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Sample records for term nulliparous women

  1. Prediction of duration of active labor in nulliparous women at term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incerti, Maddalena; Locatelli, Anna; Ghidini, Alessandro; Ciriello, Elena; Malberti, Silvia; Consonni, Sara; Pezzullo, John C

    2008-02-01

    We have assessed the independent predictors of duration of active labor in nulliparous women at term. Using a cohort of 1067 nulliparae in spontaneous labor at > 37.0 weeks with singleton fetuses in vertex presentation, multivariate analysis was used to identify independent predictors of duration of active labor. Duration of active labor was 4.1 +/- 2.4 hours. Stepwise linear regression selected 10 independent predictors of duration of active labor: gestational age at delivery ( P amniotomy ( P oxytocin ( P labor. Ten variables are independent predictors of duration of active labor; when incorporated in a prediction formula they account for > 50% of the variability of duration of labor in nulliparous women.

  2. Identification of first-stage labor arrest by electromyography in term nulliparous women after induction of labor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasak, B.; Graatsma, E.M.; Hekman-Drost, E.; Eijkemans, M.J.; Leeuwen, J.H. van; Visser, G.H.; Jacod, B.C.

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Worldwide induction and cesarean delivery rates have increased rapidly, with consequences for subsequent pregnancies. The majority of intrapartum cesarean deliveries are performed for failure to progress, typically in nulliparous women at term. Current uterine registration techniques

  3. Variability in rate of cervical dilation in nulliparous women at term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incerti, Maddalena; Locatelli, Anna; Ghidini, Alessandro; Ciriello, Elena; Consonni, Sara; Pezzullo, John C

    2011-03-01

    Cervical dilatation is commonly documented on a partogram indicating the expected rate of progress of labor. Although deviations from such a line can be used to indicate abnormal progress, what constitutes the "normal" rate of cervical dilation is still largely unknown. The objectives of this study were to assess the variability of the rate of cervical dilation in nulliparous women and to determine whether the rate of labor was independent of dilation on admission. We analyzed a cohort of consecutive nulliparous women with spontaneous labor at term and singleton fetuses in cephalic presentation. Exclusion criteria were gestational age less than 37 weeks, induction of labor, or the presence of a uterine scar. Management of labor was standardized using set protocols of care. Active labor was diagnosed as regular contractions every 10 minutes or less, lasting more than 40 seconds, with cervical effacement more than 80 percent and dilation of 2 cm. Vaginal examinations were performed by a dedicated midwife every 2 hours. Amniotomy was performed for slow progress or arrest of dilation over 2 hours. Oxytocin was administered for arrest of cervical dilation for 2 hours with membranes ruptured. Data pertaining to cases ending in cesarean delivery were included up to the time of cesarean section. The study sample comprised 1,119 women at 39.7 ± 1.1 weeks with an average duration of labor of 4.1 ± 2.4 hours. The rate of oxytocin use was 27 percent and of epidural analgesia 5 percent. The rate of oxytocin use was inversely related to cervical dilation on admission. Cesarean delivery was performed in 6 percent of women. Duration of labor at each centimeter of cervical dilation on admission showed a broad distribution (e.g., at 4 cm: median = 5.5, range: 0.8-12.5 hr). The rate of labor progression (expressed as the slope of the dilation-vs-time curve) was approximately 1.5 cm/hr, and it was essentially independent of cervical dilation on admission (r = 0.034, p = 0.267). A

  4. Identification of first-stage labor arrest by electromyography in term nulliparous women after induction of labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasak, Blanka; Graatsma, Elisabeth M; Hekman-Drost, Elske; Eijkemans, Marinus J; Schagen van Leeuwen, Jules H; Visser, Gerard H A; Jacod, Benoit C

    2017-07-01

    Worldwide induction and cesarean delivery rates have increased rapidly, with consequences for subsequent pregnancies. The majority of intrapartum cesarean deliveries are performed for failure to progress, typically in nulliparous women at term. Current uterine registration techniques fail to identify inefficient contractions leading to first-stage labor arrest. An alternative technique, uterine electromyography has been shown to identify inefficient contractions leading to first-stage arrest of labor in nulliparous women with spontaneous onset of labor at term. The objective of this study was to determine whether this finding can be reproduced in induction of labor. Uterine activity was measured in 141 nulliparous women with singleton term pregnancies and a fetus in cephalic position during induced labor. Electrical activity of the myometrium during contractions was characterized by its power density spectrum. No significant differences were found in contraction characteristics between women with induced labor delivering vaginally with or without oxytocin and women with arrested labor with subsequent cesarean delivery. Uterine electromyography shows no correlation with progression of labor in induced labor, which is in contrast to spontaneous labor. © 2017 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  5. Maternal obesity and postpartum haemorrhage after vaginal and caesarean delivery among nulliparous women at term: a retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fyfe Elaine M

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing rates of postpartum haemorrhage in developed countries over the past two decades are not explained by corresponding changes in risk factors and conjecture has been raised that maternal obesity may be responsible. Few studies investigating risk factors for PPH have included BMI or investigated PPH risk among nulliparous women. The aim of this study was to determine in a cohort of nulliparous women delivering at term whether overweight and obesity are independent risk factors for major postpartum haemorrhage (PPH ≥1000ml after vaginal and caesarean section delivery. Methods The study population was nulliparous singleton pregnancies delivered at term at National Women’s Hospital, Auckland, New Zealand from 2006 to 2009 (N=11,363. Multivariable logistic regression was adjusted for risk factors for major PPH. Results There were 7238 (63.7% women of normal BMI, 2631 (23.2% overweight and 1494 (13.1% obese. Overall, PPH rates were increased in overweight and obese compared with normal-weight women (n=255 [9.7%], n=233 [15.6%], n=524 [7.2%], p Conclusion Nulliparous obese women have a twofold increase in risk of major PPH compared to women with normal BMI regardless of mode of delivery. Higher rates of PPH among obese women are not attributable to their higher rates of caesarean delivery. Obesity is an important high risk factor for PPH, and the risk following vaginal delivery is emphasised. We recommend in addition to standard practice of active management of third stage of labour, there should be increased vigilance and preparation for PPH management in obese women.

  6. A multi-centre cohort study shows no association between experienced violence and labour dystocia in nulliparous women at term

    OpenAIRE

    Dykes Anna-Karin; Dejin-Karlsson Elisabeth; Finnbogadóttir Hafrún

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Although both labour dystocia and domestic violence during pregnancy are associated with adverse maternal and fetal outcome, evidence in support of a possible association between experiences of domestic violence and labour dystocia is sparse. The aim of this study was to investigate whether self-reported history of violence or experienced violence during pregnancy is associated with increased risk of labour dystocia in nulliparous women at term. Methods A population-based ...

  7. A multi-centre cohort study shows no association between experienced violence and labour dystocia in nulliparous women at term

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dykes Anna-Karin

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although both labour dystocia and domestic violence during pregnancy are associated with adverse maternal and fetal outcome, evidence in support of a possible association between experiences of domestic violence and labour dystocia is sparse. The aim of this study was to investigate whether self-reported history of violence or experienced violence during pregnancy is associated with increased risk of labour dystocia in nulliparous women at term. Methods A population-based multi-centre cohort study. A self-administrated questionnaire collected at 37 weeks of gestation from nine obstetric departments in Denmark. The total cohort comprised 2652 nulliparous women, among whom 985 (37.1% met the protocol criteria for dystocia. Results Among the total cohort, 940 (35.4% women reported experience of violence, and among these, 66 (2.5% women reported exposure to violence during their first pregnancy. Further, 39.5% (n = 26 of those had never been exposed to violence before. Univariate logistic regression analysis showed no association between history of violence or experienced violence during pregnancy and labour dystocia at term, crude OR 0.91, 95% CI (0.77-1.08, OR 0.90, 95% CI (0.54-1.50, respectively. However, violence exposed women consuming alcoholic beverages during late pregnancy had increased odds of labour dystocia, crude OR 1.45, 95% CI (1.07-1.96. Conclusions Our findings indicate that nulliparous women who have a history of violence or experienced violence during pregnancy do not appear to have a higher risk of labour dystocia at term, according to the definition of labour dystocia in this study. Additional research on this topic would be beneficial, including further evaluation of the criteria for labour dystocia.

  8. A multi-centre cohort study shows no association between experienced violence and labour dystocia in nulliparous women at term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnbogadóttir, Hafrún; Dejin-Karlsson, Elisabeth; Dykes, Anna-Karin

    2011-02-21

    Although both labour dystocia and domestic violence during pregnancy are associated with adverse maternal and fetal outcome, evidence in support of a possible association between experiences of domestic violence and labour dystocia is sparse. The aim of this study was to investigate whether self-reported history of violence or experienced violence during pregnancy is associated with increased risk of labour dystocia in nulliparous women at term. A population-based multi-centre cohort study. A self-administrated questionnaire collected at 37 weeks of gestation from nine obstetric departments in Denmark. The total cohort comprised 2652 nulliparous women, among whom 985 (37.1%) met the protocol criteria for dystocia. Among the total cohort, 940 (35.4%) women reported experience of violence, and among these, 66 (2.5%) women reported exposure to violence during their first pregnancy. Further, 39.5% (n = 26) of those had never been exposed to violence before. Univariate logistic regression analysis showed no association between history of violence or experienced violence during pregnancy and labour dystocia at term, crude OR 0.91, 95% CI (0.77-1.08), OR 0.90, 95% CI (0.54-1.50), respectively. However, violence exposed women consuming alcoholic beverages during late pregnancy had increased odds of labour dystocia, crude OR 1.45, 95% CI (1.07-1.96). Our findings indicate that nulliparous women who have a history of violence or experienced violence during pregnancy do not appear to have a higher risk of labour dystocia at term, according to the definition of labour dystocia in this study. Additional research on this topic would be beneficial, including further evaluation of the criteria for labour dystocia.

  9. Effects of Patient-Controlled Epidural Analgesia on Uterine Electromyography During Spontaneous Onset of Labor in Term Nulliparous Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yuanjuan; Song, Xingrong; Liu, Lei; Shi, Shao-Qing; Garfield, Robert E; Zhang, Guozheng; Liu, Huishu

    2015-11-01

    To investigate the effect of patient-controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA) on uterine electromyography (EMG) activity in term pregnant women during labor. Nulliparous pregnant women in spontaneous term labor (N = 30) were enrolled (PCEA group, n = 20 and control group, n = 10). Five time periods (30 minutes each) were defined for noninvasive abdominal recordings and analysis of uterine EMG activity, that is, period I: before PCEA treatment with 2-cm cervical dilation; periods II to IV: each period successively at 30, 60, and 120 minutes after PCEA; and period V: second stage of labor with cervix at 10 cm dilation. Control patients without PCEA were monitored during the same times. The number of bursts/30 min, power density spectrum peak frequency, mean amplitude, and duration of uterine EMG bursts were measured to assess uterine EMG activity. Maternal, fetal, and labor characteristics were also recorded. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance followed by other tests. Electromyography parameters are significantly lower (P .05). Also, patients with PCEA have a slower rate of cervical dilation (P .05) positive labor outcomes. Patient-controlled epidural analgesia initially suppresses uterine EMG and slows cervical dilation thereby prolonging labor. However, the EMG activity recovers with labor progress with no effects on delivery outcomes. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. [Intra-uterine device and nulliparous women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trignol-Viguier, N; Blin, E; Marret, H

    2014-06-01

    Intra-uterine device (IUD) is one of the birth control methods, which is available for nulliparous women, even though misconceptions still remain in medical or popular opinion. Only 1.3 % of nulliparous have a IUD as contraception in France while it is the second methods used by all women, after pill. The best contraception is the one chosen by women; however, the choice for a nulliparous of an IUD may be really difficult, despite the increasing number of women wishing to use it. Long-acting reversible contraceptives utilization, including IUD, is probably one of the issues to decrease the unintended pregnancies. An exhaustive and clear information about IUD is necessary to allow an informed and real choice. This prescription must consider contraindications and medical conditions for safe insertion, especially to avoid infection by screening STD (Chlamydia trachomatis and Nesseria gonorrhoeae) in nulliparous women<25 years old. Insertion must be effected with usual precautions and short or SL IUD preferred. Even if side effects such as expulsion, pelvic pains or dysmenorrhea are more frequent by nulliparous, IUD is a first intention choice for contraception to be consider, that women could obtain easily, including in emergency contraception situation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Re: What is the best treatment to reduce the need for caesarean section in nulliparous women at term with delayed first stage of labour?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boie, Sidsel; Glavind, Julie; Uldbjerg, Niels

    2017-01-01

    The authors pose the question - What is the best treatment to reduce the need for caesarean section in nulliparous women at term with delayed first stage of labour? and state in their paper that "There is no consensus on the optimal dose regimen of oxytocin for delay in the first stage of labour...... in nulliparous women at term (37-42 weeks’ gestation) to reduce unplanned caesarean section and increase vaginal birth with minimal adverse events". However, they describe only low and high dose oxytocin regimens and fail to acknowledge that no oxytocin at all is associated with a spontaneous delivery just...... as often as when oxytocin is given (1,2) or that discontinuation of oxytocin once the active phase of labour is reached can result in higher spontaneous delivery rates than continuing oxytocin (3,4). The paper in its list of trials (box 2) only describes those addressing high and low dose oxytocin, which...

  12. Comparison of Misoprostol and Dinoprostone for elective induction of labour in nulliparous women at full term: A randomized prospective study

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    Stefos Theodoros

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this randomized prospective study was to compare the efficacy of 50 mcg vaginal misoprostol and 3 mg dinoprostone, administered every nine hours for a maximum of three doses, for elective induction of labor in a specific cohort of nulliparous women with an unfavorable cervix and more than 40 weeks of gestation. Material and Methods One hundred and sixty-three pregnant women with more than 285 days of gestation were recruited and analyzed. The main outcome measures were time from induction to delivery and incidence of vaginal delivery within 12 and 24 hours. Admission rate to the neonatal intensive care unit within 24 hours post delivery was a secondary outcome. Results The induction-delivery interval was significantly lower in the misoprostol group than in the dinoprostone group (11.9 h vs. 15.5 h, p 0.05 but with the disadvantage of higher abnormal fetal heart rate (FHR tracings (22.5% vs. 12%, p > 0.05. From the misoprostol group more neonates were admitted to the intensive neonatal unit, than from the dinoprostone group (13.5% vs. 4.8%, p > 0.05. One woman had an unexplained stillbirth following the administration of one dose of dinoprostone. Conclusions Vaginal misoprostol, compared with dinoprostone in the regimens used, is more effective in elective inductions of labor beyond 40 weeks of gestation. Nevertheless, this is at the expense of more abnormal FHR tracings and more admissions to the neonatal unit, indicating that the faster approach is not necessarily the better approach to childbirth.

  13. Incidence and outcomes of dystocia in the active phase of labor in term nulliparous women with spontaneous labor onset

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaergaard, Hanne; Olsen, Jørn; Ottesen, Bent

    2009-01-01

    -clear amniotic fluid, more post-partum hemorrhage and their children were more often given low one-minute neonatal Apgar scores as compared to women delivered without a diagnosis of dystocia. CONCLUSIONS: A dystocia incidence of 37% was found in healthy term nulliparas with no indication for induction...

  14. [Postabortion complications and recovery of ovarian function in nulliparous women].

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    Zhang, D S; Zhang, C F

    1989-05-01

    Induced abortions performed in 481 cases of nulliparous women were carefully investigated. The incidence of complications during operation was 2.1%, of which the majority was the induced abortion syndrome. The early postabortal complication rate was 6.4% and the majority was mild pelvic inflammatory disease. The late complication rate was 10.2% and manifested mainly by menstrual disturbance. Ovulation occurred in 67.4% of the first postabortal cycles. It is suggested that the induced abortion is not a safe procedure for nulliparous women.

  15. Serum perfluoroalkyl acids and time to pregnancy in nulliparous women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Cathrine Carlsen; Bech, Bodil Hammer; Nohr, Ellen Aagaard

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies on the exposure to perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) and female fertility have provided conflicting results. We aimed to investigate the association between several PFAAs and time to pregnancy among nulliparous women. METHODS: From 2008 to 2013, we included 1372 women from...... pregnancy) by multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: Median levels of perfluorooctane sulfonate and perfluorooctanoate were 8.3 and 2.0ng/mL. Overall, no obvious associations were found between any PFAAs and fecundability or infertility. Adjusted fecundability ratios (95% confidence intervals) were 1.......09 (0.92-1.29) for perfluorooctane sulfonate and 1.10 (0.93-1.30) for perfluorooctanoate (highest versus lowest quartile). CONCLUSIONS: We found no evidence of an association between present serum levels of PFAAs and longer time to pregnancy or infertility in nulliparous women. This study further adds...

  16. Fear of childbirth in nulliparous and multiparous women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Räisänen, S; Lehto, S M; Nielsen, H S

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify risk factors for fear of childbirth (FOC) according to parity and socioeconomic status, and to evaluate associations between FOC and adverse perinatal outcomes. DESIGN: A cohort study. SETTING: The Finnish Medical Birth Register. POPULATION: All 788 317 singleton births...... during 1997-2010 in Finland. METHODS: Fear of childbirth was defined according to the International Classification of Diseases code O99.80, and its associations with several risk factors and perinatal outcomes were analysed by multivariable logistic regression. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence of, risk...... factors for and outcomes of FOC. RESULTS: Fear of childbirth was experienced by 2.5% of nulliparous women and 4.5% of multiparous women. The strongest risk factors for FOC in nulliparous women were depression [adjusted odds ratio (aOR), 6.35; 95% confidence interval (CI), 5.25-7.68], advanced maternal age...

  17. Obstetric risk indicators for labour dystocia in nulliparous women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaergaard, Hanne; Olsen, Jørn; Ottesen, Bent

    2008-01-01

    In nulliparous women dystocia is the most common obstetric problem and its etiology is largely unknown. The frequency of augmentation and cesarean delivery related to dystocia is high although it is not clear if a slow progress justifies the interventions. Studies of risk factors for dystocia often...... do not provide diagnostic criteria for the diagnosis. The aim of the present study was to identify obstetric and clinical risk indicators of dystocia defined by strict and explicit criteria....

  18. Fear of childbirth and emergency caesarean section in low-risk nulliparous women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Cecilie; Hegaard, Hanne Kristine; Schroll, Anne-Mette

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between fear of childbirth (FOC) and emergency caesarean section. DESIGN: A prospective cohort study of low-risk nulliparous women at term. SETTING: Nine obstetric departments in Denmark, May 2004-July 2005. POPULATION: A total of 2598 nulliparous women...... in spontaneous labor with a single fetus in cephalic presentation at term. METHODS: Self-reported FOC was assessed at 37 weeks of gestation by the Wijma Delivery Expectancy/Experience Questionnaire (W-DEQ) version A and at admission to the labor ward by the Delivery Fear Scale (DFS). Mode of delivery...... was recorded by the attending staff. Logistic regression analyses were used to estimate unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios (OR). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Risk of emergency caesarean section in women who feared childbirth. RESULTS: FOC (W-DEQ sum score ≥ 85 and DFS sum score ≥ 70) was not associated...

  19. Psychometric properties of stress and anxiety measures among nulliparous women.

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    Bann, Carla M; Parker, Corette B; Grobman, William A; Willinger, Marian; Simhan, Hyagriv N; Wing, Deborah A; Haas, David M; Silver, Robert M; Parry, Samuel; Saade, George R; Wapner, Ronald J; Elovitz, Michal A; Miller, Emily S; Reddy, Uma M

    2017-03-01

    To examine the psychometric properties of three measures, the perceived stress scale (PSS), pregnancy experience scale (PES), and state trait anxiety inventory (STAI), for assessing stress and anxiety during pregnancy among a large sample of nulliparous women. The sample included 10,002 pregnant women participating in the Nulliparous Pregnancy Outcomes Study: Monitoring Mothers-to-Be (nMoM2b). Internal consistency reliability was assessed with Cronbach's alpha and factorial validity with confirmatory factor analyses. Intraclass correlations (ICCs) were calculated to determine stability of PSS scales over time. Psychometric properties were examined for the overall sample, as well as subgroups based on maternal age, race/ethnicity and language. All three scales demonstrated good internal consistency reliability. Confirmatory factor analyses supported the factor structures of the PSS and the PES. However, a one-factor solution of the trait-anxiety subscale from the STAI did not fit well; a two-factor solution, splitting the items into factors based on direction of item wording (positive versus negative) provided a better fit. Scores on the PSS were generally stable over time (ICC = 0.60). Subgroup analyses revealed a few items that did not perform well on Spanish versions of the scales. Overall, the scales performed well, suggesting they could be useful tools for identifying women experiencing high levels of stress and anxiety during pregnancy and allowing for the implementation of interventions to help reduce maternal stress and anxiety.

  20. Outcomes of nulliparous women with spontaneous labor onset admitted to hospitals in preactive versus active labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Jeremy L; Lamp, Jane M; Buck, Jacalyn S; Lowe, Nancy K; Gillespie, Shannon L; Ryan, Sharon L

    2014-01-01

    The timing of when a woman is admitted to the hospital for labor care following spontaneous contraction onset may be among the most important decisions that labor attendants make because it can influence care patterns and birth outcomes. The aims of this study were to estimate the percentage of low-risk, nulliparous women at term who are admitted to labor units prior to active labor and to evaluate the effects of the timing of admission (ie, preactive vs active labor) on labor interventions and mode of birth. Data from low-risk, nulliparous women with spontaneous labor onset at term gestation were merged from 2 prospective studies conducted at 3 large Midwestern hospitals. Baseline characteristics, labor interventions, and outcomes were compared between groups using Fisher's exact and Mann-Whitney U tests, as appropriate. Likelihoods for oxytocin augmentation, amniotomy, and cesarean birth were assessed by logistic regression. Of the sample of 216 low-risk nulliparous women, 114 (52.8%) were admitted in preactive labor and 102 (47.2%) were admitted in active labor. Women who were admitted in preactive labor were more likely to undergo oxytocin augmentation (84.2% and 45.1%, respectively; odds ratio [OR], 6.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.43-12.27) but not amniotomy (55.3% and 61.8%, respectively; OR, 0.8; 95% CI, 0.44-1.32) when compared to women admitted in active labor. The likelihood of cesarean birth was higher for women admitted before active labor onset (15.8% and 6.9%, respectively; OR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.02-6.37). Many low-risk nulliparous women with regular, spontaneous uterine contractions are admitted to labor units before active labor onset, which increases their likelihood of receiving oxytocin and giving birth via cesarean. An evidence-based, standardized approach for labor admission decision making is recommended to decrease inadvertent admissions of women in preactive labor. When active labor cannot be diagnosed with relative certainty, observation

  1. The Effectiveness of Counseling in Reducing Anxiety Among Nulliparous Pregnant Women

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    Parisa Parsa

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the effectiveness of counseling in reducing anxiety of nulliparous pregnant women.Materials and methods: In this quasi-experimental study, 110 nulliparous pregnant women were selected out of all pregnant women referring to Fatemieh Hospital in Hamadan, Iran. Then, the subjects were divided into two groups in experimental and control (55 women in each. The data were collected through a questionnaire covering demographic and obstetric characteristics and Spielberger’s State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. The experimental group participated in four weekly sessions of group counseling about mother-infant attachment behaviors. Whereas, the control group only receive routine cares. Two groups were compared in terms of anxiety before and after the study.Results: Before the intervention, no significant difference in anxiety level was observed between the two groups; however, state and trait anxiety levels of pregnant women in the experimental group significantly decreased after the intervention (p < 0.001. There was also significant difference in the mean score of state and trait anxiety levels between the two groups after the intervention (p < 0.001.Conclusion: The results showed the effectiveness of prenatal counseling in reducing state and trait anxiety levels of pregnant women

  2. Effect of Dates in Late Pregnancy on the Duration of Labor in Nulliparous Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordi, Masoumeh; Meybodi, Fatemeh Aghaei; Tara, Fatemeh; Fakari, Farzaneh Rashidi; Nemati, Mohsen; Shakeri, Mohammadtaghi

    2017-01-01

    Long-term delivery is an important significant issue which is associated with mortality and fetal and maternal disorders. Based on the previous studies, consumption of dates affects uterine contractions and duration of delivery processes. This study aimed to study the effect of date consumption in late pregnancy on the duration of delivery processes in nulliparous women in 2013. This randomized clinical trial was conducted among 182 nulliparous women 18-35 years who presented to OmAlBanin Hospital in Mashhad in 2013. The comparison has been made between 91 pregnant women who consumed 70-76 g dates daily from the 37th week of pregnancy and 91 pregnant women who did not consume dates. Data collection tool was a questionnaire and a checklist of daily dates' intake. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software and statistical tests - chi-square and Mann-Whitney test, and P value dates in late pregnancy was effective in decreasing length of labor processes and reduced the need of oxytocin for labor acceleration. Thus, it is recommended to consume dates in women without contraindications.

  3. Maternal sugar consumption and risk of preeclampsia in nulliparous Norwegian women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Borgen, I; Aamodt, G; Harsem, N; Haugen, M; Meltzer, H M; Brantsæter, A L

    2012-01-01

    ... of sugar and foods with a high content of added or natural sugars and preeclampsia. A prospective study of 32,933 nulliparous women in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study, conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health...

  4. Postabortion Initiation of Long-Acting Reversible Contraception by Adolescent and Nulliparous Women in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Sally B; Garrett, Susan M

    2016-02-01

    To describe changes in receipt of immediate postabortion long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) by adolescent and nulliparous women in New Zealand. Nationally collected data on immediate postabortion receipt of an intrauterine method (intrauterine device [IUD]/intrauterine system [IUS]) or contraceptive implant were analyzed to describe proportions and demographic characteristics of women receiving LARC between 2007 and 2013. Changes in uptake over time were presented for adolescent, nulliparous, and parous women. Postabortion LARC uptake increased between 2007 and 2013, rising from 7.9% to 42.7% for adolescents and from 8.8% to 36.9% for nulliparous women. The increase was highest among nulliparous adolescents with a seven-fold increase in LARC uptake between 2007 and 2013. Adolescents had a five-fold increase and nulliparous women (of all ages) a four-fold increase. In 2013, IUD/IUS use was lowest among adolescents (22.4%) and increased with increasing age (43% by ages 40+ years), whereas implant use was highest among adolescents (20.3%) and decreased with increasing age (to 4.6% by age 40+ years). Nulliparous women had the lowest use of both IUD/IUS and implants in 2013, with 24.6% receiving an intrauterine method (compared with 43.2% for para 3+), and 12.3% an implant (compared with 17.5% for para 3+). Despite an overall trend toward increased uptake of postabortion LARC by adolescent and nulliparous women, uptake in these groups still lags behind that of parous and older women. Reasons for differential uptake need to be explored and addressed if necessary to ensure all women have equitable access to the most effective methods of contraception. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Obstetric risk indicators for labour dystocia in nulliparous women: a multi-centre cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaergaard, H.; Olsen, J.; Ottesen, Bent Smedegaard

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In nulliparous women dystocia is the most common obstetric problem and its etiology is largely unknown. The frequency of augmentation and cesarean delivery related to dystocia is high although it is not clear if a slow progress justifies the interventions. Studies of risk factors for ...

  6. Continence and pelvic floor status in nulliparous women at midterm pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilde, Gunvor; Stær-Jensen, Jette; Ellström Engh, Marie; Brækken, Ingeborg Hoff; Bø, Kari

    2012-09-01

    A Cochrane review recommends antenatal pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) in urinary incontinence (UI) prevention. The aim of the study was to investigate nulliparous pregnant women's knowledge about and practising of PFMT, their pelvic floor muscle (PFM) function, and ability to contract correctly. It was hypothesized that continent women had higher PFM strength and endurance than women with UI. Three hundred nulliparous women at gestational week 18-22 were included in a cross-sectional study. Vaginal resting pressure, maximum voluntary contraction, and PFM endurance were measured by manometer. UI was assessed by International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire Urinary Incontinence Short Form (ICIQ-UI-SF). Comparisons of PFM function in continent women and women with UI were analyzed using independent-samples t test. Mean differences with 95 % confidence interval (CI) are presented. Of 300 women, 89 % had heard of PFMT at mid pregnancy, and 35 % performed PFMT once or more a week. After thorough instruction 4 % were unable to contract correctly. Thirty-five percent reported UI, of whom 48 % performed PFMT once or more a week. Continent women had significantly higher PFM strength and endurance when compared with women having UI, with mean differences of 6.6 cmH(2)O (CI 2.3-10.8, p = 0.003), and 41.5 cmH(2)Osec (CI 9.8-73.1, p = 0.010), respectively. No difference was found for vaginal resting pressure (p = 0.054). Most nulliparous pregnant women knew about PFMT. Thirty-five percent performed PFMT once or more a week. Incontinent nulliparous pregnant women had weaker PFM than their continent counterparts. More emphasis on information regarding PFM function and PFMT is warranted during pregnancy.

  7. Maternal obesity and its effect on labour duration in nulliparous women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellekjær, Karen Louise; Bergholt, Thomas; Løkkegaard, Ellen

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Obesity is increasing among primipara women. We aimed to describe the association between body mass index (BMI) during early-pregnancy and duration of labour in nulliparous women. METHODS: Retrospective observational cohort study of 1885 nulliparous women with a single cephalic....../m(2)), overweight (BMI 25-29.9 kg/m(2)), and obese (BMI ≥30 kg/m(2)) women. Proportional hazards and multiple logistic regression models were applied. RESULTS: Early pregnancy BMI classified 1246 (66.1%) women as normal weight, 350 (18.6%) as overweight and 203 (10.8%) as obese. No difference...... presentation from 37 0/7 to 42 6/7 weeks of completed gestation and spontaneous or induced labour at Nordsjællands Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Denmark, in 2011 and 2012. Total duration of labour and the first and second stages of labour were compared between early-pregnancy normal-weight (BMI

  8. Outcome of Induction of Labour in Nulliparous Women Following Replacement of Cervidil with Prostin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijit Basu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study at the Logan Hospital, Australia, compared the outcome of induction of labour (IOL in nulliparous women following replacement of Cervidil with Prostin. Eighty-two nulliparous women were identified for this retrospective cohort study over a period of three months on either side of the changed practice. Forty-four women received Prostin and 38 received Cervidil. Baseline characteristics were similar amongst the groups including maternal age, mean gestational age, and modified Bishop’s score at the commencement of IOL. The incidence of amniotomy, oxytocin augmentation of labour, and rate of epidural use did not differ significantly between the groups. The mean time to delivery (vaginally or abdominally showed a significant difference, with women receiving Prostin delivering earlier than those having Cervidil (=0.018. Women receiving Prostin were more likely to have assisted vaginal delivery compared to the Cervidil group (=0.04.

  9. Cervical dilation at time of caesarean delivery in nulliparous women: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddell, C A; Kaufman, J S; Strumpf, E C; Abenhaim, H A; Hutcheon, J A

    2017-10-01

    Our objective was to describe contemporary practice patterns in the timing of caesarean delivery in relation to cervical dilation, overall and by indication for caesarean. Our secondary objective was to examine how commonly caesarean delivery was performed for labour dystocia at dilations below 4 cm or without the use of oxytocin, overall and between hospitals. Retrospective, population-based cohort study. Ontario, Alberta, and British Columbia, Canada, 2008-2012. Nulliparous women in labour who delivered term singletons in cephalic position. Histograms were used to examine the distribution of cervical dilation at time of caesarean delivery, overall and by indication for caesarean. Funnel plots were used to illustrate variation in hospital-level rates of caesarean deliveries for labour dystocia that were performed early (dilation) or without the use of oxytocin. Cervical dilation (in centimetres) at time of caesarean delivery. The population-based cohort comprised 392 025 women, of whom 18.8% had a caesarean delivery. Of first-stage caesareans for labour dystocia in women who entered labour spontaneously, 13.6% (95% CI 12.9, 14.2) had dilations dilation or without oxytocin varies substantially across hospitals and suggests the need for institutions to review their practices and ensure that management of labour practice guidelines are followed. Many caesareans for labour dystocia are performed early during labour (dilation) or without oxytocin. © 2016 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  10. Outcomes of Nulliparous Women with Spontaneous Labor Onset Admitted to Hospitals in Pre-active versus Active Labor

    Science.gov (United States)

    NEAL, Jeremy L.; LAMP, Jane M.; BUCK, Jacalyn S.; LOWE, Nancy K.; GILLESPIE, Shannon L.; RYAN, Sharon L.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The timing of when a woman is admitted to the hospital for labor care following spontaneous contraction onset may be among the most important decisions that labor attendants make as it can influence care patterns and birth outcomes. The aims of this study were to estimate the percentage of low-risk, nulliparous women at term who are admitted to labor units prior to active labor and to evaluate the effects of the timing of admission (i.e., pre-active versus active labor) on labor interventions and mode of birth. Methods Obstetrics data from low-risk, nulliparous women with spontaneous labor onset at term gestation (N = 216) were merged from two prospective studies conducted at three large, Midwestern hospitals. Baseline characteristics, labor interventions, and outcomes were compared between groups using Fisher’s exact and Mann-Whitney U tests, as appropriate. Likelihoods for oxytocin augmentation, amniotomy, and cesarean delivery were assessed by logistic regression. Results Of the sample of 216 low-risk nulliparous women, 114 (52.8%) were admitted in pre-active labor and 102 (47.2%) were admitted in active labor. Women admitted in pre-active labor were more likely to undergo oxytocin augmentation (84.2% and 45.1%, respectively; odds ratio (OR) 6.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.43–12.27) but not amniotomy (55.3% and 61.8%, respectively; OR 0.8, 95% CI 0.44–1.32) when compared to women admitted in active labor. The likelihood of cesarean delivery was higher for women admitted before active labor onset (15.8% and 6.9%, respectively; OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.02–6.37). Discussion Many low-risk nulliparous women with regular, spontaneous uterine contractions are admitted to labor units before active labor onset, which increases their likelihood of receiving oxytocin and being delivered via cesarean section. An evidence-based, standardized approach for labor admission decision-making is recommended to decrease inadvertent admissions of women in pre

  11. Fear of childbirth: predictors and temporal changes among nulliparous women in the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, M.; Hedegaard, M.; Johansen, C.

    2008-01-01

    pregnancy (mean, 32 weeks) and changes in fear of childbirth between 1997 and 2003. RESULTS: Low educational level, lack of a social network, young age and unemployment were associated with fear of childbirth, as were being a smoker and having low self-rated health. The odds ratio for fear of childbirth......OBJECTIVES: To describe the association between fear of childbirth and social, demographic and psychological factors in a cohort of 30 480 healthy nulliparous women with uncomplicated singleton pregnancies. DESIGN: Nationwide population-based study. SETTING: The Danish National Birth Cohort....... POPULATION: Healthy nulliparous women (n= 30 480) with singleton pregnancies. METHODS: Data from computer-assisted telephone interviews twice in pregnancy linked with national health registers. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Characteristics of women with fear of childbirth in early (mean, 16 weeks) and late...

  12. Relationship between fetal station and successful vaginal delivery in nulliparous women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segel, Sally Y; Carreño, Carlos A; Weiner, Steven J; Bloom, Steven L; Spong, Catherine Y; Varner, Michael W; Rouse, Dwight J; Caritis, Steve N; Grobman, William A; Sorokin, Yoram; Sciscione, Anthony; Mercer, Brian M; Thorp, John M; Malone, Fergal D; Harper, Margaret; Iams, Jay D

    2012-10-01

    To study the relationship between fetal station and successful vaginal delivery in nulliparous women. This was a secondary analysis from a previously reported trial of pulse oximetry. Vaginal delivery rates were evaluated and compared with respect to the fetal station. Spontaneous labor and induction of labor groups were evaluated separately. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to adjust for confounding factors. Successful vaginal delivery was more frequent with an engaged vertex for spontaneous labor (86.2% versus 78.6%; p = 0.01) and induced labor (87.7% versus 66.1%; p women with induced labor (OR 2.2; 95% CI 0.96 to 5.1; p = 0.06). Among nulliparous women enrolled in the FOX randomized trial in spontaneous labor or for labor induction, an engaged fetal vertex does not affect their vaginal delivery rate. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  13. Preferred place of birth: characteristics and motives of low-risk nulliparous women in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Haaren-Ten Haken, Tamar; Hendrix, Marijke; Nieuwenhuijze, Marianne; Budé, Luc; de Vries, Raymond; Nijhuis, Jan

    2012-10-01

    to explores preferences, characteristics and motives regarding place of birth of low-risk nulliparous women in the Netherlands. a prospective cohort study of low-risk nulliparous women and their partners starting their pregnancy in midwifery-led care or in obstetric-led care. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire, including questions on demographic, psychosocial and pregnancy factors and statements about motives with regard to place of birth. Depression, worry and self-esteem were explored using the Edinburgh Depression Scale (EDS), the Cambridge Worry Scale (CWS) and the Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale (RSE). participants were recruited in 100 independent midwifery practices and 14 hospitals from 2007 to 2011. 550 low-risk nulliparous women; 231 women preferred a home birth, 170 women a hospital birth in midwifery-led care and 149 women a birth in obstetric-led care. Significant differences in characteristics were found in the group who preferred a birth in obstetric-led care compared to the two groups who preferred midwifery-led care. Those women were older (F (2,551)=16.14, pbirth is driven by a desire for greater personal autonomy, whereas women's choice for a hospital birth is driven by a desire to feel safe and control risks. the characteristics of women who prefer a hospital birth are different than the characteristics of women who prefer a home birth. It appears that for women preferring a hospital birth, the assumed safety of the hospital is more important than type of care provider. This brings up the question whether women are fully aware of the possibilities of maternity care services. Women might need concrete information about the availability and the characteristics of the services within the maternity care system and the risks and benefits associated with either setting, in order to make an informed choice where to give birth. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Maternal Characteristics for the Prediction of Preeclampsia in Nulliparous Women: The Great Obstetrical Syndromes (GOS) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutin, Amélie; Gasse, Cédric; Demers, Suzanne; Giguère, Yves; Tétu, Amélie; Bujold, Emmanuel

    2017-10-24

    Low-dose aspirin started in early pregnancy significantly reduces the risk of preeclampsia (PE) in high-risk women, especially preterm PE. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of maternal characteristics on the risk of PE in nulliparous women. The Great Obstetrical Syndromes (GOS) study recruited nulliparous women with singleton pregnancies at 11 to 13 weeks. The following maternal characteristics were collected: age, BMI, ethnicity, chronic diseases, smoking, and assisted reproductive technologies. Relative weight analyses were conducted, and predictive multivariate proportional hazard models were constructed. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses with their area under the curve (AUC) were used to evaluate the value of each factor for the prediction of PE and preterm PE. The study also evaluated the SOGC guidelines for identification of women at high risk of PE. Of 4739 participants, 232 (4.9%) developed PE, including 30 (0.6%) with preterm PE. In univariate analyses, only BMI was significantly associated with the risk of PE (AUC 0.60; 95% CI 0.55-0.65) and preterm PE (AUC 0.64; 95% CI 054-0.73). Adding other maternal characteristics to BMI had a non-significant and marginal impact on the discriminative ability to the models for PE (AUC 0.62; 95% CI 0.58-0.66) and preterm PE (AUC 0.65; 95% CI 0.56-0.74). At a false-positive rate of 10%, maternal characteristics could have predicted 23% of PE and 19% of preterm PE. The SOGC guidelines were not discriminant for PE (detecting 96% of PE and 93% of preterm PE with a 94% false-positive rate). In nulliparous women, BMI is the most discriminant maternal characteristic for the prediction of PE. Maternal characteristics should not be used alone to identify nulliparous women at high risk of PE. Copyright © 2017 Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Emergency caesarean section in low risk nulliparous women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haerskjold, Ann; Hegaard, H K; Kjaergaard, H

    2012-01-01

    and identifies maternal and fetal risk factors associated with ECS. We included 2,748 low-risk women and 8.7% had ECS. Failure-to-progress (FTP) accounted for 68.3% of the ECS and 30.4% were performed due to suspected fetal distress (SFD). Multivariate logistic regression analyses were done to estimate...

  16. Sports and leisure time physical activity during pregnancy in nulliparous women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegaard, Hanne Kristine; Damm, Peter; Hedegaard, Morten

    2011-01-01

    To describe patterns of leisure time physical activity during pregnancy in relation to pre-pregnancy leisure time physical activity, socio-demographic characteristics, fertility history, and lifestyle factors. 4,718 nulliparous with singleton pregnancy and intended spontaneous vaginal delivery were...... included in the study at gestational week 33 from May 2004 to July 2005. Information was provided by self-administered questionnaires. Leisure time physical activity was categorised into four categories: competitive sport, moderate-to-heavy, light or sedentary. In this population of nulliparous women, 4......% participated in competitive sport, 25% in moderate-to-heavy activities, 66% in light activities, and 5% in sedentary activities in the year prior to pregnancy. Physical activity before pregnancy was statistically significantly associated with age, pre-pregnancy BMI, chronic diseases, number of years at school...

  17. The impact of education intervention on the Health Belief Model constructs regarding anxiety of nulliparous pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahnazi, Hossein; Sabooteh, Sahar; Sharifirad, Gholamreza; Mirkarimi, Kamal; Hassanzadeh, Akbar

    2015-01-01

    According to investigations, pregnant women hypothesized that anxiety is a common factor that will improve spontaneously; they are not aware of its side effects on the fetus, baby, and pregnancy outcome, as a whole. Other studies have also not tried to design a theoretical framework based on Health Education Models (HBMs) to overcome this problem. The current study aimed at exploring the effectiveness of education on the anxiety of nulliparous women based on a HBM. An experimental study on 88 eligible nulliparous women (n = 44 per group), from Doroud city, was performed in 2012. The data was collected using a researcher made questionnaire. Education was conducted in three sessions tailored with HBM constructs with the help of lectures, group discussions, inquiries, Power Point presentations, and booklets. Evaluation performed using a posttest four and eight weeks after last session. The collected data were analyzed using statistical tests, including Chi-square, independent t-test, and repeated measure Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) by the significance level of 0.05. The mean score of knowledge, perceived sensitivity, perceived severity, perceived benefits and barriers, cues to action, self efficacy, and behavior, four weeks after intervention (P education on increasing knowledge and changing people's beliefs and behavior, in terms of anxiety based pregnancy, should make health planners and authorities pay more attention to these issues. Moreover, it will help in the betterment of the health of mothers and babies.

  18. Effect of Guided Imagery on Maternal Fetal Attachment in Nulliparous Women with Unplanned Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Kordi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and Objectives: Nulliparous women with unplanned pregnancy experience high levels of anxiety, which may adversely affect maternal-fetal attachment. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to determine the effect of guided imagery on maternal-fetal attachment in nulliparous women with unplanned pregnancy. Materials and Methods: In this clinical trial, 67 nulliparous women with unplanned pregnancy were randomly divided into two groups of intervention (n=35 and control (n=32 in 2015. Data collection tools included a demographic form and London, DASS 21, and Cranley's maternal-fetal attachment questionnaires. In the intervention group, one session of guided imagery on maternal role was performed in 34th week of pregnancy in groups of four to seven. Afterwards, guided imagery CDs were given to mothers to be performed at home twice a week for two weeks; the control group only received the routine care. Maternal-fetal attachment was assessed before and two weeks after the intervention. To analyze the data, independent t-test, paired t-test, Chi-squared, Fisher’s exact test, and Mann-Whitney U tests were run using SPSS version 21. Results: Maternal mean age was 24.1±4.3 years, and most mothers (49.3% had high school education. Mean score of maternal-fetal attachment was significantly different between the intervention (94.26±6.7 and control (90.22 ± 9.5 groups after the intervention (P=0.04. Also, there was a significant difference between mean score of maternal-fetal attachment at the beginning and end of the intervention in the intervention and control groups (5.86±7.2 vs. 1.72±3.2; P=0.004. Conclusion: Guided imagery promoted maternal-fetal attachment in women with unplanned pregnancy; thus, it is recommended to use this method in prenatal care for these women.

  19. Comparison of pelvic floor muscle strength evaluations in nulliparous and primiparous women: a prospective study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gameiro, Mônica Orsi; Sousa, Vanessa Oliveira; Gameiro, Luiz Felipe; Muchailh, Rosana Carneiro; Padovani, Carlos Roberto; Amaro, João Luiz

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to compare the pelvic floor muscle strength of nulliparous and primiparous women. METHODS: A total of 100 women were prospectively distributed into two groups: Group 1 (G1) (n = 50) included healthy nulliparous women, and Group 2 (G2) (n = 50) included healthy primiparous women. Pelvic floor muscle strength was subjectively evaluated using transvaginal digital palpation. Pelvic floor muscle strength was objectively assessed using a portable perineometer. All of the parameters were evaluated simultaneously in G1 and were evaluated in G2 during the 20th and 36th weeks of pregnancy and 45 days after delivery. RESULTS: In G2, 14 women were excluded because they left the study before the follow-up evaluation. The median age was 23 years in G1 and 22 years in G2; there was no significant difference between the groups. The average body mass index was 21.7 kg/m2 in G1 and 25.0 kg/m2 in G2; there was a significant difference between the groups (p = 0.0004). In G2, transvaginal digital palpation evaluation showed significant impairments of pelvic floor muscle strength at the 36th week of pregnancy (p = 0.0006) and 45 days after vaginal delivery (p = 0.0001) compared to G1. Objective evaluations of pelvic floor muscle strength in G2 revealed a significant decrease 45 days after vaginal delivery compared to nulliparous patients. CONCLUSION: Pregnancy and vaginal delivery may cause weakness of the pelvic floor muscles. PMID:21915489

  20. Comparison of pelvic floor muscle strength evaluations in nulliparous and primiparous women: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Orsi Gameiro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to compare the pelvic floor muscle strength of nulliparous and primiparous women. METHODS: A total of 100 women were prospectively distributed into two groups: Group 1 (G1 (n = 50 included healthy nulliparous women, and Group 2 (G2 (n = 50 included healthy primiparous women. Pelvic floor muscle strength was subjectively evaluated using transvaginal digital palpation. Pelvic floor muscle strength was objectively assessed using a portable perineometer. All of the parameters were evaluated simultaneously in G1 and were evaluated in G2 during the 20th and 36th weeks of pregnancy and 45 days after delivery. RESULTS: In G2, 14 women were excluded because they left the study before the follow-up evaluation. The median age was 23 years in G1 and 22 years in G2; there was no significant difference between the groups. The average body mass index was 21.7 kg/m² in G1 and 25.0 kg/m² in G2; there was a significant difference between the groups (p = 0.0004. In G2, transvaginal digital palpation evaluation showed significant impairments of pelvic floor muscle strength at the 36th week of pregnancy (p = 0.0006 and 45 days after vaginal delivery (p = 0.0001 compared to G1. Objective evaluations of pelvic floor muscle strength in G2 revealed a significant decrease 45 days after vaginal delivery compared to nulliparous patients. CONCLUSION: Pregnancy and vaginal delivery may cause weakness of the pelvic floor muscles.

  1. Amniotomy and the use of oxytocin in labor in nulliparous women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitchik, J; Holden, A E; Castillo, M

    1985-12-15

    A group of 242 nulliparous women in spontaneous, term, first-stage, true labor, with cephalic presentations and intact membranes, underwent amniotomy in the first stage. Sixty-nine of 242 (29%) received oxytocin prior to complete dilatation. The group that received oxytocin was characterized by fewer women less than 20 years of age, more patients with an additional diagnosis such as preeclampsia, longer labors, and slower mean rates of dilatation before and after amniotomy. There was no correlation between the last dilatation rate before and the first after amniotomy. The only significant predictors of oxytocin use were cervical dilatation at amniotomy and the first rate of dilatation afterward. Of patients with dilatation at a rate of greater than or equal to 1 cm/hr from admission to amniotomy, 16% received oxytocin; if less than 1 cm/hr, 39%. Two different rate standards were used to differentiate "unsatisfactory" from "satisfactory" labor: (1) less than 1 or greater than or equal to 1 cm/hr and (2) no change or some change in dilatation. Neither of these standards, when applied to the first examination after amniotomy, predicts patients who will receive oxytocin with any reasonable degree of efficiency. Examination of cervical dilatation after amniotomy in patients who did not receive oxytocin demonstrated failure of the cervix to dilate in approximately 20% of each of three sequential examinations. Contrariwise, no dilatation for 2 hours was uncommon. Amniotomy appears to enhance the dilatation rate in patients with well-dilated cervices that are already dilating at a satisfactory rate and slows dilatation in some patients, particularly those with cervices that are less dilated. These results suggest that amniotomy should be performed for specific indications only.

  2. Risk factors for preterm birth in an international prospective cohort of nulliparous women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustaaf Albert Dekker

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To identify risk factors for spontaneous preterm birth (birth <37 weeks gestation with intact membranes (SPTB-IM and SPTB after prelabour rupture of the membranes (SPTB-PPROM for nulliparous pregnant women. DESIGN: Prospective international multicentre cohort. PARTICIPANTS: 3234 healthy nulliparous women with a singleton pregnancy, follow up was complete in 3184 of participants (98.5%. RESULTS: Of the 3184 women, 156 (4.9% had their pregnancy complicated by SPTB; 96 (3.0% and 60 (1.9% in the SPTB-IM and SPTB-PPROM categories, respectively. Independent risk factors for SPTB-IM were shorter cervical length, abnormal uterine Doppler flow, use of marijuana pre-pregnancy, lack of overall feeling of well being, being of Caucasian ethnicity, having a mother with diabetes and/or a history of preeclampsia, and a family history of low birth weight babies. Independent risk factors for SPTB-PPROM were shorter cervical length, short stature, participant's not being the first born in the family, longer time to conceive, not waking up at night, hormonal fertility treatment (excluding clomiphene, mild hypertension, family history of recurrent gestational diabetes, and maternal family history of any miscarriage (risk reduction. Low BMI (<20 nearly doubled the risk for SPTB-PPROM (odds ratio 2.64; 95% CI 1.07-6.51. The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC, after internal validation, was 0.69 for SPTB-IM and 0.79 for SPTB-PPROM. CONCLUSION: The ability to predict PTB in healthy nulliparous women using clinical characteristics is modest. The dissimilarity of risk factors for SPTB-IM compared with SPTB-PPROM indicates different pathophysiological pathways underlie these distinct phenotypes. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ACTR.org.au ACTRN12607000551493.

  3. Urinary incontinence in nulliparous women aged 25-64 years: a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mukhtar Othman, Jwan; Åkervall, Sigvard; Milsom, Ian; Gyhagen, Maria

    2017-02-01

    A systematic survey of pelvic floor disorders in nulliparous women has not been presented previously. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of urinary incontinence parameters in a large cohort of nonpregnant, nulliparous women, and thereby construct a reference group for comparisons with parous women. This postal and World Wide Web-based questionnaire survey was conducted in 2014. The study population was identified from the Total Population Register in Sweden and comprised women who had not given birth and were aged 25-64 years. Four independent age-stratified, random samples comprising 20,000 women were obtained from the total number of eligible nullipara (n = 625,810). A 40-item questionnaire about pelvic floor symptoms, its severity, and its consequences were used. Age-dependent differences for various aspects of urinary incontinence were analyzed with the youngest group (25-34 years) serving as reference. Crude and body mass index-adjusted prevalence and its 95% confidence limits were calculated for each 10-year category. The response rate was 52% and the number of study participants was 9197. Urinary incontinence increased >5-fold from 9.7% in the youngest women with a body mass index women with a body mass index ≥35 kg/m2. The prevalence of bothersome urinary incontinence almost tripled from 2.8-7.9% among all nulliparas. The proportion with bothersome urinary incontinence among incontinent women increased from 24.4% in the youngest age group to 32.3% in the age group 55-64 years. Nocturia ≥2/night increased 4-fold to 17.0% and leakage ≥1/wk increased 3-fold to 12.8% among the oldest women. Mixed urinary incontinence increased from 22.9-40.9% among the oldest 0-para with incontinence, whereas stress urinary incontinence decreased inversely from 43.6-33.0%. In the total cohort surgical treatment for urinary incontinence occurred in 3 per thousand. Almost every aspect of urinary incontinence was present in nulliparous women of all

  4. Early versus delayed oxytocin augmentation in nulliparous women with prolonged labour--a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dencker, A; Berg, M; Bergqvist, L; Ladfors, L; Thorsén, L S; Lilja, H

    2009-03-01

    To study the effects of early versus delayed oxytocin augmentation on the obstetrical and neonatal outcome in nulliparous women with spontaneous but prolonged labour. Randomised controlled study. Two delivery units in Sweden. Healthy nulliparous women with normal pregnancies, spontaneous onset of active labour, a cervical dilatation of 4-9 cm and no progress in cervical dilatation for 2 hours and for an additional hour if amniotomy was performed due to slow progress. Women (n = 630) were randomly allocated either to labour augmentation by oxytocin infusion (early oxytocin group) or to postponement of oxytocin augmentation for another 3 hours (expectant group). Mode of delivery (spontaneous vaginal or instrumental vaginal delivery or caesarean section) and time from randomisation to delivery. The caesarean section rate was 29 of 314 (9%) in the early oxytocin group and 34 of 316 (11%) in the expectant group (OR 0.8, 95% CI 0.5-1.4), and instrumental vaginal delivery 54 of 314 (17%) in the early oxytocin versus 38 of 316 (12%) in the expectant group (OR 1.5, 95% CI 0.97-2.4). Early initiation of oxytocin resulted in a mean decrease of 85 minutes in the randomisation to delivery interval. Early administration of oxytocin did not change the rate of caesarean section or instrumental vaginal delivery but shortened labour duration significantly in women with a 2-hour arrest in cervical dilatation. No other clear benefits or harms were seen between early and delayed administration of oxytocin.

  5. Pelvic floor muscle strength in primigravidae and non-pregnant nulliparous women: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmezoni, Vanessa P; Santos, Marília D; Pereira, Janser M; Bernardes, Bruno T; Pereira-Baldon, Vanessa S; Resende, Ana Paula M

    2017-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate the pelvic floor muscles (PFM) in primigravidae and compare them with those in nonpregnant nulliparous women. The sample consisted of 141 women with a mean age of 22.8 years, divided into four groups: 36 nonpregnant nulliparous (C), 31 primigravidae in the first trimester (1T), 42 primigravida in the second trimester (2T), and 32 primigravidae in the third trimester (3T). The participants were examined by digital palpation for pelvic floor muscle contraction using the Modified Oxford Scale, by measuring maximal vaginal squeeze pressure with a vaginal perineometer, and by measuring PFM maximal strength using a vaginal dynamometer. The best value of three maximal strengths was considered for analysis, the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests were used and differences were considered significant at p ≤ 0.05. The mean values for group C were 3.2 (digital palpation), 45.6 cmH2O (perineometry), and 11.7 N (dynamometry); for group 1T the corresponding values were 2.5, 21.1 cmH2O, and 8.8 N; for group 2T: 2.8, 22.9 cmH2O, and 7.8 N; and for group 3T: 2.1, 17.3 cmH2O, and 6.8 N. Groups were compared in pairs for digital palpation, perineometry, and dynamometry. There were significant differences between group C and group 1T, and between group C and group 3T. There was a significant difference between group C and group 2T with regard to perineometry and dynamometry, but not digital palpation. Dynamometry demonstrated a difference between groups 1T and 3T, digital palpation between groups 2T and 3T. Pelvic floor muscles in primigravidae are not as strong as those in nonpregnant nulliparous women.

  6. Sports and leisure time physical activity during pregnancy in nulliparous women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegaard, Hanne Kristine; Damm, Peter; Hedegaard, Morten; Henriksen, Tine Brink; Ottesen, Bent; Dykes, Anna-Karin; Kjaergaard, Hanne

    2011-08-01

    To describe patterns of leisure time physical activity during pregnancy in relation to pre-pregnancy leisure time physical activity, socio-demographic characteristics, fertility history, and lifestyle factors. 4,718 nulliparous with singleton pregnancy and intended spontaneous vaginal delivery were included in the study at gestational week 33 from May 2004 to July 2005. Information was provided by self-administered questionnaires. Leisure time physical activity was categorised into four categories: competitive sport, moderate-to-heavy, light or sedentary. In this population of nulliparous women, 4% participated in competitive sport, 25% in moderate-to-heavy activities, 66% in light activities, and 5% in sedentary activities in the year prior to pregnancy. Physical activity before pregnancy was statistically significantly associated with age, pre-pregnancy BMI, chronic diseases, number of years at school, and smoking habits. The proportion of women who took part in competitive sports, and moderate-to-heavy activities decreased over the three trimesters of pregnancy. The proportion of women with light physical activity was stable during pregnancy while the proportion of women with sedentary activity increased from 6% to 29%. During the third trimester women performing competitive sports or moderate-to-heavy activities before pregnancy continued to have a higher level of physical activity than women with light activities or sedentary activities before pregnancy. In general the intensity and time spent on exercise decreased during pregnancy. Women with the highest level of exercise prior to pregnancy continued to be the most active during pregnancy. Among women with sedentary activities before pregnancy one-fourth changed to light activity during pregnancy.

  7. Midpregnancy Cervical Length in Nulliparous Women and its Association with Postterm Delivery and Intrapartum Cesarean Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ven, A J; van Os, M A; Kleinrouweler, C E; Verhoeven, C J M; de Miranda, E; Bossuyt, P M; de Groot, C J M; Haak, M C; Pajkrt, E; Mol, B W J; Kazemier, B M

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the association between midpregnancy cervical length and postterm delivery and cesarean delivery during labor. In a multicenter cohort study, cervical length was measured in low-risk singleton pregnancies between 16 and 22 weeks of gestation. From this cohort, we identified nulliparous women who delivered beyond 34 weeks and calculated cervical length quartiles. We performed logistic regression to compare the risk of postterm delivery and intrapartum cesarean delivery to cervical length quartiles, using the lowest quartile as a reference. We adjusted for induction of labor, maternal age, ethnicity, cephalic position, preexisting hypertension, and gestational age at delivery. We studied 5,321 nulliparous women. Women with cervical length in the 3rd and 4th quartile were more likely to deliver at 42(+0) to 42(+6) weeks (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.02, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.07-3.79 and aOR 1.97, 95% CI 1.06-3.67, respectively). The frequency of intrapartum cesarean delivery increased with cervical length quartile from 9.4% in the 1st to 14.9% in the 4th quartile (p = 0.01). This increase was only present in intrapartum cesarean delivery because of failure to progress and not because of fetal distress. The longer the cervix at midtrimester the higher the risk of both postterm delivery and intrapartum cesarean delivery. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  8. Aerobic exercise training during pregnancy reduces depressive symptoms in nulliparous women: a randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robledo-Colonia, Angelo Fernando; Sandoval-Restrepo, Natalia; Mosquera-Valderrama, Yannier Ferley; Escobar-Hurtado, Celia; Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson

    2012-01-01

    Does supervised aerobic exercise during pregnancy reduce depressive symptoms in nulliparous women? Randomised trial with concealed allocation, blinded assessors, and intention-to-treat analysis. 80 nulliparous, pregnant women attending for prenatal care at one of three tertiary hospitals in Cali, Colombia. The experimental group completed a 3-month supervised exercise program, commencing at 16 to 20 weeks of gestation. Each session included walking (10 min), aerobic exercise (30 min), stretching (10 min), and relaxation (10 min). The control group continued usual activities and performed no specific exercise. The primary outcome was symptoms of depression assessed by the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) at baseline and immediately after the 3-month intervention. 74 women completed the study. After the 3-month intervention, the experimental group reduced their depressive symptoms on the CES-D questionnaire by 4 points (95% CI 1 to 7) more than the control group. A supervised 3-month program of primarily aerobic exercise during pregnancy reduces depressive symptoms. NCT00872365. Copyright © 2012 Australian Physiotherapy Association. Published by .. All rights reserved.

  9. [Intrauterine contraception in nulliparous women as a strategy to reduce unplanned pregnancies in Latin America].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lira-Plasencia, Josefina; Bahamondes, L; Bahamondes, M V; Fugarolas, J M; Kosoy, G; Magalhaes, J; Paez-Fonseca, B; Perfumo, P R

    2014-02-01

    Due high rates of unplanned pregnancy and unsafe abortion in young women in Latin America intrauterine contraception, by its great contraceptive efficacy, should be offered by the public services of health in a more generalized way. However, some negative prejudices prevail over the perception of its benefits. The aim of this article was to explore the most relevant myths around this contraceptive method in Latin America and make a review of the literature to allay the fears of their use by young and nulliparous women. Descriptive and retrospective study. Search for information in Embase and PubMed with emphasis on clinical randomized studies, studies of cases and controls, meta-analyses and systematic reviews which show risks and benefits of intrauterine contraception. Evidence shows that intrauterine contraception has few contraindications for young women and nulliparous; for this reason it must be as an effective public health strategy to reduce unplanned pregnancies and unsafe abortions. We identified the major barriers to the use of intrauterine contraception in Latin America and evidence for each one of them in the bibliography. Doctors of first contact in health systems should now recognize that intrauterine contraception is safe and effective.

  10. Is pelvic organ support different between young nulliparous African and Caucasian women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, K L; Krause, H G; Wong, V; Goh, J; Dietz, H P

    2016-06-01

    There seems to be substantial variation in the prevalence of pelvic floor disorders between different ethnic groups. This may be due partially to differences in pelvic floor structure and functional anatomy. To date, data on this issue are sparse. The aim of this study was to compare hiatal dimensions, pelvic organ descent and levator biometry in young, healthy nulliparous Caucasian and African women. Healthy nulliparous non-pregnant volunteers attending a local nursing school in Uganda were invited to participate in this study during two fistula camps. All volunteers underwent a simple physician-administered questionnaire and a four-dimensional translabial ultrasound examination. Offline analysis was performed to assess hiatal dimensions, pelvic organ descent, levator muscle thickness and area. To compare findings with those obtained in nulliparous non-pregnant Caucasians, we retrieved the three-dimensional/four-dimensional ultrasound volume datasets of a previously published study. The dataset of 76 Ugandan and 49 Caucasian women was analyzed. The two groups were not matched but they were comparable in age and body mass index. All measurements of hiatal dimensions and pelvic organ descent were significantly higher among the Ugandans (all P ≤ 0.01); however, muscle thickness and area were not significantly different between the two groups. Substantial differences between Caucasian and Ugandan non-pregnant nulliparae were identified in this study comparing functional pelvic floor anatomy. It appears likely that these differences in functional anatomy are at least partly genetic in nature. Copyright © 2015 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Copyright © 2015 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Anatomy of the perineal membrane as seen in magnetic resonance images of nulliparous women

    Science.gov (United States)

    BRANDON, Catherine J.; LEWICKY-GAUPP, Christina; LARSON, Kindra A.; DeLANCEY, John O.L.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Recent cadaver research demonstrates the perineal membrane’s ventral and dorsal portions and close relationship to the levator ani muscle. This study seeks to show these relationships in women by magnetic resonance (MR) images. Methods The subjects were 20 asymptomatic nulliparous women with normal pelvic examinations. MR images were acquired in multiple planes. Anatomical relationships from cadaver studies were examined in these planes. Results In the coronal plane the ventral perineal membrane forms an interconnected complex with the compressor urethrae, vestibular bulb and levator ani. The dorsal part connects the levator ani and vaginal side wall via a distinct band to the ischiopubic ramus. In the sagittal plane the parallel position of perineal membrane and levator ani are seen. Conclusion The perineal membrane’s anatomical features can be seen in women with MR. The close relationship between the perineal membrane and levator ani is evident. PMID:19375575

  12. Obstetrician-gynecologists and contraception: practice and opinions about the use of IUDs in nulliparous women, adolescents and other patient populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchowski, Alicia T; Anderson, Britta L; Power, Michael L; Raglan, Greta B; Espey, Eve; Schulkin, Jay

    2014-06-01

    Use of intrauterine devices (IUDs) by US women is low despite their suitability for most women of reproductive age and in a variety of clinical contexts. This study examined obstetrician-gynecologists' practices and opinions about the use of IUDs in adolescents, nulliparous women and other patient groups, as well as for emergency contraception. A survey questionnaire was sent to a computer-generated sample of 3000 fellows who were reflective of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (College) membership. After exclusions from the 1552 returned surveys (51.7% response rate), 1150 eligible questionnaires were analyzed. Almost all obstetrician-gynecologists (95.8%) reported providing IUDs, but only 66.8% considered nulliparous women, and 43.0% considered adolescents appropriate candidates. Even among obstetrician-gynecologists who recalled reading a College publication about IUDs, only 78.0% and 45.0% considered nulliparous women and adolescents appropriate candidates, respectively. Few respondents (16.1%) had recommended the copper IUD as emergency contraception, and only 73.9% agreed that the copper IUD could be used as emergency contraception. A total of 67.3% of respondents agreed that an IUD can be inserted immediately after an abortion or miscarriage. Fewer (43.5%) agreed that an IUD can be inserted immediately postpartum, and very few provide these services (11.4% and 7.2%, respectively). Staying informed about practice recommendations for long-acting reversible contraception was associated with broader provision of IUDs. Although most obstetrician-gynecologists offer IUDs, many exclude appropriate candidates for IUD use, both for emergency contraception and for long-term use, despite evidence-based recommendations. This study shows that obstetrician-gynecologists still do not offer IUDs to appropriate candidates, such as nulliparous women and adolescents, and rarely provide the copper IUD as emergency contraception. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier

  13. Temporal trends of lipophilic persistent organic pollutants in serum from Danish nulliparous pregnant women 2011-2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Christian Bjerregaard; Long, Manhai; Ghisari, Mandana

    2017-01-01

    nulliparous pregnant women between 2011 and 2013. We randomly selected 197 pregnant women (gestational age 11-13) from the Aarhus Birth Cohort. The concentrations of the lipophilic POPs in the serum samples were analyzed using gas chromatography. The concentrations were corrected for total serum lipids...

  14. The Relationship between Happiness and Fear of Childbirth in Nulliparous Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farnaz Sadat Seyed Ahmadi Nejad

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Happiness is a mental or emotional state of well-being. Happy individuals tend to interpret and process feeling in a positive way. Accordingly, the response to the pain may alter due to the effects of subjective elements on the pain perception. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between the level of contentment and fear of childbirth (FOC in nulliparous women referring to the healthcare centers of Mashhad, Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 370 nulliparous women who were selected through multistage sampling method from urban healthcare centers in Mashhad, Iran, 2014. Data collected using demographic and obstetric questionnaire, Oxford Happiness Questionnaire, and Childbirth Attitude Questionnaire (CAQ (an instrument for measuring the FOC. Data analyzed using Kolmogorov-Smirnov, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA, independent samples t-test, regression, Kruskal-Wallis, Chi-square, Tukey honest significant difference (HSD, Mann-Whitney U, and Spearman and Pearson correlation coefficient tests with SPSS software version 11.5. Results: The mean levels of happiness and FOC were 123.97±18.82 and 45.80±7.57, respectively. There was a significant correlation between happiness and FOC (P

  15. Mixing nulliparous and multiparous women in randomised controlled trials of preeclampsia prevention is debatable: evidence from a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Emmanuel; Caille, Agnès; Perrotin, Franck; Giraudeau, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Nulliparity is a major risk factor of preeclampsia investigated in numerous trials of its prevention. We aimed to assess whether these trials considered nulliparity in subject selection or analysis of results. 01 April 2013 search of MEDLINE via PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library. 01 April 2013 search of trials registered in Clinicaltrials.gov. Randomised controlled trials and metaanalyses of preeclampsia prevention with no restriction to period of publication or language. Metaanalyses were selected to fully identify relevant trials. One reader appraised each selected article/registered protocol using a pretested, standardized data abstraction form developed in a pilot test. For each article, he recorded whether both nulliparous and multiparous were included and, in case of mixed populations, whether randomisation was stratified, and whether subgroup analyses had been reported. For registered protocols, he only assessed whether it was planned to include mixed populations. 88 randomised controlled trials were identified, representing 83,396 included women. In 58 of the 88 articles identified (65.9%), preeclampsia was the primary outcome. In 31 of these (53.4%), the investigation combined nulliparous and multiparous women; only two reports in 31 (6.5%) stated that randomisation was stratified on parity and only four (12.9%) described a subgroup analysis by parity. Of the 30 registered trials, 20 (66.6%) planned to include both nulliparous and multiparous women. Parity is largely ignored in randomised controlled trials of preeclampsia prevention, which raises difficulties in interpreting the results.

  16. Effect of Body Mass Index on pregnancy outcomes in nulliparous women delivering singleton babies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liston William A

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increasing prevalence of obesity in young women is a major public health concern. These trends have a major impact on pregnancy outcomes in these women, which have been documented by several researchers. In a population based cohort study, using routinely collected data, this paper examines the effect of increasing Body Mass Index (BMI on pregnancy outcomes in nulliparous women delivering singleton babies. Methods This was a retrospective cohort study, based on all nulliparous women delivering singleton babies in Aberdeen between 1976 and 2005. Women were categorized into five groups – underweight (BMI 2, normal (BMI 20 – 24.9 Kg/m2 overweight (BMI 25 – 29.9 Kg/m2, obese (BMI 30 – 34.9 Kg/m2 and morbidly obese (BMI > 35 Kg/m2. Obstetric and perinatal outcomes were compared by univariate and multivariate analyses. Results In comparison with women of BMI 20 – 24.9, morbidly obese women faced the highest risk of pre-eclampsia {OR 7.2 (95% CI 4.7, 11.2} and underweight women the lowest {OR 0.6 (95% CI 0.5, 0.7}. Induced labour was highest in the morbidly obese {OR 1.8 (95% CI 1.3, 2.5} and lowest in underweight women {OR 0.8 (95% CI 0.8, 0.9}. Emergency Caesarean section rates were highest in the morbidly obese {OR 2.8 (95% CI 2.0, 3.9}, and comparable in women with normal and low BMI. Obese women were more likely to have postpartum haemorrhage {OR 1.5 (95% CI 1.3, 1.7} and preterm delivery ( 4,000 g was in the morbidly obese {OR 2.1 (95% CI 1.3, 3.2} and the lowest in underweight women {OR 0.5 (95% CI 0.4, 0.6}. Conclusion Increasing BMI is associated with increased incidence of pre-eclampsia, gestational hypertension, macrosomia, induction of labour and caesarean delivery; while underweight women had better pregnancy outcomes than women with normal BMI.

  17. Effects of entonox in comparison of lidocaine on pain severity during episiotomy incision in nulliparous women: A randomized control trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Honarmandpour

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aim: Episiotomy is one of the most common surgical procedures in obstetrics, which requires analgesia. Entonox gas is known to have analgesic and sedative properties. However, no studies have been found on the analgesic effects of Entonox on episiotomy incision. Therefore, this study aimed to compare the effects of Entonox and lidocaine on pain intensity during episiotomy incision in nulliparous women. Materials and Methods: This randomized controlled trial was conducted on 120 term nulliparous women, who met the inclusion criteria. Subjects were selected by randomized sampling and equally divided into two groups of intervention and control (n=60. In the intervention group, Entonox gas was applied two minutes before episiotomy incision until the end of the procedure. On the other hand, the control group received 5 ml of lidocaine 2% as routine care before episiotomy incision. Data were collected using visual analogue scale to compare the study groups in terms of pain intensity. In addition, patient satisfaction with pain management technique during episiotomy and side effects of Entonox were assessed. Data analysis was performed in SPSS version 22 using Mann-Whitney U and Chi-square tests, and P value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: In this study, no significant difference was observed between the intervention and control groups regarding pain intensity (P=0.52. Moreover, no significant difference was observed in the satisfaction level of the two groups (P=0.70. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, Entonox could be used as an effective and noninvasive alternative to lidocaine to reduce pain during episiotomy incision without significant side effects.

  18. Experiences of physical activity during pregnancy in Danish nulliparous women with a physically active life before pregnancy. A qualitative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegaard, Hanne Kristine; Kjaergaard, Hanne; Damm, Peter P

    2010-01-01

    National guidelines recommend that healthy pregnant women take 30 minutes or more of moderate exercise a day. Most women reduce the level of physical activity during pregnancy but only a few studies of women's experiences of physical activity during pregnancy exist. The aim of the present study...... was to elucidate experiences and views of leisure time physical activity during pregnancy in nulliparous women who were physically active prior to their pregnancy....

  19. Delivery outcomes for nulliparous women at the extremes of maternal age - a cohort study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Vaughan, DA

    2013-06-12

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the associations between extremes of maternal age (≤17 years or ≥40 years) and delivery outcomes. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Urban maternity hospital in Ireland. POPULATION: A total of 36 916 nulliparous women with singleton pregnancies who delivered between 2000 and 2011. METHODS: The study population was subdivided into five maternal age groups based on age at first booking visit: ≤17 years, 18-19 years, 20-34 years, 35-39 years and women aged ≥40 years. Logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the associations between extremes of maternal age and delivery outcomes, adjusting for potential confounding factors. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Preterm birth, admission to the neonatal unit, congenital anomaly, caesarean section. RESULTS: Compared with maternal age 20-34 years, age ≤17 years was a risk factor for preterm birth (adjusted odds ratio [adjOR] 1.83, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.33-2.52). Babies born to mothers ≥40 years were more likely to require admission to the neonatal unit (adjOR 1.35, 95% CI 1.06-1.72) and to have a congenital anomaly (adjOR 1.71, 95% CI 1.07-2.76). The overall caesarean section rate in nulliparous women was 23.9% with marked differences at the extremes of maternal age; 10.7% at age ≤17 years (adjOR 0.46, 95% CI 0.34-0.62) and 54.4% at age ≥40 years (adjOR 3.24, 95% CI 2.67-3.94). CONCLUSIONS: Extremes of maternal age need to be recognised as risk factors for adverse delivery outcomes. Low caesarean section rates in younger women suggest that a reduction in overall caesarean section rates may be possible.

  20. The Relationship between Mode of Delivery and Sexual Function in Nulliparous Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aytay Alesheikh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Sexual activity is one of the most important aspects of a marital life. Childbirth is also a major event in the life of women, and the period of postpartum is a time of emotional upheaval. Since women believe that vaginal delivery could negatively affect their sexual function after childbirth, they tend to give birth through caesarean section. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the relationship between mode of delivery and sexual function in nulliparous women referred to healthcare centers in Mashhad, Iran. Methods: This correlational study was conducted on 450 nulliparous women, divided into two groups of vaginal delivery and cesarean section in 2014. Suubjects were selected via multistage sampling. Data collection tools included Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI, Depression, Anxiety and Stress scale (DASS-21, and Cassidy social support scale. Data was analyzed in SPSS version 16 using Spearman correlation coefficient and Mann-Whitney test, T-test, ANOVA, and Kruskal-Wallis. Moreover, general linear model was used to control confounding variables, and P-value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Independent t-test results indicated that mean scores of sexual function in two groups of the study were 26.11±4.36 and 26.38±4.41, respectively, which revealed no statistically significant difference between the groups (P=0.509. Conclusion: No significant difference was observed between the vaginal delivery and caesarean section groups regarding sexual function. Therefore, it seems that cesarean section does not necessarily lead to pleasing sexual relationships in postpartum period compared to vaginal delivery.

  1. Assessment Of The Effects Of Increased Intra Venous Hydration On The Course Of Labor In Nulliparous Term Pregnancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    m.h. alavi

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Physiologists have shown that increased fluids improve skeletal muscle performance in prolonged exercise. Typical orders provide for 125 mL of intravenous fluids per hour in patients taking limited oral fluids during labor. Our purpose in this study was to determine whether increased intravenous fluids affect the progress oflabor. In a prospective randomized institutional clinical trial, one-hundred ninety-four nulliparous women with uncomplicated singleton gestations at term in spontaneous active labor with dilatation 2-5 em and a cephalic presentation were selected. 82 were designed to receive 250 mL per hour of intravenous normal saline in dextrose water (first group, and 112 to receive 125 mL per hour of the same solution (2nd or control group. Prerandomization variables such as mother's age, weight, previous pregnancy history, general health, sex and weight of the newborn, rupture of the membranes and presenting part were balanced between the two groups. The frequency of labor lasting> 10 hours was statistically higher in the 125mL group ([16.7%] vs [7.4%] p< 0.0002. This study showed that increasing fluid administration for nulliparous women in labor is associated with a shorter duration of the first stage and possibly less need for augmentation of uterine contraction ( [4.8% vs 6.25%] p= 0.002.Thus dehydration in labor may be a contributing factor for dysfunctional labor and need for cesarean-section, and oxytocin infusion.

  2. Results of a 5-year contraceptive trial in parous and nulliparous women with a new LNG-IUS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildemeersch, Dirk; Goldstuck, Norman D; Jackers, Geert

    2017-03-01

    To report on the contraceptive performance and continuation of a new T-shaped LNG-IUS, releasing 20 μg of levonorgestrel/day, in both parous and nulliparous nulliparous women after 5 years of use. An observational prospective contraceptive study conducted in parous and nulliparous women up to 48 years of age. The study was conducted in a sample size of 356 women of whom 67.1% were parous and 32.9% were nulliparous with mean age of 35.1 (range 15-48). The total cumulative observation period was 27 269 woman-months. Only one accidental pregnancy was observed and two expulsions were reported with no partial expulsions. There were 12.7% medical removals for abnormal bleeding, pain and other medical reasons, mostly not related to the use of the LNG-IUS, and 13.3% removals in women wishing to become pregnant. The discontinuation rate at 5 years amounts to 25.7% including women with pregnancy wish, who used the LNG-IUS for an average of 44 months. There were no serious adverse events (e.g. perforation, pelvic inflammatory disease). The LNG-IUS used in this study is highly effective and well tolerated resulting in a high continuation of use. The only two expulsions that occurred during the study is remarkable. The ease and safety of insertion together with optimal retention is considered an advance in intrauterine contraceptive device technology.

  3. Maternal Vascular Malperfusion and Adverse Perinatal Outcomes in Low-Risk Nulliparous Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Emily; Audette, Melanie C; Ye, Xiang Y; Keating, Sarah; Hoffman, Barry; Lye, Stephen J; Shah, Prakesh S; Kingdom, John C

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate the disease burden of placental maternal vascular malperfusion pathology in a low-risk nulliparous population and test the hypothesis that a multiparameter model in the second trimester can predict maternal vascular malperfusion with high precision. A single-center, prospective cohort study was conducted in healthy nulliparous women. Maternal vascular malperfusion disease burden was estimated by incidence, relative risk (RR), and population-attributable risk percent. Maternal risk factors, serum biomarkers, Doppler, and placental morphologic ultrasonography were examined in isolation and in combination for prediction of this placental pathology. The incidence of maternal vascular malperfusion pathology was 8.4% (72/856). Women with pathology had higher risk of preeclampsia (8.33% compared with 1.79%; RR 4.67, 95% CI 1.85-11.77%; population-attributable risk 23.6%, 95% CI 16.9-31.6%), small for gestational age (SGA) (47.22% compared with 9.45%; RR 5.00, 95% CI 3.6-6.93%; population-attributable risk 25.2%, 95% CI 22.1-28.5%), and the composite of adverse outcomes (defined as SGA or preeclampsia) (47.22% compared with 10.59%; RR 4.46, 95% CI 3.25-6.13; population-attributable risk 22.5%, 95% CI 19.8-25.5%). The combination of parameters was superior to individual modalities alone in predicting maternal vascular malperfusion, but achieved only moderate precision (area under the curve 0.77, 95% CI 0.71-0.84). One in 12 healthy nulliparous women develop maternal vascular malperfusion placental pathology, and these pregnancies had a 4.5 times higher risk of developing preeclampsia or delivering a SGA neonate compared with those without this pathology. A multiparameter model achieved modest precision to predict placental maternal vascular malperfusion. Importantly, in low-risk pregnancies, maternal vascular malperfusion accounts for one fourth of pregnancy outcomes with SGA or preeclampsia. The low population-attributable risk of this placental pathology for

  4. Oxytocin Augmentation in Spontaneously Laboring, Nulliparous Women: Multilevel Assessment of Maternal BMI and Oxytocin Dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Nicole S; Corwin, Elizabeth J; Lowe, Nancy K

    2017-07-01

    Synthetic oxytocin, the primary tool for labor augmentation, is less effective among obese women, leading to more unplanned cesarean deliveries for slow labor progress. It is not known if obese women require higher doses of oxytocin due to maternal, fetal, or labor factors related to maternal obesity. This study had two main objectives: (1) examine the influence of maternal body mass index (BMI) on hourly doses of oxytocin from augmentation initiation until vaginal delivery in obese women; and (2) examine the influence of other maternal, fetal, and labor factors on hourly doses of oxytocin in obese women. Longitudinal study of a cohort ( N = 136) of healthy, nulliparous, spontaneously laboring obese women (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m 2 ) who received oxytocin augmentation and achieved vaginal delivery. We performed iterative multilevel analyses to examine the influence of maternal BMI and other factors on hourly oxytocin doses. Maternal BMI explained 16.56% (95% confidence interval [CI] = [13.7, 20.04], p oxytocin doses received in a multilevel model controlling for influence of maternal, fetal, and labor characteristics. Maternal age, gestational age, status of amniotic membranes at hospital admission, and admission cervical dilation examination were not significant; however, neonatal birthweight and cervical dilation at oxytocin initiation were significant predictors of hourly oxytocin dose in these women ( p oxytocin used for augmentation.

  5. Daily sleep and fatigue characteristics in nulliparous women during the third trimester of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Shao-Yu; Lin, Jou-Wei; Kuo, Lu-Ting; Thomas, Karen A

    2012-02-01

    To examine the association among nighttime sleep and daytime napping behaviors, depressive symptoms, and perception of fatigue in pregnant women. A prospective descriptive study with within-subject design. A university-affiliated hospital and participants' home environments. Thirty-eight third trimester nulliparous women completed sleep and depressive symptom questionnaires, wore a wrist actigraphy monitor for 7 consecutive days, and kept a concurrent diary reporting naps and rating their level of fatigue using a 0-10 visual analogue scale each morning, midday, afternoon, and evening. A generalized estimating equation regression model was applied to evaluate the time-dependent association. N/A. Mean duration of total nighttime sleep by actigraphy was 386.3 ± 60.7 min, with 11 (28.9%) women having an average total nighttime sleep 3 days, and only 2 women did not nap over the entire week. Antecedent night sleep duration had a significant inverse association with morning (P = 0.022) and afternoon fatigue (P = 0.009) of the subsequent day. Self-reported naps were significantly associated with midday fatigue (P = 0.003). More depressive symptoms predicted more severe fatigue throughout the day. Results suggest that interventions designed to increase sleep duration and decrease depressive symptoms have the potential to prevent, ameliorate, or reduce fatigue in pregnant women. Depressive symptoms during pregnancy likely share some psychological and behavioral tendencies with fatigue and/or sleep disturbance which may complicate the evaluation of intervention effect.

  6. Differences in urinary incontinence symptoms and pelvic floor structure changes during pregnancy between nulliparous and multiparous women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Luo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background This study was performed to compare changes in urinary incontinence (UI symptoms and pelvic floor structure during pregnancy between nulliparous and multiparous women. Methods A cross-sectional survey was performed among pregnant women from July 2016 to January 2017. In total, 358 pregnant women from two hospitals underwent an interview and pelvic floor transperineal ultrasound assessment. A questionnaire regarding sociodemographic, gynecological, obstetric features and the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Short Form (ICIQ-SF were used for the interview. Imaging data sets were analyzed offline to assess the bladder neck vertical position (BNVP, urethral angles (α, β, and γ angles, and hiatal area (HA at rest and at maximal Valsalva maneuver (VM. Results After excluding 16 women with invalid data, 342 women were included. The prevalence (χ2 = 9.15, P = 0.002, frequency (t = 2.52, P = 0.014, usual amount of UI (t = 2.23, P = 0.029 and scores of interference with daily life (t = 2.03, P = 0.045 during pregnancy were higher in multiparous than nulliparous women. A larger bladder neck descent (BND (F = 4.398, P < 0.001, HA (F = 6.977, P < 0.001, α angle (F = 2.178, P = 0.030, β angle (F = 4.404, P < 0.001, and γ angle (F = 2.54, P = 0.011 at VM were discovered in pregnant women with UI than without UI. Multiparous women had a significantly higher BND (t = 2.269, P = 0.024 and a larger α angle (F = 2.894, P = 0.004, β angle (F = 2.473, P = 0.014, and γ angle (F = 3.255, P = 0.001 at VM than did nulliparous women. Conclusion Multiparous women experienced more obvious UI symptoms and pelvic floor structure changes during pregnancy than did nulliparous women.

  7. Compliance with National Institute of Health and Care Excellence risk-based screening for Gestational Diabetes Mellitus in nulliparous women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Nicolai M; McCarthy, Fergus P; Khashan, Ali S; Myers, Jenny E; Simpson, Nigel A B; Kearney, Patricia M; Greene, Richard A; Poston, Lucilla; Kenny, Louise C

    2016-04-01

    To investigate compliance with risk-based screening for Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) in a nulliparous cohort. A retrospective analysis of nulliparous women recruited to a prospective cohort, the Screening for Pregnancy Endpoints (SCOPE) study, was performed. Population included 2428 healthy nulliparous women with singleton pregnancies, recruited within Cork, Ireland; and Manchester, Leeds and London, United Kingdom. Compliance with risk factor screening for GDM was assessed in relation to the following risk factors: obesity, family history of diabetes and increased ethnic risk. GDM was diagnosed using an oral Glucose Tolerance Test (GTT) with locally employed diagnostic criteria. Statistical analysis was performed using Statistical Packages for Social Sciences (SPSS V22). Descriptive statistics are presented for the various baseline characteristics using numbers and percentages. Cross tabulation was used to compare relevant groups. When comparing group distributions Chi-square test was used. p-value gestational window (24-28 weeks) 56.6% (n=371) of the time. This study highlights poor compliance with risk factor screening for GDM in nulliparous women. Further investigation into the underlying reasons is warranted as well as the implications for pregnancy outcome. ACTRN12607000551493. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Urinary incontinence during pregnancy and 1 year after delivery in primiparous women compared with a control group of nulliparous women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Bent Brandt; Svare, Jens; Viktrup, Lars

    2012-01-01

    AIMS: To investigate the impact of the first pregnancy and delivery on the prevalence and types of urinary incontinence during pregnancy and 1 year after delivery. METHODS: The study was a prospective cohort study with a control group. Primiparous women, who delivered in our department from June...... 2003 to July 2005, participated. The women filled out a questionnaire 2-3 days after the delivery and a new questionnaire after 1 year. The questionnaires comprised basic characteristics and symptoms of urinary incontinence. An attempted age-matched control group of nulliparous women was included......, and filled out similar questionnaires. Prevalences and types of urinary incontinence, and a combined severity- and bother-score (ICIQ-SF score) among the incontinent women, were calculated and compared. RESULTS: The two groups differed significantly in age and most basic characteristics. During pregnancy...

  9. Intrauterine device quo vadis? Why intrauterine device use should be revisited particularly in nulliparous women?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wildemeersch D

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dirk Wildemeersch,1 Norman Goldstuck,2 Thomas Hasskamp,3 Sohela Jandi,4 Ansgar Pett4 1Gynecological Outpatient Clinic and IUD Training Center, Ghent, Belgium; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University and Tygerberg Hospital, Western Cape, South Africa; 3GynMünster, Münster, 4Gynecological Outpatient Clinic, Berlin, Germany Background: Long-acting reversible contraceptive (LARC methods, including intrauterine devices (IUDs and the contraceptive implant, are considered the best methods for preventing unintended pregnancies, rapid repeat pregnancy, and abortion in young women. An opinion paper of 2012 by the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommends Mirena and Paragard for use in nulliparous and adolescent women. However, these IUDs are not designed for young women and are not optimal as they often lead to early discontinuation. Objective: This article was written with the objective to respond to the urgent need to improve intrauterine contraception as it is likely that the objectives of LARC will not be met without significant improvement of IUD design. Anatomical variations in size and shape of the uterus are not sufficiently considered, producing harm and suffering, which often lead to early removal of the IUD. Proposed problem solving: The article describes why IUDs should be revisited to meet the challenge of LARC and proposes how to solve these problems. The opinion statement presented here may be considered provocative but is based on hundreds of women with IUD problems who consult or are referred to the practices of the authors of this article due to the disproportion between the IUD and their small uterine cavity. The solution is simple but requires a revision of the current design of IUDs. One-dimensional (longitudinal IUDs are likely to be the first option. Framed devices with shortened transverse arm and IUDs which adapt to the width of the given

  10. Differences in urinary incontinence symptoms and pelvic floor structure changes during pregnancy between nulliparous and multiparous women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Dan; Chen, Ling; Yu, Xiajuan; Ma, Li; Chen, Wan; Zhou, Ning; Cai, Wenzhi

    2017-01-01

    This study was performed to compare changes in urinary incontinence (UI) symptoms and pelvic floor structure during pregnancy between nulliparous and multiparous women. A cross-sectional survey was performed among pregnant women from July 2016 to January 2017. In total, 358 pregnant women from two hospitals underwent an interview and pelvic floor transperineal ultrasound assessment. A questionnaire regarding sociodemographic, gynecological, obstetric features and the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Short Form (ICIQ-SF) were used for the interview. Imaging data sets were analyzed offline to assess the bladder neck vertical position (BNVP), urethral angles (α, β, and γ angles), and hiatal area (HA) at rest and at maximal Valsalva maneuver (VM). After excluding 16 women with invalid data, 342 women were included. The prevalence (χ2 = 9.15, P = 0.002), frequency (t = 2.52, P = 0.014), usual amount of UI (t = 2.23, P = 0.029) and scores of interference with daily life (t = 2.03, P = 0.045) during pregnancy were higher in multiparous than nulliparous women. A larger bladder neck descent (BND) (F = 4.398, P pelvic floor structure changes during pregnancy than did nulliparous women.

  11. Advanced Maternal Age and Stillbirth Risk in Nulliparous and Parous Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldenström, Ulla; Cnattingius, Sven; Norman, Mikael; Schytt, Erica

    2015-08-01

    To investigate the association between advanced maternal age and stillbirth risks in first, second, third, and fourth births or more. A population-based registry study including all women aged 25 years and older with singleton pregnancies at 28 weeks of gestation and later gave birth in Sweden from 1990 to 2011; 1,804,442 pregnancies were analyzed. In each parity group, the risk of stillbirth at age 30-34 years, 35-39 years, and 40 years and older compared with age 25-29 years was investigated by logistic regression analyses adjusted for sociodemographic factors, smoking, body mass index, history of stillbirth, and interdelivery interval. Also, two low-risk groups were investigated: women with a high level of education and nonsmoking women of normal weight. Stillbirth rates increased by maternal age: 25-29 years 0.27%; 30-34 years 0.31%; 35-39 years 0.40%; and 40 years or older 0.53%. Stillbirth risk increased by maternal age in first births. Compared with age 25-29 years, this increase was approximately 25% at 30-34 years and doubled at age 35 years. In second, third, and fourth birth or more, stillbirth risk increased with maternal age in women with a low and middle level of education, but not in women with high education. In nonsmokers of normal weight, the risk in second births increased from age 35 years or older and in third births or more from age 30 years or older. Advanced maternal age is an independent risk factor for stillbirth in nulliparous women. This age-related risk is reduced or eliminated in parous women, possibly as a result of physiologic adaptations during the first pregnancy. II.

  12. Prediction model for the incidence of emergent cesarean section during induction of labor specialized in nulliparous low-risk women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isono, Wataru; Nagamatsu, Takeshi; Uemura, Yukari; Fujii, Tomoyuki; Hyodo, Hironobu; Yamashita, Takahiro; Kamei, Yoshimasa; Kozuma, Shiro; Taketani, Yuji

    2011-12-01

    This study aimed to clarify the factors affecting the outcome of induction of labor (IOL) in a Japanese population and to develop a prediction model to assess the probability of emergent cesarean section (CS). By reviewing the medical records of 1029 women who underwent IOL, we compared the emergent CS rate during IOL among subgroups divided by parity and pre-labor risk, such as fetal anomaly and maternal complication. We created a prediction model to predict the CS rate during IOL focusing on 392 cases of nulliparous women with premature rupture of membrane (PROM). Six factors, including Bishop score (BS), gestational age, maternal body mass index (BMI), maternal height (MH) and birth weight (BW) were extracted and multivariable logistic regression analysis followed by cross-validation test were performed. The emergent CS rate was remarkably higher in the nulliparous group than in the multiparous group (17.6% vs 2.0%). In the nulliparous group, the high-risk group demonstrated a higher CS rate than the low-risk group (33.8% vs 15.6%). Multivariate analysis on nulliparous low-risk cases with PROM demonstrated significant odds ratios for emergent CS in BS, MH and BW. Cross-validation test selected these three factors as the best combination of parameters. The prediction formula was determined as follows: probability of CS (%) = (odds/1 + odds) ∗ 100, odds = e(X) and X = 8.18 + 1.23 ∗ BW (kg)- 7.74 ∗ MH (m)- 0.253 ∗ BS. This study is the first to provide a prediction formula targeting an Asian population. Our model, which is specialized for nulliparous low-risk women could enable obstetricians to inform patients of the precise prospect of IOL outcome. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2011 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  13. Mixing nulliparous and multiparous women in randomised controlled trials of preeclampsia prevention is debatable: evidence from a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Simon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Nulliparity is a major risk factor of preeclampsia investigated in numerous trials of its prevention. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess whether these trials considered nulliparity in subject selection or analysis of results. SEARCH STRATEGY: 01 April 2013 search of MEDLINE via PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library. 01 April 2013 search of trials registered in Clinicaltrials.gov. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials and metaanalyses of preeclampsia prevention with no restriction to period of publication or language. Metaanalyses were selected to fully identify relevant trials. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: One reader appraised each selected article/registered protocol using a pretested, standardized data abstraction form developed in a pilot test. For each article, he recorded whether both nulliparous and multiparous were included and, in case of mixed populations, whether randomisation was stratified, and whether subgroup analyses had been reported. For registered protocols, he only assessed whether it was planned to include mixed populations. MAIN RESULTS: 88 randomised controlled trials were identified, representing 83,396 included women. In 58 of the 88 articles identified (65.9%, preeclampsia was the primary outcome. In 31 of these (53.4%, the investigation combined nulliparous and multiparous women; only two reports in 31 (6.5% stated that randomisation was stratified on parity and only four (12.9% described a subgroup analysis by parity. Of the 30 registered trials, 20 (66.6% planned to include both nulliparous and multiparous women. CONCLUSION: Parity is largely ignored in randomised controlled trials of preeclampsia prevention, which raises difficulties in interpreting the results.

  14. The effect of inflatable obstetric belts in nulliparous pregnant women receiving patient-controlled epidural analgesia during the second stage of labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong-Woon; Kim, Yoon Ha; Cho, Hye Yon; Shin, Hee-Young; Shin, Jong Chul; Choi, Sea Kyung; Lee, Keun-Young; Song, Ji-Eun; Lee, Pil-Ryang

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of inflatable obstetric belts on uterine fundal pressure in the management of the second stage of labor. Between July 2009 and December 2010, 188 nulliparous women with a singleton pregnancy at term were enrolled and only one dropped. The participants were randomized to receive either standard care (control group, n = 91) or uterine fundal pressure by the Labor Assister (Baidy M-520/Curexo, Inc., Seoul, Korea; active group, n = 97) during the second stage of labor in addition to standard care. The Labor Assister is an inflatable obstetric belt that is synchronized to apply constant fundal pressure during a uterine contraction. The primary endpoint was duration of the second stage of labor in women who delivered vaginally (control, n = 80 versus active, n = 93). It was not analyzed in women who delivered by cesarean section (n = 14) and delivered precipitously (n = 1). The secondary outcomes are perinatal outcomes and perineal laceration. Participants received patient-controlled epidural analgesia. The 93 women in the active group spent less time in the second stage of labor when compared to the 80 women in the control group (46.51 ± 28.01 min versus 75.02 ± 37.48 min, p belt reduces the duration of the second stage of labor without complications in nulliparous women who receive patient-controlled epidural analgesia.

  15. Prevalence of anal incontinence during pregnancy and 1 year after delivery in a cohort of primiparous women and a control group of nulliparous women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svare, Jens A; Hansen, Bent B; Lose, Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    primiparous women after delivery and by 1836 nulliparous women (baseline). A similar questionnaire was filled in 1 year later by both groups. RESULTS: At baseline the prevalence of flatus incontinence was significantly higher in the primiparous than the nulliparous women (35 vs. 25%), while incontinence...... for liquid stools was significantly less frequent (8 vs. 20%). Prevalences of incontinence for solid stools were similar. One year later the prevalence of AI was similar in the two groups (flatus incontinence 24 vs. 25%, incontinence for liquid stools 18 vs. 19% and incontinence for solid stools 4 vs. 3...

  16. Inter-rater reliability of assessment of levator ani muscle strength and attachment to the pubic bone in nulliparous women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Delft, K; Schwertner-Tiepelmann, N; Thakar, R; Sultan, A H

    2013-09-01

    The modified Oxford scale (MOS) has been found previously to have poor inter-rater reliability, whereas digital assessment of levator ani muscle (LAM) attachment to the pubic bone has been shown to have acceptable reliability. Our aim was to evaluate inter-rater reliability of the validated MOS and to develop a reliable classification system for digital assessment of LAM attachment, correlating this to findings on transperineal ultrasound (TPUS) examination. Evaluation of the MOS by palpation was performed in nulliparous women by two investigators. LAM attachment was evaluated using digital palpation, for which a novel classification system was developed with four grades based on the position of the attachment and presence of discernible muscle. Findings were compared with those on TPUS examination. Inter-rater reliability was assessed using Cohen's kappa statistic. Twenty-five nulliparous women were examined. There was agreement in MOS scores between the investigators in 64% of women (n = 16), with a kappa of 0.66 (indicating substantial agreement). There was agreement in palpation of LAM attachment using the new grading system in 96% of women (n = 24), with a kappa of 0.90 (indicating almost perfect agreement). TPUS examination did not show LAM avulsion in any woman, with the exception of one with a partial avulsion. In this group of nulliparous patients, there was substantial agreement between the two investigators in evaluation of the MOS and there was good agreement between grades of LAM attachment using the new classification system, which correlated with findings on TPUS examination. It therefore appears that these results are reproducible in nulliparous women and the techniques can be readily learned and reliably incorporated into clinical practice and research after appropriate training. Further research is required to establish clinical utility of the grading system for LAM attachment in postpartum women and in women with symptomatic pelvic organ

  17. Too tight to give birth? Assessment of pelvic floor muscle function in 277 nulliparous pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bø, Kari; Hilde, Gunvor; Jensen, Jette Stær; Siafarikas, Franziska; Engh, Marie Ellstrøm

    2013-12-01

    Theoretically, tight or strong pelvic floor muscles may impair the progress of labor and lead to instrumental deliveries. We aimed to investigate whether vaginal resting pressure, pelvic floor muscle strength, or endurance at midpregnancy affect delivery outcome. This was a prospective cohort study of women giving birth at a university hospital. Vaginal resting pressure, pelvic floor muscle strength, and endurance in 300 nulliparous pregnant women were assessed at mean gestational week 20.8 (±1.4) using a high precision pressure transducer connected to a vaginal balloon. Delivery outcome measures [acute cesarean section, prolonged second stage of labor (> 2 h), instrumental vaginal delivery (vacuum and forceps), episiotomy, and third- and fourth-degree perineal tear) were retrieved from the hospital's electronic birth records. Twenty-three women were lost to follow-up, mostly because they gave birth at another hospital. Women with prolonged second stage had significantly higher resting pressure than women with second stage less than 2 h; the mean difference was 4.4 cmH2O [95 %confidence interval (CI) 1.2-7.6], p < 0.01, adjusted odds ratio 1.049 (95 % CI 1.011-1.089, p = 0.012). Vaginal resting pressure did not affect other delivery outcomes. Pelvic floor muscle strength and endurance similarly were not associated with any delivery outcomes. While midpregnancy vaginal resting pressure is associated with prolonged second stage of labor, neither vaginal resting pressure nor pelvic floor muscle strength or endurance are associated with operative delivery or perineal tears. Strong pelvic floor muscles are not disadvantageous for vaginal delivery.

  18. Maternal health study: a prospective cohort study of nulliparous women recruited in early pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McDonald Ellie A

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the first year after childbirth, 94% of women experience one or more major health problems (urinary incontinence, faecal incontinence, perineal pain, back pain. Difficulties in intimate partner relationships and changes affecting sexual health are also common. The aim of this study is to investigate changes in women's health from early pregnancy until four years after the birth of a first child. Methods/design The Maternal Health Study is a longitudinal study designed to fill in some of the gaps in current research evidence regarding women's physical and psychological health and recovery after childbirth. A prospective pregnancy cohort of >1500 nulliparous women has been recruited in early pregnancy at six metropolitan public hospitals in Melbourne, Australia between April 2003 and December 2005. In the first phase of the study participants are being followed up at 30–32 weeks gestation in pregnancy, and at three, six, nine, 12 and 18 months postpartum using a combination of self-administered questionnaires and telephone interviews. Women consenting to extended follow-up (phase 2 will be followed up six and 12 months after any subsequent births and when their first child is four years old. Study instruments incorporate assessment of the frequency and severity of urinary and bowel symptoms, sexual health issues, perineal and abdominal pain, depression and intimate partner violence. Pregnancy and birth outcome data will be obtained by review of hospital case notes. Discussion Features of the study which distinguish it from prior research include: the capacity to identify incident cases of morbidity and clustering of health problems; a large enough sample to detect clinically important differences in maternal health outcomes associated with the method of birth; careful exposure measurement involving manual abstraction of data from medical records in order to explore mediating factors and possible causal pathways; and use of

  19. Pelvic floor muscle tenderness in asymptomatic, nulliparous women: topographical distribution and reliability of a visual analogue scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavvadias, Tilemachos; Pelikan, Stefanie; Roth, Petra; Baessler, Kaven; Schuessler, Bernhard

    2013-02-01

    Aim of this study is to investigate pelvic floor muscle pain scores in a group of healthy, asymptomatic, nulliparous women using a simple visual analogue scale, and to examine the inter-rater and test-retest reliability of the digital palpation of the pelvic floor muscle. Seventeen female volunteers were recruited. Different sites of their pelvic floor muscle were examined digitally according to the suggestions of the International Continence Society from two investigators blinded to the clinical data in two consecutive visits and pain scores were obtained. Level of agreement between investigators, inter-rater and intra-rater reliability were assessed. Overall pain scores were low. There were statistically significant differences between scores at different pelvic sites, with the levator ani showing the lowest scores. Reliability was heterogeneous among pelvic sites, varying from poor to excellent. Pain upon palpation of the pelvic floor muscle in asymptomatic, nulliparous women should be considered an uncommon finding.

  20. Intrapartum transperineal ultrasound used to predict cases of complicated operative (vacuum and forceps) deliveries in nulliparous women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainz, José A; García-Mejido, José A; Aquise, Adriana; Bonomi, María J; Borrero, Carlota; De La Fuente, Paloma; Fernández-Palacín, Ana

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the predictive value of intrapartum transperineal ultrasound in the identification of complicated operative (vacuum or forceps) deliveries in nulliparous women. Prospective observational study of nulliparous women with an indication for operative delivery who underwent intrapartum transperineal ultrasound before fetal extraction. Managing obstetricians were blinded to the ultrasound data. Intrapartum transperineal ultrasound was performed immediately before blade application, both at rest and concurrently with contractions and active pushing. Operative delivery was classified as complicated when one or more of the following situations occurred: three or more tractions; a third-/fourth-degree perineal tear; significant bleeding during the episiotomy repair; major tear or significant traumatic neonatal lesion. A total of 143 nulliparous women were included in the study (82 vacuum-assisted deliveries and 61 forceps-assisted deliveries), with 20 fetuses in occiput posterior position. Forty-seven operative deliveries were classified as complicated deliveries (28 vacuum-assisted deliveries, 19 forceps-assisted deliveries). No differences in obstetric, intrapartum or neonatal characteristics were observed between the study groups, with the following exceptions: birthweight (3229 ± 482 uncomplicated deliveries vs. 3623 ± 406 complicated deliveries; p operating characteristics curve (AUC), were the angle of progression with active pushing (AoP2) (AUC 86.9%) and the progression distance with active pushing (PD2) (AUC 74.5%). The optimal cut-off value for predicting a difficult operative delivery was an AoP2 of 153.5° (sensitivity 95.2%; false-positive rate 5.9%) or PD2 of 58.5 mm (sensitivity 95.2%; false-positive rate 7.1%). The sonographic parameters AoP2 and PD2 can be used to predict cases of complicated operative deliveries in nulliparous women. © 2017 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  1. The effect of Aloe vera gel and sweet almond oil on striae gravidarum in nulliparous women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajhashemi, Maryam; Rafieian, Mahmoud; Rouhi Boroujeni, Hojjat Allah; Miraj, Sepideh; Memarian, Shadman; Keivani, Atefeh; Haghollahi, Fedyeh

    2017-05-19

    Striae are linear depressions of the skin and causes psychological and sexual problems in person. Different methods are used to prevent and treat them but there is no definitive method. We compared the effect of Aloe vera gel and sweet almond oil on striae gravidarum. In this double-blind clinical trial, 160 nulliparous women were enrolled and randomly divided into three case groups and one control group. The four groups were given 700 g Aloe vera, sweet almond oil, and base cream to use topically on the abdominal skin and forth group don't receive any medication as control group in five steps, they were examined study's variables (itching, erythema, and spread of striae) using statistical tests in SPSS. The findings showed that Aloe vera and sweet almond oil creams are more effective than the base cream and the control group to decrease itching and erythema and to prevent the spread of striae on the surface of abdomen (p  .05). Aloe vera and sweet almond oil creams reduce the itching of striae and prevent their progression.

  2. A new copper IUD (Fincoid) in adolescent and young nulliparous women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirvonen, E; Kaivola, S

    1983-04-01

    The contraceptive performance of a new copper IUD of Finnish design and manufacture, the Fincoid, was tested at an outpatient clinic in 241 nulliparous adolescent and young women in whom oral contraceptives (OCs) had caused side effects or were contraindicated. Each patient was followed up for 12 months, and 2268 woman-months of use were analyzed. The patients ranged in age from 15-21, with a mean age of 19.7 years. The principal finding was a fairly high pregnancy rate of 4.2. 8 pregnancies, 1 of them ectopic, occurred uniformly across age groups. Other 1st segment cumulative rates were expulsion 10.4; removals for bleeding 0.9, for pain 5.5, and for infection 2.1. The continuation rate was 73.1, and 6.8% were lost to follow-up. The relatively low removal rates for bleeding and pain may have been due to the high elasticity of the Fincoid side arms, which adapt well to smaller uterine cavities. The Fincoid IUD may be an alternative method of contraception for subjects who are negligent about contraception or for whom OCs are contraindicated.

  3. Perinatal mortality associated with induction of labour versus expectant management in nulliparous women aged 35 years or over: An English national cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Hannah E; Cromwell, David A; Gurol-Urganci, Ipek; Harron, Katie; van der Meulen, Jan H; Smith, Gordon C S

    2017-11-01

    A recent randomised controlled trial (RCT) demonstrated that induction of labour at 39 weeks of gestational age has no short-term adverse effect on the mother or infant among nulliparous women aged ≥35 years. However, the trial was underpowered to address the effect of routine induction of labour on the risk of perinatal death. We aimed to determine the association between induction of labour at ≥39 weeks and the risk of perinatal mortality among nulliparous women aged ≥35 years. We used English Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) data collected between April 2009 and March 2014 to compare perinatal mortality between induction of labour at 39, 40, and 41 weeks of gestation and expectant management (continuation of pregnancy to either spontaneous labour, induction of labour, or caesarean section at a later gestation). Analysis was by multivariable Poisson regression with adjustment for maternal characteristics and pregnancy-related conditions. Among the cohort of 77,327 nulliparous women aged 35 to 50 years delivering a singleton infant, 33.1% had labour induced: these women tended to be older and more likely to have medical complications of pregnancy, and the infants were more likely to be small for gestational age. Induction of labour at 40 weeks (compared with expectant management) was associated with a lower risk of in-hospital perinatal death (0.08% versus 0.26%; adjusted risk ratio [adjRR] 0.33; 95% CI 0.13-0.80, P = 0.015) and meconium aspiration syndrome (0.44% versus 0.86%; adjRR 0.52; 95% CI 0.35-0.78, P = 0.002). Induction at 40 weeks was also associated with a slightly increased risk of instrumental vaginal delivery (adjRR 1.06; 95% CI 1.01-1.11, P = 0.020) and emergency caesarean section (adjRR 1.05; 95% CI 1.01-1.09, P = 0.019). The number needed to treat (NNT) analysis indicated that 562 (95% CI 366-1,210) inductions of labour at 40 weeks would be required to prevent 1 perinatal death. Limitations of the study include the reliance on observational

  4. Perinatal mortality associated with induction of labour versus expectant management in nulliparous women aged 35 years or over: An English national cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah E Knight

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A recent randomised controlled trial (RCT demonstrated that induction of labour at 39 weeks of gestational age has no short-term adverse effect on the mother or infant among nulliparous women aged ≥35 years. However, the trial was underpowered to address the effect of routine induction of labour on the risk of perinatal death. We aimed to determine the association between induction of labour at ≥39 weeks and the risk of perinatal mortality among nulliparous women aged ≥35 years.We used English Hospital Episode Statistics (HES data collected between April 2009 and March 2014 to compare perinatal mortality between induction of labour at 39, 40, and 41 weeks of gestation and expectant management (continuation of pregnancy to either spontaneous labour, induction of labour, or caesarean section at a later gestation. Analysis was by multivariable Poisson regression with adjustment for maternal characteristics and pregnancy-related conditions. Among the cohort of 77,327 nulliparous women aged 35 to 50 years delivering a singleton infant, 33.1% had labour induced: these women tended to be older and more likely to have medical complications of pregnancy, and the infants were more likely to be small for gestational age. Induction of labour at 40 weeks (compared with expectant management was associated with a lower risk of in-hospital perinatal death (0.08% versus 0.26%; adjusted risk ratio [adjRR] 0.33; 95% CI 0.13-0.80, P = 0.015 and meconium aspiration syndrome (0.44% versus 0.86%; adjRR 0.52; 95% CI 0.35-0.78, P = 0.002. Induction at 40 weeks was also associated with a slightly increased risk of instrumental vaginal delivery (adjRR 1.06; 95% CI 1.01-1.11, P = 0.020 and emergency caesarean section (adjRR 1.05; 95% CI 1.01-1.09, P = 0.019. The number needed to treat (NNT analysis indicated that 562 (95% CI 366-1,210 inductions of labour at 40 weeks would be required to prevent 1 perinatal death. Limitations of the study include the reliance on

  5. Postpartum haemorrhage in nulliparous women: incidence and risk factors in low and high risk women. A Dutch population-based cohort study on standard (> or = 500 ml) and severe (> or = 1000 ml) postpartum haemorrhage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bais, Joke M. J.; Eskes, Martine; Pel, Maria; Bonsel, Gouke J.; Bleker, Otto P.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence and risk factors for standard and severe postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) in vaginally delivering nulliparous women, before and after risk stratification. STUDY DESIGN: A population-based cohort study in an unselected cohort nulliparous women (N = 3464) in 'The

  6. Study of preventive effect of vitamins C and E on Preeclampsia in nulliparous pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    nahid lorzadeh

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia is a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy causing a high rate of both maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. Recent reports suggest that free radical-induced endothelial cell injury might be an etiologic factor in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of antioxidants such as E and C vitamins on the prevention of preeclampsia. Materials and Methods: This clinical- trial study was conducted in the year 2009 in the clinical centers of Lorestan university of medical sciences. 160 nulliparous women with the age range of 18 to 35 without any risk factors for preeclampsia were divided into two groups. The first group received oral vitamin E 400 IU/day, and vitamin C 1000 mg/day with iron tablets during the 20th to 24th weeks of pregnancy while the control group received only iron tablets. Finally, the data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and frequency distribution tables. Results: Incidence of preeclampsia in the control group was 17.5% and in the case group it was 5% that was statistically significant. The means of systolic pressure before and after intervention in the control group were 99.43 7.8, and 12.44 19.1 while in the case group they were 99.3 8.3 and 106.12 13.25. Diastolic pressure means before and after intervention in the control group were 62.7 13.6 and 62.7 4.7. Conclusion: As the results showed, use of antioxidants can clearly reduce the risk of preeclampsia, and can reduce the mean systolic and diastolic pressure.

  7. [Fear of childbirth among nulliparous women: Relations with pain during delivery, post-traumatic stress symptoms, and postpartum depressive symptoms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosselin, P; Chabot, K; Béland, M; Goulet-Gervais, L; Morin, A J S

    2016-04-01

    Fear of childbirth is common in women who are pregnant with their first child and is associated with important consequences such as abortions and miscarriages. Twenty percent of nulliparous women seem to exhibit a mild or moderate fear, while 6% present an excessive and irrational fear known as tocophobia. Tocophobia is suggested to be associated with many negative consequences such as postpartum depression (PPD) and Post-traumatic stress (PTS). However, there is little empirical evidence to support these relationships. Recently, Fairbrother and Woody (2007) did not observe a link between the fear of childbirth and symptoms of PPD and PTS in nulliparous women. Some results, near the significance level, could be explained by a lack of statistical power. The present study focused on the link between the fear of childbirth and the process of delivery, the perception of pain, PPD and PTS. More specifically, it aimed to test three hypotheses: (i) fear of childbirth will be linked to the process of delivery, especially regarding the perception of pain, the use of anaesthesia and the use of Caesarean section; (ii) a high level of fear of childbirth will be associated with more negative postpartum consequences (namely PPD/PTS symptoms); (iii) the process of delivery and pain will also be related to post-delivery symptoms. Mediation effects were tested. Data from a longitudinal study were used to meet the hypotheses. A total of 176 nulliparous pregnant women responded to questionnaires at two time measurements (during pregnancy and at 5weeks postpartum). Fear of childbirth is related to the perception of pain at birth among women delivering vaginally, in the absence of anaesthesia. It is also linked to symptoms of PPD and PTS, regardless of whether or not anaesthesia was used. Fear of childbirth also appears to be strongly associated to symptoms of PTS in women who have experienced an unplanned caesarean section. Thus, symptoms of postpartum PTS could play a mediating role

  8. Nulliparity enhances the risk of second primary malignancy of the breast in a cohort of women treated for thyroid cancer

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    Milazzo Francesca

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many studies have reported an increased risk of developing a second primary malignancy (SPM of the breast in women treated for thyroid cancer. In this study, we investigated several potential risk factors for this association. The aim of this retrospective cohort study was to identify a subgroup of women surgically treated for papillary thyroid cancer that may benefit from more careful breast cancer screening. Methods A total of 101 women surgically treated for papillary thyroid cancer from 1996 to 2009 with subsequent follow-up were interviewed by phone regarding personal risk factors and lifestyle habits. Only 75 questionnaires could be evaluated due to a 25.7% rate of patients not retrieved or refusing the interview. Data analysis was performed using a multivariate logistic model. Results The standardised incidence ratio (SIR for breast cancer was 3.58 (95% IC 1.14 - 8.37. Our data suggest a protective effect of multiparity on the development of a SPM of the breast (O.R. 0.15; 95% IC 0.25 - 0.86. Significant associations were not found with other known risk factors including Body Mass Index (BMI, age at first tumour, concurrent metabolic diseases, smoking, physical activity and familiarity. Conclusions This study confirms that a higher incidence of SPM of the breast is observed in women treated for papillary thyroid cancer. Additionally, this risk is increased by nulliparity, thus a strict breast screening program for nulliparous women treated for thyroid cancer may be advisable.

  9. Pelvic floor muscle strength evaluation in different body positions in nulliparous healthy women and its correlation with sexual activity

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    Monica Orsi Gameiro

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective The aim of this study was to assess pelvic floor muscle (PFM strength in different body positions in nulliparous healthy women and its correlation with sexual activity. Materials and Methods Fifty healthy nulliparous women with mean age of 23 years were prospectively studied. Subjective evaluation of PFM was assessed by transvaginal digital palpation (TDP of anterior and posterior areas regarding the vaginal introitus. A perineometer with inflatable vaginal probe was used to assess the PFM strength in four different positions: supine with extended lower limbs (P1; bent-knee supine (P2; sitting (P3; standing (P4. Results Physical activity, 3 times per week, was reported by 58% of volunteers. Sexual activity was observed in 80% of women and 82% of them presented orgasm. The average body mass index (BMI was 21.76 kg/m2, considered as normal according World Health Organization (WHO. We observed that 68% of volunteers were conscious about the PFM contraction. TDP showed concordance of 76% when anterior and posterior areas were compared (p = 0.00014. There was not correlation between PFM strength and orgasm in subjective evaluation. The PFM strength was significantly higher in standing position when compared with the other positions (p < 0.000. No statistical difference was observed between orgasm and PFM strength when objective evaluations were performed. Conclusions There was concordance between anterior and posterior areas in 76% of cases when subjective PFM strength was assessed. In objective evaluation, higher PFM strength was observed when volunteers were standing. No statistical correlation was observed between PFM strength and orgasm in nulliparous healthy women.

  10. Pelvic floor muscle strength evaluation in different body positions in nulliparous healthy women and its correlation with sexual activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gameiro, Mônica Orsi; Miraglia, Luciana; Gameiro, Luiz Felipe Orsi; Padovani, Carlos Roberto; Amaro, João Luiz

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess pelvic floor muscle (PFM) strength in different body positions in nulliparous healthy women and its correlation with sexual activity. Fifty healthy nulliparous women with mean age of 23 years were prospectively studied. Subjective evaluation of PFM was assessed by transvaginal digital palpation (TDP) of anterior and posterior areas regarding the vaginal introitus. A perineometer with inflatable vaginal probe was used to assess the PFM strength in four different positions: supine with extended lower limbs (P1); bent-knee supine (P2); sitting (P3); standing (P4). Physical activity, 3 times per week, was reported by 58% of volunteers. Sexual activity was observed in 80% of women and 82% of them presented orgasm. The average body mass index (BMI) was 21.76 kg/m2, considered as normal according World Health Organization (WHO). We observed that 68% of volunteers were conscious about the PFM contraction. TDP showed concordance of 76% when anterior and posterior areas were compared (p = 0.00014). There was not correlation between PFM strength and orgasm in subjective evaluation. The PFM strength was significantly higher in standing position when compared with the other positions (p < 0.000). No statistical difference was observed between orgasm and PFM strength when objective evaluations were performed. There was concordance between anterior and posterior areas in 76% of cases when subjective PFM strength was assessed. In objective evaluation, higher PFM strength was observed when volunteers were standing. No statistical correlation was observed between PFM strength and orgasm in nulliparous healthy women.

  11. Perfluoroalkyl substances during pregnancy and validated preeclampsia among nulliparous women in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study.

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    Starling, Anne P; Engel, Stephanie M; Richardson, David B; Baird, Donna D; Haug, Line S; Stuebe, Alison M; Klungsøyr, Kari; Harmon, Quaker; Becher, Georg; Thomsen, Cathrine; Sabaredzovic, Azemira; Eggesbø, Merete; Hoppin, Jane A; Travlos, Gregory S; Wilson, Ralph E; Trogstad, Lill I; Magnus, Per; Longnecker, Matthew P

    2014-04-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are persistent and ubiquitous environmental contaminants, and human exposure to these substances may be related to preeclampsia, a common pregnancy complication. Previous studies have found serum concentrations of PFAS to be positively associated with pregnancy-induced hypertension and preeclampsia in a population with high levels of exposure to perfluorooctanoate. Whether this association exists among pregnant women with background levels of PFAS exposure is unknown. Using data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health, we carried out a study of nulliparous pregnant women enrolled in 2003-2007 (466 cases, 510 noncases) to estimate associations between PFAS concentrations and an independently validated diagnosis of preeclampsia. We measured levels of 9 PFAS in maternal plasma extracted midpregnancy; statistical analyses were restricted to 7 PFAS that were quantifiable in more than 50% of samples. In proportional hazards models adjusted for maternal age, prepregnancy body mass index (weight (kg)/height (m)(2)), educational level, and smoking status, we observed no strongly positive associations between PFAS levels and preeclampsia. We found an inverse association between preeclampsia and the highest quartile of perfluoroundecanoic acid concentration relative to the lowest quartile (hazard ratio = 0.55, 95% confidence interval: 0.38, 0.81). Overall, our findings do not support an increased risk of preeclampsia among nulliparous Norwegian women with background levels of PFAS exposure.

  12. Risk assessment for preeclampsia in nulliparous women at 11-13 weeks gestational age: prospective evaluation of two algorithms.

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    Skråstad, R B; Hov, G G; Blaas, H-G K; Romundstad, P R; Salvesen, K Å

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate two algorithms for prediction of preeclampsia in a population of nulliparous women in Norway. Prospective screening study. National Centre for Fetal Medicine in Trondheim, Norway. Five hundred and forty-one nulliparous women. The women were examined between 11(+0) and 13(+6) weeks with interviews for maternal characteristics and measurements of mean arterial pressure, uterine artery pulsatility index, pregnancy-associated plasma protein A and placental growth factor. The First Trimester Screening Program version 2.8 by The Fetal Medicine Foundation (FMF) was compared with the Preeclampsia Predictor TM version 1 revision 2 by Perkin Elmer (PREDICTOR). Prediction of preeclampsia requiring delivery before 37 weeks, before 42 weeks and late preeclampsia (delivery after 34 weeks). The performance of the two algorithms was similar, but quite poor, for prediction of preeclampsia requiring delivery before 42 weeks with an area under the curve of 0.77 (0.67-0.87) and sensitivity 40% (95% CI 19.1-63.9) at a fixed 10% false positive rate for FMF and 0.74 (0.63-0.84) and sensitivity 30% (95% CI 11.9-54.3) at a fixed 10% false positive rate for PREDICTOR. The FMF algorithm for preeclampsia requiring delivery preeclampsia. The results indicate that the FMF algorithm is suitable for prediction of preterm preeclampsia. © 2014 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  13. The Effect of Acupressure on Sanyinjiao and Hugo Points on Labor Pain in Nulliparous Women : A Randomized Clinical Trial

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    Reza Heshmat

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:Most women have experienced child birth and its pain, which is inevitable. If this pain is not controlled it leads to prolonged labor and injury to the mother and fetus. This study was conducted to identify the effect of acupressure on sanyinjiao and hugo points on delivery pain in nulliparous women. Methods:This was a randomized controlled clinical trial on 84 nulliparous women in hospitals of Ardebil, Iran. The participants were divided by randomized blocks of 4 and 6 into two groups. The intervention was in the form of applying pressure at sanyinjiao and hugo points based on different dilatations. The intensity of the pain before and after the intervention was recorded by visual scale of pain assessment. To determine the effect of pressure on the intensity of labor pain, analytical descriptive test was conducted in SPSS (version 13. Results:There was a significant decrease in mean intensity of pain after each intervention in the experimental group with different dilatations (4, 6, 8, and 10 cm. Moreover, the Student’s independent t-test results indicated that the mean intensity of pain in the experimental group after the intervention in all four dilatations was significantly lower than the control group. Repeated measures ANOVA test indicated that in both experimental and control groups in four time periods, there was a statistically significant difference. Conclusion:Acupressure on sanyinjiao and hugo points decreases the labor pain. Therefore, this method can be used effectively in the labor process.

  14. The effect of acupressure on sanyinjiao and hugo points on labor pain in nulliparous women: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehhatie-Shafaie, Fahimeh; Kazemzadeh, Rafat; Amani, Firouz; Heshmat, Reza

    2013-06-01

    Most women have experienced child birth and its pain, which is inevitable. If this pain is not controlled it leads to prolonged labor and injury to the mother and fetus. This study was conducted to identify the effect of acupressure on sanyinjiao and hugo points on delivery pain in nulliparous women. This was a randomized controlled clinical trial on 84 nulliparous women in hospitals of Ardebil, Iran. The participants were divided by randomized blocks of 4 and 6 into two groups. The intervention was in the form of applying pressure at sanyinjiao and hugo points based on different dilatations. The intensity of the pain before and after the intervention was recorded by visual scale of pain assessment. To determine the effect of pressure on the intensity of labor pain, analytical descriptive test was conducted in SPSS (version 13). There was a significant decrease in mean intensity of pain after each intervention in the experimental group with different dilatations (4, 6, 8, and 10 cm). Moreover, the Student's independent t-test results indicated that the mean intensity of pain in the experimental group after the intervention in all four dilatations was significantly lower than the control group. Repeated measures ANOVA test indicated that in both experimental and control groups in four time periods, there was a statistically significant difference. Acupressure on sanyinjiao and hugo points decreases the labor pain. Therefore, this method can be used effectively in the labor process.

  15. Clinical parameters for prediction of successful labor induction after application of intravaginal dinoprostone in nulliparous Chinese women.

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    Hou, Lei; Zhu, Yu; Ma, Xiaomin; Li, Jianing; Zhang, Weiyuan

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the possible clinical parameters for prediction of successful labor induction in Chinese nulliparous women. A retrospective, observational trial of labor induction was performed, using a single dose of 10 mg controlled-release dinoprostone for preinduction cervical ripening in 127 nulliparous women (gestational age 38-42 weeks, singleton cephalic presentation). The characteristics of the women with successful labor induction (defined as vaginal delivery achieved on the day of admission; n=80) and failed labor induction (n=47) were compared. The main differences observed between the groups were gravidity (Psuccessful labor induction. In the receiver operating characteristic curves for the prediction of successful labor induction, the best cut-off value for gravidity was 3 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.64-0.83, P=0.000), and the best cut-off value for the induction-active labor interval was 7.96 (95%CI 0.66-0.85, P=0.000). Less gravidity and shorter induction-active labor interval predict successful labor induction with reasonable accuracy.

  16. Nulliparity is associated with less healthy markers of subclinical cardiovascular disease in young women with overweight and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemczyk, Nancy Anderson; Catov, Janet M; Barinas-Mitchell, Emma; McClure, Candace K; Roberts, James M; Tepper, Ping G; Sutton-Tyrrell, Kim

    2015-05-01

    Higher parity is associated with increased subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) in mid-life and older women and with increased CVD risk overall. The relationship between parity, subclinical CVD, and infertility in young women with overweight and obesity has been infrequently evaluated. Reproductive histories were obtained in 191 (66%) young women with overweight and obesity (BMI 25-39.9 kg/m(2) ) participating in a weight loss trial. Baseline carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and inter-adventitial diameter (IAD) were assessed via B-mode ultrasound. Linear regression was used to estimate the relationship between parity and carotid measures, adjusted for demographic, cardiovascular, and reproductive risk factors. Nulliparous women (n = 70, age 34.9 ± 7.1) had increased common carotid IAD (0.230 mm, SE 0.08, P = 0.003) and mean common carotid artery (CCA) IMT (0.031 mm, SE 0.01, P = 0.007) compared with parous women (n = 102, age 39.5 ± 4.9), persisting after adjustment for age, race, and CVD risk factors. No other reproductive factors were statistically significantly associated. Nulliparity is associated with markers of less healthy carotid arteries in a sample of disease-free 25- to 45-year-old women with overweight or obesity. This may represent a beneficial effect of pregnancy or indicate overall better health in women with overweight/obesity who are capable of childbearing. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  17. Training through gametherapy promotes coactivation of the pelvic floor and abdominal muscles in young women, nulliparous and continents

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    Silva, Valeria Regina; Riccetto, Cássio; Martinho, Natalia Miguel; Marques, Joseane; Carvalho, Leonardo Cesar; Botelho, Simone

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction and objectives: Several studies have been investigated co-activation can enhance the effectveness of PFM training protocols allowing preventive and therapeutic goals in pelvic floor dysfunctions. The objective of the present study was to investigate if an abdominal-pelvic protocol of training (APT) using gametherapy would allow co-activation of PFM and transversus abdominis/oblique internal (TrA/OI) muscles. Patients and methods: Twenty-five nulliparous, continent, young females, with median age 24.76 (±3.76) years were evaluated using digital palpation (DP) of PFM and surface electromyography of PFM and TrA/OI simultaneously, during maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), alternating PFM and TrA/OI contraction requests. All women participated on a supervised program of APT using gametherapy, that included exercises of pelvic mobilization associated to contraction of TrA/OI muscles oriented by virtual games, for 30 minutes, three times a week, in a total of 10 sessions. Electromyographic data were processed and analyzed by ANOVA - analysis of variance. Results: When MVC of TrA/OI was solicited, it was observed simultaneous increase of electromyographic activity of PFM (p=0.001) following ATP. However, EMG activity did not change significantly during MVC of PFM. Conclusion: Training using gametherapy allowed better co-activation of pelvic floor muscles in response to contraction of TrA, in young nulliparous and continent women. PMID:27564290

  18. Training through gametherapy promotes coactivation of the pelvic floor and abdominal muscles in young women, nulliparous and continents

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    Valeria Regina Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction and objectives: Several studies have been investigated co-activation can enhance the effectveness of PFM training protocols allowing preventive and therapeutic goals in pelvic floor dysfunctions. The objective of the present study was to investigate if an abdominal-pelvic protocol of training (APT using gametherapy would allow co-activation of PFM and transversus abdominis/oblique internal (TrA/OI muscles. Patients and methods: Twenty-five nulliparous, continent, young females, with median age 24.76 (±3.76 years were evaluated using digital palpation (DP of PFM and surface electromyography of PFM and TrA/OI simultaneously, during maximal voluntary contraction (MVC, alternating PFM and TrA/OI contraction requests. All women participated on a supervised program of APT using gametherapy, that included exercises of pelvic mobilization associated to contraction of TrA/OI muscles oriented by virtual games, for 30 minutes, three times a week, in a total of 10 sessions. Electromyographic data were processed and analyzed by ANOVA - analysis of variance. Results: When MVC of TrA/OI was solicited, it was observed simultaneous increase of electromyographic activity of PFM (p=0.001 following ATP. However, EMG activity did not change significantly during MVC of PFM. Conclusion: Training using gametherapy allowed better co-activation of pelvic floor muscles in response to contraction of TrA, in young nulliparous and continent women.

  19. Training through gametherapy promotes coactivation of the pelvic floor and abdominal muscles in young women, nulliparous and continents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Valeria Regina; Riccetto, Cássio Luis Zanettini; Martinho, Natalia Miguel; Marques, Joseane; Carvalho, Leonardo Cesar; Botelho, Simone

    2016-01-01

    several studies have been investigated co-activation can enhance the effectveness of PFM training protocols allowing preventive and therapeutic goals in pelvic floor dysfunctions. The objective of the present study was to investigate if an abdominal-pelvic protocol of training (APT) using gametherapy would allow co-activation of PFM and transversus abdominis/oblique internal (TrA/OI) muscles. Twenty-five nulliparous, continent, young females, with median age 24.76 (±3.76) years were evaluated using digital palpation (DP) of PFM and surfasse electromyography of PFM and TrA/OI simultaneously, during maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), alternating PFM and TrA/OI contraction requests. All women participated on a supervised program of APT using gametherapy, that included exercises of pelvic mobilization associated to contraction of TrA/OI muscles oriented by virtual games, for 30 minutes, three times a week, in a total of 10 sessions. Electromyographic data were processed and analyzed by ANOVA - analysis of variance. When MVC of TrA/OI was solicited, it was observed simultaneous increase of electromyographic activity of PFM (p=0.001) following ATP. However, EMG activity did not change significantly during MVC of PFM. Training using gametherapy allowed better co-activation of pelvic floor muscles in response to contraction of TrA, in young nulliparous and continent women. Copyright© by the International Brazilian Journal of Urology.

  20. Comparison of obstetric anal sphincter injuries in nulliparous women before and after introduction of the EPISCISSORS-60® at two hospitals in the United Kingdom

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    van Roon Y

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Yves van Roon,1 Ciara Kirwin,2 Nadia Rahman,3 Latha Vinayakarao,2 Louise Melson,2 Nikki Kester,1 Sangeeta Pathak,1 Ashish Pradhan1 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Hinchingbrooke Hospital, Huntingdon, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Poole Hospital, Poole, 3Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Addenbrookes Hospital, Cambridge, UK Aim: To assess whether the introduction of episiotomy scissors specially designed to achieve a cutting angle of 60°, EPISCISSORS-60®, in two hospitals in the UK would result in a reduction in obstetric anal sphincter injuries (OASIS in nulliparous women.Methods: A structured training program for all doctors and midwives provided a theoretical framework around OASIS including risk factors and the role of episiotomies and a practical hands-on training element to use EPISCISSORS-60® correctly and to measure perineal body length and post-suturing angles. Data for perineal body length, post-suturing angles, user feedback, episiotomy use, and incidence of OASIS were collected through specifically designed forms and the general hospital data collection system.Results: Data were available for 838 nulliparous vaginal deliveries. Mean perineal body length was 37 mm in spontaneous vaginal delivery group (standard deviation [SD] =8.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] =34–39 and 38 mm in the operative vaginal delivery group (SD=8, 95% CI=35–40. Post-suturing episiotomy angles were 53° (SD=6.5, 95% CI=50.7–55.8 in spontaneous vaginal deliveries and 52° (SD=9.6, 95% CI=49–54 in operative vaginal deliveries. EPISCISSORS-60® were rated as “good” to “very good” by 84% of users. There was a 47% increase in the number of episiotomies in nulliparous spontaneous vaginal deliveries at Poole (P=0.007 and a 16.5% increase in the number of episiotomies in nulliparous operative vaginal deliveries in Hinchingbrooke (P=0.003. There was an overall 11% increase in episiotomy numbers in nulliparous vaginal

  1. Barriers to Health Care Providers' Provision of Long-Acting Reversible Contraception to Adolescent and Nulliparous Young Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Brooke

    Despite recommendations for long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) as a first-line contraceptive method for adolescents and young women, its use in the United States remains low. This integrative review highlights previously unidentified barriers to health care providers' provision of LARC to adolescent and nulliparous young women. Four themes emerged: Appropriateness of Candidates and Contraceptive Safety, Provider Training and Work Setting, Appropriate Resources, and Opportunity. Raising awareness of barriers to LARC use may galvanize providers to find solutions. Nurses and other clinicians can remain aware of new contraceptive options and guidelines to reduce the risk of unintended pregnancy among adolescents. © 2017 AWHONN, the Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  2. Experiences of physical activity during pregnancy in Danish nulliparous women with a physically active life before pregnancy. A qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background National guidelines recommend that healthy pregnant women take 30 minutes or more of moderate exercise a day. Most women reduce the level of physical activity during pregnancy but only a few studies of women's experiences of physical activity during pregnancy exist. The aim of the present study was to elucidate experiences and views of leisure time physical activity during pregnancy in nulliparous women who were physically active prior to their pregnancy. Methods A qualitative study was conducted by means of personal interviews. Nineteen women, all with a moderate pre-pregnancy level of physical activity but with different levels of physical activity during pregnancy, participated in the study. Content analysis was applied. Results In the analyses of experiences and views of physical activities during pregnancy, four categories and nine sub-categories were developed: Physical activity as a lifestyle (Habit and Desire to continue), Body awareness (Pregnancy-related discomfort, Having a complicated pregnancy and A growing body), Carefulness (Feelings of worry and Balancing worry and sense of security) and Sense of benefit (Feelings of happiness and Physical well-being). Conclusion As other studies have also shown, women find that the discomfort and complications associated with pregnancy, the growing body, and a sense of insecurity with physical activity are barriers to maintaining former levels of physical activity. This study adds a new perspective by describing women's perceptions of these barriers and of overcoming them - thus, when pregnant, the majority of the women do not cease to be physically active but continue to be so. Barriers are overcome by applying one's own experience, looking to role models, mirroring the activities of other pregnant women and following the advice of experts (midwives/physiotherapists). Women then continue to be physically active during pregnancy, most often to a lesser extent or in alternative activities, and derive

  3. The impact of acute and chronic strenuous exercise on pelvic floor muscle strength and support in nulliparous healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middlekauff, Monique L; Egger, Marlene J; Nygaard, Ingrid E; Shaw, Janet M

    2016-09-01

    Strenuous physical activity, which is known to increase intraabdominal pressure and theoretically places stress on the pelvic floor, may affect pelvic support in nulliparous women. The aims of this study were to: (1) examine the differences in maximal vaginal descent (MVD), vaginal resting pressure (VRP), and pelvic floor muscle strength (PFMS) between women who habitually perform strenuous exercise vs women who refrain from performing strenuous exercise; and (2) compare MVD, VRP, and PFMS before and immediately following physical activity in the strenuous and nonstrenuous groups separately. Participants were healthy nulliparous women ages 18-35 years who were habitual strenuous or nonstrenuous exercisers. Women in the strenuous group participated in CrossFit (CrossFit, Inc., Washington, DC) at least 3 days per week for at least 6 months. We assessed anthropometric and body composition values using standardized procedures. Participants completed the Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification examination and pelvic muscle strength assessment before and again within 15 minutes of completing exercise (CrossFit for the strenuous group and self-paced walking for the nonstrenuous). A research nurse masked to study group assignment recorded MVD, defined as the greatest value of anterior, posterior, or apical support, and VRP and PFMS using a perineometer. Maximal PFMS was recorded as the highest pressure measured in 3 vaginal contraction trials. Data were analyzed using parametric and nonparametric tests as appropriate. P < .05 was considered significant. Seventy nulliparous women participated in the study, 35 in each group. The mean age was 24.77 ± 4.3 years. Compared to the nonstrenuous group, strenuous participants were heavier (64.70 ± 7.78 kg vs 60.6 ± 8.99 kg, P = .027), had lower percent body fat (23.36 ± 5.88% vs 27.55 ± 7.07%, P = .003), and had higher handgrip strength (20.78 ± 5.97 kg vs 16.04 ± 11.04 kg, P = .001). Before exercise, there were no

  4. Effects of early augmentation of labour with amniotomy and oxytocin in nulliparous women: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, W; Vendittelli, F; Krauss, I; Bréart, G

    1998-02-01

    To estimate the effects among nulliparae of early augmentation with amniotomy and oxytocin on caesarean delivery, and on other indicators of maternal and neonatal morbidity including transfusion. Apgar score amniotomy followed by oxytocin with a less active form of management. Two methodologically unacceptable studies were excluded. Studies were grouped according to whether they admitted only women with abnormal progress (therapy trials: n = 3) or accepted women with normal labour (prevention trials: n = 7). Unstratified analysis did not provide support for the hypothesis that early augmentation reduces the risk of caesarean section (typical odds ratio [OR] 0.9; 95% CI 0.7-1.1). The typical odds ratio for prevention trials was similar to that obtained in the unstratified analysis (typical OR 0.9, 95% CI 0.7-1.2). Although only a small number of women have been randomised in therapy trials, a trend toward a reduction in the rate of caesarean section with early intervention was seen in this group (typical OR 0.6, 95% CI 0.2-1.4). Early augmentation does not appear to provide benefit over a more conservative form of management in the context of care of nulliparous women with mild delays in the progress of labour. In the context of established delay in labour, an active policy of augmentation may reduce the risk of caesarean section. However, only three small trials have been performed in this context, and they do not have adequate power to allow firm conclusions to be drawn.

  5. Self-hypnosis for intrapartum pain management in pregnant nulliparous women: a randomised controlled trial of clinical effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downe, S; Finlayson, K; Melvin, C; Spiby, H; Ali, S; Diggle, P; Gyte, G; Hinder, S; Miller, V; Slade, P; Trepel, D; Weeks, A; Whorwell, P; Williamson, M

    2015-08-01

    (Primary) To establish the effect of antenatal group self-hypnosis for nulliparous women on intra-partum epidural use. Multi-method randomised control trial (RCT). Three NHS Trusts. Nulliparous women not planning elective caesarean, without medication for hypertension and without psychological illness. Randomisation at 28-32 weeks' gestation to usual care, or to usual care plus brief self-hypnosis training (two × 90-minute groups at around 32 and 35 weeks' gestation; daily audio self-hypnosis CD). Follow up at 2 and 6 weeks postnatal. Primary: epidural analgesia. Secondary: associated clinical and psychological outcomes; cost analysis. Six hundred and eighty women were randomised. There was no statistically significant difference in epidural use: 27.9% (intervention), 30.3% (control), odds ratio (OR) 0.89 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.64-1.24], or in 27 of 29 pre-specified secondary clinical and psychological outcomes. Women in the intervention group had lower actual than anticipated levels of fear and anxiety between baseline and 2 weeks post natal (anxiety: mean difference -0.72, 95% CI -1.16 to -0.28, P = 0.001); fear (mean difference -0.62, 95% CI -1.08 to -0.16, P = 0.009) [Correction added on 7 July 2015, after first online publication: 'Mean difference' replaced 'Odds ratio (OR)' in the preceding sentence.]. Postnatal response rates were 67% overall at 2 weeks. The additional cost in the intervention arm per woman was £4.83 (CI -£257.93 to £267.59). Allocation to two-third-trimester group self-hypnosis training sessions did not significantly reduce intra-partum epidural analgesia use or a range of other clinical and psychological variables. The impact of women's anxiety and fear about childbirth needs further investigation. © 2015 The Authors. BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  6. Exercise during pregnancy and risk of cesarean delivery in nulliparous women: a large population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owe, Katrine Mari; Nystad, Wenche; Stigum, Hein; Vangen, Siri; Bø, Kari

    2016-12-01

    Vaginal delivery for the first birth is of great importance for further obstetric performance for the individual woman. Given the rising cesarean delivery rates worldwide over the past decades, a search for modifiable factors that are associated with cesarean delivery is needed. Exercise may be a modifiable factor that is associated with type of delivery, but the results of previous studies are not conclusive. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between exercise during pregnancy and cesarean delivery, both acute and elective, in nulliparous women. We conducted a population-based cohort study that involved 39,187 nulliparous women with a singleton pregnancy who were enrolled in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study between 2000 and 2009. All women answered 2 questionnaires in pregnancy weeks 17 and 30. Acute and elective cesarean delivery data were obtained from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. Information on exercise frequency and type was assessed prospectively by questionnaires in pregnancy weeks 17 and 30. Generalized linear models estimated risk differences of acute and elective cesarean delivery for different frequencies and types of exercise during pregnancy weeks 17 and 30. We used restricted cubic splines to examine dose-response associations of exercise frequency and acute cesarean delivery. A test for nonlinearity was also conducted. The total cesarean delivery rate was 15.4% (n=6030), of which 77.8% (n=4689) was acute cesarean delivery. Exercise during pregnancy was associated with a reduced risk of cesarean delivery, particularly for acute cesarean delivery. A nonlinear association was observed for exercise frequency in weeks 17 and 30 and risk of acute cesarean delivery (test for nonlinearity, P=.003 and P=.027, respectively). The largest risk reduction was observed for acute cesarean delivery among women who exercised >5 times weekly during weeks 17 (-2.2%) and 30 (-3.6%) compared with nonexercisers (test for trend

  7. Simultaneous Recording and Analysis of Uterine and Abdominal Muscle Electromyographic Activity in Nulliparous Women During Labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Xueya; Li, Pin; Shi, Shao-Qing; Garfield, Robert E; Liu, Huishu

    2017-03-01

    To record and characterize electromyography (EMG) from the uterus and abdominal muscles during the nonlabor to first and second stages of labor and to define relationships to contractions. Nulliparous patients without any treatments were used (n = 12 nonlabor stage, 48 during first stage and 33 during second stage). Electromyography of both uterine and abdominal muscles was simultaneously recorded from electrodes placed on patients' abdominal surface using filters to separate uterine and abdominal EMG. Contractions of muscles were also recorded using tocodynamometry. Electromyography was characterized by analysis of various parameters. During the first stage of labor, when abdominal EMG is absent, uterine EMG bursts temporally correspond to contractions. In the second stage, uterine EMG bursts usually occur at same frequency as groups of abdominal bursts and precede abdominal bursts, whereas abdominal EMG bursts correspond to contractions and are accompanied by feelings of "urge to push." Uterine EMG increases progressively from nonlabor to second stage of labor. (1) Uterine EMG activity can be separated from abdominal EMG events by filtering. (2) Uterine EMG gradually evolves from the antepartum stage to the first and second stages of labor. (3) Uterine and abdominal EMG reflect electrical activity of the muscles during labor and are valuable to assess uterine and abdominal muscle events that control labor. (4) During the first stage of labor uterine, EMG is responsible for contractions, and during the second stage, both uterine and abdominal muscle participate in labor.

  8. Evaluation of two intervention models on contraceptive attitudes and behaviors among nulliparous women in Shanghai, China: a clustered randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yuan; Zhang, Ning; Wang, Jue; He, Na; Du, Yan; Ding, Jing-Xin; Zhang, Ying; Li, Xiao-Tian; Huang, Jian; Hua, Ke-Qin

    2017-06-15

    With increasing acceptance of premarital sex among young Chinese women, the rates of unintended pregnancies and induced abortions are becoming alarmingly high, suggesting the needs of educating women with adequate contraceptive knowledge and providing them with accessible contraceptive services. Previous studies have shown that knowledge and attitudes towards contraception could be modified through intervention strategies. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of two community intervention models on modifying contraceptive attitudes and behaviors among nulliparous women. In this clustered randomized controlled trial, nulliparous women aged 18-40 years from 18 communities were enrolled and randomized to either the traditional community intervention model (TC model) or the more comprehensive new community-based intervention model (NC model) with a ratio of 1:2. Contraceptive attitudes and behaviors were assessed before and after the interventions. A total of 901 nulliparous women were followed. The most common contraceptive method in both groups was condom (approximately 80%) before or after interventions. The rates of using effective contraceptive methods were very low (women held negative attitudes and behaviors towards effective contraceptive methods. The NC model, integrating existing health resources, had more positive influence than the TC model on the favorable contraceptive attitudes and behaviors towards the use of any contraceptive methods, but had limited impact on the use of effective contraceptive methods. Our study suggested the feasibility of applying the NC model in Shanghai. Interventions on contraceptive attitudes and behaviors should base on the existing health service system, synthesize resources and selectively apply to populations with distinct characteristics.

  9. ACCUMULATION OF SELECTED METALS IN UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD OF NULLIPAROUS AND MULTIPAROUS WOMEN AND CORRELATION WITH THE NEWBORN´S PARAMETERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona Kozikowska

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the content of magnesium, copper, cadmium and iron in umbilical cord blood of the newborns depending on the number of pregnancies. It was established correlations between average concentrations these metals in cord blood and newborn’s parameters. The study material was collected immediately after delivery from the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology in Bytom. The cord blood was taken from 99 women between 29-40 years old. Women were divided into two groups: nulliparous and multiparous. The concentration of metals in the cord blood was determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS. The conducted study demonstrates that magnesium, copper, cadmium and iron were noted in all tissues, both nulliparous women and multiparous mothers. The maximum concentration of cadmium in umbilical cord blood was observed among multiparous mothers (2.229 mg.kg-1 d.m.. In group of nulliparous women was observed higher concentration of Fe, Mg and Cu in umbilical cord blood than in multiparous mothers. It was noted some statistically significant correlation between iron, copper and newborn’s parameters. Parity influences the concentration of cadmium in umbilical cord blood with higher level found in multiparous women. Average content of iron in cord blood did not decrease with parity, it indicate that this element is preferentially taken up by the child.

  10. Polymorphisms of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene (C677T and A1298C) in nulliparous women complicated with preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chedraui, Peter; Salazar-Pousada, Danny; Villao, Alejandro; Escobar, Gustavo S; Ramirez, Cecibel; Hidalgo, Luis; Pérez-López, Faustino R; Genazzani, Andrea; Simoncini, Tommaso

    2014-05-01

    To determine the prevalence of C677T and A1298C Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the MTHFR gene in nulliparous women complicated with preeclampsia (PE). One hundred fifty gestations complicated with PE and their corresponding controls without the disease were recruited for the genotyping of C677T and A1298C polymorphisms of the MTHFR gene using restriction fragment length polymorphism polymerase chain reaction. Secondarily, homocysteine (HCy) plasma levels were measured in preeclamptic women displaying the CC genotype of the A1298C polymorphism (homozygous) and compared to HCy levels determined among controls with the normal AA genotype for the A1298C variant. Only the mutant CC genotype of the A1298C polymorphism was associated to higher risk of presenting PE, as frequency of this genotype was significantly higher among cases than controls (15.3% versus 0.7%, p A1298C polymorphism as compared to none among preeclamptics with a lower neck circumference (p = 0.0001). Women with the mutant CC A1298C SNP displayed higher plasma HCy levels as compared to controls with normal AA A1298C genotype (8.4 ± 2.6 versus 7.5 ± 2.7 mmoL/L p = 0.04). Prevalence of the CC mutant genotype of the A1298C polymorphism was higher among PE women. This mutation among PE women was related to increased neck circumference and higher HCy levels. Future research should aim at linking these gestational findings with obesity and cardiovascular risk.

  11. Use of frameless intrauterine devices and systems in young nulliparous and adolescent women: results of a multicenter study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wildemeersch D

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Dirk Wildemeersch,1 Sohela Jandi,2 Ansgar Pett,2 Kilian Nolte,3 Thomas Hasskamp,4 Marc Vrijens5 1Gynecological Outpatient Clinic and IUD Training Center, Ghent, Belgium; 2Gynecological Outpatient Clinic, Berlin, 3Gynecological Outpatient Clinic, Uetze, 4GynMünster, Münster, Germany; 5Gynecological Outpatient Clinic, Ghent, Belgium Background: The purpose of this study was to provide additional data on the experience with frameless copper and levonorgestrel (LNG intrauterine devices (IUDs in nulliparous and adolescent women. Methods: Nulliparous and adolescent women, 25 years of age or younger, using the frameless copper IUD or the frameless LNG-releasing intrauterine system (IUS, were selected from previous studies and a current multicenter post-marketing study with the frameless copper IUD. The small copper-releasing GyneFix® 200 IUD consists of four copper cylinders, each 5 mm long and only 2.2 mm wide. The frameless FibroPlant® LNG-IUS consists of a fibrous delivery system releasing the hormone levonorgestrel (LNG-IUS. The main features of these intrauterine contraceptives are that they are frameless, flexible, and anchored to the fundus of the uterus. Results: One hundred and fifty-four nulliparous and adolescent women participated in the combined study. One pregnancy occurred with the GyneFix 200 IUD after unnoticed early expulsion of the device (cumulative pregnancy rate 1.1 at one year. Two further expulsions were reported, one with the GyneFix 200 IUD and the other with the FibroPlant LNG-IUS. The cumulative expulsion rate at one year was 1.1 with the copper IUD and 2.2 with the LNG-IUS. The total discontinuation rate at one year was low (3.3 and 4.3 with the copper IUD and LNG-IUS, respectively and resulted in a high rate of continuation of use at one year (96.7 with the copper IUD and 95.7 with the LNG-IUS, respectively. Continuation rates for both frameless copper IUD and frameless LNG-IUS remained high at 3 years (>90%. There

  12. Effect of Inhalation of Aroma of Geranium Essence on Anxiety and Physiological Parameters during First Stage of Labor in Nulliparous Women: a Randomized Clinical Trial

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    Fahimeh Rashidi Fakari

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Anxiety increases significantly during labor, especially among nulliparous women. Such anxiety may affect the progress of labor and physiological parameters. The use of essential oils of aromatic plants, or aromatherapy, is a non-invasive procedure that can decrease childbirth anxiety. This study examined the effect of inhalation of the aroma of geranium essential oil on the level of anxiety and physiological parameters of nulliparous women in the first stage of labor. Methods: In study, was carried out on 100 nulliparous women admitted to Bent al-Hoda Hospital in the city of Bojnord in North Khorasan province of Iran during 2012-2013. The women were randomly assigned to two groups of equal size, one experimental group (geranium essential oil and one control (placebo group. Anxiety levels were measured using Spielberger’s questionnaire before and after intervention. Physiological parameters (systolic and diastolic blood pressure, respiratory rate, pulse rate were also measured before and after intervention in both groups. Data analysis was conducted using the x2 test, paired t-test, Mann-Whitney U test, and Wilcox on test on SPSS 11.5. Results: The mean anxiety score decreased significantly after inhalation of the aroma of geranium essential oil. There was also a significant decrease in diastolic blood pressure.Conclusion: Aroma of essential oil of geraniums can effectively reduce anxiety during labor and can be recommended as a non-invasive anti-anxiety aid during childbirth.

  13. Social disparity affects the incidence of placental abruption among multiparous but not nulliparous women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Räisänen, Sari; Gissler, Mika; Nielsen, Henriette Svarre

    2013-01-01

    To identify risk factors for placental abruption and to evaluate associations between adverse perinatal outcomes and placental abruption stratified by parity among women with singleton births from 1991 to 2010 in Finland....

  14. Clinical, ultrasound and molecular biomarkers for early prediction of large for gestational age infants in nulliparous women: An international prospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCowan, Lesley M. E.; Gillett, Alexandra; Poston, Lucilla; Fyfe, Elaine; Dekker, Gustaaf A.; Baker, Philip N.; Walker, James J.; Kenny, Louise C.; Pasupathy, Dharmintra

    2017-01-01

    Objective To develop a prediction model for term infants born large for gestational age (LGA) by customised birthweight centiles. Methods International prospective cohort of nulliparous women with singleton pregnancy recruited to the Screening for Pregnancy Endpoints (SCOPE) study. LGA was defined as birthweight above the 90th customised centile, including adjustment for parity, ethnicity, maternal height and weight, fetal gender and gestational age. Clinical risk factors, ultrasound parameters and biomarkers at 14–16 or 19–21 weeks were combined into a prediction model for LGA infants at term using stepwise logistic regression in a training dataset. Prediction performance was assessed in a validation dataset using area under the Receiver Operating Characteristics curve (AUC) and detection rate at fixed false positive rates. Results The prevalence of LGA at term was 8.8% (n = 491/5628). Clinical and ultrasound factors selected in the prediction model for LGA infants were maternal birthweight, gestational weight gain between 14–16 and 19–21 weeks, and fetal abdominal circumference, head circumference and uterine artery Doppler resistance index at 19–21 weeks (AUC 0.67; 95%CI 0.63–0.71). Sensitivity of this model was 24% and 49% for a fixed false positive rate of 10% and 25%, respectively. The addition of biomarkers resulted in selection of random glucose, LDL-cholesterol, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 (VEGFR1) and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), but with minimal improvement in model performance (AUC 0.69; 95%CI 0.65–0.73). Sensitivity of the full model was 26% and 50% for a fixed false positive rate of 10% and 25%, respectively. Conclusion Prediction of LGA infants at term has limited diagnostic performance before 22 weeks but may have a role in contingency screening in later pregnancy. PMID:28570613

  15. Bioelectrical activity of the pelvic floor muscles after 6-week biofeedback training in nulliparous continent women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmielewska, Daria; Stania, Magdalena; Smykla, Agnieszka; Kwaśna, Krystyna; Błaszczak, Edward; Sobota, Grzegorz; Skrzypulec-Plinta, Violetta

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of a 6-week sEMG-biofeedback-assisted pelvic floor muscle training program on pelvic floor muscle activity in young continent women. Pelvic floor muscle activity was recorded using a vaginal probe during five experimental trials. Biofeedback training was continued for 6 weeks, 3 times a week. Muscle strenghtening and endurance exercises were performed alternately. SEMG (surface electromyography) measurements were recorded on four different occasions: before training started, after the third week of training, after the sixth week of training, and one month after training ended. A 6-week sEMG-biofeedback-assisted pelvic floor muscle training program significantly decreased the resting activity of the pelvic floor muscles in supine lying and standing. The ability to relax the pelvic floor muscles after a sustained 60-second contraction improved significantly after the 6-week training in both positions. SEMG-biofeedback training program did not seem to affect the activity of the pelvic floor muscles or muscle fatigue during voluntary pelvic floor muscle contractions. SEMG-biofeedback-assisted pelvic floor muscle training might be recommended for physiotherapists to improve the effectiveness of their relaxation techniques.

  16. Management of the Perineum during Delivery with the Kiwi Omnicup: Effects of Mediolateral Episiotomy on Anal Sphincter Tears in Nulliparous Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodner-Adler, Barbara; Kimberger, Oliver; Käfer, Andreas; Husslein, Peter; Bodner, Klaus

    2017-08-17

    The main objective of this study was to evaluate the association of mediolateral episiotomy with severe perineal trauma during Kiwi omnicup vacuum delivery. This retrospective study analyzed all Kiwi omnicup vacuum deliveries between 2010 and 2015 in nulliparous women. Secondary outcomes of interest included frequency of genital tract trauma, outcome of Kiwi extraction and influence on neonatal parameters. A total of 572 nulliparous women who were delivered with the aid of vacuum were analyzed. Successful completion of birth was achieved in 549/572 (96%) resulting in a failure rate of 4%. Out of 572 women, 372 (65%) underwent the Kiwi vacuum delivery system in conjunction with episiotomy. Third- or fourth-degree perineal tears occurred in 38 out of the 572 (6.6%) women and the rate of severe perineal trauma was statistically and significantly lower in women who delivered with the aid of the Kiwi vacuum in conjunction with episiotomy (p = 0.0001). Besides, perineal tears of all degrees, vaginal tears and labial trauma were significantly less common in the Kiwi vacuum delivery system when combined with mediolateral episiotomy (p = 0.0001, p = 0.006, and p = 0.0001, respectively). Our data showed that the performance of a mediolateral episiotomy was associated with a decreased risk of severe perineal tears as well as vaginal and labial trauma in Kiwi omnicup vacuum deliveries. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Correlations of third-trimester hiatal biometry obtained using four-dimensional translabial ultrasonography with the delivery route in nulliparous pregnant women

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    Teerayut Temtanakitpaisan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The goal of this study was to evaluate normal hiatal dimensions in the third trimester in nulliparous Thai pregnant women and to establish which biometric factors were associated with various pregnancy outcomes. Methods: Fifty-seven consecutive nulliparous pregnant Thai women in their third trimester were recruited on a voluntary basis from April to October 2014. All subjects underwent four-dimensional (4D translabial ultrasonography. Hiatal biometric parameters were measured at rest, while performing a Valsalva maneuver, and during contraction. Information about the patients’ eventual deliveries was obtained from their medical records. Results: The mean values of the patients’ age, body mass index, and gestational age at the time of examination were 27.4±5.47 years, 26.7±3.48 kg/m2, and 36.6±1.49 weeks, respectively. No subjects had vaginal lumps or experienced prolapse greater than stage 1 of the Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification system. Ultrasonography showed that the mean values of the hiatal area at rest, while performing a Valsalva maneuver, and during contraction were 13.10±2.92 cm2, 17.50±4.81 cm2, and 9.69±2.09 cm2, respectively. The hiatal area at rest, the axial measurement at rest, and the axial measurement while performing a Valsalva maneuver were significantly associated with the route of delivery (P=0.02, P=0.04, and P=0.03, respectively. Conclusion: The route of delivery was associated with hiatal biometric values measured using 4D translabial ultrasonography, based on the results of nulliparous Thai women in the third trimester.

  18. Correlations of third-trimester hiatal biometry obtained using our-dimensional translabial ultrasonography with the delivery route in nulliparous pregnant women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Temtanakitpaisan, Teerayut [Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen (Thailand); Chantarason, Varisara [Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Bumrungrad Hospital, Bangkok (Thailand); Bunyavejchevin, Suvit [Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok (Thailand)

    2016-01-15

    The goal of this study was to evaluate normal hiatal dimensions in the third trimester in nulliparous Thai pregnant women and to establish which biometric factors were associated with various pregnancy outcomes. Fifty-seven consecutive nulliparous pregnant Thai women in their third trimester were recruited on a voluntary basis from April to October 2014. All subjects underwent four-dimensional (4D) translabial ultrasonography. Hiatal biometric parameters were measured at rest, while performing a Valsalva maneuver, and during contraction. Information about the patients’ eventual deliveries was obtained from their medical records. The mean values of the patients’ age, body mass index, and gestational age at the time of examination were 27.4±5.47 years, 26.7±3.48 kg/m{sup 2}, and 36.6±1.49 weeks, respectively. No subjects had vaginal lumps or experienced prolapse greater than stage 1 of the Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification system. Ultrasonography showed that the mean values of the hiatal area at rest, while performing a Valsalva maneuver, and during contraction were 13.10±2.92 cm{sup 2}, 17.50±4.81 cm{sup 2}, and 9.69±2.09 cm{sup 2}, respectively. The hiatal area at rest, the axial measurement at rest, and the axial measurement while performing a Valsalva maneuver were significantly associated with the route of delivery (P=0.02, P=0.04, and P=0.03, respectively). The route of delivery was associated with hiatal biometric values measured using 4D translabial ultrasonography, based on the results of nulliparous Thai women in the third trimester.

  19. Urinary incontinence in very young and mostly nulliparous women with a history of regular organised high-impact trampoline training: occurrence and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliasson, Kerstin; Edner, Ann; Mattsson, Eva

    2008-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the occurrence of urinary incontinence (UI) in mostly nulliparous women with a history of regular organised trampoline training as adolescents and to identify possible predictors. Female trampolinists in Sweden with licence for trampolining between 1995--1999 (n = 305), with a median age of 21 (range 18-44) years answered retrospectively a validated questionnaire. Competition with double somersaults had been performed by 85 women, the "competition group" (CG), while 220 women comprised the "recreational group" (RG). Of the trampolinists with UI during trampolining, 76% continued to leak. In CG, 57% and, in RG, 48% reported current UI. Strong predictors for UI were inability to interrupt micturition (p trampolining (p trampolining after menarche increased the risk of UI (p trampolining cannot be ruled out.

  20. Comparison of the effect of aromatherapy with Jasminum officinale and Salvia officinale on pain severity and labor outcome in nulliparous women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaviani, Maasumeh; Maghbool, Shahla; Azima, Sara; Tabaei, Mohammad Hosein

    2014-01-01

    Background: Using non-pharmacological pain relief methods for reducing labor pain has always been one of the major concerns in obstetrics and gynecology. Objective: Comparing the effects of aromatherapy with jasmine and salvia on pain severity and labor outcome in nulliparous women. Materials and Methods: In this randomized clinical trial, 156 nulliparous women in labor were randomly selected and divided into salvia, jasmine, and control groups (52 in each group). The study duration was 6 months (from October 2009 to March 2010). Each group underwent aromatherapy using an incense mask for 15 min (distilled water for the control group). Pain severity was measured before and 30 and 60 min after the incense aromatherapy. Also, duration of the first and second stages of labor, first- and fifth-minute APGAR scores of the baby, and the frequency of labor type were measured and recorded in each group. Results: In comparison to the other groups, pain severity and duration of the first and second stages of labor were significantly lower in the aromatherapy group of salvia 30 min after the intervention (P = 0.001). However, no significant difference was found among the three groups regarding pain severity 60 min after the aromatherapy, first- and fifth-minute APGAR scores of the baby, and the frequency of labor type. Conclusions: The results of the present study indicated that aromatherapy with saliva had beneficial effects on pain relief, shortened the labor stages, and had no negative impact on the baby's APGAR score. PMID:25558267

  1. Pelvic floor muscle variables and levator hiatus dimensions: a 3/4D transperineal ultrasound cross-sectional study on 300 nulliparous pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bø, Kari; Hilde, Gunvor; Tennfjord, Merete Kolberg; Stær-Jensen, Jette; Siafarikas, Franziska; Engh, Marie Ellstrøm

    2014-10-01

    The aims of the present study were to investigate the correlation among vaginal resting pressure and pelvic floor muscle (PFM) strength and endurance, and the correlation between the same variables and levator hiatus (LH) dimensions in nulliparous pregnant women. This was a cross-sectional study of 300 nulliparous pregnant women, mean age 28.7 years (SD 4.3) and pre-pregnancy BMI 23.9 kg/m(2) (SD 3.9), assessed at mean gestational week 20.8 (±1.4). Vaginal resting pressure and PFM strength and endurance were measured using a high precision pressure transducer connected to a vaginal balloon. LH dimensions (transverse and anterior-posterior diameters_ and LH area were assessed using 3/4D transperineal ultrasound in the axial plane of minimal hiatal dimensions using render mode. The Pearson correlation was used to analyze correlations among vaginal resting pressure and PFM strength and endurance, and between PFM variables and LH dimensions. Level of significance was set at 0.05. Pelvic floor muscle strength and vaginal resting pressure were significantly, but weakly correlated (r = 0.198, p muscle endurance and LH area at rest (r = -0.014, p = 0.81). A strong PFM contraction correlated moderately with reduction of the LH area (r = -0.367, p Pelvic floor muscle strength and endurance are strongly correlated, butdo not correlate with a smaller LH area at rest.

  2. Serial plotting on customised fundal height charts results in doubling of the antenatal detection of small for gestational age fetuses in nulliparous women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roex, Alphonse; Nikpoor, Payam; van Eerd, Eva; Hodyl, Nicolette; Dekker, Gus

    2012-02-01

    The antenatal detection of fetal growth restriction is a focus point of antenatal care. If detected fetal demise may be prevented and perinatal complications could be managed more appropriately. To investigate whether introducing serial plotting on customised fundal height charts can increase the detection rate of small for gestational age (SGA) fetuses in low risk nulliparous women attending antenatal clinics in a public teaching hospital in Adelaide, South Australia. An observational study was employed to compare SGA detection rates, utilising data from an historical Control group compared to data collected after the study intervention. In the Control group the fundal height (FH) was measured for every antenatal visit and documented in the notes, but not plotted on a chart. The study intervention used serial FH plotting on customised charts, with a dedicated clinical practice guideline and regular audits to increase clinician awareness of the intervention. The antenatal detection rate of SGA was 31/125 (24.8%) in the Control group and 44/87 (50.6%) in the Intervention group (P customised charts supported by a clinical practice guideline resulted in a doubling of the antenatal detection of SGA in nulliparous pregnant women at low risk for SGA. © 2012 The Authors ANZJOG © 2012 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  3. Early pregnancy prediction of preeclampsia in nulliparous women, combining clinical risk and biomarkers: the Screening for Pregnancy Endpoints (SCOPE) international cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Louise C; Black, Michael A; Poston, Lucilla; Taylor, Rennae; Myers, Jenny E; Baker, Philip N; McCowan, Lesley M; Simpson, Nigel A B; Dekker, Gus A; Roberts, Claire T; Rodems, Kelline; Noland, Brian; Raymundo, Michael; Walker, James J; North, Robyn A

    2014-09-01

    More than half of all cases of preeclampsia occur in healthy first-time pregnant women. Our aim was to develop a method to predict those at risk by combining clinical factors and measurements of biomarkers in women recruited to the Screening for Pregnancy Endpoints (SCOPE) study of low-risk nulliparous women. Forty-seven biomarkers identified on the basis of (1) association with preeclampsia, (2) a biological role in placentation, or (3) a role in cellular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia were measured in plasma sampled at 14 to 16 weeks' gestation from 5623 women. The cohort was randomly divided into training (n=3747) and validation (n=1876) cohorts. Preeclampsia developed in 278 (4.9%) women, of whom 28 (0.5%) developed early-onset preeclampsia. The final model for the prediction of preeclampsia included placental growth factor, mean arterial pressure, and body mass index at 14 to 16 weeks' gestation, the consumption of ≥3 pieces of fruit per day, and mean uterine artery resistance index. The area under the receiver operator curve (95% confidence interval) for this model in training and validation cohorts was 0.73 (0.70-0.77) and 0.68 (0.63-0.74), respectively. A predictive model of early-onset preeclampsia included angiogenin/placental growth factor as a ratio, mean arterial pressure, any pregnancy loss preeclampsia in populations of mixed parity and risk. In nulliparous women, combining multiple biomarkers and clinical data provided modest prediction of preeclampsia. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. The effect of perineal lacerations on pelvic floor function and anatomy at six months postpartum in a prospective cohort of nulliparous women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Leeman; Rebecca, Rogers; Noelle, Borders; Dusty, Teaf; Clifford, Qualls

    2016-01-01

    Objective Determine the effect of perineal lacerations on pelvic floor outcomes including urinary and anal incontinence, sexual function and perineal pain in a nulliparous cohort with low incidence of episiotomy. Methods Nulliparous women were prospectively recruited from a midwifery practice. Pelvic floor symptoms were assessed with validated questionnaires, physical examination and objective measures in pregnancy and 6 months postpartum. Two trauma groups were compared, those with an intact perineum or only 1st degree lacerations and those with 2nd, 3rd or 4th degree lacerations. Results 448 women had vaginal deliveries. 151 sustained second degree or deeper perineal trauma and 297 had an intact perineum or minor trauma. 336 (74.8%) presented for 6-month follow-up. Perineal trauma was not associated with urinary or fecal incontinence, decreased sexual activity, perineal pain, or pelvic organ prolapse. Women with trauma had similar rates of sexual activity however they had slightly lower sexual function scores (27.3 vs. 29.1, p=0.01). Objective measures of pelvic floor strength, rectal tone, urinary incontinence, and perineal anatomy were equivalent. The subgroup of women with deeper (> 2cm) perineal trauma demonstrated increased likelihood of perineal pain (15.5 vs. 6.2 %) and weaker pelvic floor muscle strength (61.0 vs. 44.3%); p=0.03 compared to women with more superficial trauma Conclusion: Women having second degree lacerations are not at increased risk for pelvic floor dysfunction other than increased pain, and slightly lower sexual function scores at 6 months postpartum. PMID:27797099

  5. The Effect of Perineal Lacerations on Pelvic Floor Function and Anatomy at 6 Months Postpartum in a Prospective Cohort of Nulliparous Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeman, Lawrence; Rogers, Rebecca; Borders, Noelle; Teaf, Dusty; Qualls, Clifford

    2016-12-01

    To determine the effect of perineal lacerations on pelvic floor outcomes, including urinary and anal incontinence, sexual function, and perineal pain in a nulliparous cohort with low incidence of episiotomy. Nulliparous women were prospectively recruited from a midwifery practice. Pelvic floor symptoms were assessed with validated questionnaires, physical examination, and objective measures in pregnancy and 6 months postpartum. Two trauma groups were compared, those with an intact perineum or only 1st degree lacerations and those with second-, third-, or fourth-degree lacerations. Four hundred and forty-eight women had vaginal deliveries. One hundred and fifty-one sustained second-degree or deeper perineal trauma and 297 had an intact perineum or minor trauma. Three hundred and thirty-six (74.8%) presented for 6-month follow-up. Perineal trauma was not associated with urinary or fecal incontinence, decreased sexual activity, perineal pain, or pelvic organ prolapse. Women with trauma had similar rates of sexual activity; however, they had slightly lower sexual function scores (27.3 vs 29.1). Objective measures of pelvic floor strength, rectal tone, urinary incontinence, and perineal anatomy were equivalent. The subgroup of women with deeper (> 2 centimeter) perineal trauma demonstrated increased likelihood of perineal pain (15.5% vs 6.2%) and weaker pelvic floor muscle strength (61.0% vs 44.3%) compared with women with more superficial trauma. Women having second-degree lacerations are not at increased risk for pelvic floor dysfunction other than increased pain, and slightly lower sexual function scores at 6 months postpartum. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Angiogenic factors combined with clinical risk factors to predict preterm pre-eclampsia in nulliparous women: a predictive test accuracy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, J E; Kenny, L C; McCowan, L M E; Chan, E H Y; Dekker, G A; Poston, L; Simpson, N A B; North, R A

    2013-09-01

    To assess the performance of clinical risk factors, uterine artery Doppler and angiogenic markers to predict preterm pre-eclampsia in nulliparous women. Predictive test accuracy study. Prospective multicentre cohort study Screening for Pregnancy Endpoints (SCOPE). Low-risk nulliparous women with a singleton pregnancy were recruited. Clinical risk factor data were obtained and plasma placental growth factor (PlGF), soluble endoglin and soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1) were measured at 14-16 weeks of gestation. Prediction models were developed using multivariable stepwise logistic regression. Preterm pre-eclampsia (delivered before 37(+0)  weeks of gestation). Of the 3529 women recruited, 187 (5.3%) developed pre-eclampsia of whom 47 (1.3%) delivered preterm. Controls (n = 188) were randomly selected from women without preterm pre-eclampsia and included women who developed other pregnancy complications. An area under a receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.76 (95% CI 0.67-0.84) was observed using previously reported clinical risk variables. The AUC improved following the addition of PlGF measured at 14-16 weeks (0.84; 95% CI 0.77-0.91), but no further improvement was observed with the addition of uterine artery Doppler or the other angiogenic markers. A sensitivity of 45% (95% CI 0.31-0.59) (5% false-positive rate) and post-test probability of 11% (95% CI 9-13) were observed using clinical risk variables and PlGF measurement. Addition of plasma PlGF at 14-16 weeks of gestation to clinical risk assessment improved the identification of nulliparous women at increased risk of developing preterm pre-eclampsia, but the performance is not sufficient to warrant introduction as a clinical screening test. These findings are marker dependent, not assay dependent; additional markers are needed to achieve clinical utility. © 2013 The Authors BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology © 2013 RCOG.

  7. Prediction of Preeclampsia Using the Soluble fms-Like Tyrosine Kinase 1 to Placental Growth Factor Ratio: A Prospective Cohort Study of Unselected Nulliparous Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sovio, Ulla; Gaccioli, Francesca; Cook, Emma; Hund, Martin; Charnock-Jones, D Stephen; Smith, Gordon C S

    2017-04-01

    We sought to assess the ratio of sFlt-1 (soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1) to PlGF (placental growth factor) in maternal serum as a screening test for preeclampsia in unselected nulliparous women with a singleton pregnancy. We studied 4099 women recruited to the POP study (Pregnancy Outcome Prediction) (Cambridge, United Kingdom). The sFlt-1:PlGF ratio was measured using the Roche Cobas e411 platform at ≈20, ≈28, and ≈36 weeks of gestational age (wkGA). Screen positive was defined as an sFlt-1:PlGF ratio >38, but higher thresholds were also studied. At 28 wkGA, an sFlt-1:PlGF ratio >38 had a positive predictive value (PPV) of 32% for preeclampsia and preterm birth, and the PPV was similar comparing women with low and high prior risk of disease. At 36 wkGA, an sFlt-1:PlGF ratio >38 had a PPV for severe preeclampsia of 20% in high-risk women and 6.4% in low-risk women. At 36 wkGA, an sFlt-1:PlGF ratio >110 had a PPV of 30% for severe preeclampsia, and the PPV was similar comparing low- and high-risk women. Overall, at 36 wkGA, 195 (5.2%) women either had an sFlt-1:PlGF ratio of >110 or an sFlt-1:PlGF ratio >38 plus maternal risk factors: 43% of these women developed preeclampsia, about half with severe features. Among low-risk women at 36 wkGA, an sFlt-1:PlGF ratio ≤38 had a negative predictive value for severe preeclampsia of 99.2%. The sFlt-1:PlGF ratio provided clinically useful prediction of the risk of the most important manifestations of preeclampsia in a cohort of unselected nulliparous women. © 2017 The Authors.

  8. Life satisfaction, general well-being and costs of treatment for severe fear of childbirth in nulliparous women by psychoeducative group or conventional care attendance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouhe, Hanna; Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Toivanen, Riikka; Tokola, Maiju; Halmesmäki, Erja; Saisto, Terhi

    2015-05-01

    Fear of childbirth is a common reason for seeking cesarean section. It is important to consider outcomes and costs associated with alternative treatment and delivery mode. We compared well-being and costs of group psychoeducation and conventional care for fear of childbirth. Randomized controlled trial. A total of 371 nulliparous women scoring over the 95th centile in the Wijma Delivery Expectancy Questionnaire (W-DEQ) during the first trimester. Finland, data from obstetrical patient records and questionnaires. Randomization to group psychoeducation with relaxation (six sessions during pregnancy, one after childbirth, n = 131), or surveillance and referral on demand (n = 240). All costs in maternity care during pregnancy, delivery and postnatally according to Diagnoses Related Groups. Life satisfaction and general well-being 3 months after childbirth (by a Satisfaction with Life Scale and Well-being Visual Analogue Scale). The groups did not differ in total direct costs (€3786/woman in psychoeducative group and €3830/woman in control group), nor in life satisfaction or general well-being. Although only 76 (30%) of the women assigned to the surveillance were referred to special maternity care and 36 (15%) attended advanced prenatal classes, costs in the psychoeducation group did not exceed the costs of the controls, mostly because of the greater number of uncomplicated vaginal deliveries (63% vs. 47%, p = 0.005). Through an association with safer childbirth and equal well-being after delivery, psychoeducative group treatment for nulliparous women with fear of childbirth can be a recommended choice for the same overall costs as conventional treatment. © 2015 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  9. [Anatomical characteristics of the pelvic floor muscles in young nulliparous women based on three-dimensional MRI].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping, Liu; Ruolan, Chen; Chunlin, Chen; Lu, Huang; Chuanjia, Guo; Lan, Chen; Cheng, Peng; Jun, Wang; Kedan, Liao; Xuan, Liang; Jianping, Wang; Daokun, Ren; Huanqing, Tan; Lei, Tang; Shizhen, Zhong

    2014-05-01

    To analyse anatomical characteristics of the pelvic floor in young nulliparous volunteers based on three-dimensional MRI. Thin-slice MRI was performed in 25 young nulliparous volunteers in Southern Medical University, MRI were imported into Mimics 10.01 for 3D reconstruction.Using 3D models we measured follow indicators: the levator ani muscle volume (LVOL) , levator plate angle (LPA), levator hiatus width (LH-W)and length (LH-L), distance between symphysis and levator sling muscle (LSG). (1) 25 cases of pelvic three-dimensional models was successfully constructed, including the pelvis, pelvic organs and the pelvic floor muscles (including the ischial coccyx muscle, levator ani muscle and its various components, perineal muscles), the models could be able to clearly reflect the level of the pelvic floor muscles; (2) 25 cases of levator ani muscle measurement results:LVOL: (34 ± 6) cm(3), LPA: (43 ± 4) °, LH-W: (33 ± 4) mm, LH-L: (54 ± 5) mm, left LSG: (18.8 ± 2.5) mm, right LSG: (18.3 ± 2.5) mm. It is an effective way to use the computer to reconstruct the 3D model of female pelvic floor muscles using MRI data set. The quantitative analysis of levator ani muscle three-dimensional model can be assessed pelvic floor function, which is of great value in clinical practice.It is helpful to understand the pelvic floor disorders pathogenesis, clinical diagnosis, treatment options and treatment evaluation to provide reference standards.

  10. Social disparity affects the incidence of placental abruption among multiparous but not nulliparous women: a register-based analysis of 1,162,126 singleton births.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Räisänen, Sari; Gissler, Mika; Nielsen, Henriette Svarre; Kramer, Michael R; Williams, Michelle A; Heinonen, Seppo

    2013-12-01

    To identify risk factors for placental abruption and to evaluate associations between adverse perinatal outcomes and placental abruption stratified by parity among women with singleton births from 1991 to 2010 in Finland. A retrospective population-based case-control study of singleton births in Finland from 1991 to 2010 (n=1,162,126 from the Finnish Medical Birth Register). We modelled the group-specific risk factors for placental abruption in unadjusted and adjusted models. In total 3.5 and 3.7 per 1000 nulliparous and multiparous women, respectively, were affected by placental abruption. The recurrence rate was 8.6 per 1000 births. The adjusted risk for placental abruption increased in pregnancies characterised by advanced maternal age, low birth weight, smoking, major congenital anomaly, preeclampsia and male foetal sex in both parity groups. In vitro fertilisation increased the risk only in nulliparae whereas anaemia, a prior caesarean section and the lowest socioeconomic status increased the risk in multiparae. Births affected by placental abruption were associated with an increased admission for neonatal intensive care, preterm birth, low birth weight (parity groups. The burden of placental abruption is equal in nulliparae and multiparae, but risk factors vary substantially. Social disparity only affects the incidence of placental abruption among multiparous women, indicating that factors related to lifestyle and health behaviour have different effects on the parity groups. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Is there correlation between electromyography and digital palpation as means of measuring pelvic floor muscle contractility in nulliparous, pregnant, and postpartum women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botelho, Simone; Pereira, Larissa Carvalho; Marques, Joseane; Lanza, Ana Helena; Amorim, Cesar Ferreira; Palma, Paulo; Riccetto, Cassio

    2013-06-01

    The continence mechanisms depend on the integrity of the pelvic floor muscles. It is therefore important to find simple, reliable, and safe methods to assess its contractility in a clinical setting. This study aims to investigate if digital palpation of the pelvic floor muscles presents correlation with its electromyographic activity. The sample consisted of 307 women with mean age of 23.93 years, including 39 nulliparous, 117 primigravid pregnant, 64 primiparous, in post-vaginal delivery, and 87 primiparous women, in post-cesarean section delivery. The assessment consisted of both digital palpation and surface electromyography. One, and the same, highly skilled and experienced physiotherapist, who was able to classify the different grades of contractility accurately, performed digital palpation using the Modified Oxford Grading Scale. Surface electromyography was performed using an intravaginal probe. For electromyography evaluation, three contractions of 5 sec each were recorded, and an average of three Root Mean squares was considered for analysis. Spearman's Coefficient, Jonckheere-Terpstra Test, Kruskal-Wallis as well as Dunn Test were used for statistical analysis. The strong correlation found between the two methods (P electromyography can be used in everyday practice, both for clinical use and scientific research, although both have their specific limitations and requirements to avoid the risk of biases. There was a correlation between pelvic floor muscle contractility measured by surface electromyography and by digital palpation. Both methods can be used to validate data in research and clinical setting. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Role of early second-trimester uterine artery Doppler screening to predict small-for-gestational-age babies in nulliparous women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, Samuel; Sciscione, Anthony; Haas, David M; Grobman, William A; Iams, Jay D; Mercer, Brian M; Silver, Robert M; Simhan, Hyagriv N; Wapner, Ronald J; Wing, Deborah A; Elovitz, Michal A; Schubert, Frank P; Peaceman, Alan; Esplin, M Sean; Caritis, Steve; Nageotte, Michael P; Carper, Benjamin A; Saade, George R; Reddy, Uma M; Parker, Corette B

    2017-11-01

    Trophoblastic invasion of the uterine spiral arteries substantially increases compliance to accommodate increased blood flow to the placenta. Failure of this process impedes uterine artery blood flow, and this may be detected by uterine artery Doppler flow studies. However, the clinical utility of uterine artery Doppler flow studies in the prediction of adverse pregnancy outcomes in a general population remains largely unknown. We sought to determine the utility of early second-trimester uterine artery Doppler studies as a predictor of small-for-gestational-age neonates. Nulliparous women with a viable singleton pregnancy were recruited during their first trimester into an observational prospective cohort study at 8 institutions across the United States. Participants were seen at 3 study visits during pregnancy and again at delivery. Three indices of uterine artery Doppler flow (resistance index, pulsatility index, and diastolic notching) were measured in the right and left uterine arteries between 16 weeks 0 days' and 22 weeks 6 days' gestation. Test characteristics for varying thresholds in the prediction of small for gestational age (defined as birthweight Doppler indices, birthweight, and gestational age at birth were available for 8024 women. Birthweight Doppler indices were all associated with birthweight Doppler studies were not a clinically useful test for predicting small-for-gestational-age babies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A comparison of the effect of age on levator ani and obturator internus muscle cross-sectional areas and volumes in nulliparous women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Vikky C; Murray, Meghan P; Delancey, John O L; Ashton-Miller, James A

    2012-04-01

    Functional tests have demonstrated minimal loss of vaginal closure force with age. So we tested the null hypotheses that age neither affects the maximum cross-sectional area (CSA) nor the volume of the levator muscle. Corresponding hypotheses were also tested in the adjacent obturator internus muscle, which served as a control for the effect of age on appendicular muscle in these women. Magnetic resonance images of 15 healthy younger (aged 21-25 years) and 12 healthy older nulliparous women (aged >63 years) were selected to avoid the confounding effect of childbirth. Models were created from tracing outlines of the levator ani muscle in the coronal plane, and obturator internus in the axial plane using 3D Slicer v. 3.4. Muscle volumes were calculated using Slicer, while CSA was measured using Imageware™ at nine locations. The hypotheses were tested using repeated measures analysis of variance with P obturator internus muscle maximum CSA and volume (24.5% and 28.2%, P obturator internus, the levator ani muscle in healthy nullipara does not show evidence of significant age-related atrophy. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Experiences of physical activity during pregnancy in Danish nulliparous women with a physically active life before pregnancy. A qualitative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegaard, Hanne; Kjaergaard, Hanne; Damm, Peter P

    2010-01-01

    National guidelines recommend that healthy pregnant women take 30 minutes or more of moderate exercise a day. Most women reduce the level of physical activity during pregnancy but only a few studies of women's experiences of physical activity during pregnancy exist. The aim of the present study w...

  15. A dietary pattern characterized by high intake of vegetables, fruits, and vegetable oils is associated with reduced risk of preeclampsia in nulliparous pregnant Norwegian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantsaeter, Anne Lise; Haugen, Margaretha; Samuelsen, Sven Ove; Torjusen, Hanne; Trogstad, Lill; Alexander, Jan; Magnus, Per; Meltzer, Helle Margrete

    2009-06-01

    Several dietary substances have been hypothesized to influence the risk of preeclampsia. Our aim in this study was to estimate the association between dietary patterns during pregnancy and the risk of preeclampsia in 23,423 nulliparous pregnant women taking part in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Women participating in MoBa answered questionnaires at gestational wk 15 (a general health questionnaire) and 17-22 (a FFQ). The pregnancy outcomes were obtained from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. Exploratory factor analysis was used to assess the associations among food variables. Principal component factor analysis identified 4 primary dietary patterns that were labeled: vegetable, processed food, potato and fish, and cakes and sweets. Relative risks of preeclampsia were estimated as odds ratios (OR) and confounder control was performed with multiple logistic regression. Women with high scores on a pattern characterized by vegetables, plant foods, and vegetable oils were at decreased risk [relative risk (OR) for tertile 3 vs. tertile 1: 0.72; 95% CI: 0.62, 0.85]. Women with high scores on a pattern characterized by processed meat, salty snacks, and sweet drinks were at increased risk [OR for tertile 3 vs. tertile 1: 1.21; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.42]. These findings suggest that a dietary pattern characterized by high intake of vegetables, plant foods, and vegetable oils decreases the risk of preeclampsia, whereas a dietary pattern characterized by high consumption of processed meat, sweet drinks, and salty snacks increases the risk.

  16. Cost Analysis of the Dutch Obstetric System: low-risk nulliparous women preferring home or short-stay hospital birth - a prospective non-randomised controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nijhuis Jan G

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the Netherlands, pregnant women without medical complications can decide where they want to give birth, at home or in a short-stay hospital setting with a midwife. However, a decrease in the home birth rate during the last decennium may have raised the societal costs of giving birth. The objective of this study is to compare the societal costs of home births with those of births in a short-stay hospital setting. Methods This study is a cost analysis based on the findings of a multicenter prospective non-randomised study comparing two groups of nulliparous women with different preferences for where to give birth, at home or in a short-stay hospital setting. Data were collected using cost diaries, questionnaires and birth registration forms. Analysis of the data is divided into a base case analysis and a sensitivity analysis. Results In the group of home births, the total societal costs associated with giving birth at home were €3,695 (per birth, compared with €3,950 per birth in the group for short-stay hospital births. Statistically significant differences between both groups were found regarding the following cost categories 'Cost of contacts with health care professionals during delivery' (€138.38 vs. €87.94, -50 (2.5-97.5 percentile range (PR-76;-25, p Conclusion The total costs associated with pregnancy, delivery, and postpartum care are comparable for home birth and short-stay hospital birth. The most important differences in costs between the home birth group and the short-stay hospital birth group are associated with maternity care assistance, hospitalisation, and travelling costs.

  17. THE CONTRIBUTION OF THE SECOND STAGE OF LABOR TO PELVIC FLOOR DYSFUNCTION: A PROSPECTIVE COHORT COMPARISON OF NULLIPAROUS WOMEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, RG; Leeman, LM; Borders, Noelle; Qualls, Clifford; Fullilove, Anne M; Teaf, Dusty; Hall, Rebecca J; Bedrick, Edward; Albers, Leah L

    2015-01-01

    Objective Maternal expulsive efforts are thought to damage the pelvic floor. We aimed to compare pelvic floor function and anatomy between women who delivered vaginally (VB) versus cesarean (CD) without entering the second stage of labor. Design Prospective cohort Setting University Hospital Midwifery practice Population Nulliparas Methods Pregnant nulliparas were recruited during pregnancy and women who underwent CD prior to the 2nd stage of labor at birth were recruited immediately postpartum. Both groups were prospectively followed to 6 months postpartum. Main Outcome Measures POPQ, perineal ultrasound(U/S) and Paper Towel Test(PTT), an objective measure of stress incontinence; Incontinence Severity Index(ISI), Pelvic Floor Impact Questionnaire(PFIQ-7), Wexner Fecal Incontinence Scale(W) and Female Sexual Function Index(FSFI) Results 336/448(75%)VB and 138/224(62%)CD followed up. The VB group was younger (23.9+/−4.9 vs 26.6+/−6.1 years, P.05). At followup, urinary incontinence (UI)(55 vs 46% ISI>0, P=.10), fecal incontinence(FI) (8 vs 13% FI on W, P = .12), sexual activity rates(88 vs 92%, P=.18) and PFIQ-7 scores were similar. Positive PTT tests(17 vs 6%, P=.002) and ≥Stage 2 prolapse (22 vs 15%, P=.03) were higher with VB; differences were limited to points Aa and Ba. U/S findings were not different between groups. Stepwise multivariate analyses controlling for age, BMI, and non-Hispanic White race for prolapse of points Aa and Ba did not alter conclusions (all P pelvic floor dysfunction at 6 months postpartum compared to women who delivered by CD without the second stage of labor. The second stage of labor has a modest effect on postpartum pelvic floor function. PMID:24548705

  18. Contribution of the second stage of labour to pelvic floor dysfunction: a prospective cohort comparison of nulliparous women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, R G; Leeman, L M; Borders, N; Qualls, C; Fullilove, A M; Teaf, D; Hall, R J; Bedrick, E; Albers, L L

    2014-08-01

    Maternal expulsive efforts are thought to damage the pelvic floor. We aimed to compare pelvic floor function and anatomy between women who delivered vaginally (VB) versus those with caesarean delivery (CD) prior to the second stage of labour. Prospective cohort. University Hospital Midwifery practice. Nulliparas. Pregnant nulliparas were recruited during pregnancy and women who underwent CD prior to the 2nd stage of labour at birth were recruited immediately postpartum. Both groups were followed prospectively to 6 months postpartum. POPQ, perineal ultrasound (U/S) and Paper Towel Test (PTT), an objective measure of stress incontinence; Incontinence Severity Index (ISI), Pelvic Floor Impact Questionnaire (PFIQ-7), Wexner Fecal Incontinence Scale (W) and Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). 336/448 (75%) VB and 138/224 (62%) CD followed up. The VB group was younger (23.9 ± 4.9 versus 26.6 ± 6.1 years, P  0.05). At follow-up, urinary incontinence (UI) (55 versus 46% ISI > 0, P = 0.10), fecal incontinence (FI) (8 versus 13% FI on W, P = 0.12), sexual activity rates (88 versus 92%, P = 0.18) and PFIQ-seven scores were similar. Positive PTT tests (17 versus 6%, P = 0.002) and ≥ Stage 2 prolapse (22 versus 15%, P = 0.03) were higher with VB; differences were limited to points Aa and Ba. U/S findings were not different between groups. Stepwise multivariate analyses controlling for age, body mass index, and non-Hispanic White race for prolapse of points Aa and Ba did not alter conclusions (all P pelvic floor dysfunction at 6 months postpartum compared with women who delivered by CD prior to the second stage of labour. The second stage of labour had a modest effect on postpartum pelvic floor function. © 2014 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  19. The effect of counseling on anxiety after traumatic childbirth in nulliparous women; a single blind randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Azizi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Traumatic birthing mothers may expose more susceptible to experiences posttraumatic mental disorder such as anxiety. This study aimed to determine the effect of midwifery counseling intervention on the anxiety level after traumatic childbirth of primiparous women.Methods: In a randomized control trial 180 woman who had experienced traumatic childbirth based on DSM-IV criteria have been selected. The subjects were randomly divided into an intervention (n=90 and control (n=90 groups. The intervention group received midwifery counseling during two sessions and control group just received routin health care after childbirth. Both groups were followed up with partial – blind technique and compared 4-6 weeks and 3 months post partum. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics by SPSS software. Results: Demographic characteristics, pregnancy complications and social support level were the same in both groups. In addition, there was no significant difference between two groups according to stress, depression and anxiety level before intervention (P>0.05. There was significant difference between two groups in anxiety level after 4-6 weeks and 3 months followup (P<0.001.Conclusion: Findings of this research shows that performing midwifery-counseling program may have significant effect on decreasing of anxiety level after traumatic childbirth.

  20. Prediction of Small for Gestational Age Infants in Healthy Nulliparous Women Using Clinical and Ultrasound Risk Factors Combined with Early Pregnancy Biomarkers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesley M E McCowan

    ultrasound data from a cohort of low-risk nulliparous women achieved modest performance. Incorporation of biomarkers into the models resulted in no improvement in performance of prediction of All-SGA and Normotensive-SGA but a small improvement in prediction of Hypertensive-SGA. Our models currently have insufficient reliability for application in clinical practice however, they have potential utility in two-staged screening tests which include third trimester biomarkers and or fetal biometry.

  1. Prediction of Small for Gestational Age Infants in Healthy Nulliparous Women Using Clinical and Ultrasound Risk Factors Combined with Early Pregnancy Biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCowan, Lesley M E; Thompson, John M D; Taylor, Rennae S; Baker, Philip N; North, Robyn A; Poston, Lucilla; Roberts, Claire T; Simpson, Nigel A B; Walker, James J; Myers, Jenny; Kenny, Louise C

    2017-01-01

    Most small for gestational age pregnancies are unrecognised before birth, resulting in substantial avoidable perinatal mortality and morbidity. Our objective was to develop multivariable prediction models for small for gestational age combining clinical risk factors and biomarkers at 15±1 weeks' with ultrasound parameters at 20±1 weeks' gestation. Data from 5606 participants in the Screening for Pregnancy Endpoints (SCOPE) cohort study were divided into Training (n = 3735) and Validation datasets (n = 1871). The primary outcomes were All-SGA (small for gestational age with birthweight age with a normotensive mother) and Hypertensive-SGA (small for gestational age with an hypertensive mother). The comparison group comprised women without the respective small for gestational age phenotype. Multivariable analysis was performed using stepwise logistic regression beginning with clinical variables, and subsequent additions of biomarker and then ultrasound (biometry and Doppler) variables. Model performance was assessed in Training and Validation datasets by calculating area under the curve. 633 (11.2%) infants were All-SGA, 465(8.2%) Normotensive-SGA and 168 (3%) Hypertensive-SGA. Area under the curve (95% Confidence Intervals) for All-SGA using 15±1 weeks' clinical variables, 15±1 weeks' clinical+ biomarker variables and clinical + biomarkers + biometry /Doppler at 20±1 weeks' were: 0.63 (0.59-0.67), 0.64 (0.60-0.68) and 0.69 (0.66-0.73) respectively in the Validation dataset; Normotensive-SGA results were similar: 0.61 (0.57-0.66), 0.61 (0.56-0.66) and 0.68 (0.64-0.73) with small increases in performance in the Training datasets. Area under the curve (95% Confidence Intervals) for Hypertensive-SGA were: 0.76 (0.70-0.82), 0.80 (0.75-0.86) and 0.84 (0.78-0.89) with minimal change in the Training datasets. Models for prediction of small for gestational age, which combine biomarkers, clinical and ultrasound data from a cohort of low-risk nulliparous women achieved

  2. A randomized controlled trial to study the effect of IV hydration on the duration of labor in nulliparous women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitha, A; Chacko, K P; Thomas, Elsy; Rathore, Swati; Christoper, Solomon; Biswas, Bivas; Mathews, Jiji Elizabeth

    2012-02-01

    To compare the effects of two different regimens of intravenous hydration and oral hydration on the duration of active labor. Two hundred and ninety-three low risk term primigravida in active labor were randomized into three groups. The first group had 99 patients who received oral fluids only, the second group of 98 patients received intravenous Ringer lactate at the rate of 125 ml/h (IV 125 ml) and the third group had 96 patients who received intravenous Ringer lactate at a rate of 250 ml/h (IV 250 ml). Amniotomy and oxytocin administration were allowed according to the physician's discretion. The mean duration of labor in the oral fluid group was 391, 363 min in the 125 ml/h group and 343 min in the 250 ml/h group, P = 0.203. The incidence of prolonged labor more than 12 h in the oral fluid group was 7.1% in the oral fluid group, 4.1% in the 125 ml/h group and 3.1% in the 250 ml/h group, P = 0.402. The oxytocin requirement was 37% in the oral group, 32% in the 125 ml/h group and 33% in the 250 ml/h group, P = 0.68. There was a statistically significant reduction in the incidence of vomiting in patients receiving intravenous hydration, i.e. 24.2% in the oral group, 11.2% in the 125 ml/h group and 6.3% in the 250 ml/h group, P = 0.001. There was no difference in the mode of delivery, maternal or neonatal complications between the three groups. This study establishes a trend towards decreased incidence of prolonged labor and less vomiting in patients receiving intravenous hydration.

  3. Adult Attachment Styles Associated with Brain Activity in Response to Infant Faces in Nulliparous Women: An Event-Related Potentials Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Chen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Adult attachment style is a key for understanding emotion regulation and feelings of security in human interactions as well as for the construction of the caregiving system. The caregiving system is a group of representations about affiliative behaviors, which is guided by the caregiver’s sensitivity and empathy, and is mature in young adulthood. Appropriate perception and interpretation of infant emotions is a crucial component of the formation of a secure attachment relationship between infant and caregiver. As attachment styles influence the ways in which people perceive emotional information, we examined how different attachment styles associated with brain response to the perception of infant facial expressions in nulliparous females with secure, anxious, and avoidant attachment styles. The event-related potentials of 65 nulliparous females were assessed during a facial recognition task with joy, neutral, and crying infant faces. The results showed that anxiously attached females exhibited larger N170 amplitudes than those with avoidant attachment in response to all infant faces. Regarding the P300 component, securely attached females showed larger amplitudes to all infant faces in comparison with avoidantly attached females. Moreover, anxiously attached females exhibited greater amplitudes than avoidantly attached females to only crying infant faces. In conclusion, the current results provide evidence that attachment style differences are associated with brain responses to the perception of infant faces. Furthermore, these findings further separate the psychological mechanisms underlying the caregiving behavior of those with anxious and avoidant attachment from secure attachment.

  4. Adult Attachment Styles Associated with Brain Activity in Response to Infant Faces in Nulliparous Women: An Event-Related Potentials Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yuanxiao; Ran, Guangming; Chen, Xu; Ma, Haijing; Hu, Na

    2017-01-01

    Adult attachment style is a key for understanding emotion regulation and feelings of security in human interactions as well as for the construction of the caregiving system. The caregiving system is a group of representations about affiliative behaviors, which is guided by the caregiver's sensitivity and empathy, and is mature in young adulthood. Appropriate perception and interpretation of infant emotions is a crucial component of the formation of a secure attachment relationship between infant and caregiver. As attachment styles influence the ways in which people perceive emotional information, we examined how different attachment styles associated with brain response to the perception of infant facial expressions in nulliparous females with secure, anxious, and avoidant attachment styles. The event-related potentials of 65 nulliparous females were assessed during a facial recognition task with joy, neutral, and crying infant faces. The results showed that anxiously attached females exhibited larger N170 amplitudes than those with avoidant attachment in response to all infant faces. Regarding the P300 component, securely attached females showed larger amplitudes to all infant faces in comparison with avoidantly attached females. Moreover, anxiously attached females exhibited greater amplitudes than avoidantly attached females to only crying infant faces. In conclusion, the current results provide evidence that attachment style differences are associated with brain responses to the perception of infant faces. Furthermore, these findings further separate the psychological mechanisms underlying the caregiving behavior of those with anxious and avoidant attachment from secure attachment.

  5. Does general exercise training before and during pregnancy influence the pelvic floor "opening" and delivery outcome? A 3D/4D ultrasound study following nulliparous pregnant women from mid-pregnancy to childbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bø, Kari; Hilde, Gunvor; Staer-Jensen, Jette; Siafarikas, Franziska; Tennfjord, Merete Kolberg; Engh, Marie Ellstrøm

    2015-02-01

    It has been suggested that women who are regular exercisers have a tighter pelvic floor and thereby have more difficulty during childbirth than non-exercising women. We investigated whether women exercising before and during pregnancy have a narrower levator hiatus (LH) area than their sedentary counterparts. We also studied whether regular exercise at gestational week 37 influences delivery outcome. Cohort study of 274 nulliparous pregnant women assessed at mid-pregnancy and gestational week 37 by three-dimensional/four-dimensional transperineal ultrasonography of the LH area. Exercisers were defined as those exercising ≥30 min three times per week and non-exercisers as not exercising. Exercise data were collected via electronic questionnaire at mean gestational weeks 21 and 37. Labour and delivery outcomes were collected from the women's electronic medical birth records. Differences between exercisers and non-exercisers were analysed using independent sample t test or χ(2) test. p Value was set to ≤0.05. At gestational week 37, exercisers had a significantly larger LH area than non-exercisers at rest and during PFM contraction (mean difference -1.6 cm(2) (95% CI -3.0 to -0.3), p=0.02 and -1.1 cm(2) (95% CI -2.0 to -0.1), p=0.04, respectively). No significant differences were found between exercisers and non-exercisers at week 37 in any labour or delivery outcomes. The results of the present study do not support the hypothesis that women exercising regularly before or during pregnancy have a narrower LH area or more complicated childbirths than non-exercising women. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01045135. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  6. A multi-centre cohort study shows no association between experienced violence and labour dystocia in nulliparous women at term

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Finnbogadóttir, Hafrún; Dejin-Karlsson, Elisabeth; Dykes, Anna-Karin

    2011-01-01

    Background: Although both labour dystocia and domestic violence during pregnancy are associated with adverse maternal and fetal outcome, evidence in support of a possible association between experiences...

  7. No reduction in instrumental vaginal births and no increased risk for adverse perineal outcome in nulliparous women giving birth on a birth seat: results of a Swedish randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christensson Kyllike

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The WHO advises against recumbent or supine position for longer periods during labour and birth and states that caregivers should encourage and support the woman to take the position in which she feels most comfortable. It has been suggested that upright positions may improve childbirth outcomes and reduce the risk for instrumental delivery; however RCTs of interventions to encourage upright positions are scarce. The aim of this study was to test, by means of a randomized controlled trial, the hypothesis that the use of a birthing seat during the second stage of labor, for healthy nulliparous women, decreases the number of instrumentally assisted births and may thus counterbalance any increase in perineal trauma and blood loss. Methods A randomized controlled trial in Sweden where 1002 women were randomized to birth on a birth seat (experimental group or birth in any other position (control group. Data were collected between November 2006 and July 2009. The primary outcome measurement was the number of instrumental deliveries. Secondary outcome measurements included perineal lacerations, perineal edema, maternal blood loss and hemoglobin. Analysis was by intention to treat. Results The main findings of this study were that birth on the birth seat did not reduce the number of instrumental vaginal births, there was an increase in blood loss between 500 ml and 1000 ml in women who gave birth on the seat but no increase in bleeding over 1000 ml and no increase in perineal lacerations or perineal edema. Conclusions The birth seat did not reduce the number of instrumental vaginal births. The study confirmed an increased blood loss 500 ml - 1000 ml but not over 1000 ml for women giving birth on the seat. Giving birth on a birth seat caused no adverse consequences for perineal outcomes and may even be protective against episiotomies. Trial registration number ClinicalTrials.gov.ID: NCT01182038

  8. Eficácia de dinoprostone e misoprostol para indução do trabalho de parto em nulíparas Efficacy of dinoprostone and misoprostol for labor induction in nulliparous women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tenilson Amaral Oliveira

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: verificar a eficácia e a segurança de dinoprostone e misoprostol para indução do parto vaginal, com ou sem o uso de ocitocina em nulíparas. MÉTODOS: realizou-se estudo retrospectivo, observacional, envolvendo 238 pacientes que foram submetidas à indução do parto de janeiro de 2008 a fevereiro de 2010 com uso de misoprostol 25 mcg via vaginal ou pessário contendo 10 mg de dinoprostone. Desse grupo, foram selecionadas 184 pacientes, que apresentavam as seguintes características: nulíparas, gestação entre 37 e 42 semanas, feto único, apresentação cefálica, membranas íntegras e índice de Bishop PURPOSE: to determine the efficacy and safety of dinoprostone and misoprostol for the induction of vaginal childbirth, with or without the use of oxytocin in nulliparous women. METHODS: in this retrospective observational study, 238 patients were subjected to the induction of delivery from January 2008 to February 2010 with the use of misoprostol 25 mcg by the vaginal route or a pessary containing 10 mg of dinoprostone. A total of 184 patients were selected, with the following characteristics: nulliparous, gestational age of 37-42 weeks, singleton pregnancies, cephalic presentation, intact membranes, and Bishop score < 3. Obstetric and neonatal data were analyzed and compared between groups. The Student t-test, chi-square test and Fisher's exact test were used for statistical analysis, with the level of significance set at p<0.05. RESULTS: the rate of vaginal childbirth did not differ significantly in patients who used misoprostol and dinoprostone (43.2% versus 50%; p = 0.35, respectively. The ripening of cervix was higher in the group treated with misoprostol (87.3% versus 75.6%, p=0.04. The use of oxytocin was necessary in 58.8% of the misoprostol group and 57.3% in the dinoprostone group after the ripening of cervix. Failed induction was the primary indication of caesarean section delivery in both groups, with no significant

  9. Association between maternal micronutrient status, oxidative stress, and common genetic variants in antioxidant enzymes at 15 weeks׳ gestation in nulliparous women who subsequently develop preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistry, Hiten D; Gill, Carolyn A; Kurlak, Lesia O; Seed, Paul T; Hesketh, John E; Méplan, Catherine; Schomburg, Lutz; Chappell, Lucy C; Morgan, Linda; Poston, Lucilla

    2015-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-specific condition affecting 2-7% of women and a leading cause of perinatal and maternal morbidity and mortality. Deficiencies of specific micronutrient antioxidant activities associated with copper, selenium, zinc, and manganese have previously been linked to preeclampsia at the time of disease. Our aims were to investigate whether maternal plasma micronutrient concentrations and related antioxidant enzyme activities are altered before preeclampsia onset and to examine the dependence on genetic variations in these antioxidant enzymes. Predisease plasma samples (15±1 weeks׳ gestation) were obtained from women enrolled in the international Screening for Pregnancy Endpoints (SCOPE) study who subsequently developed preeclampsia (n=244) and from age- and BMI-matched normotensive controls (n=472). Micronutrient concentrations were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry; associated antioxidant enzyme activities, selenoprotein-P, ceruloplasmin concentration and activity, antioxidant capacity, and markers of oxidative stress were measured by colorimetric assays. Sixty-four tag-single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within genes encoding the antioxidant enzymes and selenoprotein-P were genotyped using allele-specific competitive PCR. Plasma copper and ceruloplasmin concentrations were modestly but significantly elevated in women who subsequently developed preeclampsia (both Ppreeclampsia. The modest elevation in copper may contribute to oxidative stress, later in pregnancy, in those women that go on to develop preeclampsia. The lack of evidence to support the hypothesis that functional SNPs influence antioxidant enzyme activity in pregnant women argues against a role for these genes in the etiology of preeclampsia. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Women's understanding of the term 'Pap smear'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, David L; Hostetter, Sarah Smith; Hunter, Jennifer; Johnson, Nicole; Cooper, Saladin; Malnar, Gerard

    2015-07-01

    To assess the understanding of the term 'Pap smear' among women across the entire adult lifespan after recent changes to the guidelines on cervical cancer screening. Women attending the Obstetrics and Gynecology clinic at a large safety net teaching hospital in a Midwestern city were provided one of two versions of a confidential and anonymous survey to complete. The difference between the two versions was the way the primary research question was worded. There were 174 participants ranging in age from 15 to 69 (mean = 33.9) years. Of the 73 women who completed version A of the survey, 74 % were able to identify at least one correct descriptor for the term 'Pap smear.' Women who could identify at least one correct descriptor for the term 'Pap smear' were on average older than those who could not (mean = 36.9 vs. 28.7 years; p = 0.012). Of the 94 patients completing survey version B, 67 % could not differentiate a pelvic exam from a Pap smear. There was no association between age and ability to differentiate a pelvic exam from a Pap smear. The majority of women cannot distinguish a Pap smear from a pelvic exam. The unexpected finding of less understanding among younger women prompts a need for further research and invites discussion of whether more cervical cancer prevention education, with more emphasis on HPV vaccines in recent years, has neglected the importance of Pap smears-which is beginning to show up in knowledge of younger women. Both these findings suggest a need for increased patient education during female preventive health clinic visits.

  11. [Tolerance of copper intrauterine device in nulliparous patients: a single-center prospective study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guicheteau, C; Boyer, L; Somé, D A; Levêque, J; Poulain, P; Denier, M; Lavoué, V

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this work was to study the continuation rate of intrauterine device (IUD) copper in a nulliparous population. A prospective study in a family planning centre including nulliparous patients between January and December 2012. A total of 83 nulliparous patients had IUD copper insertion and 11 patients were excluded because they were lost to follow-up. Finally, 72 nulliparous patients were included in the study. Continuation rate after one-year follow-up was 90.3% (65/72). Satisfaction rate of patient was high (93.8%). Menstruation amount was increased for 84% (55/65) patients, but 75% (41/55) did not report any inconvenience about this. Dysmenorrhea were increased for 80% (52/65) patients, but 58% (30/52) were not troubled by this. Continuation rate of IUD copper was high (90%) after one-year follow-up in nulliparous women. Tolerance was also good for evaluated patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Predictors of vaginal delivery in nulliparous mothers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Nulliparity is an obstetric high-risk group whose labor, compared with multiparae, are more likely to develop labor abnormalities that requires intervention. The aim of this report is todetermine factors that influence vaginal delivery in nulliparae. Materials and Methods: A prospective cross-sectional study was ...

  13. A randomised controlled trial of early versus delayed use of amniotomy and oxytocin infusion in nulliparous labour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammu, H; Van Eeckhout, E

    1996-04-01

    To compare routine amniotomy and early intravenous oxytocin (active management of labour) with a more selective use of amniotomy and oxytocin in women in true labour who received comparable continuous supportive midwifery care. Randomised controlled trial of nulliparous clinic patients in spontaneous labour at term. Labour and delivery ward of a university teaching hospital. Three hundred and six parturients: 152 received active management of labour; 154 were more selectively managed. 1. Active management: early amniotomy, early use of oxytocin. 2. Selective intervention management: no routine amniotomy and more selective use of oxytocin. Use of oxytocin and amniotomy. Labour duration, mode of delivery. Maternal characteristics were comparable in both groups. Amniotomy was more often performed (91% versus 57%, P oxytocin more often used (53% versus 27%, P amniotomy and early use of oxytocin offered no advantage over a more selective use of amniotomy and oxytocin in terms of mode of delivery and labour duration.

  14. QT interval changes in term pregnant women living at moderately ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This study aimed to compare the QT interval changes in women with term pregnancy living at moderately high altitude (1890 m in Erzurum, Turkey) with those of women living at sea level (31 m in İstanbul, Turkey). Materials and Methods: One‑hundred ten women (n = 55, for each group) with full‑term and single ...

  15. Resultados neonatais no parto vaginal espontâneo comparados aos dos partos com fórcipe de Simpson-Braun em primíparas Neonatal outcome of spontaneous deliveries as compared to Simpson-Braun forceps deliveries in nulliparous women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belmiro Gonçalves Pereira

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: comparar os resultados neonatais dos partos vaginais espontâneos ou assistidos com fórcipe de Simpson-Braun em nulíparas. MÉTODO: em estudo de corte retrospectivo foram avaliados dois grupos de primíparas atendidas no Centro Obstétrico do CAISM/UNICAMP, que tiveram parto vaginal sob analgesia epidural. O grupo fórcipe foi formado por 119 pacientes que tiveram parto a fórcipe de Simpson-Braun, e o grupo normal por 114 casos de parto vaginal espontâneo. Foram estudadas as variáveis neonatais imediatas como o estado do líquido amniótico e os índices de Apgar, assim como a evolução neonatal nos primeiros dias de vida. Para análise estatística foram utilizados os testes c², exato de Fisher e t de Student para comparação de médias e considerada significativa a diferença correspondente a pPURPOSE: to compare maternal and neonatal outcomes between spontaneous vaginal and Simpson-Braun forceps deliveries in nulliparous women. METHOD: a retrospective study including two groups of nulliparous women, who had vaginal delivery under peridural anesthesia in the obstetric unit of the CAISM-UNICAMP: the forceps group included 119 women who had Simpson-Braun forceps delivery, and the normal group included 114 women who delivered spontaneously. Neonatal outcomes, such as Apgar score and the evolution in the first days of life, were studied. Data were compared in both groups and, for statistical analysis, c² test, Fisher exact, and Student t tests were used. The differences were considered significant when p<0.05. RESULTS: the indications for Simpson-Braun forceps delivery were maternal-fetal relief (90 cases and abbreviation of the expulsive period (29 cases. In the forceps group there were 8 cases (6.7% of vaginal injuries; a similar result was observed in the normal group. The number of hospitalization days for the parturient and the newborns was identical, 2.4 days. The newborns in the two groups had similar Apgar scores

  16. Large Nabothian Cyst: Manifestation with Pelvic Organ Prolapse in a Nulliparous Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayfur Cift

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Pelvic organ prolapse (POP is described as the herniation of pelvic organs. POP generally occurs at postmenopausal age. Multiparity, increased intraabdominal pressure (e.g., bearing heavy weights, exerting physical effort, obesity, advanced age, menopause, prolonged labor, and smoking constitute prevailing risk factors of POP. It is seen rarely in nulliparous women. The main risk factors in nulliparous women are inherent defects in pelvic support. Nabothian cysts are benign entities in nature. They usually dissolve spontaneously and do not cause any clinical symptoms in routine practice. Nabothian cysts that cause POP are very rare in clinical practice. In this case report, we present the management of a large nabothian cyst causing POP in a 20-year-old patient without any prior intercourse.

  17. The swimming literacy of women in term sof self rescue

    OpenAIRE

    Vokurková, Eva

    2012-01-01

    Work name: The swimming literacy of women in term of self rescue Aim of work: To acquire and analyze data about the level of the swimming literacy and self rescue skills of women aged 18 - 72 years, whether they can handle and use them. Method: Literature search, creation of the questionnaire, implementation survey, data analysis and graphical presentation of results. Results: The analysis of the swimming literacy and self rescue skills of women. Key words: literacy, physical literacy, swimmi...

  18. Predictors of Exclusive Breastfeeding among Nulliparous Iranian Mothers: Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Jamehei

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundAlthough exclusive breastfeeding (EBF is highly emphasized by the experts, nulliparous women do not adhere to this behavior at a desirable level. Since it seems that mothers’ beliefs and values play an important role in their adherence to these behaviors, the present study, aimed to perform a careful analysis of the behavior and evaluation of factors associated with the EBF in nulliparous women referring to healthcare centers in Bushehr using theory of planned behavior.Materials and Methods This is a cross-sectional study, which was conducted on 400 nulliparous mothers with children less than six-months who referred to healthcare centers in Bushehr, Iran. Stratified random-sample was used and data were collected using a researcher-made questionnaire and were later analyzed using statistical tests, including Pearson, Spearman, linear regression and logistic regression in SPSS version 22.0 Software.ResultsThe results showed that 62.5% of infants were exclusively breast-fed. Variables such as infant' gender, father's occupation and type of pregnancy were significantly related with EBF behavior. Constructs, including attitude (P< 0. 001, r=0.295, subjective norms (P< 0. 001, r=0.376 and perceived behavioral control (P< 0. 001, r=514 were significantly correlated with the EBF intention. Subjective norms, perceived behavioral control and behavioral intention predicted 13.8% changes in mothers' breastfeeding behavior.Conclusion The theory of planned behavior is an appropriate framework to identify factors associated with the EBF behavior among nulliparous Iranian mothers. Therefore, designing interventions based on this theory seems to have the potential to improve the EBF practice.

  19. Long-term and chronic homelessness in homeless women and women with children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlotnick, Cheryl; Tam, Tammy; Bradley, Kimberly

    2010-09-01

    The Chronic Homelessness initiative has directed millions of federal dollars to services for single "unaccompanied homeless" individuals, specifically excluding women living with their children. Using a data set with a nationally representative sample of homeless adults, we calculated the prevalence rates and profiles of long-term homelessness in homeless women (n = 849). With the exception of the criterion of being a single "unaccompanied individual," many women, including women with children, met the criteria for chronic homelessness including having a disability of mental health or substance abuse problems. Our findings suggest that the federal definition of chronic homelessness needs to be revised.

  20. Globalization, women's migration, and the long-term-care workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Colette V; Braun, Kathryn L

    2008-02-01

    With the aging of the world's population comes the rising need for qualified direct long-term-care (DLTC) workers (i.e., those who provide personal care to frail and disabled older adults). Developed nations are increasingly turning to immigrant women to fill these needs. In this article, we examine the impact of three global trends-population aging, globalization, and women's migration-on the supply and demand for DLTC workers in the United States. Following an overview of these trends, we identify three areas with embedded social justice issues that are shaping the DLTC workforce in the United States, with a specific focus on immigrant workers in these settings. These include world poverty and economic inequalities, the feminization and colorization of labor (especially in long-term care), and empowerment and women's rights. We conclude with a discussion of the contradictory effects that both population aging and globalization have on immigrant women, source countries, and the long-term-care workforce in the United States. We raise a number of policy, practice, and research implications and questions. For policy makers and long-term-care administrators in receiver nations such as the United States, the meeting of DLTC worker needs with immigrants may result in greater access to needed employees but also in the continued devaluation of eldercare as a profession. Source (supply) nations must balance the real and potential economic benefits of remittances from women who migrate for labor with the negative consequences of disrupting family care traditions and draining the long-term-care workforce of those countries.

  1. Detection of Candida spp. in the vagina of a cohort of nulliparous pregnant women by culture and molecular methods: Is there an association between maternal vaginal and infant oral colonisation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Matthew S; Cullinane, Meabh; Garland, Suzanne M; Tabrizi, Sepehr N; Donath, Susan M; Bennett, Catherine M; Amir, Lisa H

    2016-04-01

    Most studies describing vaginal Candida spp. in pregnancy focus on symptomatic vaginitis, rather than asymptomatic colonisation, and solely utilise microbiological culture. The extent to which asymptomatic vaginal carriage may represent a reservoir for infant oral colonisation has been highly debated. This study formed part of the Candida and Staphylococcus Transmission Longitudinal Evaluation (CASTLE) study, in Melbourne, Australia, from 2009 to 2011 and used culture and molecular methods to examine vaginal swabs collected late in the third trimester of pregnancy for Candida spp. Oral swabs from infants were also examined using culture methods. Overall, 80 of 356 (22%) women were positive for Candida spp; the majority being Candida albicans (83%). Candida glabrata and other Candida spp. were also identified, but in much lower numbers. Molecular analysis identified numerous positive samples not detected by culture, including 13 cases of C. albicans. In addition, some positive samples only recorded to genus level by culture were accurately identified as either C. albicans or C. glabrata following molecular analyses. Eighteen infants recorded positive Candida spp. cultures, predominantly C. albicans. However, there were only four (25%) mother/infant dyads where C. albicans was detected. This study provides valuable data on asymptomatic colonisation rates of Candida spp. within an asymptomatic population of women late in pregnancy. The utilisation of molecular methods improved the rate of detection and provided a more accurate means for identification of non-albicans Candida spp. The low mother/infant colonisation rate suggests that non-maternal sources are likely involved in determining infant oral colonisation status. © 2015 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  2. "Sexual pleasure on equal terms": young women's ideal sexual situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmerstig, Eva; Wijma, Barbro; Sandell, Kerstin; Berterö, Carina

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to identify young women's ideal images of sexual situations and expectations on themselves in sexual situations. We conducted audio-taped qualitative individual interviews with 14 women aged 14 to 20 years, visiting two youth centers in Sweden. Data were analysed with constant comparative analysis, the basis of grounded theory methodology. The women's ideal sexual situations in heterosexual practice were characterized by sexual pleasure on equal terms, implying that no one dominates and both partners get pleasure. There were obstacles to reaching this ideal, such as influences from social norms and demands, and experiences of the partner's "own run". An incentive to reach the ideal sexual situation was the wish to experience the well of pleasure. Our research further accentuates the importance of finding ways to focus on the complexity of unequal gender norms in youth heterosexuality. A better understanding of these cognitions is essential and useful among professionals working with youths' sexual health.

  3. Bilateral benign phyllodes tumour in a nulliparous woman: A case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    She had right breast mastectomy after two recurrences following local excision. The left breast lesion developed one year after the treatment of the right lesion, again she had to be treated with mastectomy after 2 recurrences. This case unlike most reported cases of bilateral Phyllodes tumour occurred in a nulliparous lady.

  4. Outcome of labour in nullipara at term with unengaged vertex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Saima; Farrukh, Rubina; Dar, Asma; Humayun, Shamsa

    2009-01-01

    Primigravidas with unengaged foetal head at term should be regarded as high risk cases. It is seen that nuglliparous women with the floating foetal head demonstrate higher rates of caesarean section than those with dipping or engaged head in early labour. These cases should be regarded as high risk and identified early and should be referred to a tertiary care centre where good facilities for operative delivery are available. The present study was undertaken to determine the outcome of labour in nulliparous women with unengaged head and compare it with those who present with engaged head at term as a case control study. The objective of the study was to enumerate the outcome of labour in nulliparous women presenting with unengaged head at term and compare it with those who present with engaged head in early active labour. It was a case control study, completed in 11 months, conducted in Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Sir Ganga Ram Hospital, Lahore. 300 women were selected by convenience sampling. 150 nulliparous women who presented with unengaged head in early active labour were taken as cases, out which 2 women left against medical advice with their medical records so data was missing leaving 148 patients in this group. While 150 nulliparous women who presented with engaged head were taken as controls. C-section rates was significantly found to be more in unengaged group being 16.89%, compared with 5.33% in engaged group (p = 0.000). Most of C-sections were carried out due to failed progress of labour (48%). Patients with unengaged foetal head had significantly lower APGAR scores at 1 (p < 0.002) and 5 min (0.003) and higher mean birth weights (p = 0.002).Cases also had significantly longer 1st (p = 0.0001) and 2nd stage (p = 0.004) of labour. Engaged vertex at the onset of active labour is associated with a lower risk of caesarean delivery in nulliparous women. Patients with unengaged vertex are at higher risk for caesarean delivery due to arrest

  5. Pregnancy outcome in nulliparous women aged .35 or older

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Des facteurs antépartum (experience précédente de la grossess, Grossen chronique et grossess provoquée par l'hypertension, diabete maternal et gestational previs placenta), (2) facteurs intracrachat (malprésentation, toetale disproportionnclle, accouchement anormal, la césarienne ct accouchement vaginal opératoire a ...

  6. Primary caesarean section in nulliparous and grandmultiparous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, in order to reduce the high CS rate in these groups of patients,and in our obstetric population in general, it is suggested that CTG be used appropriately in high risk women and that intermittent auscultation is recognized as a valid form of management for most low risk cases. Keywords: Primary caesarean section, ...

  7. Biochemical and biophysical predictors of the response to the induction of labor in nulliparous postterm pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torricelli, Michela; Novembri, Romina; Voltolini, Chiara; Conti, Nathalie; Biliotti, Giulia; Piccolini, Enrico; Cevenini, Gabriele; Smith, Roger; Petraglia, Felice

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the clinical, sonographic, and hormonal variables that influence the success of labor induction in nulliparous postterm pregnancies. Fifty nulliparous women with a single postterm pregnancy receiving a slow-release prostaglandin estradiol pessary were prospectively enrolled, and clinical characteristics were analyzed in relation to success of induction of labor. Clinical, sonographic, and hormonal variables were analyzed by univariate statistical analysis and multivariate logistic regression for the prediction of successful induction. The group of patients delivering within 24 hours differed significantly from the remaining patients by higher Bishop scores, body mass indices, estradiol serum concentrations, estriol to estradiol ratios, and shorter cervices. The combination of cervical length and estriol to estradiol ratio achieved a sensitivity of 100% (95% confidence interval, 71.3-100%) and a specificity of 94.1% (95% confidence interval, 80.3-99.1%). Cervical length and the estriol to estradiol ratio represent good predictive indicators of the response to the induction of labor in postterm pregnancies. Copyright © 2011. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  8. LONG-TERM EFFECTS OF REGULAR EXERCISING IN ELDERLY WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Novak

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research was to evaluate the long-term effects of regular physical activity for elderly women (over 65 years old on their functional physical fitness. At the beginning, 32 women (69.68 ± 3.83 years were included into an exercise (experimental group and 32 women (70.75 ± 3.67 years into a control group, who were not included into active exercise. The exercise took place at the Rudolf Maister School Centre in Kamnik and lasted for five years. It was performed intensively twice a week for 60 minutes from October 2006 to June 2007 and once a week for 60 minutes from October 2007 to June 2011. The Fullerton test battery was used to measure motor skills related to strength, power, flexibility, balance, endurance, speed and coordination. The first set of measurements for the members of the exercise group was taken in October 2006, the second after 6 months of exercise in July 2007 and the third in July 2011, including 20 women from the same exercise group who were still actively participating after four years. The measurements for the control group were only performed in October 2006 and July 2011, when 17 women from the same control group had their measurements taken again. The results of the Fullerton test battery showed a significant (p < 0.05 improvement in all tests after half a year of adapted exercise; additionally, significant (p < 0.05 progress was also noted in most tests following 4.5 years of exercising. Moreover, the exercise group, in comparison with the control group, also performed significantly (p < 0.001 better in most of the tests. Exercise can have a significant impact on the improvement of the motor skills of the elderly, which may result in the independent performance of all basic hygiene tasks as well as dressing, household and domestic work, shopping and other tasks related to freedom of movement, expansion of living space and an independent and autonomous life without the assistance of others.

  9. Long-term reproductive outcomes in women whose first pregnancy is ectopic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund Kårhus, Line; Egerup, Pia; Wessel Skovlund, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    How does long-term reproductive prognosis among women whose first pregnancy is ectopic differ from prognosis in women with other initial pregnancy outcomes? SUMMARY ANSWER: Women with a first recorded ectopic pregnancy (EP) have a significantly lower long-term delivery rate and a manifold increased...... risk of further EPs. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Women with a first EP have an increased risk of further EPs. Few studies have assessed long-term reproductive outcomes after an EP, and none was controlled....

  10. Cervical nitric oxide release in women postterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Väisänen-Tommiska, Mervi; Nuutila, Mika; Ylikorkala, Olavi

    2004-04-01

    Nitric oxide may be a factor in cervical ripening. We compared the nitric oxide metabolite levels in cervical fluid in women going beyond term and in women delivering spontaneously at term. We studied a total of 208 women with singleton pregnancies: 108 women who went beyond term (294 days or longer), and 100 women who went spontaneously into labor at term. Cervical fluid samples, collected well before the initiation of labor, were assessed for nitric oxide metabolites using an assay with a detection limit of 3.8 micromol/L. Women going beyond term had detectable levels of nitric oxide metabolites in their cervical fluid (60%) less often (P =.001) than women delivering at term (87%). The nitric oxide metabolite concentration in cervical fluid in women going beyond term (median 23.5 micromol/L; 95% confidence interval less than 3.8, 31.8) was 4.5 times lower (P postterm labor were included in the comparison. Both nulliparous (median less than 3.8 micromol/L) and parous (median 31.3 micromol/L) women going beyond term had lower (P postterm group, women with cervical fluid nitric oxide metabolite concentrations at or below the median failed more often (P <.001) to progress in labor and had longer (P =.02) duration of labor than those with cervical fluid nitric oxide metabolite concentrations above the median. Reduced cervical nitric oxide release may contribute to prolonged pregnancy. II-2

  11. Risk factors for excessive gestational weight gain in a healthy, nulliparous cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restall, Antonia; Taylor, Rennae S; Thompson, John M D; Flower, Deralie; Dekker, Gustaaf A; Kenny, Louise C; Poston, Lucilla; McCowan, Lesley M E

    2014-01-01

    Excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) is associated with adverse maternal and child outcomes and contributes to obesity in women. Our aim was to identify early pregnancy factors associated with excessive GWG, in a contemporary nulliparous cohort. Participants in the SCOPE study were classified into GWG categories ("not excessive" versus "excessive") based on pregravid body mass index (BMI) using 2009 Institute of Medicine (IOM) guidelines. Maternal characteristics and pregnancy risk factors at 14-16 weeks were compared between categories and multivariable analysis controlled for confounding factors. Of 1950 women, 17% gained weight within the recommended range, 74% had excessive and 9% inadequate GWG. Women with excessive GWG were more likely to be overweight (adjOR 2.9 (95% CI 2.2-3.8)) or obese (adjOR 2.5 (95% CI 1.8-3.5)) before pregnancy compared to women with a normal BMI. Other factors independently associated with excessive GWG included recruitment in Ireland, younger maternal age, increasing maternal birthweight, cessation of smoking by 14-16 weeks, increased nightly sleep duration, high seafood diet, recent immigrant, limiting behaviour, and decreasing exercise by 14-16 weeks. Fertility treatment was protective. Identification of potentially modifiable risk factors for excessive GWG provides opportunities for intervention studies to improve pregnancy outcome and prevent maternal obesity.

  12. Risk Factors for Excessive Gestational Weight Gain in a Healthy, Nulliparous Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Restall

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Excessive gestational weight gain (GWG is associated with adverse maternal and child outcomes and contributes to obesity in women. Our aim was to identify early pregnancy factors associated with excessive GWG, in a contemporary nulliparous cohort. Methods. Participants in the SCOPE study were classified into GWG categories (“not excessive” versus “excessive” based on pregravid body mass index (BMI using 2009 Institute of Medicine (IOM guidelines. Maternal characteristics and pregnancy risk factors at 14–16 weeks were compared between categories and multivariable analysis controlled for confounding factors. Results. Of 1950 women, 17% gained weight within the recommended range, 74% had excessive and 9% inadequate GWG. Women with excessive GWG were more likely to be overweight (adjOR 2.9 (95% CI 2.2–3.8 or obese (adjOR 2.5 (95% CI 1.8–3.5 before pregnancy compared to women with a normal BMI. Other factors independently associated with excessive GWG included recruitment in Ireland, younger maternal age, increasing maternal birthweight, cessation of smoking by 14–16 weeks, increased nightly sleep duration, high seafood diet, recent immigrant, limiting behaviour, and decreasing exercise by 14–16 weeks. Fertility treatment was protective. Conclusions. Identification of potentially modifiable risk factors for excessive GWG provides opportunities for intervention studies to improve pregnancy outcome and prevent maternal obesity.

  13. Low prevalence of long-term breastfeeding among women with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herskin, Camilla W; Stage, Edna; Barfred, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    2 diabetes showed significantly lower prevalence of breastfeeding than the 105 women with type 1 diabetes (34% versus 61%, p independent positive predictor, whereas pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and smoking were independent negative......OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of long-term breastfeeding among women with type 2 diabetes compared to women with type 1 diabetes and to identify predictors of long-term breastfeeding for women with pre-gestational diabetes. METHODS: In total, 149 women with diabetes were interviewed...... about long-term breastfeeding, defined as any breastfeeding 4 months postpartum. RESULTS: Ninety-eight percent of the women aimed to breastfeed. At time of discharge, any breastfeeding was frequent for both groups of women (86% versus 93%, p = 0.17). However, 4 months postpartum, the 44 women with type...

  14. Low prevalence of long-term breastfeeding among women with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herskin, Camilla W; Stage, Edna; Barfred, Charlotte; Emmersen, Pernille; Ladefoged Nichum, Vibeke; Damm, Peter; Mathiesen, Elisabeth R

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence of long-term breastfeeding among women with type 2 diabetes compared to women with type 1 diabetes and to identify predictors of long-term breastfeeding for women with pre-gestational diabetes. In total, 149 women with diabetes were interviewed about long-term breastfeeding, defined as any breastfeeding 4 months postpartum. Ninety-eight percent of the women aimed to breastfeed. At time of discharge, any breastfeeding was frequent for both groups of women (86% versus 93%, p = 0.17). However, 4 months postpartum, the 44 women with type 2 diabetes showed significantly lower prevalence of breastfeeding than the 105 women with type 1 diabetes (34% versus 61%, p independent positive predictor, whereas pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and smoking were independent negative predictors of long-term breastfeeding. The prevalence of long-term breastfeeding among women with type 2 diabetes was considerably lower than in women with type 1 diabetes. Number of feedings in the first 24 h was positive and BMI and smoking were negative predictors of long-term breastfeeding in women with pre-gestational diabetes.

  15. Long-term follow-up of severely symptomatic women with adenomyoma treated with combination therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Min Liu

    2013-03-01

    Conclusion: Combination therapy for adenomyoma provides an effective treatment option for long-term symptom control and uterine preservation in severely symptomatic women for whom previous long-term drug therapy has failed or proven to be intolerable.

  16. [Myths and realities of the long-term reversible contraceptives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neyro, José Luis; Cristóbal, Ignacio; Celis-González, Cuauhtémoc; Gómez, Miriam; Miguel Ángel Elorriaga; Lira-Plascencia, Josefina

    2015-11-01

    For a woman uses contraception acceptance not only required but also the possibility of minimal or no side effects, comfort and tranquility of their safety. There are women who find it inconvenient not taking the pill daily, but for many other yes, what follows that notwithstanding their safety, do not suit the need of women. IUDs have reached high fees clinical efficacy and safety for use in any group of women, including gilts. A search for original articles and systematic reviews published in the last ten years in the PubMed database, specifically study reversible long-term hormonal contraception was made. They were included in the various search engines, the words: Long-Acting Reversible Contraception, intrauterine contraceptive method, contraceptive implants and intrauterine, myths About IUDs, and others. We selected the highest level of evidence and documents were analyzed and 76 of these myths and realities were located around the long-term contraception. There are too many myths accepted as paradigms and perceptions about IUDs, especially about its indication to nulliparous women, who do not stand by the scientific evidence. The clinical efficacy of intrauterine contraception in nulliparous women is equal in multiparous; though probably more painful insertion in the former, but not harder.

  17. Women's property rights and gendered policies: implications for women's long-term welfare in rural Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterman, Amber

    2011-01-01

    This paper evaluates effects of community-level women's property and inheritance rights on women's economic outcomes using a 13 year longitudinal panel from rural Tanzania. In the preferred model specification, inverse probability weighting is applied to a woman-level fixed effects model to control for individual-level time invariant heterogeneity and attrition. Results indicate that changes in women's property and inheritance rights are significantly associated with women's employment outside the home, self-employment and earnings. Results are not limited to sub-groups of marginalised women. Findings indicate lack of gender equity in sub-Saharan Africa may inhibit economic development for women and society as a whole.

  18. Anatomical and functional characteristics of the pelvic floor in nulliparous women submitted to three-dimensional endovaginal ultrasonography: case control study and evaluation of interobserver agreement Características anatômicas e funcionais do assoalho pélvico em nulíparas avaliadas por ultrassonografia tridimensional endovaginal: estudo caso-controle e avaliação da confiabilidade interobservador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sthela Maria Murad-Regadas

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To determine anatomical and functional pelvic floor measurements performed with three-dimensional (3-D endovaginal ultrasonography in asymptomatic nulliparous women without dysfunctions detected in previous dynamic 3-D anorectal ultrasonography (echo defecography and to demonstrate the interobserver reliability of these measurements. METHODS: Asymptomatic nulliparous volunteers were submitted to echo defecography to identify dynamic dysfunctions, including anatomical (rectocele, intussusceptions, entero/sigmoidocele and perineal descent and functional changes (non-relaxation or paradoxical contraction of the puborectalis muscle in the posterior compartment and assessed with regard to the biometric index of levator hiatus, pubovisceral muscle thickness, urethral length, anorectal angle, anorectal junction position and bladder neck position with the 3-D endovaginal ultrasonography. All measurements were compared at rest and during the Valsalva maneuver, and perineal and bladder neck descent was determined. The level of interobserver agreement was evaluated for all measurements. RESULTS: A total of 34 volunteers were assessed by echo defecography and by 3-D endovaginal ultrasonography. Out of these, 20 subjects met the inclusion criteria. The 14 excluded subjects were found to have posterior dynamic dysfunctions. During the Valsalva maneuver, the hiatal area was significantly larger, the urethra was significantly shorter and the anorectal angle was greater. Measurements at rest and during the Valsalva maneuver differed significantly with regard to anorectal junction and bladder neck position. The mean values for normal perineal descent and bladder neck descent were 0.6 cm and 0.5 cm above the symphysis pubis, respectively. The intraclass correlation coefficient ranged from 0.62-0.93. CONCLUSIONS: Functional biometric indexes, normal perineal descent and bladder neck descent values were determined for young asymptomatic nulliparous women

  19. Medical and psychological risks and consequences of long-term opioid therapy in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darnall, Beth D; Stacey, Brett R; Chou, Roger

    2012-09-01

    Long-term opioid use has increased substantially over the past decade for U.S. women. Women are more likely than men to have a chronic pain condition, to be treated with opioids, and may receive higher doses. Prescribing trends persist despite limited evidence to support the long-term benefit of this pain treatment approach. To review the medical and psychological risks and consequences of long-term opioid therapy in women. Scientific literature containing relevant keywords and content were reviewed. Long-term opioid use exposes women to unique risks, including endocrinopathy, reduced fertility, neonatal risks, as well as greater risk for polypharmacy, cardiac risks, poisoning and unintentional overdose, among other risks. Risks for women appear to vary by age and psychosocial factors may be bidirectionally related to opioid use. Gaps in understanding and priorities for future research are highlighted. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Perceptions of the effects of childbirth on sexuality among nulliparous individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappell, Jaclyn; Pukall, Caroline F

    2017-11-22

    Media representations of sexuality after childbirth depict vaginal birth as harmful and cesarean delivery as protective, although research does not support these depictions. The objective of the current study was to investigate perceptions of the effects of mode of delivery on sexuality. Nulliparous participants who were able to and interested in giving birth (N = 1428) completed an online survey about their preferences for mode of delivery and their perceptions of childbirth as they specifically relate to sexuality. Participants provided demographic information, rated how influential different sources of information about childbirth were, and completed the Attitudes Toward Women's Genitals Scale. Up to half (16-48%), the participants agreed with different statements about vaginal birth as harmful to, and cesarean delivery as protective of, future sexuality. Participant characteristics that were independently predictive of endorsing these beliefs were: self-identifying as heterosexual, holding negative attitudes toward women's genitals, and reporting that reality media, nonreality media, and online media sources are influential sources of childbirth information. Participants who rated health care professionals as an influential source of information were less likely to endorse these beliefs. Given that there is no clear evidence in the empirical literature to support the claim that vaginal births are harmful and cesarean delivery is protective to one's future sexual life, it is important to dispel the existing misconceptions. Various media sources likely play a role in the perpetuation of this misinformation. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Long-term trajectories of psychological adaptation among women diagnosed with gynecological cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manne, Sharon; Rini, Christine; Rubin, Stephen; Rosenblum, Norman; Bergman, Cynthia; Edelson, Mitchell; Hernandez, Enrique; Carlson, John; Rocereto, Thomas

    2008-07-01

    Women diagnosed with gynecological cancers may cope with a difficult treatment regimen that includes multiple abdominal surgeries and courses of chemotherapy and/or radiation. Little attention has been paid to identifying what factors place women at risk for long-term problems with psychological adaptation. The goal of the present study was to identify a set of demographic, medical, and predisposing factors as well as cognitive and social processing strategies that predict the trajectory of psychological distress and well-being among women diagnosed with gynecological cancer. One hundred thirteen women on active treatment for gynecological cancer completed measures at baseline, 3, 6, and 9 months afterward. Women with poorer physician-rated performance status and self-reported functional impairment, women who were Caucasian, women who have received previous psychological treatments, women who were less expressive of positive emotions, women who had unsupportive friends and family, and women who were less able to find something positive in the cancer experience reported poorer adaptation. This study identified a set of risk factors for poor long-term psychological adaptation among women diagnosed with gynecological cancers. Healthcare professionals working with these women can use these risk factors to screen for patients who may require additional psychological services.

  2. Correlates of long-term physical activity adherence in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haichun Sun

    2017-12-01

    Conclusion: The findings suggested that physically active adolescents were more likely to become active adults. Future research should address interventions (e.g., PE program, community resources that may promote lifetime PA in women, with the goal of decreasing morbidity and mortality.

  3. QT interval changes in term pregnant women living at moderately ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-12-20

    Dec 20, 2015 ... the QRS interval of body surface electrocardiography (ECG), has been shown to alter during pregnancy.[4,5] Early atrial and ventricular beats can be seen during pregnancy.[6] In addition to these changes, pregnant women living at high altitude also experience an increase in erythropoietin and hematocrit.

  4. The short-term and decade-long effects of divorce on women's midlife health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Frederick O; Wickrama, K A S; Conger, Rand D; Elder, Glen H

    2006-06-01

    We hypothesize that divorce immediately increases psychological distress and has long-term negative consequences for the physical health of divorced people. In addition, we hypothesize that divorce indirectly causes long-term increases in distress through stressful midlife events. The hypotheses are tested using data from 416 rural Iowa women who were interviewed repeatedly in the early 1990s when they were mothers of adolescent children; the women were interviewed again in 2001. The data support the hypotheses. In the years immediately after their divorce (1991-1994), divorced women reported significantly higher levels ofpsychological distress than married women but no differences in physical illness. A decade later (in 2001), the divorced women reported significantly higher levels of illness, even after controlling for age, remarriage, education, income, and prior health. Compared to their married counterparts, divorced women reported higher levels of stressful life events between 1994 and 2000, which led to higher levels of depressive symptoms in 2001.

  5. Força muscular respiratória: comparação entre nuligestas e primigestas Respiratory muscle strength: comparison between nulliparous and primiparous

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Andrade Barbosa Bezerra

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A gestação influencia o sistema respiratório originando mudanças anatômicas e fisiológicas que podem repercutir nos índices da força muscular respiratória. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi comparar a pressão respiratória máxima entre nuligestas e primigestas no terceiro trimestre gestacional e associá-la ao predito por Neder et al.,1999. Foi realizado estudo do tipo corte transversal com 80 mulheres (40 nuligestas e 40 primigestas no terceiro trimestre gestacional entre 20 e 29 anos, eutróficas e sem histórico de doença cardiorrespiratória. A média dos valores obtidos para pressão inspiratória máxima (Pimáx foi: -93,95 cmH2O nas nuligestas e -87,78 cmH2O nas primigestas, mostrando haver diferença estatística (p=0,0182. Para pressão expiratória máxima (Pemáx foram alcançados 98,28 cmH2O e 96,73 cmH2O, respectivamente, não sendo estatisticamente significante (p=0,710. Não obstante,as modificações anatômicas e fisiológicas ocorridas durante a gestação verificou-se que apenas a Pimáx estava diminuída quando comparada ao grupo das nuligestas, enquanto que a Pemáx não apresentou alteração significativa. No mais, não foi observada concordância entre valores encontrados e preditos por Neder et al., 1999.Pregnancy influences the respiratory system promoting anatomical and physiologic changes, which can have repercussions on the rates of the muscular respiratory strength. The objectives of this work were to compare the value of the respiratory pressure between nuligestas and primigestas during the third trimester of pregnancy, and to associate those to the predicted proposed by Neder et al., 1999. A transversal corte study including eighty women was studied (40 nulliparous and 40 primiparous in the third term of pregnancy between 20 and 29 years, eutrophic and without cardiorespiratory diseases history. The average of the values obtained for maximum inspiratory pressure (Pimáx was: -93.95 cmH2O in the

  6. Long-term Cognitive Trajectories and Mortality in Older Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaffe, Kristine; Peltz, Carrie B; Ewing, Susan K; McCulloch, Charles E; Cummings, Steve R; Cauley, Jane A; Hillier, Teresa A; Ensrud, Kristine E

    2016-08-01

    Few studies have examined whether change in cognition is linked to mortality. This study examined the relationship between cognitive trajectories in older age and risk of death. We studied community-dwelling, nondemented women aged 65+ (mean age = 71) enrolled in a prospective study of aging and followed up to 25 years. A modified Mini-Mental State Examination (mMMSE) and Trail Making Task Part B (TMTB) were administered at multiple visits during follow-up. We examined the association between cognitive trajectories (analyzed by quintiles) from baseline to age 80 (n = 7,477 for mMMSE and n = 6,503 for TMTB) and all-cause mortality after age 80 using Cox regression models, both unadjusted and adjusted for education, physical activity, alcohol, depression score, current smoking and history of hypertension and diabetes. Cause of death was determined from death certificates, classified as cardiovascular, cancer and other. Women with greater rate of decline were older, less educated, less physically active, had higher depression score and were more likely to have a history of hypertension and diabetes (all p < .01). Participants with the greatest decline (quintile 1) had an increased risk of death (mMMSE hazard ratio [HR] = 1.28; TMTB HR = 1.43] and those with the least decline (quintile 5) had a decreased risk of death (mMMSE HR = 0.73; TMTB HR = 0.61) compared with intermediate decliners (quintiles 2-4). Cognitive trajectories were associated with cardiovascular mortality and other causes of death, but not cancer deaths. Our study suggests that greater decline in general cognition or executive function is associated with higher rates of mortality in oldest-old women. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Long-term breast-feeding in women with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stage, E; Nørgård, Hanne; Damm, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Breast-feeding may be more difficult in women with diabetes because of neonatal morbidity and fluctuating maternal blood glucose values. The frequency of long-term breast-feeding and the possible predictors for successful breast-feeding were investigated.......Breast-feeding may be more difficult in women with diabetes because of neonatal morbidity and fluctuating maternal blood glucose values. The frequency of long-term breast-feeding and the possible predictors for successful breast-feeding were investigated....

  8. Women's Understanding of the Term 'Pap smear': A Comparison of Spanish-Speaking Versus English-Speaking Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, David L; Soulli, Beth; Johnson, Nicole; Cooper, Saladin

    2016-11-01

    Objective To compare the understanding of the term 'Pap smear' among Spanish-speaking women, as compared to their English-speaking counterparts. Methods Surveys were distributed to English and Spanish speaking female patients in an urban Obstetrics and Gynecology clinic. Patients were at least 18 years old or they were less than 18 years old and pregnant. Results A majority of participants (77.3 % English-speaking vs. 74.1 % Spanish-speaking, respectively) were able to identify at least one correct descriptor for the term Pap smear. However, Spanish-speaking women were significantly less likely to choose incorrect descriptors. Spanish-speaking women were much less likely to say that a Pap smear was the same as a Pelvic exam (45.7 vs. 78.8 %; p = 0.001), or a test for a sexually transmitted disease (25 vs. 60.6 %; p = 0.001). Conclusions for Practice Compared to English-speaking women, Spanish-speaking women are much less likely to conflate a pelvic exam with a Pap smear. Overall understanding was suboptimal, regardless of primary language, indicating that major efforts are still needed to improve functional health literacy with respect to cervical cancer screening.

  9. Predicting long-term weight loss maintenance in previously overweight women: a signal detection approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Inês; Mata, Jutta; Silva, Marlene N; Sardinha, Luís B; Teixeira, Pedro J

    2015-05-01

    Examine psychological and behavioral predictors of 3-year weight loss maintenance in women. Participants were 154 women in a 1-year randomized controlled trial on weight management with a 2-year follow-up. Signal detection analyses identified behavioral and psychological variables that best predicted 5% and 10% weight loss at 3 years. Women with better body image were more likely to have lost ≥5% weight at 3 years (P women with poor body image but higher motivation were more likely to maintain weight loss than women with poor body image and lower motivation (P Women with high exercise autonomous motivation were three times more likely to have lost ≥10% weight than were those with lower autonomous motivation (P women with lower autonomous motivation, perceiving fewer exercise barriers was somewhat compensatory: these women were more likely to maintain weight loss than women with lower autonomy but more perceived barriers (P women, improving body image and increasing autonomous and intrinsic motivation for exercise likely promotes clinically significant long-term weight loss maintenance. Decreasing perceived exercise barriers is another promising intervention target. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  10. [Mode of delivery and perinatal outcomes in women with premature rupture of membranes at term].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, L; Wang, X; Zou, L Y; Ruan, Y; Chen, Y; Li, G H; Zhang, W Y

    2016-04-05

    Comparative study of delivery mode and perinatal outcomes in women with premature rupture of membranes at term compared to those with intact membranes. A cross sectional survey of all deliveries in 39 hospitals in 3 geographic regions of mainland China from January 1 to December 31, 2011 was carried out to investigate the demographic data and delivery outcomes. In our analysis of 103 124 pregnancies, 14 073(13.6%) were complicated by premature rupture of membranes. Compared to those with intact membrane, the risks of postpartum hemorrhage, maternal complications and neonatal complications were increased significantly for women with premature rupture of membranes at term, especially the prevalence of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome(NRDS) and meconium aspiration syndrome. The risk of low Apgar (premature rupture of membranes at term. The adverse perinatal outcomes are slightly higher in women with term premature rupture of membranes than those with intact membrane.

  11. Second trimester hepatic rupture in a 35 year old nulliparous woman with HELLP syndrome: a case report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelly, J

    2009-01-01

    The HELLP syndrome (haemolysis, elevated liver blood tests and low platelets) is a serious complication in pregnancy characterized by haemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and low platelet count occurring in 0.5 to 0.9% of all pregnancies and in 10-20% of cases with severe preeclampsia. Hepatic capsular rupture is a rare yet dramatic complication of HELLP syndrome. The majority of cases occur in multiparous women over the age of 30. Classically it presents with acute onset right upper quadrant pain in the presence of constitutional symptoms such as vomiting and pyrexia. However, symptoms and signs are usually non specific. Spontaneous hepatic rupture can be preceded by signs of hypovolaemic shock; yet the diagnosis is infrequently made prior to emergent laparotomy. We present the case of a 35 year old nulliparous woman with a second trimester gestational hepatic rupture associated with HELLP syndrome. We briefly discuss the aetiology, diagnostic difficulties and treatment options associated with this rare presentation.

  12. Short- and Long-term Effects of Ginkgo Biloba Extract on Sexual Dysfunction in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rellini, Alessandra H.; Telch, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) facilitates blood flow, influences nitric oxide systems, and has a relaxant effect on smooth muscle tissue. These processes are important to the sexual response in women and, hence, it is feasible that GBE may have a therapeutic effect. The present study was the first to provide an empirical examination of the effects of both short- and long-term GBE administration on subjective and physiological (vaginal photoplethysmography) measures of sexual function in women with Sexual Arousal Disorder. A single dose of 300 mg GBE had a small but significant facilitatory effect on physiological, but not subjective, sexual arousal compared to placebo in 99 sexually dysfunctional women. The long-term effects of GBE on sexual function were assessed in 68 sexually dysfunctional women who were randomly assigned to 8 weeks treatment of either (1) GBE (300 mg/daily), (2) placebo, (3) sex therapy which focused on training women to attend to genital sensations, or (4) sex therapy plus GBE. When combined with sex therapy, but not alone, long-term GBE treatment significantly increased sexual desire and contentment beyond placebo. Sex therapy alone significantly enhanced orgasm function compared with placebo. Long-term GBE administration did not significantly enhance arousal responses beyond placebo. It was concluded that (1) neither short- or long-term administration of GBE alone substantially impacts sexual function in women, (2) a substantial placebo effect on sexual function exists in women with sexual concerns, and (3) teaching women to focus on genital sensations during sex enhances certain aspects of women’s sexual functioning. PMID:18274887

  13. Women's demand for late-term abortion--a social or psychiatric issue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolić, Gordana; Samardzić, Ljiljana; Krstić, Miroslav

    2014-07-01

    Induced termination of unwanted pregnancy after 12th gestational week (late-term abortion) is legally restricted in Serbia as well as in many other countries. On the other hand, unwanted pregnancy very often brings women into the state of personal crisis. Psychiatric indications for legally approved late-term abortion on women's demand include only severe psychiatric disorders. The aim of this paper was to compare sociodemographic, psychological characteristics and claimed reasons for abortion in the two groups of women with late-term demand for abortion--the group of women satisfying legally prescribed mental health indications, and the group of women not satisfying these indications. The aim of the study was also to determine predictive validity of the abovementioned parameters for late-term abortion as the outcome of unwanted pregnancy. A total of 62 pregnant women with demand for late-term abortion were divided into two groups according to the criteria of satisfying or not satisfying legally proposed psychiatric indications for late-term abortion after psychiatric evaluation. For the assessment of sociodemographic and psychological parameters sociodemographic questionnaire and symptom checklist-90 revised (SCL-90) scale were used, respectively. The outcome of unwanted pregnancy was followed 6 months after the initial assessment. The obtained results showed a statistically significant difference between the groups in educational level, satisfaction with financial situation, elevated anxiety and distress reactions. Unfavorable social circumstances were the main reason for an abortion in both groups and were predictive for an abortion. A 6-month follow-up showed that women had abortion despite legal restrictions. Pregnant women with psychiatric indication for late-term abortion belong to lower socioeconomic and educational level group compared to women without this indication who have more frequently elevated anxiety and distress reactions to unwanted pregnancy

  14. Long-term outcome of genital reconstruction of Middle Eastern women with congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyam, Raouf M; Bissada, Nabil K; Abdul-Aaly, Mohamed; Sakati, Nadia A; Al Taweel, Waleed; Alkhudair, Waleed K

    2013-10-01

    There is a paucity of data on the long-term outcome of genital reconstruction of female children with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) as they become adult women. We report on the surgical outcome general condition and marriage status. We reviewed the medical records of women 20 years or older with CAH who had genital reconstruction. We interviewed married patients utilizing the female sexual function index (FSFI-6) questionnaire and compared them to age-matched controls. We identified 43 women with CAH with a median age of 24.2 ± 3.9 years and a median follow-up of 23.4 ± 4.6 years. Salt wasting and the severity of virilization affected most patients, parents were commonly cousins, children were reared as boys for a protracted period and surgical reconstruction was usually complex. Only five women had married. Compared with single women, married women had significantly more frequent normal menses, emergency hospital admissions and number of repeated reconstructive surgery. There was no significant difference in FSFI score between patients and controls. Four women conceived and three gave birth to one healthy child. There was no significant difference in the number of children between patients and controls. CAH has a significant impact on adult women in our region. Most of the patients remain single. Few women get married and these are able to lead a nearly normal sexual life and give birth to healthy children.

  15. Randomised trial comparing a policy of early with selective amniotomy in uncomplicated labour at term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, N; Lilford, R; Guthrie, K; Thornton, J; Barker, M; Kelly, M

    1997-03-01

    To compare two management policies: rupture of the fetal membranes when women are in normal labour or leave them intact as long as feasible. The labour ward of a city university hospital. Automated randomised clinical trial. 1540 women in uncomplicated term labour. Data on labour duration, blood loss, oxytocin use and fetal condition were collected from 1132 women. Some data from nulliparous women has been presented earlier by the UK Amniotomy Group. Duration of labour, Apgar score, fetal morbidity and maternal morbidity including perineal injury, mode of delivery, epidural rates and the total number of vaginal examinations in the first stage of labour after amniotomy. Amniotomy at the next vaginal examination or amniotomy only if indicated. The median cervical dilatation at membrane rupture was 2 cm greater in the first group. A policy of routine amniotomy in labour had no measurable advantage over selective amniotomy for parous women (difference = 4 min) but shortened labour in nulliparous women by 1 h (Mann-Whitney U test: P amniotomy. There were no measurable differences in oxytocin use, fetal condition at birth, retained placenta rates, blood loss, pain or analgesia requirements. Routine amniotomy may shorten the first labour but not subsequent ones. There is a suggestion that routine surgical interference may be harmful by increasing the risk of caesarean section, and this agrees with data from other trials (common odds ratio 1.2; 95% CI 0.92-1.6).

  16. Long-term health status of Danish women with silicone breast implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breiting, Vibeke B; Hölmich, Lisbet R; Brandt, Bodil; Fryzek, Jon P; Wolthers, Mette S; Kjøller, Kim; McLaughlin, Joseph K; Wiik, Allan; Friis, Søren

    2004-07-01

    Long-term safety data are important in the evaluation of possible adverse health outcomes related to silicone breast implants. The authors evaluated long-term symptoms and conditions and medication use among 190 Danish women with cosmetic silicone breast implants compared with 186 women who had undergone breast reduction surgery and with 149 women from the general population. Breast implant and reduction surgeries were performed from 1973 to 1988 at one public hospital and one private plastic surgery clinic. Among women with breast implants, the average implantation time was 19 years, 60 percent (n = 114) had only one implantation, and 10 percent (n = 19) had undergone explantation before the time of study (1997 to 1998). The authors found no material differences in self-reported diseases or symptoms among study groups, except for breast pain, which was reported nearly three times as often by women with implants than by women with breast reduction (odds ratio, 2.8; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.4 to 5.3). Approximately 80 percent of women in each study group reported at least one symptom. No consistent differences were observed in the seroprevalences of antinuclear antibodies or other autoantibodies. Self-reported use of psychotropic drugs was higher among women with breast implants than among either control group. The authors conclude that long-term cosmetic breast implantation may cause capsular contracture and breast pain but does not appear to be associated with other symptoms, diseases, or autoimmune reactivity. The authors' finding of excess use of drugs for treatment of depression and anxiety among women with breast implants may warrant further investigation.

  17. HIV-infected Rwandan women have a high frequency of long-term survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Philip J; Karita, Etienne; Kayitenkore, Kayitesi; Meinzen-Derr, Jareen; Kim, Dhong-Jin; Tichacek, Amanda; Allen, Susan A

    2007-11-01

    To evaluate rates of long-term survival in a prospective, longitudinal, closed HIV cohort in Africa between 1986 and 2006. A total of 548 HIV-infected Rwandan women were recruited from prenatal clinics in Kigali and followed at 3-6 month intervals to February 2006. Overall, 401 women (73%) were HIV positive at initial cross-sectional testing in 1986 (seroprevalent cohort) and 147 women (27%) were initially HIV negative but seroconverted during follow-up from 1986 to 1993 (seroincident cohort). Kaplan-Meier survival methods were used to calculate survival times censored in mid-2003. In February 2006, 109 women (20%) remained alive in the cohort. Time to 50% non-genocide mortality was 11.9 years among seroincident women and 8.9 years among seroprevalent women. Smoothed mortality rates increased with duration of follow-up to a peak of 0.12 deaths per person-year at 9.5 years of follow-up but subsequently declined. After 15 years of follow-up (pre-HAART introduction), the survival probability was 36% for seroincident women and 26% for seroprevalent women. Most survivors had virological and immunological evidence of disease progression. The median CD4 cell count of survivors declined from 447 cells/mul in 1998 to 268 cells/mul in 2003. Among survivors, 57 women (52%) met treatment criteria and initiated antiretroviral treatment by 2006. Although median survival times in this cohort were similar to those observed in high-income countries, the rates of long-term survival after 15 years of follow-up were higher than expected. A levelling off of mortality rates during the late stages of follow-up may explain this high rate of long-term survival.

  18. Improving reproductive long-term prognosis for women with a first ectopic pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egerup, Pia; Kårhus, Line Lund; Skovlund, Charlotte Wessel

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe developments in reproductive long-term prognosis in women with a first ectopic pregnancy as compared with two control cohorts. DESIGN: Controlled cohort study. SETTING: Data were collected from four national Danish registries. POPULATION: All Danish women of reproductive age...... (15-49 years) through the period 1977-2009 and all reproductive outcomes in these women. METHODS: Data were collected from four national Danish registries. Three cohorts of women with a first recorded ectopic pregnancy during the periods 1980-84, 1985-89, and 1990-94, were compared with age......-matched controls with a first miscarriage and a first induced abortion and followed for 15 years for all further pregnancy outcomes. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Pregnancy outcomes included deliveries, miscarriages, induced abortions and ectopic pregnancies. RESULTS: The birth rate for women with a first ectopic...

  19. HPA axis response to stress predicts short-term snack intake in obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelhans, Bradley M; Pagoto, Sherry L; Peters, Erica N; Spring, Bonnie J

    2010-02-01

    Prior research has linked heightened cortisol reactivity to stress with increased food consumption. This pilot study tested corollaries of the hypothesis that cortisol stress reactivity promotes obesity. Thirty-four lean and obese women completed an acute stress task and a non-stressful control task in counterbalanced order. Contrary to expectations, higher post-stress cortisol was associated with decreased post-stress snack intake in obese women but was unrelated to snack intake in lean women. Stress also blunted an expected rise in hunger only among obese women. Findings suggest that some obese women may be more sensitive to short-term anorectic effects of HPA axis activation. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Women's fertility across the cycle increases the short-term attractiveness of creative intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haselton, Martie G; Miller, Geoffrey F

    2006-03-01

    Male provisioning ability may have evolved as a "good dad" indicator through sexual selection, whereas male creativity may have evolved partly as a "good genes" indicator. If so, women near peak fertility (midcycle) should prefer creativity over wealth, especially in short-term mating. Forty-one normally cycling women read vignettes describing creative but poor men vs. uncreative but rich men. Women's estimated fertility predicted their short-term (but not long-term) preference for creativity over wealth, in both their desirability ratings of individual men (r=.40, p<.01) and their forced-choice decisions between men (r=.46, p<.01). These preliminary results are consistent with the view that creativity evolved at least partly as a good genes indicator through mate choice.

  1. WOMEN'S AGE AT FIRST MARRIAGE AND LONG-TERM ECONOMIC EMPOWERMENT IN EGYPT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yount, Kathryn M; Crandall, AliceAnn; Cheong, Yuk Fai

    2018-02-01

    Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 5 calls on nations to promote gender equality and to empower women and girls. SDG5 also recognizes the value of women's economic empowerment, entailing equal rights to economic resources and full participation at all levels in economic decisions. Also according to SDG5, eliminating harmful practices-such as child marriage before age 18-is a prerequisite for women's economic empowerment. Using national data for 4,129 married women 15-43 years who took part in the Egypt Labor Market Panel Survey (ELMPS 1998-2012), we performed autoregressive, cross-lagged panel analyses to assess whether women's first marriage in adulthood (at 18 years or older, as reported in 2006), was positively associated with their long-term post-marital economic empowerment, measured as their engagement in market work and latent family economic agency in 2012. Women's first marriage in adulthood had positive unadjusted associations with their market work and family economic agency in 2012. These associations persisted after accounting for market work and family economic agency in 2006, pre-marital resources for empowerment, and cumulative fertility. Policies to discourage child marriage may show promise to enhance women's long-term post-marital economic empowerment.

  2. Comparison of post-cervical and cervical porcine artificial insemination in nulliparous and multiparous

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luchetti CG

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The post-cervical artificial insemination (PCAI in sows increases semen performance compared to cervical artificial insemination (CAI. In Argentina the use of the PCAI is restricted to multiparous while it is not applied to nulliparous. The aim of this study was to compare porcine CAI and PCAI in nulliparous and multiparous. Pregnancy rates and number of live pups with CAI and PCAI in nulliparous and multiparous, assessing advantages and disadvantages of each method were compared. This is a small-scale work (4 CAI and 7 PCAI in nulliparous, 3 CAI and 3 PCAI in multiparous in a small field productive site in the Province of Buenos Aires. Here the boar was omitted for heat detection and to stimulate the sow during AI. Pregnancy rates and the number of pups born alive per pregnant sow were similar with the two techniques and two categories. The PCAI is a good practice in nulliparous and multiparous because this technique increases semen performance compared to CAI and it is omitted the presence of the boar.

  3. Long-term effects of child punishment on Mexican women: a structural model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frias-Armenta, Martha

    2002-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate long-term effects of parental use of physical and verbal punishment on Mexican women. To study both direct and indirect effects of these phenomena, a structural model was developed and tested. One hundred and fifty Mexican women were interviewed with regard to their history of child abuse, their level of depression, alcohol use, antisocial behavior, and punishment of their own children. Factors representing such constructs were specified within a structural equation model and their inter-relations were estimated. Women's history of abuse was considered as an exogenous latent variable directly affecting three other factors: mothers' antisocial behavior, their alcohol consumption, and their levels of depression or anxiety. These factors, in turn, were specified as influencing mothers' harsh discipline of their own children. Data supported this model, indicating that a history of abuse has long-term effects on women's behavior and psychological functioning, which in turn cause women's punitive behavior against their children. These results are discussed in terms of the theoretical framework of intergenerational transmission of violence. The direct consequences (depression, anxiety, alcohol consumption, and antisocial behavior) of child punishment act as risk factors for the next generation of child abuse.

  4. Preeclampsia and Long-term Renal Function in Women Who Underwent Kidney Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannevel, Valerie; Claes, Kathleen; Baud, David; Vial, Yvan; Golshayan, Delaviz; Yoon, Eugene W; Hodges, Ryan; Le Nepveu, Anne; Kerr, Peter G; Kennedy, Claire; Higgins, Mary; Resch, Elisabeth; Klaritsch, Philipp; Van Mieghem, Tim

    2018-01-01

    Preeclampsia often complicates pregnancies after maternal kidney transplantation. We aimed to assess whether preeclampsia is associated with kidney function decline either during the pregnancy or in the long term. We performed an international multicenter retrospective cohort study. Renal function at conception, pregnancy outcomes, and short- and long-term graft outcomes were collected for women who were pregnant after renal transplantation and had transplant and obstetric care at the participating centers. In women who had multiple pregnancies during the study period, only the last pregnancy was included. Univariate and multivariable analyses were performed. We retrieved pregnancy outcomes and long-term renal outcomes for 52 women. Chronic hypertension was present at baseline in 27%. Mean estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) at start of pregnancy was 52.4±17.5 mL/min/1.73 m. Mean estimated GFR at delivery was 47.6±21.6 mL/min/1.73 m, which was significantly lower than at conception (P=.03). Twenty women (38%) developed preeclampsia. In multivariable analysis, women who developed preeclampsia had a 10.7-mL/min/1.73 m higher drop in estimated GFR between conception and delivery than women who did not develop preeclampsia (P=.02). Long-term estimated GFR follow-up was obtained at a median of 5.8 years (range 1.3-27.5 years). Mean estimated GFR at last follow-up was 38±23 mL/kg/1.73 m. Seventeen women (33%) experienced graft loss over the follow-up period. Incidence of graft loss was similar in women with and without preeclampsia in their last pregnancy (30% and 34%, respectively; P=.99). In multivariable analysis, the decrease in estimated GFR between conception and last follow-up was similar in women who experienced preeclampsia during pregnancy and those who did not (difference -2.69 mL/min/1.73 m, P=.65). Preeclampsia commonly complicates pregnancies after renal transplantation but is not associated with long-term renal dysfunction or graft loss.

  5. Long-term musculoskeletal and cardiac health effects of recreational football and running for premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krustrup, P; Hansen, P R; Andersen, L J; Jakobsen, M D; Sundstrup, E; Randers, M B; Christiansen, L; Helge, E W; Pedersen, M T; Søgaard, P; Junge, A; Dvorak, J; Aagaard, P; Bangsbo, J

    2010-04-01

    We examined long-term musculoskeletal and cardiac adaptations elicited by recreational football (FG, n=9) and running (RG, n=10) in untrained premenopausal women in comparison with a control group (CG, n=9). Training was performed for 16 months ( approximately 2 weekly 1-h sessions). For FG, right and left ventricular end-diastolic diameters were increased by 24% and 5% (Phealth.

  6. Prediction of postpartum hemorrhage in women with gestational hypertension or mild preeclampsia at term

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, Corine M.; van der Tuuk, Karin; Groen, Henk; Doornbos, Johannes P. R.; de Graaf, Irene M.; van der Salm, Pauline C. M.; Porath, Martina M.; Kuppens, Simone M. I.; Wijnen, Ella J.; Aardenburg, Robert; van Loon, Aren J.; Akerboom, Bettina M. C.; van der Lans, Peggy J. A.; Mol, Ben W. J.; van Pampus, Maria G.

    2014-01-01

    To assess whether postpartum hemorrhage can be predicted in women with gestational hypertension or mild preeclampsia at term. A cohort study in which we used data from our multicentre randomized controlled trial (HYPITAT trial). The study was conducted in 38 hospitals in the Netherlands between 2005

  7. Prediction of postpartum hemorrhage in women with gestational hypertension or mild preeclampsia at term

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, Corine M.; Van der Tuuk, Karin; Groen, Henk; Doornbos, Johannes P. R.; De Graaf, Irene M.; Van der Salm, Pauline C. M.; Porath, Martina M.; Kuppens, Simone M. I.; Wijnen, Ella J.; Aardenburg, Robert; Van Loon, Aren J.; Akerboom, Bettina M. C.; Van der Lans, Peggy J. A.; Mol, Ben W. J.; Van Pampus, Maria G.

    OBJECTIVE: To assess whether postpartum hemorrhage can be predicted in women with gestational hypertension or mild preeclampsia at term. DESIGN: A cohort study in which we used data from our multicentre randomized controlled trial (HYPITAT trial). SETTING: The study was conducted in 38 hospitals in

  8. Blood pressure patterns in women with gestational hypertension or mild preeclampsia at term

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Tuuk, K.; Tajik, P.; Koopmans, C. M.; van den Berg, P. P.; Mol, B. W. J.; van Pampus, M. G.; Groen, H.

    Objective: Gestational hypertension (GH) and mild preeclampsia (PE) represent the most common medical complications of pregnancy, with the majority of cases developing at or near term. There is little knowledge of the course of blood pressure over time in these women. We explored the pattern of

  9. Long-term health status of Danish women with silicone breast implants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breiting, Vibeke B; Hölmich, Lisbet R; Brandt, Bodil

    2004-01-01

    autoantibodies. Self-reported use of psychotropic drugs was higher among women with breast implants than among either control group. The authors conclude that long-term cosmetic breast implantation may cause capsular contracture and breast pain but does not appear to be associated with other symptoms, diseases...

  10. Association between Escherichia coli bacteriuria and renal function in women - Long-term follow-up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meiland, Ruby; Stolk, Ronald P.; Geerlings, Suzanne E.; Peeters, Petra H. M.; Grobbee, Diederick E.; Coenjaerts, Frank E. J.; Brouwer, Ellen C.; Hoepelman, Andy I. M.

    2007-01-01

    Background: We sought to investigate whether Escherichia coli bacteriuria is associated with a decline in renal function or with the development of end-stage renal failure after long-term follow-up. Methods: We performed a full cohort analysis for women who participated in 2 population-based

  11. Long-term musculoskeletal and cardiac health effects of recreational football and running for premenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krustrup, Peter; Hansen, Peter Riis; Andersen, Lars Juel

    2010-01-01

    We examined long-term musculoskeletal and cardiac adaptations elicited by recreational football (FG, n=9) and running (RG, n=10) in untrained premenopausal women in comparison with a control group (CG, n=9). Training was performed for 16 months ( approximately 2 weekly 1-h sessions). For FG, righ...

  12. Long-term outcomes for women after obstetric fistula repair in Lilongwe, Malawi: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, Laura B; Wilkinson, Jeffrey P; Nundwe, William; Moyo, Margaret; Mataya, Ronald; Mwale, Mwawi; Tang, Jennifer H

    2016-01-05

    Obstetric fistula affects a woman's life physically, psychosocially, and economically. Although surgery can repair the physical damage of fistula, the devastating consequences that affect a woman's quality of life may persist when she reintegrates into her community. This qualitative study assessed long-term outcomes among women who underwent obstetric fistula repair in Malawi. We explored three domains: overall quality of life before and after repair, fertility and pregnancy outcomes after repair, and understanding of fistula. In-depth interviews were conducted in Chichewa with 20 women from seven districts across Central Malawi. All women were interviewed 1 to 2 years after surgical repair for obstetric fistula at the Fistula Care Centre in Lilongwe, Malawi. Interviews were independently coded and analyzed using content analysis. About half of women were married and nine of 20 women reported some degree of urinary incontinence. With the exception of relationship challenges, women's concerns before and after repair were different. Additionally, repair had resolved many of the concerns women had before repair. However, challenges, both directly and indirectly related to fistula, persisted. Improvements in quality of life at the individual level included feelings of freedom, confidence and personal growth, and improved income-earning ability. Interpersonal quality of life improvements included improved relationships with family and friends, reduced stigma, and increased participation with their communities. Nearly half of women desired future pregnancies, but many were uncertain about their ability to bear children and feared additional pregnancies could cause fistula recurrence. Most women were well informed about fistula development but myths about witchcraft and fear of delivery were present. Nearly all women would recommend fistula repair to other women, and many were advocates in their communities. Nearly all women believed their quality of life had improved

  13. Epidemiology of underweight and overweight-obesity among term pregnant Sudanese women.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Rayis, Duria A

    2010-12-06

    Abstract Background The increasing prevalence of obesity in young women is a major public health concern. Few data are available concerning the epidemiology of malnutrition especially obesity among pregnant women in the developing countries. A cross sectional study was conducted at Khartoum hospital during February-April 2008, to investigate prevalence of underweight, obesity, and to identify contemporary socio-demographic predictors for obesity among term pregnant women in Khartoum Hospital, Sudan. After taking an informed consent, a structured questionnaire was administered to each woman to gather information on educational level, age and parity. Maternal weight and height were measured and expressed as body mass index (BMI - weight (kg)\\/height (m) 2). Findings Out of 1690 term pregnant women, 628 (37.1%) were primigravidae, 926 (54.8%) had ≥ secondary educational level (minimum of 8 years) and 1445 (85.5%) were housewives. The mean (SD) of the age and parity were 27.2 (6.3) years and 2.0 (2.1) respectively. Out of these 1690 women, 94(5.5%) were underweight (BMI of ≤ 19.9 Kg\\/m2), 603 (35.6%) were overweight (BMI of 25 - 29.9 Kg\\/m2) and 328 (19.4%) were obese (BMI of ≥ 30 Kg\\/m2). In multivariate analyses, obesity was positively associated with age (OR = 1.2, 95% CI = 1.0-1.1; P< 0.001), and with women\\'s education (OR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.2-2.7; P = 0.001). Obesity was positively associated with parity in univariate analyses only (OR = 1.1, 95% CI = 1.0-1.2; P = 0.02) Conclusion The high prevalence of obesity in these pregnant women represents a competing public health problem in Sudan. More research is needed.

  14. Women's concerns and satisfaction with induced labour at term in a Nigerian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezeanochie, Michael; Olagbuji, Biodun; Ande, Adedapo

    2013-03-01

    To explore the concerns, experiences and satisfaction of women who had induction of labour at term A cross-sectional study conducted in Nigeria, among 252 pregnant women who had induction of labour at term using a two part pre and post induction questionnaire. Concerns expressed by the women prior to labour induction were the fear of caesarean delivery (16.6%), labour pains (15.1%) and an adverse foetal or maternal outcome (4.8%). Overall, 180 women (71.4%) expressed satisfaction with the induction process while 72 (28.6%) were dissatisfied. Comparatively, a higher mean age and shorter induction-delivery interval (470±180 vs 660±370, plabour. It was also associated with significantly lower caesarean section rates (13.3% vs 61.1%, p=0.001) and composite maternal or foetal morbidities. The common reasons for dissatisfaction with induced labour included caesarean delivery (13.4%), painful labour (8.7%) while 2.4% felt the duration of the procedure was too long. This study suggests that a substantial number of pregnant women who had induction of labour had unsatisfactory experience. The reasons for dissatisfaction should be addressed by physicians in order to promote a positive psycho-emotional experience of pregnancy and childbirth.

  15. Health in women on long-term sick leave because of pain or mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lytsy, Per; Larsson, Kjerstin; Anderzén, Ingrid

    2015-03-01

    Mental illness and pain are common causes of long-term sick absence and major difficulties in vocational rehabilitation. The aim of this study was to investigate health in a group of women with pain or mental illness who had exhausted their days of sickness benefit. This cross-sectional study uses baseline data from 355 women on long-term sick leave participating in controlled intervention studies aiming at returning to work. The study population filled in a written questionnaire with questions of self-rated health and sleep quality and validated indexes of mental health, satisfaction with life and general self-efficacy. Clinical psychiatric screening was performed on 230 individuals. The study population had a mean age of 48.8 years (SD 8.4), with an average time on sick leave of 7.8 years (SD 3.2). Self-rated health and sleep quality was poor compared with other populations. In all, 80.1% had at least one psychiatric diagnosis according to the psychiatric screening, and the average numbers of psychiatric diagnoses were 2.2 (SD 1.9). Foreign-born women showed significantly higher levels of mental illness, poorer self-rated health and sleep quality and lower self-efficacy and life satisfaction than native Swedish women. Women with long sick leave because of mental illness and/or pain have poor self-rated health and sleep quality, high prevalence of mental illness and low self-efficacy and life satisfaction. Psychiatric screening suggests more extensive mental illness than what was stated on the sick leave certificates. The health of foreign-born women seems to be worse than that of native Swedish women.

  16. Women Employment in terms of Gender Inequality across the Provinces of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih CELEBIOGLU

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Inequalities are very important and multi-dimensional problem for all countries in the world. Particularly, the problem is challenging for developing countries due to the presence of not equal opportunities in economic life. This study aims to examine relations between women employment and socio-economic inequalities by using spatial data and techniques across the regions of Turkey. We use women employment’s share in total employment of provinces in 2014 as an indicator of women employment as long as the following variables used as independent are Gender Equality Index, Socio-Economic Development Index, gender based wage gap and household size. To test spatial dimensions of the variables, firstly we perform an Exploratory Spatial Data Analysis on all variables for provinces of Turkey. Secondly, we explain spatial econometrics dimensions of women employment in Turkey. The results indicate that spatial regression is statistically significant and have high level of coefficient of determination in terms of spatial lag and error models. The study results indicate the significant relations among independent variables and women employment. Overall, our results show new dimensions of spatial distribution of women employment in Turkey.

  17. Mid-trimester maternal serum AFP and hCG as markers of preterm and term adverse pregnancy outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tancrède, Sabrina; Bujold, Emmanuel; Giguère, Yves; Renald, Marie-Hélène; Girouard, Joel; Forest, Jean-Claude

    2015-02-01

    To evaluate the predictive values of mid-trimester serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) for preterm and term placenta-mediated adverse pregnancy outcomes (PMAPOs). We extracted data for nulliparous women with a singleton pregnancy without aneuploidy or lethal fetal anomalies from a prospective cohort study. Maternal serum AFP and hCG measured between 13 and 17 weeks of gestation and expressed as multiples of the median (MoM) for gestational age were compared between women who developed a PMAPO (preeclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction, fetal death) before term or at term and women who did not develop any of these complications. Among 3466 nulliparous women, maternal serum AFP and hCG levels were available in 2110 and 2125 cases, respectively. Women who developed a PMAPO before term had a higher median level of serum AFP (1.4 vs. 1.1 MoM; P 2.0 MoM was associated with a higher risk of PMAPO before term (RR 4.6; CI 95% 2.3 to 9.1) but had no impact on the risk of PMAPO at term (RR 1.1; CI 95% 0.7 to 1.7). Maternal serum AFP > 2.0 MoM was also associated with a significant increase in the risk of preterm PMAPO (RR 3.9; CI 95% 1.6 to 9.8) but not term PMAPO (RR 1.2; CI 95% 0.6 to 2.3). Maternal serum AFP or hCG > 2.0 MoM increases the risk of preterm PMAPO but not term PMAPO in our population. We suggest that women with elevated serum AFP or hCG should receive standard pregnancy care once they have reached 37 weeks of gestation if fetal growth is in the normal range.

  18. Magnesium sulphate for women at term for neuroprotection of the fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thuy-My N; Crowther, Caroline A; Wilkinson, Dominic; Bain, Emily

    2013-02-28

    Magnesium sulphate is extensively used in obstetrics for the treatment and prevention of eclampsia. A recent meta-analysis has shown that magnesium sulphate is an effective fetal neuroprotective agent when given antenatally to women at risk of very preterm birth. Term infants account for more than half of all cases of cerebral palsy, and the incidence has remained fairly constant. It is important to assess if antenatal administration of magnesium sulphate to women at term protects the fetus from brain injury, and associated neurosensory disabilities including cerebral palsy. To assess the effectiveness of magnesium sulphate given to women at term as a neuroprotective agent for the fetus. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trial Register (31 July 2012) and the reference lists of other Cochrane reviews assessing magnesium sulphate in pregnancy. Randomised controlled trials comparing antenatally administered magnesium sulphate to women at term with placebo, no treatment or a different fetal neuroprotective agent. We also planned to include cluster-randomised trials, and exclude cross-over trials and quasi-randomised trials. We planned to exclude studies reported as abstracts only. Two review authors independently assessed trials for eligibility and for risk of bias. Two authors independently extracted data. Data were checked for accuracy. We included one trial (involving 135 women with mild pre-eclampsia at term). An additional six studies are awaiting further assessment.The included trial compared magnesium sulphate with a placebo and was at a low risk of bias. The trial did not report any of this review's prespecified primary outcomes. There was no significant difference between magnesium sulphate and placebo in Apgar score less than seven at five minutes (risk ratio (RR) 0.51; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.05 to 5.46; 135 infants), nor gestational age at birth (mean difference (MD) -0.20 weeks; 95% CI -0.62 to 0.22; 135 infants).There were

  19. Long-term assessment of the physical, mental, and sexual health among transsexual women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyers, Steven; Elaut, Els; De Sutter, Petra; Gerris, Jan; T'Sjoen, Guy; Heylens, Gunter; De Cuypere, Griet; Verstraelen, Hans

    2009-03-01

    Transsexualism is the most extreme form of gender identity disorder and most transsexuals eventually pursue sex reassignment surgery (SRS). In transsexual women, this comprises removal of the male reproductive organs, creation of a neovagina and clitoris, and often implantation of breast prostheses. Studies have shown good sexual satisfaction after transition. However, long-term follow-up data on physical, mental and sexual functioning are lacking. To gather information on physical, mental, and sexual well-being, health-promoting behavior and satisfaction with gender-related body features of transsexual women who had undergone SRS. Fifty transsexual women who had undergone SRS >or=6 months earlier were recruited. Self-reported physical and mental health using the Dutch version of the Short-Form-36 (SF-36) Health Survey; sexual functioning using the Dutch version of the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). Satisfaction with gender-related bodily features as well as with perceived female appearance; importance of sex, relationship quality, necessity and advisability of gynecological exams, as well as health concerns and feelings of regret concerning transition were scored. Compared with reference populations, transsexual women scored good on physical and mental level (SF-36). Gender-related bodily features were shown to be of high value. Appreciation of their appearance as perceived by others, as well as their own satisfaction with their self-image as women obtained a good score (8 and 9, respectively). However, sexual functioning as assessed through FSFI was suboptimal when compared with biological women, especially the sublevels concerning arousal, lubrication, and pain. Superior scores concerning sexual function were obtained in those transsexual women who were in a relationship and in heterosexuals. Transsexual women function well on a physical, emotional, psychological and social level. With respect to sexuality, they suffer from specific difficulties

  20. Work and family: associations with long-term sick-listing in Swedish women ? a case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Sandmark Hélène

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background The number of Swedish women who are long-term sick-listed is high, and twice as high as for men. Also the periods of sickness absence have on average been longer for women than for men. The objective of this study was to investigate the associations between factors in work- and family life and long-term sick-listing in Swedish women. Methods This case-control study included 283 women on long-term sick-listing ≥90 days, and 250 female referents, randomly chosen, living in f...

  1. A prospective pilot study of Dilapan-S compared with Propess for induction of labour at 41+ weeks in nulliparous pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, David A; O'Reilly, Claire; McHale, Helen; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M; Mahony, Rhona

    2017-12-21

    The incidence of labour induction has risen worldwide over the past decade, and this may contribute to the rising caesarean delivery rate. The mechanisms for induction of labour are generally divided into two categories: mechanical and pharmacological. The objective of this study was to determine if mechanical induction with Dilapan-S is an acceptable, safe method of induction of labour in post-dates uncomplicated nulliparous pregnancy. This was a single-centre prospective observational pilot study trial. Fifty-two low-risk nulliparous women with an unfavourable cervix, scheduled for induction of labour for post-dates ≥ 41 weeks gestation, were offered induction of labour with Dilapan-S or Propess from May 2016 until November 2016. The primary outcomes measured were compliance to study protocol and maternal (infection, hyperstimulation) and neonatal outcomes (Apgar score at birth). The secondary outcome measures included change in Bishop's score and caesarean delivery rate. Compliance to study protocol was 25/26 (96%); it was possible to insert Dilapan-S in all but one woman. There were no differences in maternal and neonatal primary outcomes between the groups. There were no cases in either arm of hyperstimulation with either induction method. No difference between the groups was noted in the caesarean delivery rate nor in the mean change in Bishop's score. Dilapan-S is an acceptable, safe form of induction of labour in post-dates uncomplicated nulliparous pregnancy. No cases of hyperstimulation were found, and therefore, Dilapan-S may be a suitable option for outpatient induction of labour in low-risk post-dates nulliparas.

  2. The study of subjective feelings of loneliness older women in terms of suicide risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kudryashov E.L.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of the study of subjective feeling lonely older women and their actual social status in terms of the propensity to suicidal behavior. Hypothesized that the level of suicide risk in older women reveals a closer connection with the severity of subjective feelings of loneliness than with the degree of objective social isolation. The study involved 52 women aged 55 to 75 years old who do not have mental disorders and debilitating physical illness. The main methods of study was the analysis of medical records, interview and psychological testing formalized. Data used for U-Mann-Whitney test, H-Kruskal-Wallis test, and Pearson criterion 2 Spearman rank correlation method. It is shown that the severity of suicidal risk in the studied sample is really linked to the level of subjective feelings of loneliness (p≤0,05, in respect of the same objective social isolation test found no such relationship.

  3. Effect of long-term Hormone Replacement Therapy on Plasma Homocysteine in Postmenopausal Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jonna S; Kristensen, Søren R; Klitgaard, Niels A

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the long-term effect of hormone replacement therapy on total homocysteine and to study whether there was any difference in effect between opposed and unopposed hormone replacement therapy or whether the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677......T polymorphism was associated with the effect of hormone replacement therapy on total homocysteine. STUDY DESIGN: Two hundred nine healthy postmenopausal women were randomized to hormone replacement therapy (n = 103) or no substitution (n = 106) 5 to 7 years earlier. RESULTS: Women who received...... hormone replacement therapy had significantly lower total homocysteine concentrations than women in the control group; median total homocysteine values were 8.6 micromol/L and 9.7 micromol/L, respectively, in a per-protocol analysis (P =.02). The effect was comparable in all methylenetetrahydrofolate...

  4. Placental pathology in HIV infection at term: a comparison with HIV-uninfected women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalk, Emma; Schubert, Pawel; Bettinger, Julie A; Cotton, Mark F; Esser, Monika; Slogrove, Amy; Wright, Colleen A

    2017-05-01

    To describe and correlate placental characteristics from pregnancies in HIV-infected and HIV-negative women with maternal and infant clinical and immunological data. Prospective descriptive study of placentas from term, uncomplicated vaginal births in a cohort of HIV-infected (n = 120) and HIV-negative (n = 103) women in Cape Town, South Africa. Microscopic and macroscopic features were used to determine pathological cluster diagnoses. The majority of HIV-infected women received some form of drug treatment for the prevention of vertical transmission of HIV. Data were analysed using logistic regression. HIV-infected women were older (median [IQR] 27.4 years [24-31] vs. 25.8 [23-30]), more likely to be multiparous (81.7% vs. 71.8%) and had lower CD4 counts (median [IQR] 323.5 cells/ml [235-442] vs. 467 [370-656]). There were no differences in gestational age at first antenatal visit or at delivery. The proportion of specimens with placental lesions was similar in both groups (39.2% vs. 44.7%). Half of all samples were below the tenth percentile expected-weight-for-gestation regardless of HIV status. This was unaffected by adjustment for confounding variables. Maternal vascular malperfusion (MVM) was more frequent in HIV infection (24.2% vs. 12.6%; P = 0.028), an association which strengthened after adjustment (aOR 2.90 [95% confidence interval 1.11-7.57]). Otherwise the frequency of individual diagnoses did not differ between the groups on multivariate analysis. In this cohort of term, uncomplicated pregnant women, few differences were observed between the HIV-infected and uninfected groups apart from MVM. This lesion may underlie the development of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, which have been observed at higher rates in some HIV-infected women on ART. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Long-term intake of nuts in relation to cognitive function in older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, J; Okereke, O; Devore, E; Rosner, B; Breteler, M; Grodstein, F

    2014-05-01

    Nuts contain nutrients that may benefit brain health; thus, we examined long-term intake of nuts in relation to cognition in older women. Population-based prospective cohort study. Academic research using data from the Nurses' Health Study. Nut intake was assessed in a food-frequency questionnaire beginning in1980, and approximately every four years thereafter. Between 1995-2001, 16,010 women age 70 or older (mean age = 74 years) without a history of stroke were administered 4 repeated telephone-based cognitive interviews over 6 years. Our final sample included 15,467 women who completed an initial cognitive interview and had complete information on nut intake. The Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status (TICS), a global score averaging the results of all tests (TICS, immediate and delayed verbal recall, category fluency, and attention), and a verbal memory score averaging the results of tests of verbal recall. In multivariable-adjusted linear regression models, higher long-term total nut intake was associated with better average cognitive status for all cognitive outcomes. For the global composite score combining all tests, women consuming at least 5 servings of nuts/week had higher scores than non-consumers (mean difference=0.08 standard units, 95% confidence interval 0.00-0.15; p-trend=0.003). This mean difference of 0.08 is equivalent to the mean difference we find between women 2 years apart in age. Long-term intake of nuts was not associated with rates of cognitive decline. Higher nut intake may be related to better overall cognition at older ages, and could be an easily-modifiable public health intervention.

  6. Effects of long-term vegetarian diets on cardiovascular autonomic functions in healthy postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Chin-Hua; Yang, Cheryl C H; Lin, Chin-Lon; Kuo, Terry B J

    2006-02-01

    The incidence of cardiovascular disease is higher in postmenopausal women than in premenopausal women. We hypothesized that long-term vegetarian diets might modulate cardiovascular autonomic functions measured by frequency-domain techniques in healthy postmenopausal women. A total of 35 healthy vegetarians (mean age +/- SEM 55.0 +/- 1.3 years) who had been vegetarians for > or =2 years and 35 omnivores (55.1 +/- 1.4 years) participated in this study. These subjects were all postmenopausal without hormone replacement therapy. Fluctuations in arterial blood pressure and heart rate variability were diffracted into low-frequency (0.04 to 0.15 Hz) and high-frequency (0.15 to 0.4 Hz) segments. Cardiovascular autonomic functions and baroreflex sensitivity were evaluated by specific frequency-domain measures. The vegetarians had statistically lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and lower serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, fasting blood sugar, and hemoglobin levels compared with the nonvegetarians. They also exhibited a significantly higher high-frequency power of heart rate variability and increased baroreflex sensitivity than did omnivores. No statistical differences were found in the low-frequency/high-frequency ratio or percentage of low frequency of heart rate variability between the 2 groups. In conclusion, in addition to the lower blood pressure and lipid concentrations in vegetarians, long-term vegetarian diets may facilitate vagal regulation of the heart and increase baroreflex sensitivity in healthy postmenopausal women, without increasing the sympathetic modulations of the cardiovascular system.

  7. Distensibility and strength of the pelvic floor muscles of women in the third trimester of pregnancy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Petricelli, Carla Dellabarba; Resende, Ana Paula Magalhães; Elito Júnior, Julio; Araujo Júnior, Edward; Alexandre, Sandra Maria; Zanetti, Miriam Raquel Diniz; Nakamura, Mary Uchiyama

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the role of the pelvic floor muscles between nulliparous and multiparous women in the third trimester of pregnancy, by analyzing the relationship between electrical activity...

  8. African-American Women's Long-term Maintenance of Physical Activity Following a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbur, JoEllen; Miller, Arlene M; Buchholz, Susan W; Fogg, Louis F; Braun, Lynne T; Halloway, Shannon; Schoeny, Michael E

    2017-07-01

    Our purpose was to determine long-term maintenance of physical activity (PA) following the 48-week Women's Lifestyle PA program, targeted/tailored for African-American women. The parent study consisted of a 3-arm randomized clinical trial with 3 assessment points: baseline (pre-intervention); 24 weeks post-baseline (end active intervention); and 48 weeks post-baseline (end maintenance intervention). Present analyses supplement the original results by adding a long-term maintenance assessment that occurred 2 to 4 years post-baseline. Participants were 288 African-American women aged 40 to 65 without major signs/symptoms of pulmonary/cardiovascular disease. The active intervention included 5 group meetings, with 9 personal motivational calls, 9 automated motivational calls, or no calls between meetings. The maintenance intervention included one group meeting and either 2 calls or no calls. PA was assessed with the Community Healthy Activities Model Program for Seniors. Retention was 90%. Over long-term maintenance, there was a decline in PA, but levels remained significantly higher than baseline for moderate/vigorous PA (p maintenance of PA increases resulting from group meetings in an active intervention occur when followed by a maintenance intervention.

  9. Yoga for Adult Women with Chronic PTSD: A Long-Term Follow-Up Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Alison; Spinazzola, Joseph; van der Kolk, Bessel

    2016-03-01

    Yoga-the integrative practice of physical postures and movement, breath exercises, and mindfulness-may serve as a useful adjunctive component of trauma-focused treatment to build skills in tolerating and modulating physiologic and affective states that have become dysregulated by trauma exposure. A previous randomized controlled study was carried out among 60 women with chronic, treatment-resistant post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and associated mental health problems stemming from prolonged or multiple trauma exposures. After 10 sessions of yoga, participants exhibited statistically significant decreases in PTSD symptom severity and greater likelihood of loss of PTSD diagnosis, significant decreases in engagement in negative tension reduction activities (e.g., self-injury), and greater reductions in dissociative and depressive symptoms when compared with the control (a seminar in women's health). The current study is a long-term follow-up assessment of participants who completed this randomized controlled trial. Participants from the randomized controlled trial were invited to participate in long-term follow-up assessments approximately 1.5 years after study completion to assess whether the initial intervention and/or yoga practice after treatment was associated with additional changes. Forty-nine women completed the long-term follow-up interviews. Hierarchical regression analysis was used to examine whether treatment group status in the original study and frequency of yoga practice after the study predicted greater changes in symptoms and PTSD diagnosis. Group assignment in the original randomized study was not a significant predictor of longer-term outcomes. However, frequency of continuing yoga practice significantly predicted greater decreases in PTSD symptom severity and depression symptom severity, as well as a greater likelihood of a loss of PTSD diagnosis. Yoga appears to be a useful treatment modality; the greatest long-term benefits are derived from

  10. Provision or Good Genes? Menstrual Cycle Shifts in Women's Preferences for Short-Term and Long-Term Mates' Altruistic Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryo Oda

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Men's altruism may have evolved, via female choice, as a signal of either their genetic quality or their willingness to allocate resources to offspring. The possibility that men display altruism to signal their genetic quality may be tested by examining women's preference for men's altruism across the stages of the menstrual cycle. Because women can maximize reproductive benefits by mating with men who have “good genes” on high-fertility versus low-fertility days, women should show a heightened preference for male altruism on high-fertility days compared to low-fertility days, and this heightened preference should be more apparent when women evaluate men for short-term sexual relationships than for long-term committed relationships. The possibility that men display altruism to signal their willingness to provision, as opposed to their genetic quality, may be tested by examining women's preference for men's altruism toward different recipients. More specifically, altruistic behavior toward family members may reflect a willingness to provide resources for kin and, hence, willingness to provision, whereas altruistic behavior toward strangers may function as an honest signal of genetic quality. In two samples of young women (TVs = 131 and 481, we found no differences between high- and low-fertility participants in preference for men's altruism, and women preferred men's altruism more in long-term than short-term relationships. The findings suggest that men's altruistic behavior functions as a signal of willingness to provide resources rather than genetic quality.

  11. Provision or good genes? Menstrual cycle shifts in women's preferences for short-term and long-term mates' altruistic behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Ryo; Okuda, Akari; Takeda, Mia; Hiraishi, Kai

    2014-10-23

    Men's altruism may have evolved, via female choice, as a signal of either their genetic quality or their willingness to allocate resources to offspring. The possibility that men display altruism to signal their genetic quality may be tested by examining women's preference for men's altruism across the stages of the menstrual cycle. Because women can maximize reproductive benefits by mating with men who have "good genes" on high-fertility versus low-fertility days, women should show a heightened preference for male altruism on high-fertility days compared to low-fertility days, and this heightened preference should be more apparent when women evaluate men for short-term sexual relationships than for long-term committed relationships. The possibility that men display altruism to signal their willingness to provision, as opposed to their genetic quality, may be tested by examining women's preference for men's altruism toward different recipients. More specifically, altruistic behavior toward family members may reflect a willingness to provide resources for kin and, hence, willingness to provision, whereas altruistic behavior toward strangers may function as an honest signal of genetic quality. In two samples of young women (Ns = 131 and 481), we found no differences between high- and low-fertility participants in preference for men's altruism, and women preferred men's altruism more in long-term than short-term relationships. The findings suggest that men's altruistic behavior functions as a signal of willingness to provide resources rather than genetic quality.

  12. [Regional inequalities of health status of pregnant women in Hungary - Long-term series analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moravcsik-Kornyicki, Ágota; Kósa, Zsigmond; Gyulai, Anikó; Jávorné Erdei, Renáta; Kósa, Karolina

    2017-07-01

    Monitoring the health status of populations is essential for good health policy decisions. This is particularly true in maternal and child health where targeted and timely interventions may have long-term consequences. Our objective was to describe changes in the health status of pregnant women at the national and county level during the period of 1997-2012. Data were extracted from the mandatory annual reports of district nurses responsible for primary maternal care. Information on the smoking status of expecting mothers, special care during pregnancy, pregnant women entering into maternity care after 28 weeks of pregnancy, borne woman without district nurse care were analysed using Microsoft Excel and STATA 13.0. The mean prevalence of smoking was 13.8% among pregnant women during the investigation period. The ratio of smoking pregnant women was higher (p<0.01) in Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén, Nógrád, Heves, Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg, and Somogy counties. The ratio of pregnants requiring special care was higher (p<0.01) than the national average in Somogy, Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg, Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén and Nógrád counties. More, than 1% of the pregnant women entered into care only after the 28th week of the pregnancy. Women who were registered by district nurses and gave birth less than 1% did not participate in pregnant nursing. National data hide significant regional disparities within the country which should be amended by targeted interventions, taking into account the large regional inequalities in the country. Orv Hetil. 2017; 158(29): 1131-1142.

  13. Benefits of repeated individual dietary counselling in long-term weight control in women after delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaakkola, Johanna; Isolauri, Erika; Poussa, Tuija; Laitinen, Kirsi

    2015-10-01

    As pregnancy may trigger overweight in women, new means for its prevention are being sought. The aim here was to investigate the effect of individual dietary counselling during and after pregnancy on post-partum weight and waist circumference up to 4 years post-partum. A cohort of women (n = 256) were randomized to receive repeated individual dietary counselling by a nutritionist during and after pregnancy, or as controls not receiving dietary counselling, from the first trimester of pregnancy until 6 months after delivery. Counselling aimed to bring dietary intake into line with recommendations, with particular focus on the increase in the intake of unsaturated fatty acids instead of saturated. Pre-pregnancy weight was taken from welfare clinic records. Weight and waist circumference were measured at 4 years after delivery. The proportion of overweight women increased from 26% prior to pregnancy to 30% at 4 years after delivery among women receiving dietary counselling, as against considerably more, from 32% to 57%, among controls. The prevalence of central adiposity was 31% in women receiving dietary counselling, 64% in controls. Likewise, both the risk of overweight (odds ratio: 0.23, 0.08-0.63, P = 0.005) and central adiposity (odds ratio: 0.18, 0.06-0.52, P = 0.002) were lower in women receiving dietary counselling compared with controls. Repeated dietary counselling initiated in early pregnancy can be beneficial in long-term weight control after delivery. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Joint effects of nulliparity and other breast cancer risk factors

    OpenAIRE

    Opdahl, S.; Alsaker, M D K; Janszky, I; Romundstad, P R; Vatten, L J

    2011-01-01

    Background: Pregnancy may reduce breast cancer risk through induction of persistent changes of the mammary gland that make the breast less susceptible to carcinogenic factors. It is not known to what extent the effects of parity are independent of other breast cancer risk factors. Methods: In a Norwegian cohort of 58 191 women (2890 breast cancers), we assessed whether the effects of parity on postmenopausal breast cancer risk may be modified by menstrual and anthropometric factors. We calcul...

  15. Short-term strength training improves muscle quality and functional capacity of elderly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Ronei Silveira; Correa, Cleiton Silva; Radaelli, Regis; Cadore, Eduardo Lusa; Brown, Lee E; Bottaro, Martim

    2014-02-01

    To assess effects of a short-term strength training (ST) program on muscle quality (MQ) and functional capacity, 36 sedentary elderly women (age = 66.0 ± 8 year, height = 159.1 ± 9.2 cm, body mass = 68.3 ± 12.1 kg, body fat = 37.0 ± 4.2 %) were randomly divided into an experimental group (EG; n = 19) or a control group (CG; n = 17). The EG performed two to three sets of 12-15 repeats of leg press, knee extension, and knee flexion exercises, 2 days/week for 6 weeks. Before and after training, lower body one repetition maximum (1RM), functional performance tests, quadriceps femoris muscle thickness (MT), and muscle quality (MQ) (1RM and quadriceps MT quotient) were assessed. After training, only the EG showed significant improvements in 1RM (p elderly women, which resulted in beneficial changes in functional capacity.

  16. Women's experiences of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy in a short-term perspective--a qualitative content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlviken, Rønnaug M; Fridlund, Bengt; Mathisen, Lars

    2015-06-01

    Takotsubo cardiomyopathy is a reversible condition mimicking acute myocardial infarction. The phenomenon is associated with emotional and physical stressful trigger events. Evidence-based patient counselling should be based on disease-specific knowledge of patient experiences. The aim of the study was to describe women's experiences of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy in a short-term perspective. The study design was explorative and descriptive. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 14 women diagnosed with Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, 1 day to 9 months after hospitalisation. The transcriptions underwent qualitative content analysis. The main theme that emerged was Takotsubo cardiomyopathy as a continuous process of making sense and adapting. To begin with, understanding and coping with signs and symptoms were described as having a diversity of signs and symptoms, taking actions towards signs and symptoms, receiving treatment for suspected ST/non ST-elevation myocardial infarction diagnosis and finally being diagnosed with Takotsubo cardiomyopathy. Understanding the context of illness was expressed as getting treated for Takotsubo cardiomyopathy diagnosis and having previous stressful conditions of life. The changing perspective that emanated was a combination of having prospects and expectations and experiencing limitations. Finally, managing to live with Takotsubo cardiomyopathy was manifested as returning home with the illness and receiving follow-up health care. Information on regaining prior health status and capacity within a short-term perspective may not be accurate. These women struggle and require education and counselling from healthcare professionals to comprehend and manage having a Takotsubo cardiomyopathy diagnosis. Women experiencing Takotsubo cardiomyopathy may be a target group for holistic and individual health care with a longer duration of follow-up. © 2014 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  17. Mode of childbirth and long-term outcomes in women with inflammatory bowel diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananthakrishnan, Ashwin N; Cheng, Alice; Cagan, Andrew; Cai, Tianxi; Gainer, Vivian S; Shaw, Stanley Y; Churchill, Susanne; Karlson, Elizabeth W; Murphy, Shawn N; Kohane, Isaac; Liao, Katherine P

    2015-02-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases [IBD; Crohn's disease (CD), ulcerative colitis] often affect women in their reproductive years. Few studies have analyzed the impact of mode of childbirth on long-term IBD outcomes. We used a multi-institutional IBD cohort to identify all women in the reproductive age-group with a diagnosis of IBD prior to pregnancy. We identified the occurrence of a new diagnosis code for perianal complications, IBD-related hospitalization and surgery, and initiation of medical therapy after either a vaginal delivery or caesarean section (CS). Cox proportional hazards models adjusting for potential confounders were used to estimate independent effect of mode of childbirth on IBD outcomes. Our cohort included 360 women with IBD (161 CS). Women in the CS group were likely to be older and more likely to have complicated disease behavior prior to pregnancy. During follow-up, there was no difference in the likelihood of IBD-related surgery (multivariate hazard ratio 1.75, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.40-7.75), IBD-related hospitalization (HR 1.39), initiation of immunomodulator therapy (HR 1.45), or anti-TNF therapy (HR 1.11). Among the 133 CD pregnancies with no prior perianal disease, we found no excess risk of subsequent new diagnosis perianal fistulae with vaginal delivery compared to CS (HR 0.19, 95 % CI 0.04-1.05). Mode of delivery did not influence natural history of IBD. In our cohort, vaginal delivery was not associated with increased risk of subsequent perianal disease in women with CD.

  18. Induction of labour for improving birth outcomes for women at or beyond term

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gülmezoglu, A Metin; Crowther, Caroline A; Middleton, Philippa; Heatley, Emer

    2014-01-01

    Background As a pregnancy continues beyond term the risks of babies dying inside the womb or in the immediate newborn period increase. Whether a policy of labour induction at a predetermined gestational age can reduce this increased risk is the subject of this review. Objectives To evaluate the benefits and harms of a policy of labour induction at term or post-term compared with awaiting spontaneous labour or later induction of labour. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (31 March 2012). Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials conducted in women at or beyond term. The eligible trials were those comparing a policy of labour induction with a policy of awaiting spontaneous onset of labour. Cluster-randomised trials and cross-over trials are not included. Quasi-random allocation schemes such as alternation, case record numbers or open random-number lists were not eligible. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion. Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. Data were checked for accuracy. Outcomes are analysed in two main categories: gestational age and cervix status. Main results We included 22 trials reporting on 9383 women. The trials were generally at moderate risk of bias. Compared with a policy of expectant management, a policy of labour induction was associated with fewer (all-cause) perinatal deaths: risk ratio (RR) 0.31, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.12 to 0.88; 17 trials, 7407 women. There was one perinatal death in the labour induction policy group compared with 13 perinatal deaths in the expectant management group. The number needed to treat to benefit (NNTB) with induction of labour in order to prevent one perinatal death was 410 (95% CI 322 to 1492). For the primary outcome of perinatal death and most other outcomes, no differences between timing of induction subgroups were seen; the majority of trials adopted

  19. Sexual dysfunction in women with type 1 diabetes: Long-term findings from the DCCT/ EDIC study cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Enzlin, P.; Rosen, R.; Wiegel, M; Brown, J; Wessells, H.; Gatcomb, P; Rutledge, B; Chan, KL; Cleary, PA

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE - This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and risk factors associated with sexual dysfunction in a well-characterized cohort of women with type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - The study was conducted in women enrolled in the long-term Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (EDIC) study, a North American study of men and women with type 1 diabetes. At year 10 of the EDIC study, 652 female participants were invited to complete a validated self-report...

  20. Long-term residential substance abuse treatment for women: lessons learned from Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schori M

    2012-02-01

    . Analysis of the questionnaires revealed that compared to non-completers, completers had fewer psychiatric symptoms, higher levels of introverted behavior in stressful situations, a better sense of coherence, and less ability to share emotions. No significant differences were found with regard to demographic and substance use factors. All 19 women who completed treatment and the follow-up questionnaire remained abstinent from illicit drugs for 18 months following the end of treatment.Conclusion: Results indicate that women see the women-only treatment setting as extremely significant. Also, there is a profile of psychiatric co-morbidity, extrapunitiveness, and fewer personal resources that predict a risk for attrition. Thus, women at risk for attrition may be identified early and treatment staff can utilize the results to assist clients in achieving their treatment goals. Results can inform policymakers in making decisions regarding the allocation of resources, by pointing to the importance of long-term women-only residential treatment in increasing positive treatment outcomes.Keywords: gender, drug abuse, therapeutic community, mixed methods, program evaluation

  1. Second trimester hepatic rupture in a 35 year old nulliparous woman with HELLP syndrome: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Brien N

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The HELLP syndrome (haemolysis, elevated liver blood tests and low platelets is a serious complication in pregnancy characterized by haemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and low platelet count occurring in 0.5 to 0.9% of all pregnancies and in 10–20% of cases with severe preeclampsia. Hepatic capsular rupture is a rare yet dramatic complication of HELLP syndrome. The majority of cases occur in multiparous women over the age of 30. Classically it presents with acute onset right upper quadrant pain in the presence of constitutional symptoms such as vomiting and pyrexia. However, symptoms and signs are usually non specific. Spontaneous hepatic rupture can be preceded by signs of hypovolaemic shock; yet the diagnosis is infrequently made prior to emergent laparotomy. We present the case of a 35 year old nulliparous woman with a second trimester gestational hepatic rupture associated with HELLP syndrome. We briefly discuss the aetiology, diagnostic difficulties and treatment options associated with this rare presentation.

  2. Teenage pregnancy and long-term mental health outcomes among Indigenous women in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, Chloé G; Brown, Hilary K; Benoit, Anita C

    2017-11-22

    Our objectives were to (1) compare the risks for poor long-term mental health outcomes among indigenous women with and without a teenage pregnancy and (2) determine if community and cultural factors modify this risk. We conducted a secondary analysis of the 2012 Aboriginal Peoples Survey. Respondents were women aged 25 to 49 years who had given birth to at least one child. Teenage mothers (age at first birth 13 to 19 years; n = 1330) were compared to adult mothers (age at first birth 20 years or older; n = 2630). Mental health outcomes were psychological distress, mental health status, suicide ideation/attempt, and alcohol consumption. To address objective 1, we used binary logistic regression analyses before and after controlling for covariates. To address objective 2, we tested the significance of interaction terms between teenage pregnancy status and effect measure modifiers. In unadjusted analyses, teenage pregnancy was associated with increased risk for poor/fair mental health [odds ratio (OR) 1.77, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.24-2.53] and suicide attempt/ideation (OR 1.95, 95% CI 1.07-3.54). However, the associations were not statistically significant after adjusting for demographic, socioeconomic, environmental, and health covariates. Teenage pregnancy was not associated with increased risk for high psychological distress or heavy alcohol consumption in unadjusted or adjusted analyses. The interaction term for involvement in cultural activities was statistically significant for poor/fair mental health; however, after stratification, ORs were non-significant. Among indigenous mothers, teenage pregnancy was less important than broader social and health circumstances in predicting long-term mental health.

  3. Long-term psychological distress in women at risk for hereditary breast cancer adhering to regular surveillance: a risk profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Heijer, Mariska; Seynaeve, Caroline; Vanheusden, Kathleen; Timman, Reinier; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J; Tilanus-Linthorst, Madeleine; Menke-Pluijmers, Marian B E; Tibben, Aad

    2013-03-01

    Some women at risk for hereditary breast cancer are at increased risk of psychological distress. In order to tailor support for individual women, the availability of a tool enabling the identification of psychologically vulnerable women at an early stage is warranted. The objectives of this study were (1) to explore long-term psychological distress in women at risk for hereditary breast cancer adhering to regular surveillance, and (2) to identify women being vulnerable for long-term psychological distress, defined in terms of a multifactorial risk profile. General distress and cancer-related distress were assessed at baseline (T0) and after 5-8 years (T1) in 197 high-risk women adhering to breast cancer surveillance. Coping styles, occurrence of breast cancer in the family of origin, breast cancer risk perception, and frequency of breast self-examination, as assessed at T0, were examined as predictor variables for long-term distress (T1). Across time, women reported a significant reduction in intrusion and avoidance. Intrusion levels were increased among women who had lost a first-degree relative to breast cancer. Predictors of increased long-term distress were passive and palliative coping styles, excessive breast self-examination, and overestimation of breast cancer risk. On the other hand, coping through fostering reassuring thoughts was predictive for decreased long-term distress. On the basis of the identified risk profile, it is possible to identify vulnerable women at an early stage, who then may be offered additional and individually tailored support. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. A service evaluation of women attending the menopause/premature ovarian failure clinic of a tertiary referral centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, B; Holloway, D; Grace, J; Robinson, J; Rymer, J

    2012-05-01

    This service evaluation aimed to characterise the referrals to the premature ovarian failure clinic, including the type of referral and patient needs, in order to plan for future service provision. The majority of women seen in the clinic experienced idiopathic premature ovarian failure, were aged 30-39 and were nulliparous at the time of diagnosis. Our service requires to be tailored to their needs. For many women, this includes a fertility consultation in the clinic and this part of the service is well used. Our data support the long-term follow-up of women both on treatment and those who initially decline treatment. Most women who initially decline treatment accept it after a few clinic visits. This may be due to consistent advice on the benefits of oestrogen treatment or due to yearly bone scans showing a change in bone density. There was a high non-attendance rate in this group: 21% of appointments were not attended.

  5. Age related neural adaptation following short term resistance training in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemben, M G; Murphy, R E

    2001-09-01

    This study examined the influence of age on neural facilitation and neural cross-education following short term unilateral dynamic resistance training with the hypothesis that older women may have a diminished ability for adaptation. This was a prospective, repeated measures design. The non-dominant left arm served as a control limb and follow-up testing was performed two weeks after pretesting. Testing was conducted in the Neuromuscular Research Laboratory at the University of Oklahoma. 20 females (n=10, young (YF) 20.8+/-0.1 yrs; n=10, older (OF) 58.1+/-0.14) were assessed. 14 days of training of the right elbow flexors only. On each day, subjects performed four sets of ten repetitions using 70 percent of maximal strength of the biceps brachii. The following variables in both right and left elbow flexor muscle groups were evaluated; isometric strength (IMS), efficiency of electrical activity (EEA) and estimated upper arm cross-sectional area (CSA). There were significant increases (peffects. Short term unilateral dynamic resistance training is a sufficient stimulus to induce significant strength increases in both trained and untrained contralateral limbs and that a neural mechanism is responsible for the muscular adaptation in both young and older women. Implication exists for unilateral stroke victims, individuals with single hip or knee replacements, or single limb casts.

  6. Wireless fetal heart rate monitoring in inpatient full-term pregnant women: testing functionality and acceptability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeline A Boatin

    Full Text Available We tested functionality and acceptability of a wireless fetal monitoring prototype technology in pregnant women in an inpatient labor unit in the United States. Women with full-term singleton pregnancies and no evidence of active labor were asked to wear the prototype technology for 30 minutes. We assessed functionality by evaluating the ability to successfully monitor the fetal heartbeat for 30 minutes, transmit this data to Cloud storage and view the data on a web portal. Three obstetricians also rated fetal cardiotocographs on ease of readability. We assessed acceptability by administering closed and open-ended questions on perceived utility and likeability to pregnant women and clinicians interacting with the prototype technology. Thirty-two women were enrolled, 28 of whom (87.5% successfully completed 30 minutes of fetal monitoring including transmission of cardiotocographs to the web portal. Four sessions though completed, were not successfully uploaded to the Cloud storage. Six non-study clinicians interacted with the prototype technology. The primary technical problem observed was a delay in data transmission between the prototype and the web portal, which ranged from 2 to 209 minutes. Delays were ascribed to Wi-Fi connectivity problems. Recorded cardiotocographs received a mean score of 4.2/5 (± 1.0 on ease of readability with an interclass correlation of 0.81(95%CI 0.45, 0.96. Both pregnant women and clinicians found the prototype technology likable (81.3% and 66.7% respectively, useful (96.9% and 66.7% respectively, and would either use it again or recommend its use to another pregnant woman (77.4% and 66.7% respectively. In this pilot study we found that this wireless fetal monitoring prototype technology has potential for use in a United States inpatient setting but would benefit from some technology changes. We found it to be acceptable to both pregnant women and clinicians. Further research is needed to assess feasibility of

  7. Renal Function in Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women in Calabar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pregnancy affects the physiology of the pregnant woman, particularly the cardiovascular, renal and endocrine systems. In this study 120 adult women were divided into four groups of two non-pregnant and two pregnant women consisting of 30 women each. The non-pregnant were the nulliparous (control of 30 women) and ...

  8. Improving reproductive long-term prognosis for women with a first ectopic pregnancy. A national controlled follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egerup, Pia; Kårhus, Line Lund; Skovlund, Charlotte Wessel; Lidegaard, Ojvind

    2014-05-01

    To describe developments in reproductive long-term prognosis in women with a first ectopic pregnancy as compared with two control cohorts. Controlled cohort study. Data were collected from four national Danish registries. All Danish women of reproductive age (15-49 years) through the period 1977-2009 and all reproductive outcomes in these women. Data were collected from four national Danish registries. Three cohorts of women with a first recorded ectopic pregnancy during the periods 1980-84, 1985-89, and 1990-94, were compared with age-matched controls with a first miscarriage and a first induced abortion and followed for 15 years for all further pregnancy outcomes. Pregnancy outcomes included deliveries, miscarriages, induced abortions and ectopic pregnancies. The birth rate for women with a first ectopic pregnancy increased significantly through the three cohorts from 85 to 122 deliveries/100 women during the follow-up period. The risk of miscarriages also increased over time, whereas the risk of further ectopic pregnancies remained unchanged at 22-24 events/100 women. Compared to women with a first miscarriage, the rate ratio for deliveries increased from 0.59 (95% CI 0.56-0.63) to 0.71 (95% CI 0.68-0.75) over the time covering the three cohorts. The long-term delivery rate among women with a first ectopic pregnancy has improved significantly over time. © 2014 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  9. Perinatal outcome in women with recurrent preeclampsia compared with women who develop preeclampsia as nulliparas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hnat, Michael D; Sibai, Baha M; Caritis, Steve; Hauth, John; Lindheimer, Marshall D; MacPherson, Cora; VanDorsten, J Peter; Landon, Mark; Miodovnik, Menachem; Paul, Richard; Meis, Paul; Thurnau, Gary; Dombrowski, Mitchell

    2002-03-01

    To compare the rates and perinatal outcome in women who experienced preeclampsia in a previous pregnancy to those in women who developed preeclampsia as nulliparas. This is a secondary analysis of data from 2 separate multi-center trials of aspirin for prevention of preeclampsia. Women who had preeclampsia in a previous pregnancy (n = 598) were compared with nulliparous women (n = 2934). Outcome variables were rates of preeclampsia, preterm delivery at <37 and <35 weeks of gestation, small-for-gestational-age infant, abruptio placentae, and perinatal death. Data were compared by using chi-square analysis and Wilcoxon rank sum test. The rates of preeclampsia and of severe preeclampsia were significantly higher in the previous preeclamptic group as compared to the nulliparous group (17.9% vs 5.3%, P <.0001, and 7.5% vs. 2.4%, P <.0001, respectively). Women who had recurrent preeclampsia experienced more preterm deliveries before 37 and 35 weeks of gestation than nulliparous women who developed preeclampsia. In addition, among women who developed severe preeclampsia, those with recurrent preeclampsia had higher rates of preterm delivery both before 37 weeks (67% vs 33%, P =.0004) and before 35 weeks of gestation (36% vs 19%, P =.041), and higher rates of abruptio placentae (6.7% vs 1.5%) and fetal death (6.7% vs 1.4%) than did nulliparous women. Compared to nulliparous women, women with preeclampsia in a previous pregnancy had significantly higher rates of preeclampsia and adverse perinatal outcomes associated with preterm delivery as a result of preeclampsia.

  10. Endometrial receptivity in terms of pinopode expression is not impaired in women with endometriosis in artificially prepared cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Velasco, J A; Nikas, G; Remohí, J; Pellicer, A; Simón, C

    2001-06-01

    To assess endometrial receptivity in terms of pinopode expression in women with endometriosis. Prospective, observational study. Oocyte donation program at the Instituto Valenciano de Infertilidad. Twelve women with endometriosis as the only cause of infertility. Pinopode expression pattern analysis by scanning electron microscopy in two sequential endometrial biopsies obtained in the same cycle of each patient. Pinopode pattern and pregnancy rates. Pinopode expression in women with endometriosis did not differ from that of patients without endometriosis undergoing artificial cycles. Similarly, the clinical outcome in these women was comparable to that of the general population included in the oocyte donation program. The pregnancy rate per transfer was 46.7%. These results show that in women with endometriosis undergoing oocyte donation under hormone replacement therapy, pinopode expression is not altered, suggesting that endometrial receptivity in women with this disease remains unaltered.

  11. Obesity-related complications in Danish single cephalic term pregnancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Line; Nilas, Lisbeth; Wøjdemann, Karen

    2005-01-01

    extraction. Obese women had an increased risk of delivering macrosomic but also low birth weight children. No differences existed among the 3 weight groups with regard to neonatal morbidity estimated by Apgar score, umbilical cord pH, or admittance to a neonatal intensive care unit. Nulliparous women had...

  12. [Long-term benzodiazepine use in women at a daycare center for older people].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huf, G; Lopes, C d; Rozenfeld, S

    2000-01-01

    While experts recommend caution against long-term benzodiazepine use in the elderly, survey data suggests that the use of benzodiazepine increase with age. The patterns of benzodiazepine use and factors associated with long-term use in population at risk were studied with a standarlized questionnaire applied to 634 women over 60, who attended a daycare center for older people in Rio de Janeiro between May, 1992 and December, 1995. Prevalence of benzodiazepine use in the last 15 days was 21.3% (CI 95% 18.1-24.5), and prevalence of daily use for 12 or more months was 7.4% (CI 95% 5.4-9.4). In a multivaried analysis the amount of drugs being consumed displayed an important and progressive association with long-term benzodiazepine use, with OR = 2.77 (CI 95% 1.17-6.57) for those who take from four to six drugs, and OR = 7.62 (CI 95% 3.18-18.26) for those who take more than seven drugs. Insomnia (OR = 8.87 CI 95% 2.53-31.06) and chronic headache (OR = 3.53 CI 95% 1.82-6.89) have also been associated with this pattern of use.

  13. A long-term retrospective study of young women with essential thrombocythemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tefferi, A; Fonseca, R; Pereira, D L; Hoagland, H C

    2001-01-01

    To describe presenting clinical manifestations, long-term disease complications, prognostic indicators, and outcome of pregnancy for women younger than 50 years with essential thrombocythemia. We retrospectively reviewed the records of all patients with essential thrombocythemia evaluated at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn, between 1969 and 1991 and identified 74 young women (median age, 35 years; range, 18-48 years) with essential thrombocythemia. The diagnosis was based on previously established criteria. Median follow-up was 9.2 years (range, 0.2-26.2 years). Overall survival was similar to that of an age- and sex-matched control population. Thrombotic events (except superficial thrombophlebitis) occurred at and after diagnosis in 11 patients (15%) and 13 patients (18%), respectively. A history of thrombosis at diagnosis was significantly associated with recurrent thrombosis (P = .03). A platelet count higher than 1500 x 10(9)/L at diagnosis was significantly associated with gastrointestinal tract bleeding and subsequent development of venous (but not arterial) thrombosis (P = .04). Major hemorrhagic events occurred in only 3 patients (4%) after diagnosis. Only 1 patient developed acute leukemia. Thirty-four pregnancies occurred in 18 patients. Of these, 17 (50%) resulted in live births. Of the 17 patients with unsuccessful pregnancies, 14 had spontaneous abortions, 1 had an ectopic pregnancy, and 2 had elective abortions. Preconception platelet count, thrombotic history, or specific therapy was not useful in predicting pregnancy outcome. Young women with essential thrombocythemia can expect long survival with a low incidence of life-threatening thrombohemorrhagic complications or acute leukemia. There is an increased incidence of first-trimester miscarriages that may not be influenced by specific therapy.

  14. Long-term women-reported quality of life after radical cystectomy and orthotopic ileal neobladder reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouanne, Mathieu; Legrand, Guillaume; Neuzillet, Yann; Ghoneim, Tarek; Cour, Florence; Letang, Nicolas; Yonneau, Laurent; Hervé, Jean-Marie; Botto, Henry; Lebret, Thierry

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among long-term disease-free survivors in women who underwent radical cystectomy (RC) for urothelial carcinoma and orthotopic ileal neobladder (ONB) reconstruction, using validated patient-reported outcome instruments. From 2000 to 2011, a total of 46 women with urothelial bladder carcinoma had RC and ONB at our institution; 31 (67 %) eligible women completed 3 validated questionnaires: the medical outcome study short form 12 (SF-12), the urinary symptom profile, and the Contilife, respectively evaluating general HRQoL, voiding function, and urinary incontinence specific HRQoL. Unadjusted analyses were performed to analyze standardized measures of HRQoL and voiding symptoms; p women (77 %) considered their health as good, very good, or excellent. The SF-12 physical and mental scores were not significantly different between the population study and the general population (p > 0.05). A total of 20 women (65 %) declared to be fully continent. Daytime incontinence, nighttime incontinence, and hypercontinence were reported by 26, 29, and 31 % of women, respectively. On unadjusted analysis, incontinence was associated with age > 65 years at the time of surgery (p women, ileal neobladder reconstruction provides long-term satisfaction with maintained HRQoL. For properly selected women, orthotopic neobladder can be considered an appropriate diversion choice.

  15. Body mass index and short-term weight change in relation to treatment outcomes in women undergoing assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavarro, Jorge E; Ehrlich, Shelley; Colaci, Daniela S; Wright, Diane L; Toth, Thomas L; Petrozza, John C; Hauser, Russ

    2012-07-01

    To assess the relation between body mass index (BMI) and short-term weight change with assisted reproductive technology (ART) outcomes. Prospective cohort study. Fertility center. A total of 170 women undergoing 233 ART cycles. Baseline BMI and short-term weight change were related to ART outcomes. Regression models accounting for repeated observations were used to adjust data for potential confounders. Peak E2 levels, oocyte yield, MII yield, fertilization rate, embryo quality, postive [beta]-hCH, clinical pregnancy and live birth rates. Overweight and obesity were associated with lower live birth rates. The adjusted live birth rate (95% confidence interval) was 42% (28%-58%) among women with a BMI between 20 and 22.4 kg/m(2) and 23% (14%-36%) among overweight or obese women. Short-term weight loss was associated with a higher proportion of metaphase II (MII) oocytes retrieved. The adjusted proportion of MII eggs was 91% (87%-94%) for women who lost 3 kg or more and 86% (81%-89%) for women whose weight remained stable. This association was stronger among women who were overweight or obese at baseline. Short-term weight loss was unrelated to positive β-hCG, clinical pregnancy, or live birth rates. Overweight and obesity were related to lower live birth rates in women undergoing ART. Short-term weight loss was related to higher MII yield, particularly among overweight and obese women, but unrelated to clinical outcomes. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Urinary metabolomics of pregnant women at term: a combined GC/MS and NMR approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caboni, Pierluigi; Meloni, Alessandra; Lussu, Milena; Carta, Emanuela; Barberini, Luigi; Noto, Antonio; Deiana, Sara Francesca; Mereu, Rossella; Ragusa, Antonio; Paoletti, Anna Maria; Melis, Gian Benedetto; Fanos, Vassilios; Atzori, Luigi

    2014-10-01

    Physiological changes leading to parturition are not completely understood while clinical diagnosis of labour is still retrospective. Gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) represent two of the main analytical platforms used in clinical metabolomics. Metabolomics might help us to improve our knowledge about the biochemical mechanisms underlying labour. Urine samples (n = 59), collected from pregnant women at term of gestation before and/or after the onset of labour, were analysed by GC/MS and NMR techniques in order to identify the metabolic profile. Both GC/MS and NMR data matrices containing the identified metabolites were analysed by multivariate statistical techniques in order to characterise the discriminant variables between labour (L) and not labour (NL) status. 18 potential metabolites (11 with (1)H-NMR, eight with GC-MS: glycine was relevant in both) were found discriminant in urine of women during labour. Taken together, the identified metabolites produced a composite biomarker pattern, a sort of barcode, capable of differentiating between labour and not labour conditions. Major discriminant metabolites for NMR and GC/MS analysis were: alanine, glycine, acetone, 3-hydroxybutiyric acid, 2,3,4-trihydroxybutyric acid and succinic acid, giving a urine metabolite signature on the late phase of labour. The metabolomics analysis evidenced clusters of metabolites involved in labour condition able to discriminate between urine samples collected before the onset and during labour, potentially offering the promise of a robust screening test.

  17. The Effect of Short-Term Aerobic Exercise on Depression and Body Image in Iranian Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sareh Zarshenas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of short-term aerobic exercise on depression symptoms and body image attitudes among Iranian women. In this quasiexperimental study, 82 females were assigned to experimental group (aerobic exercise group, or control group (waiting list, and evaluated by Beck Depression Inventory-second edition (BDI-II and Multidimensional Body Self-Relation Questionnaire (MBSRQ, respectively. The experimental group received four-week aerobic exercise program, and control group had been asked to wait for the next four weeks. Results of this study confirmed the significant decrease in depression symptoms at the experimental group compared to control group . For the body image dependent variables, significant improvement was also found in appearance evaluation, appearance orientation, health orientation, and illness orientation in aerobic exercise group .

  18. The psychological effects of short-term fasting in healthy women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Watkins

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The study aimed to investigate affective responses to 18-hour fasting in healthy controls. In particular the study focused on self-reported mood, irritability, sense of achievement, reward, pride, and control. Method: Participants were a non-clinical sample of 52 women with a mean age of 25. A repeated-measures design was used, whereby participants provided diary measures of psychological variables throughout both 18-hour fasting and non-fasting periods. Results: Fasting led to increased irritability, and also to positive affective experiences of increased sense of achievement, reward, pride, and control. Discussion: Even short-term fasting in healthy controls can lead to positive psychological experiences. This lends support to cognitive-behavioural and cognitive-interpersonal models of ANR, which suggest that dietary restriction is maintained through positive reinforcement.

  19. Long-term risk of mental health problems in women experiencing preterm birth: a longitudinal study of 29 mothers

    OpenAIRE

    Misund, Aud R; Nerdrum, Per; Bråten, Stein; Pripp, Are Hugo; Diseth, Trond H

    2013-01-01

    Background: Several studies have reported significantly higher stress levels, both short and long terms, among mothers giving preterm birth compared with mothers giving birth at term. Stress, however, is a psychological phenomenon that may present as anxiety, depression and/or trauma reactions. In this study, the long-term mental health outcomes and the prevalence of anxiety, depression and trauma reactions in women experiencing preterm birth were explored. Interactional, main eff...

  20. The relationships between inter-recti distance measured by ultrasound imaging and abdominal muscle function in postpartum women: a 6-month follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaw, Lih-Jiun; Hsu, Miao-Ju; Liao, Chien-Fen; Liu, Mei-Fang; Hsu, Ar-Tyan

    2011-06-01

    A prospective longitudinal study. Diastasis recti abdominis (DRA) is defined as an increase in the inter-recti distance (IRD), or width of the linea alba. It is a common occurrence in women postpartum. Little information exists on the short- and long-term recovery of IRD and the relationship between changes in IRD and the functional performance of the abdominal muscles. To investigate the natural recovery of IRD and abdominal muscle strength and endurance in women between 7 weeks and 6 months postpartum, and to examine the relationship between IRD and abdominal muscle function. Forty postpartum (25-37 years of age) and 20 age-matched, nulliparous females participated. IRD was measured at 4 locations (upper and lower margin of the umbilical ring, and 2.5 cm above and below the umbilical ring) with a 7.5-MHz linear ultrasound transducer. Trunk flexion and rotation strength and endurance were measured with manual muscle testing and curl-ups. Evaluation was conducted at 4 to 8 weeks and 6 to 8 months after childbirth in postpartum women, and only once for the nulliparous female controls. During follow-up, the IRD at 2.5 cm above the umbilical ring and at the upper margin of the umbilical ring decreased (P = .013 and P = .002, respectively). The strength and static endurance of the abdominal muscles improved over time (P<.05). A negative correlation between IRD and abdominal muscle function at 7 weeks and 6 months postpartum was found (r = 0.34 to 0.51; P<.05, except for trunk flexion strength at 6 months postpartum [P = .064]). In addition, IRD changes between 7 weeks and 6 months postpartum were correlated with improvement in trunk flexion strength (Spearman rho = 0.38, P = .040). At 6 months after childbirth, postpartum women had greater mean ? SD IRDs at all 4 locations (from cranial to caudal: 1.80 ± 0.72, 2.13 ± 0.65, 1.81 ± 0.62, and 1.16 ± 0.58 cm) than those of nulliparous females (0.85 ± 0.26, 0.99 ± 0.31, 0.65 ± 0.23, and 0.43 ± 0.17 cm) (all P<.001

  1. The effects of long term strength training on hemodynamic parameters and resistin level in postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecília Tardivo Marin

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Investigate the influence of strength training (ST on serum resistin levels and blood pressure of postmenopausal women. Methods: Longitudinal study conducted at the Federal University of São Carlos with twenty-three sedentary postmenopausal women. The ST lasted 13 months (Dec./2008 to Jan./2010 and consisted of two weekly sessions with three sets of 8-12 maximum repetitions and one exercise for each main muscle group. Maximum muscular strength was tested in the following exercises: bench press, 45° leg press, and standing arm curl. Serum resistin level was determined using the ELISA method. ANOVA (with repeated measures was used for the comparisons between periods Pre-, 6 months and 13 months (p < 0.05; Pearson’s correlation test was used to evaluate the correlations between resistin × blood pressure, resistin × muscle strength and strength × blood pressure. Results: Women presented the following anthropometric profile: 61.33±3.8 years; height 148.5±32.7 cm; body mass 67.56±10.85 kg. The ST decreased resistin levels (30272.4 ± 8100.1 to 16350.6 ± 2404.6 pg/mL and systolic blood pressure (120.5 ± 11.8 to 115.8 ± 1.6 mmHg, and increased muscular strength in the leg press 45o (172.3 ± 27.3 to 348.6 ± 40.8kg, bench press (31.9 ± 4.1 to 41.8 ± 5.6 kg and arm curl (21.0 ± 2.4 to 26.5 ± 2.9 kg after 13 months (p < 0.05. Conclusion: The results of this study revealed that long-term ST increases maximum muscular strength, decreases systolic blood pressure and serum resistin levels, which are beneficial physiological alterations that reduce the risk for cardiovascular diseases in postmenopausal women. doi:10.5020/18061230.2013.p325

  2. The contribution of risk factors to the higher incidence of invasive and in situ breast cancers in women with higher levels of education in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menvielle, Gwenn; Kunst, Anton E.; Van Gils, Carla H.; Peeters, Petra H. M.; Boshuizen, Hendriek; Overvad, Kim; Olsen, Anja; Tjonneland, Anne; Hermann, Silke; Kaaks, Rudolf; Bergmann, Manuela M.; Illner, Anne-Kathrin; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Palli, Domenico; Berrino, Franco; Mattiello, Amelia; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; May, Anne; Monninkhof, Evelyn; Braaten, Tonje; Lund, Eiliv; Quirós, José Ramón; Duell, Eric J.; Sánchez, Maria-José; Navarro, Carmen; Ardanaz, Eva; Borgquist, Signe; Manjer, Jonas; Khaw, Kay Tee; Allen, Naomi E.; Reeves, Gillian K.; Chajes, Véronique; Rinaldi, Sabina; Slimani, Nadia; Gallo, Valentina; Vineis, Paolo; Riboli, Elio; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate the role of known risk factors in explaining educational differences in breast cancer incidence. Analyses were based on the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition, and included 242,095 women, 433 in situ and 4,469 invasive breast cancers. Reproductive history (age at first full term pregnancy and parity), exposure to endogenous and exogenous hormones, height, and health behaviours were accounted for in the analyses. Relative indices of inequality (RII) for education were estimated using Cox regression models. Higher invasive breast cancer risk was found among women with higher education (RII=1.22: 1.09,1.37). This association was not observed among nulliparous women (RII=1.13: 0.84,1.52). Inequalities in breast cancer incidence decreased substantially after adjusting for reproductive history (RII=1.11: 0.98,1.25), most of the association being explained by age at first full term pregnancy. Each other risk factor explained a small additional part of inequalities in breast cancer incidence. Height contributed most of these factors. When all known risk factors were adjusted for, no association remained between education and invasive breast cancer risk. Inequalities in incidence were more pronounced for in situ breast cancers and remained after adjustment for all known risk factors (RII=1.61: 1.07,2.41), especially among nulliparous women. PMID:21084553

  3. Practical Advice for Emergency IUD Contraception in Young Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstuck, Norman D; Wildemeersch, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Too few women are aware of the very high efficacy of intrauterine copper devices (IUDs) to prevent pregnancy after unprotected intercourse. Women who frequently engage in unprotected intercourse or seek emergency contraception (EC) are at high risk of unplanned pregnancy and possible abortion. It is therefore important that these women receive precise and accurate information about intrauterine devices as they may benefit from using an IUD for EC as continuing contraception. Copper IUDs should be used as first choice options given their rapid onset of action and their long-term contraceptive action which require minimal thought or intervention on the part of the user. In the United States, there is only one copper IUD presently available which limits treatment options. There are numerous copper IUDs available for use in EC, however, their designs and size are not always optimal for use in nulliparous women or women with smaller or narrower uteruses. Utilization of frameless IUDs which do not require a larger transverse arm for uterine retention may have distinct advantages, particularly in young women, as they will be suitable for use in all women irrespective of uterine size. This paper provides practical information on EC use with emphasis on the use of the frameless IUD.

  4. Practical Advice for Emergency IUD Contraception in Young Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman D. Goldstuck

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Too few women are aware of the very high efficacy of intrauterine copper devices (IUDs to prevent pregnancy after unprotected intercourse. Women who frequently engage in unprotected intercourse or seek emergency contraception (EC are at high risk of unplanned pregnancy and possible abortion. It is therefore important that these women receive precise and accurate information about intrauterine devices as they may benefit from using an IUD for EC as continuing contraception. Copper IUDs should be used as first choice options given their rapid onset of action and their long-term contraceptive action which require minimal thought or intervention on the part of the user. In the United States, there is only one copper IUD presently available which limits treatment options. There are numerous copper IUDs available for use in EC, however, their designs and size are not always optimal for use in nulliparous women or women with smaller or narrower uteruses. Utilization of frameless IUDs which do not require a larger transverse arm for uterine retention may have distinct advantages, particularly in young women, as they will be suitable for use in all women irrespective of uterine size. This paper provides practical information on EC use with emphasis on the use of the frameless IUD.

  5. Birthweight of term infants and maternal occupation in a prospective cohort of pregnant women. The ALSPAC Study Team

    OpenAIRE

    Farrow, A.; Shea, K. M.; Little, R. E.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the relation between birthweight of term infants and maternal occupation. METHODS: Information on job titles since the age of 16, and sociodemographic and other lifestyle factors were obtained by means of questionnaires as part of the Avon longitudinal study of pregnancy and childhood (ALSPAC), from a cohort of 14,000 pregnant women. The British 1990 standard occupational classification was used to code jobs within nine major job groups. RESULTS: For 9282 women who d...

  6. The long term economic impact of severe obstetric complications for women and their children in Burkina Faso.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick G C Ilboudo

    Full Text Available This study investigates the long term economic impact of severe obstetric complications for women and their children in Burkina Faso, focusing on measures of food security, expenditures and related quality of life measures. It uses a hospital based cohort, first visited in 2004/2005 and followed up four years later. This cohort of 1014 women consisted of two main groups of comparison: 677 women who had an uncomplicated delivery and 337 women who experienced a severe obstetric complication which would have almost certainly caused death had they not received hospital care (labelled a "near miss" event. To analyze the impact of such near miss events as well as the possible interaction with the pregnancy outcome, we compared household and individual level indicators between women without a near miss event and women with a near miss event who either had a live birth, a perinatal death or an early pregnancy loss. We used propensity score matching to remove initial selection bias. Although we found limited effects for the whole group of near miss women, the results indicated negative impacts: a for near miss women with a live birth, on child development and education, on relatively expensive food consumption and on women's quality of life; b for near miss women with perinatal death, on relatively expensive foods consumption and children's education and c for near miss women who had an early pregnancy loss, on overall food security. Our results showed that severe obstetric complications have long lasting consequences for different groups of women and their children and highlighted the need for carefully targeted interventions.

  7. Long-term vegetarian diet and bone mineral density in postmenopausal Taiwanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, J F; Lan, S J; Yang, C Y; Wang, P W; Yao, W J; Su, L H; Hsieh, C C

    1997-03-01

    This study examined bone density among postmenopausal Buddhist nuns and female religious followers of Buddhism in southern Taiwan and related the measurements to subjects characteristics including age, body mass, physical activity, nutrient intake, and vegetarian practice. A total of 258 postmenopausal Taiwanese vegetarian women participated in the study. Lumbar spine and femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD) were measured using dual-photon absorptimetry. BMD measurements were analyzed first as quantitative outcomes in multiple regression analyses and next as indicators of osteopenia status in logistic regression analyses. Among the independent variables examined, age inversely and body mass index positively correlated with both the spine and femoral neck BMD measurements. They were also significant predictors of the osteopenia status. Energy intake from protein was a significant correlate of lumbar spine BMD only. Other nutrients, including calcium and energy intake from nonprotein sources, did not correlate significantly with the two bone density parameters. Long-term practitioners of vegan vegetarian were found to be at a higher risk of exceeding lumbar spine fracture threshold (adjusted odds ratio = 2.48, 95% confidence interval = 1.03-5.96) and of being classified as having osteopenia of the femoral neck (3.94, 1.21-12.82). Identification of effective nutrition supplements may be necessary to improve BMD levels and to reduce the risk of osteoporosis among long-term female vegetarians.

  8. Aquatic exercise in older Korean women with arthritis: identifying barriers to and facilitators of long-term adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyun Sook; Ferrans, Carol Estwing; Kim, Mi Ja; Kim, Jong Im; Lee, Eun-Ok

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors influencing long-term adherence to aquatic exercise in older women with arthritis. Participants (n = 72) completed an educational program on aquatic exercise and underwent follow up for 6 months. At follow-up, women who continued aquatic exercise (adherence group, n = 25) had significantly higher scores than women in the nonadherence group (n = 47) in exercise self-efficacy (p exercise (rho = 0.78). The findings provide insights for the development of strategies to promote long-term adherence to this type of aquatic exercise. Specifically, the findings encourage the fostering of exercise self-efficacy and social group cohesion during participation in educational programs to increase long-term exercise adherence.

  9. Relationships of Risk Factors for Pre-Eclampsia with Patterns of Occurrence of Isolated Gestational Proteinuria during Normal Term Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald-Wallis, Corrie; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Heron, Jon; Fraser, Abigail; Nelson, Scott M.; Tilling, Kate

    2011-01-01

    Background Isolated gestational proteinuria may be part of the pre-eclampsia disease spectrum. Confirmation of its association with established pre-eclampsia risk factors and higher blood pressure in uncomplicated pregnancies would support this concept. Methods Data from 11,651 women from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children who had a term live birth but did not have pre-existing hypertension or diabetes or develop gestational diabetes or preeclampsia were used. Proteinuria was assessed repeatedly (median 12 measurements per woman) by dipstick and latent class analysis was used to identify subgroups of the population with different patterns of proteinuria in pregnancy. Results Higher maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), younger age, nulliparity and twin pregnancy were independently associated with increased odds of any proteinuria in pregnancy. Women who experienced proteinuria showed five patterns: proteinuria in early pregnancy only (≤20 weeks gestation), and onset at 21–28 weeks, 29–32 weeks, 33–36 weeks and ≥37 weeks gestation. There were higher odds of proteinuria onset after 33 weeks in obese women and after 37 weeks in nulliparous women compared with normal weight and multiparous women respectively. Smoking in pregnancy was weakly negatively associated with odds of proteinuria onset after 37 weeks. Twin pregnancies had higher odds of proteinuria onset from 29 weeks. In women with proteinuria onset after 33 weeks blood pressure was higher in early pregnancy and at the end of pregnancy. Conclusions Established pre-eclampsia risk factors were related to proteinuria occurrence in late gestation in healthy term pregnancies, supporting the hypothesis that isolated gestational proteinuria may represent an early manifestation of pre-eclampsia. PMID:21789220

  10. Prevalence and outcomes of breast milk expressing in women with healthy term infants: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Helene M; Forster, Della A; Amir, Lisa H; McLachlan, Helen L

    2013-11-19

    Expressing breast milk has become increasingly prevalent, particularly in some developed countries. Concurrently, breast pumps have evolved to be more sophisticated and aesthetically appealing, adapted for domestic use, and have become more readily available. In the past, expressed breast milk feeding was predominantly for those infants who were premature, small or unwell; however it has become increasingly common for healthy term infants. The aim of this paper is to systematically explore the literature related to breast milk expressing by women who have healthy term infants, including the prevalence of breast milk expressing, reported reasons for, methods of, and outcomes related to, expressing. Databases (Medline, CINAHL, JSTOR, ProQuest Central, PsycINFO, PubMed and the Cochrane library) were searched using the keywords milk expression, breast milk expression, breast milk pumping, prevalence, outcomes, statistics and data, with no limit on year of publication. Reference lists of identified papers were also examined. A hand-search was conducted at the Australian Breastfeeding Association Lactation Resource Centre. Only English language papers were included. All papers about expressing breast milk for healthy term infants were considered for inclusion, with a focus on the prevalence, methods, reasons for and outcomes of breast milk expression. A total of twenty two papers were relevant to breast milk expression, but only seven papers reported the prevalence and/or outcomes of expressing amongst mothers of well term infants; all of the identified papers were published between 1999 and 2012. Many were descriptive rather than analytical and some were commentaries which included calls for more research, more dialogue and clearer definitions of breastfeeding. While some studies found an association between expressing and the success and duration of breastfeeding, others found the opposite. In some cases these inconsistencies were compounded by imprecise definitions of

  11. Prevalence and outcomes of breast milk expressing in women with healthy term infants: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Expressing breast milk has become increasingly prevalent, particularly in some developed countries. Concurrently, breast pumps have evolved to be more sophisticated and aesthetically appealing, adapted for domestic use, and have become more readily available. In the past, expressed breast milk feeding was predominantly for those infants who were premature, small or unwell; however it has become increasingly common for healthy term infants. The aim of this paper is to systematically explore the literature related to breast milk expressing by women who have healthy term infants, including the prevalence of breast milk expressing, reported reasons for, methods of, and outcomes related to, expressing. Methods Databases (Medline, CINAHL, JSTOR, ProQuest Central, PsycINFO, PubMed and the Cochrane library) were searched using the keywords milk expression, breast milk expression, breast milk pumping, prevalence, outcomes, statistics and data, with no limit on year of publication. Reference lists of identified papers were also examined. A hand-search was conducted at the Australian Breastfeeding Association Lactation Resource Centre. Only English language papers were included. All papers about expressing breast milk for healthy term infants were considered for inclusion, with a focus on the prevalence, methods, reasons for and outcomes of breast milk expression. Results A total of twenty two papers were relevant to breast milk expression, but only seven papers reported the prevalence and/or outcomes of expressing amongst mothers of well term infants; all of the identified papers were published between 1999 and 2012. Many were descriptive rather than analytical and some were commentaries which included calls for more research, more dialogue and clearer definitions of breastfeeding. While some studies found an association between expressing and the success and duration of breastfeeding, others found the opposite. In some cases these inconsistencies were compounded

  12. Long-term quality of life and postthrombotic syndrome in women after an episode of venous thromboembolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljungqvist, Maria; Holmström, Margareta; Kieler, Helle; Lärfars, Gerd

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate health-related quality of life after venous thromboembolism. Methods We conducted a cohort study, TEHS follow-up, including 1040 women with a first episode of venous thromboembolism and 994 women unexposed to venous thromboembolism. Patients were recruited from the "Thrombo Embolism Hormonal Study" (TEHS), a Swedish nation-wide case-control study on risk factors for venous thromboembolism in women 18-64 years of age. Quality of life was measured using SF-36 and VEINES-QoL/VEINES-Sym. Results On average there were no difference in mean SF-36 summary scales scores between exposed and unexposed women. Twenty percent of exposed women developed postthrombotic syndrome during follow-up. Women with postthrombotic syndrome had severely impaired quality of life with lower scores on all scales. Other predictors of low quality of life after venous thromboembolism were age, obesity, physical inactivity, and recurrent venous thromboembolism. Conclusion Long-term quality of life after venous thromboembolism in women was severely impaired among those developing postthrombotic syndrome, while quality of life in women not developing postthrombotic syndrome was similar to a control population.

  13. Sexual dysfunction in women with type 1 diabetes: long-term findings from the DCCT/ EDIC study cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enzlin, Paul; Rosen, Raymond; Wiegel, Markus; Brown, Jeanette; Wessells, Hunter; Gatcomb, Patricia; Rutledge, Brandy; Chan, Ka-Ling; Cleary, Patricia A

    2009-05-01

    This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and risk factors associated with sexual dysfunction in a well-characterized cohort of women with type 1 diabetes. The study was conducted in women enrolled in the long-term Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (EDIC) study, a North American study of men and women with type 1 diabetes. At year 10 of the EDIC study, 652 female participants were invited to complete a validated self-report measure of sexual function, standardized history and physical examinations, laboratory testing, and mood assessment. Of the sexually active women with type 1 diabetes in the EDIC study, 35% met criteria for female sexual dysfunction (FSD). Women with FSD reported loss of libido (57%); problems with orgasm (51%), lubrication (47%), and arousal (38%); and pain (21%). Univariate analyses revealed a positive association between FSD and age (P = 0.0041), marital status (P = 0.0016), menopausal status (P = 0.0019), microvasculopathy (P = 0.0092), and depression (P = 0.0022). However, in a multivariate analysis, only depression (P = 0.004) and marital status (P = 0.003) were significant predictors of FSD. FSD is common in women with type 1 diabetes and affects all aspects of sexual function and satisfaction. Depression is the major predictor of sexual dysfunction in women with type 1 diabetes. These findings suggest that women with type 1 diabetes should be routinely queried about the presence of sexual dysfunction and possible co-association with depression.

  14. Effects of single vs. multiple-set short-term strength training in elderly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radaelli, Regis; Wilhelm, Eurico N; Botton, Cíntia E; Rech, Anderson; Bottaro, Martim; Brown, Lee E; Pinto, Ronei S

    2014-01-01

    The strength training has been shown to be effective for attenuating the age-related physiological decline. However, the adequate volume of strength training volume adequate to promote improvements, mainly during the initial period of training, still remains controversial. Thus, the purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a short-term strength training program with single or multiple sets in elderly women. Maximal dynamic (1-RM) and isometric strength, muscle activation, muscle thickness (MT), and muscle quality (MQ = 1-RM and MT quadriceps quotient) of the knee extensors were assessed. Subjects were randomly assigned into one of two groups: single set (SS; n = 14) that performed one set per exercise or multiple sets (MS; n = 13) that performed three-sets per exercise, twice weekly for 6 weeks. Following training, there were significant increases (p ≤ 0.05) in knee extension 1-RM (16.1 ± 12 % for SS group and 21.7 ± 7.7 % for MS group), in all MT (p ≤ 0.05; vastus lateralis, rectus femoris, vastus medialis, and vastus intermedius), and in MQ (p ≤ 0.05); 15.0 ± 12.2 % for SS group and 12.6 ± 7.2 % for MS group), with no differences between groups. These results suggest that during the initial stages of strength training, single- and multiple-set training demonstrate similar capacity for increasing dynamic strength, MT, and MQ of the knee extensors in elderly women.

  15. Enhanced heat loss responses induced by short-term endurance training in exercising women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichinose, Tomoko K; Inoue, Yoshimitsu; Hirata, Mari; Shamsuddin, A K M; Kondo, Narihiko

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the effects of short-term endurance training and detraining on sweating and cutaneous vasodilatation during exercise in young women, taking into account changes in maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and the phase of the menstrual cycle. Eleven untrained women participated in endurance training; cycle exercise at approximately 60% VO2max for 60 min day(-1), 4-5 days week(-1) (30 degrees C, 45% relative humidity) for three complete menstrual cycles. The standard exercise test consisted of exercise at 50% VO2max for 30 min (25 degrees C, 45% relative humidity), and was conducted before training (Pre), during training sessions (T1, T2 and T3) and after cessation of training (D1 and D2). Values of VO2max increased significantly from 32.7 +/- 1.2 to 37.8 +/- 1.2 ml min(-1) kg(-1) at the end of the training. Local sweat rate in the chest and thigh, but not in the back and forearm, were significantly greater during T1 and T2 only in women who started training from the midfollicular phase. Cutaneous blood flow did not change with training. The threshold oesophageal temperatures for heat loss responses were significantly decreased during T1 versus Pre (averaged values for each body site: sweating, 37.49 +/- 0.08 versus 37.22 +/- 0.12 degrees C; and cutaneous vasodilatation, 37.40 +/- 0.07 versus 37.17 +/- 0.10 degrees C) and maintained through T3; the sensitivities of heat loss responses were not altered. These changes returned to the Pre level by D1. Our data indicate that physical training improves heat loss responses by decreasing the threshold temperatures and that these effects occur within a month of training and disappear within a month after cessation of training. The degree of increase in sweating with training differs among body sites and might be affected by the phase of the menstrual cycle.

  16. Long-term outcome of genital reconstruction of Middle Eastern women with congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raouf M Seyam

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: CAH has a significant impact on adult women in our region. Most of the patients remain single. Few women get married and these are able to lead a nearly normal sexual life and give birth to healthy children.

  17. Long-term coital behaviour in women treated with cognitive behaviour therapy for superficial coital pain and vaginismus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engman, Maria; Wijma, Klaas; Wijma, Barbro

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate long-term coital behaviour in women treated with cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) for superficial coital pain and vaginismus. Data were taken from a questionnaire concerning long-term coital behaviour sent to 59 women who presented to Linköping University Hospital because of superficial coital pain, had been diagnosed with vaginismus, and had been treated with CBT. Data were also traced from therapy records: mean follow-up time was 39 months, the women had suffered for an average of almost 4 years, and required a mean of 14 treatment sessions. Forty-four of the 59 women returned the questionnaire, for a response rate of 74.6%. At follow-up, 81% of the treated women had had intercourse. A majority (61%) rated their ability to have intercourse without pain as 6 or higher (on a scale from 0-10), and 61% rated their ability to enjoy intercourse as 6 or higher (on a scale from 0-10). The proportion of women with positive treatment outcome at follow-up ranged from 81% (able to have intercourse) to 6% (able to have pain-free intercourse). An ability to have intercourse at end of therapy was maintained at follow-up. Two-thirds of the women reported high fulfillment of individual treatment goals. At follow-up, the women estimated a significantly higher self-worth as sex partners, and as women and human beings, than before treatment. Twelve per cent of the original sample had healed after a few assessment sessions and without treatment.

  18. Follicular dynamics and concentrations of steroids and gonadotropins in lactating cows and nulliparous heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfenson, David; Inbar, Gil; Roth, Zvi; Kaim, Moshe; Bloch, Amir; Braw-Tal, Ruth

    2004-09-15

    Differences in follicular development and circulating hormone concentrations, between lactating cows and nulliparous heifers, that may relate to differences in fertility between the groups, were examined. Multiparous, cyclic, lactating Holstein cows (n=19) and cyclic heifers (n=20) were examined in the winter, during one estrous cycle. The examinations included ultrasound monitoring and daily blood sampling. Distributions of two-wave and three-wave cycles were similar in the two groups: 79 and 21% in cows, 70 and 30% in heifers, respectively. Cycle lengths were shorter by 2.6 days in heifers than in cows, and in two-wave than in three-wave cycles. The ovulatory follicle was smaller in heifers than in cows (13.0+/-0.3 mm versus 16.5+/-0.05 mm). The greater numbers of large follicles in cows than in heifers corresponded well to the higher concentrations of FSH in cows. The duration of dominance of the ovulatory follicle tended to be longer in cows than in heifers. Estradiol concentrations around estrus and the preovulatory LH surge were higher in heifers than in cows (20 versus 9 ng/ml). Progesterone concentrations were higher in heifers than in cows from Day 3 to Day 16 of the cycle. Circulating progesterone did not differ between two-wave and three-wave cycles. The results revealed differences in ovarian follicular dynamics, and in plasma concentrations of steroids and gonadotropins; these may account for the differences in fertility between nulliparous heifers and multiparous lactating cows.

  19. Women with a history of childhood sexual abuse. Long-term social and psychiatric aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Ellids; Lau, Marianne

    2007-01-01

    The socio-demographics and psychiatric diagnoses in a clinical sample of women with a history of mainly intrafamilial childhood sexual abuse (CSA) are described. The women were referred to five psychiatric centres for incest group psychotherapy. Data were gathered using interviews and self......-administered questionnaires. Over a period of 2.5 years, 385 women with mean age of 33 years were referred with a history of CSA. Three hundred and forty of those had experienced intrafamilial CSA. The average age at first abuse was 6.8 years, and it lasted for a mean of 6 years. The women had been abused by a mean of 1...... was a brother. The women suffered from a broad spectrum of psychiatric symptoms and illnesses. More than half of the women had previously received psychiatric treatment. Compared to a random sample of the general female population, these women were less advantaged with regards to education, financial...

  20. Long-term impact of the women's health initiative on HRT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parente, Lynn; Uyehara, Catherine; Larsen, Wilma; Whitcomb, Bradford; Farley, John

    2008-03-01

    To evaluate the long-term trends in the HRT following the results of the WHI, which were made public in July 2002. An observational cohort study was performed from prescription data of estrogen containing products ordered from Tripler Army Medical Center between July 1999 and July 2005. We used automated pharmacy data to identify all estrogen products dispensed to active duty soldiers, dependent wives, and retirees during the study period. Differences in prescription rate were compared between groups using a Student's t-test. A total of 71,592 prescriptions were written for HRT. Prescriptions decreased from 1,272/month at the start of the study to 493/month at the conclusion of the study. Prior to July 2002 OBGYNs were the first to decrease their prescribing rate of estrogen, and this decrease was greater than other specialties analyzed. The frequency of HRT prescriptions decreased after July 2002 while the percentage of patients who filled HRT prescriptions increased from 68 to 72%. We have found a significant decrease in prescriptions after release of the WHI initiative results. With this decrease in prescribing rate of HRT we found that a greater percentage of women actually filled their prescriptions perhaps indicating greater certainty in their choice.

  1. Travel time from home to hospital and adverse perinatal outcomes in women at term in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ravelli, A. C. J.; Jager, K. J.; de Groot, M. H.; Erwich, J. J. H. M.; Rijninks-van Driel, G. C.; Tromp, M.; Eskes, M.; Abu-Hanna, A.; Mol, B. W. J.

    Objective To study the effect of travel time, at the start or during labour, from home to hospital on mortality and adverse outcomes in pregnant women at term in primary and secondary care. Design Population-based cohort study from 2000 up to and including 2006. Setting The Netherlands Perinatal

  2. Predicting Long-Term Outcomes for Women Physically Abused in Childhood: Contribution of Abuse Severity versus Family Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Margaret L.; Amodeo, Maryann

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Child physical abuse (CPA) has been associated with adverse adult psychosocial outcomes, although some reports describe minimal long-term effects. The search for the explanation for heterogeneous outcomes in women with CPA has led to an examination of a range of CPA-related factors, from the severity of CPA incidents to the childhood…

  3. Long-term effects of a weight loss intervention with or without exercise component in postmenopausal women : A randomized trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Roon, Martijn; van Gemert, Willemijn A; Peeters, Petra H M; Schuit, Albertine J; Monninkhof, Evelyn M.

    The aim of this study was to determine the long-term effects of a weight loss intervention with or without an exercise component on body weight and physical activity. Women were randomized to diet (n = 97) or exercise (N = 98) for 16 weeks. During the intervention, both groups had achieved the set

  4. Long-term effects of a weight loss intervention with or without exercise component in postmenopausal women : A randomized trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Roon, Martijn; van Gemert, Willemijn A.; Peeters, Petra H.; Schuit, Albertine J.; Monninkhof, Evelyn M.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the long-term effects of a weight loss intervention with or without an exercise component on body weight and physical activity. Women were randomized to diet (n = 97) or exercise (N = 98) for 16 weeks. During the intervention, both groups had achieved the set

  5. Women's Perceptions of Immediate and Long-Term Effects of Failed Infertility Treatment on Marital and Sexual Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepe, Margaret V.; Byrne, T. Jean

    1991-01-01

    Examined immediate and long-term effects of infertility treatment on the marital and sexual relationship, as perceived by women (n=40) who failed to become pregnant during treatment. Results indicated infertility treatment significantly affected both marital and sexual satisfaction after treatment was terminated, as well as during treatment. (ABL)

  6. Work and family: associations with long-term sick-listing in Swedish women – a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandmark Hélène

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The number of Swedish women who are long-term sick-listed is high, and twice as high as for men. Also the periods of sickness absence have on average been longer for women than for men. The objective of this study was to investigate the associations between factors in work- and family life and long-term sick-listing in Swedish women. Methods This case-control study included 283 women on long-term sick-listing ≥90 days, and 250 female referents, randomly chosen, living in five counties in Sweden. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses with odds ratios were calculated to estimate the associations between long-term sick-listing and factors related to occupational work and family life. Results Long-term sick-listing in women is associated with self-reported lack of competence for work tasks (OR 2.42 1.23–11.21 log reg, workplace dissatisfaction (OR 1.89 1.14–6.62 log reg, physical workload above capacity (1.78 1.50–5.94, too high mental strain in work tasks (1.61 1.08–5.01 log reg, number of employers during work life (OR 1.39 1.35–4.03 log reg, earlier part-time work (OR 1.39 1.18–4.03 log reg, and lack of influence on working hours (OR 1.35 1.47–3.86 log reg. A younger age at first child, number of children, and main responsibility for own children was also found to be associated with long-term sick-listing. Almost all of the sick-listed women (93% wanted to return to working life, and 54% reported they could work immediately if adjustments at work or part-time work were possible. Conclusion Factors in work and in family life could be important to consider to prevent women from being long-term sick-listed and promote their opportunities to remain in working life. Measures ought to be taken to improve their mobility in work life and control over decisions and actions regarding theirs lives.

  7. Work and family: associations with long-term sick-listing in Swedish women - a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandmark, Hélène

    2007-10-11

    The number of Swedish women who are long-term sick-listed is high, and twice as high as for men. Also the periods of sickness absence have on average been longer for women than for men. The objective of this study was to investigate the associations between factors in work- and family life and long-term sick-listing in Swedish women. This case-control study included 283 women on long-term sick-listing > or =90 days, and 250 female referents, randomly chosen, living in five counties in Sweden. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses with odds ratios were calculated to estimate the associations between long-term sick-listing and factors related to occupational work and family life. Long-term sick-listing in women is associated with self-reported lack of competence for work tasks (OR 2.42 1.23-11.21 log reg), workplace dissatisfaction (OR 1.89 1.14-6.62 log reg), physical workload above capacity (1.78 1.50-5.94), too high mental strain in work tasks (1.61 1.08-5.01 log reg), number of employers during work life (OR 1.39 1.35-4.03 log reg), earlier part-time work (OR 1.39 1.18-4.03 log reg), and lack of influence on working hours (OR 1.35 1.47-3.86 log reg). A younger age at first child, number of children, and main responsibility for own children was also found to be associated with long-term sick-listing. Almost all of the sick-listed women (93%) wanted to return to working life, and 54% reported they could work immediately if adjustments at work or part-time work were possible. Factors in work and in family life could be important to consider to prevent women from being long-term sick-listed and promote their opportunities to remain in working life. Measures ought to be taken to improve their mobility in work life and control over decisions and actions regarding theirs lives.

  8. A comparison of obstetrical outcomes with labor induction agents used at term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghideh, Farnaz K; Mullin, Patrick M; Ingles, Sue; Ouzounian, Joseph G; Opper, Neisha; Wilson, Melissa L; Miller, David A; Lee, Richard H

    2014-04-01

    To compare the obstetrical outcomes of term pregnancies induced with one of four commonly used labor induction agents. This is a retrospective cohort study of induced deliveries between 1 August 1995 and 31 December 2007 occurring at the Los Angeles County + University of Southern California Medical Center. Viable, singleton, term pregnancies undergoing induction were identified. Exclusion criteria included gestational age less than 37 weeks, previous cesarean delivery, breech presentation, stillbirth, premature rupture of membranes, and fetal anomaly. Induction methods studied were oxytocin, misoprostol, dinoprostone and Foley catheter. Our primary outcome was cesarean delivery rate among the four induction agents. Secondary outcomes included rate of failed induction, obstetrical complications, and immediate neonatal complications. A total of 3707 women were included in the study (1486 nulliparous; 2221 multiparous). Outcomes were compared across induction methods using Chi-square Tests (Pearson or Fisher's, as appropriate). Among the nulliparous patients, there was no statistical difference among the four induction agents with regards to cesarean delivery rate (p = 0.51), frequency of failed inductions (p = 0.49), the cesarean delivery frequency for "fetal distress" (p = 0.82) and five minute Apgar score <7 (p = 0.24). Among parous patients, the cesarean delivery rate varied significantly by induction method (p < 0.001), being lowest among those receiving misoprostol (10%). Those receiving oxytocin and transcervical Foley catheter had cesarean rates of 22%, followed by dinoprostone at 18%. The rate of failed inductions was 2% among those receiving misoprostol, compared to 7-8% among those in the other groups (p < 0.01). Although cases of "fetal distress" between the four induction agents was not significantly different amongst multipara women, the cesarean delivery indication for "fetal distress" was higher among multipara receiving

  9. Understanding women who self-harm: Predictors and long-term outcomes in a longitudinal community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford, Sarah; Jones, Michael P; Loxton, Deborah J

    2017-02-01

    There is growing awareness of the range of psychosocial, lifestyle, and sociodemographic factors related to self-harm, however this research is often limited by using cross-sectional or convenience samples. And while we generally assume that young adults who self-harm experience poorer long-term outcomes, longitudinal research is needed. This paper builds on prior research using a large, representative, longitudinal sample. 5765 Australian women completed 5 surveys (age 18-23 to 31-36). Six-month self-harm was measured by self-report. We had two aims: firstly to predict future self-harm, separately for women with and without prior self-harm. Secondly, to identify outcomes 3 and 6 years following self-harm. Six-month self-harm prevalence was 2.5%. Predictors among women without recent self-harm included depression, dieting behaviours, number of male sexual partners, and abuse. Among women with recent or current self-harm, predictors were number of dieting behaviours, tiredness of life, and stress. Women who self-harmed reported poorer outcomes, namely greater difficulties in relationships at 3- and 6-year follow-up. Longitudinal risk factors for self-harm differed depending on prior self-harm status, and included depression, dieting behaviours, tiredness of life and stress. These factors may serve as warning signs for new or continued self-harm. This study offers new insight into long-term outcomes up to six years after self-harm, particularly with relationships.

  10. Long-term estrogen replacement is associated with improved nonverbal memory and attentional measures in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Y R; Giordani, B; Lajiness-O'Neill, R; Zubieta, J K

    2001-12-01

    To determine the cognitive domains improved or preserved by long-term hormone replacement therapy (HRT). A comprehensive neuropsychological test battery was administered to healthy postmenopausal women who had been treated or not treated with long-term HRT without interruption since menopause. Women were recruited by advertisement from a university town and surrounding areas. Women 60 years or older were studied who were treated (n = 16) or not treated (n = 13) with HRT. Neuropsychological testing included tests of memory, verbal fluency, executive functions, attention and concentration, and psychomotor function. Tests of intellectual function, depressive symptoms, and emotional functioning assessed general functions and comparability of the groups. Neuropsychological testing scores were compared between groups. No statistically significant differences between the groups were found for general demographic, intellectual, and psychological measures. Scores from both the Weschler Memory Scale Visual Reproduction (delayed recall) and the Digit Vigilance Test (attention) showed statistically significant better performance and fewer errors in the group of women on HRT. Long-term postmenopausal HRT is associated with higher scores in tests of nonverbal memory and attention.

  11. Identification of health care needs of long-term breast cancer survivors among Israeli women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandelzweig, Lori; Chetrit, Angela; Amitai, Tova; Oberman, Bernice; Danieli, Nava Siegelmann; Silverman, Barbara; Sadetzki, Siegal

    2016-02-01

    Improvement in treatment has extended survival of breast cancer patients. Our study aimed to characterize health service use among long-term breast cancer survivors in Israel in order to identify and address specific needs of this subpopulation. The study population included 250 women diagnosed with breast cancer, 8-12 years prior to study initiation (cases), and 250 individually matched cancer-free controls. Participants were recruited from the second largest Israeli HMO, and data were collected through personal interviews. ORs and 95 % CIs were estimated using conditional logistic regression and generalized estimating equations. Greater use of health services was observed among cases, compared to an age-matched comparison group, expressed by more visits to family physicians and specialists, longer duration of visits, more requests for referrals, more frequent contact with emergency services, and hospitalizations. The study groups were similar regarding socioeconomic variables, current smoking and physical activity, BMI, and prevalence of reported morbidity. Although 80 % of cases defined the family physician as their main treating physician, half still considered their oncologist responsible for cancer follow-up. Only 14.4 and 10.4 % of cases and controls, respectively, reported receiving psychological support during the year preceding the interview. Further studies should assess the contribution of apprehension concerning health-related issues that still accompany breast cancer survivors, to the excess use of health services. Concern among family practitioners may contribute as well. In addition, our results emphasize the need to improve coordination between the disciplines of oncology and community medicine for the medical care of this group.

  12. Changes in diet and lifestyle and long-term weight gain in women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozaffarian, Dariush; Hao, Tao; Rimm, Eric B; Willett, Walter C; Hu, Frank B

    2011-06-23

    Specific dietary and other lifestyle behaviors may affect the success of the straightforward-sounding strategy "eat less and exercise more" for preventing long-term weight gain. We performed prospective investigations involving three separate cohorts that included 120,877 U.S. women and men who were free of chronic diseases and not obese at baseline, with follow-up periods from 1986 to 2006, 1991 to 2003, and 1986 to 2006. The relationships between changes in lifestyle factors and weight change were evaluated at 4-year intervals, with multivariable adjustments made for age, baseline body-mass index for each period, and all lifestyle factors simultaneously. Cohort-specific and sex-specific results were similar and were pooled with the use of an inverse-variance-weighted meta-analysis. Within each 4-year period, participants gained an average of 3.35 lb (5th to 95th percentile, -4.1 to 12.4). On the basis of increased daily servings of individual dietary components, 4-year weight change was most strongly associated with the intake of potato chips (1.69 lb), potatoes (1.28 lb), sugar-sweetened beverages (1.00 lb), unprocessed red meats (0.95 lb), and processed meats (0.93 lb) and was inversely associated with the intake of vegetables (-0.22 lb), whole grains (-0.37 lb), fruits (-0.49 lb), nuts (-0.57 lb), and yogurt (-0.82 lb) (P≤0.005 for each comparison). Aggregate dietary changes were associated with substantial differences in weight change (3.93 lb across quintiles of dietary change). Other lifestyle factors were also independently associated with weight change (Psleep (more weight gain with 8 hours of sleep), and television watching (0.31 lb per hour per day). Specific dietary and lifestyle factors are independently associated with long-term weight gain, with a substantial aggregate effect and implications for strategies to prevent obesity. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and others.).

  13. A modulatory effect of male voice pitch on long-term memory in women: evidence of adaptation for mate choice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David S; Jones, Benedict C; Feinberg, David R; Allan, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    From a functionalist perspective, human memory should be attuned to information of adaptive value for one's survival and reproductive fitness. While evidence of sensitivity to survival-related information is growing, specific links between memory and information that could impact upon reproductive fitness have remained elusive. Here, in two experiments, we showed that memory in women is sensitive to male voice pitch, a sexually dimorphic cue important for mate choice because it not only serves as an indicator of genetic quality, but may also signal behavioural traits undesirable in a long-term partner. In Experiment 1, we report that women's visual object memory is significantly enhanced when an object's name is spoken during encoding in a masculinised (i.e., lower-pitch) versus feminised (i.e., higher-pitch) male voice, but that no analogous effect occurs when women listen to other women's voices. Experiment 2 replicated this pattern of results, additionally showing that lowering and raising male voice pitch enhanced and impaired women's memory, respectively, relative to a baseline (i.e., unmanipulated) voice condition. The modulatory effect of sexual dimorphism cues in the male voice may reveal a mate-choice adaptation within women's memory, sculpted by evolution in response to the dilemma posed by the double-edged qualities of male masculinity.

  14. The Relationship of Social Support and Economic Self-Sufficiency to Substance Abuse Outcomes in a Long-Term Recovery Program for Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregoire, Thomas K.; Snively, Carol

    2001-01-01

    Explores outcomes for 59 women who attended long term substance abuse treatment in a women's facility that emphasized employment and economic self sufficiency. Results revealed that reductions in substance abuse were associated with an increase in economic self sufficiency. Additionally, women living in drug free social environments had high rates…

  15. Hair for a long-term biological indicator tissue for assessing the strontium nutritional status of men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prejac, J; Višnjević, V; Skalny, A A; Grabeklis, A R; Mimica, N; Momčilović, B

    2017-07-01

    Strontium (Sr) is a trace element that closely resembles calcium metabolism. At the present time there is no available long-term biological indicator tissue for assessing the human Sr nutritional status. Here we have presented a novel concept on how to assess the Sr nutritional status by studying the frequency distribution properties of hair Sr ((Sr)H) concentration. In this prospective, observational, cross-sectional, and exploratory epidemiological study, we analyzed (Sr)H in 311 apparently healthy adult Croatians (123 men, 188 women). Hair strontium was analyzed by the ICP-MS. The natural frequency distribution of (Sr)H followed the Power law, so that the data were analyzed by fitting the logistic bioassay sigmoid curve (ogive) of median derivatives. Women tend to accumulate three and a half time more (Sr)H than men (median men 867ngg(-1) vs. median women 3120ngg(-1)). The normal (adequate) linear physiological response range of the sigmoid curve was 351-3489ngg(-1) for men and 846-8457ngg(-1) for women. Values below that linear range are considered to indicate deficient Sr nutritional status, whereas values above that linear range indicate excessive strontium exposure. Hair, as a long-term, and whole blood as a short-term biological indicator tissues were not commensurable entities. Similarly, (Sr)H accumulation was not age dependent in either men or women. Hair strontium is a reliable long-term biological indicator tissue for assessing the strontium nutritional status. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Short-term natural history of high-risk human papillomavirus infection in mid-adult women sampled monthly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Tsung-chieh Jane; Fu Xi, Long; Hulbert, Ayaka; Hughes, James P; Feng, Qinghua; Schwartz, Stephen M; Hawes, Stephen E; Koutsky, Laura A; Winer, Rachel L

    2015-11-15

    Characterizing short-term HPV detection patterns and viral load may inform HPV natural history in mid-adult women. From 2011-2012, we recruited women aged 30-50 years. Women submitted monthly self-collected vaginal samples for high-risk HPV DNA testing for 6 months. Positive samples were tested for type-specific HPV DNA load by real-time PCR. HPV type-adjusted linear and Poisson regression assessed factors associated with (i) viral load at initial HPV detection and (ii) repeat type-specific HPV detection. One-hundred thirty-nine women (36% of 387 women with ≥4 samples) contributed 243 type-specific HR HPV infections during the study; 54% of infections were prevalent and 46% were incident. Incident (vs. prevalent) detection and past pregnancy were associated with lower viral load, whereas current smoking was associated with higher viral load. In multivariate analysis, current smoking was associated with a 40% (95% CI: 5-87%) increase in the proportion of samples that were repeatedly positive for the same HPV type, whereas incident (vs. prevalent) detection status and past pregnancy were each associated with a reduction in the proportion of samples repeatedly positive (55%, 95% CI: 38-67% and 26%, 95% CI: 10-39%, respectively). In a separate multivariate model, each log10 increase in viral load was associated with a 10% (95% CI: 4-16%) increase in the proportion of samples repeatedly positive. Factors associated with repeat HPV detection were similar to those observed in longer-term studies, suggesting that short-term repeat detection may relate to long-term persistence. The negative associations between incident HPV detection and both viral load and repeat detection suggest that reactivation or intermittent persistence was more common than new acquisition. © 2015 UICC.

  17. Acute and long-term estradiol kinetics in smoking postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnason, N H; Jørgensen, H L; Christiansen, C

    2012-01-01

    We aimed to study 2-h estrogen kinetics in smoking versus non-smoking postmenopausal women receiving estrogen therapy. Moreover, we wished to study estrogen concentrations over 2 years in smokers using ten or fewer cigarettes daily versus non-smokers in postmenopausal women on estrogen treatment....

  18. Intimate Partner Violence and Long-Term Psychosocial Functioning in a National Sample of American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlotnick, Caron; Johnson, Dawn M.; Kohn, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Using a nationally representative sample of American married or cohabiting women, this prospective study examined women who reported or denied intimate partner violence (IPV) at wave 1 and compared them on a range of psychosocial outcomes at a 5-year follow-up. This study also examined the rate of divorce or separation during the 5-year interval…

  19. Malignant Phylloides Tumor of Breast in a Pregnant Woman with Coincidental Nulliparous Vaginal Prolapse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabyasachi Ray

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Malignant phylloides tumor is a relatively rare and rapidly growing tumor of the breast. Presentation during pregnancy is uncommon. Reports regarding malignancy in these tumors differ greatly in incidence, and most of them are stromal malignancies. We report this case in which 24-year old primigravid patient in the 36th week of her pregnancy had a malignant phylloides tumor of breast with sudden growth and fine needle aspiration cytology of the breast was positive for malignancy. Ultimately after her caesarean delivery, excision biopsy was in favor of a malignant process. Pregnancy with nulliparous prolapse is also a rare condition. Those conditions are not associated with each other, but presence of two rare conditions in the same time in the same person is unique.

  20. Effects of prostaglandin administration 10 days apart on reproductive parameters of cyclic dairy nulliparous goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.F. Fonseca

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study reported the effects of prostaglandin (PGF2a administration 10 days apart on reproductive parameters of cyclic artificial inseminated (AI nulliparous Alpine (n=9 and Saanen (n=9 goats. Animals received two doses of 22.5mg PGF2a 10 days apart. After 1st and 2nd PGF2a administrations, estrus was monitored at 12 h intervals, with a buck teaser. Plasma progesterone concentration (ng/mL was determined from blood sampled on day 0 (1st PGF2a and the following 5, 10 (2nd PGF2a, 15, 20, 25 and 30 days. After the onset of the second estrus, females were transrectally (5 MHz probe scanned at 4 hour intervals until at least 8h after ovulation. Pregnancy was checked through transrectal ultrasound on days 20, 25, 30, 35 and 90 after insemination. All parameters studied did not differ between breeds (P>0.05. Estrous response and interval to estrus, respectively, after 1st (78.9% and 50.6±17.2h and 2nd PGF2a (88.9% and 50.0±14.8h administration did not differ (P>0.05. Overall animals ovulating (100.0%, interval to ovulation after 2nd PGF2a (64.5±19.5h and after estrous onset (18.0±9.1h, ovulation rate (1.3±0.5, diameter of ovulatory follicle (8.1±1.1mm were recorded. Embryo loss occurred before day 30 of pregnancy. Estrus can be efficiently synchronized in nulliparous Alpine and Saanen goats with two doses of prostaglandin 10 days apart.

  1. Comparison of umbilical cord ghrelin concentrations in full-term pregnant women with or without gestational diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakulak, Murat; Saygili, Uğur; Temur, Muzaffer; Yilmaz, Özgür; Özün Özbay, Pelin; Calan, Mehmet; Coşar, Hese

    2017-05-01

    Ghrelin is a potent orexigenic peptide hormone secreted from the gastrointestinal tract that plays a crucial role in the regulation of lipids and glucose metabolism. Ghrelin also has links with fetal development and growth. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) causes fetal macrosomia, but there is no available evidence of a relationship between ghrelin levels and birth weight in women with GDM. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether umbilical cord ghrelin concentrations are altered in full-term pregnant women with GDM compared to women without GDM and whether birth weight is correlated with ghrelin levels. Sixty pregnant women with GDM and 64 healthy pregnant women without GDM were included in this cross-sectional study. Blood samples were drawn from the umbilical vein following birth. Ghrelin concentrations were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Umbilical vein ghrelin levels were decreased in women with GDM (879.6 ± 256.1 vs. 972.2 ± 233.6 pg/ml in women without GDM, p=0.033), whereas birth weights were higher for babies in the GDM than in the non-GDM group (3448 ± 410 vs. 3308 ± 365 gr, respectively, p=0.046). Umbilical ghrelin levels were inversely correlated with birth weight (r=-0.765, pghrelin levels (β= -2.077, 95% CI=-2.652 to -1.492, p=0.002). Umbilical ghrelin levels were lower in GDM women. Birth weight was inversely associated with umbilical ghrelin levels. This association may be explained by a negative feedback mechanism between ghrelin and birth weight.

  2. Clinical prediction in early pregnancy of infants small for gestational age by customised birthweight centiles: findings from a healthy nulliparous cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesley M E McCowan

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Small for gestational age (SGA infants comprise up to 50% of all stillbirths and a minority are detected before birth. We aimed to develop and validate early pregnancy predictive models for SGA infants. METHODS: 5628 participants from SCOPE, a prospective study of nulliparous pregnant women, were interviewed at 15 ± 1 weeks' gestation. Fetal anthropometry, uterine and umbilical Doppler studies were performed at 20 ± 1 weeks'. The cohort was divided into training (n = 3735 and validation datasets (n = 1871. All-SGA (birthweight 12 months to conceive, university student, cigarette smoking, proteinuria, daily vigorous exercise and diastolic blood pressure ≥ 80. Recreational walking ≥ 4 times weekly, rhesus negative blood group and increasing random glucose were protective. AUC for clinical risk factors was 0.63. Fetal abdominal or head circumference z scores <10(th centile and increasing uterine artery Doppler resistance at 20 ± 1 weeks' were associated with increased risk. Addition of these parameters increased the AUC to 0.69. Clinical predictors of Normotensive and Hypertensive-SGA were sub-groups of All-SGA predictors and were quite different. The combined clinical and ultrasound AUC for Normotensive and Hypertensive-SGA were 0.69 and 0.82 respectively. CONCLUSION: Predictors for SGA of relevance to clinical practice were identified. The identity and predictive potential differed in normotensive women and those who developed hypertension.

  3. Long-term Cognitive Implications of Intrauterine Hyperglycemia in Adolescent Offspring of Women With Type 1 Diabetes (the EPICOM Study)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bytoft, Birgitte; Knorr, Sine; Vlachova, Zuzana

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Exposure to maternal diabetes in utero may have a negative impact on the developing brain. The objective was to examine long-term cognitive consequences of intrauterine hyperglycemia in adolescent offspring of women with type 1 diabetes and to ascertain a possible association...... in the exposed group. CONCLUSIONS: Adolescent offspring of women with type 1 diabetes had lower cognitive function compared with a control group, also after adjustment for confounders and potential mediators. These differences may reflect direct harmful effects of maternal diabetes on neurodevelopment...... with maternal HbA1c. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Offspring of a prospectively followed cohort of women with type 1 diabetes (n = 277) participated in a follow-up examination at the age of 13-19 years. A control group from the background population was identified (n = 301). Cognitive function was evaluated...

  4. Janus at the Crossroads: Perspectives on Long-term Care Trajectories for Older Women With Dementia in a Canadian Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloutier, Denise S; Penning, Margaret J

    2017-02-01

    Janus, the two-faced, Roman god of beginnings and transitions, is used as a metaphor to explore our personal narratives and our quantitative research on the experiences of older women with dementia in long-term care (LTC). Two research questions are addressed: (a) How do our quantitative data map onto our mothers' experiences? (b) What lessons do our mothers' experiences offer for the care of older women with dementia? Informed by a life-course perspective, we triangulate administrative data on 3,717 women with dementia receiving LTC in British Columbia, Canada, with personal narratives-the stories of our mothers who made the transition from home care into residential (nursing home) care. Our quantitative data reveal that the home care to residential care transition is the most common LTC trajectory for women with dementia who are most likely to be widowed and living alone in suburban areas. On entry into residential care, they exhibit greater frailty in terms of activities of daily living, cognition, aggression, and incontinence. Our personal narrative data on our mothers reveals that the relatively straightforward pathways through LTC for women with dementia, are often considerably more complex in a real-world context. Attention is drawn to the public and private services, hospitalization patterns, and substantial communication gaps experienced by our moms and families. A life-course perspective, and qualitative and quantitative data facilitate understanding the care journeys-health and service trajectories of older women with dementia. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Decision making and factors influencing long-term satisfaction with prophylactic mastectomy in women with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soran, Atilla; Ibrahim, Ahmad; Kanbour, Malak; McGuire, Kandace; Balci, Fatih L; Polat, Ayfer K; Thomas, Christine; Bonaventura, Marguerite; Ahrendt, Gretchen; Johnson, Ronald

    2015-04-01

    Studies demonstrate an increasing rate of contralateral prophylactic mastectomy (CPM). The purpose of this study is to evaluate decision making and factors influencing women's long-term satisfaction with CPM. Descriptive analysis is used to analyze the results of our designed questionnaire approved by our Institutional Review Board. We searched our institutional cancer registry for patients diagnosed with breast cancer between 2000 and 2010. The studied time frame is of significance as this study is the first to measure response rate in questions examining patient satisfaction for >1 year after undergoing CPM. The questionnaire was mailed to all consented participants to examine factors contributing to the choice of CPM and postoperative satisfaction. Of the 206 women included in the study, 147 were aged up to 50 years. Majority of women who underwent CPM in this cohort was with a bachelor's degree or higher, married or partnered women, and women earning >$60,000/y. Almost all women were "happy with overall surgery" and would recommend CPM to other patients. Psychological factors, such as fear of recurrence, were more commonly associated with the decision for CPM in patients with invasive carcinoma. Opinions of partners, relatives, friends, and physicians further contributed to the decision to undergo surgery. The availability of reconstruction was also an influential factor in the overall decision. The majority of our study participants experienced long-term satisfaction with the surgical procedure of CPM. From our analysis, we can confidently say that fear of cancer recurrence and the opinions of others, among other factors, were influencing contributors toward the decision of undergoing CPM.

  6. Combining garden therapy and supported employment - a method for preparing women on long-term sick leave for working life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidén, Eva; Alstersjö, Karin; Gurné, Frida L; Fransson, Sandra; Bergbom, Ingegerd

    2016-06-01

    Women are overrepresented among the group people suffering from long-term illness. In addition to their illness, suffering long-term sick leave leads to economical restraints as well social distress. There are gaps in our understanding of the challenges these women face. There is also lack of knowledge about how these challenges can be effectively addressed in rehabilitation. This deficiency is problematic from an ethical, justice and a caring perspective. In this study, changes in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among women on long-term sick leave were investigated during and after participating in a rehabilitation programme combining two validated methods, Garden Therapy and Supported Employment (SE). The study also discusses difficulties in realising research related to vulnerable under-privileged people. From a population of 329 women who had reported their interest to participate, 245 were randomised to the programme. Of these 144 accepted participation in the research project and of these 123 women accepted to answer the SF-36 questionnaire. The participants were between 21 and 62 years with poor physical and mental health. They had received public financial support from 10 years. The SF-36 measurement was carried out at baseline, after completion of Garden Therapy and after completion of SE. The results are based on data of respondents who participated at all the three occasions (n = 52). When comparing HRQoL baseline with the following occasions, the participants' General Health (GH), Vitality (VT), Social Functioning (SF) and mental health had improved significantly. The Four Leaf Clover (FLC) programme could be an appropriate method for reducing socially induced suffering. However, to conduct intervention studies where vulnerable persons are involved, it is off vital importance to consider whether the participants have the strength to complete the intervention. © 2015 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  7. HPA AXIS RESPONSE TO STRESS PREDICTS SHORT-TERM SNACK INTAKE IN OBESE WOMEN

    OpenAIRE

    Appelhans, Bradley M.; Pagoto, Sherry L.; Peters, Erica N.; Spring, Bonnie J.

    2009-01-01

    Prior research has linked heightened cortisol reactivity to stress with increased food consumption. This pilot study tested corollaries of the hypothesis that cortisol stress reactivity promotes obesity. Thirty-four lean and obese women completed an acute stress task and a non-stressful control task in counterbalanced order. Contrary to expectations, higher post-stress cortisol was associated with decreased post-stress snack intake in obese women but was unrelated to snack intake in lean wome...

  8. Giving birth on our own terms-Women's experience of childbirth at home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouhki, Maija-Riitta; Suominen, Tarja; Åstedt-Kurki, Päivi

    2017-10-01

    home births are quite rare and are not supported as part of mainstream health care services in most European countries. Women who choose home as the place of birth often do so because maternity services in hospitals do not offer the options that they want. The aim of the present study is to describe women's experiences of giving birth at home and to produce a comprehensive structure of meaning regarding giving birth at home. a phenomenological study based on analysis of open-interview transcripts using Colaizzi's approach. women who gave birth at home FINDINGS: women who have given birth at home experience having control over their own body, the care they are given, and the practical arrangements surrounding the birth. However, they also experience negative attitudes from other people about their decision to give birth at home, and challenges because of worries about how they and their baby will cope. During the birth women feel a sense of connection to their own body, which they trust to tell them what to do. They experience great happiness on successfully giving birth and feel connected to nature and the circle of life. Being able to celebrate with family members and be pampered by them after the birth made the women feel 'like queens'. women's experience of childbirth at home is one of having control over the birthing process and its environment. The main challenge is exposure to negative attitudes from others, including health care professionals. Overall, the experience was full of happiness and good feelings. We conclude that more attention should be paid to the quality of birth experiences and women's individual needs and wishes within maternity care provision. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Long-term processed and unprocessed red meat consumption and risk of heart failure: A prospective cohort study of women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaluza, Joanna; Åkesson, Agneta; Wolk, Alicja

    2015-08-15

    Epidemiologic studies of red meat consumption in relation to risk of heart failure (HF) are limited. We examined the associations between long-term unprocessed red meat and processed red meat consumption and incidence of HF in women. The population-based prospective Swedish Mammography Cohort included 34,057 women, aged 48-83 years, with no history of HF or ischemic heart disease at baseline (in 1997). Meat consumption was assessed using a self-administered food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) in 1997 as well as FFQ administered in 1987-90. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). During a mean follow-up of 13.2 years, 2806 women were diagnosed with HF. Consumption of processed meat (FFQ 1997) was statistically significant positively associated with HF incidence. Women who consumed ≥ 50 g/day processed red meat compared to those who consumed processed red meat (average from 1987 to 1997) ≥ 50 g/day in comparison to meat was not associated with increased risk of HF incidence. Findings from this prospective study of women indicate that processed red meat, but not unprocessed red meat, consumption is associated with an increased risk of HF incidence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Short-Term Exercise Approaches on Menopausal Symptoms, Psychological Health, and Quality of Life in Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşegül Ağıl

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study was designed to determine the effects of different short-term exercise programs on menopausal symptoms, psychological health, and quality of life in postmenopausal women. Material and Methods. Forty-two women were chosen from volunteering postmenopausal women presenting to the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of Bayındır Hospital between March and December 2009. The women aged 45–60 years and experiencing menopause naturally were included in the study. They were randomly divided into aerobic (=18 and resistance (=18 exercise groups. The women exercised 3 days per week for 8 weeks under the supervision of a physiotherapist. Aerobic exercise training was performed through a bicycle ergometer. Before and after the training, lipid profiles were measured and menopausal symptoms, psychological health, depression, and the quality of life were assessed through questionnaires. Results. In both exercise groups, no significant changes in lipid profiles were observed. In the resistance exercise group, excluding the urogenital complaints, there were significant improvements in all subscales of Menopausal Rating Scale (MRS. In the resistance exercise group, excluding the phobic anxiety, there were significant improvements in all subscales of The Symptom Checklist. Depression levels significantly decreased in both groups. Improvements were observed in all subscales of menopause-specific quality of life questionnaire in both groups except for sexual symptoms. Conclusion. Resistance exercise and aerobic exercise were found to have a positive impact on menopausal symptoms, psychological health, depression, and quality of life.

  11. Retrospective study of the functional recovery of men compared with that of women with long-term facial paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hontanilla, Bernardo; Marre, Diego

    2013-12-01

    Sex is likely to play an important part in reanimation of the face after paralysis, with women being superior in terms of resistance to neural injury and regeneration. Our aim was to evaluate the influence of the sex of the patient on the recovery of facial paralysis after surgical reanimation by comparing the degree of restored movement between men and women with long-standing paralysis that was reanimated by transfer of the hypoglossal nerve or cross-face nerve grafting. Between 1999 and 2010 we operated on 174 patients with facial paralysis. Of these we studied 26 cases (19 women and 7 men) with complete long-standing paralysis reanimated with either cross-face nerve grafting (n=14) or transfer of the hemihypoglossal nerve (n=12). The degree of movement restored was recorded in each case. Statistical analysis showed that in cases with long-standing paralysis women had significantly more movement restored than men for both cross-face nerve grafting (p=0.02) and hypoglossal transposition (p=0.04). We conclude that, after a neural injury, women tend to maintain the viability of the facial musculature longer than men, which suggests that they are more resistant to both denervation and the development of muscular atrophy. Whether this phenomenon can be explained by neural or muscular processes, or both, warrants further studies. Copyright © 2013 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Women's experiences of doing long-term pelvic floor muscle exercises for the treatment of pelvic organ prolapse symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyland, Gail; Hay-Smith, Jean; Treharne, Gareth

    2014-02-01

    This study investigated women's experiences of doing prescribed pelvic floor muscle exercise (PFME) after participation in the Pelvic Organ Prolapse Physiotherapy (POPPY) trial. The aim was to understand post-supervised treatment adherence to PFME and to inform future advice for women being treated for pelvic organ prolapse (POP). Five women were purposively selected from the New Zealand branch of the multi-centre, multi-national POPPY trial and took part in a semi-structured interviews about their experiences of PFME. The interviews were subjected to an interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA). Three core themes were identified in the analysis. The first theme, "Patterns of PFME behaviour", described exercise characteristics and behaviours. The second theme, "Influences on PFME maintenance cycles", captured the participants' responses to and evaluations of their exercise practice and related PFME self-efficacy. The "cycle" referred to the changing influences on exercise behaviour. The third theme, "Family as priority", was expressed in terms of either putting family first or successfully combining the priorities of family and self. This study revealed the importance of family in influencing PFME patterns and behaviours in the treatment of POP. It is possible that identifying strategies to help women reach their PFME goals within the context of their families will promote more successful PFME adherence. The importance of family when prescribing exercise for women with other chronic health conditions is also worth exploring.

  13. Long-term effects of the Mediterranean lifestyle program: a randomized clinical trial for postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Toobert, Deborah J; Glasgow, Russell E; Strycker, Lisa A; Barrera, Manuel; Ritzwoller, Debra P; Weidner, Gerdi

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Multiple-risk-factor interventions offer a promising means for addressing the complex interactions between lifestyle behaviors, psychosocial factors, and the social environment. This report examines the long-term effects of a multiple-risk-factor intervention. Methods Postmenopausal women (N = 279) with type 2 diabetes participated in the Mediterranean Lifestyle Program (MLP), a randomized, comprehensive lifestyle intervention study. The intervention targeted healthful eat...

  14. Management of women with human papillomavirus persistence: long-term follow-up of a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfgren, Kristina; Elfström, K Miriam; Naucler, Pontus; Arnheim-Dahlström, Lisen; Dillner, Joakim

    2017-03-01

    Introduction of human papillomavirus-based screening is ongoing in many countries, given its higher sensitivity and longer-lasting protection compared with cytology-based screening. However, optimal clinical management of human papillomavirus-positive but cytology-negative women is unclear, and additional studies with clinical follow-up are warranted. The aim of the current study was to investigate the long-term outcomes of the clinical management used in a double-blind, randomized clinical trial of human papillomavirus screening conducted in the context of the routine, organized screening program in Sweden. Among 12,527 women aged 32-38 years enrolled in the trial, we followed up the 195 women who attended the colposcopy screening who were cytologically normal but persistently human papillomavirus positive (at least 12 months later; median, 19 months) in the human papillomavirus testing arm (n = 100) or were randomly selected from the control arm (n = 95). Women in the human papillomavirus testing arm were followed up with repeated human papillomavirus testing, cytologies, and colposcopies if persistently human papillomavirus-positive without cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse. A similar number of random colposcopies and tests were carried out in the control arm. Women were followed up over 13 years for the main outcome measures: cumulative incidence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or worse. Among women who continued to attend and had continuous human papillomavirus persistence, all (40 of 40, 100% [95% confidence interval, 91-100%]) developed cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse. There were no cases among women who cleared their human papillomavirus persistence (0 of 35, 0% (95% confidence interval, 0-10%) (P < .001). Among women who had had human papillomavirus persistence but did not continue with repeated human papillomavirus tests (unknown persistence

  15. Long-term effects of a Palaeolithic-type diet in obese postmenopausal women: a two-year randomized trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellberg, Caroline; Sandberg, Susanne; Ryberg, Mats; Eriksson, Marie; Brage, Sören; Larsson, Christel; Olsson, Tommy; Lindahl, Bernt

    2014-01-01

    Background/Objectives Short-term studies have suggested beneficial effects of a Palaeolithic-type diet (PD) on body weight and metabolic balance. We now report long-term effects in obese postmenopausal women of a PD on anthropometric measurements and metabolic balance, in comparison with a diet according to the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR). Subjects/Methods Seventy obese postmenopausal women (mean age 60 years, body mass index 33 kg/m2) were assigned to an ad libitum PD or NNR diet in a 2-year randomized controlled trial. The primary outcome was change in fat mass as measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results Both groups significantly decreased total fat mass at 6 months (−6.5 and −2.6 kg) and 24 months (−4.6 and −2.9 kg), with a more pronounced fat loss in the PD group at 6 months (Pdiet regarding fat mass, abdominal obesity and triglyceride levels in obese postmenopausal women; effects not fully sustained for anthropometric measurements at 24 months. Adherence to protein intake was poor in the PD group. The long-term consequences of these changes remain to be studied. PMID:24473459

  16. Long-term effects of a Palaeolithic-type diet in obese postmenopausal women: a 2-year randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellberg, C; Sandberg, S; Ryberg, M; Eriksson, M; Brage, S; Larsson, C; Olsson, T; Lindahl, B

    2014-03-01

    Short-term studies have suggested beneficial effects of a Palaeolithic-type diet (PD) on body weight and metabolic balance. We now report the long-term effects of a PD on anthropometric measurements and metabolic balance in obese postmenopausal women, in comparison with a diet according to the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR). Seventy obese postmenopausal women (mean age 60 years, body mass index 33 kg/m(2)) were assigned to an ad libitum PD or NNR diet in a 2-year randomized controlled trial. The primary outcome was change in fat mass as measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Both groups significantly decreased total fat mass at 6 months (-6.5 and-2.6 kg) and 24 months (-4.6 and-2.9 kg), with a more pronounced fat loss in the PD group at 6 months (Pdiet regarding fat mass, abdominal obesity and triglyceride levels in obese postmenopausal women; effects not sustained for anthropometric measurements at 24 months. Adherence to protein intake was poor in the PD group. The long-term consequences of these changes remain to be studied.

  17. Autonomic providing cardiac rhythm of middle-aged women with long-term regular training experience of aerobic orientation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evdokiya Dolgier

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the influence of regular training with aerobic orientation on heart rate variability of middle-aged women with long-term training experience.Materials and methods. In the work the results of research autonomic providing cardiac rhythm of 19 women, who were divided into two studied groups are presented. The first study group consisted of 10 women who had experience of regular training (3 times a week aerobic orientation from 3 to 5 years, the average age of this group of women was 37,9±5,9 years. The second study group consisted of 9 women with regular training experience with aerobic orientation over 10 years, the average age of women – 44,6±5,5 years. At this stage we defined the specific features autonomic heart providing, that was characterized on the basis of the analysis of heart rhythm variability results. For this purpose it was used the device – spiroarteriocardiorhythmography, which in simultaneous mode register defines the parameters of heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure for each heart reduction. According to data the measuring of sequences cardiac rhythm, systolic and diastolic blood pressure variability and data respiratory ventilation was conducted by Fourier's spectral analysis, which determines the capacity of regulatory influences on three frequency ranges: very-low-frequency (VLF, 0–0,04 Hz, low-frequency (LF, 0,04–0,15 Hz and high-frequency (HF, 0,15–0,4 Hz, what are measured in the absolute values of power (ms2. Additionally there was a spectral method determined by data of sensitivity arterial baroreflex (SBR, ms/mmHg – α-coefficient, what calculated in ranges high (SBRHF and low (SBR LF frequencies, connecting with a total activity, activity of over-segmental structures, parasympathetic and sympathetic branches of autonomic nervous system.Results. Research results showed difference in heart rate variability of parameters observed only for high-frequency components, which was

  18. A concept analysis of the term migrant women in the context of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaam, Marie-Clare; Haith-Cooper, Melanie; Pařízková, Alena; Weckend, Marina Joanna; Fleming, Valerie; Roosalu, Triin; Vržina, Sanja Špoljar

    2017-12-01

    This paper explores the concept of migrant women as used in European healthcare literature in context of pregnancy to provide a clearer understanding of the concept for use in research and service delivery. Walker and Avant's method of concept analysis. The literature demonstrates ambiguity around the concept; most papers do not provide an explicit or detailed definition of the concept. They include the basic idea that women have moved from an identifiable region/country to the country in which the research is undertaken but fail to acknowledge adequately the heterogeneity of migrant women. The paper provides a definition of the concept as a descriptive theory and argues that research must include a clear definition of the migrant specific demographics of the women. This should include country/region of origin and host, status within the legal system of host country, type of migration experience, and length of residence. There is a need for a more systematic conceptualization of the idea of migrant women within European literature related to pregnancy experiences and outcomes to reflect the heterogeneity of this concept. To this end, the schema suggested in this paper should be adopted in future research. © 2017 The Authors. International Journal of Nursing Practice Published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  19. Selflessness is sexy: reported helping behaviour increases desirability of men and women as long-term sexual partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, David; Wigby, Stuart; English, Sinead; Wong, Sonny; Székely, Tamás; Harrison, Freya

    2013-09-03

    Despite its short-term costs, behaviour that appears altruistic can increase an individual's inclusive fitness by earning direct (selfish) and/or indirect (kin-selected) benefits. An evolved preference for other-regarding or helping behaviour in potential mates has been proposed as an additional mechanism by which these behaviours can yield direct fitness benefits in humans. We asked 32 heterosexual women and 35 heterosexual men to rate the attractiveness of members of the opposite sex in the presence and the absence of information about helping behaviours. Reports of helping behaviour were associated with a significant increase in the attractiveness of both men and women as potential long-term sexual partners. Altruism also increased the attractiveness of men as potential partners for short-term flings, but to a lesser extent than when the same men were being considered for long-term relationships. Altruism did not affect the attractiveness of women as partners for short-term flings. Our results unite two important areas of evolutionary theory - social evolution and sexual selection - and extend the list of means by which helping behaviours, which appear at first glance to be costly to the actor, can in fact earn direct fitness benefits. Helping behaviours may be attractive because they signal 'good genes' and/or because they are perceived as a signal of likely provision of non-genetic benefits (e.g. parental care). Exactly why helping behaviours in a non-mating context might be attractive to potential mates, and whether they are honest signals of mate quality, remains to be elucidated.

  20. The Long-Term Pelvic Floor Health Outcomes of Women After Childbirth: The Influence of Labour in the First Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Baharak; Allen, Victoria M; Kirkland, Susan; MacPherson, Kathleen; Farrell, Scott

    2016-09-01

    To estimate the influence of labour and pregnancy factors on long-term pelvic floor health outcomes. This population-based cohort study was conducted using linkage between the Nova Scotia Atlee Perinatal Database, the Medical Services Insurance Database, and the Canadian Institute for Health Information's Discharge Abstract Database from 1988 to 2006; this allowed for the evaluation of patient utilization of care providers for pelvic floor disorders and captured conservative and surgical interventions. We compared rates of urinary and anal incontinence, pelvic organ prolapse, and fistula disorders in women undergoing Caesarean section (CS) without labour and women undergoing labour with any method of delivery. Multivariate logistic regression and survival (time-to-event) analyses were performed. Absolute risks for the selected pelvic floor health outcomes were low, regardless of whether labour was experienced in the first pregnancy. Women with one or more deliveries who had a CS without labour in their first pregnancy had reduced risks for all pelvic floor health outcomes, except fistula formation, and they were also less likely to develop these outcomes during the study period. Women undergoing obstetrically indicated CS without labour in their first delivery may have reduced risks of pelvic floor health disorders, even after multiple deliveries. These findings contribute important information for health care providers when counselling women and their families who are weighing the risk of long-term pelvic floor disorders against the benefits of spontaneous vaginal delivery. Copyright © 2016 The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada/La Société des obstétriciens et gynécologues du Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Induction of labour versus expectant monitoring in women with pregnancy induced hypertension or mild preeclampsia at term: the HYPITAT trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mol Ben WJ

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypertensive disorders, i.e. pregnancy induced hypertension and preeclampsia, complicate 10 to15% of all pregnancies at term and are a major cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. The only causal treatment is delivery. In case of preterm pregnancies conservative management is advocated if the risks for mother and child remain acceptable. In contrast, there is no consensus on how to manage mild hypertensive disease in pregnancies at term. Induction of labour might prevent maternal and neonatal complications at the expense of increased instrumental vaginal delivery rates and caesarean section rates. Methods/Design Women with a pregnancy complicated by pregnancy induced hypertension or mild preeclampsia at a gestational age between 36+0 and 41+0 weeks will be asked to participate in a multi-centre randomised controlled trial. Women will be randomised to either induction of labour or expectant management for spontaneous delivery. The primary outcome of this study is severe maternal morbidity, which can be complicated by maternal mortality in rare cases. Secondary outcome measures are neonatal mortality and morbidity, caesarean and vaginal instrumental delivery rates, maternal quality of life and costs. Analysis will be by intention to treat. In total, 720 pregnant women have to be randomised to show a reduction in severe maternal complications of hypertensive disease from 12 to 6%. Discussion This trial will provide evidence as to whether or not induction of labour in women with pregnancy induced hypertension or mild preeclampsia (nearly at term is an effective treatment to prevent severe maternal complications. Trial Registration The protocol is registered in the clinical trial register number ISRCTN08132825.

  2. Meeting Contraceptive Needs: Long-Term Associations of the PRACHAR Project with Married Women's Awareness and Behavior in Bihar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jejeebhoy, Shireen J; Prakash, Ravi; Acharya, Rajib; Singh, Santosh K; Daniel, Elkan

    2015-09-01

    Although interventions such as the PRACHAR project in Bihar, India, have been associated with increased contraceptive knowledge and use in the short term, less is known about whether such gains are sustained years later. Survey data, collected in 2013 from 2,846 married women aged 15-34, were used to compare contraceptive awareness and use between those who lived in areas where the PRACHAR project had been implemented in 2002-2009 and those who lived in matched comparison areas. Multivariate analyses assessed whether, after adjustment for covariates, outcomes differed between women in comparison and intervention areas, as well as between women directly exposed to the program and those who lived in intervention areas but had been only indirectly exposed. Compared with women in comparison areas, those in intervention areas were more likely to have method-specific knowledge of oral contraceptives, IUDs, condoms and the Standard Days Method (odds ratios, 1.4-1.7); to know that oral contraceptives and condoms are appropriate for delaying first pregnancy (2.3 for each) and IUDs and injectables are appropriate for spacing births (1.4 for each); to have ever used contraceptives (2.1) or be using a modern method (1.5); and to have initiated contraception within three months of their first birth (1.8). Levels of awareness and use were elevated not only among women directly exposed to the intervention but also, for many measures, among indirectly exposed women. The association of multipronged reproductive health programs like PRACHAR with contraceptive awareness and practices may last for years beyond the project's conclusion.

  3. [Increased risk of stillbirth in older mothers--a rationale for induction of labour before term?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, W; Wolff, F

    2014-10-01

    The average age of childbearing has risen markedly in Germany and other high-income countries during the past 2 decades. Women aged 35 years or older have an increase in pregnancy complications and in preexisting medical conditions including obesity, diabetes and hypertension as well as a significant increase in the gestational age-related rate of stillbirth compared to younger mothers. Additional individual risk factors for stillbirth are primiparity, body mass index>30 and smoking. After exclusion of risk factors the absolute risk of stillbirth in women aged≥40 years old is 2-fold higher (1 in 503 maternities) at 39/40 weeks of gestation compared to women agedmaternities) at the same gestational age. Women aged 40 years or older have a similar stillbirth risk at 39 weeks of gestation to 25-29-year-olds at 41 weeks gestation. The underlying mechanism for the excess risk of stillbirth in women of advanced maternal age after exclusion of congenital anomalies is unknown. Independent of maternal age the cumulative probability of perinatal death increases from 1.8/1 000 deliveries at 38 weeks of gestation to 9.3/1 000 deliveries at 42 weeks of gestation. Whether on the basis of these data induction of labour at 39 weeks of gestation should be recommended in women of advanced maternal age has recently been discussed in a Scientific Impact Paper of the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. In this context it should be taken into account that the rate of Caesarean sections in women aged 40 years or over is 40%, and, in particular, older nulliparous may request elective Caesaran section rather than elective induction of labour. Recent metaanalyses have shown that elective induction of labour before or after term is not associated with an increase of the Caesarean section rate compared to expectant management. Up to now no randomised controlled trials exist and consequently no -recommendations from current guidelines regarding induction of labour in women

  4. Methods of term labour induction for women with a previous caesarean section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Helen M; Jozwiak, Marta; Dodd, Jodie M

    2017-06-09

    Women with a prior caesarean delivery have an increased risk of uterine rupture and for women subsequently requiring induction of labour it is unclear which method is preferable to avoid adverse outcomes. This is an update of a review that was published in 2013. To assess the benefits and harms associated with different methods used to induce labour in women who have had a previous caesarean birth. We searched Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth's Trials Register (31 August 2016) and reference lists of retrieved studies. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing any method of third trimester cervical ripening or labour induction, with placebo/no treatment or other methods in women with prior caesarean section requiring labour induction in a subsequent pregnancy. Two review authors independently assessed studies for inclusion and trial quality, extracted data, and checked them for accuracy. Eight studies (data from 707 women and babies) are included in this updated review. Meta-analysis was not possible because studies compared different methods of labour induction. All included studies had at least one design limitation (i.e. lack of blinding, sample attrition, other bias, or reporting bias). One study stopped prematurely due to safety concerns. Vaginal PGE2 versus intravenous oxytocin (one trial, 42 women): no clear differences for caesarean section (risk ratio (RR) 0.67, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.22 to 2.03, evidence graded low), serious neonatal morbidity or perinatal death (RR 3.00, 95% CI 0.13 to 69.70, evidence graded low), serious maternal morbidity or death (RR 3.00, 95% CI 0.13 to 69.70, evidence graded low). Also no clear differences between groups for the reported secondary outcomes. The GRADE outcomes vaginal delivery not achieved within 24 hours, and uterine hyperstimulation with fetal heart rate changes were not reported. Vaginal misoprostol versus intravenous oxytocin (one trial, 38 women): this trial stopped early because one woman who

  5. Prognostic model for chronic hypertension in women with a history of hypertensive pregnancy disorders at term

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Velde-Visser, S.D.; Hermes, W.; Twisk, J; Franx, A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/157009939; Pampus, M.G.; Koopmans, C.; Mol, B. W J; de Groot, J.C.M.J.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The association between hypertensive pregnancy disorders and cardiovascular disease later in life is well described. In this study we aim to develop a prognostic model from patients characteristics known before, early in, during and after pregnancy to identify women at increased risk of

  6. Effect of Short-Term, High-Intensity Exercise on Anaerobic Threshold in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Blanche W.

    This study investigated the effects of a six-week, high-intensity cycling program on anaerobic threshold (AT) in ten women. Subjects trained four days a week using high-intensity interval-type cycle exercises. Workouts included six 4-minute intervals cycling at 85 percent maximal oxygen uptake (VO sub 2 max), separated by 3-minute intervals of…

  7. Normal white matter microstructure in women long-term recovered from anorexia nervosa: A diffusion tensor imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Lasse; Rø, Øyvind; Endestad, Tor

    2017-11-09

    Studies point to white matter (WM) microstructure alterations in both adolescent and adult patients with anorexia nervosa (AN). These include reduced fractional anisotropy in several WM fiber tracts, suggesting reduced WM integrity. The extent to which these alterations are reversible with recovery from AN is unclear. There is a paucity of research investigating the presence of WM microstructure alterations in recovered AN patients, and results are inconsistent. This study aimed to investigate the presence of WM microstructure alterations in women long-term recovered from AN. Twenty-one adult women who were recovered from AN for at least 1 year were compared to 21 adult comparison women. Participants were recruited via user-organizations for eating disorders, local advertisements, and online forums. Diffusion tensor imaging was used to compare WM microstructure between groups. Correlations between WM microstructure and clinical characteristics were also explored. There were no statistically significant between-group differences in WM microstructure. These null findings remained when employing liberal alpha level thresholds. Furthermore, there were no statistically significant correlations between WM microstructure and clinical characteristics. Our findings showed normal WM microstructure in long-term recovered patients, indicating the alterations observed during the acute phase are reversible. Given the paucity of research and inconsistent findings, future studies are warranted to determine the presence of WM microstructure alterations following recovery from AN. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Renal dysfunction as a predictor of long-term mortality in middle-aged women following an acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzmann, Martin J; Janszky, Imre; Al-Khalili, Faris; Schenck-Gustafsson, Karin

    2010-08-01

    To evaluate the association between renal dysfunction and long-term prognosis among middle-aged women surviving an acute coronary syndrome (ACS). The Stockholm Female Coronary Risk Study included 291 women Stockholm area. All patients underwent clinical screening for cardiovascular prognostic factors, including blood samples 3 to 6 months after the event. Creatinine clearance (CCr) was calculated using the Cockcroft-Gaults formula and related to adverse outcome. Hazard ratios (HR) for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, respectively, in each tertile of CCr, were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression. There were 40 deaths, including 23 from cardiovascular causes, during a median follow-up of 9 years. The unadjusted HRs for all-cause mortality for the 1st (CCr 96 mL/min) tertile. The corresponding HRs for cardiovascular mortality were 3.66 (95% CI 1.20-11.1) and 1.28 (95% CI 0.34-4.76). After multivariable adjustment for potential confounders, the association between all-cause mortality and CCr in the 1st compared with the 3rd tertile remained statistically significant (HR 4.37, 95% CI 1.39-13.7). Renal dysfunction is related to long-term mortality in middle-aged women hospitalized for ACS.

  9. Explaining long-term outcomes among drug dependent mothers treated in women-only versus mixed-gender programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Elizabeth; Li, Libo; Pierce, Jennifer; Hser, Yih-Ing

    2013-01-01

    Specialized substance abuse treatment for parenting women is thought to improve outcomes, but long-term impacts and how they occur are poorly understood. Utilizing a sample of 789 California mothers followed for 10 years after admission to women-only (WO) or mixed-gender (MG) drug treatment, we examine the relationship between WO treatment and outcomes and whether it is mediated by post-treatment exposures to criminal justice and health services systems. At follow-up, 48% of mothers had a successful outcome (i.e., no use of illicit drugs, not involved with the criminal justice system, alive). Controlling for patient characteristics, WO (vs. MG) treatment increased the odds of successful outcome by 44%. In the structural equation model WO treatment was associated with fewer post-treatment arrests, which was associated with better outcomes. Women-only substance abuse treatment has long-term benefits for drug-dependent mothers, a relationship that may be partially explained by post-treatment exposure to the criminal justice system. Findings underscore additional leverage points for relapse prevention and recovery-supportive efforts for drug-dependent mothers. PMID:23702103

  10. Birthweight of term infants and maternal occupation in a prospective cohort of pregnant women. The ALSPAC Study Team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrow, A; Shea, K M; Little, R E

    1998-01-01

    To study the relation between birthweight of term infants and maternal occupation. Information on job titles since the age of 16, and sociodemographic and other lifestyle factors were obtained by means of questionnaires as part of the Avon longitudinal study of pregnancy and childhood (ALSPAC), from a cohort of 14,000 pregnant women. The British 1990 standard occupational classification was used to code jobs within nine major job groups. For 9282 women who delivered term infants and reported a job for the relevant period, there was a significant difference in mean birthweight among the nine major job groups. A 148 g difference was found between the mean birthweight of infants born to women with professional occupations and those with plant and machine operative jobs. Multiple regression analysis adjusted for sex of infant, parity, maternal height, smoking, caffeine consumption, and race. After adjustment the maternal job was no longer significantly associated with birthweight. Despite the absence of a significant association between birthweight and job after adjustment, there were several findings which agreed with publications on maternal occupation and pregnancy outcome. The major job groups with the lowest birthweights included the following jobs; metal forming or welding, electric or electronic work, jobs in the textile trade, and assembling and working with equipment (mobile and stationary). The lack of an association may indicate that the study was of insufficient power to detect a small difference; it may indicate the presence of confounding variables that were not adjusted for or it may indicate that no association exists.

  11. The effects of labor on differential gene expression in parturient women, placentas, and fetuses at term pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiu-Huei Peng

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Labor and its associated pain are thought to have unique impacts on parturient women. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of labor and associated pain on differential gene expression profiles in the maternal, fetal, and placental compartments. We used microarrays to analyze maternal blood (MB, fetal cord blood (CB, and placental tissue samples in pregnant women after term vaginal deliveries (laboring group and in term pregnant women after scheduled Ceasarean sections (nonlaboring group. The upregulated genes in the MB of the laboring group are involved in cytokine and nuclear factor-kappa B signaling pathways, regulation of the networks of toll-like receptor 4, and suppressor of cytokine signaling 3. Upregulated genes in the CB of the laboring group are involved in responding to stress and stimuli by regulating the network genes of the T-cell receptor beta locus and the FK506 binding protein 8. Differentially expressed genes in the placenta of the laboring group are involved in nitric oxide transport, gas transport, response to hydrostatic pressure, oxygen transport, acute phase responses, and the tumor necrosis factor-mediated signaling pathway, which are important during the transient hypoxemia and hypoperfusion that occur in the placenta during uterine contractions. Interestingly, few of the genes exhibited simultaneous changes in all three compartments, indicating that different pathways and complex interactions may be involved in human labor. In conclusion, human labor and its associated pain elicit unique gene regulatory changes in MB, placenta, and CB.

  12. Total and differential leukocyte count percentiles in healthy singleton term women during the first stage of labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lurie, Samuel; Weiner, Eran; Golan, Abraham; Sadan, Oscar

    2014-01-01

    To establish leukocyte count and differential percentiles in healthy singleton term laboring women during spontaneous normal vaginal labor following an uncomplicated pregnancy. An analysis of the records of all women (n = 762) who delivered at our delivery ward during a 2-month period was performed. After exclusion for cesarean delivery, induction of labor, pregnancy complications, preterm labor, multiple pregnancy, fever on admission, and lack of full blood count on admission, 365 parturient women during the 1st stage of labor were included in the final analysis. The total and differential leukocyte counts were determined by standard procedure by an automated cell counter. The leukocyte count range on admission to the delivery ward during the 1st stage of labor in healthy parturient women was between 4.4 × and 21.7 × 10(3)/µl and the 99th percentile limit was 20.06 × 10(3)/µl. The total leukocyte count was not influenced by cervical dilatation, ruptured membranes, or the presence and regularity of uterine contractions. An observed leukocyte count within the 99th percentile limit (20.06 × 10(3)/µl) in an otherwise normal parturient woman is reassuring in the absence of other clinical evidence. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Essential n-3 fatty acids in pregnant women and early visual acuity maturation in term infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innis, Sheila M; Friesen, Russell W

    2008-03-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is important to neural development. Whether DHA intakes are low enough in some pregnant women to impair infant development is uncertain. We sought to determine whether DHA deficiency occurs in pregnant women and contributes to poor infant development. Biochemical cutoffs, dietary intakes, or developmental scores indicative of DHA deficiency are not defined. Infant development has a distribution in which an individual's potential development is unknown. This was a randomized intervention to establish a distribution of developmental scores for infants of women with DHA intakes considered to be above requirements against which to compare the development of infants of mothers consuming their usual diet. DHA (400 mg/d; n = 67) or a placebo (n = 68) was consumed by the women from 16 wk gestation until delivery. We determined maternal red blood cell ethanolamine phosphoglyceride fatty acids, dietary intakes at 16 and 36 wk gestation, and infant visual acuity at 60 d of age. We described an approach to identify DHA deficiency when biochemical and functional markers of deficiency are unknown. In multivariate analyses, infant visual acuity was related to sex (beta = 0.660, SE = 0.93, and odds ratio = 1.93) and maternal DHA intervention (beta = 1.215, SE = 1.64, and odds ratio = 3.37). More infant girls in the placebo than in the DHA intervention group had a visual acuity below average (P = 0.048). Maternal red blood cell ethanolamine phosphoglyceride docosatetraenoic acid was inversely related to visual acuity in boys (rho = -0.37, P pregnant women in our study population were DHA-deficient.

  14. A pilot study on the acceptability of levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine device by young, single, nulliparous Chinese females following surgical abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chiu-fai Ivy; Lee, S S N; Pun, T C

    2004-03-01

    This study investigated the acceptability of the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine device (LNG-IUS) as contraception among young, single women after termination of pregnancy. Twenty subjects, with a median age of 21 years, had LNG-IUS inserted immediately after suction termination of first-trimester pregnancy. The subjects were followed-up at 6 weeks, 3 months, 6 months and 12 months. Fifteen subjects (75%) had other pregnancies terminated in the past. There were no serious complications or pregnancies. The acceptability of the LNG-IUS was generally above 86% during each follow-up visit. A total of seven (35%) subjects were lost to follow-up at different periods of the study. Overall, four subjects (22%) had the LNG-IUS removed. Nine subjects were seen at the end of the 1-year study period and all continued with the LNG-IUS for contraception. Side effects were commonly observed and irregular vaginal bleeding was the most common. We conclude that the LNG-IUS may be an acceptable method among selective young, single, nulliparous clients after termination of pregnancy and could be offered as an option of contraception to them. However, the small sample size and the high lost-to-follow-up rate are the major limitations of this study.

  15. Long-Term Follow-Up of Transgender Women After Secondary Intestinal Vaginoplasty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluis, W.B. van der; Bouman, M.B.; Boer, N.K. de; Buncamper, M.E.; Bodegraven, A.A. van; Neefjes-Borst, E.A.; Kreukels, B.P.; Meijerink, W.J.H.J.; Mullender, M.G.

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Intestinal vaginoplasty with a sigmoid colon or ileal segment is an established surgical technique for vaginal reconstruction. Little has been reported on long-term (functional) outcome and postoperative quality of life. AIMS: To assess the surgical and long-term psychological outcomes

  16. Long-Term Refugee Health: Health Behaviors and Outcomes of Cambodian Refugee and Immigrant Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson-Peterman, Jerusha L.; Toof, Robin; Liang, Sidney L.; Grigg-Saito, Dorcas C.

    2015-01-01

    Refugees in the United States have high rates of chronic disease. Both long-term effects of the refugee experience and adjustment to the U.S. health environment may contribute. While there is significant research on health outcomes of newly resettled refugees and long-term mental health experiences of established refugees, there is currently…

  17. Long-term cumulative depressive symptom burden and risk of cognitive decline and dementia among very old women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeki Al Hazzouri, Adina; Vittinghoff, Eric; Byers, Amy; Covinsky, Ken; Blazer, Dan; Diem, Susan; Ensrud, Kristine E; Yaffe, Kristine

    2014-05-01

    Depressive symptoms and cognitive outcomes are strongly interrelated. Despite that rates of depressive symptoms fluctuate during late life, little is known about the impact of long-term cumulative depressive symptom burden on cognitive decline and dementia in older adults. This study examines the association of nearly 20 years of cumulative depressive symptoms with cognitive outcomes in a cohort of older women. We assessed depressive symptoms in 7,240 women using the Geriatric Depression scale (GDS) at serial visits. We used a Poisson model with random slopes to estimate GDS trajectories for each participant from baseline to death or end of follow-up, and then characterized depressive symptom burden by quartile of the area under the curve. We assessed cognitive outcomes using repeated measures of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Trails B score over 20 years, Year-20 neuropsychological test battery, and adjudicated dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Adjusting for potential confounders, compared with women in the lowest quartile of cumulative depressive symptoms burden, women in the highest quartile had 21% more MMSE errors over time (95% CI = 17%, 26%), 20% worse Trails B score over time (95% CI = 17%, 23%), worse scores on most of the Year-20 cognitive tests, and a twofold greater likelihood of developing dementia or MCI (95% CI = 1.48, 3.11). Long-term cumulative depressive symptom burden was associated with cognitive decline and risk of dementia or MCI. Older adults with a history of depression should be closely monitored for recurrent episodes or unresolved depressive symptoms as well as any cognitive deficits.

  18. The long-term effects of domestic violence against women and girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kachaeva M.A.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to theoretical analysis of the impact of domestic violence against women and girls. In the first part of the work with reference to scientific sources and statistical data substantiates the urgency and practical significance to study this problem. Described the sociodemographic and psychological characteristics of families that use various kinds of violence. Provides an overview of domestic and foreign approaches and research focused on clinical, psychological and social consequences of domestic violence. The peculiarities of manifestation, the factors and dynamics of the delayed effects of domestic violence in women and girls. Showing the diversity arising post-traumatic reactions. The conclusion about the high latency of crimes within the family and the difficulties of identifying the effects of this type of offences. Indicates the need for interdisciplinary cooperation to improve the effectiveness of the prevention and rehabilitation of victims of domestic violence.

  19. Physical activity in relation to long-term maintenance after intentional weight loss in premenopausal women

    OpenAIRE

    Mekary, Rania A.; Feskanich, Diane; Hu, Frank B.; Willett, Walter C.; Field, Alison E.

    2009-01-01

    The type and amount of physical activity needed for prevention of weight regain are not well understood. We prospectively examined the associations between patterns of discretionary physical activity and 6-year maintenance of intentional weight loss among 4,558 healthy premenopausal women who were 26–45 years old in 1991 and had lost >5% of their body weight in the previous two years. Participants reported their physical activity and weight in 1991 and 1997. The outcome was weight regain, def...

  20. Long-term outcomes of exercise: follow-up of a randomized trial in older women with osteopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korpelainen, Raija; Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka; Nieminen, Pentti; Heikkinen, Jorma; Väänänen, Kalervo; Korpelainen, Juha

    2010-09-27

    Long-term evidence from randomized trials of the effectiveness of exercise in preventing disability and fall-related fractures in elderly people has been lacking. We performed extended follow-up of 160 women (aged 70-73 years at baseline) with osteopenia in a population-based, randomized, controlled exercise trial. The trial was conducted from April 1 through April 30, 2001. Follow-up was conducted from May 1, 2001, through December 31, 2005. Mean total time in observation was 7.1 years. Primary outcome measures were femoral neck bone mineral density, postural sway, and leg strength. Secondary outcome measures were hospital-treated fractures and functional ability measures. Outcomes were measured annually using masked assessors. There was a significant difference between groups in favor of exercise in terms of postural sway (group × time interaction, P = .005), walking speed (group × time interaction, P training seem to have a long-term effect on balance and gait and may even protect high-risk elderly women from hip fractures. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00655577.

  1. Long-term outcomes for women versus men with unstable angina/non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction managed medically without revascularization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Peter; Roe, Matthew T; Hochman, Judith S

    2015-01-01

    -term ischemic and bleeding outcomes and platelet reactivity for medically managed ACS patients randomized to prasugrel versus clopidogrel plus aspirin. METHODS: Data from 9,326 patients enrolled in TRILOGY ACS were analyzed to determine differences in long-term ischemic and bleeding outcomes between women (n......-cause mortality (12.2% vs 11.7%; P = .88), and Global Use of Strategies to Open Occluded Arteries severe/life-threatening/moderate bleeding (3.8% vs 2.8%; P = .74) through 30 months were similar in women versus men. After adjustment, women had significantly lower risk for ischemic outcomes and all-cause mortality....... There were no sex-specific, treatment-related differences in 30-day platelet reactivity. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term ischemic and bleeding outcomes in medically managed ACS patients were similar for women versus men, as was treatment-related platelet reactivity. Women had a higher baseline risk profile and, after...

  2. Healthful dietary patterns and long-term weight change among women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias, D K; Zhang, C; Chavarro, J; Olsen, S; Bao, W; Bjerregaard, A A; Fung, T T; Manson, J E; Hu, F B

    2016-11-01

    Diet represents a key strategy for the prevention of obesity and type 2 diabetes among women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), although effective dietary patterns to prevent weight gain in the long term are largely unknown. We sought to evaluate whether improvement in overall diet quality is associated with less long-term weight gain among high-risk women with prior GDM. Women with a history of GDM (N=3397) were followed from 1991 to 2011, or until diagnosis of type 2 diabetes or other chronic disease. Usual diet was assessed via food frequency questionnaire every 4 years from which we calculated the Alternative Healthy Eating Index (aHEI-2010), Alternate Mediterranean Diet (AMED) and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) dietary pattern scores. Weight, lifestyle and health-related outcomes were self-reported every 2 years. We estimated the change in dietary score with change in body weight using linear regression models adjusting for age, baseline body mass index (BMI), baseline and simultaneous change in physical activity and smoking status and other risk factors. Women were followed up to 20 years, gaining an average 1.9 kg (s.d.=7.0) per 4-year period. Women in the highest quintile (Q5) of diet change (most improvement in quality) gained significantly less weight per 4-year period than the lowest quintile (Q1; decrease in quality), independent of other risk factors (4-year weight change, aHEI-2010: Q5=1.30 kg vs Q1=3.27 kg; AMED: Q5=0.94 kg vs Q1=2.56 kg, DASH: Q5=0.64 kg vs Q1=2.75 kg). Significant effect modification by BMI (p-interactions diet quality was associated with less weight gain, independent of other lifestyle factors. Post-partum recommendations on diet quality may provide one strategy to prevent long-term weight gain in this high-risk group.

  3. Ursodeoxycholic acid versus placebo, and early term delivery versus expectant management, in women with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy: semifactorial randomised clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Chappell, Lucy C; Gurung, Vinita; Seed, Paul T; Chambers, Jenny; Williamson, Catherine; Thornton, James G

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To test whether ursodeoxycholic acid reduces pruritus in women with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, whether early term delivery does not increase the incidence of caesarean section, and the feasibility of recruiting women with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy to trials of these interventions. Design First phase of a semifactorial randomised controlled trial. Setting Nine consultant led maternity units, United Kingdom. Participants 125 women with intrahepatic cholestasis...

  4. Predicting long-term outcomes for women physically abused in childhood: contribution of abuse severity versus family environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Margaret L; Amodeo, Maryann

    2010-10-01

    Child physical abuse (CPA) has been associated with adverse adult psychosocial outcomes, although some reports describe minimal long-term effects. The search for the explanation for heterogeneous outcomes in women with CPA has led to an examination of a range of CPA-related factors, from the severity of CPA incidents to the childhood family environment. This study compares several models for predicting adult outcomes: a multidimensional CPA severity scale, the presence or absence of CPA, family environment, and childhood stresses. The effect of CPA on adult outcomes was examined among 290 community-dwelling women raised in 2-parent families. Standardized measures and a focused interview were used to collect data, with siblings as collateral informants. Comparison of a multidimensional CPA severity scale to a dichotomous measure of the presence or absence of CPA showed that the severity scale did not have greater predictive value for adult outcomes than the dichotomous measure. Childhood family environment scales considerably attenuated the predictive value of the dichotomous measure of CPA, exerting a greater mediating effect on outcomes than did childhood stresses. The specific characteristics of a CPA experience may be less important than the occurrence of CPA and the woman's childhood family environment for predicting long-term psychosocial outcomes. The presence of child physical abuse is substantial and continues to increase, but the clinical significance of abuse on adult outcomes is unclear. The findings of the current study lend credence to the idea that family stresses and resources other than CPA may be crucial in understanding long-term effects in women. Hence treatment and support for victims of CPA might benefit from clinicians' exploration of the family environment. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Long-term exposure to residential ambient fine and coarse particulate matter and incident hypertension in post-menopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Trenton; Eliot, Melissa N; Eaton, Charles B; Whitsel, Eric; Stewart, James D; Mu, Lina; Suh, Helen; Szpiro, Adam; Kaufman, Joel D; Vedal, Sverre; Wellenius, Gregory A

    2017-08-01

    Long-term exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) has been previously linked with higher risk of cardiovascular events. This association may be mediated, at least partly, by increasing the risk of incident hypertension, a key determinant of cardiovascular risk. However, whether long-term exposure to PM is associated with incident hypertension remains unclear. Using national geostatistical models incorporating geographic covariates and spatial smoothing, we estimated annual average concentrations of residential fine (PM 2.5 ), respirable (PM 10 ), and course (PM 10-2.5 ) fractions of particulate matter among 44,255 post-menopausal women free of hypertension enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) clinical trials. We used time-varying Cox proportional hazards models to evaluate the association between long-term average residential pollutant concentrations and incident hypertension, adjusting for potential confounding by sociodemographic factors, medical history, neighborhood socioeconomic measures, WHI study clinical site, clinical trial, and randomization arm. During 298,383 person-years of follow-up, 14,511 participants developed incident hypertension. The adjusted hazard ratios per interquartile range (IQR) increase in PM 2.5 , PM 10 , and PM 10-2.5 were 1.13 (95% CI: 1.08, 1.17), 1.06 (1.03, 1.10), and 1.01 (95% CI: 0.97, 1.04), respectively. Statistically significant concentration-response relationships were identified for PM 2.5 and PM 10 fractions. The association between PM 2.5 and hypertension was more pronounced among non-white participants and those residing in the Northeastern United States. In this cohort of post-menopausal women, ambient fine and respirable particulate matter exposures were associated with higher incidence rates of hypertension. These results suggest that particulate matter may be an important modifiable risk factor for hypertension. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Risk factors for near-term myocardial infarction in apparently healthy men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordestgaard, Børge; Adourian, Aram S; Freiberg, Jacob Johannes von S

    2010-01-01

    Limited information is available regarding risk factors for the near-term (4 years) onset of myocardial infarction (MI). We evaluated established cardiovascular risk factors and putative circulating biomarkers as predictors for MI within 4 years of measurement....

  7. The influence of long-term exposure and timing of physical activity on new joint pain and stiffness in mid-age women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, G. M. E. E. (Geeske); Pisters, M. F.; Mishra, G. D.; Brown, W. J.

    Objective: To examine the influence of long-term exposure and timing of physical activity (PA) on new joint pain/stiffness in mid-age women. Methods: Data were from 5105 participants (born 1946-51) in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (ALSWH) who completed survey items on PA (1998,

  8. A Band of Sisters: The Impact of Long-Term Small Group Participation--Forty Years in a Women's Prayer and Bible Study Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Kevin E.

    2006-01-01

    This article reports on a case study of a women's prayer and Bible study group that has met for over forty years. The report focuses on factors contributing to the group's longevity and vitality over time, how it changed over the years, and its impact on the lives of the women who participated in it. It also addresses how this long-term group…

  9. The effects of long- and short-term interdisciplinary treatment approaches in women with fibromyalgia: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saral, Ilknur; Sindel, Dilsad; Esmaeilzadeh, Sina; Sertel-Berk, Hanife Ozlem; Oral, Aydan

    2016-10-01

    We investigated the effects of long- and short-term interdisciplinary treatment approaches for reducing symptoms and improving health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and physical functions of patients with fibromyalgia and compared the effects of two different interdisciplinary treatment approaches. We conducted a prospective, randomized, controlled trial involving 66 women with fibromyalgia eligible for the study at a university hospital setting. The patients were randomized into three groups (allocation ratio 1:1:1) using a computer-generated random numbers: a long-term interdisciplinary treatment group (LG, n = 22) that participated in 10 sessions (3-h once-weekly session for 10 weeks) of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) together with exercise training and other fibromyalgia related educational programs (two full days); a short-term interdisciplinary treatment group (SG, n = 22) that received two full days of educational, exercise, and CBT programs; and a control group (CG, n = 22). The patients were evaluated at baseline and 6 months after treatment using the visual analog scale (pain, fatigue, and sleep), Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire, Beck Depression Inventory, Short Form-36, tender point numbers, and pressure algometry as primary outcomes. The statistical analysis was confined to the 'per-protocol' set. No blinding was performed. The number of patients analyzed was 21 in the LG, 19 in the SG, and 19 in the CG. The intensity of pain (p treatment approaches when compared with controls; the long-term treatment was found more effective in reducing pain than the short-term. Both, long- and short-term interdisciplinary treatments were effective in reducing the severity of some symptoms and disease activity in patients with fibromyalgia. The short-term program well meets the needs of women with fibromyalgia particularly in relation to pain and health status as measured using FIQ; however, a long-term program may be beneficial in reducing fatigue and

  10. Desire, longing and vanity: emotions behind successful return to work for women on long-term sick leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrberg, Y; Landstad, B J; Bergroth, A; Ekholm, J

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify situations and phenomena that have simplified returning to work for women on long-term sick leave. Seven women who were exposed to a relatively large number of risk factors that normally are associated with difficulties in returning to work. In-depth interviews with qualitative content analysis. The analysis indicated four main categories of factors: The Individual, Interactions, Surrounding Resources, and Situations. In each of the main categories structural factors exist and it appears that these have been of significant importance to the women in their return to work. These are presented as Key Factors and they are: clarification of--and the need for--support in the personal process of change; desire, longing, and vanity; respectful interactions between the individual and people in her surroundings; the structure and content of the rehabilitation clinic; the importance of the perceived reality; and the individual's sense of control during the work related rehabilitation process. The results mostly revealed phenomena that have been indicated and described in earlier research studies. However, emotions such as desire, longing and vanity as motivation and driving forces behind a return to work have not been earlier described.

  11. Long-Term Effect of Motivational Interviewing on Dietary Intake and Weight Loss in Iranian Obese/Overweight Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Saffari

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aimed to determine whether motivational interviewing (MI could change dietary habit and body mass index (BMI in obese/overweight women. Methods: A cluster-randomized controlled study was performed in four health centers in Qazvin, central Iran. In total, 327 obese/overweight women were selected by a multi-stage sampling method and randomly assigned into control and experimental groups. Food frequency (using questionnaire; FFQ, BMI, and metabolic markers including blood pressure, total serum cholesterol and fasting blood glucose levels were measured in all participants. Data were collected twice (before and one year after the MI interventions. Data were analyzed using student t-test, and Stepwise Linear Regression. Results: There was a significant increase in daily consumption of dietary fiber, whole grain products, fruits and vegetables in the MI group (P<0.05. The consumption of meat product, total fat, saturated fat, carbohydrate and total energy intake were also significantly reduced after MI intervention (P<0.05. As a result, body weight and BMI were significantly reduced in the intervention group compared to the control group (P<0.05. Conclusion: MI is suggested to be an effective strategy to change life style and reduce BMI in overweight/obese women in the long term. This effect needs to be further investigated in different gender and age populations.

  12. Short- and long-term eating habit modification predicts weight change in overweight, postmenopausal women: results from the WOMAN study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone Gibbs, Bethany; Kinzel, Laura S; Pettee Gabriel, Kelley; Chang, Yue-Fang; Kuller, Lewis H

    2012-09-01

    Standard behavioral obesity treatment produces poor long-term results. Focusing on healthy eating behaviors rather than energy intake may be an alternative strategy. In addition, important behaviors might differ for short- vs long-term weight control. Our aim was to describe and compare associations between changes in eating behaviors and weight after 6 and 48 months. We performed secondary analysis of data collected during a randomized weight-loss intervention trial with 48-month follow-up. We studied 481 overweight and obese postmenopausal women enrolled in the Women on the Move through Activity and Nutrition (WOMAN) Study. We measured changes in weight from baseline to 6 and 48 months. Linear regression models were used to examine the associations between 6- and 48-month changes in eating habits assessed by the Conner Diet Habit Survey and changes in weight. Analyses were conducted in the combined study population and stratified by randomization group. At 6 months in the combined population, weight loss was independently associated with decreased desserts (Pdesserts and fried foods associated with weight loss in controls. At 48 months in the combined population, weight loss was again associated with decreased desserts (P=0.003) and sugar-sweetened beverages (P=0.011), but also decreased meats/cheeses (P=0.024) and increased fruits/vegetables (Pdesserts, sugar-sweetened beverages, and fruits/vegetables were independently associated in controls. Changes in eating behaviors were associated with weight change, although important behaviors differed for short- and long-term weight change and by randomization group. Future studies should determine whether interventions targeting these behaviors could improve long-term obesity treatment outcomes. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Clinical prediction in early pregnancy of infants small for gestational age by customised birthweight centiles: findings from a healthy nulliparous cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCowan, Lesley M E; Thompson, John M D; Taylor, Rennae S; North, Robyn A; Poston, Lucilla; Baker, Philip N; Myers, Jenny; Roberts, Claire T; Dekker, Gustaaf A; Simpson, Nigel A B; Walker, James J; Kenny, Louise C

    2013-01-01

    Small for gestational age (SGA) infants comprise up to 50% of all stillbirths and a minority are detected before birth. We aimed to develop and validate early pregnancy predictive models for SGA infants. 5628 participants from SCOPE, a prospective study of nulliparous pregnant women, were interviewed at 15 ± 1 weeks' gestation. Fetal anthropometry, uterine and umbilical Doppler studies were performed at 20 ± 1 weeks'. The cohort was divided into training (n = 3735) and validation datasets (n = 1871). All-SGA (birthweight customised centile), Normotensive-SGA (SGA with normotensive mother) and Hypertensive-SGA (SGA with mother who developed hypertension) were the primary outcomes. Multivariable analysis was performed using stepwise logistic regression firstly using clinical variables and then with clinical and ultrasound variables. Receiver operator curves were constructed and areas under the curve (AUC) calculated. 633 infants (11.3%) in the whole cohort were SGA; 465 (8.3%) Normotensive-SGA and 165 (3.0%) Hypertensive-SGA. In the training dataset risk factors for All-SGA at 15 ± 1 weeks' included: family history of coronary heart disease, maternal birthweight 12 months to conceive, university student, cigarette smoking, proteinuria, daily vigorous exercise and diastolic blood pressure ≥ 80. Recreational walking ≥ 4 times weekly, rhesus negative blood group and increasing random glucose were protective. AUC for clinical risk factors was 0.63. Fetal abdominal or head circumference z scores <10(th) centile and increasing uterine artery Doppler resistance at 20 ± 1 weeks' were associated with increased risk. Addition of these parameters increased the AUC to 0.69. Clinical predictors of Normotensive and Hypertensive-SGA were sub-groups of All-SGA predictors and were quite different. The combined clinical and ultrasound AUC for Normotensive and Hypertensive-SGA were 0.69 and 0.82 respectively. Predictors for SGA of relevance to clinical practice were identified

  14. Long-term effects of self-control on alcohol use and sexual behavior among urban minority young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Kenneth W; Scheier, Lawrence M; Acevedo, Bianca; Grenard, Jerry L; Botvin, Gilbert J

    2012-01-01

    High risk alcohol use and sexual behaviors peak in young adulthood and often occur in the same individuals. Alcohol use has been found to impair decision-making and contribute to high risk sexual activity. However, the association between alcohol use and risky sexual behavior may also reflect enduring individual differences in risk taking, sociability, self-control, and related variables. Both behaviors can serve similar functions related to recreation, interpersonal connection, and the pursuit of excitement or pleasure. The present study examined the extent to which high risk drinking and sexual behavior clustered together in a sample of urban minority young adult women, a demographic group at elevated risk for negative outcomes related to sexual health. We tested whether psychosocial functioning measured at the beginning of high school predicted classes of risk behaviors when girls were tracked longitudinally into young adulthood. Latent class analysis indicated three distinct profiles based on high risk drinking and sexual behavior (i.e., multiple sex partners) in young adulthood. The largest class (73% of the sample) reported low levels of risky drinking and sexual behavior. The next largest class (19%) reported high risk drinking and low risk sexual behavior, and the smallest class (8%) reported high levels of both behaviors. Compared to women from other racial/ethnic groups, black women were more likely to be categorized in the high risk drinking/low risk sex class. Multinomial logistic regression indicated that self-control in adolescence had a broad and enduring protective effect on risk behaviors eight years later and was associated with a greater probability of being in the low risk drinking/low risk sex class. Findings are discussed in terms of understanding the phenotypic expressions of risk behavior as they relate to early psychosocial development and the long-term protective function of self-control in reducing high risk drinking and sexual behaviors.

  15. Long-Term Effects of Self-Control on Alcohol Use and Sexual Behavior among Urban Minority Young Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert J. Botvin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available High risk alcohol use and sexual behaviors peak in young adulthood and often occur in the same individuals. Alcohol use has been found to impair decision-making and contribute to high risk sexual activity. However, the association between alcohol use and risky sexual behavior may also reflect enduring individual differences in risk taking, sociability, self-control, and related variables. Both behaviors can serve similar functions related to recreation, interpersonal connection, and the pursuit of excitement or pleasure. The present study examined the extent to which high risk drinking and sexual behavior clustered together in a sample of urban minority young adult women, a demographic group at elevated risk for negative outcomes related to sexual health. We tested whether psychosocial functioning measured at the beginning of high school predicted classes of risk behaviors when girls were tracked longitudinally into young adulthood. Latent class analysis indicated three distinct profiles based on high risk drinking and sexual behavior (i.e., multiple sex partners in young adulthood. The largest class (73% of the sample reported low levels of risky drinking and sexual behavior. The next largest class (19% reported high risk drinking and low risk sexual behavior, and the smallest class (8% reported high levels of both behaviors. Compared to women from other racial/ethnic groups, black women were more likely to be categorized in the high risk drinking/low risk sex class. Multinomial logistic regression indicated that self-control in adolescence had a broad and enduring protective effect on risk behaviors eight years later and was associated with a greater probability of being in the low risk drinking/low risk sex class. Findings are discussed in terms of understanding the phenotypic expressions of risk behavior as they relate to early psychosocial development and the long-term protective function of self-control in reducing high risk drinking and

  16. Long-Term Gynecological Outcomes in Women with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia due to 21-Hydroxylase Deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannsen, T H; Ripa, Caroline P.L.; Carlsen, E

    2010-01-01

    Background. Our knowledge on long-term outcome in CAH remains incomplete. Methods. In a prospective study (33 CAH patients, 33 age-matched controls), reproductive outcomes, self-rating of genital appearance and function, and sexuality were correlated to degree of initial virilisation, genotype, a...

  17. Long-term Persistence with Mirabegron versus Solifenacin in Women with Overactive Bladder: Prospective, Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinjo, Manami; Sekiguchi, Yuki; Yoshimura, Yasukuni; Nutahara, Kikuo

    2016-12-02

    To compare persistence with medication and the reasons for discontinuation of mirabegron or solifenacin therapy up to12 months in women with overactive bladder (OAB). Female OAB patients who presented to women's urology clinics were enrolled in a prospective, randomized, two-arm study. Patients were randomized to receive mirabegron at 25-50 mg (n = 76) or solifenacin at 2.5-5 mg (n = 72). The persistence rate and the reasons for discontinuation were investigated up to 12 months. The 12-month persistence rate was 12.2% in the mirabegron group versus 20.1% in the solifenacin group and there were no significant differences of the persistence rates during the study (n.s). Patients discontinued treatment because of lack of efficacy (21.6%), spontaneous improvement (18.2%), and side-effects (17.6%), while 19.6% were lost to follow up. Discontinuation due to side-effects was significantly more frequent in the solifenacin group than the mirabegron group (27.3 vs. 7.9%, P < 0.05). In contrast, discontinuation due to lack of efficacy was significantly more frequent in the mirabegron group than the solifenacin group (36.8 vs. 5.6%, P < 0.05). This study demonstrated low persistence rates over 12 months for both mirabegron and solifenacin, although the reasons for discontinuation were somewhat different. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  18. Long-term outcome of ovarian function in women with intermittent premature ovarian insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachelot, Anne; Nicolas, Carole; Bidet, Maud; Dulon, Jérôme; Leban, Monique; Golmard, Jean Louis; Polak, Michel; Touraine, Philippe

    2017-02-01

    Spontaneous resumption of ovarian function is not a rare phenomenon in patients with premature ovarian insufficiency (POI). The outcome of this resumption is not known. To describe the outcome following the resumption of ovarian function in POI patients. Cross-sectional study. University medical centre. Cumulative incidence of ovarian function resumption and risk factors arresting this resumption during follow-up were determined in a large cohort of POI women. Five hundred and seven patients were included in the study, with a follow-up of 3·44 ± 4·05 years (0-29). Of these, 117 (23%) had features of ovarian function resumption. The cumulative incidence of pregnancy was 3·5% among the whole cohort and 15·3% among patients with resumption of ovarian function. Fifty-five patients (47%) experienced an arrest of their resumption during the follow-up period. In univariate analysis, high FSH and DHEA levels at initial evaluation were risk factors for the arrest of the resumption of ovarian function. In multivariate analysis, high FSH levels at the initial evaluation [1·89 (1·10-3·23), P = 0·03] and older age at diagnosis [1·53 (1·01-2·33), P = 0·04] were risk factors for the arrest of this resumption. Resumption of ovarian function is not a rare or brief phenomenon in POI women. The identification of predictive factors of this resumption, as well as its duration, increases our knowledge of the natural history of POI, and will improve the medical management, especially infertility counselling of these patients. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Short-Term and Mid-Term Effects of Fasting and Downset Meal Pattern on Dietary Intakes, Anthropometric Parameters, and Glycemic and Lipid Profile in Fasting Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narsis Afghari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: This study assessed the mid-term changes in anthropometrical and biochemical factors as well as nutritional status and physical activity level with regard to nocturnal eating during Ramadan, for the first time.Materials and Methods: Via an easy sampling, the cohort study was conducted in 49 women aged between 20 and 45 years who were recruited from Shahid Motahari Hospital in Isfahan. The subjects were divided into two groups based on their nocturnal eating pattern. Anthropometrical and biochemical parameters were measured three days before Ramadan, on the third day of Ramadan, and thirty days after the end of Ramadan. A 147 food items frequency questionnaire was used for the assessment of nutritional status t. Repeated measure test was employed to determine changes over time, and the interaction effects between times and nocturnal eating status. Results: The body weight and body mass index of the women who consumed the nocturnal meal was significantly different from those of the subjects who did not consume the downset meal (p value =0.006. There were significant differences in energy, carbohydrate, and fat intake as well as serum triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, and physical activity levels between the three time periods. Serum glucose, cholesterol, and LDL-cholesterol were not significantly different between the two groups.Conclusion: Ramadan fasting has beneficial effects on the body weight and body mass index. Fasting causes some changes in the lipid profile; these changes can be attributed to changes in dietary habits and physical activity level during Ramadan, rather than nocturnal eating status.

  20. Sociosexual orientation and 2D:4D ratios in women: Relationship to men's desirability ratings as a long-term pair bond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLecce, Tara L; Polheber, John P; Matchock, Robert L

    2014-02-01

    The current study examined whether men's ratings of women's desirability as a long-term pairbond, based on static photographs, were related to the women's second-to-fourth digit (2D:4D) ratio and their sexual attitudes and behavior. The 2D:4D ratio was measured in 164 women and facial photographs were taken of 55 of these women. All women completed the Sociosexual Orientation Inventory (SOI). Male participants (n = 89), masked to this information, rated the 55 female participants on their desirability as a long-term sexual partner, specifically along dimensions of faithfulness, youthfulness, and attractiveness. Ten independent judges rated women's photographed faces on masculinity. Results indicated a significant negative relationship between women's SOI scores and men's faithfulness ratings (more unrestricted sociosexuality was associated with lower faithfulness ratings). There was also a significant positive relationship between right (but not left) 2D:4D ratio and faithfulness ratings (women with female-like ratios were rated as being more faithful). The SOI scores of the women were not related to 2D:4D ratios. These results suggest that the potential for sexual infidelity can be gleaned from static facial cues.

  1. Routine vaginal examinations for assessing progress of labour to improve outcomes for women and babies at term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downe, Soo; Gyte, Gillian M L; Dahlen, Hannah G; Singata, Mandisa

    2013-07-15

    this is covered by another Cochrane review. However, studies where vaginal examinations were used within the context of the partogram were included if the studies were randomised according to the vaginal examination component. Three review authors assessed the studies for inclusion in the review. Two authors undertook independent data extraction and assessed the risk of bias of each included study. A third review author also checked data extraction and risk of bias. Data entry was checked. We found two studies that met our inclusion criteria but they were of unclear quality. One study, involving 307 women, compared vaginal examinations with rectal examinations, and the other study, involving 150 women, compared two-hourly with four-hourly vaginal examinations. Both studies were of unclear quality in terms of risk of selection bias, and the study comparing the timing of the vaginal examinations excluded 27% (two hourly) to 28% (four hourly) of women after randomisation because they no longer met the inclusion criteria.When comparing routine vaginal examinations with routine rectal examinations to assess the progress of labour, we identified no difference in neonatal infections requiring antibiotics (risk ratio (RR) 0.33, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.01 to 8.07, one study, 307 infants). There were no data on the other primary outcomes of length of labour, maternal infections requiring antibiotics and women's overall views of labour. The study did show that significantly fewer women reported that vaginal examination was very uncomfortable compared with rectal examinations (RR 0.42, 95% CI 0.25 to 0.70, one study, 303 women). We identified no difference in the secondary outcomes of augmentation, caesarean section, spontaneous vaginal birth, operative vaginal birth, perinatal mortality and admission to neonatal intensive care.Comparing two-hourly vaginal examinations with four-hourly vaginal examinations in labour, we found no difference in length of labour (mean

  2. From the female perspective: Long-term effects on quality of life of a program for women with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Noreen M; Gong, Z Molly; Wang, Si Jian; Valerio, Melissa A; Bria, William F; Johnson, Timothy R

    2010-04-01

    Although, among adults, asthma predominates in women, the role of sex and gender in asthma has only recently been studied. Moreover, only one study has focused on the management of asthma by women, reporting that 1 year subsequent to an intervention addressing sex and gender role factors, women's asthma status was improved. Data from a 2-year postintervention follow-up were assessed to determine whether there were longer-term effects on the asthma status and quality of life (QoL) of the participants. A randomized controlled design was used in which female patients with asthma, who were receiving services at the University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, Michigan (2002-2006), were assigned to either a control group or a female-oriented intervention group that focused on management challenges related to sex and gender role factors. Data were collected at baseline and 2 years' postintervention (2008) by telephone interview and review of medical records. Measures included asthma-related QoL, health care and medication use for asthma, level of self-regulation, self-confidence in managing the condition, sex and gender role-related asthma problems, and days of missed work or school because of asthma. Data were analyzed using both generalized estimating equations logistic regression and log-linear regression. The mean (SD) age of the 808 women participating in the study was 48.2 (13.1) years in the intervention group and 48.7 (14.3) years in the control group, and the percentage of minority participants was 15.8% and 16.3%, respectively. Despite randomization, women in the intervention group had more persistent asthma at baseline. At 2 years' postrandomization, the only significant difference in health care use was associated with scheduled office visits; no other significant health care use differences were evident. However, the women in the intervention group had a significantly greater decrease of asthma symptoms with sexual activity (P = 0.01) and greater

  3. Body image and psychological distress after prophylactic mastectomy and breast reconstruction in genetically predisposed women: A prospective long-term follow-up study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Heijer, M.; Seynaeve, C.; Timman, R.; Duivenvoorden, H.J.; Vanheusden, K.; Tilanus-Linthorst, M.; Menke-Pluijmers, M.B.E.; Tibben, A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To explore the course of psychological distress and body image at long-term follow-up (6-9 years) after prophylactic mastectomy and breast reconstruction (PM/BR) in women at risk for hereditary breast cancer, and to identify pre-PM risk factors for poor body image on the long-term. Methods:

  4. Body image and psychological distress after prophylactic mastectomy and breast reconstruction in genetically predisposed women: a prospective long-term follow-up study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijer, M. den; Seynaeve, C.; Timman, R.; Duivenvoorden, H.J.; Vanheusden, K.; Tilanus-Linthorst, M.; Menke-Pluijmers, M.B.; Tibben, A.

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: To explore the course of psychological distress and body image at long-term follow-up (6-9 years) after prophylactic mastectomy and breast reconstruction (PM/BR) in women at risk for hereditary breast cancer, and to identify pre-PM risk factors for poor body image on the long-term. METHODS:

  5. Risk factors for pre-term birth in a Canadian cohort of HIV-positive women: role of ritonavir boosting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakkar, Fatima; Boucoiran, Isabelle; Lamarre, Valerie; Ducruet, Thierry; Amre, Devendra; Soudeyns, Hugo; Lapointe, Normand; Boucher, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Background The risk of pre-term birth (PTB) associated with the use of protease inhibitors (PIs) during pregnancy remains a subject of debate. Recent data suggest that ritonavir boosting of PIs may play a specific role in the initiation of PTB, through an effect on the maternal–fetal adrenal axis. The primary objective of this study is to compare the risk of PTB among women treated with boosted PI versus non-boosted PIs during pregnancy. Methods Between 1988 and 2011, 705 HIV-positive women were enrolled into the Centre Maternel et Infantile sur le SIDA mother–infant cohort at Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Sainte-Justine in Montreal, Canada. Inclusion criteria for the study were: 1) attendance at a minimum of two antenatal obstetric visits and 2) singleton live birth, at 24 weeks gestational or older. The association between PTB (defined as delivery at <37 weeks gestational age), antiretroviral drug exposure and maternal risk factors was assessed retrospectively using logistic regression. Results A total of 525 mother–infant pairs were included in the analysis. Among them, PI-based combination anti-retroviral therapy was used in 37.4%, boosted PI based in 24.4%, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) or nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor based in 28.1%, and no treatment was given in 10.0% of cases. Overall, 13.5% of women experienced PTB. Among women treated with antiretroviral therapy, the risk of PTB was significantly higher among women who received boosted versus non-boosted PI (OR 2.01, 95% CI 1.02–3.97). This remained significant after adjusting for maternal age, delivery CD4 count, hepatitis C co-infection, history of previous PTB, and parity (aOR 2.17, 95% CI 1.05–4.51). There was no increased risk of PTB with the use of unboosted PIs as compared to NNRTI- or NRTI-based regimens. Conclusion While previous studies on the association between PTB and PI use have generally considered all PIs the same, our results would

  6. Functionality and acceptability of a wireless fetal heart rate monitoring device in term pregnant women in rural Southwestern Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugyenyi, Godfrey R; Atukunda, Esther C; Ngonzi, Joseph; Boatin, Adeline; Wylie, Blair J; Haberer, Jessica E

    2017-06-08

    Over 3 million stillbirths occur annually in sub Saharan Africa; most occur intrapartum and are largely preventable. The standard of care for fetal heart rate (FHR) assessment in most sub-Saharan African settings is a Pinard Stethoscope, limiting observation to one person, at one point in time. We aimed to test the functionality and acceptability of a wireless FHR monitor that could allow for expanded monitoring capacity in rural Southwestern Uganda. In a mixed method prospective study, we enrolled 1) non-laboring healthy term pregnant women to wear the device for 30 min and 2) non-study clinicians to observe its use. The battery-powered prototype uses Doppler technology to measure fetal cardiotocographs (CTG), which are displayed via an android device and wirelessly transmit to cloud storage where they are accessible via a password protected website. Prototype functionality was assessed by the ability to obtain and transmit a 30-min CTG. Three obstetricians independently rated CTGs for readability and agreement between raters was calculated. All participants completed interviews on acceptability. Fifty pregnant women and 7 clinicians were enrolled. 46 (92.0%) CTGs were successfully recorded and stored. Mean scores for readability were 4.71, 4.71 and 4.83 (out of 5) with high agreement (intra class correlation 0.84; 95% CI 0.74 to 0.91). All pregnant women reported liking or really liking the device, as well as high levels of comfort, flexibility and usefulness of the prototype; all would recommend it to others. Clinicians described the prototype as portable, flexible, easy-to-use and a time saver. Adequate education for clinicians and women also seemed to improve correct usage and minimise concerns on safety of the device. This prototype wireless FHR monitor functioned well in a low-resource setting and was found to be acceptable and useful to both pregnant women and clinicians. The device also seemed to have potential to improve the experience of the users

  7. Long-term air pollution exposure and living close to busy roads are associated with COPD in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gehring Ulrike

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lung function and exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD have been associated with short-term exposure to air pollution. However, the effect of long-term exposure to particulate matter from industry and traffic on COPD as defined by lung function has not been evaluated so far. Our study was designed to investigate the influence of long-term exposure to air pollution on respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function in 55-year-old women. We especially focused on COPD as defined by GOLD criteria and additionally compared the effects of air pollution on respiratory symptoms by questionnaire data and by lung function measurements. Methods In consecutive cross sectional studies conducted between 1985–1994, we investigated 4757 women living in the Rhine-Ruhr Basin of Germany. NO2 and PM10 exposure was assessed by measurements done in an 8 km grid, and traffic exposure by distance from the residential address to the nearest major road using Geographic Information System data. Lung function was determined and COPD was defined by using the GOLD criteria. Chronic respiratory symptoms and possible confounders were defined by questionnaire data. Linear and logistic regressions, including random effects were used to account for confounding and clustering on city level. Results The prevalence of COPD (GOLD stages 1–4 was 4.5%. COPD and pulmonary function were strongest affected by PM10 and traffic related exposure. A 7 μg/m3 increase in five year means of PM10 (interquartile range was associated with a 5.1% (95% CI 2.5%–7.7% decrease in FEV1, a 3.7% (95% CI 1.8%–5.5% decrease in FVC and an odds ratio (OR of 1.33 (95% CI 1.03–1.72 for COPD. Women living less than 100 m from a busy road also had a significantly decreased lung function and COPD was 1.79 times more likely (95% CI 1.06–3.02 than for those living farther away. Chronic symptoms as based on questionnaire information showed effects in the same

  8. The Implications of Contractual Terms of Employment for Women and Leadership: An Autoethnographic Study in UK Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Vicary

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is concerned with the implications of casual, non-permanent forms of employment that have become a common cultural practice in higher education. It proposes that contractual terms of employment have important implications for women and leadership in higher education, since to pursue leadership, usually one must first gain permanency in an organization, in contractual terms. Based on an autoethnographic study by a female academic in a UK higher education institution, the article illustrates that temporary forms of employment, should they be protracted, can stifle leadership aspirations due to lack of career progression opportunities and lead to a sense of alienation from the target community of practice, and even to personal difficulties, such as feelings of isolation and poor self-esteem. The article discusses theoretical and practical implications for women’s leadership arising from the findings and makes recommendations for improvements in practice in the higher education sector. The findings and recommendations from this study will also be relevant to other organizational contexts where casual or temporary, fixed term, zero-hours non-permanent forms of employment are common.

  9. Prevalence of cytological endometritis and effect on pregnancy outcomes at the time of insemination in nulliparous dairy heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascottini, O Bogado; Hostens, M; Dini, P; Van Eetvelde, M; Vercauteren, P; Opsomer, G

    2016-11-01

    The objectives of the present study were to assess the prevalence of cytological endometritis (CYTO) at the time of artificial insemination (AI) and its effect on pregnancy outcomes in nulliparous dairy heifers. In total, 512 endometrial cytology samples were taken during AI from 351 nulliparous Holstein-Friesian heifers using cytotape (a 1.5-cm piece of paper tape rolled on the top of an AI catheter covered with a double guard sheet). After sampling, the top of the AI catheter was gently rolled onto a glass slide, air-dried, and stained using Diff-Quick (Fisher Diagnostics, Newark, DE). For each slide, 300 nucleated cells were counted, and the polymorphonuclear cell ratio (% PMN) was assessed at 400× magnification. We constructed a receiver operating characteristic curve to find the cutoff point at which sensitivity and specificity (% PMN) affected pregnancy outcomes. The receiver operating characteristic curve revealed that the threshold level for diagnosing CYTO in nulliparous dairy heifers was 1% PMN. An insemination was considered successful when pregnancy was confirmed by rectal palpation at least 45d post-AI. Heifers were considered not pregnant when they received a subsequent insemination or were diagnosed empty by rectal palpation. We built multilevel generalized mixed-effect models to test factors affecting pregnancy outcomes and the occurrence of CYTO at AI. We excluded 16 samples harvested from 12 heifers due to poor sample quality or unavailability of reproductive data. Of the 496 AI samples, the prevalence of CYTO at AI was 7.86% (n=39). The conception rate was 62.8% (n=287) in CYTO-negative samples (n=457) and 38.46% (n=15) in CYTO-positive samples. Risk factors for non-pregnancy were a previous AI (odds ratio 2.96; 95% confidence interval: 1.21-7.26) and the interaction between CYTO and previous AI. The only risk factor identified as being associated with the occurrence of CYTO was a previous AI (odds ratio 4.7; 95% confidence interval: 2

  10. Effect Modification of Long-Term Air Pollution Exposures and the Risk of Incident Cardiovascular Disease in US Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Jaime E; Puett, Robin C; Rexrode, Kathryn M; Albert, Christine M; Laden, Francine

    2015-11-25

    Ambient air pollution exposures have been frequently linked to cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity and mortality. However, less is known about the populations most susceptible to these adverse effects. We assessed the associations of long-term particulate matter (PM) exposures with incident CVD in a nationwide cohort of 114 537 women in the Nurses' Health Study, and performed analyses to identify subpopulations at the greatest risk. Residential address level time-varying monthly exposures to PM2.5, PM10, and PM2.5 to 10 microns in diameter were estimated from spatio-temporal prediction models. In multivariable models, increases in all size fractions of PM were associated with small, but not statistically significant, increased risks of total CVD, coronary heart disease, and stroke. PM-associated CVD risks were statistically significantly higher among women with diabetes as compared to those without (P-for-interaction effects of PM. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  11. Ovarian function in young women in long-term remission after treatment for Hodgkin's disease stage I or II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Specht, L; Hansen, M M; Geisler, C

    1984-01-01

    16 young women in long-term remission after first-line treatment for the early stages of Hodgkin's disease were examined for ovarian function 48 to 125 months after termination of therapy. The patients had received mantle field irradiation, plus either irradiation of infradiaphragmatic lymph nodes...... or 6 cycles of MOPP. 4 patients showed signs of ovarian failure judged by menopausal symptoms, menstrual pattern and/or hormone values. 12 patients had functioning ovaries; 8 of these had become pregnant after treatment, 2 had had an induced abortion, and 7 had given birth to a total of 9 healthy...... babies after treatment. The patients with signs of ovarian failure were older than the others, but the difference was not statistically significant. No difference between the patients who had received different treatments was established, nor does the study confirm the proposed protective effect of oral...

  12. Long-term efficacy and safety of anastrozole for adjuvant treatment of early breast cancer in postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharath Gangadhara

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Sharath Gangadhara, Gianfilippo BertelliSouth West Wales Cancer Institute, Singleton Hospital, Swansea, UKAbstract: For more than 20 years, tamoxifen has been the gold standard for the adjuvant treatment of postmenopausal women with hormone-responsive early breast cancer. However, recent randomized trials have shown efficacy and tolerability benefits with the third-generation aromatase inhibitor anastrozole, resulting in an increased use of this agent in the adjuvant setting. Data on anastrozole’s long-term efficacy and tolerability are therefore of interest in clinical practice and will be reviewed here, especially in the light of the 100-month analysis of the ATAC (Anastrozole, Tamoxifen Alone or in Combination trial.Keywords: anastrozole, aromatase inhibitors, breast cancer, adjuvant therapy 

  13. The contribution of risk factors to the higher incidence of invasive and in situ breast cancers in women with higher levels of education in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menvielle, Gwenn; Kunst, Anton E; van Gils, Carla H; Peeters, Petra H; Boshuizen, Hendriek; Overvad, Kim; Olsen, Anja; Tjonneland, Anne; Hermann, Silke; Kaaks, Rudolf; Bergmann, Manuela M; Illner, Anne-Kathrin; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Palli, Domenico; Berrino, Franco; Mattiello, Amelia; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; May, Anne; Monninkhof, Evelyn; Braaten, Tonje; Lund, Eiliv; Quirós, José Ramón; Duell, Eric J; Sánchez, Maria-José; Navarro, Carmen; Ardanaz, Eva; Borgquist, Signe; Manjer, Jonas; Khaw, Kay Tee; Allen, Naomi E; Reeves, Gillian K; Chajes, Véronique; Rinaldi, Sabina; Slimani, Nadia; Gallo, Valentina; Vineis, Paolo; Riboli, Elio; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas

    2011-01-01

    The authors investigated the role of known risk factors in educational differences in breast cancer incidence. Analyses were based on the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition and included 242,095 women, 433 cases of in situ breast cancer, and 4,469 cases of invasive breast cancer. Reproductive history (age at first full-term pregnancy and parity), exposure to endogenous and exogenous hormones, height, and health behaviors were accounted for in the analyses. Relative indices of inequality (RII) for education were estimated using Cox regression models. A higher risk of invasive breast cancer was found among women with higher levels of education (RII = 1.22, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.09, 1.37). This association was not observed among nulliparous women (RII = 1.13, 95% CI: 0.84, 1.52). Inequalities in breast cancer incidence decreased substantially after adjusting for reproductive history (RII = 1.11, 95% CI: 0.98, 1.25), with most of the association being explained by age at first full-term pregnancy. Each other risk factor explained a small additional part of the inequalities in breast cancer incidence. Height accounted for most of the remaining differences in incidence. After adjusting for all known risk factors, the authors found no association between education level and risk of invasive breast cancer. Inequalities in incidence were more pronounced for in situ breast cancer, and those inequalities remained after adjustment for all known risk factors (RII = 1.61, 95% CI: 1.07, 2.41), especially among nulliparous women.

  14. Hysteroscopic enucleation in toto of submucous type 2 myomas: long-term follow-up in women affected by menorrhagia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saccardi, Carlo; Conte, Lorena; Fabris, Alberta; De Marchi, Francesca; Borghero, Angela; Gizzo, Salvatore; Litta, Pietro

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate long-term efficacy of type 2 myoma enucleation in toto. Longitudinal retrospective study (Canadian Task Force classification II-2). University obstetrics and gynecology clinic. One hundred twelve women with menorrhagia and at least 1 type 2 submucous myoma who underwent hysteroscopic myoma enucleation in toto. Clinical long-term follow-up. Success of the procedure and influence of myoma characteristics on recurrence of menorrhagia were evaluated. Mean (SD) follow-up was 58.4 (19.1) months. The success of the procedure was 88.4% (99 patients). Seventeen patients (15.2%) underwent a 2-step procedure. Among patients with relapsed menorrhagia, 10 (8.9%) underwent a repeat operation. Statistical analysis showed that number and diameter of myomas did not influence the outcome. Localization in the posterior wall of the uterus, compared with other sites, was associated with a higher percentage of resolution of menstrual symptoms (p = .03). There was no significant relationship between myomas features and risk of symptom recurrence during follow-up. The 2-step myomectomy was performed in patients with myomas >30 mm in diameter (p menorrhagia. Copyright © 2014 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Reproductive and menstrual factors and colorectal cancer incidence in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Neil; Xu, Linzhi; Zervoudakis, Alice; Xue, Xiaonan; Kabat, Geoffrey; Rohan, Thomas E; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; O'Sullivan, Mary Jo; Thomson, Cynthia; Messina, Catherine; Strickler, Howard D; Gunter, Marc J

    2017-01-03

    Reproductive and menstrual factors have been evaluated as surrogates for long-term hormonal exposures in several prospective studies of colorectal cancer, yet findings have been conflicting. The relation of reproductive and menstrual factors (self-reported via a reproductive history questionnaire) with incident colorectal cancer was investigated among women enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study (WHI-OS), a longitudinal cohort of 93 676 postmenopausal women (aged 50-79 years at enrolment) in which 1149 incident cases of colorectal cancer occurred over a median follow-up of 11.9 years. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models that included established colorectal cancer risk factors were constructed to examine the association of colorectal cancer incidence with reproductive and menstrual factors. Having had two children (vs nulliparous: hazard ratio (HR)=0.80, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.64-0.99) was inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk. Compared with never users, ever use of oral contraceptives was associated with lower colorectal cancer risk (HR=0.74, 95% CI: 0.63-0.86); however, no relationship was observed for duration of oral contraceptives use (4 years vs 1 year: HR=0.94, 95% CI: 0.67-1.32). None of the remaining reproductive and menstrual factors was associated with colorectal cancer incidence. Parity and prior use of oral contraceptives were associated with lower colorectal cancer risk in this cohort of postmenopausal women.

  16. Impact of a Counseling Program on Depression, Anxiety, Stress, and Spiritual Intelligence in Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batul Khodakarami

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Recent studies showed that spirituality and spiritual intelligence in pregnant women are associated with mental reactions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of spiritual counseling on pregnant women's spiritual intelligence and common mental reactions during pregnancy. Methods: Inthis quasi-experimental study, 80 multiparous and nulliparous pregnant women were randomly selected from among pregnant women referring to our clinic. The patients were screened and then randomly assigned to intervention (n=40 and control (n=40 groups. The intervention group was divided into four groups of ten and then received spiritual counseling during eight sessions. The control group only received the routine care. The data was collected by using a demographic form, Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21, and King spiritual intelligence scale. Both groups were followed immediately and two months after the intervention. To analyze the data, descriptive and analytical statistics were used in SPSS, version 16. Results: Before the intervention, there was no significant difference in mean scores of depression, anxiety, stress, spiritual intelligence, and its components between the two groups (P>0.05. However, immediately and two month after the intervention, the results showed a significant difference between the two groups in terms of mean scores of depression, anxiety, stress, spiritual intelligence, and its components (P0.05. The mean scores of spiritual intelligence and its components significantly increased over time (before, immediately, and two months after the intervention in the intervention group (P

  17. Premature rupture of the membranes at term: time to reevaluate the management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeh-Mestechkin, Dana; Samara, Nivin; Wiser, Amir; Markovitch, Ofer; Shechter-Maor, Gil; Biron-Shental, Tal

    2016-11-01

    To compare maternal and neonatal outcomes in induced vs. expectant management of term PROM. This retrospective study included patients with term PROM. A total of 325 were enrolled: 213 managed expectantly and 112 induced at admission and matched according to gestational age. Expectant management group patients were allowed to defer labour induction up to 48 h. Primary outcome measures were maternal or foetal signs of infection (chorioamnionitis, early neonatal sepsis or postpartum endometritis) and prolonged maternal hospitalization. Secondary outcome was caesarean delivery rate. All group characteristics were comparable except that expectant management included more nulliparous women. Women managed expectantly had a higher rate of prolonged hospitalization [15 (7 %) vs. 2 (1.8 %); P = 0.043] as an indication of maternal complications, compared to induction management. They also had a higher rate of caesarean delivery [34 (16.4 %) vs. 8 (7.1 %), respectively; P = 0.024]. Adjustment for parity did not change the results. Early neonatal outcomes were similar between groups. Expectant management increases the likelihood of caesarean delivery and prolonged maternal hospitalization. This should be considered when advising patients with term PROM regarding labour induction.

  18. Long-term follow-up of sexual function in women after tension-free vaginal tape operation for stress urinary incontinence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glavind, Karin; Lindquist, Anna Sofie Inger

    INTRODUCTION: This prospective study investigates sexual function in women after a tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) operation and compares short-term and long-term effects. METHODS: Sixty-three women had a TVT operation performed at Aalborg University Hospital, Department of Gynecology...... negative emotional reactions during intercourse, less coital incontinence, and less fear of being incontinent during intercourse after the TVT operation. CONCLUSION: This study shows that a woman's sex life does not deteriorate after a TVT operation, that their sexual function improves somewhat...

  19. Fear of childbirth and risk for birth complications in nulliparous women in the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, M; Johansen, C; Hedegaard, M

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the associations between fear of childbirth and emergency caesarean section and between fear of childbirth and dystocia or protracted labour and fetal distress. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Danish National Birth Cohort. POPULATION: A total of 25 297 healthy...

  20. Risk indicators for dystocia in low-risk nulliparous women: a study on lifestyle and anthropometrical factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaergaard, H; Dykes, A K; Ottesen, B

    2010-01-01

    .45-0.89), contrary to a non-significant finding of intensive physical training (OR 1.57, CI 0.84-2.93). Caffeine intake of 200-299 mg/day was associated with dystocia (OR 1.37, CI 1.04-1.80); also high maternal age (OR 2.25, CI 1.58-3.22), small stature (OR 2.18, CI 1.51-3.15) and pre-pregnancy overweight (OR 1.......28, CI 1.02-1.61). No association was found between dystocia and alcohol intake, smoking, night sleep and options for resting during the day....

  1. Rationale and design of a long term follow-up study of women who did and did not receive HPV 16/18 vaccination in Guanacaste, Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Paula; Hildesheim, Allan; Herrero, Rolando; Katki, Hormuzd; Wacholder, Sholom; Porras, Carolina; Safaeian, Mahboobeh; Jimenez, Silvia; Darragh, Teresa M; Cortes, Bernal; Befano, Brian; Schiffman, Mark; Carvajal, Loreto; Palefsky, Joel; Schiller, John; Ocampo, Rebeca; Schussler, John; Lowy, Douglas; Guillen, Diego; Stoler, Mark H; Quint, Wim; Morales, Jorge; Avila, Carlos; Rodriguez, Ana Cecilia; Kreimer, Aimée R

    2015-04-27

    The Costa Rica Vaccine Trial (CVT) was a randomized clinical trial conducted between 2004 and 2010, which randomized 7466 women aged 18 to 25 to receive the bivalent HPV-16/18 vaccine or control Hepatitis-A vaccine. Participants were followed for 4 years with cross-over vaccination at the study end. In 2010 the long term follow-up (LTFU) study was initiated to evaluate the 10-year impact of HPV-16/18 vaccination, determinants of the immune response, and HPV natural history in a vaccinated population. Herein, the rationale, design and methods of the LTFU study are described, which actively follows CVT participants in the HPV-arm 6 additional years at biennial intervals (3 additional study visits for 10 years of total follow-up), or more often if clinically indicated. According to the initial commitment, women in the Hepatitis-A arm were offered HPV vaccination at cross-over; they were followed 2 additional years and exited from the study. 92% of eligible CVT women accepted participation in LTFU. To provide underlying rates of HPV acquisition and cervical disease among unvaccinated women to compare with the HPV-arm during LTFU, a new unvaccinated control group (UCG) of women who are beyond the age generally recommended for routine vaccination was enrolled, and will be followed by cervical cancer screening over 6 years. To form the UCG, 5000 women were selected from a local census, of whom 2836 women (61% of eligible women) agreed to participate. Over 90% of participants complied with an interview, blood and cervical specimen collection. Evaluation of comparability between the original (Hepatitis-A arm of CVT) and new (UCG) control groups showed that women's characteristics, as well as their predicted future risk for cervical HPV acquisition, were similar, thus validating use of the UCG. LTFU is poised to comprehensively address many important questions related to long-term effects of prophylactic HPV vaccines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [Prophylactic mastectomy in women at high risk for breast and ovarian cancer: qualitative analysis of the decision making process and long-term satisfaction of two women carrying a BRCA1-mutation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vodermaier, Andrea; Bauerfeind, Ingo; Untch, Michael; Nestle-Krämling, Carolin

    2006-01-01

    Bilateral prophylactic mastectomy and oophorectomy are currently the most effective prevention options for female carriers of the BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene. However, especially the mastectomy procedure is very invasive and is chosen rarely among high risk women in Germany. Little is known about how women cope with this surgery and their long-term satisfaction. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with two BRCA1 mutation carriers, who had undergone prophylactic mastectomy in their twenties 9 and 16 years ago. The process of decision making and long-term satisfaction were analysed using Mayring's qualitative content analysis. Both high risk women had a significant family history of breast and ovarian cancer. They were repeatedly confronted with uncontrollable courses of disease in their relatives who died of breast cancer between the age of 20 and 30 and left small children behind. Although both women experienced different decision making and peri- and post-operative complications, both were satisfied with the decision for prophylactic surgery and showed no regret. Deciding to obtain genetic testing pushed women towards further decision making concerning prophylactic surgery in case they carry a mutation. Information about carrier status reduced uncertainty even if the result was adverse. Both high risk women experienced a decrease in cancer related anxiety which may have heightened tolerance for quality of life related impairments. Implications for counseling are described.

  3. Association of Long-Term Adherence to the MIND Diet with Cognitive Function and Cognitive Decline in American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berendsen, A M; Kang, J H; Feskens, E J M; de Groot, C P G M; Grodstein, F; van de Rest, O

    2018-01-01

    There is increasing attention for dietary patterns as a potential strategy to prevent cognitive decline. We examined the association between adherence to a recently developed Mediterranean-DASH Intervention for Neurodegenerative Delay (MIND) diet with cognitive function and cognitive decline, taking into account the interaction between the apolipoprotein E ε4 genotype and the MIND diet. Population-based prospective cohort study. A total of 16,058 older women aged 70 and over from the Nurses' Health Study. Dietary intake was assessed five times between 1984 and 1998 with a 116-item Food Frequency Questionnaire. The MIND score includes ten brain-healthy foods and five unhealthy foods. Cognition was assessed four times by telephone from 1995 to 2001 (baseline) with the Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status (TICS) and by calculating composite scores of verbal memory and global cognition. Linear regression modelling and linear mixed modelling were used to examine the associations of adherence to the MIND diet with average cognitive function and cognitive change over six years, respectively. Greater long-term adherence to the MIND diet was associated with a better verbal memory score (multivariable-adjusted mean differences between extreme MIND quintiles=0.04 (95%CI 0.01-0.07), p-trend=0.006), but not with cognitive decline over 6 years in global cognition, verbal memory or TICS. Long-term adherence to the MIND diet was moderately associated with better verbal memory in later life. Future studies should address this association within populations at greater risk of cognitive decline.

  4. Long-term prevalence and predictors of urinary incontinence among women in the Diabetes Prevention Program Outcomes Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelan, Suzanne; Kanaya, Alka M.; Ma, Yong; Vittinghoff, Eric; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Wing, Rena; Kusek, John W.; Orchard, Trevor J.; Crandall, Jill P.; Montez, Maria G.; Brown, Jeanette S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study examined the long-term prevalence and predictors of ≥ weekly urinary incontinence (UI) in the Diabetes Prevention Program Outcomes Study (DPPOS). Methods DPPOS is a follow-up study of the DPP randomized clinical trial of overweight adults with impaired glucose tolerance. This analysis included 1,778 female participants of DPPOS who had been randomly assigned during DPP to intensive lifestyle intervention [ILS; n = (582)], metformin [MET; n = 589], or placebo [PLC; n = 607)]. DPPOS participants completed semi-annual assessments after the final DPP visit and for six years until October, 2008. Results At entry into DPPOS, the prevalence of weekly UI was lower in ILS compared with MET and PLC (44.2% vs. 51.8%, 48.0% UI/week, p=0.04); during the 6-year follow-up, these lower rates in ILS were maintained (46.7%, 53.1%, 49.9% UI/week; p = 0.03). Statistically adjusting for UI prevalence at the end of DPP, treatment arm no longer had a significant impact on UI during DPPOS. Independent predictors of lower UI during DPPOS included lower BMI (OR [95% CI] = 0.988 [0.982, 0.994]) and greater physical activity (OR = 0.999 [0.998, 1.000] at DPPOS entry, and greater reductions in BMI (OR = 0.75 [0.60, 0.94]) and waist circumference (OR = 0.998 [0.996, 1.0]) during DPPOS. Diabetes was not significantly related to UI. Conclusions ILS had a modest positive impact on UI that endured for years after the DPP trial and should be considered for the long-term prevention and treatment of UI in overweight/obese women with glucose intolerance. PMID:25352018

  5. Long-term effects of the Mediterranean lifestyle program: a randomized clinical trial for postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritzwoller Debra P

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple-risk-factor interventions offer a promising means for addressing the complex interactions between lifestyle behaviors, psychosocial factors, and the social environment. This report examines the long-term effects of a multiple-risk-factor intervention. Methods Postmenopausal women (N = 279 with type 2 diabetes participated in the Mediterranean Lifestyle Program (MLP, a randomized, comprehensive lifestyle intervention study. The intervention targeted healthful eating, physical activity, stress management, smoking cessation, and social support. Outcomes included lifestyle behaviors (i.e., dietary intake, physical activity, stress management, smoking cessation, psychosocial variables (e.g., social support, problem solving, self-efficacy, depression, quality of life, and cost analyses at baseline, and 6, 12, and 24 months. Results MLP participants showed significant 12- and 24-month improvements in all targeted lifestyle behaviors with one exception (there were too few smokers to analyze tobacco use effects, and in psychosocial measures of use of supportive resources, problem solving, self-efficacy, and quality of life. Conclusion The MLP was more effective than usual care over 24 months in producing improvements on behavioral and psychosocial outcomes. Directions for future research include replication with other populations.

  6. Second-trimester serum cytokines in women who develop spontaneous preterm labor at less than 28 weeks' gestation versus term labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qing; El Sayed, Yasser; Shaw, Gary M; Fu, Joyce; Schilling, James; Madan, Ashima

    2010-01-01

    We sought to determine if there is a relationship between serum concentrations of cytokines and the development of preterm labor. A panel of 28 cytokines was measured using the multiplex assay in serum samples collected between 15 and 18 weeks' gestation from women who developed spontaneous preterm labor and delivered between 24 and 28 weeks' gestation (N = 25) and from women who delivered at term (>or=37 weeks; N = 25). Sixteen of the 28 cytokines measured were detected. Except for vascular endothelial growth factor, which showed a trend toward a significant increase in patients who developed preterm labor, there was no difference in cytokine levels between groups in preterm labor and in term labor. Serum cytokine changes in women who develop spontaneous preterm labor possibly occur in the period between 18 weeks' gestation and the onset of labor. Thieme Medical Publishers.

  7. Long-term risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in relation to BMI and weight change among women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bao, Wei; Yeung, Edwina; Tobias, Deirdre K

    2015-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are advised to control their weight after pregnancy. We aimed to examine how adiposity and weight change influence the long-term risk of developing type 2 diabetes after GDM. METHODS: We included 1,695 women who had...... and 1.16 (95% CI 1.13, 1.20) for most recent BMI. Moreover, each 5 kg increment of weight gain after GDM development was associated with a 27% higher risk of type 2 diabetes (adjusted HR 1.27; 95% CI 1.04, 1.54). Jointly, women who had a BMI ≥30.0 kg/m(2) at baseline and gained ≥5 kg after GDM had...... an adjusted HR of 43.19 (95% CI 13.60, 137.11), compared with women who had a BMI

  8. Short- and Long-Term Theory-Based Predictors of Physical Activity in Women Who Participated in a Weight-Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserkampf, A.; Silva, M. N.; Santos, I. C.; Carraça, E. V.; Meis, J. J. M.; Kremers, S. P. J.; Teixeira, P. J.

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzed psychosocial predictors of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and Self-Determination Theory (SDT) and evaluated their associations with short- and long-term moderate plus vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and lifestyle physical activity (PA) outcomes in women who underwent a weight-management program. 221 participants (age…

  9. Highly sensitive cardiac troponin T and long-term mortality in a population of community-derived perimenopausal women : Nested case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cramer, G.E.; Brouwer, M.A.R.; Vader, H.L.; de Boer, M.J.; Pop, G.A.M.; Pop, V.J.M.; Verheugt, F.W.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the association between baseline levels of highly sensitive cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) and long-term mortality in perimenopausal women of the general community using a gender specific 99th percentile reference limit. Design Nested case control. Setting The present study was

  10. Highly sensitive cardiac troponin T and long-term mortality in a population of community-derived perimenopausal women: nested case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cramer, G.E.; Brouwer, M.A.; Vader, H.L.; Boer, M.J. de; Pop, G.A.M.; Pop, V.J.M.; Verheugt, F.W.A.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between baseline levels of highly sensitive cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) and long-term mortality in perimenopausal women of the general community using a gender specific 99th percentile reference limit. DESIGN: Nested case control. SETTING: The present study was

  11. Long-Term Protective Effect of Lactation on the Development of Type 2 Diabetes in Women With Recent Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Anette-G.; Wallner, Maike; Kaiser, Imme; Rossbauer, Michaela; Harsunen, Minna H.; Lachmann, Lorenz; Maier, Jörg; Winkler, Christiane; Hummel, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    Women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) have a high risk of developing postpartum type 2 diabetes. Strategies to prevent postpartum type 2 diabetes are important to reduce the epidemic of diabetes and its societal impact. Breastfeeding was reported to improve early postpartum glucose tolerance and reduce the subsequent risk of type 2 diabetes. To investigate whether breastfeeding influences short- and long-term postpartum diabetes outcomes, women with GDM (n = 304) participating in the prospective German GDM study were followed from delivery for up to 19 years postpartum for diabetes development. All participants were recruited between 1989 and 1999. Postpartum diabetes developed in 147 women and was dependent on the treatment received during pregnancy (insulin vs. diet), BMI, and presence/absence of islet autoantibodies. Among islet autoantibody-negative women, breastfeeding was associated with median time to diabetes of 12.3 years compared with 2.3 years in women who did not breastfeed. The lowest postpartum diabetes risk was observed in women who breastfed for >3 months. On the basis of these results, we recommend that breastfeeding should be encouraged among these women because it offers a safe and feasible low-cost intervention to reduce the risk of subsequent diabetes in this high-risk population. PMID:23069624

  12. Importance of social capital at the workplace for return to work among women with a history of long-term sick leave: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydström, Ingela; Dalheim Englund, Lotta; Dellve, Lotta; Ahlstrom, Linda

    2017-01-01

    The workplace is an essential source of social capital for many people; it provides mutual support and gives meaning to life. However, few prospective studies have thoroughly investigated the importance of aspects of social capital in the workplace. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between aspects of social capital (social support, sense of community, and quality of leadership) at the workplace, and work ability, working degree, and vitality among women with a history of long-term sick leave from human service organizations. A longitudinal cohort study was performed among women with a history of long-term sick leave. The study started in 2005, and the women were followed up at 6 months, 1 year, and 6 years using self-reported questionnaires (baseline n = 283). Linear mixed models were used for longitudinal analysis of the repeated measurements of prospective degree of work ability, working degree, and vitality. Analyses were performed with different models; the explanatory variables for each model were social support, sense of community, and quality of leadership and time. Social capital in terms of quality of leadership (being good at solving conflicts and giving high priority to job satisfaction), sense of community (co-operation between colleagues) and social support (help and support from immediate superiors and colleagues) increased the women's work ability score (WAS) as well as working degree over time. Additionally, social capital in terms of quality of leadership increased the women's vitality score over time. A sustainable return-to-work process among individuals with a history of long-term sick leave, going in and out of work participation, could be supported with social support, good quality of leadership, and a sense of community at the workplace. The responsibility for the rehabilitation process can not be reduced to an individual problem, but ought to include all stakeholders involved in the process, such as managers

  13. Propensity-Weighted Comparison of Long-Term Risk of Urinary Adverse Events in Elderly Women Treated For Cervical Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Sean P., E-mail: selliott@umn.edu [Department of Urology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota (United States); Fan, Yunhua; Jarosek, Stephanie [Department of Urology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota (United States); Chu, Haitao [Department of Biostatistics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota (United States); Downs, Levi [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota (United States); Dusenbery, Kathryn [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota (United States); Geller, Melissa A. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota (United States); Virnig, Beth A. [Department of Health Policy and Management, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Purpose: Cervical cancer treatment is associated with a risk of urinary adverse events (UAEs) such as ureteral stricture and vesicovaginal fistula. We sought to measure the long-term UAE risk after surgery and radiation therapy (RT), with confounding controlled through propensity-weighted models. Methods and Materials: From the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare database, we identified women ≥66 years old with nonmetastatic cervical cancer treated with simple surgery (SS), radical hysterectomy (RH), external beam RT plus brachytherapy (EBRT+BT), or RT+surgery. We matched them to noncancer controls 1:3. Differences in demographic and cancer characteristics were balanced by propensity weighting. Grade 3 to 4 UAEs were identified by diagnosis codes plus treatment codes. Cumulative incidence was measured using Kaplan-Meier methods. The hazard associated with different cancer treatments was compared using Cox models. Results: UAEs occurred in 272 of 1808 cases (17%) and 222 of 5424 (4%) controls; most (62%) were ureteral strictures. The raw cumulative incidence of UAEs was highest in advanced cancers. UAEs occurred in 31% of patients after EBRT+BT, 25% of patients after RT+surgery, and 15% of patients after RH; however, after propensity weighting, the incidence was similar. In adjusted Cox models (reference = controls), the UAE risk was highest after RT+surgery (hazard ratio [HR], 5.07; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.32-11.07), followed by EBRT+BT (HR, 3.33; 95% CI, 1.45-7.65), RH (HR, 3.65; 95% CI, 1.41-9.46) and SS (HR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.32-3.01). The higher risk after RT+surgery versus EBRT+BT was statistically significant, whereas, EBRT+BT and RH were not significantly different from each other. Conclusions: UAEs are common after cervical cancer treatment, particularly in patients with advanced cancers. UAEs are more common after RT, but these women tend to have the advanced cancers. After propensity weighting, the risk after RT was similar

  14. Propensity-Weighted Comparison of Long-Term Risk of Urinary Adverse Events in Elderly Women Treated For Cervical Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Sean P; Fan, Yunhua; Jarosek, Stephanie; Chu, Haitao; Downs, Levi; Dusenbery, Kathryn; Geller, Melissa A; Virnig, Beth A

    2015-07-01

    Cervical cancer treatment is associated with a risk of urinary adverse events (UAEs) such as ureteral stricture and vesicovaginal fistula. We sought to measure the long-term UAE risk after surgery and radiation therapy (RT), with confounding controlled through propensity-weighted models. From the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare database, we identified women ≥66 years old with nonmetastatic cervical cancer treated with simple surgery (SS), radical hysterectomy (RH), external beam RT plus brachytherapy (EBRT+BT), or RT+surgery. We matched them to noncancer controls 1:3. Differences in demographic and cancer characteristics were balanced by propensity weighting. Grade 3 to 4 UAEs were identified by diagnosis codes plus treatment codes. Cumulative incidence was measured using Kaplan-Meier methods. The hazard associated with different cancer treatments was compared using Cox models. UAEs occurred in 272 of 1808 cases (17%) and 222 of 5424 (4%) controls; most (62%) were ureteral strictures. The raw cumulative incidence of UAEs was highest in advanced cancers. UAEs occurred in 31% of patients after EBRT+BT, 25% of patients after RT+surgery, and 15% of patients after RH; however, after propensity weighting, the incidence was similar. In adjusted Cox models (reference = controls), the UAE risk was highest after RT+surgery (hazard ratio [HR], 5.07; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.32-11.07), followed by EBRT+BT (HR, 3.33; 95% CI, 1.45-7.65), RH (HR, 3.65; 95% CI, 1.41-9.46) and SS (HR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.32-3.01). The higher risk after RT+surgery versus EBRT+BT was statistically significant, whereas, EBRT+BT and RH were not significantly different from each other. UAEs are common after cervical cancer treatment, particularly in patients with advanced cancers. UAEs are more common after RT, but these women tend to have the advanced cancers. After propensity weighting, the risk after RT was similar to that after surgery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc

  15. GRAND-4: the German retrospective analysis of long-term persistence in women with osteoporosis treated with bisphosphonates or denosumab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadji, P; Kyvernitakis, I; Kann, P H; Niedhart, C; Hofbauer, L C; Schwarz, H; Kurth, A A; Thomasius, F; Schulte, M; Intorcia, M; Psachoulia, E; Schmid, T

    2016-10-01

    This retrospective database study assessed 2-year persistence with bisphosphonates or denosumab in a large German cohort of women with a first-time prescription for osteoporosis treatment. Compared with intravenous or oral bisphosphonates, 2-year persistence was 1.5-2 times higher and risk of discontinuation was significantly lower (P < 0.0001) with denosumab. Persistence with osteoporosis therapies is critical for fracture risk reduction. Detailed data on long-term persistence (≥2 years) with bisphosphonates and denosumab are sparse. From the German IMS® database, we included women aged 40 years or older with a first-time prescription for bisphosphonates or denosumab between July 2010 and August 2014; patients were followed up until December 2014. The main outcome was treatment discontinuation, with a 60-day permissible gap between filled prescriptions. Two-year persistence was estimated using Kaplan-Meier survival curves, with treatment discontinuation as the failure event. Denosumab was compared with intravenous (i.v.) and oral bisphosphonates separately. Cox proportional hazard ratios (HRs) for the 2-year risk of discontinuation were calculated, with adjustment for age, physician specialty, health insurance status, and previous medication use. Two-year persistence with denosumab was significantly higher than with i.v. or oral bisphosphonates (39.8 % [n = 21,154] vs 20.9 % [i.v. ibandronate; n = 20,472] and 24.8 % [i.v. zoledronic acid; n = 3966] and 16.7-17.5 % [oral bisphosphonates; n = 114,401]; all P < 0.001). Patients receiving i.v. ibandronate, i.v. zoledronic acid, or oral bisphosphonates had a significantly increased risk of treatment discontinuation than did those receiving denosumab (HR = 1.65, 1.28, and 1.96-2.02, respectively; all P < 0.0001). Two-year persistence with denosumab was 1.5-2 times higher than with i.v. or oral bisphosphonates, and risk of discontinuation was significantly lower with denosumab

  16. Prevalence of Perineal Lacerations in Women Giving Birth at Midwife-Led Birth Centers in Japan: A Retrospective Descriptive Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suto, Maiko; Takehara, Kenji; Misago, Chizuru; Matsui, Mitsuaki

    2015-01-01

    Perineal lacerations during birth can cause ongoing physical, psychological, and social problems. However, the prevalence of lacerations following normal spontaneous vaginal birth in women with low-risk pregnancies is unknown. We investigated the prevalence of perineal lacerations and factors associated with lacerations among low-risk Japanese women who had normal spontaneous vaginal births. Pregnant women who were cared for between January 1, 2008, and June 30, 2011, in 3 midwife-led birth centers in Tokyo, Japan, where invasive medical interventions are rarely applied, were included. We investigated the prevalence of perineal lacerations and conducted univariate and multivariate analyses on the relationship between the prevalence of lacerations and selected maternal and neonatal characteristics. A total of 1881 pregnant women had initial antenatal care at one of the 3 study sites. Of these, 1521 were eligible for inclusion. Intact perineum rates were 49.5% (209/422) and 69.9% (768/1099) in nulliparous and multiparous women, respectively. First-degree lacerations occurred in 36.7% (155/422) of nulliparous women and 27.1% (298/1099) of multiparous women, and second-degree lacerations occurred in 13.5% (57/422) of nulliparous women and 3.0% (33/1099) of multiparous women. One multiparous woman experienced a third-degree laceration (0.1%). No women suffered fourth-degree or cervical lacerations. Logistic regression analyses showed that older age (≥ 35 years), the hands-and-knees position, and using a birthing chair during birth increased the risk of perineal laceration both in nulliparous and in multiparous women. In addition, waterbirths increased the risk of perineal laceration in multiparous women. In normal spontaneous vaginal births among a low-risk population, it is possible to avoid episiotomy and achieve a high rate of intact perineum, with few second-degree and third-degree lacerations. © 2015 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  17. IAAT, catecholamines, and parity in African-American and European-American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaudeau, Tamilane E; Hunter, Gary R; St-Onge, Marie-Pierre; Gower, Barbara A; Roy, Jane L P; Bryan, David R; Zuckerman, Paul A; Darnell, Betty E

    2008-04-01

    We have recently reported that parous European-American (EA) women have disproportionately more intra-abdominal adipose tissue (IAAT) than their nulliparous counterparts. Mediating mechanisms for IAAT accumulation remain unknown; however, some evidence suggests a possible catecholamine link. The objective of this study was to determine whether the IAAT-parity relationship found in EA women exists in African-American (AA) women and to determine whether catecholamines play a mediating role. Subjects included 44 EA and 47 AA premenopausal women. Free-living physical activity by doubly labeled water (activity-related time equivalent (ARTE)), body composition (air plethysmography, computed tomography), and 24-h fractionated urinary catecholamines were measured. Repeated measures ANOVA revealed parous EA and AA women had significantly higher IAAT than their nulliparous counterparts (100.1 +/- 28.5 and 76.2 +/- 34.8 cm(2) vs. 75.9 +/- 29.1 and 59.6 +/- 15.0 cm(2)). In AA women and nulliparous women, 24-h urinary dopamine was significantly higher (AA parous 260.8 +/- 88; EA parous 197.2 +/- 78.8; AA nulliparous 376.5 +/- 81; EA nulliparous 289.6 +/- 62). Multiple regression analysis for modeling IAAT indicated that race, parity, dopamine, ARTE, and VO(2max) were all significant and independent contributors to the model (Unstandardized betas: race -32.6 +/- 7.4; parity (number of births) 10.0 +/- 3.4; 24-h urinary dopamine 0.08 +/- 0.04; ARTE (min/day) -0.09 +/- 0.04; VO(2max) (ml/kg/min) -2.8 +/- 1.0). Independent of the potential confounders: age, race, percent body fat, IAAT, 24-h fractionated urinary catecholamines, physical activity, and VO(2max), parous EA and AA women had more IAAT than their nulliparous counterparts. Of the catecholamines, dopamine was found to be significantly lower in parous women and higher in AA's. Dopamine, however, did not explain racial or parity differences in IAAT.

  18. Comparison of Low Urinary Tract Symptoms during Pregnancy between Primiparous and Multiparous Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun-Ling Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose. Low urinary tract symptoms (LUTS are a common problem during pregnancy. This study aimed to compare changes in the prevalence of LUTS during pregnancy between primiparous and multiparous women. Methods. A chart review of consecutive pregnant women who attended our antenatal clinic from March 2002 to January 2006 was performed. All of the women were asked to respond to a LUTS questionnaire in either of the three trimesters. Results. Of the 270 women included, 164 were nullipara and 106 were multipara. The most common LUTS during pregnancy were frequency (77%, followed by nocturia (75.6%, stress urinary incontinence (SUI (51.1%, incomplete emptying (43.7%, dysuria (17.8%, and urgency incontinence (10.4%. There was a significantly higher prevalence of SUI (P<0.001 and urgency incontinence (P=0.005 in the multiparous compared to the nulliparous women. Increasing prevalence rates of frequency, nocturia, SUI, and incomplete emptying were reported with gestational age in both the nulliparous and multiparous women. Conclusions. Frequency and nocturia were the two most common LUTS during pregnancy. The prevalence rates of all LUTS increased with increasing gestational age except for frequency in the nulliparous women during the second trimester. In addition, multipara was a predictor of SUI during pregnancy.

  19. MRC ORACLE Children Study. Long term outcomes following prescription of antibiotics to pregnant women with either spontaneous preterm labour or preterm rupture of the membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Sara; Brocklehurst, Peter; Jones, David; Marlow, Neil; Salt, Alison; Taylor, David

    2008-04-24

    The Medical Research Council (MRC) ORACLE trial evaluated the use of co-amoxiclav 375 mg and/or erythromycin 250 mg in women presenting with preterm rupture of membranes (PROM) ORACLE I or in spontaneous preterm labour (SPL) ORACLE II using a factorial design. The results showed that for women with a singleton baby with PROM the prescription of erythromycin is associated with improvements in short term neonatal outcomes, although co-amoxiclav is associated with prolongation of pregnancy, a significantly higher rate of neonatal necrotising enterocolitis was found in these babies. Prescription of erythromycin is now established practice for women with PROM. For women with SPL antibiotics demonstrated no improvements in short term neonatal outcomes and are not recommended treatment. There is evidence that both these conditions are associated with subclinical infection so perinatal antibiotic administration may reduce the risk of later disabilities, including cerebral palsy, although the risk may be increased through exposure to inflammatory cytokines, so assessment of longer term functional and educational outcomes is appropriate. The MRC ORACLE Children's Study will follow up UK children at age 7 years born to 4809 women with PROM and the 4266 women with SPL enrolled in the earlier ORACLE trials. We will use a parental questionnaire including validated tools to assess disability and behaviour. We will collect the frequency of specific medical conditions: cerebral palsy, epilepsy, respiratory illness including asthma, diabetes, admission to hospital in last year and other diseases, as reported by parents. National standard test results will be collected to assess educational attainment at Key Stage 1 for children in England. This study is designed to investigate whether or not peripartum antibiotics improve health and disability for children at 7 years of age. The ORACLE Trial and Children Study is registered in the Current Controlled Trials registry. ISCRTN 52995660.

  20. Feasibility and safety of laparoscopic surgery for obese Korean women with endometrial cancer: long-term results at a single institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Min-Hyun; Lee, Shin-Wha; Park, Jeong-Yeol; Kim, Daeyeon; Kim, Jong-Hyeok; Kim, Yong-Man; Kim, Young-Tak; Nam, Joo-Hyun

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the surgical feasibility of and survival outcome after laparoscopy in obese Korean women with endometrial cancer which has recently been increasing. We reviewed the medical records of the patients treated at our medical institution between 1999 and 2012. The patients were divided into three groups, non-obese (Body Mass Index [BMI]obese (BMI≥28.0). These patient groups were compared in terms of their clinical characteristics, treatment methods, as well as surgical and survival outcomes. In total, 55 of the 278 eligible patients were obese women. There were no differences in the three groups in terms of the proportion of patients who underwent lymphadenectomy, their cancer stage, histologic type, type of adjuvant treatment administered, intra-, post-operative, and long-term complications, operative time, number of removed lymph nodes, blood loss, and duration of hospitalization (P=0.067, 0.435, 0.757, 0.739, 0.458, 0.173, 0.076, 0.124, 0.770, 0.739, and 0.831, respectively). The Disease-Free Survival (DFS) times were 139.1 vs. 121.6 vs. 135.5 months (P=0.313), and the Overall Survival (OS) times were 145.2 vs. 124.8 vs. 139.5 months (P=0.436) for each group, respectively. Obese women with endometrial cancer can, therefore, be as safely managed using laparoscopy as women with normal BMIs.

  1. Patient and provider perspectives on improving the linkage of HIV-positive pregnant women to long-term HIV care and treatment in eastern Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Haneefa; Kyeyagalire, Robert; Lunsford, Sarah Smith

    2014-01-01

    Despite strong evidence that antiretroviral therapy (ART) reduces the risk of mother-to-child transmission of HIV and improves the health of HIV-positive mothers, many HIV-positive pregnant women do not enrol into long-term HIV care and treatment. This study examined barriers and facilitators to the linkage of HIV-positive pregnant women from antenatal care (ANC) to long-term HIV care from patient and provider perspectives, following the implementation of a collaborative quality improvement project in Eastern Uganda. It also solicited recommendations for improving linkages to HIV care. Structured interviews were conducted with 11 health providers and 48 HIV-positive mothers enrolled in HIV care. Facilitators to linking HIV-positive pregnant women to long-term HIV care identified included support from expert clients, escorted referrals, same-day HIV care registration, and coordination between ANC and HIV services. Barriers reported included shortages in HIV testing kits and fear of social, physical and medical consequences. Participants recommended integration of ANC and HIV services, reduction in waiting times, HIV counselling by expert clients, and community-based approaches for improving linkages to HIV care. Linking HIV-positive pregnant women to HIV care can be improved through deliberate implementation of quality improvement interventions in facilities to address barriers to access and provide stronger support and community mobilisation.

  2. Food groups as predictors for short-term weight changes in men and women of the EPIC-Potsdam cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Mandy; Kroke, Anja; Liese, Angela D; Hoffmann, Kurt; Bergmann, Manuela M; Boeing, Heiner

    2002-06-01

    This study examined the effect of food group intake on subsequent 2-y weight change. Food-frequency questionnaire-based food intake data of 17,369 nonsmoking subjects of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Potsdam cohort were examined in their relation to a subsequent weight change. Dietary data, collected from 1994 to 1998, were grouped into 24 food groups. Weight change per year follow-up was the outcome of interest; large weight gain was defined as > or =2 kg; small weight gain as > or =1 kg to -2 kg and weight maintenance as +/- 1 kg. For each food group, a separate polytomous logistic regression model with stable weight as the reference group was constructed, controlling for age, body mass index, previous weight change, and behavioral and lifestyle factors. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) estimated the increase in risk associated with each 100 g/d increment in food group intake. In women, consumption of high energy, high fat food groups significantly predicted large weight gain, e.g., fats (OR = 1.75; 95% CI, 1.01-3.06), sauces (OR = 2.12; 95% CI, 1.17-3.82) and meat (OR = 1.36; 95% CI, 1.04-1.79), and the consumption of cereals predicted large weight loss (OR = 1.43; 95% CI, 1.09-1.88). In men, intake of high energy, high sugar foods, i.e., sweets, was significantly predictive of large weight gain (OR = 1.48; 95% CI, 1.03-2.13). Our data show that a diet rich in high fat and high energy foods predicts short-term weight gain even if controlled for many potential confounding factors.

  3. Long-term prevalence and predictors of urinary incontinence among women in the Diabetes Prevention Program Outcomes Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelan, Suzanne; Kanaya, Alka M; Ma, Yong; Vittinghoff, Eric; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Wing, Rena; Kusek, John W; Orchard, Trevor J; Crandall, Jill P; Montez, Maria G; Brown, Jeanette S

    2015-02-01

    positive and enduring impact on urinary incontinence, and should be considered for the long-term prevention and treatment of urinary incontinence in overweight/obese women with glucose intolerance. © 2014 The Japanese Urological Association.

  4. Changes in fruit and vegetable consumption habits from pre-pregnancy to early pregnancy among Norwegian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skreden, Marianne; Bere, Elling; Sagedal, Linda R; Vistad, Ingvild; Øverby, Nina C

    2017-04-04

    A healthy diet is important for pregnancy outcome and the current and future health of woman and child. The aims of the study were to explore the changes from pre-pregnancy to early pregnancy in consumption of fruits and vegetables (FV), and to describe associations with maternal educational level, body mass index (BMI) and age. Healthy nulliparous women were included in the Norwegian Fit for Delivery (NFFD) trial from September 2009 to February 2013, recruited from eight antenatal clinics in southern Norway. At inclusion, in median gestational week 15 (range 9-20), 575 participants answered a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) where they reported consumption of FV, both current intake and recollection of pre-pregnancy intake. Data were analysed using a linear mixed model. The percentage of women consuming FV daily or more frequently in the following categories increased from pre-pregnancy to early pregnancy: vegetables on sandwiches (13 vs. 17%, p pregnancy to early pregnancy compared to younger women (p=0.04). We found an increase in the proportion of women consuming FV daily or more frequently from pre-pregnancy to early pregnancy. ClinicalTrials.gov database, NCT01001689 . https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01001689?term=NCT01001689&rank=1 .

  5. Military Personnel: DOD Is Expanding Combat Service Opportunities for Women, but Should Monitor Long-Term Integration Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    lower percentage of men report their sexual assaults compared to women .30...to both men and women may not have different standards on the basis of gender .33 The statute further states that for military career designators...reviewed by the services in their studies , we examined the issue of sexual assault and harassment in the integration process. This issue was raised

  6. Feminist activist women are masculinized in terms of digit-ratio and dominance: A possible explanation for the feminist paradox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy eMadison

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The feminist movement purports to improve conditions for women, and yet only a minority of women in modern societies self-identify as feminists. This is known as the feminist paradox. It has been suggested that feminists exhibit both physiological and psychological characteristics associated with heightened masculinization, which may predispose women for heightened competitiveness, sex-atypical behaviors, and belief in the interchangeability of sex roles. If feminist activists, i.e. those that manufacture the public image of feminism, are indeed masculinized relative to women in general, this might explain why the views and preferences of these two groups are at variance with each other. We measured the 2D:4D digit ratios (collected from both hands and a personality trait known as dominance (measured with the Directiveness scale in a sample of women attending a feminist conference. The sample exhibited significantly more masculine 2D:4D and higher dominance ratings than comparison samples representative of women in general, and these variables were furthermore positively correlated for both hands. The feminist paradox might thus to some extent be explained by biological differences between women in general and the activist women who formulate the feminist agenda.

  7. Long-term intake of iron fortified wholemeal rye bread appears to benefit iron status of young women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Max; Nielsen, Sussi Bæch; Thomsen, A.D.

    2005-01-01

    The efficacy of intake of iron fortified, wholemeal rye bread on iron status of young women with low iron stores was evaluated in a 5 month single-blind intervention study. Two parallel groups of women (20-38 y) were given 144 g of rye bread/d either fortified with 6 mg iron as ferrous fumarate/100...

  8. Distensibility and Strength of the Pelvic Floor Muscles of Women in the Third Trimester of Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Carla Dellabarba Petricelli; Ana Paula Magalhães Resende; Julio Elito Júnior; Edward Araujo Júnior; Sandra Maria Alexandre; Miriam Raquel Diniz Zanetti; Mary Uchiyama Nakamura

    2014-01-01

    Objective. the objective of this study was to compare the role of the pelvic floor muscles between nulliparous and multiparous women in the third trimester of pregnancy, by analyzing the relationship between electrical activity (surface electromyography-EMG), vaginal palpation (modified Oxford scale), and perineal distensibility (Epi-no). Methods. This was an observational cross-sectional study on a sample of 60 healthy pregnant women with no cervical dilation, single fetus, gestational age b...

  9. Facebook Advertisements for Inexpensive Participant Recruitment among Women in Early Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcia, Adriana

    2014-01-01

    Facebook advertisements were used to recruit nulliparous women in the first 20 weeks of pregnancy for an online survey about their childbirth preferences. A campaign of ads was targeted to women, aged 18 to 44 years, residing in the United States. The ads were viewed 10,577,381 times by 7,248,985 unique Facebook users over 18 weeks in 2011. The ad…

  10. Using ecological momentary assessment to investigate short-term variations in sexual functioning in a sample of peri-menopausal women from Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir H Pakpour

    Full Text Available The investigation of short-term changes in female sexual functioning has received little attention so far. The aims of the study were to gain empirical knowledge on within-subject and within- and across-variable fluctuations in women's sexual functioning over time. More specifically, to investigate the stability of women´s self-reported sexual functioning and the moderating effects of contextual and interpersonal factors. A convenience sample of 206 women, recruited across eight Health care Clinics in Rasht, Iran. Ecological momentary assessment was used to examine fluctuations of sexual functioning over a six week period. A shortened version of the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI was applied to assess sexual functioning. Self-constructed questions were included to assess relationship satisfaction, partner's sexual performance and stress levels. Mixed linear two-level model analyses revealed a link between orgasm and relationship satisfaction (Beta = 0.125, P = 0.074 with this link varying significantly between women. Analyses further revealed a significant negative association between stress and all six domains of women's sexual functioning. Women not only reported differing levels of stress over the course of the assessment period, but further differed from each other in how much stress they experienced and how much this influenced their sexual response. Orgasm and sexual satisfaction were both significantly associated with all other domains of sexual function (P<0.001. And finally, a link between partner performance and all domains of women`s sexual functioning (P<0.001 could be detected. Except for lubrication (P = 0.717, relationship satisfaction had a significant effect on all domains of the sexual response (P<0.001. Overall, our findings support the new group of criteria introduced in the DSM-5, called "associated features" such as partner factors and relationship factors. Consideration of these criteria is important and necessary for

  11. Parity and breastfeeding are preventive measures against breast cancer in Iranian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, Atieh; Razzaghi, Zahra; Homaee, Fatemeh; Khayamzadeh, Maryam; Movahedi, Mohammad; Akbari, Mohammad Esmaeil

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer (BC) is the most prevalent cancer in Iranian women and the fifth most common cause of cancer-related death in Iran. Among predicting factors and preventive measures for BC, the parity and breastfeeding (BF) are controversial issues. We therefore conducted this case-control study to find out the relation of parity and BF to incidence and risk of BC. A structured questionnaire that covered demographic criteria and BC risk factors was completed for case (376 cases) and control (425 subjects) groups, both matched in terms of demographic variants, reproductive issues, and socioeconomic status. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed as measures of association from the logistic models. All p values reported are two-sided. Parity significantly reduces the risk of BC (p parity and 24 months BF and mean duration of 18-24 months per child (p = 0.037, OR 0.7, CI 0.5-0.98). On the basis of breast anatomical and physiological changes during pregnancy, and parity and breastfeeding, full-term pregnancies and parities with efficient BF significantly reduced the risk of breast cancer compared with nonpregnant and nulliparous women or those who never breastfed. The number of children should ideally be limited to 1-3, and the cumulative duration of BF not less than 25-36 months. We would recommend 1-3 pregnancies and a BF duration not less than 18 months, with best results being achieved with 24 months per child.

  12. Women's Short-Term Employment Trajectories Following Birth: Patterns, Determinants, and Variations by Race/Ethnicity and Nativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yao; Wang, Julia Shu-Huah; Han, Wen-Jui

    2017-02-01

    Despite a large literature documenting the impact of childbearing on women's wages, less understanding exists of the actual employment trajectories that mothers take and the circumstances surrounding different paths. We use sequence analysis to chart the entire employment trajectory for a diverse sample of U.S. women by race/ethnicity and nativity in the first year following childbirth. Using data from the 1996-2008 panels of the Survey of Income and Program Participation and sample selection models, we find that women employed before childbirth show a high degree of labor market continuity. However, a notable share of them (24 %) took less stable paths by dropping out or scaling back work. In addition, mothers' attachment to the labor force is simultaneously supported by personal endowments and family resources yet constrained by economic hardship and job characteristics. Moreover, mothers' employment patterns differ by race/ethnicity and nativity. Nonwhite women (blacks, Hispanics, and Asians) who were employed before childbirth exhibited greater labor market continuation than white women. For immigrant women, those with a shorter length of residence were more likely to curtail employment than native-born women, but those with longer duration of residence show greater labor force attachment. We discuss the implications of these findings for income inequality and public policy.

  13. Invasive Breast Cancer Incidence in 2,305,427 Screened Asymptomatic Women: Estimated Long Term Outcomes during Menopause Using a Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winnifred Cutler

    Full Text Available Earlier studies of breast cancer, screening mammography, and mortality reduction may have inflated lifetime and long-term risk estimates for invasive breast cancer due to limitations in their data collection methods and interpretation.To estimate the percentage of asymptomatic peri/postmenopausal women who will be diagnosed with a first invasive breast cancer over their next 25 years of life.A systematic review identified peer-reviewed published studies that: 1 enrolled no study participants with a history of invasive breast cancer; 2 specified the number of women enrolled; 3 reported the number of women diagnosed with a first invasive breast cancer; 4 did not overcount [count a woman multiple times]; and, 5 defined the length of follow-up. Data sources included PubMed, Cochrane Library, and an annotated library of 4,409 full-text menopause-related papers collected and reviewed by the first author from 1974 through 2008. Linear regression predicted incidence of first invasive breast cancer, based on follow-up duration in all studies that met the our inclusion criteria, and in a subset of these studies that included only women who were 1 at least 50 years old and 2 either at least 50 or less than 50 but surgically menopausal at enrollment.Nineteen studies met the inclusion criteria. They included a total of 2,305,427 peri/postmenopasual women. The mean cumulative incidence rate of first invasive breast cancer increased by 0.20% for each year of age (95% CI: 0.17, 0.23; p < 0.01; R2 = 0.90. Over 25 years of follow-up, an estimated 94.55% of women will remain breast cancer-free (95% CI: 93.97, 95.13. In the 12 studies (n = 1,711,178 that enrolled only postmenopausal women, an estimated 0.23% of women will be diagnosed with a first invasive breast cancer each year (95% CI: 0.18, 0.28; p < 0.01, R2 = 0.88.The vast majority (99.75% of screened asymptomatic peri/postmenopasual women will not be diagnosed with invasive breast cancer each year

  14. Invasive Breast Cancer Incidence in 2,305,427 Screened Asymptomatic Women: Estimated Long Term Outcomes during Menopause Using a Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutler, Winnifred; Bürki, Regula; Kolter, James; Chambliss, Catherine; Friedmann, Erika; Hart, Kari

    2015-01-01

    Earlier studies of breast cancer, screening mammography, and mortality reduction may have inflated lifetime and long-term risk estimates for invasive breast cancer due to limitations in their data collection methods and interpretation. To estimate the percentage of asymptomatic peri/postmenopausal women who will be diagnosed with a first invasive breast cancer over their next 25 years of life. A systematic review identified peer-reviewed published studies that: 1) enrolled no study participants with a history of invasive breast cancer; 2) specified the number of women enrolled; 3) reported the number of women diagnosed with a first invasive breast cancer; 4) did not overcount [count a woman multiple times]; and, 5) defined the length of follow-up. Data sources included PubMed, Cochrane Library, and an annotated library of 4,409 full-text menopause-related papers collected and reviewed by the first author from 1974 through 2008. Linear regression predicted incidence of first invasive breast cancer, based on follow-up duration in all studies that met the our inclusion criteria, and in a subset of these studies that included only women who were 1) at least 50 years old and 2) either at least 50 or less than 50 but surgically menopausal at enrollment. Nineteen studies met the inclusion criteria. They included a total of 2,305,427 peri/postmenopasual women. The mean cumulative incidence rate of first invasive breast cancer increased by 0.20% for each year of age (95% CI: 0.17, 0.23; p < 0.01; R2 = 0.90). Over 25 years of follow-up, an estimated 94.55% of women will remain breast cancer-free (95% CI: 93.97, 95.13). In the 12 studies (n = 1,711,178) that enrolled only postmenopausal women, an estimated 0.23% of women will be diagnosed with a first invasive breast cancer each year (95% CI: 0.18, 0.28; p < 0.01, R2 = 0.88). The vast majority (99.75%) of screened asymptomatic peri/postmenopasual women will not be diagnosed with invasive breast cancer each year. Approximately

  15. Ursodeoxycholic acid versus placebo, and early term delivery versus expectant management, in women with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy: semifactorial randomised clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, Lucy C; Gurung, Vinita; Seed, Paul T; Chambers, Jenny; Williamson, Catherine; Thornton, James G

    2012-06-13

    To test whether ursodeoxycholic acid reduces pruritus in women with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, whether early term delivery does not increase the incidence of caesarean section, and the feasibility of recruiting women with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy to trials of these interventions. First phase of a semifactorial randomised controlled trial. Nine consultant led maternity units, United Kingdom. 125 women with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (pruritus and raised levels of serum bile acids) or pruritus and raised alanine transaminase levels (>100 IU/L) recruited after 24 weeks' gestation and followed until delivery. 56 women were randomised to ursodeoxycholic acid, 55 to placebo, 30 to early term delivery, and 32 to expectant management. Ursodeoxycholic acid 500 mg twice daily or placebo increased as necessary for symptomatic or biochemical improvement until delivery; early term delivery (induction or delivery started between 37+0 and 37+6) or expectant management (spontaneous labour awaited until 40 weeks' gestation or caesarean section undertaken by normal obstetric guidelines, usually after 39 weeks' gestation). The primary outcome for ursodeoxycholic acid was maternal itch (arithmetic mean of measures (100 mm visual analogue scale) of worst itch in past 24 hours) and for the timing of delivery was caesarean section. Secondary outcomes were other maternal and perinatal outcomes and recruitment rates. Ursodeoxycholic acid reduced itching by -16 mm (95% confidence interval -27 mm to -6 mm), less than the 30 mm difference prespecified by clinicians and women as clinically meaningful. 32% (14/44) of women randomised to ursodeoxycholic acid experienced a reduction in worst itching by at least 30 mm compared with 16% (6/37) randomised to placebo. The difference of 16% (95% confidence interval -3 to 34); this would represent a number needed to treat of 6, but it failed to reach significance. Early term delivery did not increase caesarean

  16. A modulatory effect of male voice pitch on long-term memory in women: evidence of adaptation for mate choice?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, David S; Jones, Benedict C; Feinberg, David R; Allan, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    .... Here, in two experiments, we showed that memory in women is sensitive to male voice pitch, a sexually dimorphic cue important for mate choice because it not only serves as an indicator of genetic...

  17. Induction of labour for suspected macrosomia at term in non-diabetic women: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magro-Malosso, E R; Saccone, G; Chen, M; Navathe, R; Di Tommaso, M; Berghella, V

    2017-02-01

    Several randomized controlled trials (RCTs) compared induction of labour with expectant management in non-diabetic women with suspected fetal macrosomia. To evaluate the effects of labour induction for suspected fetal macrosomia. Literature search in electronic databases. We included all RCTs of suspected fetal macrosomia comparing labour induction with expectant management in term pregnancy. The primary outcome was the incidence of caesarean delivery. Four RCTs, including 1190 non-diabetic women with suspected fetal macrosomia at term, were analysed. Pooled data did not show a significant difference in incidence of caesarean delivery [relative risk (RR) 0.91, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.76-1.09], operative and spontaneous vaginal delivery, shoulder dystocia, intracranial haemorrhage, brachial plexus palsy, Apgar score macrosomia is associated with a significant decrease in fetal fractures, and therefore can be considered as a reasonable option. TWEETABLE ABSTRACT: #Induction of labour for #macrosomia improves neonatal outcome. © 2016 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  18. An exploratory short-term double-blind randomized trial of varenicline versus nicotine patch for smoking cessation in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Kevin M; McClure, Erin A; Baker, Nathaniel L; Hartwell, Karen J; Carpenter, Matthew J; Saladin, Michael E

    2015-06-01

    Within a parent study examining ovarian hormone effects on smoking cessation in women, we conducted an exploratory short-term trial of varenicline versus transdermal nicotine patch. Double-blind double-dummy randomized trial. Single-site out-patient research clinic in the United States. Female smokers, ages 18-45 years and averaging ≥10 cigarettes per day for at least 6 months (n=140). Participants were randomized to receive a 4-week course of (a) varenicline tablets and placebo patches (n = 67) or (b) placebo tablets and nicotine patches (n=73). Two brief cessation counseling sessions were provided for all participants. The outcome of primary clinical interest was 2-week end-of-treatment abstinence. Secondary outcomes included 1- and 4-week end-of treatment abstinence and abstinence at a post-treatment follow-up visit occurring 4 weeks after treatment conclusion. Breath carbon monoxide (≤ 10 parts per million) was used to confirm biochemically self-reported abstinence. Two-week end-of-treatment abstinence was achieved by 37.3% (25 of 67) of varenicline participants and by 17.8% (13 of 73) of nicotine patch participants [odds ratio (OR) = 2.7, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.3-6.0, P=0.011]. One-week (44.8 versus 20.6%, OR=3.1, 95% CI=1.5-6.6, P=0.003) and 4-week (22.4 versus 9.6%, OR=2.7, 95% CI=1.0-7.2, P=0.043) end-of-treatment abstinence similarly favored varenicline, although post-treatment follow-up Russell Standard abstinence was not significantly different between groups (23.9 versus 13.7%, OR=2.0, 95% CI=0.8-4.7, P=0.126). In an exploratory 4-week head-to-head trial in female smokers, varenicline, compared with nicotine patch, more than doubled the odds of end-of-treatment abstinence, although this diminished somewhat at post-treatment follow-up. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  19. Effects of Short-Term Docosahexaenoic Acid Supplementation on Markers of Inflammation after Eccentric Strength Exercise in Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine E. Corder, Katherine R. Newsham, Jennifer L. McDaniel, Uthayashanker R. Ezekiel, Edward P. Weiss

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA has anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive (pain inhibiting effects. Because strenuous exercise often results in local inflammation and pain, we hypothesized that DHA supplementation attenuates the rise in markers of local muscle inflammation and delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS that occur after eccentric strength exercise. Twenty-seven, healthy women (33 ± 2 y, BMI 23.1±1.0 kg·m-2 were randomized to receive 9d of 3000 mg/d DHA or placebo in a double-blind fashion. On day 7 of the supplementation period, the participants performed 4 sets of maximal-effort eccentric biceps curl exercise. Before and 48h after the eccentric exercise, markers of inflammation were measured including measures of muscle soreness (10-point visual analog pain scale, VAS, swelling (arm circumference, muscle stiffness (active and passive elbow extension, skin temperature, and salivary C-reactive protein (CRP concentrations. As expected, muscle soreness and arm circumference increased while active and passive elbow extension decreased. The increase in soreness was 23% less in the DHA group (48h increase in VAS soreness ratings: 4.380.4 vs. 5.600.5, p=0.02. Furthermore, the number of subjects who were able to achieve full active elbow extension 48h after eccentric exercise was greater in the DHA group (71% vs. 15%, p = 0.006, indicating significantly less muscle stiffness. No between-group differences were observed for passive elbow extension (p = 0.78 or arm swelling (p = 0.75. Skin temperature and salivary CRP concentrations did not change from baseline to 48h after exercise in either group. These findings indicate that short-term DHA supplementation reduces exercise-induced muscle soreness and stiffness. Therefore, in addition to other health benefits that n-3 fatty acids have been associated with, DHA supplementation could be beneficial for improving tolerance to new and/or strenuous exercise programs and thereby

  20. Prognostic factors for long-term quality of life after adjuvant radiotherapy in women with endometrial cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foerster, Robert; Schnetzke, Lara; Arians, Nathalie; Rief, Harald; Debus, Juergen; Lindel, Katja [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Heidelberg (Germany); Bruckner, Thomas [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Medical Biometry, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2016-12-15

    Adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) for endometrial cancer (EC) may affect patients' quality of life (QoL). There is a paucity of data on prognostic factors for long-term QoL and sexual functioning. This study aimed to investigate such factors and assess the role of the vaginal dilator (VD). QoL was assessed in 112 EC patients 6 years (median) after RT. QoL was compared to normative data, and the influence of age, tumor characteristics, lymphadenectomy, RT, and acute toxicities was assessed. VD use and its effect on subjective vaginal shortening/tightness was analyzed. QoL was reduced, particularly in younger patients. Vaginal brachytherapy only and intensity-modulated RT (IMRT) were associated with better global health status and reduced chronic gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms. Higher acute GI toxicity was associated with increased chronic GI symptoms, particularly diarrhea, and reduced role functioning. Higher acute urinary toxicity was associated with increased chronic urological symptoms, muscular/pelvic pain, and chronic GI symptoms, as well as with reduced emotional/social functioning and reduced global health status. Sexual interest/activity was increased despite vaginal dryness and dyspareunia. Sexual interest/activity increased with age. Only few, mainly younger patients used the VD. VD use >1 year was found in women with higher sexual interest/activity. Acute vaginal toxicity and chronic pain prevented VD use. Subjective vaginal shortening/tightness was not reduced in VD users. RT technique and acute toxicities are prognostic for the extent of chronic symptoms and long-term QoL. Sexuality is important even at a higher age. Few patients use the VD and a reduction of subjective vaginal shortening/tightness was not achieved. (orig.) [German] Eine adjuvante Radiotherapie (RT) kann die Lebensqualitaet von Patientinnen mit Endometriumkarzinom (EC) beeinflussen. Daten zu prognostischen Faktoren fuer die langfristige Lebensqualitaet (QoL) und die Sexualfunktion sind

  1. Slow Gait Speed and Risk of Long-Term Nursing Home Residence in Older Women, Adjusting for Competing Risk of Mortality: Results from the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Jennifer G; Ensrud, Kristine E; Schousboe, John T; McCulloch, Charles E; Taylor, Brent C; Heeren, Timothy C; Stuver, Sherri O; Fredman, Lisa

    2016-12-01

    To determine whether slow gait speed increases the risk of costly long-term nursing home residence when accounting for death as a competing risk remains unknown. Longitudinal cohort study using proportional hazards models to predict long-term nursing home residence and subdistribution models with death as a competing risk. Community-based prospective cohort study. Older women (mean age 76.3) participating in the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures who were also enrolled in Medicare fee-for-service plans (N = 3,755). Gait speed was measured on a straight 6-m course and averaged over two trials. Long-term nursing home residence was defined using a validated algorithm based on Medicare Part B claims for nursing home-related care. Participants were followed until long-term nursing home residence, disenrollment from Medicare plan, death, or December 31, 2010. Over the follow-up period (median 11 years), 881 participants (23%) experienced long-term nursing home residence, and 1,013 (27%) died before experiencing this outcome. Slow walkers (55% of participants with gait speed Associations were attenuated in subdistribution models (aHR = 1.52, 95% CI = 1.30-1.77) but remained statistically significant. Older community-dwelling women with slow gait speed are more likely to experience long-term nursing home residence, as well as mortality without long-term residence. Ignoring the competing mortality risk may overestimate long-term care needs and costs. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.

  2. "Just get on with it": qualitative insights of coming to terms with a deteriorating body for older women with osteoarthritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa L Harris

    Full Text Available To qualify the psychosocial burden of osteoarthritis for older women and identify factors perceived to assist with psychological adjustment to the disease.Women who indicated being diagnosed/treated for osteoarthritis in the previous three years in the fifth survey of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health provided the sampling frame. Participants were randomly sampled until saturation was reached using a systematic process. Thematic content analysis was applied to the 19 semi-structured telephone interviews using a realist framework.The findings indicate that the emotional burden of osteoarthritis is considerable, and the process of psychological adjustment complex. Older women with osteoarthritis have psychological difficulties associated with increasing pain and functional impairment. Psychological adjustment over time was attributed primarily to cognitive and attitudinal factors (e.g. stoicism, making downward comparisons and possessing specific notions about the cause of arthritis. This was a dynamic 'day to day' process involving a constant struggle between grieving physical losses and increasing dependence amidst symptom management.The findings of this study add to the current understanding of the complex processes involved in psychological adjustment over time. Targeted interventions focused on assisting women with arthritis redefine self-concepts outside the confines of caring responsibilities, coupled with public health education programs around understanding the destructive nature of arthritis are required. Understanding the destructive and (potentially preventable nature of arthritis may facilitate early detection and increased uptake of appropriate treatment options for osteoarthritis that have the ability to modify disease trajectories.

  3. Alcohol consumption patterns, beverage type, and long-term mortality among women survivors of acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbloom, Joshua I; Mukamal, Kenneth J; Frost, Lauren E; Mittleman, Murray A

    2012-01-15

    Although moderate alcohol drinkers have lower rates of incident coronary artery disease than abstainers, much less is known about the health effects of different patterns of alcohol use in women with established coronary artery disease. In the Determinants of Myocardial Infarction Onset Study, 1,253 women hospitalized for acute myocardial infarction (MI) at 64 centers nationwide from 1989 to 1996 were followed for mortality through December 31, 2007. Of the women, 761 (61%) reported abstention in the year before their MIs, 280 (22%) reported consumption of drinking days per week, drinks per drinking day, and beverage type with 10-year mortality were investigated, adjusting for clinical and socioeconomic potential confounders. Compared with abstention, adjusted hazard ratios were 0.66 (95% confidence interval 0.50 to 0.86) for type, and generally inverse associations of drinking frequency and quantity with mortality were found. In conclusion, in women who survive MI, moderate drinking is associated with a decreased risk for mortality, with no clear differences on the basis of pattern or beverage type. These results suggest that women who survive MI need not abstain from alcohol, but any derived benefit would appear to occur well below currently recommended limits in alcohol consumption. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Genetic testing likelihood: the impact of abortion views and quality of life information on women's decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jessica L; Ferguson, Gail M; Thorn, Judith M

    2011-04-01

    Little is known about factors predicting the likelihood of choosing genetic testing in college aged women versus older women, including knowledge of quality of life (QOL) associated with a disorder. Using vignettes with female college students (Experiment 1: n=257, mean age=19.70 yrs) and female faculty/staff/alumni (Experiment 2: n (nulliparous)=83, mean age=30.20 yrs; n (mothers)=53, mean age=33.77 yrs), we examined the contribution of multiple factors to predicting genetic testing likelihood for cystic fibrosis. We investigated malleable situational factors (style of genetic risk presentation and providing QOL information including physical and social aspects) and stable dispositional factors (abortion views). Parity (i.e., prior births) was more influential in women's genetic testing likelihood than was age. Greater acceptability of abortion for oneself and self-assessed knowledge following QOL information were predictors of higher testing likelihood for college students. Greater acceptability of abortion for another person was a predictor for nulliparous women. Abortion views moderated the effect of predictors for nulliparous women and mothers. Findings encourage genetic counselors to utilize QOL information to promote informed decision making through genetic testing.

  5. Long-term use of calcium channel blocking drugs and breast cancer risk in a prospective cohort of US and Puerto Rican women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Lauren E; D'Aloisio, Aimee A; Sandler, Dale P; Taylor, Jack A

    2016-07-05

    In a recent case-control study, long-term use of calcium channel blocking drugs was associated with a greater-than-twofold increased breast cancer risk. If prospectively collected data confirm that calcium channel blocker use increases breast cancer risk, this would have major implications for hypertension treatment. The objective of this study was to determine whether women using calcium channel blockers for 10 years or more were at increased risk of developing breast cancer compared with women not using calcium channel blockers. The Sister Study is a prospective volunteer cohort study of women from the USA and Puerto Rico designed to evaluate environmental and genetic risk factors for breast cancer. Beginning in 2003, women between the ages of 35 and 74 were recruited. They were eligible to participate if they had a sister with breast cancer but had not been diagnosed with breast cancer themselves. In total, 50,884 women enrolled in the cohort between 2003 and 2009; 50,757 women with relevant baseline data and available follow-up data are included in this study. The exposure of interest is current use of calcium channel blocking drugs and the reported duration of use at entry into the cohort. Secondary exposures of interest were the duration and frequency of use for all other subclasses of antihypertensive drugs. Our main outcome is a self-reported diagnosis of breast cancer during the study follow-up period. With patient permission, self-reported diagnoses were confirmed using medical records. Results showed 15,817 participants were currently using an antihypertensive drug, and 3316 women were currently using a calcium channel blocker at study baseline; 1965 women reported a breast cancer diagnosis during study follow-up. Using Cox proportional hazards modeling, we found no increased risk of breast cancer among women who had been using calcium channel blockers for 10 years or more compared with never users of calcium channel blockers (HR 0.88, 95 % CI 0

  6. Long-term effects of exercise in postmenopausal women: 16-year results of the Erlangen Fitness and Osteoporosis Prevention Study (EFOPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemmler, Wolfgang; Kohl, Matthias; von Stengel, Simon

    2017-01-01

    Multimorbidity related to menopause and/or increased age will put healthcare systems in western nations under ever-greater strain. Effective strategies to prevent diseases are thus of high priority and should be started earlier in life. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the long-term effect of exercise on different important health parameters in initially early postmenopausal women over a 16-year period. In 1998, 137 early postmenopausal women with osteopenia living in Erlangen-Nürnberg were included in the study. Eighty-six women joined the exercise group (EG) and conducted two supervised group and two home training sessions per week, whereas the control group (CG: n = 51) maintained their physical activity level. Primary outcome parameters were clinical overall fractures incidence; secondary study endpoint was Framingham study-based 10-year risk of coronary death/myocardial infarction and low back pain. In 2014, 59 women of the EG and 46 women of the CG were included in the 16-year follow-up analysis. Framingham study-based 10-year risk of myocardial infarction/coronary death increased significantly (P < 0.001) in both groups; however, changes were significantly more favorable in the EG (5.00% ± 2.94% vs CG: 6.90% ± 3.98%; P = 0.02). The ratio for clinical "overall" fractures was 0.47 (95% CI: 0.24-0.92; P = 0.03), and thus significantly lower in the EG. Although we focused on a high-intensity exercise strategy, low back pain was favorably affected in the EG. Multipurpose exercise programs demonstrated beneficial effects on various relevant risk factors and diseases of menopause or/and increased age, and should thus be preferentially applied for primary or secondary prevention in postmenopausal women.

  7. Prostaglandin E2 induction of labor and cervical ripening for term isolated oligohydramnios in pregnant women with Bishop score ≤ 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansu-Celik, Hatice; Gun-Eryılmaz, Ozlem; Dogan, Nasuh Utku; Haktankaçmaz, Seval; Cinar, Mehmet; Yilmaz, Saynur Sarici; Gülerman, Cavidan

    2017-03-01

    We aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of dinoprostone for cervical ripening and labor induction in patients with term oligohydramnios and Bishop score ≤ 5. This was a prospective case-control study, which included 104 consecutive women with a Bishop score≤5. Participants were divided into two groups. Women with term isolated oligohydramnios and Bishop score≤5 underwent induction of labor with a vaginal insert containing 10-mg timed-release dinoprostone (prostaglandin E2; Group A, n=40). The control group, Group B, consisted of 64 cases of pregnancy with normal amniotic fluid volume (amniotic fluid index≥5 cm) and Bishop score≤5, and was matched for patient's age and parity. The primary outcome was time from induction to delivery; the secondary outcomes were the caesarean section (CS) rate, uterine hyperstimulation, rate of failed induction, and neonatal complications. The mean time interval from induction to delivery was not different between the two groups (p=0.849), but there was a statistically significant difference between the groups in terms of the CS rate (p=0.005). There were no differences between the groups in neonatal outcome or perinatal morbidity or mortality. Dinoprostone appears to be a safe alternative for induction of labor in pregnancies with oligohydramnios. Induction of labor with dinoprostone in term pregnancies with isolated oligohydramnios is associated with increased rate of CS but there is no higher risk of perinatal complications. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Taiwan LLC.

  8. [Maternal and perinatal outcomes in nulliparous gestations with late onset preeclampsia: Comparative study with gestations without preeclampsia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-Pousada, Danny; Chedraui, Peter; Villao, Alejandro; Pérez-Roncero, Gonzalo R; Hidalgo, Luis

    2014-01-01

    To assess obstetrical outcomes in a sample of nulliparous gestations with preeclampsia, as compared to gestations without preeclampsia, attended in the Enrique C. Sotomayor Hospital of Guayaquil, Ecuador. This was a comparative study of maternal and perinatal outcome data of gestations with late onset preeclampsia (n=150; gestational age=36.7±3.3 weeks) with that of normal gestations (n=150; gestational age 38.7±1.7 weeks). Almost three-quarters (73.3%) of preeclampsia cases were defined as severe. Compared to normal gestations, preeclampsia cases had higher anthropometric indices (neck and mid-arm circumference) and had more oligohydramnios, cesarean sections, transfusions, distressed fetuses, and adverse perinatal outcomes such as, lower Apgar scores at birth, and more preterm births, lower birth weight and small for gestational age infants. Gestations with preeclampsia had a negative impact on maternal and perinatal outcomes compared to gestations without preeclampsia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Protocol for the immediate delivery versus expectant care of women with preterm prelabour rupture of the membranes close to term (PPROMT Trial [ISRCTN44485060

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buchanan Sarah L

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preterm prelabour rupture of membranes (PPROM complicates up to 2% of all pregnancies and is the cause of 40% of all preterm births. The optimal management of women with PPROM prior to 37 weeks, is not known. Furthermore, diversity in current clinical practice suggests uncertainty about the appropriate clinical management. There are two options for managing PPROM, expectant management (a wait and see approach or early planned birth. Infection is the main risk for women in which management is expectant. This risk need to be balanced against the risk of iatrogenic prematurity if early delivery is planned. The different treatment options may also have different health care costs. Expectant management results in prolonged antenatal hospitalisation while planned early delivery may necessitate intensive care of the neonate for problems associated with prematurity. Methods/Design We aim to evaluate the effectiveness of early planned birth compared with expectant management for women with PPROM between 34 weeks and 366 weeks gestation, in a randomised controlled trial. A secondary aim is a cost analysis to establish the economic impact of the two treatment options and establish the treatment preferences of women with PPROM close to term. The early planned birth group will be delivered within 24 hours according to local management protocols. In the expectant management group birth will occur after spontaneous labour, at term or when the attending clinician feels that birth is indicated according to usual care. Approximately 1812 women with PPROM at 34–366 weeks gestation will be recruited for the trial. The primary outcome of the study is neonatal sepsis. Secondary infant outcomes include respiratory distress, perinatal mortality, neonatal intensive care unit admission, assisted ventilation and early infant development. Secondary maternal outcomes include chorioamnionitis, postpartum infection treated with antibiotics, antepartum

  10. Medium and long-term adherence to postabortion contraception among women having experienced unsafe abortion in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Vibeke; Yambesi, Fortunata; Massawe, Siriel

    2008-01-01

    included counselling on HIV and condom use. Questionnaire interviews about contraceptive use were conducted at the time of inclusion and 12 months after the abortion. Additionally, in-depth interviews were performed 6-12 months after the abortion. RESULTS: Eighty-nine percent of the women accepted...... HIV and condom use should be considered an essential aspect of postabortion care....

  11. Long-term effects of a weight loss intervention with or without exercise component in postmenopausal women: A randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martijn de Roon

    2017-03-01

    This study shows largely sustained weight loss one year after completing a weight loss program with and without exercise in overweight postmenopausal women. Although the mainly exercise group maintained more physically active compared to the diet group, maintenance of weight loss did not differ between groups.

  12. Long-term adherence to exercise: the relationship with functional fitness and personal motivation among community-dwelling independent-living older women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipe de Souto BarretoI

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study were to examine the relationships between functional fitness, self-esteem, aesthetic body care and long-term adherence to dance, and to identify other characteristics related to dance adherence in the elderly. METHODS: Seventeen women, aged 59-86 years-old, who practised a type of dance labeled "bodily expression". RESULTS: Functional fitness was correlated to dance adherence and was the only factor related to this variable in a linear regression analysis. Self-esteem and aesthetic body care seemed to play an indirect role on adherence. Functional fitness, specially upper-body flexibility and lower-body muscular function, and interest in dance (qualitative data were related to long-term adherence to dance. CONCLUSIONS: Functional fitness and interest in exercising were the main aspects related to participants' long-term adherence to dance.

  13. Effects of secondhand smoke on the birth weight of term infants and the demographic profile of Saudi exposed women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahabi, Hayfaa A; Alzeidan, Rasmieh A; Fayed, Amel A; Mandil, Ahmed; Al-Shaikh, Ghadeer; Esmaeil, Samia A

    2013-04-15

    Maternal exposure to tobacco smoke during pregnancy is associated with detrimental effects on the mother and the fetus including; impaired fetal growth, low birth weight and preterm delivery. In utero exposure to tobacco is implicated in the etiology of many adults' diseases including obesity, diabetes and hypertension.The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of Secondhand Tobacco Smoke (SHS) exposure on newborns' anthropometric measurements and to compare the demographic profile of the women exposed to SHS to those who were not. This is a retrospective cohort study investigating the effects of SHS during pregnancy on newborns' anthropometry. Women who self-reported SHS exposure were compared with those not exposed. The primary outcomes were birth weight, newborn length and head circumference. Univariate analysis and multivariate regression analysis were performed. Adjusted differences with 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Mothers exposed to SHS constituted 31% of the cohort. The mean birth weight of infants of exposed mothers was significantly lower by 35 g, 95% CI: 2-68 g, (P = 0.037) and the mean length was shorter by 0.261 cm, 95% CI 0.058-0.464 cm, (P = 0.012) compared to the infants of unexposed mothers. Women exposed to SHS, were younger, of lower parity and more likely to be illiterate than those who were not exposed in addition, exposed women were less likely to be primiparous. The prevalence of exposure of Saudi pregnant women to SHS is high at 31% and it is associated with reduced birth weight, and shorter length of the newborn.

  14. Comparison of Short Term Outcomes of Sacral Nerve Stimulation and Intradetrusor Injection of OnabotulinumtoxinA (Botox) in Women With Refractory Overactive Bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ruchira; El Nashar, Sherif A; Trabuco, Emanuel C; Klingele, Christopher J; Gebhart, John B; Occhino, John A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the short-term outcomes of sacral nerve stimulation (SNS) and intradetrusor injection of OnabotulinumtoxinA (Botox) for overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms refractory to behavioral modifications and pharmacologic therapy. This is a retrospective cohort study evaluating the outcomes of SNS and Botox procedures that were performed for refractory OAB symptoms at a tertiary care referral center. The primary outcome was "failure" of treatment that was defined as less than 50% improvement from the baseline symptoms at 6 months. Sixty-five SNS and 63 Botox procedures met the inclusion criteria. Women undergoing Botox were more likely to report failure 6 months after the intervention as compared with those undergoing SNS (20 [31.8%] vs 7 [10.8%], P = 0.003; unadjusted odds ratio = 3.85, confidence interval = 1.5-9.93; adjusted odds ratio = 4.47, confidence interval = 1.69-14.4). However, there was no difference in the proportion of women who were started on antimuscarinic medications for persistent urgency urinary incontinence after both procedures (12 [18.5%] women in SNS group and 17 [27%] women in the Botox group, P = 0.249). The most common complication of the SNS procedure was wound related (8 [12.3%]), whereas the most common complication of the Botox procedure was urinary tract infection (31 [49.2%]). The SNS resulted in lower failure rates at 6 months when performed for refractory OAB symptoms as compared with the Botox procedure. However, further studies are needed to evaluate the long-term cost-effectiveness of both procedures.

  15. Protein-Pacing Caloric-Restriction Enhances Body Composition Similarly in Obese Men and Women during Weight Loss and Sustains Efficacy during Long-Term Weight Maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arciero, Paul J; Edmonds, Rohan; He, Feng; Ward, Emery; Gumpricht, Eric; Mohr, Alex; Ormsbee, Michael J; Astrup, Arne

    2016-07-30

    Short-Term protein-pacing (P; ~6 meals/day, >30% protein/day) and caloric restriction (CR, ~25% energy deficit) improves total (TBF), abdominal (ABF) and visceral (VAT) fat loss, energy expenditure, and biomarkers compared to heart healthy (HH) recommendations (3 meals/day, 15% protein/day) in obese adults. Less is known whether obese men and women respond similarly to P-CR during weight loss (WL) and whether a modified P-CR (mP-CR) is more efficacious than a HH diet during long-term (52 week) weight maintenance (WM). The purposes of this study were to evaluate the efficacy of: (1) P-CR on TBF, ABF, resting metabolic rate (RMR), and biomarkers between obese men and women during WL (weeks 0-12); and (2) mP-CR compared to a HH diet during WM (weeks 13-64). During WL, men (n = 21) and women (n = 19) were assessed for TBF, ABF, VAT, RMR, and biomarkers at weeks 0 (pre) and 12 (post). Men and women had similar reductions (p weight (10%), TBF (19%), ABF (25%), VAT (33%), glucose (7%-12%), insulin (40%), leptin (>50%) and increase in % lean body mass (9%). RMR (kcals/kg bodyweight) was unchanged and respiratory quotient decreased 9%. Twenty-four subjects (mP-CR, n = 10; HH, n = 14) completed WM. mP-CR regained significantly less body weight (6%), TBF (12%), and ABF (17%) compared to HH (p weight loss, body composition and biomarkers, and maintains these changes for 52-weeks compared to a traditional HH diet.

  16. The effect of whole body vibration short-term exercises on respiratory gas exchange in overweight and obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vissers, Dirk; Baeyens, Jean-Pierre; Truijen, Steven; Ides, Kris; Vercruysse, Carl-Christian; Van Gaal, Luc

    2009-10-01

    To assess the effect of whole body vibration on oxygen uptake and carbon dioxide production among overweight and obese women. In a randomized controlled trial, anthropometric measurements were taken in 20 adult overweight women. Ventilation of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and heart rate were measured using a portable gas-analysis system. After each exercise, a Borg's scale score was assessed. Exercises were performed on a vibration platform with a frequency of 35 Hz and with the intensity set on "high" (amplitude of 4 mm). Two dynamic exercises (squatting and calf raises) and one static exercise (standing) were performed during 3 minutes with and without vibration in a randomized order, with 10 minutes rest between exercises. Mean values of the third minute of exercise were compared. Ventilation of oxygen and carbon dioxide were consistently, significantly higher in the exercises with vibration compared with the exercises without vibration. Borg's scale scores only showed a significant difference between calf raises with and without vibration. The addition of whole body vibration to both static and dynamic exercises appears to significantly increase oxygen uptake in overweight and obese women. More research is needed to determine the physiological pathway and clinical relevance of this increase.

  17. Effects of short-term Nordic walking training on sarcopenia-related parameters in women with low bone mass: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ossowski ZM

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Zbigniew Marcin Ossowski,1 Wojciech Skrobot,2 Piotr Aschenbrenner,3 Vida Janina Cesnaitiene,4 Miroslaw Smaruj3 1Department of Health Promotion, 2Department of Kinesiology, 3Department of Physical Education, Gdansk University of Physical Education and Sport, Gdansk, Poland; 4Department of Health, Physical and Social, Lithuanian Sports University, Kaunas, Lithuania Background: Several studies have demonstrated the positive effects of physical activity on skeletal muscle mass and muscle strength in women with osteoporosis. However, the impact of Nordic walking training on sarcopenia-related parameters in women with low bone mass remains unknown. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of 12 weeks of Nordic walking training on skeletal muscle index, muscle strength, functional mobility, and functional performance in women with low bone mass. Materials and methods: The participants were 45 women, aged 63–79 years, with osteopenia or osteoporosis. The subjects were randomly assigned either to an experimental group (12 weeks of Nordic walking training, three times a week or to a control group. Skeletal muscle mass and other body composition factors were measured with octapolar bioimpedance InBody 720 analyser. Knee extensor and flexor isometric muscle strength were measured using Biodex System 4 Pro™ dynamometers. This study also used a SAEHAN Digital Hand Dynamometer to measure handgrip muscle strength. The timed up-and-go test was used to measure functional mobility, and the 6-minute walk test was used to measure functional performance. Results: Short-term Nordic walking training induced a significant increase in skeletal muscle mass (P=0.007, skeletal muscle index (P=0.007, strength index of the knee extensor (P=0.016, flexor (P<0.001, functional mobility (P<0.001, and functional performance (P<0.001 and a significant decrease in body mass (P=0.006, body mass index (P<0.001, and percent body fat (P<0.001 in participants

  18. Short-term transdermal estradiol therapy, cognition and depressive symptoms in healthy older women. A randomised placebo controlled pilot cross-over study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiff, Rebekah; Bulpitt, Christopher John; Wesnes, Keith A; Rajkumar, Chakravarthi

    2005-05-01

    The potential role of estrogen in protecting women from cognitive decline and reducing depressive symptoms is of great therapeutic interest. In a pilot randomised placebo controlled cross-over study, we aimed to determine the short-term effects of transdermal estradiol therapy on cognition and depressive symptoms in healthy cognitively normal post-menopausal women over 60 years of age. Nineteen cognitively normal women, without clinical depression whom had undergone a hysterectomy in the past were recruited. Women were randomised to receive either transdermal estradiol 50 microg/24 h (Femseven) or transdermal placebo for 12 weeks before crossing over to the other medication for a further 12 weeks. Cognition was assessed every 6 weeks by the cognitive drug research (CDR) computerised assessment which recorded both accuracy and speed in the following cognitive tests; simple reaction time, choice reaction time, digit vigilance, visual tracking, spatial working memory, immediate and delayed word recall and delayed face and picture recall. Depressive symptoms were measured using the brief assessment scale depression card (BASDEC) depression rating scale at baseline, 12 and 24 weeks. Participants had a mean age of 71, IQ of 115 and MMSE of 29. Simple reaction time and the BASDEC depression rating scale improved after 12 weeks of estradiol use. All other tests were unaltered by estradiol. Twelve weeks of transdermal estradiol therapy did not consistently improve the speed or accuracy of older women in various cognitive tests. However, the results do support the concept that depressive symptoms may be reduced by estradiol, and not simply due to the relief of climacteric symptoms.

  19. Vitamin A nutritional status in high- and low-income postpartum women and its effect on colostrum and the requirements of the term newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurgel, Cristiane Santos Sânzio; Grilo, Evellyn C; Lira, Larissa Q; Assunção, Débora G F; Oliveira, Priscila G; Melo, Larisse R M de; de Medeiros, Silvia V; Pessanha, Luanna C; Dimenstein, Roberto; Lyra, Clélia O

    2017-09-21

    To evaluate the vitamin A status in serum and colostrum of postpartum women with different socioeconomic status, comparing the colostrum retinol supply with the vitamin A requirement of the newborn. Cross-sectional study conducted with 424 postpartum women. Vitamin A maternal dietary intake was estimated using a food frequency questionnaire. Colostrum and serum retinol levels were measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Serum retinol concentrations <20μg/dL were indicative of vitamin A deficiency (VAD). Vitamin A levels provided by colostrum <400μgRAE/day were considered as insufficient for term newborns. The mean maternal vitamin A intake during pregnancy was 872.2±639.2μgRAE/day in low-income women and 1169.2±695.2μgRAE/day for high-income women (p<0.005). The prevalence of vitamin A deficiency was 6.9% (n=18) in the low-income group and 3.7% (n=6) in the high-income group. The estimated mean retinol intake by infants of the high- and low-income mothers were 343.3μgRAE/day (85.8% AI) and 427.2μgRAE/day (106.8% AI), respectively. Serum vitamin A deficiency was considered a mild public health problem in both populations; however, newborns of low-income women were more likely to receive lower retinol levels through colostrum when compared with newborns of high-income mothers. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  20. Persistence of cardiovascular risk factors in women with previous preeclampsia: a long-term follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aykas, Fatma; Solak, Yalcin; Erden, Abdulsamet; Bulut, Kadir; Dogan, Selcuk; Sarli, Bahadr; Acmaz, Gokhan; Afsar, Baris; Siriopol, Dimitrie; Covic, Adrian; Sharma, Shailendra; Johnson, Richard J; Kanbay, Mehmet

    2015-04-01

    Preeclampsia is a cardiovascular (CV) disease risk factor, and lifestyle modifications are recommended. It was suggested that preeclampsia may increase the prevalence of various CV disease risk factors such as metabolic syndrome, hypertension, insulin resistance, microalbuminuria, and endothelial dysfunction, among others. Here, we investigate the role of serum uric acid in preeclampsia in the development of CV complications. This was an observational case-control study that compared women with history of preeclampsia (n = 25) with age-matched controls with uncomplicated pregnancies (n = 20) who were followed for at least 5 years. Measurements included clinical and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, ultrasound-measured flow-mediated dilatation (FMD), microalbuminuria, carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and serum uric acid, as well as clinical and demographic features. Cardiovascular disease risk factors were compared in women with and without previous preeclampsia. At the time of index gestation, preeclamptic women had higher serum uric acid values (4.36 ± 0.61 vs 2.27 ± 0.38 mg/dL, P preeclampsia were more likely to have hypertension and had higher serum uric acid levels, higher microalbuminuria and CIMT levels, and lower FMD values than did the patients who did not have preeclampsia. The 2 groups were similar with regard to various ambulatory blood pressure parameters. Univariate associates of FMD were history of preeclampsia and the current hypertension status. Microalbuminuria correlated with gestational uric acid levels (coefficient of correlation of 0.40, P = 0.01 for FMD and coefficient of correlation of 0.37, P = 0.01 for CIMT, respectively). Preeclampsia might be a risk factor for the development of cardiovascular risk factors at least 5 years after index pregnancy. Serum uric acid and microalbuminuria may be mechanistic mediators of heightened risk, along with impaired endothelial function in preeclampsia.

  1. The legacy of minimum legal drinking age law changes: Long-term effects on suicide and homicide deaths among women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grucza, Richard A; Hipp, Pamela R.; Norberg, Karen E.; Rundell, Laura; Evanoff, Anastasia; Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia; Bierut, Laura J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Prior to the establishment of the uniform drinking age of 21 in the United States, many states permitted legal purchase of alcohol at younger ages. Lower drinking ages were associated with several adverse outcomes, including elevated rates of suicide and homicide among youth. The objective of this study is to examine whether individuals who were legally permitted to drink prior to age 21 remained at elevated risk in adulthood. Methods Analysis of data from the U.S. Multiple Cause of Death files, 1990–2004, combined with data on the living population from the U.S. Census and American Community Survey. The assembled data contained records on over 200,000 suicides and 130,000 homicides for individuals born between 1949 and 1972, the years during which the drinking age was in flux. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate whether adults who were legally permitted to drink prior to age 21 were at elevated risk for death by these causes. A quasi-experimental analytical approach was employed which incorporated state and birth year fixed effects to account for unobserved covariates associated with policy exposure. Results In the population as a whole, we found no association between minimum drinking age and homicide or suicide. However, significant policy-by-sex interactions were observed for both outcomes, such that women exposed to permissive drinking age laws were at higher risk for both suicide (OR=1.12; 95% CI 1.05, 1.18, p=0.0003) and homicide (OR=1.15; 95% CI 1.04, 1.25; p=0.0028). Effect sizes were stronger for the portion of the cohort born after 1960, whereas no significant effects were observed for women born prior to 1960. Conclusions Lower drinking ages may result in persistent elevated risk for suicide and homicide among women born after 1960. The national drinking age of 21 may be preventing about 600 suicides and 600 homicides annually. PMID:22085045

  2. Effect of strength training and short-term detraining on muscle mass in women aged over 50 years old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Delshad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The loss of muscle mass is associated with aging. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of resistance training and detraining on muscle mass in elderly women. Methods: Twenty post-menopausal women aged ≥50 years old were enrolled. Matching for age, they were randomly assigned into control and resistance training group (RT. The intervention consisted of three sets of 10 repetitions for 10 movements with Thera-Band tubing (based on 80-100% 10-RM, three times a week, for 12 weeks and thereafter, four weeks detraining. Skinfold thickness was determined by caliper. Percentage of body fat was estimated from skinfold thickness (triceps and subscapular by McArdle method. Fat mass (FM and fat-free mass (FFM were calculated. Range of motion for trunk flexion and extension was determined. Results: During 12 weeks of intervention, significant increases were observed in 1-RM of biceps curl, FFM, trunk flexion and extension and significant decreases during four weeks detraining in RT group. The RT group demonstrated significant decreases during resistance training and increases during detraining in skinfold thickness. FFM, trunk flexion, and extension decreased and skinfold thickness, %FM, and weight of body fat increased in the control group (P < 0.05. Conclusions: Resistance training with Thera-Band enhanced strength and muscle endurance in elderly women and a 4-week detraining period had an adverse effect on muscle power. This suggests that a strength training program is an effective intervention to prevent functional reductions, and can contribute to improve neuromuscular function in older adults.

  3. A community-based long-term follow up of women undergoing obstetric fistula repair in rural Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, H S; Lindberg, L; Nygaard, U

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess urinary and reproductive health and quality of life following surgical repair of obstetric fistula. DESIGN: Follow-up study. SETTING: A newly established fistula clinic (2004) at Gimbie Adventist Hospital, a 71-bedded district general hospital in West Wollega Zone, in rural...... and quality of life. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Urinary health at follow up was assessed as completely dry, stress or urge incontinence, or fistula. King's Health Questionnaire was modified and used for the quality-of-life assessment. RESULTS: At follow up, 21 women (57%) were completely dry, 13 (35%) suffered...

  4. What do the terms wellness and wellbeing mean in dietary practice: an exploratory qualitative study examining women's perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, A T; O'Shea, J; Tapsell, L; Williams, P

    2014-08-01

    Wellness and wellbeing are terms associated with health within dietetic discourse. More broadly, these terms are found in social discourse as represented in food and nutrition consumer communications. With the increasing requirement for evidence-based healthcare, there is an imperative to understand whether these terms are meaningful to individuals typically targeted for nutrition interventions and whether there are any implications for dietetic education. To explore the understanding of these terms, eight semi-structured focus groups were conducted with 32 female participants (age range 23-79 years) who were actively engaged in managing their health. Overall understanding of the terms, factors that impacted perceptions and any relationships with food behaviour were investigated with the groups. Group discussions were transcribed verbatim and each transcript was examined by two researchers. Inductive analysis linking codes into main thematic categories was conducted using the constant comparison approach across the full data set. Wellness and wellbeing were identified as meaningful terms associated with health. A theoretical framework of wellness and wellbeing reflecting these meanings was developed linking four dominant thematic areas. These were Desired outcomes (most sought after result); Taking control (self management strategies); Internal influences (various personal inner factors influencing behaviours); and External influences (plethora of peripheral factors influencing behaviours). Wellness and wellbeing are terms that are relevant and aspirational for individuals typically targeted for nutrition intervention. A theoretical framework of dominant areas of influence on notions of wellness and wellbeing was identified. This theoretical framework is worthy of further research to determine usefulness and effectiveness in dietetic practice settings. © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  5. Nierfunctieverlies bij diep infiltratieve endometriose: tijdige herkenning van ureterobstructie is geboden [Loss of renal function due to deep infiltrating endometriosis; a complicated consideration in women who wish to have children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaff, A.A.; Beets Tan, R.G.; Beets, G.L.; van de Beek, C.K.; Dunselman, G.A.

    2009-01-01

    Three nulliparous women, aged 39, 34 and 26 years, who were treated for fertility problems and who were affected by endometriosis, presented with ureteral obstruction caused by deep infiltrating endometriosis. The first two patients had complete unilateral loss of kidney function at the time of

  6. Protein-pacing caloric-restriction enhances body composition similarly in obese men and women during weight loss and sustains efficacy during long-term weight maintenance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arciero, Paul J; Edmonds, Rohan; He, Feng

    2016-01-01

    /day) in obese adults. Less is known whether obese men and women respond similarly to P-CR during weight loss (WL) and whether a modified P-CR (mP-CR) is more efficacious than a HH diet during long-term (52 week) weight maintenance (WM). The purposes of this study were to evaluate the efficacy of: (1) P......) completed WM. mP-CR regained significantly less body weight (6%), TBF (12%), and ABF (17%) compared to HH (p weight loss, body composition and biomarkers, and maintains these changes for 52-weeks compared to a traditional HH diet.......Short-Term protein-pacing (P; ~6 meals/day, >30% protein/day) and caloric restriction (CR, ~25% energy deficit) improves total (TBF), abdominal (ABF) and visceral (VAT) fat loss, energy expenditure, and biomarkers compared to heart healthy (HH) recommendations (3 meals/day, 15% protein...

  7. Memory in pregnancy. II: Implicit, incidental, explicit, semantic, short-term, working and prospective memory in primigravid, multigravid and postpartum women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, P; Huntsdale, C; Angus, G; Janes, C

    1999-09-01

    This study, using an information processing model of memory, made a detailed examination of the possible locus (loci) of any memory change in gravid and postpartum women using a battery of seven objective memory tests: implicit, incidental, explicit, semantic, short-term, working, and prospective memory. In addition, links were sought both between (a) self-reported data on sleep, health, and memory performance, and (b) these variables and objective memory performance. Five groups of women were tested (n = 22/23 per group), (1) primigravid, (2) multigravid, (3) postpartum, (4) non-pregnant parents with children, and (5) never been pregnant, on self-report and objective memory tests. The gravid and postpartum groups reported significantly more everyday forgetting than the non-pregnant groups but on the objective tests performed no differently from the non-pregnant groups on all tests. Sleep loss was a significant predictor of reported memory change, but not of any memory test performance, and may contribute to a perceived memory change. Pregnant women and new mothers generally should be confident of performing to their normal cognitive capabilities, but may be more affected than usual by a high cognitive load.

  8. The Impact of Long-Term Physical Activity Interventions for Overweight/Obese Postmenopausal Women on Adiposity Indicators, Physical Capacity, and Mental Health Outcomes: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Baker

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity interventions have recently become a popular strategy to help postmenopausal women prevent and manage obesity. The current systematic review evaluates the efficacy of physical activity interventions among overweight and obese postmenopausal women and sheds light on the behavioral change techniques that were employed in order to direct future research. Method. Five electronic databases were searched to identify all prospective RCT studies that examine the impact of physical activity on adiposity indicators, physical capacity, and/or mental health outcomes among healthy, sedentary overweight, and obese postmenopausal women in North America. The behavior change technique taxonomy was used to identify the various strategies applied in the programs. Results. Five RCTs met the inclusion criteria. The findings showed that adiposity indicators and physical capacity outcomes significantly improved following long-term interventions; however, mental health outcomes showed nonsignificant changes. Furthermore, 17 behavior change techniques were identified with the taxonomy across all trials. The intrapersonal-level techniques were the most common. Conclusion. Physical activity interventions had a positive effect on adiposity measures and physical capacity. Future research should focus on testing the effectiveness of physical activity interventions on mental health and incorporate strategies at the individual and environmental level to maximize the health impact on the population.

  9. The effect of short – term exercise on nitric oxide (NO serum concentrations in overweight and obese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Zahorska-Markiewicz

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aims of the present study was to examine the effect of overweight and obesity on serum concentrations of nitric oxide metabolites and evaluate the differences of exercise induced NO production in obese and lean women. Materials and Methods: The study groups consisted of 154 women including 102 obese and 24 overweight patients and 28 lean controls. Serum concentrations of nitric oxide metabolites were measured before and after exercise with the use of ELISA kits. The serum concentrations of lactate before and after exercise were measured with the use of strip test (ACCUSPORT analyzer. Serum concentration of insulin was measured with the use of RIA. Plasma glucose, cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and triglicerydes were determined by enzymatic procedure. Impedance analysis (Bodystat was used to determine body composition. Results: Serum concentration of NO in overweight group and obese group was significantly higher when compared to controls, p<0.05 and p<0.01, respectively. There was no difference in levels of NO between overweight and obese groups .During exercise NO concentrations increased significantly in all groups and the post- exercise levels did not differ statistically in overweight and obese groups from that in controls. The value of NO was the lowest in obese group but there were no significant differences between obese, overweight and control groups. Conclusions: Obesity may attenuate the exercise - induced endothelial NO release.

  10. Effect of educational and support interventions on long-term breastfeeding rates in primiparous women: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meedya, Shahla; Fernandez, Ritin; Fahy, Kathleen

    2017-09-01

    Long-term breastfeeding, including exclusive breastfeeding for six months and continuation of breastfeeding with complementary food until two years of age, has been recommended by the World Health Organization. However, despite the clear benefits of long-term breastfeeding (six months and beyond), the rates of breastfeeding still continue to remain low. Although there are some individual interventional studies that aimed to increase prolonged breastfeeding rates among both multiparous and primiparous women, there is no systematic review or meta-analysis to examine the effectiveness of those interventions among primiparous women who had no previous breastfeeding experience. The aim of this review was to identify the effects of professional educational and support interventions on breastfeeding rates at six months and up to two years postpartum compared to the standard care among primiparous women. Studies that included primiparou