data acquired with sparse projection view angle sampling. Of particular interest is to quantify improvement of image statistical properties by use of the ML data fidelity term. Methods...

  19. Determinants of first-time utilization of long-term care services in the Netherlands : An observational record linkage study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slobbe, L.C.J.; Wong, A.; Verheij, R.A.; Van Oers, J.A.M.; Polder, J.J.

    Background Since in an ageing society more long-term care (LTC) facilities are needed, it is important to understand the main determinants of first-time utilization of (LTC) services. Methods The Andersen service model, which distinguishes predisposing, enabling and need factors, was used to develop

  20. Determinants of first-time utilization of long-term care services in the Netherlands: an observational record linkage study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slobbe, L.C.J.; Wong, A.; Verheij, R.A.; Oers, H.J.A.M. van; Polder, J.J.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Since in an ageing society more long-term care (LTC) facilities are needed, it is important to understand the main determinants of first-time utilization of (LTC) services. Methods: The Andersen service model, which distinguishes predisposing, enabling and need factors, was used to

  1. Cross-country discrepancies on public understanding of stress concepts: evidence for stress-management psychoeducational programs

    OpenAIRE

    Souza-Talarico, Juliana Nery; Wan, Nathalie; Santos, Sheila; Fialho, Patr?cia Paes Araujo; Chaves, Eliane Corr?a; Caramelli, Paulo; Bianchi, Estela Ferraz; Santos, Aline Talita; Lupien, Sonia J

    2016-01-01

    Background Negative effects of stress have pose one of the major threats to the health and economic well being of individuals independently of age and cultural background. Nevertheless, the term ?stress? has been globally used unlinked from scientificevidence-based meaning. The discrepancies between scientific and public stress knowledge are focus of concern and little is know about it. This is relevant since misconceptions about stress may influence the effects of stress-management psychoedu...

  2. ON range searching in the group model and combinatorial discrepancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kasper Green

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we establish an intimate connection between dynamic range searching in the group model and combinatorial discrepancy. Our result states that, for a broad class of range searching data structures (including all known upper bounds), it must hold that $t_u t_q=\\Omega(\\mbox{disc}^2......)$, where $t_u$ is the worst case update time, $t_q$ is the worst case query time, and disc is the combinatorial discrepancy of the range searching problem in question. This relation immediately implies a whole range of exceptionally high and near-tight lower bounds for all of the basic range searching...... problems. We list a few of them in the following: (1) For $d$-dimensional halfspace range searching, we get a lower bound of $t_u t_q=\\Omega(n^{1-1/d})$. This comes within an lg lg $n$ factor of the best known upper bound. (2) For orthogonal range searching, we get a lower bound of $t_u t...

  3. Discrepancy between body surface area and body composition in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stobäus, Nicole; Küpferling, Susanne; Lorenz, Marie-Luise; Norman, Kristina

    2013-01-01

    Calculation of cytostatic dose is typically based on body surface area (BSA) regardless of body composition. The aim of this study was to assess the discrepancy between BSA and low fat-free mass (FFM) by investigating the prevalence of low FFM with regard to BSA in 630 cancer patients. First, BSA was calculated according to DuBois and DuBois. Patients were divided into 6 categories with respect to their BSA. Each BSA category was further divided into 3 groups according to FFM: low (FFM), normal (-0.99 and 0.99 SD of mean FFM) or high (>1 SD of mean FFM), which was derived through bioelectric impedance analysis. FFM was reduced in 15.7% of patients, 69% had normal and 15.2% had high FFM. In patients with low FFM (i.e., more than-1 SD lower than the mean FFM within their BSA group), body mass index and fatigue were higher whereas functional status was reduced. Moreover, in the subcohort of patients receiving chemotherapy, absolute FFM [Hazard ratio (HR) = 0.970, P = 0.026] as well as the allocation to the low FFM group (HR = 1.644, P = 0.025) emerged as predictors of increased 1-yr mortality. In conclusion, there was a large discrepancy between FFM and BSA. Particularly women were affected by low FFM.

  4. The attitude-behavior discrepancy in medical decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Fei; Li, Dongdong; Cao, Rong; Zeng, Juli; Guan, Hao

    2014-12-01

    In medical practice, the dissatisfaction of patients about medical decisions made by doctors is often regarded as the fuse of doctor-patient conflict. However, a few studies have looked at why there are such dissatisfactions. This experimental study aimed to explore the discrepancy between attitude and behavior within medical situations and its interaction with framing description. A total of 450 clinical undergraduates were randomly assigned to six groups and investigated using the classic medical decision making problem, which was described either in a positive or a negative frame (2) × decision making behavior\\attitude to risky plan\\attitude to conservative plan (3). A discrepancy between attitude and behavior did exist in medical situations. Regarding medical dilemmas, if the mortality rate was described, subjects had a significant tendency to choose a conservative plan (t = 3.55, P 0.05). However, regardless of the plan chosen by the doctor, the subjects had a significant opposing attitude (P Framing description had a significant impact on both decision making behavior and attitude (t behavior = -3.24, P framing of a description has an impact on medical decision-making.

  5. Subjective-objective sleep discrepancy among older adults: Associations with insomnia diagnosis and insomnia treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Kay, Daniel B.; Buysse, Daniel J.; Germain, Anne; Hall, Martica; Monk, Timothy H.

    2014-01-01

    Discrepancy between subjective and objective measures of sleep is associated with insomnia and increasing age. Cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia improves sleep quality and decreases subjective-objective sleep discrepancy. This study describes differences between older adults with insomnia and controls in sleep discrepancy, and tests the hypothesis that reduced sleep discrepancy following cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia correlates with the magnitude of symptom improvement rep...

  6. Long-term socio-economic impact of vestibular schwannoma for patients under observation and after surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tos, Tina; Caye-Thomasen, Per; Stangerup, Sven-Eric

    2003-01-01

    by the wait-and-re-scan policy (272 patients) during the period 1976-2000 were studied retrospectively. The consequences of operation/diagnosis (and observation) on vocational status, ability to handle daily chores and some psycho-social aspects were studied by means of a prospective postal questionnaire......, no difference existed between the observed group and operated patients with a tumour below 20 mm in size. A change in vocational status was most frequent for assisting spouses, unskilled manual workers and the self-employed. The majority of both observed and operated patients experienced no change...... in their ability to handle daily chores. The changed ability of operated patients was worse than that of observed patients. Among various changes in their psycho-social well-being, decrease in social ability was the most frequent complaint in both groups, followed by increased fatigue, decreased concentration...

  7. Observations of long-term tide-gauge records for indications of accelerated sea-level rise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gornitz, V.; Solow, A.

    1990-01-01

    Long-term tide-gauge records have been examined for indications of accelerated sea-level rise. An initial evaluation of 21 records was made, using least-squares linear regression. Four of the longest records were selected for more formal statistical analysis. The regional-mean sea-level curve for west-central Europe displays an upswing after 1900. However, individual stations vary considerably over short distances. Results from other regions are less conclusive. Application of univariate and multivariate techniques to the four longest records yields strong evidence for the presence of a non-global, nonlinear component. However, the three longest European records show some common nonlinear features, implying the presence of a regional component. There is some weak statistical evidence for a common changepoint around 1895 in the long-term European records, particularly for Amsterdam and Brest

  8. Long-term observations minus background monitoring of ground-based brightness temperatures from a microwave radiometer network

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Angelis, Francesco; Cimini, Domenico; Löhnert, Ulrich; Caumont, Olivier; Haefele, Alexander; Pospichal, Bernhard; Martinet, Pauline; Navas-Guzmán, Francisco; Klein-Baltink, Henk; Dupont, Jean-Charles; Hocking, James

    2017-10-01

    Ground-based microwave radiometers (MWRs) offer the capability to provide continuous, high-temporal-resolution observations of the atmospheric thermodynamic state in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) with low maintenance. This makes MWR an ideal instrument to supplement radiosonde and satellite observations when initializing numerical weather prediction (NWP) models through data assimilation. State-of-the-art data assimilation systems (e.g. variational schemes) require an accurate representation of the differences between model (background) and observations, which are then weighted by their respective errors to provide the best analysis of the true atmospheric state. In this perspective, one source of information is contained in the statistics of the differences between observations and their background counterparts (O-B). Monitoring of O-B statistics is crucial to detect and remove systematic errors coming from the measurements, the observation operator, and/or the NWP model. This work illustrates a 1-year O-B analysis for MWR observations in clear-sky conditions for an European-wide network of six MWRs. Observations include MWR brightness temperatures (TB) measured by the two most common types of MWR instruments. Background profiles are extracted from the French convective-scale model AROME-France before being converted into TB. The observation operator used to map atmospheric profiles into TB is the fast radiative transfer model RTTOV-gb. It is shown that O-B monitoring can effectively detect instrument malfunctions. O-B statistics (bias, standard deviation, and root mean square) for water vapour channels (22.24-30.0 GHz) are quite consistent for all the instrumental sites, decreasing from the 22.24 GHz line centre ( ˜ 2-2.5 K) towards the high-frequency wing ( ˜ 0.8-1.3 K). Statistics for zenith and lower-elevation observations show a similar trend, though values increase with increasing air mass. O-B statistics for temperature channels show different

  9. Evidence of long-term change in zonal wind in the tropical lower mesosphere: Observations and model simulations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ratnam, M. V.; Kumar, G. K.; Rao, N. V.; Murthy, B. V. K.; Laštovička, Jan; Qian, L.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 2 (2013), s. 397-401 ISSN 0094-8276 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP209/10/1792 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : mesosphere * zonal wind * long-term trends * TIME-GCM * climate change Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 4.456, year: 2013 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/grl.50158/abstract

  10. Children's Recall and Recognition of Sex Role Stereotyped and Discrepant Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trepanier-Street, Mary L.; Kropp, Jerri Jaudon

    1987-01-01

    Investigated the influence of differing levels of sex role stereotyped and discrepant information on immediate and delayed memory. Compared kindergarten and second-grade children's recall and recognition of stereotyped, moderately discrepant, and highly discrepant pictures. Results suggested significantly better recall of highly discrepant…

  11. Mobility particle size spectrometers: harmonization of technical standards and data structure to facilitate high quality long-term observations of atmospheric particle number size distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Wiedensohler

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Mobility particle size spectrometers often referred to as DMPS (Differential Mobility Particle Sizers or SMPS (Scanning Mobility Particle Sizers have found a wide range of applications in atmospheric aerosol research. However, comparability of measurements conducted world-wide is hampered by lack of generally accepted technical standards and guidelines with respect to the instrumental set-up, measurement mode, data evaluation as well as quality control. Technical standards were developed for a minimum requirement of mobility size spectrometry to perform long-term atmospheric aerosol measurements. Technical recommendations include continuous monitoring of flow rates, temperature, pressure, and relative humidity for the sheath and sample air in the differential mobility analyzer.

    We compared commercial and custom-made inversion routines to calculate the particle number size distributions from the measured electrical mobility distribution. All inversion routines are comparable within few per cent uncertainty for a given set of raw data.

    Furthermore, this work summarizes the results from several instrument intercomparison workshops conducted within the European infrastructure project EUSAAR (European Supersites for Atmospheric Aerosol Research and ACTRIS (Aerosols, Clouds, and Trace gases Research InfraStructure Network to determine present uncertainties especially of custom-built mobility particle size spectrometers. Under controlled laboratory conditions, the particle number size distributions from 20 to 200 nm determined by mobility particle size spectrometers of different design are within an uncertainty range of around ±10% after correcting internal particle losses, while below and above this size range the discrepancies increased. For particles larger than 200 nm, the uncertainty range increased to 30%, which could not be explained. The network reference mobility spectrometers with identical design agreed within ±4% in the

  12. Effects of creatine supplementation on high-intensity intermittent exercise: discrepancies and methodological appraisals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Gualano

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2008v10n2p189 After a brief review of the literature on the effects of creatine supplementation on high-intensity intermittent exercise performance, the main aim of this study was to discuss methodological differences between studies which could explain the discrepancies observed in the literature. The effects of creatine supplementation on high-intensity intermittent exercise performance have been investigated in depth. Although the results of much research demonstrates the effi cacy of this supplement, there is just as much evidence that does not support this ergogenic effect. The explanation for this divergence appears to be multifactorial, although it is always linked to methodological characteristics. Study design (crossover or parallel groups, individual variability of muscular creatine content, chronic high meat intake, sample size, exercise protocol characteristics (body weight dependence and time between series, and gender and age all differ between studies and are potentially the variables responsible, to differing extents, for the discrepancies observed in the literature. Studies involving young males, with parallel group design, adequate statistical power, control of the incorporation of creatine into muscles, food intake assessment and intermittent exercise protocols in which performance is independent of body weight and with rest-recovery intervals of 1 to 6 minutes, usually produce positive results. The many methodological factors which can contribute to divergence on the ergogenic effects of creatine should be considered in futures studies, as well as when prescribing creatine supplementation.

  13. Long-term persistence with injectable therapy in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: an 18-year observational cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Zhornitsky

    Full Text Available Disease modifying therapies (DMTs reduce the frequency of relapses and accumulation of disability in multiple sclerosis (MS. Long-term persistence with treatment is important to optimize treatment benefit. This long-term, cohort study was conducted at the Calgary MS Clinic. All consenting adults with relapsing-remitting MS who started either glatiramer acetate (GA or interferon-β 1a/1b (IFN-β between January 1st, 1996 and July 1st, 2011 were included. Follow-up continued to February 1st, 2014. Time-to-discontinuation of the initial and subsequently-prescribed DMTs (switches was analysed using Kaplan-Meier survival analyses. Group differences were compared using log-rank tests and multivariable Cox regression models. Analysis included 1471 participants; 906 were initially prescribed GA and 565 were initially prescribed IFN-β. Follow-up information was available for 87%; 29 (2% were lost to follow-up and 160 (11% moved from Southern Alberta while still using DMT. Median time-to-discontinuation of all injectable DMTs was 11.1 years. Participants with greater disability at treatment initiation, those who started treatment before age 30, and those who started between 2006 and 2011 were more likely to discontinue use of all injectable DMTs. Median time-to-discontinuation of the initial DMT was 8.6 years. Those initially prescribed GA remained on treatment longer. Of 610 participants who discontinued injectable DMT, 331 (54% started an oral DMT, or a second-line DMT, or resumed injectable DMT after 90 days. Persistence with injectable DMTs was high in this long-term population-based study. Most participants who discontinued injectable DMT did not remain untreated. Further research is required to understand treatment outcomes and outcomes after stopping DMT.

  14. Understanding the Risk Factors and Long-Term Consequences of Cisplatin-Associated Acute Kidney Injury: An Observational Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeenat Yousuf Bhat

    Full Text Available Acute kidney injury (AKI is a well-known complication of cisplatin-based chemotherapy; however, its impact on long-term patient survival is unclear. We sought to determine the incidence and risk factors for development of cisplatin-associated AKI and its impact on long-term renal function and patient survival. We identified 233 patients who received 629 cycles of high-dose cisplatin (99±9mg/m2 for treatment of head and neck cancer between 2005 and 2011. These subjects were reviewed for development of AKI. Cisplatin nephrotoxicity (CN was defined as persistent rise in serum creatinine, with a concomitant decline in serum magnesium and potassium, in absence of use of nephrotoxic agents and not reversed with hydration. All patients were hydrated per protocol and none had baseline glomerular filtration rate (GFR via CKD-EPI<60mL/min/1.73m2. The patients were grouped based on development of AKI and were staged for levels of injury, per KDIGO-AKI definition. Renal function was assessed via serum creatinine and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR via CKD-EPI at baseline, 6- and 12-months. Patients with AKI were screened for the absence of nephrotoxic medication use and a temporal decline in serum potassium and magnesium levels. Logistic regression models were constructed to determine risk factors for cisplatin-associated AKI. Twelve-month renal function was compared among groups using ANOVA. Kaplan-Maier curves and Cox proportional hazard models were constructed to study its impact on patient survival. Of 233 patients, 158(68% developed AKI; 77 (49% developed stage I, 55 (35% developed stage II, and 26 (16% developed stage III AKI. Their serum potassium and magnesium levels correlated negatively with level of injury (p<0.05. African American race was a significant risk factor for cisplatin-associated AKI, OR 2.8 (95% CI 1.3 to 6.3 and 2.8 (95% CI 1.2 to 6.7 patients with stage III AKI had the lowest eGFR value at 12 months (p = 0.05 and long-term

  15. Long-term observations minus background monitoring of ground-based brightness temperatures from a microwave radiometer network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. De Angelis

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Ground-based microwave radiometers (MWRs offer the capability to provide continuous, high-temporal-resolution observations of the atmospheric thermodynamic state in the planetary boundary layer (PBL with low maintenance. This makes MWR an ideal instrument to supplement radiosonde and satellite observations when initializing numerical weather prediction (NWP models through data assimilation. State-of-the-art data assimilation systems (e.g. variational schemes require an accurate representation of the differences between model (background and observations, which are then weighted by their respective errors to provide the best analysis of the true atmospheric state. In this perspective, one source of information is contained in the statistics of the differences between observations and their background counterparts (O–B. Monitoring of O–B statistics is crucial to detect and remove systematic errors coming from the measurements, the observation operator, and/or the NWP model. This work illustrates a 1-year O–B analysis for MWR observations in clear-sky conditions for an European-wide network of six MWRs. Observations include MWR brightness temperatures (TB measured by the two most common types of MWR instruments. Background profiles are extracted from the French convective-scale model AROME-France before being converted into TB. The observation operator used to map atmospheric profiles into TB is the fast radiative transfer model RTTOV-gb. It is shown that O–B monitoring can effectively detect instrument malfunctions. O–B statistics (bias, standard deviation, and root mean square for water vapour channels (22.24–30.0 GHz are quite consistent for all the instrumental sites, decreasing from the 22.24 GHz line centre ( ∼  2–2.5 K towards the high-frequency wing ( ∼  0.8–1.3 K. Statistics for zenith and lower-elevation observations show a similar trend, though values increase with increasing air mass. O

  16. Observation of the medium-long term efficacy of infusion chemotherapy in middle-terminal stage esophageal carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Taimin; Han Xinwei; Wu Gang

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To explore the infusion chemotherapeutic efficacy and clinical application value for patients with middle-terminal stage esophageal carcinomas. Methods: Eighty patients with esophageal squamous carcinoma confirmed with barium meal examination and histopathology were undergone angiography and infusion chemotherapy through catheter in the target artery of the esophageal tumor. Results: Complete relief were acquired in 26 of 80 patients after the infusion, partial relief in 42, no-change in 11 and progress in 1; the overall effective rate was 85%(68/80). The survival rates was 87.5%(70/80), 38.8%(31/80), 21.3%(17/80), 15%(12/80) at 1, 2, 3 and 5 year intervals respectively. The patients of more than 3 years survival were complete symptomlessness after infusion. The survival rate could be improved significantly with infusion as long as necessary. Conclusions: The short-term efficacy with infusion is remarkable and should be the preferable choice, but the medium-long term survival rate is still low. Accomplishment with other therapies is further to be recommended. (authors)

  17. Management of bimaxillary transverse discrepancy with vertical excess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh C Chaudhary

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 14-year-old boy reported with a complaint of severe irregularity of lower teeth and forwardly placed upper teeth. History revealed snoring as an occasional complaint. The case was diagnosed as mild class II skeletally with increased lower anterior face height, bimaxillary transverse discrepancy leading to severe crowding in the lower arch, V-shaped upper arch with increased overjet and deep bite. Three phase treatment was planned. In the first phase, bimaxillary expansion with mid-symphyseal distraction osteogenesis and rapid maxillary expansion was carried out. After this phase of treatment, the episodes of snoring vanished. The second phase was 1 year of orthodontics to produce symmetric well-aligned arches in good function and aesthetics. Third, the treatment concluded with reduction-advancement genioplasty for correction of vertical excess and surgical camouflage.

  18. Discrepancies between parents' and children's attitudes toward TV advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiocco, Roberto; D'Alessio, Maria; Laghi, Fiorenzo

    2009-06-01

    The authors conducted a study with 500 parent-child dyads. The sample comprised 254 boys and 246 girls. The children were grouped into 5 age groups (1 group for each age from 7 to 11 years), with each group comprising 100 children. The survey regards discrepancies between children and their parents on attitudes toward TV advertising to determine how TV commercials affect children's developmental stages and, particularly, their credence, behavioral intentions, and TV enjoyment. Regarding enjoyment and purchase dimensions, the group of 7-year-old children claimed that they enjoyed and are influenced in their consumer attitude more than did the groups of 8-11-year-old children. Credence decreased significantly with age. This study showed that parents tended to undervalue TV advertising's influence on their children. Parents' conformity was a significant predictor of children's attitude toward TV advertising. Results indicated that a high level of parental conformity was linked to the number of brands children claimed to possess.

  19. Some Properties of a Measure of Information Discrepancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Shun-lan; FANG Wei-wu

    2002-01-01

    Based on a group of axioms, a measure of information discrepancyamong multiple information sources has been introduced in [7,8, 10] and it possesses some peculiar properties compared with other measures of information discrepancy, so it can be used in some areas, where the traditional measures are not valid or not efficient, for example, in the study of DNA sequence comparison, prediction of protein structure class, evidence analysis, questionnaire analysis, and so on. In this paper, using the optimization techniques,we prove that it is a distance function and show that it is also an approximation of x2 function. These two properties will stimulate further applications of the measure to information processing and system analysis.

  20. OSTEOPATHIC APPROACH: LEG LENGTH DISCREPANCY AND LOW BACK PAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taner AYDIN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Leg length discrepancy (LLD is a biomechanical impediment, which is a potential factor in affecting musculoskeletal disorders in the rest of life, such as scoliosis, osteoarthritis and muscle tightness, or even tenderness in lumbar and pelvic area. Athletes who have developed LLD have symptoms in gait, running, standing posture. Skeletal regions related to the disorder are the lumbar spine, ilium, hip joint, greater trochanter and knee, or even ankle and plantar region. Muscles involved in these areas are numeous. In osteopathic management, the manual practitioner can use a lot of basic techniques to handle these dysfunctions. To cope with musculoskeletal problems, osteopathic manipulation techniques would be an ideal modality to alleviate the LLD syndrome. An overview of the mentioned topics of concern will be discussed in the review.

  1. Unresolved resonance self shielding calculation: causes and importance of discrepancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribon, P.; Tellier, H.

    1986-09-01

    To compute the self shielding coefficient, it is necessary to know the point-wise cross-sections. In the unresolved resonance region, we do not know the parameters of each level but only the average parameters. Therefore we simulate the point-wise cross-section by random sampling of the energy levels and resonance parameters with respect to the Wigner law and the X 2 distributions, and by computing the cross-section in the same way as in the resolved regions. The result of this statistical calculation obviously depends on the initial parameters but also on the method of sampling, on the formalism which is used to compute the cross-section or on the weighting neutron flux. In this paper, we will survey the main phenomena which can induce discrepancies in self shielding computations. Results are given for typical dilutions which occur in nuclear reactors. 8 refs

  2. Unresolved resonance self shielding calculation: causes and importance of discrepancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribon, P.; Tellier, H.

    1986-01-01

    To compute the self shielding coefficient, it is necessary to know the point-wise cross-sections. In the unresolved resonance region, the parameters of each level are not known; only the average parameters. Therefore the authors simulate the point-wise cross-section by random sampling of the energy levels and resonance parameters with respect to the Wigner law and the x 2 distributions, and by computing the cross-section in the same way as in the resolved regions. The result of this statistical calculation obviously depends on the initial parameters but also on the method of sampling, on the formalism which is used to compute the cross-section or on the weighting neutron flux. In this paper, the authors survey the main phenomena which can induce discrepancies in self shielding computations. Results are given for typical dilutions which occur in nuclear reactors

  3. Radiological social risk perception: something more than experts/ public discrepancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prades Lopez, Ana; Gonzalez Reyes, Felisa

    1998-01-01

    One of the most important concerns of the postindustrial societies lies on the specification and quantification of risk, the Risk Assesment. However, the efforts and resources devoted to such goal have not avoided a growing worry about both the environmental conditions and the situations that potentially threaten it, generating an intense social debate about risks. In this framework, discrepancies between experts and public evaluations risks leaded to the study of social Risk perception. Several theoretical scopes have tried to characterize the phenomenon. A worthy conclusion of the empirical studies carried out on this issue is that all of them, experts and public, are influence by some factors which, in turns, affect their risk perception,. Specially striking is the fact that perception of risk among experts is also modulated by qualitative, personal and social factors. Social Risk Perception, through the process of Communication and Social Participation, has been configurated as a critical tool for both risk prevention and management

  4. Phase change in uranium: Discrepancy between experiment and theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akella, J.

    1996-01-01

    Using a diamond-anvil cell (DAC) phase transformation and room temperature Equation of State (EOS) for some actinides and lanthanides were studied to multimegabar (megabar = 100 GPa) pressures. Experimental data are compared with the theoretically predicted crystal structural changes and the pressure-volume relationships. There is a general agreement between theory and experiment for the structural changes in the lighter actinides, however in detail there are some discrepancies still. A generalized trend for the phase transformations in the lanthanides can be seen, which again has broad agreement with theory. We conclude that an accurate and robust theoretical base for predicting the phase transformations in the f-electron metals can be developed by incorporating the DAC data

  5. [Conservative treatment of upper anterior dental discrepancy during orthodontic therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, G; Verzì, P; Pappalardo, S

    1999-06-01

    The orthodontic therapeutic sequence used in cases with dento-dental discrepancy for reduced mesiodistal size and congenital absent lateral upper incisors, is described. The importance of correct conoid tooth replacement in the programmed space between the other teeth and its restorative treatment in order to obtain the best biomechanical control is stressed. The contemporaneous presence of the form and volume anomaly of the 12th and the missing 22nd due to agenesia demanded an interdisciplinary approach. For the restoration of the conoid tooth the authors used a microhybrid composite for the alloy properties with the grain size of the inorganic particles. In fact this type of composite responds well to mechanical stress and has a high shining capacity and good aesthetical rendering. Meanwhile the temporary dental prothesis solution of the 22nd in this case has suggested the application of the artificial element on the superior Hawley holding plaque.

  6. The sequentially discounting autoregressive (SDAR) method for on-line automatic seismic event detecting on long term observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L.; Toshioka, T.; Nakajima, T.; Narita, A.; Xue, Z.

    2017-12-01

    In recent years, more and more Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) studies focus on seismicity monitoring. For the safety management of geological CO2 storage at Tomakomai, Hokkaido, Japan, an Advanced Traffic Light System (ATLS) combined different seismic messages (magnitudes, phases, distributions et al.) is proposed for injection controlling. The primary task for ATLS is the seismic events detection in a long-term sustained time series record. Considering the time-varying characteristics of Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) of a long-term record and the uneven energy distributions of seismic event waveforms will increase the difficulty in automatic seismic detecting, in this work, an improved probability autoregressive (AR) method for automatic seismic event detecting is applied. This algorithm, called sequentially discounting AR learning (SDAR), can identify the effective seismic event in the time series through the Change Point detection (CPD) of the seismic record. In this method, an anomaly signal (seismic event) can be designed as a change point on the time series (seismic record). The statistical model of the signal in the neighborhood of event point will change, because of the seismic event occurrence. This means the SDAR aims to find the statistical irregularities of the record thought CPD. There are 3 advantages of SDAR. 1. Anti-noise ability. The SDAR does not use waveform messages (such as amplitude, energy, polarization) for signal detecting. Therefore, it is an appropriate technique for low SNR data. 2. Real-time estimation. When new data appears in the record, the probability distribution models can be automatic updated by SDAR for on-line processing. 3. Discounting property. the SDAR introduces a discounting parameter to decrease the influence of present statistic value on future data. It makes SDAR as a robust algorithm for non-stationary signal processing. Within these 3 advantages, the SDAR method can handle the non-stationary time-varying long-term

  7. Long-term survival in patients hospitalized for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a prospective observational study in the Nordic countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudmundsson G

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Gunnar Gudmundsson,1,2 Charlotte Suppli Ulrik,3 Thorarinn Gislason,1,2 Eva Lindberg,4 Eva Brøndum,3 Per Bakke,5 Christer Janson31Department of Respiratory Medicine, Allergy and Sleep, National University Hospital, Reykjavik, Iceland; 2Faculty of Medicine, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland; 3Department of Respiratory Diseases, Hvidovre Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark; 4Department of Medical Sciences: Respiratory Medicine and Allergology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; 5Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, NorwayBackground and aim: Mortality rate is high in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Our aim was to investigate long-term mortality and associated risk factors in COPD patients previously hospitalized for a COPD exacerbation.Methods: A total of 256 patients from the Nordic countries were followed for 8.7 ± 0.4 years after the index hospitalization in 2000–2001. Prior to discharge, the St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire was administered and data on therapy and comorbidities were obtained. Information on long-term mortality was obtained from national registries in each of the Nordic countries.Results: In total, 202 patients (79% died during the follow up period, whereas 54 (21% were still alive. Primary cause of death was respiratory (n = 116, cardiovascular (n = 43, malignancy (n = 28, other (n = 10, or unknown (n = 5. Mortality was related to older age, with a hazard risk ratio (HRR of 1.75 per 10 years, lower forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 (HRR 0.80, body mass index (BMI <20 kg/m2 (HRR 3.21, and diabetes (HRR 3.02. Older age, lower BMI, and diabetes were related to both respiratory and cardiovascular mortality. An association was also found between lower FEV1 and respiratory mortality, whereas mortality was not significantly associated with therapy, anxiety, or depression.Conclusion: Almost four out of five patients died within 9 years following an admission

  8. SWAP OBSERVATIONS OF THE LONG-TERM, LARGE-SCALE EVOLUTION OF THE EXTREME-ULTRAVIOLET SOLAR CORONA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seaton, Daniel B.; De Groof, Anik; Berghmans, David; Nicula, Bogdan [Royal Observatory of Belgium-SIDC, Avenue Circulaire 3, B-1180 Brussels (Belgium); Shearer, Paul [Department of Mathematics, 2074 East Hall, University of Michigan, 530 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1043 (United States)

    2013-11-01

    The Sun Watcher with Active Pixels and Image Processing (SWAP) EUV solar telescope on board the Project for On-Board Autonomy 2 spacecraft has been regularly observing the solar corona in a bandpass near 17.4 nm since 2010 February. With a field of view of 54 × 54 arcmin, SWAP provides the widest-field images of the EUV corona available from the perspective of the Earth. By carefully processing and combining multiple SWAP images, it is possible to produce low-noise composites that reveal the structure of the EUV corona to relatively large heights. A particularly important step in this processing was to remove instrumental stray light from the images by determining and deconvolving SWAP's point-spread function from the observations. In this paper, we use the resulting images to conduct the first-ever study of the evolution of the large-scale structure of the corona observed in the EUV over a three year period that includes the complete rise phase of solar cycle 24. Of particular note is the persistence over many solar rotations of bright, diffuse features composed of open magnetic fields that overlie polar crown filaments and extend to large heights above the solar surface. These features appear to be related to coronal fans, which have previously been observed in white-light coronagraph images and, at low heights, in the EUV. We also discuss the evolution of the corona at different heights above the solar surface and the evolution of the corona over the course of the solar cycle by hemisphere.

  9. The 3-D effects in the long-term solar wind speed rise observed by Voyager 2 in early 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzo, V. J.; Paularena, K. I.; Richardson, J. D.; Lazarus, A. J.; Belcher, J. W.

    1995-01-01

    In early 1994, Voyager 2 at 42-43 AU near heliolatitude 10 deg S observed over a period of approximately 100 days a remarkable sequence of quasi-recurrent stream fronts, wherein the background (ambient) speed rose steadily from approximately 450 to approximately 550 km/s while the mean period of the streams decreased from the usual 25 days down to approximately 20 days. A qualitative explanation for this effect can be derived from IMP observations, which show that the amplitude of the stream structure at 1 AU increased monotonically in late 1993, concurrent with major secular evolution in the corona. The reduction in period, then, amounts to a doppler shift due to the progressive overtaking of successively faster streams in the sequence. Attempts to model this process quantitatively with 1-D dynamic simulations falter on three accounts: (1) the reduction in period is overestimated, (2) the simulation predicts many more fronts surviving to 43 AU than are observed by Voyager; (3) the density variations are much too large. It is argued that inclusion of the 3-D geometry in the simulation would resolve most all these shortcomings. Using a series of calculations executed with 1-D, 2-D, and 3-D MHD models of hypothetical tilted-dipole flows, we show that: (1) the radial propagation velocities of 3-D fronts are less than those of 1-D or 2-D fronts, owing to the tilt of (and increased shearing across) the interaction surfaces hence the overtaking rate of successive streams is reduced; (2) in a tilted-dipole geometry, the reverse fronts should largely disappear from the equatorial plane by 43 AU, effectively halving the number of fronts to be observed (see companion paper on predominance of forward fronts at Voyager); and (3) the density enhancements would be much smaller than predicted by a 1-D model.

  10. PALS investigations of matrix Vycor glass doped with molecules of luminescent dye and silver nanoparticles. Discrepancies from the ETE model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorgol Marek

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A thermal stability of three materials: undoped reference Vycor glass, glass filled with ROT-305 red dye, and silver nanoparticles was investigated by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS in a broad temperature range (from 93 to 473 K. The attempt of pore size calculations from the ortho-positronium lifetime data was performed using the extended Tao-Eldrup (ETE model. Below room temperature, a significant decrease in lifetime values of the longest-lived component was found for all the samples. This effect could not be explained by thermal shrinkage of the material and is probably caused by interaction of o-Ps with a Vycor glass matrix. The greatest discrepancy from the ETE model predictions was observed for the reference glass. Doping the base material with dye molecules and silver nanoparticles resulted in similar small decrease in this discrepancy. After reheating the samples to the room temperature, the PALS components returned to the initial values. In the temperature range of 293–473 K, quite good agreement between PALS results and the ETE model predictions was observed for the reference glass and the glass incorporated with dye molecules. The observed small discrepancy in this range could possibly be partly explained by thermal expansion of the material. For the glass doped with silver nanoparticles, a significant change in PALS parameters was observed in the temperature range from 403 to 473 K.

  11. Sensory and short-term memory formations observed in a Ag2S gap-type atomic switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Takeo; Hasegawa, Tsuyoshi; Nayak, Alpana; Tsuruoka, Tohru; Gimzewski, James K.; Aono, Masakazu

    2011-11-01

    Memorization caused by the change in conductance in a Ag2S gap-type atomic switch was investigated as a function of the amplitude and width of input voltage pulses (Vin). The conductance changed little for the first few Vin, but the information of the input was stored as a redistribution of Ag-ions in the Ag2S, indicating the formation of sensory memory. After a certain number of Vin, the conductance increased abruptly followed by a gradual decrease, indicating the formation of short-term memory (STM). We found that the probability of STM formation depends strongly on the amplitude and width of Vin, which resembles the learning behavior of the human brain.

  12. Effects of Short-Term Thermal Alteration on Organic Matter in Experimentally-Heated Tagish Lake Observed by Raman Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Q. H. S.; Nakato, A.; Zolensky, M. E.; Nakamura, T.; Kebukawa, Y.; Maisano, J.; Colbert, M.; Martinez, J. E.

    2017-01-01

    Carbonaceous chondrites exhibit a wide range of aqueous and thermal alteration characteristics, while some are known to demonstrate mineralogical and petrologic evidence of having been thermally metamorphosed after aqueous alteration. This group of meteorites are commonly referred as thermally met-amorphosed carbonaceous chondrites (TMCCs), and their reflectance spectra show resemblances to that of C-type asteroids which typically have low albedos. This suggests that the surfaces of the C-type asteroids are also composed of both hydrous and dehydrated minerals, and thus TMCCs are among the best samples that can be studied in laboratory to reveal the true nature of the C-type asteroids. Although TMCCs are usually meteorites that were previously categorized as CI and CM chondrites, they are not strictly CI/CM because they exhibit isotopic and petrographic characteristics that significantly deviate from typical CI/CM. More appropriately, they are called CI-like and/or CM-like chondrites. Typical examples of TMCCs include the C2-ung/CM2TIV Belgica (B)-7904 and Yamato (Y) 86720. Thermal alteration is virtually complete in these meteorites and thus they are considered typical end-members of TMCCs exhibiting complete dehydration of matrix phyllosilicates. The estimated heating conditions are 10 to 103 days at 700 C to 1 to 100 hours at 890 C, i.e. short-term heating induced by impact and/or solar radiation. While the petrology and chemistry of TMCCs have only recently been extensively characterized, we have just begun to study in detail their organic contents. In order to understand how short-term heating affects the maturity of insoluble organic matter (IOM) in hydrous chondrites, we investigated experimentally-heated Tagish Lake meteorite using Raman spectroscopy, as the chemical and bulk oxygen isotopic compositions of the matrix of the carbonate (CO3)-poor lithology of the Tagish Lake (hereafter Tag) meteorite bears similarities to the TMCCs.

  13. Long-Term Geomagnetically Induced Current Observations From New Zealand: Peak Current Estimates for Extreme Geomagnetic Storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodger, Craig J.; Mac Manus, Daniel H.; Dalzell, Michael; Thomson, Alan W. P.; Clarke, Ellen; Petersen, Tanja; Clilverd, Mark A.; Divett, Tim

    2017-11-01

    Geomagnetically induced current (GIC) observations made in New Zealand over 14 years show induction effects associated with a rapidly varying horizontal magnetic field (dBH/dt) during geomagnetic storms. This study analyzes the GIC observations in order to estimate the impact of extreme storms as a hazard to the power system in New Zealand. Analysis is undertaken of GIC in transformer number six in Islington, Christchurch (ISL M6), which had the highest observed currents during the 6 November 2001 storm. Using previously published values of 3,000 nT/min as a representation of an extreme storm with 100 year return period, induced currents of 455 A were estimated for Islington (with the 95% confidence interval range being 155-605 A). For 200 year return periods using 5,000 nT/min, current estimates reach 755 A (confidence interval range 155-910 A). GIC measurements from the much shorter data set collected at transformer number 4 in Halfway Bush, Dunedin, (HWB T4), found induced currents to be consistently a factor of 3 higher than at Islington, suggesting equivalent extreme storm effects of 460-1,815 A (100 year return) and 460-2,720 A (200 year return). An estimate was undertaken of likely failure levels for single-phase transformers, such as HWB T4 when it failed during the 6 November 2001 geomagnetic storm, identifying that induced currents of 100 A can put such transformer types at risk of damage. Detailed modeling of the New Zealand power system is therefore required to put this regional analysis into a global context.

  14. [Radiometers performance attenuation and data correction in long-term observation of total radiation and photosynthetically active radiation in typical forest ecosystems in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhi-Lin; Sun, Xiao-Min; Yu, Gui-Rui; Wen, Xue-Fa; Zhang, Yi-Ping; Han, Shi-Jie; Yan, Jun-Hua; Wang, Hui-Min

    2011-11-01

    Based on the total radiation and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) observations with net radiometer (CNR1) and quantum sensor (Li-190SB) in 4 ChinaFLUX forest sites (Changbaishan, Qianyanzhou, Dinghushan, and Xishuangbanna) in 2003-2008, this paper analyzed the uncertainties and the radiometers performance changes in long-term and continuous field observation. The results showed that the 98% accuracy of the total radiation measured with CNR1 (Q(cNR1)) could satisfy the technical criterion for the sites except Xishuangbanna where the Q(CNR1) was averagely about 7% lower than Q(CM11), the radiation measured with high accuracy pyranometer CM11. For most sites, though the temperature had definite effects on the performance of CNR1, the effects were still within the allowable range of the accuracy of the instrument. Besides temperature, the seasonal fog often occurred in tropical rain forests in Xishuangbanna also had effects on the performance of CNR1. Based on the long-term variations of PAR, especially its ratio to total radiation in the 4 sites, it was found that quantum sensor (Li-190SB) had obvious performance attenuation, with the mean annual attenuation rate being about 4%. To correct the observation error caused by Li-190SB, an attempt was made to give a post-correction of the PAR observations, which could basically eliminate the quantum sensor's performance attenuation due to long-term field measurement.

  15. Discrepancies between knowledge and practice of childhood motor vehicle occupant safety in Nova Scotia--a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanchar, Natalie L; Kirkland, Susan A; LeBlanc, John C; Langille, Donald B

    2012-03-01

    To determine discrepancies between knowledge and practice of childhood motor vehicle restraints (CMVRs) and vehicle seating position amongst parents within the province of Nova Scotia. Random telephone survey. The Canadian province of Nova Scotia. Four hundred and twenty-six households with at least one child under the age of 12 years, totaling 723 children. The proportion of parents whose children who should be in a specific stage of CMVR and sitting in the rear seat of the vehicle, and who demonstrate correct knowledge of that restraint system and seating position, yet do not use that restraint system/seating position for their child (demonstrate practice discrepant from their knowledge). Awareness of what restraint system to use is good (>80%). However, knowledge of when it is safe to graduate to the next stage is low (30-55%), most marked for when to use a seatbelt alone. Awareness of the importance of sitting in the rear seat of a vehicle was universal. Discrepancies between knowledge and practice were most marked with booster seats and rear-seating of older children. Factors influencing incorrect practice (prematurely graduated to a higher-level restraint system than what is appropriate for age and weight) included lower household income, caregiver education level, and knowledge of when to graduate from forward-facing car seats and booster seats. Incorrect practice was also more commonly observed amongst children of weight and/or age approaching (but not yet reaching) recommended graduation parameters of the appropriate CMVR. Discrepancies between knowledge and practice are evident through all stages of CMVRs, but most marked with booster seats. The roles of lower socioeconomic status and gaps in CMVR legislation, in influencing discrepant practice, must be acknowledged and suggest the need for targeted education concurrent with development of comprehensive all-stages CMVR policies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Gonococcal infections in Austria: a long-term observation of prevalence and resistance profiles from 1999 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stary, Angelika; Heller-Vitouch, Claudia; Binder, Michael; Geusau, Alexandra; Stary, Georg; Rappersberger, Klemens; Komericki, Peter; Hoepfl, Reinhard; Haller, Maria

    2015-11-01

    The increase in minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of cephalosporins for Neisseria gonorrhoeae has given rise to concerns regarding potentially untreatable gonococcal infections. The goal was to ascertain the prevalence of gonorrhea in a Viennese patient group and determine resistance patterns. Another objective was to evaluate resistance profiles and MIC values of gonococcal isolates in an Austria-wide surveillance project. From 1999 to 2014, 350,000 individuals were tested for gonococci at the Viennese Outpatient Clinic. In addition, from 2010 to 2014, the MICs of recommended antibiotics was determined in 3,584 gonococcal isolates, initially by agar dilution and breakpoint determination, and, from 2012 onwards, by Etest®. During the observation period, the prevalence of gonorrhea increased eightfold, with a significantly greater number of quinolone, penicillin, and tetracycline- resistant strains. In gonococcal strains isolated from across Austria, there was an increase in cefixime and ceftriaxone MICs toward breakpoints. Twenty-one isolates showed cefixime resistance, and while there was an increase in azithromycin resistance from 0.9 % (2013) to 3.2 % (2014), no resistance to ceftriaxone was observed. Currently, there is no imminent risk of untreatable gonorrhea in Austria. However, continuing the use of gonococcal cultures as a diagnostic tool for establishing resistance profiles is essential in order to monitor trends in the development of Neisseria (N.) gonorrhoeae resistance. © 2015 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Using Long-Term Passive Acoustic Observations to Identify Ecological Stresses: A Gulf of Mexico Sperm Whale Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidorovskaia, N.; Li, K.; Drouant, G. J.; Ioup, J. W.

    2017-12-01

    The Gulf of Mexico marine mammal habitat is strongly impacted by anthropogenic industrial activities. By analyzing unique acoustic signals produced by different species of marine mammals, scientists can identify long-term population changes and their underlying causes. This study presents the results of the analysis of sperm whale acoustic clicks collected in the vicinity of the Deep Water Horizon accident site collected before and after the spill since 2001. The processing approach to regional acoustic data is two-leveled. First, sperm whale acoustic activity is analyzed from the standpoint of deriving annual abundance data using statistical methodology to compare with trends reported from NOAA visual surveys. Second, the features of individual clicks are extracted and analyzed to determine population structure: the animal's size, gender, and age group when possible. Proposed two-level processing workflow may provide useful data input for population forecasting models and may inform mitigation and recovery efforts not only for whales themselves but also for associated food-web constitutes. [This research was made possible in part by a grant from The Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative.

  18. Decomposing Shortwave Top-of-Atmosphere Radiative Flux Variability in Terms of Surface and Atmospheric Contributions Using CERES Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb, N. G.; Wong, T.; Wang, H.

    2017-12-01

    Earth's climate is determined by the exchange of radiant energy between the Sun, Earth and space. The absorbed solar radiation (ASR) fuels the climate system, providing the energy required for atmospheric and oceanic motions, while the system cools by emitting outgoing longwave (LW) radiation to space. A central objective of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) is to produce a long-term global climate data record of Earth's radiation budget along with the associated atmospheric and surface properties that influence it. CERES data products utilize a number of data sources, including broadband radiometers measuring incoming and reflected solar radiation and OLR, polar orbiting and geostationary spectral imagers, meteorological, aerosol and ozone assimilation data, and snow/sea-ice maps based on microwave radiometer data. Here we use simple diagnostic model of Earth's albedo and CERES Energy Balanced and Filled (EBAF) Ed4.0 data for March 2000-February 2016 to quantify interannual variations in SW TOA flux associated with surface albedo and atmospheric reflectance and transmittance variations. Surface albedo variations account for cloud properties over the Arctic Ocean.

  19. Long-term treatment of ADHD with stimulants: A large observational study of real-life patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Powell, Shelagh G.; Thomsen, Per Hove; Frydenberg, Morten

    2011-01-01

    : The diversity of ADHD patients was evident from the comorbidity, age at start, comedication, and treatment needs over time. Dosages corresponded to guidelines in most patients, but some needed higher dosages or got along on lower dosages for long periods. Age at start and comorbidity influenced dosage......, and dosage was associated to differential outcome groups. Conclusion: The study findings underscored the diversity of ADHD patients and that individual factors should be taken into account when tailoring individual treatment schedules. Findings further showed that stimulant dosages are dynamic over time......Objective: To evaluate 410 real-life patients treated with stimulants and assessed systematically over several years. Method: Naturalistic observational study. A database was compiled on the basis of a review of the medical charts of patients attending a specialized ADHD clinic. Results...

  20. Long-term follow-up observation of patients with chronic radiation sickness due to external irradiation treated with thymopeptide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Shenyong; Sun Wenji; Zhang Aizhen; Ye Anfang

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To provide the clinical data and prognosis judgement, the authors observed the results and progression of 11 cases of chronic radiation sickness due to external irradiation treated with thymopeptide. Methods: The clinical symptoms, hematopoiesis, T lymphocyte percentage and chromosome aberration rate were used as the judgement indexes for recovery from the chronic radiation sickness. Results: Thymopeptide treatment greatly improved the neurasthenic syndrome and increased the T lymphocyte percentage (P 0.05), and improvement of neurasthenic syndrome occurred 3.5 years after they left radiation work or diminished the exposure level. 5 to 8 years after, bone marrow hematopoiesis also restored to the normal level. However, the chromosome aberration rate restored to the normal level 10 years after. Conclusion: According to the judgement criteria, the chronic radiation sickness due to external radiation exposure can recover and thymopeptide is a helpful and simple means to treat it

  1. Forsmark site investigation. Programme for long-term observations of geosphere and biosphere after completed site investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-06-15

    The site investigation at Forsmark was terminated the last of June, 2007. Hundreds of investigations have been conducted during a period of more than five years. Monitoring of a number of geoscientific parameters and biological objects has been one important part of the site investigation programme. Monitoring is defined as recurrent measurements of the same parameters/objects, so that time series are generated. Long-term monitoring of for example weather parameters, surface water discharge in brooks, and the groundwater head in a large number of boreholes has been conducted during the site investigations. Furthermore, repeated sampling of precipitation, surface water and groundwater in soil and rock for hydrochemical analyses has been carried out, and the groundwater flow in isolated borehole sections has been measured several times. Besides, some biological objects, for example rare bird species, have been invented each year of the site investigation. The measured parameters and the invented objects are characterized by a certain degree of time dependent variability, which is also site-specific. The aim of the monitoring is primarily to establish the 'undisturbed' conditions, the so called 'baseline'. If a deep repository is sited at Forsmark, many site-specific conditions will change, due to natural causes as well as to the construction works. Knowledge about the undisturbed conditions strengthens the ability to reveal and quantify such changes and to distinguish natural changes from those caused by the human activities. Another object of monitoring is to, by the study of the variability pattern of the monitored parameters, elevate the knowledge about the underlying, often complex causes governing the variations. In this way the description of site-specific conditions may be more precise and the prospects of modelling important processes are improved. After completion of the site investigations, a period of about two years will follow, when

  2. Forsmark site investigation. Programme for long-term observations of geosphere and biosphere after completed site investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-06-01

    The site investigation at Forsmark was terminated the last of June, 2007. Hundreds of investigations have been conducted during a period of more than five years. Monitoring of a number of geoscientific parameters and biological objects has been one important part of the site investigation programme. Monitoring is defined as recurrent measurements of the same parameters/objects, so that time series are generated. Long-term monitoring of for example weather parameters, surface water discharge in brooks, and the groundwater head in a large number of boreholes has been conducted during the site investigations. Furthermore, repeated sampling of precipitation, surface water and groundwater in soil and rock for hydrochemical analyses has been carried out, and the groundwater flow in isolated borehole sections has been measured several times. Besides, some biological objects, for example rare bird species, have been invented each year of the site investigation. The measured parameters and the invented objects are characterized by a certain degree of time dependent variability, which is also site-specific. The aim of the monitoring is primarily to establish the 'undisturbed' conditions, the so called 'baseline'. If a deep repository is sited at Forsmark, many site-specific conditions will change, due to natural causes as well as to the construction works. Knowledge about the undisturbed conditions strengthens the ability to reveal and quantify such changes and to distinguish natural changes from those caused by the human activities. Another object of monitoring is to, by the study of the variability pattern of the monitored parameters, elevate the knowledge about the underlying, often complex causes governing the variations. In this way the description of site-specific conditions may be more precise and the prospects of modelling important processes are improved. After completion of the site investigations, a period of about two years will follow, when the investigation

  3. Acute and long-term dysphagia in critically ill patients with severe sepsis: results of a prospective controlled observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielske, Joerg; Bohne, Silvia; Brunkhorst, Frank M; Axer, Hubertus; Guntinas-Lichius, Orlando

    2014-11-01

    Dysphagia is a major risk factor for morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients treated in intensive care units (ICUs). Structured otorhinolaryngological data on dysphagia in ICU survivors with severe sepsis are missing. In a prospective study, 30 ICU patients with severe sepsis and thirty without sepsis as control group were examined using bedside fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing after 14 days in the ICU (T1) and 4 months after onset of critical illness (T2). Swallowing dysfunction was assessed using the Penetration-Aspiration Scale (PAS). The Functional Oral Intake Scale was applied to evaluate the diet needed. Primary endpoint was the burden of dysphagia defined as PAS score >5. At T1, 19 of 30 severe sepsis patients showed aspiration with a PAS score >5, compared to 7 of 30 in critically ill patients without severe sepsis (p = 0.002). Severe sepsis and tracheostomy were independent risk factors for severe dysphagia with aspiration (PAS > 5) at T1 (p = 0.042 and 0.006, respectively). 4-month mortality (T2) was 57 % in severe sepsis patients compared to 20 % in patients without severe sepsis (p = 0.006). At T2, more severe sepsis survivors were tracheostomy-dependent and needed more often tube or parenteral feeding (p = 0.014 and p = 0.040, respectively). Multivariate analysis revealed tracheostomy at T1 as independent risk factor for severe dysphagia at T2 (p = 0.030). Severe sepsis appears to be a relevant risk factor for long-term dysphagia. An otorhinolaryngological evaluation of dysphagia at ICU discharge is mandatory for survivors of severe critical illness to plan specific swallowing rehabilitation programs.

  4. Prolactin levels during short- and long-term cross-sex hormone treatment: an observational study in transgender persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nota, N M; Dekker, M J H J; Klaver, M; Wiepjes, C M; van Trotsenburg, M A; Heijboer, A C; den Heijer, M

    2017-08-01

    The cause of prolactin alterations in transgender persons is often assigned to oestrogens, but the precise cause and time course during different phases of cross-sex hormone treatment (CHT) remain unclear. In this study, we prospectively examined prolactin levels in 55 female-to-males (FtMs) and 61 male-to-females (MtFs) during the first year of CHT. Because long-term prolactin data were not available in this population, we studied these levels in a retrospective population of 25 FtMs and 38 MtFs who underwent gonadectomy. FtMs were treated with testosterone and MtFs with estradiol, with or without the anti-androgen cyproterone acetate (CPA) (after gonadectomy CPA is cessated). During the first year of CHT, prolactin decreased with 25% (95CI: -33%, -12%) in FtMs and increased with 193% (95CI: 156%, 219%) in MtFs. Eighteen MtFs developed hyperprolactinemia (≥0.6 IU L -1 ). In the retrospective population, post-gonadectomy levels in FtMs were lower than baseline levels (-39%; 95CI: -51%, -20%) while in MtFs post-gonadectomy levels and baseline levels were comparable (-6%; 95CI: -24%, 15%). No hyperprolactinemia was found after gonadectomy. In conclusion, in FtMs, prolactin decreased consistently during CHT and in MtFs, prolactin increased during pre-surgical CHT but normalised after gonadectomy. It is likely that CPA induces increasing prolactin levels in MtFs. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Marginal Vertical Discrepancies of Monolithic and Veneered Zirconia and Metal-Ceramic Three-Unit Posterior Fixed Dental Prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Suarez, Carlos; Gonzalo, Esther; Pelaez, Jesus; Serrano, Benjamin; Suarez, Maria J

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the marginal fit of posterior fixed dental prostheses (FDPs) made of monolithic and veneered computer-aided design/computer-assisted manufacture (CAD/CAM) zirconia ceramic with metal-ceramic posterior FDPs. Thirty standardized steel dies were prepared to receive posterior three-unit FDPs. Specimens were randomly divided into three groups (n = 10): (1) metal-ceramic (control group), (2) veneered zirconia, and (3) monolithic zirconia. All FDPs were cemented using a glass-ionomer cement. The specimens were subjected to thermal cycling (5°C to 55°C). A scanning electron microscope (SEM) with a magnification of ×500 was used for measurements. The data were statistically analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and paired t test. Both zirconia groups showed similar vertical marginal discrepancies, and no significant differences (P = .661) in marginal adaptation were observed among the groups. No differences were observed in either group in marginal discrepancies between surfaces or abutments. Monolithic zirconia posterior FDPs exhibit similar vertical marginal discrepancies to veneered zirconia posterior FDPs. No influence of localization measurements was observed.

  6. Real-Time Observation of Apathy in Long-Term Care Residents With Dementia: Reliability of the Person-Environment Apathy Rating Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jao, Ying-Ling; Mogle, Jacqueline; Williams, Kristine; McDermott, Caroline; Behrens, Liza

    2018-04-01

    Apathy is prevalent in individuals with dementia. Lack of responsiveness to environmental stimulation is a key characteristic of apathy. The Person-Environment Apathy Rating (PEAR) scale consists of environment and apathy subscales, which allow for examination of environmental impact on apathy. The interrater reliability of the PEAR scale was examined via real-time observation. The current study included 45 observations of 15 long-term care residents with dementia. Each participant was observed at three time points for 10 minutes each. Two raters observed the participant and surrounding environment and independently rated the participant's apathy and environmental stimulation using the PEAR scale. Weighted Kappa was 0.5 to 0.82 for the PEAR-Environment subscale and 0.5 to 0.8 for the PEAR-Apathy subscale. Overall, with the exception of three items with relatively weak reliability (0.50 to 0.56), the PEAR scale showed moderate to strong interrater reliability (0.63 to 0.82). The results support the use of the PEAR scale to measure environmental stimulation and apathy via real-time observation in long-term care residents with dementia. [Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 44(4), 23-28.]. Copyright 2018, SLACK Incorporated.

  7. Subjective-objective sleep discrepancy among older adults: associations with insomnia diagnosis and insomnia treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Daniel B; Buysse, Daniel J; Germain, Anne; Hall, Martica; Monk, Timothy H

    2015-02-01

    Discrepancy between subjective and objective measures of sleep is associated with insomnia and increasing age. Cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia improves sleep quality and decreases subjective-objective sleep discrepancy. This study describes differences between older adults with insomnia and controls in sleep discrepancy, and tests the hypothesis that reduced sleep discrepancy following cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia correlates with the magnitude of symptom improvement reported by older adults with insomnia. Participants were 63 adults >60 years of age with insomnia, and 51 controls. At baseline, participants completed sleep diaries for 7 days while wearing wrist actigraphs. After receiving cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia, insomnia patients repeated this sleep assessment. Sleep discrepancy variables were calculated by subtracting actigraphic sleep onset latency and wake after sleep onset from respective self-reported estimates, pre- and post-treatment. Mean level and night-to-night variability in sleep discrepancy were investigated. Baseline sleep discrepancies were compared between groups. Pre-post-treatment changes in Insomnia Severity Index score and sleep discrepancy variables were investigated within older adults with insomnia. Sleep discrepancy was significantly greater and more variable across nights in older adults with insomnia than controls, P ≤ 0.001 for all. Treatment with cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia was associated with significant reduction in the Insomnia Severity Index score that correlated with changes in mean level and night-to-night variability in wake after sleep onset discrepancy, P insomnia. © 2014 European Sleep Research Society.

  8. Observations and Predictions of Wave Runup, Extreme Water Levels, and Medium-Term Dune Erosion during Storm Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge Suanez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring of dune erosion and accretion on the high-energy macrotidal Vougot beach in North Brittany (France over the past decade (2004–2014 has revealed significant morphological changes. Dune toe erosion/accretion records have been compared with extreme water level measurements, defined as the sum of (i astronomic tide; (ii storm surge; and (iii vertical wave runup. Runup parameterization was conducted using swash limits, beach profiles, and hydrodynamic (Hm0, Tm0,–1, and high tide water level—HTWL data sets obtained from high frequency field surveys. The aim was to quantify in-situ environmental conditions and dimensional swash parameters for the best calibration of Battjes [1] runup formula. In addition, an empirical equation based on observed tidal water level and offshore wave height was produced to estimate extreme water levels over the whole period of dune morphological change monitoring. A good correlation between this empirical equation (1.01Hmoξo and field runup measurements (Rmax was obtained (R2 85%. The goodness of fit given by the RMSE was about 0.29 m. A good relationship was noticed between dune erosion and high water levels when the water levels exceeded the dune foot elevation. In contrast, when extreme water levels were below the height of the toe of the dune sediment budget increased, inducing foredune recovery. These erosion and accretion phases may be related to the North Atlantic Oscillation Index.

  9. Continuous Microfluidics (Ecology-on-a-Chip) Experiments for Long Term Observation of Bacteria at Liquid-Liquid Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Michael; White, Andrew; Jalali, Maryam; Sheng, Jian

    2017-11-01

    A microfluidic bioassay incorporating a peristaltic pump and chemostat capable of continuously culturing a bacterial suspension through a microchannel for an extended period of time relevant to ecological processes is presented. A single crude oil droplet is dispensed on-chip and subsequently pinned to the top and bottom surfaces of the microchannel to establish a vertical curved oil-water interface to observe bacteria without boundary interference. The accumulation of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), microbial film formation, and aggregation is provided by DIC microscopy with an EMCCD camera at an interval of 30 sec. Cell-interface interactions such as cell translational and angular motilities as well as encountering, attachment, detachment to the interface are obtained by a high speed camera at 1000 fps with a sampling interval of 10 min. Experiments on Pseudomonas sp. (P62) and isolated EPS suspensions from Sagitulla Stelleta and Roseobacter show rapid formation of bacterial aggregates including EPS streamers stretching tens of drop diameters long. These results provide crucial insights into environmentally relevant processes such as the initiation of marine oil snow, an alternative mode of biodegradation to conventional bioconsumption. Funded by GoMRI, NSF, ARO.

  10. Atmospheric nutrient inputs to the northern levantine basin from a long-term observation: sources and comparison with riverine inputs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Koçak

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol and rainwater samples have been collected at a rural site located on the coastline of the Eastern Mediterranean, Erdemli, Turkey between January 1999 and December 2007. Riverine sampling was carried out at five Rivers (Ceyhan, Seyhan, Göksu, Berdan and Lamas draining into the Northeastern Levantine Basin (NLB between March 2002 and July 2007. Samples have been analyzed for macronutrients of phosphate, silicate, nitrate and ammonium (PO43−, Sidiss, NO3 and NH4+. Phosphate and silicate in aerosol and rainwater showed higher and larger variations during the transitional period when air flows predominantly originate from North Africa and Middle East/Arabian Peninsula. Deficiency of alkaline material have been found to be the main reason of the acidic rain events whilst high pH values (>7 have been associated with high Sidiss concentrations due to sporadic dust events. In general, lowest nitrate and ammonium concentrations in aerosol and rainwater have been associated with air flow from the Mediterranean Sea. Comparison of atmospheric with riverine fluxes demonstrated that DIN and PO43− fluxes to NLB have been dominated by atmosphere (~90% and ~60% respectively whereas the input of Si was mainly derived from riverine runoff (~90%. N/P ratios in the atmospheric deposition (233; riverine discharge (28 revealed that NLB receives excessive amounts of DIN and this unbalanced P and N inputs may provoke even more phosphorus deficiency. Observed molar Si/N ratio suggested Si limitation relative to nitrogen might cause a switch from diatom dominated communities to non-siliceous populations particularly at coastal NLB.

  11. Atmospheric nutrient inputs to the northern levantine basin from a long-term observation: sources and comparison with riverine inputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koçak, M.; Kubilay, N.; Tuğrul, S.; Mihalopoulos, N.

    2010-12-01

    Aerosol and rainwater samples have been collected at a rural site located on the coastline of the Eastern Mediterranean, Erdemli, Turkey between January 1999 and December 2007. Riverine sampling was carried out at five Rivers (Ceyhan, Seyhan, Göksu, Berdan and Lamas) draining into the Northeastern Levantine Basin (NLB) between March 2002 and July 2007. Samples have been analyzed for macronutrients of phosphate, silicate, nitrate and ammonium (PO43-, Sidiss, NO3- and NH4+). Phosphate and silicate in aerosol and rainwater showed higher and larger variations during the transitional period when air flows predominantly originate from North Africa and Middle East/Arabian Peninsula. Deficiency of alkaline material have been found to be the main reason of the acidic rain events whilst high pH values (>7) have been associated with high Sidiss concentrations due to sporadic dust events. In general, lowest nitrate and ammonium concentrations in aerosol and rainwater have been associated with air flow from the Mediterranean Sea. Comparison of atmospheric with riverine fluxes demonstrated that DIN and PO43- fluxes to NLB have been dominated by atmosphere (~90% and ~60% respectively) whereas the input of Si was mainly derived from riverine runoff (~90%). N/P ratios in the atmospheric deposition (233); riverine discharge (28) revealed that NLB receives excessive amounts of DIN and this unbalanced P and N inputs may provoke even more phosphorus deficiency. Observed molar Si/N ratio suggested Si limitation relative to nitrogen might cause a switch from diatom dominated communities to non-siliceous populations particularly at coastal NLB.

  12. Long-Term Observations of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Export in Paired-Agricultural Watersheds under Controlled and Conventional Tile Drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunohara, M D; Gottschall, N; Wilkes, G; Craiovan, E; Topp, E; Que, Z; Seidou, O; Frey, S K; Lapen, D R

    2015-09-01

    Controlled tile drainage (CTD) regulates water and nutrient export from tile drainage systems. Observations of the effects of CTD imposed en masse at watershed scales are needed to determine the effect on downstream receptors. A paired-watershed approach was used to evaluate the effect of field-to-field CTD at the watershed scale on fluxes and flow-weighted mean concentrations (FWMCs) of N and P during multiple growing seasons. One watershed (467-ha catchment area) was under CTD management (treatment [CTD] watershed); the other (250-ha catchment area) had freely draining or uncontrolled tile drainage (UCTD) (reference [UCTD] watershed). The paired agricultural watersheds are located in eastern Ontario, Canada. Analysis of covariance and paired tests were used to assess daily fluxes and FWMCs during a calibration period when CTD intervention on the treatment watershed was minimal (2005-2006, when only 4-10% of the tile-drained area was under CTD) and a treatment period when the treatment (CTD) watershed had prolific CTD intervention (2007-2011 when 82% of tile drained fields were controlled, occupying >70% of catchment area). Significant linear regression slope changes assessed using ANCOVA ( ≤ 0.1) for daily fluxes from upstream and downstream monitoring sites pooled by calibration and treatment period were -0.06 and -0.20 (stream water) (negative values represent flux declines in CTD watershed), -0.59 and -0.77 (NH-N), -0.14 and -0.15 (NO-N), -1.77 and -2.10 (dissolved reactive P), and -0.28 and 0.45 (total P). Total P results for one site comparison contrasted with other findings likely due to unknown in-stream processes affecting total P loading, not efficacy of CTD. The FWMC results were mixed and inconclusive but suggest physical abatement by CTD is the means by which nutrient fluxes are predominantly reduced at these scales. Overall, our study results indicate that CTD is an effective practice for reducing watershed scale fluxes of stream water, N, and P

  13. Factors associated with dropout in a long term observational cohort of fishing communities around lake Victoria, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abaasa, Andrew; Asiki, Gershim; Mpendo, Juliet; Levin, Jonathan; Seeley, Janet; Nielsen, Leslie; Ssetaala, Ali; Nanvubya, Annet; De Bont, Jan; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Kamali, Anatoli

    2015-12-24

    Fishing communities are potentially suitable for Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) efficacy trials due to their high risk profile. However, high mobility and attrition could decrease statistical power to detect the impact of a given intervention. We report dropout and associated factors in a fisher-folk observational cohort in Uganda. Human immunodeficiency virus-uninfected high-risk volunteers aged 13-49 years living in five fishing communities around Lake Victoria were enrolled and followed every 6 months for 18 months at clinics located within each community. Volunteers from two of the five communities had their follow-up periods extended to 30 months and were invited to attend clinics 10-40 km (km) away from their communities. Human immunodeficiency virus counseling and testing was provided, and data on sexual behaviour collected at all study visits. Study completion was defined as completion of 18 or 30 months or visits up to the date of sero-conversion and dropout as missing one or more visits. Discrete time survival models were fitted to find factors independently associated with dropout. A total of 1000 volunteers (55% men) were enrolled. Of these, 91.9% completed 6 months, 85.2% completed 12 months and 76.0% completed 18 months of follow-up. In the two communities with additional follow-up, 76.9% completed 30 months. In total 299 (29.9%) volunteers missed at least one visit (dropped out). Dropout was independently associated with age (volunteers aged 13-24 being most likely to dropout), gender [men being more likely to dropout than women [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 1.4; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1-1.8)], time spent in the fishing community (those who stayed dropout), History of marijuana use (users being more likely to dropout than non-users [1.7; (1.2-2.5)], ethnicity (non-Baganda being more likely to dropout than Baganda [1.5; (1.2-1.9)], dropout varied between the five fishing communities, having a new sexual partner in the previous 3 months [1

  14. Accuracy of digital American Board of Orthodontics Discrepancy Index measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragstrem, Kristina; Galang-Boquiren, Maria Therese S; Obrez, Ales; Costa Viana, Maria Grace; Grubb, John E; Kusnoto, Budi

    2015-07-01

    A digital analysis that is shown to be accurate will ease the demonstration of initial case complexity. To date, no literature exists on the accuracy of the digital American Board of Orthodontics Discrepancy Index (DI) calculations when applied to pretreatment digital models. Plaster models were obtained from 45 previous patients with varying degrees of malocclusion. Total DI scores and the target disorders were computed manually with a periodontal probe on the original plaster casts (gold standard) and digitally using Ortho Insight 3D (Motion View Software, Hixson, Tenn) and OrthoCAD (Cadent, Carlstadt, NJ). Intrarater and interrater reliabilities were assessed for 15 subjects using the Spearman rho correlation test. Accuracies of the DI scores and target disorders were assessed for all 45 subjects using Wilcoxon signed ranks tests. Intrarater and interrater reliabilities were high for total DI scores and most target disorders (r > 0.8). No significant difference was found between total DI score when measured with OrthoCAD compared with manual calculations. The total DI scores calculated by Ortho Insight 3D were found to be significantly greater than those by manual calculation by 2.71 points. The findings indicate that a DI calculated by Ortho Insight 3D may lead the clinician to overestimate case complexity. OrthoCAD's DI module was demonstrated to be a clinically acceptable alternative to manual calculation of the total scores. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A statistical investigation of the mass discrepancy-acceleration relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmond, Harry

    2017-02-01

    We use the mass discrepancy-acceleration relation (the correlation between the ratio of total-to-visible mass and acceleration in galaxies; MDAR) to test the galaxy-halo connection. We analyse the MDAR using a set of 16 statistics that quantify its four most important features: shape, scatter, the presence of a `characteristic acceleration scale', and the correlation of its residuals with other galaxy properties. We construct an empirical framework for the galaxy-halo connection in LCDM to generate predictions for these statistics, starting with conventional correlations (halo abundance matching; AM) and introducing more where required. Comparing to the SPARC data, we find that: (1) the approximate shape of the MDAR is readily reproduced by AM, and there is no evidence that the acceleration at which dark matter becomes negligible has less spread in the data than in AM mocks; (2) even under conservative assumptions, AM significantly overpredicts the scatter in the relation and its normalization at low acceleration, and furthermore positions dark matter too close to galaxies' centres on average; (3) the MDAR affords 2σ evidence for an anticorrelation of galaxy size and Hubble type with halo mass or concentration at fixed stellar mass. Our analysis lays the groundwork for a bottom-up determination of the galaxy-halo connection from relations such as the MDAR, provides concrete statistical tests for specific galaxy formation models, and brings into sharper focus the relative evidence accorded by galaxy kinematics to LCDM and modified gravity alternatives.

  16. Quantifying discrepancies in opinion spectra from online and offline networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Deokjae; Hahn, Kyu S; Yook, Soon-Hyung; Park, Juyong

    2015-01-01

    Online social media such as Twitter are widely used for mining public opinions and sentiments on various issues and topics. The sheer volume of the data generated and the eager adoption by the online-savvy public are helping to raise the profile of online media as a convenient source of news and public opinions on social and political issues as well. Due to the uncontrollable biases in the population who heavily use the media, however, it is often difficult to measure how accurately the online sphere reflects the offline world at large, undermining the usefulness of online media. One way of identifying and overcoming the online-offline discrepancies is to apply a common analytical and modeling framework to comparable data sets from online and offline sources and cross-analyzing the patterns found therein. In this paper we study the political spectra constructed from Twitter and from legislators' voting records as an example to demonstrate the potential limits of online media as the source for accurate public opinion mining, and how to overcome the limits by using offline data simultaneously.

  17. Discrepancies between judgment and choice of action in moral dilemmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien eTassy

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Everyone has experienced the potential discrepancy between what one judges as morally acceptable and what one actually does when a choice between alternative behaviors is to be made. The present study explores empirically whether judgment and choice of action differ when people make decisions on dilemmas involving moral issues. 240 participants evaluated 24 moral and non-moral dilemmas either by judging (Is it acceptable to… or reporting the choice of action they would make (Would you do…. We also investigated the influence of varying the number of people benefiting from the decision and the closeness of relationship of the decision maker with the potential victim on these two types of decision. Variations in the number of beneficiaries from the decision did not influence judgment nor choice of action. By contrast, closeness of relationship with the victim had a greater influence on the choice of action than on judgment. This differentiation between evaluative judgments and choices of action argues in favor of each of them being supported by (at least partially different psychological processes.

  18. TLD DRD dose discrepancy: role of beta radiation fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munish Kumar; Pradhan, S.M.; Bihari, R.R.; Bakshi, A.K.; Chougaonkar, M.P.; Babu, D.A.R.; Gupta, Anil

    2014-01-01

    Ionization chamber based direct reading/pocket dosimeters (DRDs), are used along with the legal dosimeters (thermoluminescent dosimeters-TLDs) for day to day monitoring and control of radiation doses received by radiation workers. The DRDs are routinely used along with the passive dosimeters (TLDs) in nuclear industry at different radiation installations where radiation levels could vary significantly and the possibility of receiving doses beyond investigation levels by radiation workers is not ruled out. Recently, recommendations for dealing with discrepancies between personal dosimeter systems used in parallel were issued by ISO. The present study was performed to measure the response of ionization chamber based pocket dosimeters to various beta sources having energy (E max ) ranging from 0.224 MeV-3.54 MeV. It is expected that the above study will be useful in resolving the disparity between TLD and DRD doses at those radiation installations where radiation workers are likely to be exposed simultaneously from photons and beta particles

  19. Quantifying discrepancies in opinion spectra from online and offline networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deokjae Lee

    Full Text Available Online social media such as Twitter are widely used for mining public opinions and sentiments on various issues and topics. The sheer volume of the data generated and the eager adoption by the online-savvy public are helping to raise the profile of online media as a convenient source of news and public opinions on social and political issues as well. Due to the uncontrollable biases in the population who heavily use the media, however, it is often difficult to measure how accurately the online sphere reflects the offline world at large, undermining the usefulness of online media. One way of identifying and overcoming the online-offline discrepancies is to apply a common analytical and modeling framework to comparable data sets from online and offline sources and cross-analyzing the patterns found therein. In this paper we study the political spectra constructed from Twitter and from legislators' voting records as an example to demonstrate the potential limits of online media as the source for accurate public opinion mining, and how to overcome the limits by using offline data simultaneously.

  20. Relationship between self-discrepancy and worries about penis size in men with body dysmorphic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veale, David; Miles, Sarah; Read, Julie; Bramley, Sally; Troglia, Andrea; Carmona, Lina; Fiorito, Chiara; Wells, Hannah; Wylie, Kevan; Muir, Gordon

    2016-06-01

    We explored self-discrepancy in men with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) concerned about penis size, men without BDD but anxious about penis size, and controls. Men with BDD (n=26) were compared to those with small penis anxiety (SPA; n=31) and controls (n=33), objectively (by measuring) and investigating self-discrepancy: actual size, ideal size, and size they felt they should be according to self and other. Most men under-estimated their penis size, with the BDD group showing the greatest discrepancy between perceived and ideal size. The SPA group showed a larger discrepancy than controls. This was replicated for the perceptions of others, suggesting the BDD group internalised the belief that they should have a larger penis size. There was a significant correlation between symptoms of BDD and this discrepancy. This self-actual and self-ideal/self-should discrepancy and the role of comparing could be targeted in therapy. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. One explanatory basis for the discrepancy of reported prevalences of sleep paralysis among healthy respondents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, K

    1993-12-01

    In a previous study, the author and coworkers found 39.8% of healthy young adults had experienced sleep paralysis. Some other studies reported prevalence as about the same or higher (i.e., 40.7% to 62.0%) than that previous estimate, while yet other studies, including Goode's work cited by ASDC and ASDA classifications, suggested much lower prevalences (i.e., 4.7% to 26.2%). The author tested the hypothesis that this discrepancy among the reported prevalences is partly due to the expression used in each questionnaire. University students who answered the questionnaire using the term 'transient paralysis' reported the lower prevalence (26.4%), while the second group of respondents who answered the questionnaire using the term kanashibari, the Japanese folklore expression for sleep paralysis, gave the higher prevalence (39.3%). The third group who answered the questionnaire with the term 'condition,' probably a rather neutral expression, marked the middle (31.0%) of these.

  2. Partial splenic embolization combined with vincristine infusion for the treatment of refractory idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura and Evans syndrome: observation of its long-term efficacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Shibing

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To observe the long-term efficacy of partial spleen embolization combined with vincristine infusion in treating refractory idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) and Evans syndrome. Methods: During the period of 2000-2007, partial spleen embolization together with vincristine infusion was carried out in 30 patients with refractory idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (n=24) or Evans syndrome (n=6). Vincristine infusion (2 mg) via splenic artery was performed before partial spleen embolization procedure. The long-term effectiveness was observed and analyzed. Results: One week after the treatment, the platelet count was increased from preoperative (10.23±8.28) × 10 9 /L to (140.28±85.45) × 10 9 /L in patients with ITP, while the platelet count was increased from preoperative (12±8) × 10 9 /L to (210±60) × 10 9 /L in patients with Evans syndrome. Meanwhile, the hemoglobin level showed an increase in different degrees, from preoperative (63.00±13.62) g/L to postoperative (123.00±13.14) g/L. The therapeutic effectiveness was 100%. During the follow-up time lasting for 3-5 years, recurrence was seen in 11 patients (36.7%) and the overall efficacy rate was 63.3%. Conclusion: For the treatment of refractory idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura and Evans syndrome, partial spleen embolization combined with vincristine infusion carries reliable long-term efficacy. (author)

  3. Self-Discrepancy and Eating Disorder Symptoms Across Eating Disorder Diagnostic Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Tyler B; Lavender, Jason M; Wonderlich, Stephen A; Crosby, Ross D; Engel, Scott G; Strauman, Timothy J; Mitchell, James E; Crow, Scott J; Le Grange, Daniel; Klein, Marjorie H; Smith, Tracey L; Peterson, Carol B

    2016-11-01

    This study examined self-discrepancy, a construct of theoretical relevance to eating disorder (ED) psychopathology, across different types of EDs. Individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN; n = 112), bulimia nervosa (BN; n = 72), and binge eating disorder (BED; n = 199) completed semi-structured interviews assessing specific types of self-discrepancies. Results revealed that actual:ideal (A:I) discrepancy was positively associated with AN, actual:ought (A:O) discrepancy was positively associated with BN and BED, and self-discrepancies did not differentiate BN from BED. Across diagnoses, A:O discrepancy was positively associated with severity of purging, binge eating, and global ED psychopathology. Further, there were significant interactions between diagnosis and A:O discrepancy for global ED psychopathology and between diagnosis and A:I discrepancy for binge eating and driven exercise. These results support the importance of self-discrepancy as a potential causal and maintenance variable in EDs that differentiates among different types of EDs and symptom severity. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  4. Discrepancies between descriptions and illustrations of colours in Congo red-stained amyloid, and explanation of discrepant colours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howie, Alexander J; Owen-Casey, Mared P

    2010-09-01

    Congo red-stained sections of amyloid may show various colours between crossed polariser and analyser. The aims were to see how papers described the colours, to compare descriptions with illustrations, and to explain the colours. In 160 papers on Congo red-stained amyloid, the commonest descriptions were 'green birefringence' and 'apple-green birefringence'. In 191 figures in 82 papers, 59 (31%) showed a pure green colour, 62 (32%) showed green and yellow or blue and yellow, 38 (20%) showed green and a colour other than yellow, mostly red, and 32 (17%) showed other colours. Discrepancies between colours reported and illustrated were noted in 127 figures (66%). Most (77) were between green alone in descriptions and green and another colour in figures, and 30 were between green in descriptions and no green at all in figures. Pure green can be seen in ideal conditions, but more often there are green and yellow, explained by strain birefringence, and green and red or other combinations, explained by uncrossing of polariser and analyser. These other anomalous colours are just as characteristic of amyloid as the pure green colour. Many papers on Congo red-stained amyloid appear to describe what is expected theoretically rather than what is actually seen.

  5. Discrepancies Between Perceptions of the Parent-Adolescent Relationship and Early Adolescent Depressive Symptoms: An Illustration of Polynomial Regression Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelemans, S A; Branje, S J T; Hale, W W; Goossens, L; Koot, H M; Oldehinkel, A J; Meeus, W H J

    2016-10-01

    Adolescence is a critical period for the development of depressive symptoms. Lower quality of the parent-adolescent relationship has been consistently associated with higher adolescent depressive symptoms, but discrepancies in perceptions of parents and adolescents regarding the quality of their relationship may be particularly important to consider. In the present study, we therefore examined how discrepancies in parents' and adolescents' perceptions of the parent-adolescent relationship were associated with early adolescent depressive symptoms, both concurrently and longitudinally over a 1-year period. Our sample consisted of 497 Dutch adolescents (57 % boys, M age = 13.03 years), residing in the western and central regions of the Netherlands, and their mothers and fathers, who all completed several questionnaires on two occasions with a 1-year interval. Adolescents reported on depressive symptoms and all informants reported on levels of negative interaction in the parent-adolescent relationship. Results from polynomial regression analyses including interaction terms between informants' perceptions, which have recently been proposed as more valid tests of hypotheses involving informant discrepancies than difference scores, suggested the highest adolescent depressive symptoms when both the mother and the adolescent reported high negative interaction, and when the adolescent reported high but the father reported low negative interaction. This pattern of findings underscores the need for a more sophisticated methodology such as polynomial regression analysis including tests of moderation, rather than the use of difference scores, which can adequately address both congruence and discrepancies in perceptions of adolescents and mothers/fathers of the parent-adolescent relationship in detail. Such an analysis can contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of risk factors for early adolescent depressive symptoms.

  6. Knowledge vs. Action: Discrepancies in University Students' Knowledge about and Self-Reported Use of Self-Regulated Learning Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora M. Foerst

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available University students are supposed to be autonomous learners, able to adapt to an educational environment significantly less guided than school. Entering higher education poses a challenge of self-regulation, in which beginning students are often not prepared with self-regulation strategies needed. Since there are many studies assessing self-regulated learning (SRL via classical self-reports, we know a lot about how students generally self-assess their SRL strategies. However, SRL and performance do not always correlate highly in these studies. The aim of the present study is to determine whether there are discrepancies between students' knowledge about SRL and their action in applying adequate SRL strategies in relevant learning situations. We also want to know whether such discrepancies generalize across domains and what the reasons for discrepancies are. The situation-specific Self-Regulated Learning Questionnaire for Action and Knowledge (SRL-QuAK was used in a sample of 408 psychology and economic sciences students. Descriptive data analysis was conducted to determine potential discrepancies between SRL knowledge and action and differences between the study domains in an explorative way. The reasons for not using SRL-strategies were derived via qualitative content analysis. The results showed that although students had quite advanced knowledge of SRL strategies, they did not put this knowledge into action. This dissonance between SRL knowledge and action was found in both domains. In terms of reasons, students stated that they (a lacked the time to use SRL strategies, (b would not benefit from SRL strategies in the given situation, (c would not be able to put the strategies to use effectively or (d found it too arduous to use SRL strategies. The implications of these results will be discussed, e.g., the consequences for measures to overcome students' dissonance between knowledge and action and therefore to promote academic performance and

  7. Knowledge vs. Action: Discrepancies in University Students' Knowledge about and Self-Reported Use of Self-Regulated Learning Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foerst, Nora M; Klug, Julia; Jöstl, Gregor; Spiel, Christiane; Schober, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    University students are supposed to be autonomous learners, able to adapt to an educational environment significantly less guided than school. Entering higher education poses a challenge of self-regulation, in which beginning students are often not prepared with self-regulation strategies needed. Since there are many studies assessing self-regulated learning (SRL) via classical self-reports, we know a lot about how students generally self-assess their SRL strategies. However, SRL and performance do not always correlate highly in these studies. The aim of the present study is to determine whether there are discrepancies between students' knowledge about SRL and their action in applying adequate SRL strategies in relevant learning situations. We also want to know whether such discrepancies generalize across domains and what the reasons for discrepancies are. The situation-specific Self-Regulated Learning Questionnaire for Action and Knowledge (SRL-QuAK) was used in a sample of 408 psychology and economic sciences students. Descriptive data analysis was conducted to determine potential discrepancies between SRL knowledge and action and differences between the study domains in an explorative way. The reasons for not using SRL-strategies were derived via qualitative content analysis. The results showed that although students had quite advanced knowledge of SRL strategies, they did not put this knowledge into action. This dissonance between SRL knowledge and action was found in both domains. In terms of reasons, students stated that they (a) lacked the time to use SRL strategies, (b) would not benefit from SRL strategies in the given situation, (c) would not be able to put the strategies to use effectively or (d) found it too arduous to use SRL strategies. The implications of these results will be discussed, e.g., the consequences for measures to overcome students' dissonance between knowledge and action and therefore to promote academic performance and well-being.

  8. Two-Player Partnered Exergame for Obesity Prevention: Using Discrepancy in Players’ Abilities as a Strategy to Motivate Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feltz, Deborah L.; Irwin, Brandon; Kerr, Norbert

    2012-01-01

    Background Physical inactivity is associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes. A key obstacle to physical activity is lack of motivation. Although some interactive exercise games (i.e., exergames—video games that require physical exertion in order to play) motivate players to exercise more, few games take advantage of group dynamics to motivate players’ duration of exercise. In a test of the Köhler motivation gain effect, this study varied the ability level of a virtually presented partner in an interactive exergame that focused on abdominal strength to identify effects on a subject’s (S’) persistence with the task. Method Male (n = 63) and female (n = 72) undergraduate students were randomly assigned to one of four conditions (individual control or low-, moderate-, or high- partner discrepancy) in a conditions × gender factorial design and tested on a series of isometric abdominal exercises using PlayStation 2 EyeToy: Kinetic software. They performed the first series of five exercises alone (trial block 1), and after a rest period, those in the partner conditions performed remaining trials (trial block 2) with a same-sex virtually presented partner whom they could observe during their performance, while those in the individual control condition performed the remaining trials alone. In the partner conditions, the partner’s performance was manipulated to be always better than the S’s, the exact difference depending on the discrepancy condition. The partnered tasks were conjunctive; that is, success in the game depended on the performance of the weaker team member. Persistence, the outcome measure for this study, consisted of the total number of seconds the S held the exercise position. Results Using planned orthogonal contrasts on difference scores between blocks 1 and 2, results showed that persistence was significantly (p < .001) greater in all experimental conditions with a virtually presented partner (M = 33.59 s) than in the individual control

  9. Two-player partnered exergame for obesity prevention: using discrepancy in players' abilities as a strategy to motivate physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feltz, Deborah L; Irwin, Brandon; Kerr, Norbert

    2012-07-01

    Physical inactivity is associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes. A key obstacle to physical activity is lack of motivation. Although some interactive exercise games (i.e., exergames--video games that require physical exertion in order to play) motivate players to exercise more, few games take advantage of group dynamics to motivate players' duration of exercise. In a test of the Köhler motivation gain effect, this study varied the ability level of a virtually presented partner in an interactive exergame that focused on abdominal strength to identify effects on a subject's (S') persistence with the task. Male (n = 63) and female (n = 72) undergraduate students were randomly assigned to one of four conditions (individual control or low-, moderate-, or high- partner discrepancy) in a conditions × gender factorial design and tested on a series of isometric abdominal exercises using PlayStation 2 EyeToy: Kinetic software. They performed the first series of five exercises alone (trial block 1), and after a rest period, those in the partner conditions performed remaining trials (trial block 2) with a same-sex virtually presented partner whom they could observe during their performance, while those in the individual control condition performed the remaining trials alone. In the partner conditions, the partner's performance was manipulated to be always better than the S's, the exact difference depending on the discrepancy condition. The partnered tasks were conjunctive; that is, success in the game depended on the performance of the weaker team member. Persistence, the outcome measure for this study, consisted of the total number of seconds the S held the exercise position. Using planned orthogonal contrasts on difference scores between blocks 1 and 2, results showed that persistence was significantly (p < .001) greater in all experimental conditions with a virtually presented partner (M = 33.59 s) than in the individual control condition (M = -49.04 s). Subjects

  10. Discrepancies between Patients' Preferences and Educational Programs on Oral Anticoagulant Therapy: A Survey in Community Pharmacies and Hospital Consultations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Macquart de Terline

    Full Text Available Oral anticoagulation therapy is increasingly used for the prevention and treatment of thromboembolic complications in various clinical situations. Nowadays, education programs for patients treated with anticoagulants constitute an integrated component of their management. However, such programs are usually based on the healthcare providers' perceptions of what patients should know, rather than on patients' preferences.To investigate patients' viewpoints on educational needs and preferred modalities of information delivery.We conducted an observational study based on a self-administered questionnaire. To explore several profiles of patients, the study was designed for enrolling patients in two settings: during outpatient consultations in a cardiology department (Saint Antoine Hospital, Paris, France and in community pharmacies throughout France.Of the 371 patients who completed the questionnaire, 187 (50.4% were recruited during an outpatient consultation and 184 (49.6% were recruited in community pharmacies. 84.1% of patients were receiving a vitamin K antagonist and 15.6% a direct oral anticoagulant. Patients ranked 16 of 21 (76.2% questionnaire items on information about their treatment as important or essential; information on adverse effects of treatment was the highest ranked domain (mean score 2.38, 95% CI 2.30-2.46. Pharmacists (1.69, 1.58-1.80, nurses (1.05, 0.95-1.16, and patient associations (0.36, 0.29-0.44, along with group sessions (0.85, 0.75-0.95, the internet (0.77, 0.67-0.88, and delivery of material at the patient's home (1.26, 1.14-1.38, were ranked poorly in terms of delivering educational material.This study revealed substantial discrepancies between patient preferences and current educational programs. These findings should be useful for tailoring future educational programs that are better adapted to patients, with a potential associated enhancement of their effectiveness.

  11. Large-Eddy Simulation of Shallow Cumulus over Land: A Composite Case Based on ARM Long-Term Observations at Its Southern Great Plains Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yunyan [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California; Klein, Stephen A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California; Fan, Jiwen [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington; Chandra, Arunchandra S. [Division of Meteorology and Physical Oceanography, University of Miami, Miami, Florida; Kollias, Pavlos [School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, Stony Brook University, State University of New York, Stony Brook, New York; Xie, Shaocheng [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California; Tang, Shuaiqi [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California

    2017-10-01

    Based on long-term observations by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program at its Southern Great Plains site, a new composite case of continental shallow cumulus (ShCu) convection is constructed for large-eddy simulations (LES) and single-column models. The case represents a typical daytime nonprecipitating ShCu whose formation and dissipation are driven by the local atmospheric conditions and land surface forcing and are not influenced by synoptic weather events. The case includes early morning initial profiles of temperature and moisture with a residual layer; diurnally varying sensible and latent heat fluxes, which represent a domain average over different land surface types; simplified large-scale horizontal advective tendencies and subsidence; and horizontal winds with prevailing direction and average speed. Observed composite cloud statistics are provided for model evaluation. The observed diurnal cycle is well reproduced by LES; however, the cloud amount, liquid water path, and shortwave radiative effect are generally underestimated. LES are compared between simulations with an all-or-nothing bulk microphysics and a spectral bin microphysics. The latter shows improved agreement with observations in the total cloud cover and the amount of clouds with depths greater than 300 m. When compared with radar retrievals of in-cloud air motion, LES produce comparable downdraft vertical velocities, but a larger updraft area, velocity, and updraft mass flux. Both observations and LES show a significantly larger in-cloud downdraft fraction and downdraft mass flux than marine ShCu.

  12. When Things Don’t Look Right: What Appear to be Proper Motion Discrepancies in the WDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harshaw, Richard

    2017-10-01

    Proper motion data for double stars are included for most of the records in the Washington Double Star Catalog (WDS). In many cases, the proper motion data agree well with the observed changes in the system over time. But in other cases, the proper motion data do not align well with the observations. It is therefore incumbent on the double star researcher to treat any research based on proper motions with caution to be sure that wrong conclusions are not drawn. Possible reasons for such discrepancies are explored.

  13. Masculine discrepancy stress, substance use, assault and injury in a survey of US men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidy, Dennis E; Berke, Danielle S; Gentile, Brittany; Zeichner, Amos

    2016-10-01

    To understand and ultimately prevent injury and behavioural health outcomes associated with masculinity, we assessed the influence of masculine discrepancy stress (stress that occurs when men perceive themselves as falling short of the traditional gender norms) on the propensity to engage in stereotypically masculine behaviours (eg, substance use, risk taking and violence) as a means of demonstrating masculinity. Six-hundred men from the USA were recruited via Amazon's Mechanical Turk (MTurk) online data collection site to complete surveys assessing self-perceptions of gender role discrepancy and consequent discrepancy stress, substance use/abuse, driving while intoxicated (DWI) and violent assaults. Negative binomial regression analyses indicated significant interactive effects wherein men high on gender role discrepancy and attendant discrepancy stress reported significantly more assaults with a weapon (B=1.01; SE=0.63; IRR=2.74; p=0.05) and assaults causing injury (B=1.01; SE=0.51; IRR=2.74; p<0.05). There was no association of discrepancy stress to substance abuse, but there was a protective effect of gender role discrepancy for DWI among men low on discrepancy stress (B=-1.19, SE=0.48; IRR=0.30; p=0.01). These findings suggest that gender role discrepancy and associated discrepancy stress, in particular, represent important injury risk factors and that prevention of discrepancy stress may prevent acts of violence with the greatest consequences and costs to the victim, offender and society. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  14. Status of NASA Satellite, Field Observations, and Numerical Modeling Addressing the Impact of Urbanization on Short and Long Term Precipitation Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, J. Marshall; Manyin, Michael; Burian, Steve; Garza, Carlos

    2004-01-01

    Howard (1833a) made the first documented observation of a temperature difference between an urban area and its rural environment. Manley (1958) termed this contrast the "urban heat island (UHI)". The UHI has now become a widely acknowledged, observed, and researched phenomenon because of its broad implications. It is estimated that by the year 2025, 60% of the world's population will live in cities (UNFP, 1999). In the United States, the current urban growth rate is approximately 12.5%, with 80% currently living in urban areas. As cities continue to grow, urban sprawl creates unique problems related to land use, transportation, agriculture, housing, pollution, and development for policymakers. Urban expansion and its associated urban heat islands also have measurable impacts on weather and climate processes.

  15. Discrepâncias na imagem corporal e na dieta de obesos Self-discrepancy in body image and diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Kanno

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Este estudo avaliou a discrepância entre a imagem real e a imagem ideal de indivíduos obesos e procurou relacionar possíveis alterações no comportamento alimentar na busca desse corpo ideal. MÉTODOS: A amostra foi composta por 25 sujeitos, sendo 76% do sexo feminino e idade média de 39,24 (desviopadrão=5,01 anos. Dois instrumentos foram utilizados: a Escala de Aparência Física, cuja análise fatorial extraiu um único fator "Aparência Física" com precisão de α=0,74 para mulheres e α=0,73 para homens e o Questionário de Prioridade Alimentar elaborado para agrupar itens nas categorias que compõem a Pirâmide Alimentar. Foram realizados testes t pareados para comparar diferenças entre as imagens real e ideal e para comparar os comportamentos alimentares real e ideal. RESULTADOS: Os resultados apresentaram diferenças entre as imagens ideal e real, sendo a primeira representada de forma mais positiva que a última. Com relação ao comportamento alimentar, os resultados demonstraram diminuição no consumo de carnes e café preto e aumento no consumo de frutas e vegetais para atingir o corpo ideal. Porém, a amostra não mudaria os seus hábitos em relação ao consumo de cereais, laticínios, óleos e gorduras, doces e refrigerantes. CONCLUSÃO: Embora os resultados apresentem diferenças na percepção da imagem corporal, a amostra não mudaria os seus hábitos em relação às categorias do topo da pirâmide alimentar.OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the discrepancy between actual and ideal body images of obese individuals and listed changes in the dietary behaviors used to achieve this ideal body image. METHODS: The sample was composed of 25 obese individuals with a mean age of 39.24 years (standard deviation=5.01 where 76% were females. Two instruments were used for this end: the Physical Appearance Scale whose factorial analysis extracted a single factor "Physical Appearance" with an accuracy of α=0.74 for women and

  16. Apsidal motion of the eccentric eclipsing binary DI Herculis: An apparent discrepancy with general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guinan, E.F.; Maloney, F.P.

    1985-01-01

    In 1959, Rudkjobing called attention to the 8th magnitude, eccentric eclipsing binary DI Herculis as an important test case for studying relativistic apsidal motion, since the theoretical relativistic apsidal motion is greater than that expected from the classical effects (i.e., from the tidal and rotational deformation of the stellar components). Excellent determinations of the orbital and stellar parameters of the system have been made by Popper (1982) from the combined analysis of the system's radial-velocity data and UBV light curves of Martynov and Khaliullin (1980), which permit the theoretical relativistic and classical components of the apsidal motion to be determined with reasonable certainty: omega-dot/sup theor//sub GR/ = 2X34/100 yr and omega-dot/sup theor//sub CL/ = 1X93/100 yr. Least-squares solutions of the timings of primary and secondary minima, extending over an 84-yr interval, and including eclipse timings obtained as recently as 1984, yield a small advance of periastron omega-dot/sup obs/ = 0X65/100 yr +- 0X18/100 yr. The observed advance of the periastron is about one-seventh the theoretical value of omega-dot/sup theor//sub GR+CL/ = 4X27/100 yr that is expected from the combined relativistic and classical effects, and results in a discrepancy of -3X62/100 yr, a value which has a magnitude of approx.20 sigma. Classical mechanisms that can possibly explain this apparent discrepancy are discussed, along with the possibility that there may be problems with general relativity

  17. Microdose acquisition in adolescent leg length discrepancy using a low-dose biplane imaging system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Janni; Mussmann, Bo R; Hjarbæk, John; Al-Aubaidi, Zaid; Pedersen, Niels W; Gerke, Oke; Torfing, Trine

    2017-09-01

    Background Children with leg length discrepancy often undergo repeat imaging. Therefore, every effort to reduce radiation dose is important. Using low dose preview images and noise reduction software rather than diagnostic images for length measurements might contribute to reducing dose. Purpose To compare leg length measurements performed on diagnostic images and low dose preview images both acquired using a low-dose bi-planar imaging system. Material and Methods Preview and diagnostic images from 22 patients were retrospectively collected (14 girls, 8 boys; mean age, 12.8 years; age range, 10-15 years). All images were anonymized and measured independently by two musculoskeletal radiologists. Three sets of measurements were performed on all images; the mechanical axis lines of the femur and the tibia as well as the anatomical line of the entire extremity. Statistical significance was tested with a paired t-test. Results No statistically significant difference was found between measurements performed on the preview and on the diagnostic image. The mean tibial length difference between the observers was -0.06 cm (95% confidence interval [CI], -0.12 to 0.01) and -0.08 cm (95% CI, -0.21 to 0.05), respectively; 0.10 cm (95% CI, 0.02-0.17) and 0.06 cm (95% CI, -0.02 to 0.14) for the femoral measurements and 0.12 cm (95% CI, -0.05 to 0.26) and 0.08 cm (95% CI, -0.02 to 0.19) for total leg length discrepancy. ICCs were >0.99 indicating excellent inter- and intra-rater reliability. Conclusion The data strongly imply that leg length measurements performed on preview images from a low-dose bi-planar imaging system are comparable to measurements performed on diagnostic images.

  18. A shift to glycolysis accompanies the inflammatory changes in PBMCs from individuals with an IQ-discrepant memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Hannah; Hannigan, Caoimhe; O'Sullivan, Michael; Carroll, Liam Barry; Brennan, Sabina; Lawlor, Brian; Robertson, Ian H; Lynch, Marina

    2018-04-15

    Identification of a blood-based biomarker that can detect early cognitive decline presents a significant healthcare challenge. We prepared peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from individuals who had a poorer than predicted performance in their delayed recall performance on the Logical Memory II Subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS) relative to their IQ estimated by the National Adult Reading Test (NART); we described these individuals as IQ-discrepant, compared with IQ-consistent, individuals. Stimulation with Aβ + LPS increased production of TNFα to a greater extent in cells from IQ-discrepant, compared with IQ-consistent, individuals. This was associated with a shift towards glycolysis and the evidence indicates that 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-biphosphatase (PFKFB)3 plays a role in driving glycolysis. A similar shift towards glycolysis was observed in MDMs prepared from IQ-discrepant, compared with IQ-consistent, individuals. The important finding here is that we have established an increased sensitivity to Aβ + LPS stimulation in PBMCs from individuals that under-perform on a memory task, relative to their estimated premorbid IQ, which may be an indicator of early cognitive decline. This may be a useful tool in determining the presence of early cognitive dysfunction. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The Porter-Whitesides Discrepancy: Revisiting Odd-Even Effects in Wetting Properties of n-Alkanethiolate SAMs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengjia Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This review discusses the Porter-Whitesides discrepancy in wetting properties of n-alkanethiolate self-assembled monolayers (SAMs. About 25 years ago, Whitesides and coworker failed to observe any odd-even effect in wetting, however, Porter and his coworker did, albeit in select cases. Most previous studies agreed with Whitesides’ results, suggesting the absence of the odd-even effect in hydrophobicity of n-alkanethiolate SAMs. Recent reports have, however, found the odd-even effect in hydrophobicity of n-alkanethiolate SAMs on smooth substrates, indicating that hydrophobicity, and analogous interfacial properties, of n-alkanethiolate SAMs significantly depends on the properties of substrate. Unfortunately, the Whitesides and Porter papers do not report on the quality of the surfaces used. Based on recent work, we inferred that the original discrepancy between Whitesides and Porter can be attributed to the quality of the surface. Odd-even effect of SAMs in charge transport, capacitance, friction, and SAM structure are also discussed in this review to inform the general discussion. The discrepancy between Porter's group and Whitesides’ group could be due to surface roughness, morphology, oxidation, and adventitious contaminants.

  20. Exploration of the Raven APM-National Adult Reading Test discrepancy as a measure of intellectual decline in older persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Esther; Nys, Gudrun M S; Brands, Augustina M A; Ruis, Carla; van Zandvoort, Martine J E; Kessels, Roy P C

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the discrepancy between performance on "fluid" and "crystallized" intelligence measures may serve as an indicator for intellectual decline. The validity of this procedure in older persons is unknown. The present study developed a multiple regression equation, to predict the Raven Advanced Progressive Matrices (APM) score from the National Adult Reading Test (NART) score and demographic variables in a large sample of healthy older persons (n = 270). The discrepancy between the predicted and observed Raven APM scores was transformed into a percentile distribution as an indicator of intellectual decline, which can be used in clinical practice. The validity of the procedure was further examined by comparing the proportion of persons with a significant decline (at the -1 and -1.65 SD level) between two older patient samples (87 patients with cerebral stroke and 387 patients with diabetes mellitus) by means of χ(2) tests. There was a significantly higher rate of intellectual decline at the -1 SD ("below average") and -1.65 SD ("impaired") cutoff levels for patients with stroke compared with patients with diabetes (stroke, 34% and 14%; diabetes, 16% and 5%, p Raven APM-NART discrepancy may be a useful measure of intellectual decline in older persons.

  1. Distance Between the Malleoli and the GroundA New Clinical Method to Measure Leg-Length Discrepancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Estela Gomez; Domínguez, Águeda Gómez; Peña-Algaba, Carolina; Castillo-López, José M

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this work is to introduce a useful method for the clinical diagnosis of leg-length inequality: distance between the malleoli and the ground (DMG). A transversal observational study was performed on 17 patients with leg-length discrepancy. Leg-length inequality was determined with different clinical methods: with a tape measure in a supine position from the anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS) to the internal and external malleoli, as the difference between the iliac crests when standing (pelvimeter), and as asymmetry between ASISs (PALpation Meter [PALM]; A&D Medical Products Healthcare, San Jose, California). The Foot Posture Index (FPI) and the navicular drop test were also used. The DMG with Perthes rule (perpendicular to the foot when standing), the distance between the internal malleolus and the ground (DIMG), and the distance between the external malleolus and the ground were designed by the authors. The DIMG is directly related to the traditional ASIS-external malleolus measurement (P = .003), the FPI (P = .010), and the navicular drop test (P DMG) is useful for diagnosing leg-length discrepancy and is related to the ASIS-external malleolus measurement. The DIMG is significantly inversely proportional to the degree of pronation according to the FPI. Conversely, determination of leg-length discrepancy with a tape measure from the ASIS to the malleoli cannot be performed interchangeably at the level of the internal or external malleolus.

  2. 12 CFR 717.82 - Duties of users regarding address discrepancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CREDIT UNIONS FAIR CREDIT REPORTING Duties of Users of Consumer Reports Regarding Address Discrepancies... applies to a user of consumer reports (user) that receives a notice of address discrepancy from a consumer... consumer report and the address(es) in the agency's file for the consumer. (c) Reasonable belief—(1...

  3. 12 CFR 41.82 - Duties of users regarding address discrepancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CREDIT REPORTING Duties of Users of Consumer Reports Regarding Address Discrepancies and Records Disposal... consumer reports (user) that receives a notice of address discrepancy from a consumer reporting agency... request the consumer report and the address(es) in the agency's file for the consumer. (c) Reasonable...

  4. 16 CFR 641.1 - Duties of users of consumer reports regarding address discrepancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duties of users of consumer reports... CREDIT REPORTING ACT DUTIES OF USERS OF CONSUMER REPORTS REGARDING ADDRESS DISCREPANCIES § 641.1 Duties of users of consumer reports regarding address discrepancies. (a) Scope. This section applies to...

  5. 12 CFR 571.82 - Duties of users regarding address discrepancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CREDIT REPORTING Duties of Users of Consumer Reports Regarding Address Discrepancies and Records Disposal... consumer reports (user) that receives a notice of address discrepancy from a consumer reporting agency... consumer report and the address(es) in the agency's file for the consumer. (c) Reasonable belief—(1...

  6. Discrepancies Confer Vulnerability to Depressive Symptoms: A Three-Wave Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherry, Simon B.; Mackinnon, Sean P.; Macneil, Matthew A.; Fitzpatrick, Skye

    2013-01-01

    Discrepancies (i.e., a subjective sense of falling short of one's own standards) are a key part of the perfectionism construct. Theory suggests discrepancies confer vulnerability to depressive symptoms. Since most research in this area is cross-sectional, longitudinal research is needed to disentangle directionality of relationships and to permit…

  7. 19 CFR 125.34 - Countersigning of documents and notation of bad order or discrepancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Countersigning of documents and notation of bad... and Receipt § 125.34 Countersigning of documents and notation of bad order or discrepancy. When a... and shall note thereon any bad order or discrepancy. When available, the importing carrier's tally...

  8. Implicit and Explicit Self-Esteem Discrepancies, Victimization and the Development of Late Childhood Internalizing problems.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwis, F.H.; Koot, H.M.; Creemers, H.E.; van Lier, P.A.C.

    2015-01-01

    Discrepancies between implicit and explicit self-esteem have been linked with internalizing problems among mainly adolescents and adults. Longitudinal research on this association in children is lacking. This study examined the longitudinal link between self-esteem discrepancies and the development

  9. Discrepancies between sources providing the medication histories of acutely hospitalised patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karkov, Louise Lindved; Schytte-Hansen, Simon; Nørgaard, Lotte Stig

    2010-01-01

    practitioner (GP) and the in-home care provider. A discrepancy was defined as any disagreement or omission of information between the four sources concerning name, form, strength and dose for each drug with which the patient was being treated. Main outcome measure The number of discrepancies between the data...

  10. Computing half-plane and strip discrepancy of planar point sets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, de M.

    1996-01-01

    We present efficient algorithms for two problems concerning the discrepancy of a set S of n points in the unit square in the plane. First, we describe an algorithm for maintaining the half-plane discrepancy of S under insertions and deletions of points. The algorithm runs in O(nlogn) worst-case time

  11. Implicit and Explicit Self-Esteem Discrepancies, Victimization and the Development of Late Childhood Internalizing Problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwis, F.H.; Koot, J.M.; Creemers, D.H.M.; Lier, P.A.C. van

    2015-01-01

    Discrepancies between implicit and explicit self-esteem have been linked with internalizing problems among mainly adolescents and adults. Longitudinal research on this association in children is lacking. This study examined the longitudinal link between self-esteem discrepancies and the development

  12. Does Hot Water Freeze Faster Than Cold? Or Why Mpemba's Ice Cream Is a Discrepant Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Bill

    1993-01-01

    A discrepant event is a happening contrary to our current beliefs. Discrepant events are said to be useful in clarifying concepts. This is one of the interesting features of current theories of constructivism. The story of Mpemba's ice cream is quite well known, but it is the educational aspects of the experiment that are of interest in this…

  13. Can the Media Affect Us? Social Comparison, Self-Discrepancy, and the Thin Ideal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessenoff, Gayle R.

    2006-01-01

    The current study explored body image self-discrepancy as moderator and social comparison as mediator in the effects on women from thin-ideal images in the media. Female undergraduates (N = 112) with high and low body image self-discrepancy were exposed to advertisements either with thin women (thin ideal) or without thin women…

  14. Predicting Receptive-Expressive Vocabulary Discrepancies in Preschool Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Jena; Yoder, Paul; Woynaroski, Tiffany; Watson, Linda R

    2018-05-15

    Correlates of receptive-expressive vocabulary size discrepancies may provide insights into why language development in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) deviates from typical language development and ultimately improve intervention outcomes. We indexed receptive-expressive vocabulary size discrepancies of 65 initially preverbal children with ASD (20-48 months) to a comparison sample from the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories Wordbank (Frank, Braginsky, Yurovsky, & Marchman, 2017) to quantify typicality. We then tested whether attention toward a speaker and oral motor performance predict typicality of the discrepancy 8 months later. Attention toward a speaker correlated positively with receptive-expressive vocabulary size discrepancy typicality. Imitative and nonimitative oral motor performance were not significant predictors of vocabulary size discrepancy typicality. Secondary analyses indicated that midpoint receptive vocabulary size mediated the association between initial attention toward a speaker and end point receptive-expressive vocabulary size discrepancy typicality. Findings support the hypothesis that variation in attention toward a speaker might partially explain receptive-expressive vocabulary size discrepancy magnitude in children with ASD. Results are consistent with an input-processing deficit explanation of language impairment in this clinical population. Future studies should test whether attention toward a speaker is malleable and causally related to receptive-expressive discrepancies in children with ASD.

  15. Observational evidence of a long-term increase in precipitation due to urbanization effects and its implications for sustainable urban living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wai, K M; Wang, X M; Lin, T H; Wong, M S; Zeng, S K; He, N; Ng, E; Lau, K; Wang, D H

    2017-12-01

    Although projected precipitation increases in East Asia due to future climate change have aroused concern, less attention has been paid by the scientific community and public to the potential long-term increase in precipitation due to rapid urbanization. A ten-year precipitation dataset was analysed for both a rapidly urbanized megacity and nearby suburban/rural stations in southern China. Rapid urbanization in the megacity was evident from satellite observations. A statistically significant, long-term, increasing trend of precipitation existed only at the megacity station (45.6mm per decade) and not at the other stations. The increase was attributed to thermal and dynamical modifications of the tropospheric boundary layer related to urbanization, which was confirmed by the results of our WRF-SLUCM simulations. The results also suggested that a long-term regional increase in precipitation, caused by greenhouse gas-induced climate change, for instance, was not evident within the study period. The urbanization-induced increase was found to be higher than the precipitation increase (18.3mm per decade) expected from future climate change. The direct climate impacts due to rapid urbanization is highlighted with strong implications for urban sustainable development and the planning of effective adaptation strategies for issues such as coastal defenses, mosquito-borne disease spread and heat stress mortality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Plant physiological responses to hydrologically mediated changes in nitrogen supply on a boreal forest floodplain: a mechanism explaining the discrepancy in nitrogen demand and supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lina Koyama; Knut. Kielland

    2011-01-01

    A discrepancy between plant demand and soil supply of nitrogen (N) has been observed in early successional stages of riparian vegetation in interior Alaska. We hypothesized that a hydrologically mediated N supply serves as a mechanism to balance this apparent deficiency of plant N supply. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a tracer experiment and measured the...

  17. Discrepancies in mother and child perceptions of spina bifida medical responsibilities during the transition to adolescence: associations with family conflict and medical adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psihogios, Alexandra M; Holmbeck, Grayson N

    2013-09-01

    This study investigated mother-child discrepancies over perceptions of who is responsible for spina bifida (SB) medical tasks in relation to family conflict and medical adherence. 140 youth with SB and their mothers completed questionnaires regarding who is responsible for specific SB medical tasks, family conflict, and medical adherence. An observational measure was also used to assess family conflict. Although children viewed themselves as more responsible for medical management than mothers did, mother-child discrepancies were not associated with family conflict or medical adherence. Interaction effects revealed that adherence was better when family conflict was low and when parents were responsible for medical tasks. Parental involvement in SB medical care is essential for optimal medical adherence during adolescence. The presence of family conflict also plays an influential role on SB medical adherence. Future research should evaluate the relations between discrepancies, family conflict, and medical adherence across time.

  18. In vitro analysis of the marginal adaptation and discrepancy of stainless steel crowns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Riaan; Medhat, Rasha; Mohamed, Nadia

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Aim: The purpose of the study was to assess the marginal adaptation and discrepancy of SSC’s. Differences in adaptation and discrepancy between the four surfaces (mesial, lingual, distal, and buccal) were evaluated. Methods: The placement of stainless steel crowns were completed on a phantom head in accordance with the clinical technique. The ideal tooth preparation was made and this ‘master tooth’ duplicated to achieve a sample size of 15. The stainless steel crowns were placed, trimmed, and cemented as per the clinical technique. The cemented stainless crowns were analyzed under 100× stereomicroscope magnification. The marginal adaptation and discrepancy of each specimen was measured every 2 µm. Results: All the specimens showed marginal adaptation and discrepancy. The lingual margin had a significantly better adaptation (p steel crown adaptation and discrepancy is an essential clinical step. PMID:29536024

  19. Discrepancy-based and anticipated emotions in behavioral self-regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Christina M; McConnell, Allen R

    2011-10-01

    Discrepancies between one's current and desired states evoke negative emotions, which presumably guide self-regulation. In the current work we evaluated the function of discrepancy-based emotions in behavioral self-regulation. Contrary to classic theories of self-regulation, discrepancy-based emotions did not predict the degree to which people engaged in self-regulatory behavior. Instead, expectations about how future self-discrepancies would make one feel (i.e., anticipated emotions) predicted self-regulation. However, anticipated emotions were influenced by previous discrepancy-based emotional experiences, suggesting that the latter do not directly motivate self-regulation but rather guide expectations. These findings are consistent with the perspective that emotions do not necessarily direct immediate behavior, but rather have an indirect effect by guiding expectations, which in turn predict goal-directed action.

  20. Using Long-Term Satellite Observations to Identify Sensitive Regimes and Active Regions of Aerosol Indirect Effects for Liquid Clouds Over Global Oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xuepeng; Liu, Yangang; Yu, Fangquan; Heidinger, Andrew K.

    2018-01-01

    Long-term (1981-2011) satellite climate data records of clouds and aerosols are used to investigate the aerosol-cloud interaction of marine water cloud from a climatology perspective. Our focus is on identifying the regimes and regions where the aerosol indirect effects (AIEs) are evident in long-term averages over the global oceans through analyzing the correlation features between aerosol loading and the key cloud variables including cloud droplet effective radius (CDER), cloud optical depth (COD), cloud water path (CWP), cloud top height (CTH), and cloud top temperature (CTT). An aerosol optical thickness (AOT) range of 0.13 change of long-term averaged CDER appears only in limited oceanic regions. The signature of aerosol invigoration of water clouds as revealed by the increase of cloud cover fraction (CCF) and CTH with increasing AOT at the middle/high latitudes of both hemispheres is identified for a pristine atmosphere (AOT polluted marine atmosphere (AOT > 0.3) in the tropical convergence zones. The regions where the second AIE is likely to manifest in the CCF change are limited to several oceanic areas with high CCF of the warm water clouds near the western coasts of continents. The second AIE signature as represented by the reduction of the precipitation efficiency with increasing AOT is more likely to be observed in the AOT regime of 0.08 < AOT < 0.4. The corresponding AIE active regions manifested themselves as the decline of the precipitation efficiency are mainly limited to the oceanic areas downwind of continental aerosols. The sensitive regime of the conventional AIE identified in this observational study is likely associated with the transitional regime from the aerosol-limited regime to the updraft-limited regime identified for aerosol-cloud interaction in cloud model simulations.

  1. A Longitudinal Test of the Parent–Adolescent Family Functioning Discrepancy Hypothesis: A Trend toward Increased HIV Risk Behaviors among Immigrant Hispanic Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordova, David; Schwartz, Seth J.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Villamar, Juan A.; Soto, Daniel W.; Des Rosiers, Sabrina E.; Lee, Tae Kyoung; Meca, Alan; Cano, Miguel Ángel; Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I.; Oshri, Assaf; Salas-Wright, Christopher P.; Piña-Watson, Brandy M.; Romero, Andrea J.

    2016-01-01

    Parent-adolescent discrepancies in family functioning play an important role in HIV risk behaviors among adolescents, yet longitudinal research with recent immigrant Hispanic families remains limited. This study tested the effects of trajectories of parent–adolescent family functioning discrepancies on HIV risk behaviors among recent-immigrant Hispanic adolescents. Additionally, we examined whether and to what extent trajectories of parent-adolescent family functioning discrepancies vary as a function of gender. We assessed family functioning of 302 Hispanic adolescents (47% female) and their parent (70% female) at six time points over a three-year period and computed latent discrepancy scores between parent and adolescent reports at each timepoint. Additionally, adolescents completed measures of sexual risk behaviors and alcohol use. We conducted a confirmatory factor analysis to determine the feasibility of collapsing parent and adolescent reported family functioning indicators onto a single latent discrepancy variable, tested model invariance over time, and conducted growth mixture modeling (GMM). GMM yielded a three-class solution for discrepancies: High-Increasing, High-Stable, and Low-Stable. Relative to the Low-Stable class, parent–adolescent dyads in the High-Increasing and High-Stable classes were at greater risk for adolescents reporting sexual debut at time 6. Additionally, the High-Stable class was at greater risk, relative to the Low-Stable class, in terms of adolescent lifetime alcohol use at 30 months post-baseline. Multiple group GMM indicated that trajectories of parent-adolescent family functioning trajectories did not vary by gender. Implications for future research and practice are discussed. PMID:27216199

  2. Macroclumping as solution of the discrepancy between Hα and P v mass loss diagnostics for O-type stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šurlan, B.; Hamann, W.-R.; Aret, A.; Kubát, J.; Oskinova, L. M.; Torres, A. F.

    2013-11-01

    Context. Recent studies of O-type stars have demonstrated that discrepant mass-loss rates are obtained when different diagnostic methods are employed. Fitting the unsaturated UV resonance lines (e.g., P v) gives drastically lower values than obtained from the Hα emission. Wind inhomogeneity (so-called "clumping") may be the main cause of this discrepancy. Aims: In a previous paper, we presented 3D Monte-Carlo calculations for the formation of scattering lines in a clumped stellar wind. In the present paper we select five O-type supergiants (from O4 to O7) and test whether the reported discrepancies can be resolved this way. Methods: In the first step, the analyses started with simulating the observed spectra with Potsdam Wolf-Rayet (PoWR) non-LTE model atmospheres. The mass-loss rates are adjusted to fit to the observed Hα emission lines best. For the unsaturated UV resonance lines (i.e., P v) we then applied our 3D Monte-Carlo code, which can account for wind clumps of any optical depths ("macroclumping"), a non-void interclump medium, and a velocity dispersion inside the clumps. The ionization stratifications and underlying photospheric spectra were adopted from the PoWR models. The properties of the wind clumps were constrained by fitting the observed resonance line profiles. Results: Our results show that with the mass-loss rates that fit Hα (and other Balmer and He ii lines), the UV resonance lines (especially the unsaturated doublet of P v) can also be reproduced with no problem when macroclumping is taken into account. There is no need to artificially reduce the mass-loss rates or to assume a subsolar phosphorus abundance or an extremely high clumping factor, unlike what was claimed by other authors. These consistent mass-loss rates are lower by a factor of 1.3 to 2.6, compared to the mass-loss rate recipe from Vink et al. Conclusions: Macroclumping resolves the previously reported discrepancy between Hα and P v mass-loss diagnostics. Based on

  3. Long-term effect of galantamine on cognitive function in patients with Alzheimer’s disease versus a simulated disease trajectory: an observational study in the clinical setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakagawa R

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Ryoko Nakagawa,1 Takashi Ohnishi,1 Hisanori Kobayashi,1 Toshio Yamaoka,2 Tsutomu Yajima,3 Ai Tanimura,4 Toshiya Kato,4 Kazutake Yoshizawa1 1Evidence Generation Department, Medical Affairs Division, 2Clinical Data Management Department, R&D Division, 3Biostatistics Department, Quantitative Science Division, 4Drug Surveillance Department, R&D Division, Janssen Pharmaceutical K.K., Tokyo, Japan Background: Long-term maintenance of cognitive function is an important goal of treatment for Alzheimer’s disease (AD, but evidence about the long-term efficacy of cholinesterase inhibitors is sparse. To evaluate the long-term efficacy and safety of galantamine for AD in routine clinical practice, we conducted a 72-week post-marketing surveillance study. The effect of galantamine on cognitive function was estimated in comparison with a simulated disease trajectory. Patients and methods: Patients with mild-to-moderate AD received flexible dosing of galantamine (16–24 mg/day during this study. Cognitive function was assessed by the mini mental state examination (MMSE and the clinical status was determined by the Clinical Global Impression-Improvement (CGI-I. Changes of the MMSE score without treatment were estimated in each patient using Mendiondo’s model. Generalized linear mixed model analysis was performed to compare the simulated MMSE scores with the actual scores. Results: Of the 661 patients who were enrolled, 642 were evaluable for safety and 554 were assessed for efficacy. The discontinuation rate was 46.73%. Cognitive decline indicated by the mean change of actual MMSE scores was significantly smaller than the simulated decline. Individual analysis demonstrated that >70% of patients had better actual MMSE scores than their simulated scores. Significant improvement of CGI-I was also observed during the observation period. Adverse events occurred in 28.5% of patients and were serious in 8.41%. The reported events generally corresponded with the

  4. Short-term variability and mass loss in Be stars. II. Physical taxonomy of photometric variability observed by the Kepler spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivinius, Th.; Baade, D.; Carciofi, A. C.

    2016-09-01

    Context. Classical Be stars have been established as pulsating stars. Space-based photometric monitoring missions contributed significantly to that result. However, whether Be stars are just rapidly rotating SPB or β Cep stars, or whether they have to be understood differently, remains debated in the view of their highly complex power spectra. Aims: Kepler data of three known Be stars are re-visited to establish their pulsational nature and assess the properties of additional, non-pulsational variations. The three program stars turned out to be one inactive Be star, one active, continuously outbursting Be star, and one Be star transiting from a non-outbursting into an outbursting phase, thus forming an excellent sample to distill properties of Be stars in the various phases of their life-cycle. Methods: The Kepler data was first cleaned from any long-term variability with Lomb-Scargle based pre-whitening. Then a Lomb-Scargle analysis of the remaining short-term variations was compared to a wavelet analysis of the cleaned data. This offers a new view on the variability, as it enables us to see the temporal evolution of the variability and phase relations between supposed beating phenomena, which are typically not visualized in a Lomb-Scargle analysis. Results: The short-term photometric variability of Be stars must be disentangled into a stellar and a circumstellar part. The stellar part is on the whole not different from what is seen in non-Be stars. However, some of the observed phenomena might be to be due to resonant mode coupling, a mechanism not typically considered for B-type stars. Short-term circumstellar variability comes in the form of either a group of relatively well-defined, short-lived frequencies during outbursts, which are called Štefl frequencies, and broad bumps in the power spectra, indicating aperiodic variability on a time scale similar to typical low-order g-mode pulsation frequencies, rather than true periodicity. Conclusions: From a

  5. A modified carrier-to-code leveling method for retrieving ionospheric observables and detecting short-term temporal variability of receiver differential code biases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Baocheng; Teunissen, Peter J. G.; Yuan, Yunbin; Zhang, Xiao; Li, Min

    2018-03-01

    Sensing the ionosphere with the global positioning system involves two sequential tasks, namely the ionospheric observable retrieval and the ionospheric parameter estimation. A prominent source of error has long been identified as short-term variability in receiver differential code bias (rDCB). We modify the carrier-to-code leveling (CCL), a method commonly used to accomplish the first task, through assuming rDCB to be unlinked in time. Aside from the ionospheric observables, which are affected by, among others, the rDCB at one reference epoch, the Modified CCL (MCCL) can also provide the rDCB offsets with respect to the reference epoch as by-products. Two consequences arise. First, MCCL is capable of excluding the effects of time-varying rDCB from the ionospheric observables, which, in turn, improves the quality of ionospheric parameters of interest. Second, MCCL has significant potential as a means to detect between-epoch fluctuations experienced by rDCB of a single receiver.

  6. Dose discrepancies in the buildup region and their impact on dose calculations for IMRT fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, Shu-Hui; Moran, Jean M.; Chen Yu; Kulasekere, Ravi; Roberson, Peter L.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Dose accuracy in the buildup region for radiotherapy treatment planning suffers from challenges in both measurement and calculation. This study investigates the dosimetry in the buildup region at normal and oblique incidences for open and IMRT fields and assesses the quality of the treatment planning calculations. Methods: This study was divided into three parts. First, percent depth doses and profiles (for 5x5, 10x10, 20x20, and 30x30 cm 2 field sizes at 0 deg., 45 deg., and 70 deg. incidences) were measured in the buildup region in Solid Water using an Attix parallel plate chamber and Kodak XV film, respectively. Second, the parameters in the empirical contamination (EC) term of the convolution/superposition (CVSP) calculation algorithm were fitted based on open field measurements. Finally, seven segmental head-and-neck IMRT fields were measured on a flat phantom geometry and compared to calculations using γ and dose-gradient compensation (C) indices to evaluate the impact of residual discrepancies and to assess the adequacy of the contamination term for IMRT fields. Results: Local deviations between measurements and calculations for open fields were within 1% and 4% in the buildup region for normal and oblique incidences, respectively. The C index with 5%/1 mm criteria for IMRT fields ranged from 89% to 99% and from 96% to 98% at 2 mm and 10 cm depths, respectively. The quality of agreement in the buildup region for open and IMRT fields is comparable to that in nonbuildup regions. Conclusions: The added EC term in CVSP was determined to be adequate for both open and IMRT fields. Due to the dependence of calculation accuracy on (1) EC modeling, (2) internal convolution and density grid sizes, (3) implementation details in the algorithm, and (4) the accuracy of measurements used for treatment planning system commissioning, the authors recommend an evaluation of the accuracy of near-surface dose calculations as a part of treatment planning commissioning.

  7. Comparison of clinical causes of deth with autopsy diagnosis using discrepancy classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullah, K.; Alamgir, W.

    2006-01-01

    To determine the usefulness of autopsy findings in the quality improvement of patients care. The clinical and necropsy findings of all the cases, who died in hospital and had undergone autopsy examination at CMH, Kharian, from January 2001 to December 2003, were retrieved from record of clinical case sheet data and autopsy record of the hospital. The two were analyzed and compared according to the discrepancy classification. The exclusion and inclusion criteria, the international classification of disease (ICD) to code deaths, the global burden of disease (GBD) system to classify and group diseases, and the Goldman discrepancy classification to compare clinical and autopsy diagnosis and classify the discrepancies, were used as described. The death rate varied from 0.94% to 1.29% and autopsy rate from 4.69% to 10.10% annually between January 2001 and December 2003. The number of cases classified according to GBD system was 3 (5%) in Group 1, 26 (43.33 %) in Group 2 and 31 (51.66 %) in Group 3. The discrepancy classes included 9 (15 %) class I major discrepancies and 3 (5 %) class II major discrepancies. Non-discrepant diagnosis was seen in 37 cases (61.66 %) and 11 cases (18.32 %) were non classifiable. (author)

  8. Discrepancies in Leader and Follower Ratings of Transformational Leadership: Relationship with Organizational Culture in Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarons, Gregory A; Ehrhart, Mark G; Farahnak, Lauren R; Sklar, Marisa; Horowitz, Jonathan

    2017-07-01

    The role of leadership in the management and delivery of health and allied health services is often discussed but lacks empirical research. Discrepancies are often found between leaders' self-ratings and followers' ratings of the leader. To our knowledge no research has examined leader-follower discrepancies and their association with organizational culture in mental health clinics. The current study examines congruence, discrepancy, and directionality of discrepancy in relation to organizational culture in 38 mental health teams (N = 276). Supervisors and providers completed surveys including ratings of the supervisor transformational leadership and organizational culture. Polynomial regression and response surface analysis models were computed examining the associations of leadership discrepancy and defensive organizational culture and its subscales. Discrepancies between supervisor and provider reports of transformational leadership were associated with a more negative organizational culture. Culture suffered more where supervisors rated themselves more positively than providers, in contrast to supervisors rating themselves lower than the provider ratings of the supervisor. Leadership and leader discrepancy should be a consideration in improving organizational culture and for strategic initiatives such as quality of care and the implementation and sustainment of evidence-based practice.

  9. En Route to Depression: Self-Esteem Discrepancies and Habitual Rumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Wendy J; Hine, Donald W

    2016-02-01

    Dual-process models of cognitive vulnerability to depression suggest that some individuals possess discrepant implicit and explicit self-views, such as high explicit and low implicit self-esteem (fragile self-esteem) or low explicit and high implicit self-esteem (damaged self-esteem). This study investigated whether individuals with discrepant self-esteem may employ depressive rumination in an effort to reduce discrepancy-related dissonance, and whether the relationship between self-esteem discrepancy and future depressive symptoms varies as a function of rumination tendencies. Hierarchical regressions examined whether self-esteem discrepancy was associated with rumination in an Australian undergraduate sample at Time 1 (N = 306; M(age) = 29.9), and whether rumination tendencies moderated the relationship between self-esteem discrepancy and depressive symptoms assessed 3 months later (n = 160). Damaged self-esteem was associated with rumination at Time 1. As hypothesized, rumination moderated the relationship between self-esteem discrepancy and depressive symptoms at Time 2, where fragile self-esteem and high rumination tendencies at Time 1 predicted the highest levels of subsequent dysphoria. Results are consistent with dual-process propositions that (a) explicit self-regulation strategies may be triggered when explicit and implicit self-beliefs are incongruent, and (b) rumination may increase the likelihood of depression by expending cognitive resources and/or amplifying negative implicit biases. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. A comparison of the marginal vertical discrepancies of zirconium and metal ceramic posterior fixed dental prostheses before and after cementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalo, Esther; Suárez, Maria J; Serrano, Benjamin; Lozano, Jose F L

    2009-12-01

    Marginal discrepancies of zirconia posterior fixed dental prostheses (FDPs) fabricated using various systems have been assessed to determine the quality of the restorations and facilitate clinical use; however, studies are limited and results are ambiguous because of the sample sizes and measurement methods. The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare changes in marginal fit of posterior fixed dental prostheses of 3 zirconia systems manufactured using CAD/CAM technology and metal ceramic posterior fixed dental protheses fabricated with the conventional lost-wax technique, before and after cementation. Forty standardized master steel dies with 2 abutments simulating first mandibular premolars were fabricated to receive a posterior 3-unit FDP (from first molar to first premolar) and divided into 4 groups (n=10): Lava All-Ceramic System, Procera Bridge Zirconia, VITA In-Ceram 2000 YZ, and metal ceramic (control group). All FDPs were prepared for an internal space of 50 microm. The external marginal gap of the restorations was investigated by measuring 30 points in the middle of the buccal and lingual surfaces; therefore, 60 measurements per abutment were recorded. Measurements were made with an image analysis program on the master steel model before and after conventional cementation with a glass ionomer agent (Ketac Cem Easymix). The data obtained were statistically analyzed using 1-way ANOVA, Duncan's multiple range post hoc test, and Student's paired t test (alpha=.05). No significant differences in the vertical marginal fit before and after cementation were recorded for the analyzed groups. The marginal discrepancy of Procera abutments before and after cementation (9 +/-10 microm and 12 +/-9 microm, respectively) was less than that of the other groups. Significant differences (P=.001) were observed in marginal adaptation between Procera Bridge Zirconia and the other groups. The results of this study showed that cementation did not cause a significant

  11. Induction of short-term biomarkers of tumor promotion in skin of CD-1 mice by petroleum middle distillates: preliminary observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skisak, C; DiGiovanni, J; Conti, C J; Slaga, T J; Sharma, S; Sagartz, J W; Walborg, E F

    1995-01-01

    The induction of sustained epidermal hyperplasia in mouse skin has been shown to be a reliable predictor of tumor promoting activity for chemicals as diverse as phorbol esters, anthralins, n-dodecane and organic peroxides (DiGiovanni, 1992). The results contained herein demonstrate that API 81-07 and API 81-10, petroleum middle distillates that exhibit tumor promoting activity in mouse skin, induce epidermal hyperplasia and ODC activity. Other petroleum middle distillates (odorless light petroleum hydrocarbons, a light vacuum distillate, and a mineral seal oil) were also shown to share these activities. It should be emphasized that the relevance of these observations to human skin remains unresolved; however, the availability of these short-term biomarkers offers the opportunity to address the issue by performing comparative investigations on the effects of petroleum middle distillates on human skin xenografted to athymic (nude) mice. Such studies are being initiated.

  12. Application of a short term air quality action plan in Madrid (Spain) under a high-pollution episode - Part I: Diagnostic and analysis from observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borge, Rafael; Artíñano, Begoña; Yagüe, Carlos; Gomez-Moreno, Francisco Javier; Saiz-Lopez, Alfonso; Sastre, Mariano; Narros, Adolfo; García-Nieto, David; Benavent, Nuria; Maqueda, Gregorio; Barreiro, Marcos; de Andrés, Juan Manuel; Cristóbal, Ángeles

    2018-03-28

    Exceedances of NO 2 hourly limit value (200 μg·m -3 ) imply the need to implement short term action plans to avoid adverse effects on human health in urban areas. The Madrid City Council applied the stage 3 of the NO 2 protocol during a high-pollution episode under stable meteorological conditions on December 2016 for the first time. This included road traffic access restrictions to the city centre (50% of conventional private vehicles based on plate numbers). In this contribution we analyse different meteorological and air quality observations, including non-standard parameters (such as number of ultrafine particles and remote sensing techniques MAXDOAS) for a better understanding of the effectivity of short-term emission abatement measures under real conditions and to identify options to improve the NO 2 protocol in the future. According to our results, the inversion base height computed from vertical temperature soundings is a meaningful index to anticipate very unfavourable conditions and trigger the actions included in the protocol. The analysis of the concentration levels of the main pollutants from the Madrid air quality monitoring network indicate that only stage 3 of the protocol had a significant effect on NO 2 maximum concentrations. The restrictions applied may have prevented NO 2 concentrations to further increase in the city centre (up to 15%) although pollution levels in the city outskirts, outside the area directly affected by the traffic restrictions, remained unchanged or may have been slightly increased. Nonetheless, further studies are needed to estimate more precisely the effect of the measures taken and to assess potential trade-offs. Our results suggest that emissions play an important role also under very strong stability conditions although drastic measures are needed to achieve a significant impact. This highlights the importance of an appropriate timing for short-term actions and the need of permanent abatement measures related to air

  13. Long-term radiation sequelae after breast-conserving therapy in women with early-stage breast cancer: an observational study using the LENT-SOMA scoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fehlauer, Fabian; Tribius, Silke; Hoeller, Ulrike; Rades, Dirk; Kuhlmey, Antje; Bajrovic, Amira; Alberti, Winfried

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the long-term toxicity after breast-conserving therapy in women with early-stage breast cancer. Methods and Materials: Late toxicity according to the late effects of normal tissue-subjective, objective, management, and analytic (LENT-SOMA) criteria and cosmetic outcome (graded by physicians) were evaluated in 590 of 2943 women with early-stage breast cancer who were irradiated between 1983 and 1995 using the following fractionation schedules: group A, 1983-1987, 2.5 Gy 4x/wk to 60 Gy; group B, 1988-1993, 2.5 Gy 4x/wk to 55 Gy, group C, 1994-1995, 2.0 Gy 5x/wk to 55 Gy. Results: LENT-SOMA Grade 3-4 toxicity was observed as follows: group A (median follow-up 171 months; range 154-222 months), fibrosis 16% (7 of 45), telangiectasia 18% (8 of 45), and atrophy 4% (2 of 45); group B (median follow-up 113 months; range 78-164 months), pain 2% (8 of 345), fibrosis 10% (34 of 345), telangiectasia 10% (33 of 345), arm edema 1% (2 of 345), and atrophy 8% (27 of 345); and group C (median follow-up 75 months, range 51-96 months, n = 200), occurrence of Grade 3-4 late morbidity ≤2%. The cosmetic outcome was very good to acceptable in 78% (35 of 45) of patients in group A, 83% (286 of 345) in group B, and 94% (187 of 200) in group C. Conclusion: In our population, the long-term side effects after breast-conserving therapy were not rare, but were mainly asymptomatic. The LENT-SOMA breast module is a practical tool to assess radiation-induced long-term toxicity

  14. Very-short-term perioperative intravenous iron administration and postoperative outcome in major orthopedic surgery: a pooled analysis of observational data from 2547 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Manuel; Gómez-Ramírez, Susana; Cuenca, Jorge; García-Erce, José Antonio; Iglesias-Aparicio, Daniel; Haman-Alcober, Sami; Ariza, Daniel; Naveira, Enrique

    2014-02-01

    Postoperative nosocomial infection (PNI) is a severe complication in surgical patients. Known risk factors of PNI such as allogeneic blood transfusions (ABTs), anemia, and iron deficiency are manageable with perioperative intravenous (IV) iron therapy. To address potential concerns about IV iron and the risk of PNI, we studied a large series of orthopedic surgical patients for possible relations between IV iron, ABT, and PNI. Pooled data on ABT, PNI, 30-day mortality, and length of hospital stay (LHS) from 2547 patients undergoing elective lower-limb arthroplasty (n = 1186) or hip fracture repair (n = 1361) were compared between patients who received either very-short-term perioperative IV iron (200-600 mg; n = 1538), with or without recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO; 40,000 IU), or standard treatment (n = 1009). Compared to standard therapy, perioperative IV iron reduced rates of ABT (32.4% vs. 48.8%; p = 0.001), PNI (10.7% vs. 26.9%; p = 0.001), and 30-day mortality (4.8% vs. 9.4%; p = 0.003) and the LHS (11.9 days vs. 13.4 days; p = 0.001) in hip fracture patients. These benefits were observed in both transfused and nontransfused patients. Also in elective arthroplasty, IV iron reduced ABT rates (8.9% vs. 30.1%; p = 0.001) and LHS (8.4 days vs.10.7 days; p = 0.001), without differences in PNI rates (2.8% vs. 3.7%; p = 0.417), and there was no 30-day mortality. Despite known limitations of pooled observational analyses, these results suggest that very-short-term perioperative administration of IV iron, with or without rHuEPO, in major lower limb orthopedic procedures is associated with reduced ABT rates and LHS, without increasing postoperative morbidity or mortality. © 2013 American Association of Blood Banks.

  15. Effect of an unrelated fluent action on word recognition: A case of motor discrepancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouillet, Denis; Milhau, Audrey; Brouillet, Thibaut; Servajean, Philippe

    2017-06-01

    It is now well established that motor fluency affects cognitive processes, including memory. In two experiments participants learned a list of words and then performed a recognition task. The original feature of our procedure is that before judging the words they had to perform a fluent gesture (i.e., typing a letter dyad). The dyads comprised letters located on either the right or left side of the keyboard. Participants typed dyads with their right or left index finger; the required movement was either very small (dyad composed of adjacent letters, Experiment 1) or slightly larger (dyad composed of letters separated by one key, experiment 2). The results show that when the gesture was performed in the ipsilateral space the probability of recognizing a word increased (to a lesser extent it is the same with the dominant hand, experiment 2). Moreover, a binary regression logistic highlighted that the probability of recognizing a word was proportional to the speed by which the gesture was performed. These results are discussed in terms of a feeling of familiarity emerging from motor discrepancy.

  16. The Drivers of the CH4 Seasonal Cycle in the Arctic and What Long-Term Observations of CH4 Imply About Trends in Arctic CH4 Fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, C.; Karion, A.; Bruhwiler, L.; Miller, J. B.; Wofsy, S. C.; Miller, C. E.; Chang, R. Y.; Dlugokencky, E. J.; Daube, B.; Pittman, J. V.; Dinardo, S. J.

    2012-12-01

    The large seasonal change in the atmospheric column for CH4 in the Arctic is driven by two dominant processes: transport of CH4 from low latitudes and surface emissions throughout the Arctic region. The NOAA ESRL Carbon Cycle Group Aircraft Program along with the NASA funded Carbon in Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment (CARVE) have initiated an effort to better understand the factors controlling the seasonal changes in the mole fraction of CH4 in the Arctic with a multi-scale aircraft observing network in Alaska. The backbone of this network is multi-species flask sampling from 500 to 8000 masl that has been conducted every two weeks for the last 10 years over Poker Flat, AK. In addition regular profiles at the interior Alaska site at Poker Flat, NOAA has teamed up with the United States Coast Guard to make profiling flights with continuous observations of CO2, CO, CH4 and Ozone between Kodiak and Barrow every 2 weeks. More recently, CARVE has significantly added to this observational network with targeted flights focused on exploring the variability of CO2, CH4 and CO in the boundary layer both in the interior and the North Slope regions of Alaska. Taken together with the profiling of HIAPER Pole-to-Pole Observations (HIPPO), ground sites at Barrow and a new CARVE interior Alaska surface site just north of Fairbanks, AK, we now have the ability to investigate the full evolution of the seasonal cycle in the Arctic using both the multi-scale sampling offered by the different aircraft platforms as well as the multi-species sampling offered by in-situ and flask sampling. The flasks also provide a valuable tie-point between different platforms so that spatial and temporal gradients can be properly interpreted. In the context of the seasonal cycle observed by the aircraft platforms we will look at long term ground observations over the last 20 years to assess changes in Arctic CH4 emissions which have occurred as a result of 0.6C/decade changes in mean surface

  17. National cultural values and the evolution of process and outcome discrepancies in international strategic alliances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Rajesh; Nti, Kofi O

    2004-01-01

    The article assesses the role played by national cultural values in shaping the evolution of international strategic alliances. The authors build on a systems dynamic model of alliance evolution in which the developmental path of an alliance depends on how the partners manage process and outcome...... discrepancies that may emerge during the course of an alliance. They argue that national culture affects alliance evolution by influencing partners sensitivity to discrepancy detection , shaping the nature of attributions they make, and by affecting the partners reactions to discrepancies. They focus...

  18. Impacto da discrepância de desejo sexual e relacional masculina

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Tiago José da Costa

    2017-01-01

    Dissertação de mestrado integrado em Psicologia O desejo sexual é descrito como um dos fatores que mais contribui para a satisfação sexual e relacional. Num casal os níveis de desejo podem estar mais, ou menos, sincronizados, ou pode acontecer uma situação de discrepância. A discrepância de desejo existente pode ser suficiente para potenciar um problema, nomeadamente ao nível da satisfação sexual e relacional. Este estudo teve como objetivo perceber se a discrepância de desejo ...

  19. L_p- and S_{p,q}^rB-discrepancy of (order 2) digital nets

    OpenAIRE

    Markhasin, Lev

    2014-01-01

    Dick proved that all order $2$ digital nets satisfy optimal upper bounds of the $L_2$-discrepancy. We give an alternative proof for this fact using Haar bases. Furthermore, we prove that all digital nets satisfy optimal upper bounds of the $S_{p,q}^r B$-discrepancy for a certain parameter range and enlarge that range for order $2$ digitals nets. $L_p$-, $S_{p,q}^r F$- and $S_p^r H$-discrepancy is considered as well.

  20. Assessing dependency using self-report and indirect measures: examining the significance of discrepancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogswell, Alex; Alloy, Lauren B; Karpinski, Andrew; Grant, David A

    2010-07-01

    The present study addressed convergence between self-report and indirect approaches to assessing dependency. We were moderately successful in validating an implicit measure, which was found to be reliable, orthogonal to 2 self-report instruments, and predictive of external criteria. This study also examined discrepancies between scores on self-report and implicit measures, and has implications for their significance. The possibility that discrepancies themselves are pathological was not supported, although discrepancies were associated with particular personality profiles. Finally, this study offered additional evidence for the relation between dependency and depressive symptomatology and identified implicit dependency as contributing unique variance in predicting past major depression.

  1. Measurements in Los Alamos benchmark criticals and the central reactivity discrepancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davey, W.G.; Hansen, G.E.; Koelling, J.J.; McLaughlin, T.P.

    1978-01-01

    Measurements in seven Los Alamos fast critical facilities are described; all are related to elucidating the causes of the central reactivity discrepancy in fast reactors. Specific capabilities of these specialized assemblies permit measurements well-above delayed critical and these confirm the validity of the delayed neutron data used for calibration; there is therefore no reactivity-scale error. Reactivity measurements in these homogeneous assemblies exhibit no discrepancy. It is concluded that nuclear data should not be adjusted to eliminate the discrepancy found in other, heterogeneous assemblies

  2. Study design: two long-term observational studies of the biosimilar filgrastim Nivestim™ (Hospira filgrastim) in the treatment and prevention of chemotherapy-induced neutropenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamioner, Didier; Fruehauf, Stefan; Maloisel, Fréderic; Cals, Laurent; Lepretre, Stéphane; Berthou, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Nivestim™ (filgrastim) is a follow-on biologic agent licensed in the EU for the treatment of neutropenia and febrile neutropenia induced by myelosuppressive chemotherapy. Nivestim™ has been studied in phase 2 and 3 clinical trials where its efficacy and safety was found to be similar to its reference product, Neupogen ® . Follow-on biologics continue to be scrutinised for safety. We present a design for two observational phase IV studies that are evaluating the safety profile of Nivestim™ for the prevention and treatment of febrile neutropenia (FN) in patients treated with cytotoxic chemotherapy in general clinical practice. The NEXT (Tolérance de Nivestim chez les patiEnts traités par une chimiothérapie anticancéreuse cytotoXique en praTique courante) and VENICE (VErträglichkeit von NIvestim unter zytotoxischer Chemotherapie in der Behandlung malinger Erkrankungen) trials are multicentre, prospective, longitudinal, observational studies evaluating the safety profile of Nivestim™ in 'real-world’ clinical practice. Inclusion criteria include patients undergoing cytotoxic chemotherapy for malignancy and receiving Nivestim as primary or secondary prophylaxis (NEXT and VENICE), or as treatment for ongoing FN (NEXT only). In accordance with European Union pharmacovigilance guidelines, the primary objective is to evaluate the safety of Nivestim™ by gathering data on adverse events in all system organ classes. Secondary objectives include obtaining information on patient characteristics, efficacy of Nivestim™ therapy (including chemotherapy dose intensity), patterns of use of Nivestim™, and physician knowledge regarding filgrastim prescription and the reasons for choosing Nivestim™. Data will be gathered at three visits: 1. At the initial inclusion visit, 2. At a 1-month follow-up visit, and 3. At the end of chemotherapy. Recruitment for VENICE commenced in July 2011 and in November 2011 for NEXT. VENICE completed recruitment in July 2013 with

  3. Effects of creatine supplementation on high-intensity intermittent exercise: discrepancies and methodological appraisals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Chackur Brum

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available After a brief review of the literature on the effects of creatine supplementation on high-intensity intermittent exercise performance, the main aim of this study was to discuss methodological differences between studies which could explain the discrepancies observed in the literature. The effects of creatine supplementation on high-intensity intermittent exercise performance have been investigated in depth. Although the results of much research demonstrates the effi cacy of this supplement, there is just as much evidence that does not support this ergogenic effect. The explanation for this divergence appears to be multifactorial, although it is always linked to methodological characteristics. Study design (crossover or parallel groups, individual variability of muscular creatine content, chronic high meat intake, sample size, exercise protocol characteristics (body weight dependence and time between series, and gender and age all differ between studies and are potentially the variables responsible, to differing extents, for the discrepancies observed in the literature. Studies involving young males, with parallel group design, adequate statistical power, control of the incorporation of creatine into muscles, food intake assessment and intermittent exercise protocols in which performance is independent of body weight and with rest-recovery intervals of 1 to 6 minutes, usually produce positive results. The many methodological factors which can contribute to divergence on the ergogenic effects of creatine should be considered in futures studies, as well as when prescribing creatine supplementation. Resumo Após breve revisão da literatura existente acerca dos efeitos da suplementação de creatina no rendimento em atividades intermitentes de alta intensidade, o objetivo principal dessa revisão foi discutir diferenças metodológicas dos estudos que possam explicar a divergência encontrada na literatura. Os efeitos da suplementação de creatina

  4. Mantle wedge structure beneath the Yamato Basin, southern part of the Japan Sea, revealed by long-term seafloor seismic observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinohara, M.; Nakahigashi, K.; Yamashita, Y.; Yamada, T.; Mochizuki, K.; Shiobara, H.

    2016-12-01

    The Japanese Islands are located at subduction zones where Philippine Sea (PHS) plate subducts from the southeast beneath the Eurasian plate and the Pacific plate descends from the east beneath the PHS and Eurasian plates and have a high density of seismic stations. Many seismic tomography studies using land seismic station data were conducted to reveal the seismic structure. These studies discussed the relationship between heterogeneous structures and the release of fluids from the subducting slab, magma generation and movement in the subduction zone. However, regional tomography using the land station data did not have a sufficient resolution to image a deep structure beneath the Japan Sea.To obtain the deep structure, observations of natural earthquakes within the Japan Sea are essential. Therefore, we started the repeating long-term seismic observations using ocean bottom seismometers(OBSs) in the Yamato Basin from 2013 to 2016. We apply travel-time tomography method to the regional earthquake and teleseismic arrival-data recorded by OBSs and land stations. In this presentation, we will report the P and S wave tomographic images down to a depth of 300 km beneath the southern part of the Japan Sea. This study was supported by "Integrated Research Project on Seismic and Tsunami Hazards around the Sea of Japan" conducted by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology (MEXT) of Japan.

  5. Long-Term Observations of Atmospheric CO2, O3 and BrO over the Transitioning Arctic Ocean Pack-ice: The O-Buoy Chemical Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matrai, P.

    2016-02-01

    Autonomous, sea ice-tethered O-Buoys have been deployed (2009-2016) across the Arctic sea ice for long-term atmospheric measurements (http://www.o-buoy.org). O-Buoys (15) provide in-situ concentrations of three sentinel atmospheric chemicals, ozone, CO2 and BrO, as well as meteorological parameters and imagery, over the frozen ocean. O-Buoys were designed to transmit daily data over a period of 2 years while deployed in sea ice, as part of automated ice-drifting stations that include snow/ice measurement systems (e.g. Ice Mass Balance buoys) and oceanographic measurements (e.g. Ice Tethered Profilers). Seasonal changes in Arctic atmospheric chemistry are influenced by changes in the characteristics and presence of the sea ice vs. open water as well as air mass trajectories, especially during the winter-spring and summer-fall transitions when sea ice is melting and freezing, respectively. The O-Buoy Chemical Network provides the unique opportunity to observe these transition periods in real-time with high temporal resolution, and to compare them with those collected on land-based monitoring stations located. Due to the logistical challenges of measurements over the Arctic Ocean region, most long term, in-situ observations of atmospheric chemistry have been made at coastal or island sites around the periphery of the Arctic Ocean, leaving large spatial and temporal gaps that O-Buoys overcome. Advances in floatation, communications, power management, and sensor hardware have been made to overcome the challenges of diminished Arctic sea ice. O-Buoy data provide insights into enhanced seasonal, interannual and spatial variability in atmospheric composition, atmospheric boundary layer control on the amount of halogen activation, enhancement of the atmospheric CO2 signal over the more variable and porous pack ice, and to develop an integrated picture of the coupled ocean/ice/atmosphere system. As part of the Arctic Observing Network, we provide data to the community (www.aoncadis.org).

  6. Causes of death and infant mortality rates among full-term births in the United States between 2010 and 2012: An observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bairoliya, Neha; Fink, Günther

    2018-03-01

    While the high prevalence of preterm births and its impact on infant mortality in the US have been widely acknowledged, recent data suggest that even full-term births in the US face substantially higher mortality risks compared to European countries with low infant mortality rates. In this paper, we use the most recent birth records in the US to more closely analyze the primary causes underlying mortality rates among full-term births. Linked birth and death records for the period 2010-2012 were used to identify the state- and cause-specific burden of infant mortality among full-term infants (born at 37-42 weeks of gestation). Multivariable logistic models were used to assess the extent to which state-level differences in full-term infant mortality (FTIM) were attributable to observed differences in maternal and birth characteristics. Random effects models were used to assess the relative contribution of state-level variation to FTIM. Hypothetical mortality outcomes were computed under the assumption that all states could achieve the survival rates of the best-performing states. A total of 10,175,481 infants born full-term in the US between January 1, 2010, and December 31, 2012, were analyzed. FTIM rate (FTIMR) was 2.2 per 1,000 live births overall, and ranged between 1.29 (Connecticut, 95% CI 1.08, 1.53) and 3.77 (Mississippi, 95% CI 3.39, 4.19) at the state level. Zero states reached the rates reported in the 6 low-mortality European countries analyzed (FTIMR 2.75. Sudden unexpected death in infancy (SUDI) accounted for 43% of FTIM; congenital malformations and perinatal conditions accounted for 31% and 11.3% of FTIM, respectively. The largest mortality differentials between states with good and states with poor FTIMR were found for SUDI, with particularly large risk differentials for deaths due to sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) (odds ratio [OR] 2.52, 95% CI 1.86, 3.42) and suffocation (OR 4.40, 95% CI 3.71, 5.21). Even though these mortality differences

  7. Single Mothers' Experiences with Pregnancy and Child Rearing in Korea: Discrepancy between Social Services/Policies and Single Mothers' Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-Eun; Lee, Jin Yong; Lee, Sang Hyung

    2018-05-10

    This study aims to explore single mothers’ experiences with social services/policies for their independent living and to identify gaps between these experiences and the needs of single mothers. A focus group discussion was performed to collect data. Seven single mothers discussed their experiences in significant periods of their lives: pregnancy, childbirth, and parenting. Findings from the qualitative thematic analysis show discrepancies between the direction of social services/policies and single mothers’ needs, in terms of difficulties in healthcare, childcare, housing, employment, and income security. To the single mothers in this study, the social safety net is not inclusive, compared to that which is available to two-parent families or adoptive families. It is necessary to intervene in current blind spots of services/policies for single mothers, and to provide a social safety net to strengthen single mothers’ self-reliance and their children’s social security in the long term.

  8. Mooring-based long-term observation of oceanographic condition in the Chukchi Ses and Canada Basin of the Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Takashi; Itoh, Motoyo; Nishino, Shigeto; Watanabe, Eiji

    2015-04-01

    Changes of the Arctic Ocean environment are well known as one of the most remarkable evidences of global warming, attracting social and public attentions as well as scientists'. However, to illustrate on-going changes and predict future condition of the Arctic marine environment, we still do not have enough knowledge of Arctic sea ice and marine environment. In particular, lack of observation data in winter, e.g., under sea ice, still remains a key issue for precise understanding of seasonal cycle on oceanographic condition in the Arctic Ocean. Mooring-based observation is one of the most useful methods to collect year-long data in the Arctic Ocean. We have been conducting long-term monitoring using mooring system in the Pacific sector of the Arctic Ocean. Volume, heat, and freshwater fluxes through Barrow Canyon where is a major conduit of Pacific-origin water-masses into the Canada Basin have been observed since 2000. We show from an analysis of the mooring results that volume flux through Barrow Canyon was about 60 % of Bering Strait volume flux. Averaged heat flux ranges from 0.9 to 3.07 TW, which could melt 88,000 to 300,000 km2 of 1m thick ice in the Canada Basin, which likely contributed to sea ice retreat in the Pacific sector of the Arctic Ocean. In winter, we found inter-annual variability in salinity related to coastal polynya activity in the Chukchi Sea. In collaboration with Distributed Biological Observatory (DBO) project, which is one of the tasks of Sustaining Arctic Observing Network (SAON), we also initiated year-long mooring observation in the Hope Valley of the southern Chukchi Sea since 2012. Interestingly, winter oceanographic conditions in the Hope Valley are greatly different between in 2012-2013 and in 2013-2014. We speculate that differences of sea ice freeze-up and coastal polynya activity in the southern Chukchi Sea cause significant difference of winter oceanographic condition. It suggests that recent sea ice reduction in the Pacific

  9. Mother-Child Discrepancy in Perceived Family Functioning and Adolescent Developmental Outcomes in Families Experiencing Economic Disadvantage in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Janet T Y; Shek, Daniel T L; Li, Lin

    2016-10-01

    Though growing attention has been devoted to examining informant discrepancies of family attributes in social science research, studies that examine how interactions between mother-reported and adolescent-reported family functioning predict adolescent developmental outcomes in underprivileged families are severely lacking. The current study investigated the difference between mothers and adolescents in their reports of family functioning, as well as the relationships between mother-reported and adolescent-reported family functioning and adolescent developmental outcomes in a sample of 432 Chinese single-mother families (mean age of adolescents = 13.7 years, 51.2 % girls, mean age of mothers = 43.5 years, 69.9 % divorced) experiencing economic disadvantage in Hong Kong. Polynomial regression analyses were conducted to assess whether discrepancy in family functioning between mother reports and adolescent reports predicted resilience, beliefs in the future, cognitive competence, self-efficacy and self-determination of adolescents. The results indicated that adolescents reported family functioning more negatively than did their mothers. Polynomial regression analyses showed that the interaction term between mothers' reports and adolescents' reports of family functioning predicted adolescent developmental outcomes in Chinese single-mother families living in poverty. Basically, under poor adolescent-reported family functioning, adolescent development would be relatively better if their mothers reported more positive family functioning. In contrast, under good adolescent-reported family functioning, adolescents expressed better developmental outcomes when mothers reported lower levels of family functioning than those mothers who reported higher levels of family functioning. The findings provide insights on how congruency and discrepancy between informant reports of family functioning would influence adolescent development. Theoretical and practical implications of

  10. Discrepant HPV/cytology cotesting results: Are there differences between cytology-negative versus HPV-negative cervical intraepithelial neoplasia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracht, Jessica M; Davis, Antoinette D; Fasciano, Danielle N; Eltoum, Isam-Eldin A

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this study was to compare cervical high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions subcategorized as cervical intraepithelial neoplasia-3 (CIN-3)-positive after a negative cytology result but positive for high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) testing to those with a negative HR-HPV test but positive cytology (atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance [ASCUS]-positive/HPV-negative) and to assess reasons for discrepancies. The authors retrospectively analyzed women who underwent screening with cytology and HPV testing from 2010 through 2013. After a review of surgical specimens and cytology, discrepancies were classified as sampling or interpretation error. Clinical and pathologic findings were compared. In total, 15,173 women (age range, 25-95 years; 7.1% were aged ASCUS-positive/HPV-positive, 11 that tested negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy (NILM)/HPV-positive, 10 that tested ASCUS-positive/HPV-negative, 3 that tested NILM/HPV-negative, and 5 tests that were unsatisfactory. There was no significant difference between NILM/HPV-positive and ASCUS-positive/HPV-negative CIN-3 in terms of size, time to occurrence, the presence of a cytopathic effect, screening history, race, or age. Six of 11 NILM/HPV-positive cases were reclassified as ASCUS, indicating an interpreting error of 55% and a sampling error of 45%. No ASCUS-positive/HPV-negative cases were reclassified. Seven cases of CIN-3 with positive cytology were HPV-negative. There are no significant clinical or pathologic differences between NILM/HPV-positive and ASCUS-positive/HPV-negative CIN-3-positive specimens. Cytologic sampling or interpretation remains the main reason for discrepancies. However, HPV-negative CIN-3 with positive cytology exists and may be missed by primary HPV screening. Cancer Cytopathol 2017;125:795-805. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  11. To thine own self be true? Clarifying the effects of identity discrepancies on psychological distress and emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkhoff, Will; Marcussen, Kristen; Serpe, Richard T

    2016-07-01

    After many years of research across disciplines, it remains unclear whether people are more motivated to seek appraisals that accurately match self-views (self-verification) or are as favorable as possible (self-enhancement). Within sociology, mixed findings in identity theory have fueled the debate. A problem here is that a commonly employed statistical approach does not take into account the direction of a discrepancy between how we see ourselves and how we think others see us in terms of a given identity, yet doing so is critical for determining which self-motive is at play. We offer a test of three competing models of identity processes, including a new "mixed motivations" model where self-verification and self-enhancement operate simultaneously. We compare the models using the conventional statistical approach versus response surface analysis. The latter method allows us to determine whether identity discrepancies involving over-evaluation are as distressing as those involving under-evaluation. We use nationally representative data and compare results across four different identities and multiple outcomes. The two statistical approaches lead to the same conclusions more often than not and mostly support identity theory and its assumption that people seek self-verification. However, response surface tests reveal patterns that are mistaken as evidence of self-verification by conventional procedures, especially for the spouse identity. We also find that identity discrepancies have different effects on distress and self-conscious emotions (guilt and shame). Our findings have implications not only for research on self and identity across disciplines, but also for many other areas of research that incorporate these concepts and/or use difference scores as explanatory variables. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Comments on the discrepancies found in running NJOY and LINEAR - RECENT - GROUPIE for some actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corcuera, R.P.; Moraes, M. de.

    1986-08-01

    Some discrepancies encountered between the two processing codes NJOY and RECENT-GROUPIE were analysed. It was found that they are due to different interpretation of inadequate representation of the evaluated date. (author) [pt

  13. Interpretation of images and discrepancy between osteoarthritic findings and symptomatology in temporomandibular joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsukasa Sano

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The discrepancy between osteoarthritic findings on images and symptomatology can sometimes be problematic in clinical work. In this article, we focus on osteoarthritis and related entities on images, and especially on MR images.

  14. An atlas-based multimodal registration method for 2D images with discrepancy structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Wenchao; Chen, Houjin; Peng, Yahui; Li, Yanfeng; Li, Jupeng

    2018-06-04

    An atlas-based multimodal registration method for 2-dimension images with discrepancy structures was proposed in this paper. Atlas was utilized for complementing the discrepancy structure information in multimodal medical images. The scheme includes three steps: floating image to atlas registration, atlas to reference image registration, and field-based deformation. To evaluate the performance, a frame model, a brain model, and clinical images were employed in registration experiments. We measured the registration performance by the squared sum of intensity differences. Results indicate that this method is robust and performs better than the direct registration for multimodal images with discrepancy structures. We conclude that the proposed method is suitable for multimodal images with discrepancy structures. Graphical Abstract An Atlas-based multimodal registration method schematic diagram.

  15. Body self-discrepancies and women's social physique anxiety: the moderating role of the feared body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodman, Tim; Steer, Rebecca

    2011-05-01

    We explored ideal, ought, and feared body image self-discrepancies as predictors of social physique anxiety within Carver, Lawrence, and Scheier's and Woodman and Hemmings' interaction frameworks. One hundred women completed actual, ideal, ought, and feared body self-discrepancy visual analogue scales, the Social Physique Anxiety Scale and the Beck Depression Inventory-II. Moderated hierarchical regression analyses indicated that the relationship between ought body fat discrepancies and social physique anxiety was moderated by proximity to the feared fat self. Specifically, the positive relationship between ought fat discrepancies and social physique anxiety was stronger when women were far from their feared body self. The results highlight the importance of considering the feared self in order to more fully understand the relationship between body image and social physique anxiety. ©2010 The British Psychological Society.

  16. . Interparental violence; similarities and discrepancies between narratives of mothers and their children.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rooij, F.B.; van der Schuur, W.; Mak, J.; Steketee, M.; Pels, T.V.M.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies and intervention programs on interparental violence have relied largely on reports either solely from parents or solely from children. Nevertheless, the literature and the theoretical background provide indications of the existence of discrepancies between the narratives of parents

  17. Processing Discrepancy Reports Against Foreign Military Sales Shipments (Supplementation is Permitted at all Levels)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tucker, Gary

    1991-01-01

    ...) shipments are processed. It provides for the basic documents required to support adjustment of property and financial inventory accounting records, notification to shippers of the type of discrepancies, required corrective...

  18. Informant Discrepancies in Assessing Child Dysfunction Relate to Dysfunction Within Mother-Child Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    De Los Reyes, Andres; Kazdin, Alan E.

    2006-01-01

    Examined whether mother-child discrepancies in perceived child behavior problems relate to dysfunctional interactions between mother and child and stress in the mother. Participants included 239 children (6–16 years old; 58 girls, 181 boys) referred for oppositional, aggressive, and antisocial behavior, and their mothers. Mother-child discrepancies in perceived child behavior problems were related to mother-child conflict. Moreover, maternal stress mediated this relationship. The findings sug...

  19. Body Image, Self-Esteem, Media, Disordered Eating and Actual Ideal Weight Discrepancy: Findings in Cyprus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marios Argyrides

    2017-02-01

    discrepancy. No differences were found concerning age, socioeconomic status and place of upbringing and residence. The results of this study offer important additional information to the body image and disordered eating literature regarding a construct (actual ideal weight discrepancy never examined before in Cyprus. This information could be used by Cypriot and European mental health professionals when working with children and teenagers who are at risk for or exhibit symptoms related to eating disorders and in developing prevention interventions.

  20. Discrepancies in the half-lives of 90Sr, 137Cs and 252Cf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajput, M.U.; Mac Mahon, T.D.

    1990-01-01

    Recent reports have pointed out that significant discrepancies exist in published half-life data for 90 Sr, 137 Cs and 252 Cr, amongst others. These discrepancies make the estimation of evaluated half-lives for these isotopes difficult and contentious. This paper reviews the current situation, takes into account recently available data and attempts to derive recommended half-lives and associated uncertainties for the three isotopes. 37 refs, 3 tabs

  1. Patterns and Predictors of Mother-Adolescent Discrepancies across Family Constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rote, Wendy M; Smetana, Judith G

    2016-10-01

    Parent-child discrepancies pervade the family literature; they appear in reports of relationship dynamics (e.g., conflict; Laursen et al. 1998), parent and child behaviors (e.g., monitoring; De Los Reyes et al. 2010), and individual family members' beliefs (e.g., parental legitimate authority; Smetana 2011). Discrepancies are developmentally normative (Steinberg 2001) but also may be indicators of relationship and adjustment problems for teens (Ohannessian 2012). Because of this variation, it is important to consider the extent to which parent-child discrepancies are a function of both the dyad and the family construct considered. The present study contributed to our understanding of informant discrepancies in family relationships by considering the patterning, consistency, and correlates of mother-adolescent discrepancies across three family constructs that vary in their objectivity. Using person-centered analyses, discrepancies in adolescents' and mothers' ratings of parents' right to know about teens' activities, mothers' knowledge of them, and positive mother-adolescents relationships were examined in 167 middle class, primarily European American mother-adolescent dyads (M teen age = 15.68 years, SD = .64, 53 % female). Each construct was best described by three profiles, one where adolescents' standardized ratings were consistently higher than mothers', one showing the reverse, and one revealing little disagreement. Adolescent-reported problem behavior (but not depression), behavioral and psychological control, and mothers' wellbeing significantly predicted profile membership. Most dyads maintained consistent membership in a discrepancy profile across at least two family constructs. Results contribute to understanding the different sources of discrepancies in views of the family.

  2. The efficacy of a modified general hip technique in the treatment of leg length discrepancies

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    M.Dip.Tech. Functional leg length discrepancies, as distinct from anatomical discrepancies, are often associated with sacroiliac joint dysfunction. This may result in back pain and discomfort. Chiropractors usually treat this condition using a side posture sacroiliac adjustment, but in some cases, an adjustment may not be indicated. This study aims to determine whether a Modified General Hip technique would be an acceptable alternative treatment. For this study, 30 patients who suffered fr...

  3. Parental and Peer Factors Associated with Body Image Discrepancy among Fifth-Grade Boys and Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentzel, Kathryn; Elliott, Marc N.; Dittus, Patricia J.; Kanouse, David E.; Wallander, Jan L.; Pasch, Keryn E.; Franzini, Luisa; Taylor, Wendell C.; Qureshi, Tariq; Franklin, Frank A.; Schuster, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Many young adolescents are dissatisfied with their body due to a discrepancy between their ideal and actual body size, which can lead to weight cycling, eating disorders, depression, and obesity. The current study examined the associations of parental and peer factors with fifth-graders’ body image discrepancy, physical self-worth as a mediator between parental and peer factors and body image discrepancy, and how these associations vary by child’s sex. Body image discrepancy was defined as the difference between young adolescents’ self-perceived body size and the size they believe a person their age should be. Data for this study came from Healthy Passages, which surveyed 5,147 fifth graders (51 % females; 34 % African American, 35 % Latino, 24 % White, and 6 % other) and their primary caregivers from the United States. Path analyses were conducted separately for boys and girls. The findings for boys suggest father nurturance and getting along with peers are related negatively to body image discrepancy; however, for girls, fear of negative evaluation by peers is related positively to body image discrepancy. For both boys and girls, getting along with peers and fear of negative evaluation by peers are related directly to physical self-worth. In addition, mother nurturance is related positively to physical self-worth for girls, and father nurturance is related positively to physical self-worth for boys. In turn, physical self-worth, for both boys and girls, is related negatively to body image discrepancy. The findings highlight the potential of parental and peer factors to reduce fifth graders’ body image discrepancy. PMID:23334988

  4. Computerized follow-up of discrepancies in image interpretation between emergency and radiology departments

    OpenAIRE

    Siegel, Eliot; Groleau, Georgina; Reiner, Bruce; Stair, Thomas

    1998-01-01

    Radiographs are ordered and interpreted for immediate clinical decisions 24 hours a day by emergency physicians (EP’s). The Joint Commission for Accreditation of Health Care Organizations requires that all these images be reviewed by radiologists and that there be some mechanism for quality improvement (QI) for discrepant readings. There must be a log of discrepancies and documentation of follow up activities, but this alone does not guarantee effective Q.I. Radiologists reviewing images from...

  5. Second opinion and discrepancy in the diagnosis of soft tissue lesions at surgical pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharif Muhammad

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the frequency and magnitude of discrepancies in the surgical pathological diagnosis of soft tissue lesions on review and second opinion in a histopathology center. Study Design: Cross-sectional, observational. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Histopathology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi, from April 2006 to May 2007. Materials and Methods: All the cases of soft tissue as well as bone lesions, irrespective of age and gender, which were referred for second opinion or review after being reported elsewhere, were included in the study. A panel of antibodies of soft tissue, epithelial and lymphoid markers was applied according to the requirements of each case. The cases were categorized as category A where there was concurrence between initial diagnosis and diagnosis at review. Category B included cases where there was disagreement in the specific diagnostic entity as per WHO classifications without therapeutic implications. Category C was cases where the category of benign or malignant diagnosis remained the same but there was disagreement in the specific diagnosis with definite therapeutic implications. Category D had diagnosis of benign changed to malignant while category E had cases where diagnosis of malignancy was changed to a benign lesion. Results: During the study period, 34 cases of soft tissue lesions were received for review and second opinion. The mean age of the patients was 39 ΁ 22 years and immunohistochemistry was performed in 21 (62% of 34 cases. Concurrence between the review and initial diagnosis was seen in 18 (53% cases (category A. Discrepancy in the diagnosis at review and initial consultation was seen in 16 (47% cases. There were four (11.8% cases that were placed in category B as the diagnosis of benign and malignant remained the same but the specific diagnostic entity was changed. Category C included eight (23.5% cases where the review diagnosis changed the therapeutic

  6. Cost and quality implications of discrepancies between admitting and discharge diagnoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNutt, Robert; Johnson, Tricia; Kane, Jason; Ackerman, Mariel; Odwazny, Richard; Bardhan, Jaydeep

    2012-01-01

    Presenting and discharge diagnoses of hospitalized patients may differ as a result of patient complexity, diagnostic dilemmas, or errors in clinical judgment at the time of primary assessment. When diagnoses at admission and discharge are not in agreement, this discrepancy may indicate more complex processes of care and resultant costs. It is unclear whether surrogate measures reflecting quality of care are impacted by discrepant diagnoses. To assess whether an association exists between admitting and discharge International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) diagnosis codes and other quality markers including hospital length of stay, total cost of care, and 30-day readmission rate. This was a retrospective, cross-sectional analysis of general internal medicine patients aged 18 years and older. Diagnosis discrepancy was defined as a difference between the 3-digit ICD-9 diagnosis code at admission and the principal 3-digit ICD-9 diagnosis code at discharge. Sixty-eight percent of patients had a diagnosis discrepancy. Diagnosis discrepancy was associated with a 0.41-day increase in length of stay (P < .001), $663 increase in direct costs (P < .001), and a 1.55 times greater odds of readmission within 30 days (P < .001). Diagnosis discrepancy was associated with hospital quality outcome measures. This finding likely reflects variations in patients' diagnostic complexity.

  7. Parent-Adolescent Discrepancies in Perceived Parenting Characteristics and Adolescent Developmental Outcomes in Poor Chinese Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Janet T Y; Shek, Daniel T L

    2014-01-01

    We examined the relationships between parent-adolescent discrepancies in perceived parenting characteristics (indexed by parental responsiveness, parental demandingness, and parental control) and adolescent developmental outcomes (indexed by achievement motivation and psychological competence) in poor families in Hong Kong. A sample of 275 intact families having at least one child aged 11-16 experiencing economic disadvantage were invited to participate in the study. Fathers and mothers completed the Parenting Style Scale and Chinese Parental Control Scale, and adolescents completed the Social-Oriented Achievement Motivation Scale and Chinese Positive Youth Development Scale in addition to paternal and maternal Parenting Style Scale and Chinese Parental Control Scale. Results indicated that parents and adolescents had different perceptions of parental responsiveness, parental demandingness, and paternal control, with adolescents generally perceived lower levels of parenting behaviors than did their parents. While father-adolescent discrepancy in perceived paternal responsiveness and mother-adolescent discrepancy in perceived maternal control negatively predicted adolescent achievement motivation, mother-adolescent discrepancy in perceptions of maternal responsiveness negatively predicted psychological competence in adolescents experiencing economic disadvantage. The present findings provided support that parent-child discrepancies in perceived parenting characteristics have negative impacts on the developmental outcomes of adolescents experiencing economic disadvantage. The present study addresses parent-child discrepancies in perceived parental behaviors as "legitimate" constructs, and explores their links with adolescent psychosocial development, which sheds light for researchers and clinical practitioners in helping the Chinese families experiencing economic disadvantage.

  8. Body Image Self-Discrepancy and Depressive Symptoms Among Early Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon-Krakus, Shauna; Sabiston, Catherine M; Brunet, Jennifer; Castonguay, Andree L; Maximova, Katerina; Henderson, Mélanie

    2017-01-01

    This study examined whether body image self-discrepancy was a correlate of depressive symptoms among 556 early adolescents (45% girls; M age  = 11.65, SD = .94 years). Participants completed self-report measures of their self-perceived actual and ideal body shapes and depressive symptoms. Sex-stratified polynomial regressions were used to examine the associations between depressive symptoms and (1) agreement (i.e., similar actual and ideal body shapes); (2) discrepancy (i.e., different actual and ideal body shapes); (3) direction of discrepancy (i.e., actual > ideal or actual self-perceptions are). For both sexes, depressive symptoms were more frequent when the direction of the discrepancy was such that participants perceived their actual body was larger than their ideal body. Furthermore, depressive symptoms were more frequent when the degree of the discrepancy between actual and ideal body shape perceptions was larger. Based on these findings, body image self-discrepancy may be a risk factor for depressive symptoms among early adolescents. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Applications of Rajeval technique for the evaluation of discrepant nuclear decay data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajput, M.U.

    2006-11-01

    There are 4 levels 95NB below the decay energy in the Adopted Levels of the 93 micro 08 evaluation that are not reported in this decay scheme: these are 730 6 (5/2+), 799 5 (3/2), 1011 8 (5/2), and 1088keV. These levels have only been reported in reaction studies and their lemma decay modes are not known the 730 level would be fed fed by and allowed beta decay, so this evaluator suggests it is actually the 724 level and the J* assignment is incorrect. The failure to observe decays to the possible 799 and 1011 levels is surprising since these would be 1st forbidden decays and from beta decay systematics (73Ra10) could have branches of several percent. Therefore, one must rely on the fact that other lemda rays have not been reported to support the completeness of this scheme. If one leaves the values of 65F102 in the data set, it is desirable to use either the RAJEVAL or Normalized Residual method to treat this discrepancy. The RAJEVAL method increase the uncertainty for the 65F102 value from 0.2 to 0.88 and gives the resulting value of 64.032(6) while the Normalized Residual method increase this uncertainty to 0.58 and give a result of 64.032(6). So, the adopted value is the same for each of these three methods. (author)

  10. Discrepant perceptions of communication, teamwork and situation awareness among surgical team members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wauben, L S G L; Dekker-van Doorn, C M; van Wijngaarden, J D H; Goossens, R H M; Huijsman, R; Klein, J; Lange, J F

    2011-04-01

    To assess surgical team members' differences in perception of non-technical skills. Questionnaire design. Operating theatres (OTs) at one university hospital, three teaching hospitals and one general hospital in the Netherlands. Sixty-six surgeons, 97 OT nurses, 18 anaesthetists and 40 nurse anaesthetists. All surgical team members, of five hospitals, were asked to complete a questionnaire and state their opinion on the current state of communication, teamwork and situation awareness at the OT. Ratings for 'communication' were significantly different, particularly between surgeons and all other team members (P ≤ 0.001). The ratings for 'teamwork' differed significantly between all team members (P ≤ 0.005). Within 'situation awareness' significant differences were mainly observed for 'gathering information' between surgeons and other team members (P communication, teamwork and situation awareness. Future research needs to ascertain whether these discrepancies are linked to greater risk of adverse events or to process as well as systems failures. Establishing this link would support implementation and use of complex team interventions that intervene at multiple levels of the healthcare system.

  11. Poor Efficiency of Eight-Plates in the Treatment of Lower Limb Discrepancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaumétou, Elodie; Mallet, Cindy; Souchet, Philippe; Mazda, Keyvan; Ilharreborde, Brice

    2016-01-01

    Among the numerous existing epiphysiodesis procedures, the eight-plate-guided growth technique, initially described for angular deformities correction, has progressively gained popularity among pediatric orthopaedic surgeons to treat lower limb discrepancy (LLD). The goal of this study was to assess the efficacy of eight-plates in LLD. All children treated for LLD with eight-plates were prospectively included and followed until skeletal maturity. Efficacy of the epiphysiodesis was calculated 6 and 18 months postoperatively and at latest follow-up, according to a method previously validated for percutaneous epiphysiodesis using transphyseal screws (PETS). Radiologic measurements were performed using 3-dimensional low-dose stereoradiography. Intraoperative and postoperative complications were reported. Thirty-two patients were included (average age at surgery, 12.5 y). For femoral epiphysiodesis, efficacy was only 23% at 6 months and 68% at latest follow-up. The procedure was even less efficient on the proximal tibia, with only 42% of the expected growth arrest at latest examination. Eight patients (20%) experienced plate-related pain during follow-up, and 5 physes (12.5%) required unplanned revision surgery. Results of the current series show that the eight-plate technique procedure was associated with few perioperative complications, but the growth arrest observed at follow-up was unpredictable and lower than that achieved with PETS in previous reports. Eight-plate procedures cannot be considered as an efficient epiphysiodesis technique in comparison with standard technique. Level IV.

  12. Discrepancies between beliefs and behavior: a prospective study into immunosuppressive medication adherence after kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Emma K; Tielen, Mirjam; Laging, Mirjam; Timman, Reinier; Beck, Denise K; Khemai, Roshni; van Gelder, Teun; Weimar, Willem

    2015-02-01

    Nonadherence to immunosuppressive medication after kidney transplantation is a behavioral issue and as such it is important to understand the psychological factors that influence this behavior. The aim of this study was to investigate the extent to which goal cognitions, illness perceptions, and treatment beliefs were related to changes in self-reported immunosuppressive medication adherence up to 18 months after transplantation. Interviews were conducted with patients in the outpatient clinic 6 weeks (T1; n=113), 6 months (T2; n=106), and 18 months (T3; n=84) after transplantation. Self-reported adherence was measured using the Basel Assessment of Adherence to Immunosuppressive Medications Scale Interview. Psychological concepts were measured using the Brief Illness Perceptions Questionnaire, Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire, and questions on the importance of adherence as a personal goal, conflict with other goals, and self-efficacy for goal attainment. Nonadherence significantly increased over time to 31% at T3. Perceived necessity of medication, perceived impact of transplant on life (consequences) and emotional response to transplantation significantly decreased over time. Participants who reported low importance of medication adherence as a personal goal were more likely to become nonadherent over time. Illness perceptions can be described as functional and supportive of adherence which is inconsistent with the pervasive and increasing nonadherence observed. There appears therefore to be a discrepancy between beliefs about adherence and actual behavior. Promoting (intrinsic) motivation for adherence goals and exploring the relative importance in comparison to other personal goals is a potential target for interventions.

  13. Discrepancy Between Clinician and Research Assistant in TIMI Score Calculation (TRIAGED CPU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor, Brian T.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Several studies have attempted to demonstrate that the Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI risk score has the ability to risk stratify emergency department (ED patients with potential acute coronary syndromes (ACS. Most of the studies we reviewed relied on trained research investigators to determine TIMI risk scores rather than ED providers functioning in their normal work capacity. We assessed whether TIMI risk scores obtained by ED providers in the setting of a busy ED differed from those obtained by trained research investigators. Methods: This was an ED-based prospective observational cohort study comparing TIMI scores obtained by 49 ED providers admitting patients to an ED chest pain unit (CPU to scores generated by a team of trained research investigators. We examined provider type, patient gender, and TIMI elements for their effects on TIMI risk score discrepancy. Results: Of the 501 adult patients enrolled in the study, 29.3% of TIMI risk scores determined by ED providers and trained research investigators were generated using identical TIMI risk score variables. In our low-risk population the majority of TIMI risk score differences were small; however, 12% of TIMI risk scores differed by two or more points. Conclusion: TIMI risk scores determined by ED providers in the setting of a busy ED frequently differ from scores generated by trained research investigators who complete them while not under the same pressure of an ED provider. [West J Emerg Med. 2015;16(1:24–33.

  14. Influence of experimental occlusal discrepancy on masticatory muscle activity during clenching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, K; Ai, M; Mizutani, H; Enosawa, S

    1996-01-01

    The influence of the experimental occlusal discrepancy on masticatory muscle activity was investigated on 12 subjects. Specially designed occlusal interferences were fabricated and various occlusal states were simulated with their aid. Subjects were asked to carry out eccentric clenching efforts and electromyographic activity of the masseter plus the anterior and posterior temporal muscles was measured. When compared with clenching on the unaltered natural dentition, clenching on the experimental interferences resulted in distinct patterns in the jaw elevator muscles, and the most characteristic change was observed when clenching effort was exerted on the experimental non-working side interference. Electromyographic activity in the anterior and posterior temporal muscles was decreased on the working side and increased on the non-working side and originally unilateral activity pattern with clear dominance on the working side was altered to a bilateral pattern, while that of the masseter muscles remained uninfluenced. Resultant bilateral activity in the anterior and posterior temporal muscles is thought to cause a superior movement of the working side condyle and an inferior movement of the non-working side condyle.

  15. Field Observations and Modeling Results of the McMurdo Shear Zone, Antarctica: Implications on Shear Margin Dynamics and Long- Term Viability of the South Pole Traverse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaluzienski, L. M.; Koons, P. O.; Enderlin, E. M.; Courville, Z.; Campbell, S. W.; Arcone, S.; Jordan, M.; Ray, L.

    2017-12-01

    Antarctica's ice shelves modulate the flow of inland ice towards the ocean. Understanding the controls on ice-shelf stability are critical to predicting the future evolution of the Antarctic Ice Sheet. For the Ross Ice Shelf (RIS), an important region of lateral resistance is the McMurdo Shear Zone (MSZ), a 5-10 km wide strip of heavily crevassed ice. On a yearly basis the United States Antarctic Program (USAP) mitigates crevasse hazards along the South Pole Traverse (SPoT) route that crosses this region. However, as ice advects northward past the lateral buttress of White Island into a region of greater flow divergence, intensified crevassing has been observed which will continue to place a substantial burden on safety mitigation efforts. The route has advected down-glacier towards this complex region since 2002 so the USAP currently has plans to relocate the shear zone crossing upstream in the near future. Our work aims to assess the feasibility of moving the route to several potential locations based on results from an integrated project incorporating detailed field-based observations of crevasse distributions and orientation from ground-penetrating radar (GPR), GPS and remote sensing observations of the flow and stress field within the MSZ, and finite element numerical modeling of local and regional kinematics within the region. In addition, we assess plausible dynamic forcings both upstream and downstream of the MSZ that could influence shear zone stability. These include changes in mass flux across the grounding lines of tributary glaciers such as the observed increase in ice discharge from of Byrd Glacier (Stearns et al., 2008) as well as changes at the MIS front due to recent intensified rift propagation (Banwel et al., 2017). Results from this work will increase our understanding of ice shelf shear margin dynamics and provide a firm basis for predicting the long-term behavior of the MSZ and viability of the SPoT. Stearns, Leigh A., Benjamin E. Smith, and

  16. Information-theoretic discrepancy based iterative reconstructions (IDIR) for polychromatic x-ray tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Kwang Eun; Lee, Jongha; Sung, Younghun; Lee, SeongDeok

    2013-01-01

    particular condition, the GID is equivalent to the Poisson log-likelihood function. The newly proposed GIDs of the other two categories consist of log-transformed measurements, which have the advantage of imposing linearized penalties over multiple discrepancies. For all proposed variants of the GID, the aforementioned strategy was used to obtain a closed-form update equation. Even though it is based on the exact polychromatic model, the derived algorithm bears a structural resemblance to conventional methods based on the monochromatic approximation. The authors named the proposed approach as information-theoretic discrepancy based iterative reconstructions (IDIR). In numerical experiments, IDIR with raw data converged faster than previously known statistical reconstruction methods. IDIR with log-transformed data exhibited superior reconstruction quality and faster convergence speed compared with conventional methods and their variants.Conclusions: The authors' new framework for tomographic reconstruction allows iterative inversion of the polychromatic data model. The primary departure from the traditional iterative reconstruction was the employment of the GID as a new metric for quantifying the inconsistency between the measured and synthetic data. The proposed methods outperformed not only conventional methods based on the monochromatic approximation but also those based on the polychromatic model. The authors have observed that the GID is a very flexible means to design an objective function for iterative reconstructions. Hence, the authors expect that the proposed IDIR framework will also be applicable to other challenging tasks

  17. Posterior transverse interarch discrepancy on HbE β thalassemia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuniar Zen

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: One of the symptoms that often arises on thalassemia patients is disharmony dentofacial, class II skeletal malocclusion, as a result of the malrelation of maxilla and mandible. This malrelation can be affected by either maxillary bone position, dentoalveolar maxillary position, mandibular bone position, dentoalveolar mandibular position, or combinations of those components. Purpose: The study was aimed to examine whether there is posterior transverse interarch discrepancy on the HbE β thalassemia patients or not. Methods: This study is an observational research with cross-sectional design. The sample consisted of 33 HbE β thalassemia patients and 33 non-thalassemia patients as a control group aged 12–14 years. Lateral cephalogram was carried out and dental casts of maxillary and mandibular dental arches were also taken in all of those patients. Results: There was no difference between the maxillary intermolar width of the HbE β thalassemia patients and that of the normal ones, but the mandibular intermolar width of the HbE β thalassemia patients was significantly smaller than that of the normal ones. Beside that, posterior transverse interarch discrepancy of of the HbE β thalassemia patients was significantly greater than that of the normal ones, which showed great difference between maxillary and mandibular intermolar widths. Conclusion: Posterior transverse interarch discrepancy of the HbE β thalassemia patients was different from that of the normal ones. The dentofacial abnormalities on the HbE β thalassemia patients aged 12–14 years primarily was due to disporposional dentofacial growth in the vertical, sagittal, and transversal directions, especially in the posterior region.Latar belakang: Salah satu akibat yang sering timbul pada penderita talasemia adalah disharmoni dentofasial berupa maloklusi skeletal kelas II yang merupakan kelainan hubungan maksila dan mandibula. Malrelasi ini dapat dipengaruhi oleh posisi

  18. Accomplishments of the MUSICA project to provide accurate, long-term, global and high-resolution observations of tropospheric {H2O,δD} pairs - a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Matthias; Wiegele, Andreas; Barthlott, Sabine; González, Yenny; Christner, Emanuel; Dyroff, Christoph; García, Omaira E.; Hase, Frank; Blumenstock, Thomas; Sepúlveda, Eliezer; Mengistu Tsidu, Gizaw; Takele Kenea, Samuel; Rodríguez, Sergio; Andrey, Javier

    2016-07-01

    In the lower/middle troposphere, {H2O,δD} pairs are good proxies for moisture pathways; however, their observation, in particular when using remote sensing techniques, is challenging. The project MUSICA (MUlti-platform remote Sensing of Isotopologues for investigating the Cycle of Atmospheric water) addresses this challenge by integrating the remote sensing with in situ measurement techniques. The aim is to retrieve calibrated tropospheric {H2O,δD} pairs from the middle infrared spectra measured from ground by FTIR (Fourier transform infrared) spectrometers of the NDACC (Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change) and the thermal nadir spectra measured by IASI (Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer) aboard the MetOp satellites. In this paper, we present the final MUSICA products, and discuss the characteristics and potential of the NDACC/FTIR and MetOp/IASI {H2O,δD} data pairs. First, we briefly resume the particularities of an {H2O,δD} pair retrieval. Second, we show that the remote sensing data of the final product version are absolutely calibrated with respect to H2O and δD in situ profile references measured in the subtropics, between 0 and 7 km. Third, we reveal that the {H2O,δD} pair distributions obtained from the different remote sensors are consistent and allow distinct lower/middle tropospheric moisture pathways to be identified in agreement with multi-year in situ references. Fourth, we document the possibilities of the NDACC/FTIR instruments for climatological studies (due to long-term monitoring) and of the MetOp/IASI sensors for observing diurnal signals on a quasi-global scale and with high horizontal resolution. Fifth, we discuss the risk of misinterpreting {H2O,δD} pair distributions due to incomplete processing of the remote sensing products.

  19. Complications with computer-aided designed/computer-assisted manufactured titanium and soldered gold bars for mandibular implant-overdentures: short-term observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsoulis, Joannis; Wälchli, Julia; Kobel, Simone; Gholami, Hadi; Mericske-Stern, Regina

    2015-01-01

    Implant-overdentures supported by rigid bars provide stability in the edentulous atrophic mandible. However, fractures of solder joints and matrices, and loosening of screws and matrices were observed with soldered gold bars (G-bars). Computer-aided designed/computer-assisted manufactured (CAD/CAM) titanium bars (Ti-bars) may reduce technical complications due to enhanced material quality. To compare prosthetic-technical maintenance service of mandibular implant-overdentures supported by CAD/CAM Ti-bar and soldered G-bar. Edentulous patients were consecutively admitted for implant-prosthodontic treatment with a maxillary complete denture and a mandibular implant-overdenture connected to a rigid G-bar or Ti-bar. Maintenance service and problems with the implant-retention device complex and the prosthesis were recorded during minimally 3-4 years. Annual peri-implant crestal bone level changes (ΔBIC) were radiographically assessed. Data of 213 edentulous patients (mean age 68 ± 10 years), who had received a total of 477 tapered implants, were available. Ti-bar and G-bar comprised 101 and 112 patients with 231 and 246 implants, respectively. Ti-bar mostly exhibited distal bar extensions (96%) compared to 34% of G-bar (p overdentures supported by soldered gold bars or milled CAD/CAM Ti-bars are a successful treatment modality but require regular maintenance service. These short-term observations support the hypothesis that CAD/CAM Ti-bars reduce technical complications. Fracture location indicated that the titanium thickness around the screw-access hole should be increased. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. What Influences Mental Illness? Discrepancies Between Medical Education and Conception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan Hy Einstein

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This preliminary study examined the differences between what was taught during a formal medical education and medical students’ and psychiatry residents’ conceptions of notions regarding the causes and determinants of mental illness. Methods: The authors surveyed 74 medical students and 11 residents via convenience sampling. The survey contained 18 statements which were rated twice based on truthfulness in terms of a participant’s formal education and conception, respectively. Descriptive statistics and a Wilcoxon signed rank test determined differences between education and conception. Results: Results showed that students were less likely to perceive a neurotransmitter imbalance to cause mental illness, as opposed to what was emphasized during a formal medical education. Students and residents also understood the importance of factors such as systemic racism and socioeconomic status in the development of mental illness, which were factors that did not receive heavy emphasis during medical education. Furthermore, students and residents believed that not only did mental illnesses have nonuniform pathologies, but that the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders also had the propensity to sometimes arbitrarily categorize individuals with potentially negative consequences. Conclusions: If these notions are therefore part of students’ and residents’ conceptions, as well as documented in the literature, then it seems appropriate for medical education to be further developed to emphasize these ideas.

  1. What Influences Mental Illness? Discrepancies Between Medical Education and Conception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einstein, Evan Hy; Klepacz, Lidia

    2017-01-01

    This preliminary study examined the differences between what was taught during a formal medical education and medical students' and psychiatry residents' conceptions of notions regarding the causes and determinants of mental illness. The authors surveyed 74 medical students and 11 residents via convenience sampling. The survey contained 18 statements which were rated twice based on truthfulness in terms of a participant's formal education and conception, respectively. Descriptive statistics and a Wilcoxon signed rank test determined differences between education and conception. Results showed that students were less likely to perceive a neurotransmitter imbalance to cause mental illness, as opposed to what was emphasized during a formal medical education. Students and residents also understood the importance of factors such as systemic racism and socioeconomic status in the development of mental illness, which were factors that did not receive heavy emphasis during medical education. Furthermore, students and residents believed that not only did mental illnesses have nonuniform pathologies, but that the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders also had the propensity to sometimes arbitrarily categorize individuals with potentially negative consequences. If these notions are therefore part of students' and residents' conceptions, as well as documented in the literature, then it seems appropriate for medical education to be further developed to emphasize these ideas.

  2. Long-term weight loss observed with olanzapine orally disintegrating tablets in overweight patients with chronic schizophrenia. A 1 year open-label, prospective trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawla, Bharat; Luxton-Andrew, Heather

    2008-04-01

    To investigate the long-term weight loss outcomes during usual clinical practice after switching from olanzapine standard oral tablet (SOT) to olanzapine orally disintegrating tablets (ODT). In this open-label prospective study, 26 patients with schizophrenia who were clinically stable on olanzapine SOT treatment were switched to olanzapine ODT. All other aspects of treatment remained constant. Weight was recorded at 3, 6, and 12 months. Patients incurred an average weight loss of 2.7 +/- 0.7 kg (p = 0.001) after switching patients from olanzapine SOT to olanzapine ODT at 12 months. Peak weight loss was observed at 6 months; however, significant weight loss was achieved as early as 3 months. The majority (81.9%) of patients lost weight, while 18.1% had no weight change or weight gain. Body mass index (BMI) significantly decreased by 1.0 +/- 0.3 kg/m(2) (p = 0.001). Interestingly, patients treated with higher doses of olanzapine (> or = 20 mg) incurred a greater weight loss of their body weight (5.6%), compared to those treated with lower doses (< 20 mg), who lost 1.9% of their body weight (p = 0.04). This study demonstrated that, in usual clinical practice, switching patients from olanzapine SOT to olanzapine ODT treatment resulted in significant weight loss that was maintained over 12 months. 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Combined effect of blood pressure and total cholesterol levels on long-term risks of subtypes of cardiovascular death: Evidence for Cardiovascular Prevention from Observational Cohorts in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Michihiro; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Asayama, Kei; Murakami, Yoshitaka; Sakurai, Masaru; Nakagawa, Hideaki; Iso, Hiroyasu; Okayama, Akira; Miura, Katsuyuki; Imai, Yutaka; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Okamura, Tomonori

    2015-03-01

    No large-scale, longitudinal studies have examined the combined effects of blood pressure (BP) and total cholesterol levels on long-term risks for subtypes of cardiovascular death in an Asian population. To investigate these relationships, a meta-analysis of individual participant data, which included 73 916 Japanese subjects (age, 57.7 years; men, 41.1%) from 11 cohorts, was conducted. During a mean follow-up of 15.0 years, deaths from coronary heart disease, ischemic stroke, and intraparenchymal hemorrhage occurred in 770, 724, and 345 cases, respectively. Cohort-stratified Cox proportional hazard models were used. After stratifying the participants by 4 systolic BP ×4 total cholesterol categories, the group with systolic BP ≥160 mm Hg with total cholesterol ≥5.7 mmol/L had the greatest risk for coronary heart disease death (adjusted hazard ratio, 4.39; Pdeath, and total cholesterol was inversely associated with intraparenchymal hemorrhage, but no significant interactions between BP and total cholesterol were observed for stroke. High BP and high total cholesterol can synergistically increase the risk for coronary heart disease death but not for stroke in the Asian population. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. Future Flight Opportunities and Calibration Protocols for CERES: Continuation of Observations in Support of the Long-Term Earth Radiation Budget Climate Data Record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priestley, Kory J.; Smith, George L.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of the Clouds and the Earth s Radiant Energy System (CERES) project is to provide a long-term record of radiation budget at the top-of-atmosphere (TOA), within the atmosphere, and at the surface with consistent cloud and aerosol properties at climate accuracy. CERES consists of an integrated instrument-algorithm validation science team that provides development of higher-level products (Levels 1-3) and investigations. It involves a high level of data fusion, merging inputs from 25 unique input data sources to produce 18 CERES data products. Over 90% of the CERES data product volume involves two or more instruments. Continuation of the Earth Radiation Budget (ERB) Climate Data Record (CDR) has been identified as critical in the 2007 NRC Decadal Survey, the Global Climate Observing System WCRP report, and in an assessment titled Impacts of NPOESS Nunn-McCurdy Certification on Joint NASA-NOAA Climate Goals . Five CERES instruments have flown on three different spacecraft: TRMM, EOS-Terra and EOS-Aqua. In response, NASA, NOAA and NPOESS have agreed to fly the existing CERES Flight Model (FM-5) on the NPP spacecraft in 2011 and to procure an additional CERES Sensor with modest upgrades for flight on the JPSS C1 spacecraft in 2014, followed by a CERES follow-on sensor for flight in 2018. CERES is a scanning broadband radiometer that measures filtered radiance in the SW (0.3-5 m), total (TOT) (0.3-200 m) and WN (8-12 m) regions. Pre-launch calibration is performed on each Flight Model to meet accuracy requirements of 1% for SW and 0.5% for outgoing LW observations. Ground to flight or in-flight changes are monitored using protocols employing onboard and vicarious calibration sources. Studies of flight data show that SW response can change dramatically due to optical contamination. with greatest impact in blue-to UV radiance, where tungsten lamps are largely devoid of output. While science goals remain unchanged for ERB Climate Data Record, it is now understood

  5. Central venous oxygenation: when physiology explains apparent discrepancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squara, Pierre

    2014-11-10

    Central venous oxygen saturation (ScvO2) >70% or mixed venous oxygen saturation (SvO2) >65% is recommended for both septic and non-septic patients. Although it is the task of experts to suggest clear and simple guidelines, there is a risk of reducing critical care to these simple recommendations. This article reviews the basic physiological and pathological features as well as the metrological issues that provide clear evidence that SvO2 and ScvO2 are adaptative variables with large inter-patient variability. This variability is exemplified in a modeled population of 1,000 standard ICU patients and in a real population of 100 patients including 15,860 measurements. In these populations, it can be seen how optimizing one to three of the four S(c)vO2 components homogenized the patients and yields a clear dependency with the fourth one. This explains the discordant results observed in large studies where cardiac output was increased up to predetermined S(c)vO2 thresholds following arterial oxygen hemoglobin saturation, total body oxygen consumption needs and hemoglobin optimization. Although a systematic S(c)vO2 goal-oriented protocol can be statistically profitable before ICU admission, appropriate intensive care mandates determination of the best compromise between S(c)vO2 and its four components, taking into account the specific constraints of each individual patient.

  6. Discrepancies in the female pelvic medicine and reconstructive surgeon workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muffly, Tyler M; Weterings, Robbie; Barber, Mathew D; Steinberg, Adam C

    2015-01-01

    It is unclear whether the current distribution of surgeons practicing female pelvic medicine and reconstructive surgery in the United States is adequate to meet the needs of a growing and aging population. We assessed the geographic distribution of female pelvic surgeons as represented by members of the American Urogynecologic Society (AUGS) throughout the United States at the county, state, and American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists district levels. County-level data from the AUGS, American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, and the United States Census were analyzed in this observational study. State and national patterns of female pelvic surgeon density were mapped graphically using ArcGIS software and 2010 US Census demographic data. In 2013, the 1058 AUGS practicing physicians represented 0.13% of the total physician workforce. There were 6.7 AUGS members available for every 1 million women and 20 AUGS members for every 1 million postreproductive-aged women in the United States. The density of female pelvic surgeons was highest in metropolitan areas. Overall, 88% of the counties in the United States lacked female pelvic surgeons. Nationwide, there was a mean of 1 AUGS member for every 31 practicing general obstetrician-gynecologists. These findings have implications for training, recruiting, and retaining female pelvic surgeons. The uneven distribution of female pelvic surgeons throughout the United States is likely to worsen as graduating female pelvic medicine and reconstructive surgery fellows continue to cluster in urban areas.

  7. The discrepancy in the perception of the public-political speech in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanta, Ivan; Lesinger, Gordana

    2014-03-01

    Key place in this paper takes the study of political speech in the Republic of Croatia and their impact on voters, or which keywords are in political speeches and public appearances of politicians in Croatia that their voting body wants to hear. Given listed below we will define the research topic in the form of a question - is there a discrepancy in the perception of the public-political speech in Croatia, and which keywords are specific to the two main regions in Croatia and that inhabitant these regions respond. Marcus Tullius Cicero, the most important Roman orator, he used a specific associative mnemonic technique that is called "technique room". He would talk expound on keywords and conceptual terms that he needed for the desired topic and join in these make them, according to the desired order, in a very creative and unique way, the premises of the house or palace, which he knew well. Then, while holding the speech intended to pass through rooms of the house or palace and then put keywords and concepts come to mind, again according to the desired order. Given that this is a specific kind of research political speech that is relatively recent in Croatia, it should be noted that there is still, this kind of political communication is not sufficiently explored. Particularly the emphasis on the impact and use of keywords specific to the Republic of Croatia, in everyday public and political communication. The paper will be analyzed the political, campaign speeches and promises several winning candidates, and now Croatian MEPs, specific keywords related to: economics, culture, science, education and health. The analysis is based on comparison of the survey results on the representation of key words in the speeches of politicians and qualitative analysis of the speeches of politicians on key words during the election campaign.

  8. Factors Associated With the Trend of Physical and Chemical Restraint Use Among Long-Term Care Facility Residents in Hong Kong: Data From an 11-Year Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Kuen; Kwan, Joseph S K; Wai Kwan, Chi; Chong, Alice M L; Lai, Claudia K Y; Lou, Vivian W Q; Leung, Angela Y M; Liu, Justina Y W; Bai, Xue; Chi, Iris

    2017-12-01

    Negative effects of restraint use have been well-documented. However, the prevalence of restraints use has been high in long-term care facilities in Hong Kong compared with other countries and this goes against the basic principles of ethical and compassionate care for older people. The present study aimed to review the change in the prevalence of physical and chemical restraint use in long-term care facilities (LTCFs) over a period of 11 years in Hong Kong and to identify the major factors associated with their use. This is an observational study with data obtained from the Hong Kong Longitudinal Study on LTCF Residents between 2005 and 2015. Trained assessors (nurses, social workers, and therapists) used the Minimum Data Set Resident Assessment Instrument to collect the data from 10 residential LTCFs. Physical restraint was defined as the use of any of the following: full bedside rails on all open sides of bed, other types of bedside rails used, trunk restraint, limb restraint, or the use of chair to prevent rising during the past 7 days. Chemical restraint was defined as the use of any of the following medications: antipsychotic, antianxiety, or hypnotic agents during past 7 days, excluding elder residents with a diagnosis of psychiatric illness. Annual prevalence of restraint use over 11 years and factors that were associated with the use of physical and chemical restraints. We analyzed the data for 2896 older people (978 male individuals, mean age = 83.3 years). Between 2005 and 2015, the prevalence of restraint use was as follows: physical restraint use increased from 52.7% to 70.2%; chemical restraint use increased from 15.9% to 21.78%; and either physical or chemical restraint use increased from 57.9% to 75.7%. Physical restraint use was independently associated with older age, impaired activities of daily living or cognitive function, bowel and bladder incontinence, dementia, and negative mood. Chemical restraint use was independently associated

  9. Overview of long-term observations of radioactivity in the area around Institute of nuclear physics of Uzbekistan Academy of Sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salikhbaev, U.S.; Yuldashev, B.S.; Radyuk, R.I.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: The radiation protection problem is mainly important with its relation with potential radioactivity threat to society and environment. Therefore, development of nuclear science in Uzbekistan since foundation of the Institute of Nuclear Physic (INP) is directly related to radiation protection of the personnel, population and environment. One of the major tasks highlighted in this report, importance of complex approach to the radiation protection and security, is worth of mentioning. Development of such an approach allows creation of a concept to predict the radiation situation and transition to radiation monitoring around the research nuclear centre. The aim of this complex approach to the solution of the radiation protection task is to find the methods for making predictions and managing the radiation situation around the nuclear centre. Complex approach to this research implies integration of theoretical and experimental activities. Theoretical studies involve primarily radiation prediction models. Experimental works are, on one hand, the data to approve the theoretical models, the obtained empirical parameters, and, on the other hand, information on the radiation situation for its forecasting. Lack of reliable information on the radioactivity level creates various rumours and is the major reason for radiophobia. The aim of this report is to present realistic information on the radioactivity level at the INP AS RU site and at the surrounding area, which is based on long-term measurements provided by the radiation protection department. In this work the following results of the research are presented: -total beta and gamma-activity of herbs and soil; - specific activity of waters (waste, underground, and surface); - activity of the air aerosols; - activity of the atmospheric precipitations; - background at the site of the INP, at the sanitary-protection area and observation area. What has been accomplished for these years? Firstly, the model for cobalt

  10. Compatibility of different measurement techniques of global solar radiation and application for long-term observations at Izaña Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delia García, Rosa; Cuevas, Emilio; García, Omaira Elena; Ramos, Ramón; Romero-Campos, Pedro Miguel; de Ory, Fernado; Cachorro, Victoria Eugenia; de Frutos, Angel

    2017-03-01

    A 1-year inter-comparison of classical and modern radiation and sunshine duration (SD) instruments has been performed at Izaña Atmospheric Observatory (IZO) located in Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain) starting on 17 July 2014. We compare daily global solar radiation (GSRH) records measured with a Kipp & Zonen CM-21 pyranometer, taken in the framework of the Baseline Surface Radiation Network, with those measured with a multifilter rotating shadowband radiometer (MFRSR), a bimetallic pyranometer (PYR) and GSRH estimated from sunshine duration performed by a Campbell-Stokes sunshine recorder (CS) and a Kipp & Zonen sunshine duration sensor (CSD). Given that the BSRN GSRH records passed strict quality controls (based on principles of physical limits and comparison with the LibRadtran model), they have been used as reference in the inter-comparison study. We obtain an overall root mean square error (RMSE) of ˜ 0.9 MJm-2 (4 %) for PYR and MFRSR GSRH, 1.9 (7 %) and 1.2 MJm-2 (5 %) for CS and CSD GSRH, respectively. Factors such as temperature, relative humidity (RH) and the solar zenith angle (SZA) have been shown to moderately affect the GSRH observations. As an application of the methodology developed in this work, we have re-evaluated the GSRH data time series obtained at IZO with two PYRs between 1977 and 1991. Their high consistency and temporal stability have been proved by comparing with GSRH estimates obtained from SD observations. These results demonstrate that (1) the continuous-basis inter-comparison of different GSRH techniques offers important diagnostics for identifying inconsistencies between GSRH data records, and (2) the GSRH measurements performed with classical and more simple instruments are consistent with more modern techniques and, thus, valid to recover GSRH data time series and complete worldwide distributed GSRH data. The inter-comparison and quality assessment of these different techniques have allowed us to obtain a complete and consistent

  11. Discrepancies in autobiographical memories— implications for the assessment of asylum seekers: repeated interviews study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herlihy, Jane; Scragg, Peter; Turner, Stuart

    2002-01-01

    Objective To investigate the consistency of autobiographical memory of people seeking asylum, in light of the assumption that discrepancies in asylum seekers' accounts of persecution mean that they are fabricating their stories. Design Repeated interviews. Setting England, 1999 and 2000. Participants Community sample of 27 Kosovan and 12 Bosnian refugees. Main outcome measures Discrepancies in repeated descriptions of one traumatic and one non-traumatic event, including specific details, rated as central or peripheral to the event. Self report measures of post-traumatic stress disorder and depression. Results Discrepancies between an individual's accounts were common. For participants with high levels of post-traumatic stress, the number of discrepancies increased with length of time between interviews. More discrepancies occurred in details peripheral to the account than in details that were central to the account. Conclusion The assumption that inconsistency of recall means that accounts have poor credibility is questionable. Discrepancies are likely to occur in repeated interviews. For refugees showing symptoms of high levels of post-traumatic stress, the length of the application process may also affect the number of discrepancies. Recall of details rated by the interviewee as peripheral to the account is more likely to be inconsistent than recall of details that are central to the account. Thus, such inconsistencies should not be relied on as indicating a lack of credibility. What is already known on this topicDiscrepancies between accounts of an event are often used to judge the credibility of asylum seekersWhat this study addsDiscrepancies arise between two accounts of the same event even when there is no reason for fabricationRefugees with high levels of post-traumatic stress are more likely to give inconsistent accounts if they have a long time to wait between interviewsInterviewees are more likely to be inconsistent in details that they rate as peripheral

  12. Implications of the "observer effect" on modelling a long-term pumping test with hydraulically conductive boreholes in a discrete fracture network system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holton, D.; Frampton, A.; Cvetkovic, V.

    2006-12-01

    The Onkalo underground research facility for rock characterisation for nuclear waste disposal is located at Olkiluoto island, just off the Finnish coast in the Baltic Sea. Prior to the start of the excavation of the Onkalo facility, an extensive amount of hydraulic data has been collected during various pumping experiments from a large number of boreholes placed throughout an area of approximately 10 km2, reaching depths of 1000 meters below sea level. In particular, the hydraulic borehole data includes classical measurements of pressure, but also new measurements of flow rate and flow direction in boreholes (so called flow-logging). These measurements indicate large variations in heterogeneity and are a clear reflection of the discrete nature of the system. Here we present results from an ongoing project which aims to explore and asses the implications of these new flow-logging measurements to site descriptive modelling and modelling at performance assessment scales. The main challange of the first phase of this project is to obtain a greater understanding of a strongly heterogenious and anisotropic groundwater system in which open boreholes are located; that is, a system in which the observation boreholes themselves create new hydraulic conductive features of the groundwater system. The results presented are from recent hydraulic flow modelling simulations with a combined continuous porous media and discrete fracture network approach using a commercial finite-element software. An advantage of this approach is we may adapt a continuum mesh on the regional scale, were only a few conductive features are known, together with a local scale discrete fracture network approach, where detailed site-investigation has revealed a large amount of conductive features. Current findings indicate the system is sensitive to certain combinations of hydraulic features, and we quantify the significance of including these variations in terms of their implications for reduction of

  13. Early Soft X-Ray to UV Emission from Double Neutron Star Mergers: Implications from the Long-term Observations of GW170817

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiang-Yu; Huang, Zhi-Qiu

    2018-01-01

    Recent long-term radio follow-up observations of GW170817 reveal a simple power-law rising light curve, with a slope of {t}0.78, up to 93 days after the merger. The latest X-ray detection at 109 days is also consistent with such a temporal slope. Such a shallow rise behavior requires a mildly relativistic outflow with a steep velocity gradient profile, so that slower material with larger energy catches up with the decelerating ejecta and re-energizes it. It has been suggested that this mildly relativistic outflow may represent a cocoon of material. We suggest that the velocity gradient profile may form during the stage that the cocoon is breaking out of the merger ejecta, resulting from shock propagation down a density gradient. The cooling of the hot relativistic cocoon material immediately after it breaks out should have produced soft X-ray to UV radiation at tens of seconds to hours after the merger. The soft X-ray emission has a luminosity of {L}{{X}}∼ {10}45 {erg} {{{s}}}-1 over a period of tens of seconds for a merger event like GW170817. The UV emission shows a rise initially and peaks at about a few hours with a luminosity of {L}{UV}∼ {10}42 {erg} {{{s}}}-1. The soft X-ray transients could be detected by future wide-angle X-ray detectors, such as the Chinese mission Einstein Probe. This soft X-ray/UV emission would serve as one of the earliest electromagnetic counterparts of gravitation waves from double neutron star mergers and could provide the earliest localization of the sources.

  14. Human factor observations of the Biosphere 2, 1991-1993, closed life support human experiment and its application to a long-term manned mission to Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alling, Abigail; Nelson, Mark; Silverstone, Sally; Van Thillo, Mark

    2002-01-01

    Human factors are a key component to the success of long-term space missions such as those necessitated by the human exploration of Mars and the development of bioregenerative and eventually self-sufficient life support systems for permanent space outposts. Observations by participants living inside the 1991-1993 Biosphere 2 closed system experiment provide the following insights. (1) Crew members should be involved in the design and construction of their life support systems to gain maximum knowledge about the systems. (2) Individuals living in closed life support systems should expect a process of physiological and psychological adaptation to their new environment. (3) Far from simply being a workplace, the participants in such extended missions will discover the importance of creating a cohesive and satisfying life style. (4) The crew will be dependent on the use of varied crops to create satisfying cuisine, a social life with sufficient outlets of expression such as art and music, and to have down-time from purely task-driven work. (5) The success of the Biosphere 2 first 2-year mission suggests that crews with high cultural diversity, high commitment to task, and work democracy principles for individual responsibility may increase the probability of both mission success and personal satisfaction. (6) Remaining challenges are many, including the need for far more comprehensive real-time modeling and information systems (a "cybersphere") operating to provide real-time data necessary for decision-making in a complex life support system. (7) And, the aim will be to create a noosphere, or sphere of intelligence, where the people and their living systems are in sustainable balance.

  15. Long-term Outcomes With Planned Multistage Reduced Dose Repeat Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Treatment of Inoperable High-Grade Arteriovenous Malformations: An Observational Retrospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciscano, Ariel E; Huang, Judy; Tamargo, Rafael J; Hu, Chen; Khattab, Mohamed H; Aggarwal, Sameer; Lim, Michael; Redmond, Kristin J; Rigamonti, Daniele; Kleinberg, Lawrence R

    2017-07-01

    There is no consensus regarding the optimal management of inoperable high-grade arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). This long-term study of 42 patients with high-grade AVMs reports obliteration and adverse event (AE) rates using planned multistage repeat stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). To evaluate the efficacy and safety of multistage SRS with treatment of the entire AVM nidus at each treatment session to achieve complete obliteration of high-grade AVMs. Patients with high-grade Spetzler-Martin (S-M) III-V AVMs treated with at least 2 multistage SRS treatments from 1989 to 2013. Clinical outcomes of obliteration rate, minor/major AEs, and treatment characteristics were collected. Forty-two patients met inclusion criteria (n = 26, S-M III; n = 13, S-M IV; n = 3, S-M V) with a median follow-up was 9.5 yr after first SRS. Median number of SRS treatment stages was 2, and median interval between stages was 3.5 yr. Twenty-two patients underwent pre-SRS embolization. Complete AVM obliteration rate was 38%, and the median time to obliteration was 9.7 yr. On multivariate analysis, higher S-M grade was significantly associated ( P = .04) failure to achieve obliteration. Twenty-seven post-SRS AEs were observed, and the post-SRS intracranial hemorrhage rate was 0.027 events per patient year. Treatment of high-grade AVMs with multistage SRS achieves AVM obliteration in a meaningful proportion of patients with acceptable AE rates. Lower obliteration rates were associated with higher S-M grade and pre-SRS embolization. This approach should be considered with caution, as partial obliteration does not protect from hemorrhage. Copyright © 2017 by the Congress of Neurological Surgeons

  16. Masculine discrepancy stress, teen dating violence, and sexual violence perpetration among adolescent boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidy, Dennis E; Smith-Darden, Joanne P; Cortina, Kai S; Kernsmith, Roger M; Kernsmith, Poco D

    2015-06-01

    Addressing gender norms is integral to understanding and ultimately preventing violence in both adolescent and adult intimate relationships. Males are affected by gender role expectations which require them to demonstrate attributes of strength, toughness, and dominance. Discrepancy stress is a form of gender role stress that occurs when boys and men fail to live up to the traditional gender norms set by society. Failure to live up to these gender role expectations may precipitate this experience of psychological distress in some males which, in turn, may increase the risk to engage in physically and sexually violent behaviors as a means of demonstrating masculinity. Five-hundred eighty-nine adolescent males from schools in Wayne County, Michigan completed a survey assessing self-perceptions of gender role discrepancy, the experience of discrepancy stress, and history of physical and sexual dating violence. Logistic regression analyses indicated boys who endorsed gender role discrepancy and associated discrepancy stress were generally at greater risk to engage in acts of sexual violence but not necessarily physical violence. Boys who experience stress about being perceived as "sub-masculine" may be more likely to engage in sexual violence as a means of demonstrating their masculinity to self and/or others and thwarting potential "threats" to their masculinity by dating partners. Efforts to prevent sexual violence perpetration among male adolescents should perhaps consider the influence of gender socialization in this population and include efforts to reduce distress about masculine socialization in primary prevention strategies. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Thrombus length discrepancy on dual-phase CT can predict clinical outcome in acute ischemic stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Mina; Kim, Kyung-eun; Lee, Seung-Koo; Shin, Na-Young; Lim, Soo Mee; Song, Dongbeom; Heo, Ji Hoe; Kim, Jin Woo; Oh, Se Won

    2016-01-01

    The thrombus length may be overestimated on early arterial computed tomography angiography (CTA) depending on the collateral status. We evaluated the value of a grading system based on the thrombus length discrepancy on dual-phase CT in outcome prediction. Forty-eight acute ischemic stroke patients with M1 occlusion were included. Dual-phase CT protocol encompassed non-contrast enhanced CT, CTA with a bolus tracking technique, and delayed contrast enhanced CT (CECT) performed 40s after contrast injection. The thrombus length discrepancy between CTA and CECT was graded by using a three-point scale: G0 = no difference; G1 = no difference in thrombus length, but in attenuation distal to thrombus; G2 = difference in thrombus length. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to define independent predictors of poor clinical outcome at 3 months. The thrombus discrepancy grade showed significant linear relationships with both the collateral status (P = 0.008) and the presence of antegrade flow on DSA (P = 0.010) with good interobserver agreement (κ = 0.868). In a multivariate model, the presence of thrombus length discrepancy (G2) was an independent predictor of poor clinical outcome [odds ratio = 11.474 (1.350-97.547); P =0.025]. The presence of thrombus length discrepancy on dual-phase CT may be a useful predictor of unfavourable clinical outcome in acute M1 occlusion patients. (orig.)

  18. Exploring disadvantageous inequality aversion in children: How cost and discrepancy influence decision-making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda eWilliams

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This research examined disadvantageous inequality aversion in 4- and 6-year-old children. Using the resource allocation paradigm, we explored how inequality aversion was influenced by whether a cost was associated with the equitable choice. We also investigated whether preferences for equality differed depending on whether the inequitable choice presented a small or large discrepancy between the payoff of the participant and their partner. The results demonstrated that cost plays a large role in decision-making, as children preferred equality more when there was no cost associated with it compared to when there was a cost. Interestingly, the effect of cost also affected discrepancy, with children more likely to choose equality when the discrepancy was large as opposed to small, in cost trials but not in no cost trials. Finally, the effect of discrepancy also interacted with age, with older children being more sensitive to the discrepancy between themselves and their partner Together, these results suggest that children’s behaviour is not indiscriminately guided by a generalized aversion to inequality or established fairness norms. Alternate motives for inequality aversion are discussed.

  19. Procedure for statistical analysis of one-parameter discrepant experimental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badikov, Sergey A.; Chechev, Valery P.

    2012-01-01

    A new, Mandel–Paule-type procedure for statistical processing of one-parameter discrepant experimental data is described. The procedure enables one to estimate a contribution of unrecognized experimental errors into the total experimental uncertainty as well as to include it in analysis. A definition of discrepant experimental data for an arbitrary number of measurements is introduced as an accompanying result. In the case of negligible unrecognized experimental errors, the procedure simply reduces to the calculation of the weighted average and its internal uncertainty. The procedure was applied to the statistical analysis of half-life experimental data; Mean half-lives for 20 actinides were calculated and results were compared to the ENSDF and DDEP evaluations. On the whole, the calculated half-lives are consistent with the ENSDF and DDEP evaluations. However, the uncertainties calculated in this work essentially exceed the ENSDF and DDEP evaluations for discrepant experimental data. This effect can be explained by adequately taking into account unrecognized experimental errors. - Highlights: ► A new statistical procedure for processing one-parametric discrepant experimental data has been presented. ► Procedure estimates a contribution of unrecognized errors in the total experimental uncertainty. ► Procedure was applied for processing half-life discrepant experimental data. ► Results of the calculations are compared to the ENSDF and DDEP evaluations.

  20. Functional leg length discrepancy between theories and reliable instrumental assessment: a study about newly invented NPoS system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Asmaa; Abundo, Paolo; Basile, Luisanna; Albensi, Caterina; Marasco, Morena; Bellizzi, Letizia; Galasso, Franco; Foti, Calogero

    2017-01-01

    In spite the instinct social&financial impact of Leg Length Discrepancy (LLD), controversial and conflicting results still exist regarding a reliable assessment/correction method. For proper management it's essential to discriminate between anatomical&functional Leg Length Discrepancy (FLLD). With the newly invented NPoS (New Postural Solution), under the umbrella of the collaboration of PRM Department, Tor Vergata University with Baro Postural Instruments srl, positive results were observed in both measuring& compensating the hemi-pelvic antero-medial rotation in FLLD through personalized bilateral heel raise using two NPoS components: Foot Image System (FIS) and Postural Optimizer System (POS). This led our research interest to test the validity of NPoS as a preliminary step before evaluating its implementations in postural disorders. After clinical evaluation, 4 subjects with FLLD have been assessed by NPoS. Over a period of 2 months, every subject was evaluated 12 times by two different operators, 48 measurements in total, results have been verified in correlation to BTS GaitLab results. Intra-Operator&inter-operator variability analysis showed statistically insignificant differences, while inter-method variability between NPoS and BTS parameters expressed a linear correlation. Results suggest a significant validity of NPoS in assessment&correction of FLLD, with high degree of reproducibility with minimal operator dependency. This can be considered a base for promising clinical implications of NPoS as a reliable cost effective postural assessment/corrective tool. V.

  1. Shared temporoparietal dysfunction in dyslexia and typical readers with discrepantly high IQ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Roeland; Gabrieli, John D E; Hoeft, Fumiko

    2016-12-01

    It is currently believed that reading disability (RD) should be defined by reading level without regard to broader aptitude (IQ). There is debate, however, about how to classify individuals who read in the typical range but less well than would be expected by their higher IQ. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in 49 children to examine whether those with typical, but discrepantly low reading ability relative to IQ, show dyslexia-like activation patterns during reading. Children who were typical readers with high-IQ discrepancy showed reduced activation in left temporoparietal neocortex relative to two control groups of typical readers without IQ discrepancy. This pattern was consistent and spatially overlapping with results in children with RD compared to typically reading children. The results suggest a shared neurological atypicality in regions associated with phonological processing between children with dyslexia and children with typical reading ability that is substantially below their IQ.

  2. Self-esteem discrepancies and identity-expressive consumption: Evidence from Norwegian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunca, Burak

    2018-02-01

    Prior research established that simultaneously holding discrepant explicit (deliberate, controlled) and implicit (automatic, uncontrolled) self-esteem gives rise to self-enhancing behaviours. Given that individuals tend to enhance their self-concepts with brands that are associated with positive identities, this study examined whether self-esteem discrepancy was related to the extent to which individuals developed connections with brands that are associated with their in-groups. Findings from an adolescent sample (ages 16-18) indicated that adolescents with larger discrepancies between explicit and implicit self-esteem were more likely to construct their self-concepts using in-group-linked brands. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.

  3. Using Emotionally Focused Therapy to Treat Sexual Desire Discrepancy in Couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Abby; Woolley, Scott R

    2017-11-17

    Couples in committed relationships encounter a multitude of issues. According to Metz and McCarthy (2010), when couples report high sexual satisfaction, it accounts for 15% to 20% of their overall relationship satisfaction. However, when couples report low sexual satisfaction, it contributes 50% to 70% of their overall satisfaction with their partner. Issues of sexual desire, currently referred to as sexual desire discrepancy, are among the most difficult to treat. Although there are many factors contributing to the issue of sexual desire discrepancy, current literature highlights the importance of emotional intimacy as an outcome and predictor of increased sexual desire. Given the complex nature of sexual desire, clinicians often lack the understanding and treatment options that are systemic. By viewing sexual desire discrepancy as a relational problem that can be treated using emotionally focused therapy, clinicians are better equipped to work with emotional and sexual factors that impact desire and couple distress.

  4. Culture-Led Discrepancies and Negotiating Conflicts in Strategic Outsourcing Alliances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Jens; Kumar, Rajesh; Worm, Verner

    2013-01-01

    Outsourcing and alliance collaboration have become prominent features of the global economy. Empirical studies demonstrate that outsourcing alliances are often not as successful as their initiators expect them to be. National cultural differences are frequently viewed as a crucial factor when...... such alliances fail. While empirical studies are abundant, theoretical frameworks that explicate the role of national cultural differences in shaping the dynamics of outsourcing alliances are rare. This article builds on Kumar and Nti's (1998) discrepancy model to specify how culture affects the dynamics...... of outsourcing alliances. We suggest that national cultural differences give rise to process and outcome discrepancies in outsourcing alliances. Notably, outsourcing alliances evolve through three stages–formation, operation and outcome–with discrepancies arising in each of these stages (Das & Teng, 2002). We...

  5. An attempt to explain the uranium 238 effective capture integral discrepancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tellier, Henry; Grandotto-Biettoli, Marc; Vanuxeem, Jacqueline

    1979-02-01

    Up to now, there was a discrepancy between the computed value and the measured value of the uranium 238 effective capture integral. The former has been always greater than the latter. For this reason, the reactor physicists have used an adjustment of the computed value. Nowadays the accuracy of the cross sections knowledge is increased and the reactors computation codes are almost exact. Such an adjustment is no more justified. Recently several new measurements of the resonance parameters were carried out and the use of a multilevel formalism was suggested to compute the uranium 238 cross sections. It is shown in this work that the simultaneous use of recent parameters and Reich and Moore formalism explain the discrepancy. For the thermal neutron reactors, two thirds of this discrepancy are explained by the neutron data and the last third by the multilevel formalism [fr

  6. A STUDY OF THE DISCREPANCY BETWEEN FEDERAL AND STATE MEASUREMENTS OF ON-HIGHWAY FUEL CONSUMPTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, HL

    2003-08-11

    Annual highway fuel taxes are collected by the Treasury Department and placed in the Highway Trust Fund (HTF). There is, however, no direct connection between the taxes collected by the Treasury Department and the gallons of on-highway fuel use, which can lead to a discrepancy between these totals. This study was conducted to determine how much of a discrepancy exists between the total fuel usages estimated based on highway revenue funds as reported by the Treasury Department and the total fuel usages used in the apportionment of the HTF to the States. The analysis was conducted using data from Highway Statistics Tables MF-27 and FE-9 for the years 1991-2001. It was found that the overall discrepancy is relatively small, mostly within 5% difference. The amount of the discrepancy varies from year to year and varies among the three fuel types (gasoline, gasohol, special fuels). Several potential explanations for these discrepancies were identified, including issues on data, tax measurement, gallon measurement, HTF receipts, and timing. Data anomalies caused by outside forces, such as deferment of tax payments from one fiscal year to the next, can skew fuel tax data. Fuel tax evasion can lead to differences between actual fuel use and fuel taxes collected. Furthermore, differences in data collection and reporting among States can impact fuel use data. Refunds, credits, and transfers from the HTF can impact the total fuel tax receipt data. Timing issues, such as calendar year vs. fiscal year, can also cause some discrepancy between the two data sources.

  7. FABP4 dynamics in obesity: discrepancies in adipose tissue and liver expression regarding circulating plasma levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Isabel Queipo-Ortuño

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: FABP4 is predominantly expressed in adipose tissue, and its circulating levels are linked with obesity and a poor atherogenic profile. OBJECTIVE: In patients with a wide BMI range, we analyze FABP4 expression in adipose and hepatic tissues in the settings of obesity and insulin resistance. Associations between FABP4 expression in adipose tissue and the FABP4 plasma level as well as the main adipogenic and lipolytic genes expressed in adipose tissue were also analyzed. METHODS: The expression of several lipogenic, lipolytic, PPAR family and FABP family genes was analyzed by real time PCR. FABP4 protein expression in total adipose tissues and its fractions were determined by western blot. RESULTS: In obesity FABP4 expression was down-regulated (at both mRNA and protein levels, with its levels mainly predicted by ATGL and inversely by the HOMA-IR index. The BMI appeared as the only determinant of the FABP4 variation in both adipose tissue depots. FABP4 plasma levels showed a significant progressive increase according to BMI but no association was detected between FABP4 circulating levels and SAT or VAT FABP4 gene expression. The gene expression of FABP1, FABP4 and FABP5 in hepatic tissue was significantly higher in tissue from the obese IR patients compared to the non-IR group. CONCLUSION: The inverse pattern in FABP4 expression between adipose and hepatic tissue observed in morbid obese patients, regarding the IR context, suggests that both tissues may act in a balanced manner. These differences may help us to understand the discrepancies between circulating plasma levels and adipose tissue expression in obesity.

  8. Emergence of the mass discrepancy-acceleration relation from dark matter-baryon interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Famaey, Benoit; Khoury, Justin; Penco, Riccardo

    2018-03-01

    The observed tightness of the mass discrepancy-acceleration relation (MDAR) poses a fine-tuning challenge to current models of galaxy formation. We propose that this relation could arise from collisional interactions between baryons and dark matter (DM) particles, without the need for modification of gravity or ad hoc feedback processes. We assume that these interactions satisfy the following three conditions: (i) the relaxation time of DM particles is comparable to the dynamical time in disk galaxies; (ii) DM exchanges energy with baryons due to elastic collisions; (iii) the product between the baryon-DM cross section and the typical energy exchanged in a collision is inversely proportional to the DM number density. As a proof of principle, we present an example of a particle physics model that gives a DM-baryon cross section with the desired density and velocity dependence. For consistency with direct detection constraints, our DM particles must be either very light (m ll mb) or very heavy (mgg mb), corresponding respectively to heating and cooling of DM by baryons. In both cases, our mechanism applies and an equilibrium configuration can in principle be reached. In this exploratory paper, we focus on the heavy DM/cooling case because it is technically simpler, since the average energy exchanged turns out to be approximately constant throughout galaxies. Under these assumptions, we find that rotationally-supported disk galaxies could naturally settle to equilibrium configurations satisfying a MDAR at all radii without invoking finely tuned feedback processes. We also discuss issues related to the small scale clumpiness of baryons, as well as predictions for pressure-supported systems. We argue in particular that galaxy clusters do not follow the MDAR despite being DM-dominated because they have not reached their equilibrium configuration. Finally, we revisit existing phenomenological, astrophysical and cosmological constraints on baryon-DM interactions in light

  9. The Short-Term Effect of Integrated Complementary and Alternative Medicine Treatment in Inpatients Diagnosed with Lumbar Intervertebral Disc Herniation: A Prospective Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Joon-Shik; Lee, Jinho; Kim, Me-Riong; Jung, Jaehoon; Shin, Byung-Cheul; Lee, Myeong Soo; Ha, In-Hyuk

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to investigate the short-term effect of hospital-based intensive nonsurgical treatment in lumbar intervertebral disc herniation (IDH) inpatients admitted to an integrated hospital that offers both complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) and conventional medicine treatment. A prospective observational study. A private Korean medicine hospital inpatient setting in Korea. A total of 524 inpatients diagnosed with lumbar IDH admitted from June 1, 2012, to May 31, 2013. The participants received treatment according to a CAM treatment protocol (herbal medicine, acupuncture, bee venom pharmacopuncture, and Chuna manipulation) and conventional medicine treatment as needed. Numeric rating scale (NRS) of low back pain (LBP) and leg pain, Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), and patient global impression of change. The study also assessed whether improvement was obtained over minimal clinically important difference (MCID) in LBP or leg pain. The average hospital stay was 24.4 ± 13.2 days. The majority of patients received CAM treatment and a few selected conventional medicine, such as pain killers (22.7%; 4.2 ± 3.0 administrations) or nerve blocks (14.1%; 1.4 ± 0.7 sessions). At discharge, the average reduction in NRS was 3.18 ± 2.29 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.99-3.38) for LBP and 2.61 ± 2.60 (95% CI, 2.38-2.83) for leg pain the average reduction in ODI was 19.45 ± 19.53 (95% CI, 17.77-21.12). Two-hundred and seventy patients (51.5%) showed improvement over MCID in both NRS and ODI, 150 (28.6%) in either NRS or ODI, and 104 (19.8%) in neither. Integrated CAM treatment during hospitalization was effective for patients with lumbar IDH who had severe LBP and disability. However, these results must be investigated further to assess whether the effects surpass those seen with placebo and are cost-effective.

  10. A long-term soil structure observatory for post-compaction soil structure evolution: design and initial soil structure recovery observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Thomas; Colombi, Tino; Ruiz, Siul; Grahm, Lina; Reiser, René; Rek, Jan; Oberholzer, Hans-Rudolf; Schymanski, Stanislaus; Walter, Achim; Or, Dani

    2016-04-01

    Soil compaction due to agricultural vehicular traffic alters the geometrical arrangement of soil constituents, thereby modifying mechanical properties and pore spaces that affect a range of soil hydro-ecological functions. The ecological and economic costs of soil compaction are dependent on the immediate impact on soil functions during the compaction event, and a function of the recovery time. In contrast to a wealth of soil compaction information, mechanisms and rates of soil structure recovery remain largely unknown. A long-term (>10-yr) soil structure observatory (SSO) was established in 2014 on a loamy soil in Zurich, Switzerland, to quantify rates and mechanisms of structure recovery of compacted arable soil under different post-compaction management treatments. We implemented three initial compaction treatments (using a two-axle agricultural vehicle with 8 Mg wheel load): compaction of the entire plot area (i.e. track-by-track), compaction in wheel tracks, and no compaction. After compaction, we implemented four post-compaction soil management systems: bare soil (BS), permanent grass (PG), crop rotation without mechanical loosening (NT), and crop rotation under conventional tillage (CT). BS and PG provide insights into uninterrupted natural processes of soil structure regeneration under reduced (BS) and normal biological activity (PG). The two cropping systems (NT and CT) enable insights into soil structure recovery under common agricultural practices with minimal (NT) and conventional mechanical soil disturbance (CT). Observations include periodic sampling and measurements of soil physical properties, earthworm abundance, crop measures, electrical resistivity and ground penetrating radar imaging, and continuous monitoring of state variables - soil moisture, temperature, CO2 and O2 concentrations, redox potential and oxygen diffusion rates - for which a network of sensors was installed at various depths (0-1 m). Initial compaction increased soil bulk density

  11. Building long-term and high spatio-temporal resolution precipitation and air temperature reanalyses by mixing local observations and global atmospheric reanalyses: the ANATEM model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kuentz

    2015-06-01

    The ANATEM model has been also evaluated for the regional scale against independent long-term time series and was able to capture regional low-frequency variability over more than a century (1883–2010.

  12. Quantum fluctuations in the bag and nucleon observables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxwell, O.V.; Vento, V.

    1982-03-01

    A time-dependent, perturbative formalism is developed to describe the effect of quantum fluctuations of the quark fields inside a hadronic bag on physical observables. This formalism differs from previous ones in that (1) all contributions to second order in the QCD coupling constant are generated systematically and included in the numerical treatment; (2) the intermediate sums are carried out over a full set of states consistent with parity and SU(2) coupling rules. After removing the logarithmic divergences arising from the intermediate state sums in the 1-body terms and applying a finite renormalization, the second order fluctuation corrections to several proton and neutron observables are computed. The results obtained are significantly different from those obtained in earlier calculations. In no case considered are the calculated corrections sufficient to account for existing discrepancies between empirical values and lower order hadronic bag results for nucleon observables

  13. Long-term MST radar observations of vertical wave number spectra of gravity waves in the tropical troposphere over Gadanki (13.5° N, 79.2° E: comparison with model spectra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Vijaya Bhaskara Rao

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The potential utility of Mesosphere-Stratosphere-Troposphere (MST radar measurements of zonal, meridional and vertical winds for divulging the gravity wave vertical wave number spectra is discussed. The data collected during the years 1995–2004 are used to obtain the mean vertical wave number spectra of gravity wave kinetic energy in the tropical troposphere over Gadanki (13.5° N, 79.2° E. First, the climatology of 3-dimensional wind components is developed using ten years of radar observations, for the first time, over this latitude. This climatology brought out the salient features of background tropospheric winds over Gadanki. Further, using the second order polynomial fit as background, the day-to-day wind anomalies are estimated. These wind anomalies in the 4–14 km height regions are used to estimate the profiles of zonal, meridional and vertical kinetic energy per unit mass, which are then used to estimate the height profile of total kinetic energy. Finally, the height profiles of total kinetic energy are subjected to Fourier analysis to obtain the monthly mean vertical wave number spectra of gravity wave kinetic energy. The monthly mean vertical wave number spectra are then compared with a saturation spectrum predicted by gravity wave saturation theory. A slope of 5/3 is used for the model gravity wave spectrum estimation. In general, the agreement is good during all the months. However, it is noticed that the model spectrum overestimates the PSD at lower vertical wave numbers and underestimates it at higher vertical wave numbers, which is consistently observed during all the months. The observed discrepancies are attributed to the differences in the slopes of theoretical and observed gravity wave spectra. The slopes of the observed vertical wave number spectra are estimated and compared with the model spectrum slope, which are in good agreement. The estimated slopes of the observed monthly vertical wave number spectra are in the

  14. Origin of discrepancies between crater size-frequency distributions of coeval lunar geologic units via target property contrasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Bogert, C. H.; Hiesinger, H.; Dundas, C. M.; Krüger, T.; McEwen, A. S.; Zanetti, M.; Robinson, M. S.

    2017-12-01

    Recent work on dating Copernican-aged craters, using Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Camera data, re-encountered a curious discrepancy in crater size-frequency distribution (CSFD) measurements that was observed, but not understood, during the Apollo era. For example, at Tycho, Copernicus, and Aristarchus craters, CSFDs of impact melt deposits give significantly younger relative and absolute model ages (AMAs) than impact ejecta blankets, although these two units formed during one impact event, and would ideally yield coeval ages at the resolution of the CSFD technique. We investigated the effects of contrasting target properties on CSFDs and their resultant relative and absolute model ages for coeval lunar impact melt and ejecta units. We counted craters with diameters through the transition from strength- to gravity-scaling on two large impact melt deposits at Tycho and King craters, and we used pi-group scaling calculations to model the effects of differing target properties on final crater diameters for five different theoretical lunar targets. The new CSFD for the large King Crater melt pond bridges the gap between the discrepant CSFDs within a single geologic unit. Thus, the observed trends in the impact melt CSFDs support the occurrence of target property effects, rather than self-secondary and/or field secondary contamination. The CSFDs generated from the pi-group scaling calculations show that targets with higher density and effective strength yield smaller crater diameters than weaker targets, such that the relative ages of the former are lower relative to the latter. Consequently, coeval impact melt and ejecta units will have discrepant apparent ages. Target property differences also affect the resulting slope of the CSFD, with stronger targets exhibiting shallower slopes, so that the final crater diameters may differ more greatly at smaller diameters. Besides their application to age dating, the CSFDs may provide additional information about the

  15. When do self-discrepancies predict negative emotions? Exploring formal operational thought and abstract reasoning skills as moderators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Erin N; Holmberg, Nicole J; Lovejoy, M Christine; Pittman, Laura D

    2014-01-01

    Individual differences in higher-order cognitive abilities may be an important piece to understanding how and when self-discrepancies lead to negative emotions. In the current study, three measures of reasoning abilities were considered as potential moderators of the relationship between self-discrepancies and depression and anxiety symptoms. Participants (N = 162) completed measures assessing self-discrepancies, depression and anxiety symptoms, and were administered measures examining formal operational thought, and verbal and non-verbal abstract reasoning skills. Both formal operational thought and verbal abstract reasoning were significant moderators of the relationship between actual:ideal discrepancies and depressive symptoms. Discrepancies predicted depressive symptoms for individuals with higher levels of formal operational thought and verbal abstract reasoning skills, but not for those with lower levels. The discussion focuses on the need to consider advanced reasoning skills when examining self-discrepancies.

  16. Cross-modal discrepancies in coarticulation and the integration of speech information: the McGurk effect with mismatched vowels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, K P; Gerdeman, A

    1995-12-01

    Two experiments examined the impact of a discrepancy in vowel quality between the auditory and visual modalities on the perception of a syllable-initial consonant. One experiment examined the effect of such a discrepancy on the McGurk effect by cross-dubbing auditory /bi/ tokens onto visual /ga/ articulations (and vice versa). A discrepancy in vowel category significantly reduced the magnitude of the McGurk effect and changed the pattern of responses. A 2nd experiment investigated the effect of such a discrepancy on the speeded classification of the initial consonant. Mean reaction times to classify the tokens increased when the vowel information was discrepant between the 2 modalities but not when the vowel information was consistent. These experiments indicate that the perceptual system is sensitive to cross-modal discrepancies in the coarticulatory information between a consonant and its following vowel during phonetic perception.

  17. Marginal and Internal Discrepancies of Posterior Zirconia-Based Crowns Fabricated with Three Different CAD/CAM Systems Versus Metal-Ceramic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Rocio; Gonzalo, Esther; Gomez-Polo, Miguel; Suárez, María J

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the marginal and internal fit of metalceramic and zirconia-based crowns. Forty standardized steel specimens were prepared to receive posterior crowns and randomly divided into four groups (n = 10): (1) metal-ceramic, (2) NobelProcera Zirconia, (3) Lava Zirconia, and (4) VITA In-Ceram YZ. All crowns were cemented with glass-ionomer agent and sectioned buccolingually. A scanning electron microscope was used for measurements. Kruskal-Wallis and Wilcoxon signed rank test (α = .05) statistical analyses were conducted. Significant differences (P < .0001) in marginal discrepancies were observed between metal-ceramic and zirconia groups. No differences were found for the axial wall fit (P = .057). Significant differences were shown among the groups in discrepancies at the occlusal cusp (P = .0012) and at the fossa (P = .0062). No differences were observed between surfaces. All zirconia groups showed better values of marginal discrepancies than the metal-ceramic group. Procera Zirconia showed the lowest gaps.

  18. Observing participating observation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    2011-01-01

    Current methodology concerning participating observation in general leaves the act of observation unobserved. Approaching participating observation from systems theory offers fundamental new insights into the topic. Observation is always participation. There is no way to escape becoming...

  19. Observing participating observation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    2010-01-01

    Current methodology concerning participating observation in general leaves the act of observation unobserved. Approaching participating observation from systems theory offers fundamental new insights into the topic. Observation is always participation. There is no way to escape becoming...

  20. Discrepancies in Parent and Teacher Ratings of Low-Income Preschooler's Social Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyman, Miriam; Poulakos, Anthoula; Upshur, Carole; Wenz-Gross, Melodie

    2016-01-01

    Parent-teacher rating discrepancies in rating of children's social skills were examined in a low-income, ethnically diverse preschool sample, using the Social Skills Improvement System-Rating Scales [Gresham, F. J. & Elliott, S. N. (2008). "Social Skills Improvement System-Rating Scales." Minneapolis, MN: Pearson Assessments].…

  1. When Discrepant Events Change the Plans: An Unexpected Investigation of Physical Properties and Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Lauren; Seifried, Joyce; Farnum, Kerry; D'Armiento, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Discrepant events are often used by science educators to incite interest and excitement in learners, yet sometimes their results are farther-reaching. The following article describes how one such event--dissolving packing peanuts in acetone--led to a change in the course of a college-level elementary science teaching methods class and to the…

  2. Discrepancy in Motivation for Weight Loss and Exercise in Rural Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Jacob C; Smalley, K Bryant; Barefoot, K Nikki

    2017-11-01

    We explored the extent to which discrepancy between motivation for weight loss and exercise is related to obesity among rural patients with chronic disease, and identified the psychosocial correlates of this discrepancy. 497 patients with diabetes and/or hypertension were recruited from a network of Federally Qualified Health Centers in the rural South and completed a battery of assessments. Most persons in the sample (83.1%) were overweight and 65.0% were obese. For motivation for change, 70.8% reported being in the Action stage or higher for weight loss, whereas only 24.9% reported being in the Action stage or higher for motivation for exercise. When controlling for age, education level, income, sex, and race/ethnicity, individuals who were motivated for weight loss but not exercise were twice as likely to be obese (p = .005). Race and sex were significantly associated with this discrepancy, with African-American patients 1.7 times as likely (p = .05) and women 2.3 times as likely to be discrepant (p = .001). Findings underscore the importance of focusing not simply on weight loss among rural patients with chronic disease, but rather to incorporate specific activities designed to build simultaneous motivation for engaging in exercise.

  3. 12 CFR 334.82 - Duties of users regarding address discrepancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY FAIR CREDIT REPORTING Duties of Users of Consumer Reports Regarding Address... section applies to a user of consumer reports (user) that receives a notice of address discrepancy from a... consumer report and the address(es) in the agency's file for the consumer. (c) Reasonable belief. (1...

  4. 12 CFR 222.82 - Duties of users regarding address discrepancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM FAIR CREDIT REPORTING (REGULATION V) Duties of Users of Consumer Reports Regarding... a user of consumer reports (user) that receives a notice of address discrepancy from a consumer... consumer report and the address(es) in the agency's file for the consumer. (c) Reasonable belief—(1...

  5. Informant Discrepancies in the Assessment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennerley, Stephanie; Jaquiery, Ben; Hatch, Burt; Healey, Matthew; Wheeler, Benjamin J.; Healey, Dione

    2018-01-01

    An attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnosis requires symptoms to be present across two or more settings, thus requiring information from multiple informants. Research consistently shows low to moderate agreement between parents and teachers; however, the mechanisms underlying these discrepancies remain unclear. This study examined…

  6. The Impact of Discrepant Verbal-Nonverbal Messages in the Teacher-Student Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karr-Kidwell, PJ

    Noting that teachers' nonverbal behaviors are frequently inconsistent with their verbal messages, a situation that detracts from student learning, this paper offers an activity for focusing prospective teachers' attentions on the frequency and impact of discrepant verbal-nonverbal messages occurring in the classroom. The step-by-step process is…

  7. Development and Factor Structure of the Helping Professional Wellness Discrepancy Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blount, Ashley J.; Lambie, Glenn W.

    2018-01-01

    The authors present the development of the Helping Professional Wellness Discrepancy Scale (HPWDS). The purpose of this article is threefold: (a) present a rationale for the HPWDS; (b) review statistical analyses procedures used to develop the HPWDS; and (c) offer implications for counselors, other helping professionals, and future research.

  8. Morozov-type discrepancy principle for nonlinear ill-posed problems ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    For proving the existence of a regularization parameter under a Morozov-type discrepancy principle for Tikhonov regularization of nonlinear ill-posed problems, it is required to impose additional nonlinearity assumptions on the forward operator. Lipschitz continuity of the Freéchet derivative and requirement of the Lipschitz ...

  9. Postmortem CT versus forensic autopsy: frequent discrepancies of tracheobronchial content findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zech, Wolf-Dieter; Jackowski, Christian; Schwendener, Nicole; Brencicova, Eva; Schuster, Frederick; Lombardo, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    In their daily forensic casework, the authors experienced discrepancies of tracheobronchial content findings between postmortem computed tomography (PMCT) and autopsy to an extent previously unnoticed in the literature. The goal of this study was to evaluate such discrepancies in routine forensic cases. A total of 327 cases that underwent PMCT prior to routine forensic autopsy were retrospectively evaluated for tracheal and bronchial contents according to PMCT and autopsy findings. Hounsfield unit (HU) values of tracheobronchial contents, causes of death, and presence of pulmonary edema were assessed in mismatching and matching cases. Comparing contents in PMCT and autopsy in each of the separately evaluated compartments of the respiratory tract low positive predictive values were assessed (trachea, 38.2%; main bronchi, 40%; peripheral bronchi, 69.1%) indicating high discrepancy rates. The majority of tracheobronchial contents were viscous stomach contents in matching cases and low radiodensity materials (i.e., HU autopsy occur in a considerable number of cases. Discrepancies may be explained by the runoff of contents via nose and mouth during external examination and the flow back of tracheal and main bronchial contents into the lungs caused by upright movement of the respiratory tract at autopsy.

  10. Discrepancies between patients' and partners' perceptions of unsupportive behavior in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snippe, Evelien; Maters, Gemma A; Wempe, Johan B; Hagedoorn, Mariët; Sanderman, Robbert

    2012-06-01

    The literature on chronic diseases indicates that partner support, as perceived by patients, contributes to well-being of patients in either a positive or a negative way. Previous studies indicated that patients' and partners' perceptions of unsupportive partner behavior are only moderately related. Our aim was (1) to investigate whether discrepancies between patients' and partners' perceptions of two types of unsupportive partner behavior-overprotection and protective buffering-were associated with the level of distress reported by patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and (2) to evaluate whether the direction of the differences between patients' and partners' perceptions was associated with distress (i.e., whether patient distress was associated with greater patient or greater partner reports of unsupportive partner behavior). A cross-sectional study was performed using the data of a sample of 68 COPD patients and their spouses. Distress was assessed using the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25. Patients' and partners' perceptions of unsupportive partner behavior were assessed with a questionnaire measuring overprotection and protective buffering. Distress was independently associated with patients' perceptions of protective buffering and discrepancies in spouses' perceptions of overprotection. Regarding the direction of the discrepancy, we found that greater partner reports of overprotection as compared with patient reports were related to more distress in COPD patients. Our study showed that patients' distress was associated not only with patients' perceptions, but also with discrepancies between patients' and partners' perceptions of unsupportive partner behavior. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. What Is Asthma Control? Discrepancies between Parents' Perceptions and Official Definitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dozier, Ann; Aligne, C. Andrew; Schlabach, Mary Beth

    2006-01-01

    National guidelines define asthma control as the prevention of asthma symptoms rather than the treatment of asthma exacerbations. We hypothesized that we would find a discrepancy between what parents consider adequate control compared to what health care professionals mean by "control." Data from a telephone survey conducted for the…

  12. The role of ambiguity and discrepancy in the early phases of innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Linda Nhu; Tollestrup, Christian H. T.

    2015-01-01

    Innovation literature mainly focuses on eliminating ambiguity and discrepancy from the early phases of innovation. This study questions this implicit assumption, as it may provide an oversimplified view on, how to attain proficiency. Instead of narrowly focusing on reducing ambiguity and discrepa...

  13. Evaluation of discrepancies between thermoluminescent dosimeter and direct-reading dosimeter results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, K.R.

    1993-07-01

    Currently at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), the responses of thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and direct-reading dosimeters (DRDs) are not officially compared or the discrepancies investigated. However, both may soon be required due to the new US Department of Energy (DOE) Radiological Control Manual. In the past, unofficial comparisons of the two dosimeters have led to discrepancies of up to 200%. This work was conducted to determine the reasons behind such discrepancies. For tests conducted with the TLDs, the reported dose was most often lower than the delivered dose, while DRDs most often responded higher than the delivered dose. Trends were identified in personnel DRD readings, and ft was concluded that more training and more control of the DRDs could improve their response. TLD responses have already begun to be improved; a new background subtraction method was implemented in April 1993, and a new dose algorithm is being considered. It was concluded that the DOE Radiological Control Manual requirements are reasonable for identifying discrepancies between dosimeter types, and more stringent administrative limits might even be considered

  14. Social self-discrepancies from own and other standpoints and collective self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizman, Aharon; Yinon, Yoel

    2004-04-01

    On the basis of an extension of Self-Discrepancy Theory (SDT) to the social aspect of the self (A. Bizman, Y. Yinon, & S. Krotman, 2001), the authors examined the relationships between social self-discrepancies from own and other standpoints and collective self-esteem. The authors assessed perceptions of actual, ideal, and ought attributes of Israelis from own and other standpoints; perceived importance of others' evaluation of Israel; and the Collective Self-Esteem Scale (CSES) among 114 Israelis. The results revealed that the association of the discrepancy between actual Israelis and ideal Israelis from the other standpoint with the public Collective Self-Esteem (CSE) subscale was negative among participants with high perceived importance and positive among those with low perceived importance. In addition, the discrepancy between actual and ideal Israelis from the own standpoint was related to the private, public, and membership CSE subscales. Overall, the findings suggest that the SDT distinction between the own and other standpoints on the self is applicable to the social self.

  15. Explaining the discrepancy between intentions and actions: the case of hypothetical bias in contingent valuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Icek Ajzen; Thomas C. Brown; Franklin Carvajal

    2004-01-01

    An experiment was designed to account for intention-behavior discrepancies by applying the theory of planned behavior to contingent valuation. College students (N = 160) voted in hypothetical and real payment referenda to contribute $8 to a scholarship fund. Overestimates of willingness to pay in the hypothetical referendum could not be attributed to moderately...

  16. Loaded dice in Monte Carlo : importance sampling in phase space integration and probability distributions for discrepancies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hameren, Andreas Ferdinand Willem van

    2001-01-01

    Discrepancies play an important role in the study of uniformity properties of point sets. Their probability distributions are a help in the analysis of the efficiency of the Quasi Monte Carlo method of numerical integration, which uses point sets that are distributed more uniformly than sets of

  17. Morozov-type discrepancy principle for nonlinear ill-posed problems ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... For proving the existence of a regularization parameter under a Morozov-type discrepancy principle for Tikhonov regularization of nonlinear ill-posed problems, it is required to impose additional nonlinearity assumptions on the forward operator. Lipschitz continuity of the Freéchet derivative and requirement ...